WorldWideScience

Sample records for annual bathing water

  1. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres......This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  2. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  3. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  4. Distinct difference of flaA genotypes of Legionella pneumophila between isolates from bath water and cooling tower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Chang, Bin; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Ichinose, Masayuki; Endo, Takuro; Watanabe, Haruo

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the genetic difference of Legionella pneumophila in human-made environments, we collected isolates of L. pneumophila from bath water (n = 167) and cooling tower water (n = 128) primarily in the Kanto region in 2001 and 2005. The environmental isolates were serogrouped and sequenced for a target region of flaA. A total of 14 types of flaA genotypes were found: 10 from cooling tower water and nine from bath water. The flaA genotypes of isolates from cooling tower water were quite different from those of bath water.

  5. Microbiological investigations on the water of a thermal bath at Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuróczki, Sára; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Káli, Szandra; Lippai, Anett; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

    2016-06-01

    Thermal baths are unique aquatic environments combining a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic ecological factors, which also appear in their microbiological state. There is limited information on the microbiology of thermal baths in their complexity, tracking community shifts from the thermal wells to the pools. In the present study, the natural microbial community of well and pool waters in Gellért bath was studied in detail by cultivation-based techniques. To isolate bacteria, 10% R2A and minimal synthetic media (with "bath water") with agar-agar and gellan gum were used after prolonged incubation time; moreover, polyurethane blocks covered with media were also applied. Strains were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene after grouping them by amplified rDNA restriction analysis. From each sample, the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria was characteristic though their diversity differed among samples. Members of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Bacteroidetes were also identified. Representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus phylum appeared only in the pool water. The largest groups in the pool water belonged to the Tistrella and Chelatococcus genera. The most dominant member in the well water was a new taxon, its similarity to Hartmannibacter diazotrophicus as closest relative was 93.93%.

  6. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELSH, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  7. Debate on Uncertainty in Estimating Bathing Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Estimating the bathing water quality along the shore near a planned sewage discharge requires data on the source strength of bacteria, the die-off of bacteria and the actual dilution of the sewage. Together these 3 factors give the actual concentration of bacteria on the interesting spots...

  8. Quantitative percutaneous CO2 measurement following CO2 mineral water baths by means of the isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass, I.; Huebner, G.; Birkenfeld, H.; Zelaitis, L.; Ploetner, G.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of the carbon dioxide penetration through the human skin during a medical carbon dioxide mineral water bath is described. The natural isotope variation of carbon in the carbon dioxide of bath water, blood, and exspiratory gas are used for the calculation of the penetrated carbon dioxide amount. The method permits to optimize the effectiveness of medical carbon dioxide baths. (author)

  9. Warm Water Bath Stimulates Phase-Shifts of the Peripheral Circadian Clocks in PER2::LUCIFERASE Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriki, Daisuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks in the peripheral tissues of mice are known to be entrained by pulse stimuli such as restricted feeding, novel wheel running, and several other agents. However, there are no reports on high temperature pulse-mediated entrainment on the phase-shift of peripheral clocks in vivo. Here we show that temperature treatment of mice for two days at 41°C, instead of 37°C, for 1–2 h during the inactive period, using a temperature controlled water bath stimulated phase-advance of peripheral clocks in the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland of PER2::LUCIFERASE mice. On the other hand, treatment for 2 days at 35°C ambient room temperature for 2 h did not cause a phase-advance. Maintenance of mice at 41°C in a water bath, sustained the core body temperature at 40–41°C. However, the use of 37°C water bath or the 35°C ambient room temperature elevated the core body temperature to 38.5°C, suggesting that at least a core body temperature of 40–41°C is necessary to cause phase-advance under light-dark cycle conditions. The temperature pulse stimulation at 41°C, instead of 37°C water bath for 2 h led to the elevated expression of Per1 and Hsp70 in the peripheral tissue of mice. In summary, the present study demonstrates that transient high temperature pulse using water bath during daytime causes phase-advance in mouse peripheral clocks in vivo. The present results suggest that hot water bath may affect the phase of peripheral clocks. PMID:24933288

  10. Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. ...

  11. Wet-weather urban discharges: implications from adopting the revised European Directive concerning the quality of bathing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L M; Matos, J S

    2005-01-01

    Wet weather urban discharges are responsible for bathing water contamination. The proposal for a revised EU Directive concerning the quality of bathing water imposes significantly more stringent requirements for the management of bathing water quality, with particularly important repercussions on beaches subjected to short-term pollution incidents. The paper reviews the aspects from EU legislation most directly related to the problem of wet-weather discharges, placing special emphasis on the recent revision process of the Directive on bathing water quality, and evaluates the benefits of some potential solutions based on continuous modelling of a combined sewer system. Increasing the sewer system storage capacity or the STP hydraulic capacity may substantially reduce the untreated discharge volumes, but spill frequency reductions under 2 to 3 spill days per bathing season will hardly be achieved. Results show the severe strains that local rainfall patterns would place on compliance with the Commission's proposal for a revised Directive and highlight the importance of the changes introduced in the amended proposal recently approved by the Council, making it less prescriptive if adequate measures are adopted to prevent bathers' exposure to short-term pollution incidents.

  12. The potential of lipopolysaccharide as a real-time biomarker of bacterial contamination in marine bathing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Anas A; Jackson, Simon K; Bradley, Graham

    2014-03-01

    The use of total lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a rapid biomarker for bacterial pollution was investigated at a bathing and surfing beach during the UK bathing season. The levels of faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli), the Gram-positive enterococci, and organisms commonly associated with faecal material, such as total coliforms and Bacteroides, were culturally monitored over four months to include a period of heavy rainfall and concomitant pollution. Endotoxin measurement was performed using a kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay and found to correlate well with all indicators. Levels of LPS in excess of 50 Endotoxin Units (EU) mL(-1) were found to correlate with water that was unsuitable for bathing under the current European regulations. Increases in total LPS, mainly from Gram-negative indicator bacteria, are thus a potential real-time, qualitative method for testing bacterial quality of bathing waters.

  13. Assessing the water quality response to an alternative sewage disposal strategy at bathing sites on the east coast of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Masterson, Bartholomew; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory

    2015-02-15

    A three-dimensional model is used to assess the bathing water quality of Bray and Killiney bathing sites in Ireland following changes to the sewage management system. The model, firstly calibrated to hydrodynamic and water quality data from the period prior to the upgrade of the Wastewater Treatment Works (WwTW), was then used to simulate Escherichia coli (E. coli) distributions for discharge scenarios of the periods prior to and following the upgrade of the WwTW under dry and wet weather conditions. E. coli distributions under dry weather conditions demonstrate that the upgrade in the WwTW has remarkably improved the bathing water quality to a Blue Flag status. The new discharge strategy is expected to drastically reduce the rainfall-related incidents in which environmental limits of the Bathing Water Directive are breached. However, exceedances to these limits may still occur under wet weather conditions at Bray bathing site due to storm overflows that may still be discharged through two sea outfalls offshore of Bray bathing site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  15. Water baths for farmed mink: intra-individual consistency and inter-individual variation in swimming behaviour, and effects on stereotyped behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MONONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming behaviour and effects of water baths on stereotyped behaviour in farmed mink (Mustela vison were studied in three experiments. The singly-housed mink had access from their home cages to extra cages with 20.5 litre water baths. Two short-term experiments aimed to investigate how quickly adult and juvenile mink start using and how consistently they use water baths over 10 days, and whether the extent of the use correlates between dams and their females kits. A four-month experiment was designed to compare the development of stereotyped behaviour in juvenile mink housed with and without swimming opportunity. The behavioural analyses were based on several 24-hour video recordings carried out in all three experiments. There were obvious inter-individual differences and intra-individual consistency in swimming frequency and time. Farmed mink’s motivation to swim can be assessed in short-term experiments, and measurement of water losses from the swimming baths and use of instantaneous sampling with 10 min sampling intervals provide quite reliable measures of the amount of swimming. The bath use of the juveniles correlated with that of their dams, indicating that an individual mink’s eagerness to swim may have a genetic component. The lower amount of stereotyped behaviour in mink housed with water baths indicates that long-term access to baths may alleviate frustration in singly-housed juvenile farmed mink.;

  16. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  17. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  18. The effect of mineral radon water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila Kapetanović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to patients’ safety, increased blood pressure often restricts wider use of mineral water for therapeutic purposes in rehabilitation practice. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of radon mineral water applied in the form of full baths on blood pressure in people with hypertension.Methods: A total of 27 patients, average age 58.10 years with hypertension were included in the study. Balneotherapy was applied in the form of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature. Values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after twenty minutes therapy on the first and fifth day of treatment.Results: On the first day of treatment there was no significant change in blood pressure after the application of full baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 0.697, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 0.505, not significant. On the fi fth day of treatment there was no significant changes in blood pressure after the application of medical baths with mineral radon water of neutral temperature (systolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant; diastolic pressure t = 1.372, not significant.Conclusion: The significant increase of blood pressure in patients with mild and moderate hypertension is not expected when Fojnica water (radioactive mineral water is being used in the form of full baths of neutral temperature, which allows a broader application of this balneo procedure in rehabilitation practice.

  19. Elevated Bathing-Associated Disease Risks Despite Certified Water Quality: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological water quality criteria have been recommended to ensure bathers’ health. However, this risk-assessment approach is based mainly on routine measurements of fecal pollution indicator bacteria in seawater, and may not be adequate to protect bathers effectively. The aim of this study was to assess the risks of symptoms related to infectious diseases among bathers after exposure to seawater which was of excellent quality according to EU guidelines. This study is a cohort study recruiting bathers and non-bathers. Water samples were collected for estimating bacterial indicators. Univariable and multivariable analysis was performed to compare the risks of developing symptoms/diseases between bathers and non-bathers. A total of 3805 bathers and 572 non-bathers were included in the study. Water analysis results demonstrated excellent quality of bathing water. Significantly increased risks of symptoms related to gastrointestinal infections (OR = 3.60, 95% CI 1.28–10.13, respiratory infections (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.00–3.67, eye infections (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.27–4.63 and ear infections (OR = 17.21, 95% CI 2.42–122.34 were observed among bathers compared with non-bathers. Increased rates of medical consultation and medication use were also observed among bathers. There was evidence that bathers experienced increased morbidity compared with non-bathers though the bathing waters met bacteriological water quality criteria. These results suggest that risk assessments of recreational seawaters should not only focus on bacteriological water quality criteria.

  20. ''Water bath'' effect during the electrical underwater wire explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Grinenko, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2007-01-01

    The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10 9 A/cm 2 , total discharge current of ∼3 MA, and rise time of the current of ∼100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wire material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect

  1. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.; Aitken, M.; Crowther, J.; Dickson, I.; Edwards, A.C.; Francis, C.; Hopkins, M.; Jeffrey, W.; Kay, C.; McDonald, A.T.; McDonald, D.; Stapleton, C.M.; Watkins, J.; Wilkinson, J.; Wyer, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission. - Diffuse microbiological pollution from farming activities can be reduced by protected riparian zones

  2. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.

  3. In situ evaluation of water and energy consumptions at the end use level: The influence of flow reducers and temperature in baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, C; Briga-Sá, A; Bentes, I; Faria, D; Pereira, S

    2017-05-15

    Nowadays, water and energy consumption is intensifying every year in most of the countries. This perpetual increase will not be supportable in the long run, making urgently to manage these resources on a sustainable way. Domestic consumptions of water and electric energy usually are related and it's important to study that relation, identifying opportunities for use efficient improvement. In fact, without an understanding of water-energy relations, there are water efficiency measures that may lead to unintentional costs in the energy efficiency field. In order to take full advantage of combined effect between water and energy water management methodologies, it is necessary to collect data to ensure that the efforts are directed through the most effective paths. This paper presents a study based in the characterization, measurement and analysis of water and electricity consumption in a single family house (2months period) in order to find an interdependent relationship between consumptions at the end user level. The study was carried out on about 200 baths, divided in four different scenarios where the influence of two variables was tested: the flow reducer valve and the bath temperature. Data showed that the presence of flow reducer valve decreased electric energy consumption and water consumption, but increased the bath duration. Setting a lower temperature in water-heater, decreased electric consumption, water consumption and bath duration. Analysing the influence of the flow reducer valve and 60°C temperature simultaneously, it was concluded that it had a significant influence on electric energy consumption and on the baths duration but had no influence on water consumption. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  5. Water bath hyperthermia is a simple therapy for psoriasis and also stimulates skin tanning in response to sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boreham, D.R.; Gasmann, H.C.; Mitchel, R.E.J

    1994-07-01

    An eight week trial, involving superficial hyperthermia delivered biweekly via simple water bath immersion, was tested for its ability to clear mild to moderate psoriatic lesions. Seven patients were treated and three cases rapidly improved. In the remaining patients, the treatment frequency was increased to alternate days; two cases improved significantly, one patient showed a partial response, and the fourth had no visible change (this was the only patient taking concurrent drug therapy - etretinate). In addition to resolving psoriatic lesions, water bath hyperthermia also reduced edema (swelling) and relieved pruritus (itching) in all patients, both during the treatment period and for up to several months after lesions had returned. Lesion reappearance occurred within one to three months after the last heat treatment. We retreated one patient and produced a second complete remission. These results indicate that simple repetitive water bath hyperthermia alone is effective in the treatment of psoriatic lesions in heatable locations. An unexpected side effect was enhanced melanin content (tanning) in all areas where hyperthermia treated skin was exposed to sunlight. (author)

  6. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  8. Use of ultrasonic baths for analytical applications: a new approach for optimisation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascentes Clésia C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation conditions for obtaining maximum cavitation intensity in ultrasonic baths are proposed using a simple and fast method. Parameters such as water volume, temperature, detergent concentration, horizontal and vertical positions, number of tubes in the bath, sonication time and bath water substitution were studied. The results obtained for both baths studied (Neytech and Cole-Parmer lead to the following conditions for maximum cavitation intensity: 1 L of water at room temperature, 0.2 % (v/v of detergent, central position on the bottom of the tank. Only one tube at a time should be used inside the bath during the ultrasound application. The cavitation intensity was linear with the sonication time up to 10 minutes and the water substitution during the sonication improved reproducibility. This system using continuous water change makes possible the sonication of 6 consecutive samples, without changes in the water volume.

  9. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ., Dept. of Dermatology, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au) 15 refs.

  10. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au)

  11. Effects of a 20 year rain event: a quantitative microbial risk assessment of a case of contaminated bathing water in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S T; Erichsen, A C; Mark, O; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) often lack data on water quality leading to great uncertainty in the QMRA because of the many assumptions. The quantity of waste water contamination was estimated and included in a QMRA on an extreme rain event leading to combined sewer overflow (CSO) to bathing water where an ironman competition later took place. Two dynamic models, (1) a drainage model and (2) a 3D hydrodynamic model, estimated the dilution of waste water from source to recipient. The drainage model estimated that 2.6% of waste water was left in the system before CSO and the hydrodynamic model estimated that 4.8% of the recipient bathing water came from the CSO, so on average there was 0.13% of waste water in the bathing water during the ironman competition. The total estimated incidence rate from a conservative estimate of the pathogenic load of five reference pathogens was 42%, comparable to 55% in an epidemiological study of the case. The combination of applying dynamic models and exposure data led to an improved QMRA that included an estimate of the dilution factor. This approach has not been described previously.

  12. Human recreational exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in coastal bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Gaze, William H

    2015-09-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are associated with poor health outcomes and are recognised globally as a serious health problem. Much research has been conducted on the transmission of ARB to humans. Yet the role the natural environment plays in the spread of ARB and antibiotic resistance genes is not well understood. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in natural aquatic environments, and ingestion of seawater during water sports is one route by which many people could be directly exposed. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of resistance to one clinically important class of antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs)) amongst Escherichia coli in coastal surface waters in England and Wales. Prevalence data was used to quantify ingestion of 3GC-resistant E. coli (3GCREC) by people participating in water sports in designated coastal bathing waters. A further aim was to use this value to derive a population-level estimate of exposure to these bacteria during recreational use of coastal waters in 2012. The prevalence of 3GC-resistance amongst E. coli isolated from coastal surface waters was estimated using culture-based methods. This was combined with the density of E. coli reported in designated coastal bathing waters along with estimations of the volumes of water ingested during various water sports reported in the literature to calculate the mean number of 3GCREC ingested during different water sports. 0.12% of E. coli isolated from surface waters were resistant to 3GCs. This value was used to estimate that in England and Wales over 6.3 million water sport sessions occurred in 2012 that resulted in the ingestion of at least one 3GCREC. Despite the low prevalence of resistance to 3GCs amongst E. coli in surface waters, there is an identifiable human exposure risk for water users, which varies with the type of water sport undertaken. The relative importance of this exposure is likely to be greater in areas where a

  13. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  14. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  15. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Effects of bathing on skin exposed to Cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohannan, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of this study was to determine the effects of bathing or not bathing on the degree of skin reaction occurring in patients receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy to the chest, back, or head and neck. A quasi experimental study was done using a 2 x 7 repeated measures design. Sixty-seven subjects receiving Cobalt-60 radiation therapy at the Moncrief Radiation Center in Fort Worth, Texas, were randomly assigned to an experimental group who did not bathe during therapy and a control group who did bathe with water during therapy. Observations were made after each 1000 rads of therapy and two weeks after the final treatment. Erythema and pigmentation measurements were taken using the Photovolt 670 and rates were assigned using the Baker-Leith Rating Scale. Findings from the study suggest that bathing the portal of entry with water during the treatment period does not influence the degree of skin response that occurs from Cobalt-60 teletherapy

  17. Acute effects of a single warm-water bath on serum adiponectin and leptin levels in healthy men: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodozono, Megumi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Ninomiya, Koji; Miyata, Ryuji; Ogata, Atsuko; Etoh, Seiji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2012-09-01

    To preliminarily assess the acute effects of a single warm -water bath (WWB) on serum adipokine activity, we measured serum adiponectin, leptin and other metabolic profiles before, immediately after and 30 minutes after WWB in seven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 39.7 ± 6.0 years; mean body mass index, 21.6 ± 1.8 kg/m2). The subjects were immersed in tap water at 41°C for 10 minutes. Two weeks later, the same subjects underwent a single WWB with a bath additive that included inorganic salts and carbon dioxide (WWB with ISCO2) by the same protocol as for the first WWB. Leptin levels significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water and ISCO2 (both P hemoglobin and hematocrit significantly increased immediately after WWB with tap water or ISCO2 (all P < 0.05), but they all returned to the baseline levels 30 minutes after bathing under both conditions. The sublingual temperature rose significantly after 10 minutes of WWB with tap water (0.96 ± 0.16°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01) and after the same duration of WWB with ISCO2 (1.24 ± 0.34°C relative to baseline, P < 0.01). These findings suggest that a single WWB at 41°C for 10 minutes may modulate leptin and adiponectin profiles in healthy men.

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at a water/gas interface: A study of bath gas-dependent molecular species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M.; Padmanabhan, A.; Godfrey, G.J.; Rehse, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been performed on the surface of a bulk water sample in an air, argon, and nitrogen gas environment to investigate emissions from hydrogen-containing molecules. A microplasma was formed at the gas/liquid interface by focusing a Nd:YAG laser beam operating at 1064 nm onto the surface of an ultra-pure water sample. A broadband Echelle spectrometer with a time-gated intensified charge-coupled device was used to analyze the plasma at various delay times (1.0-40.0 μs) and for incident laser pulse energies ranging from 20-200 mJ. In this configuration, the dominant atomic spectral features at short delay times are the hydrogen H-alpha and H-beta emission lines at 656 and 486 nm, respectively, as well as emissions from atomic oxygen liberated from the water and air and nitrogen emission lines from the air bath gas. For delay times exceeding approximately 8 μs the emission from molecular species (particularly OH and NH) created after the ablation process dominates the spectrum. Molecular emissions are found to be much less sensitive to variations in pulse energy and exhibit a temporal decay an order of magnitude slower than the atomic emission. The dependence of both atomic hydrogen and OH emission on the bath gas above the surface of the water was studied by performing the experiment at standard pressure in an atmospheric purge box. Electron densities calculated from the Stark broadening of the H-beta and H-gamma lines and plasma excitation temperatures calculated from the ratio of H-beta to H-gamma emission were measured for ablation in the three bath gases

  19. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  20. Fundamental Study of Bed Bath Technique : Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Epidermal Effects of Bed Bathing Using Bar Soap and Water-Dissolved Liquid Soap

    OpenAIRE

    月田, 佳寿美; 竹田, 千佐子; 長谷川, 智子; 白川, かおる

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify epidermal effects of bed bathing using bar soap and water-dissolved liquid soap (liquid soap). Method: The subjects were 33 healthy female college students. Subjects' arms were cleaned by two methods, using bar soap and liquid soap. The following objective data were collected from the subjects: skin sebum, moisturization, pH, and feelings of skin conditions (rashes, redness, itchiness, and irritation). Results : 1. Cleansing effects of both methods on oily dirt seemed no d...

  1. Effects of water temperature on photosensitization in bath-PUVA therapy with 8-methoxypsoralen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruss, C.; Kobyletzki, G. von; Reuther, T.; Husebo, L.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Behrens, S.; Kerscher, M. [Univ. of Ulm, Dept. of Dermatology, Ulm (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of bath-PUVA are not completely clarified. Therefore, we determined the phototoxic response of human skin following psoralen baths at temperatures ranging from 32 deg. C to 42 deg. C (71.6-107.6 deg. F) and UVA doses ranging from 0.5 to 5.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The highest therapeutical photosensitization (i.e. lowest minimal phototoxic dose) was assessed at temperatures of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) and above. Photosensitization was significantly decreased at lower temperatures. These data indicate that a bath temperature of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) should be used to gain optimal therapeutic efficiency in a clinical setting. Furthermore, in order to minimize the risk of adverse phototoxic effects in bath-PUVA, it is important to use a constant temperature during the psoralen bath. (au) 13 refs.

  2. Effects of water temperature on photosensitization in bath-PUVA therapy with 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruss, C.; Kobyletzki, G. von; Reuther, T.; Husebo, L.; Altmeyer, P.; Behrens, S.; Kerscher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of bath-PUVA are not completely clarified. Therefore, we determined the phototoxic response of human skin following psoralen baths at temperatures ranging from 32 deg. C to 42 deg. C (71.6-107.6 deg. F) and UVA doses ranging from 0.5 to 5.5 J/cm 2 . The highest therapeutical photosensitization (i.e. lowest minimal phototoxic dose) was assessed at temperatures of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) and above. Photosensitization was significantly decreased at lower temperatures. These data indicate that a bath temperature of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) should be used to gain optimal therapeutic efficiency in a clinical setting. Furthermore, in order to minimize the risk of adverse phototoxic effects in bath-PUVA, it is important to use a constant temperature during the psoralen bath. (au)

  3. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  4. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB-head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB-head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF-HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  5. Water quality assessment of an unusual ritual well in Bangladesh and impact of mass bathing on this quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, H; Suely, A; Faruq, G; Sahu, J N

    2014-02-15

    A sacred ritual well with continuously discharging of methane gas through its water body was studied for physicochemical and microbiological quality in three seasons and during ritual mass bathing. Most of the physicochemical parameters showed significant seasonal variations (Pbiochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (r=-0.58, Pindicators were studied and found that all of them increased unusually during mass bathing comparing with their respective seasonal values. Total coliforms (TC) were found positively correlated with fecal coliforms (FC) (r=0.971), FC with Escherichia coli (EC) (r=0.952), EC with intestinal enterococci (IE) (r=0.921), fecal streptococci (FS) with IE (r=0.953) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) (r=0.946), which were significant at P<0.001. Some regression models showed significant linear relationship at P<0.001 with r(2) value of 0.943 for FC vs. TC, 0.907 for EC vs. FC, 0.869 for FS vs. FC, 0.848 for IE vs. EC and 0.909 for IE vs. FS. The overall results found in this study revealed that well water is suitable for bathing purpose but the religious activity considerably worsen its quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Edagawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%. Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%. In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8% compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%. Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1% compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%. Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%, irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  7. Sudden Death Phenomenon While Bathing in Japan - Mortality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Shimbo, Takuro; Ikaga, Toshiharu; Hori, Shingo

    2017-07-25

    Bath-related sudden cardiac arrest frequently occurs in Japan, but the mortality data have not been sufficiently reported.Methods and Results:This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Tokyo Metropolis, Saga Prefecture and Yamagata Prefecture between October 2012 and March 2013 (i.e., in winter). We investigated the data for all occurrences in these areas for which the emergency medical system needed to be activated because of an accident or acute illness related to bathing. Emergency personnel enrolled the event when activation of the emergency medical system was related to bathing. Of the 4,599 registered bath-related events, 1,527 (33%) were identified as bath-related cardiac arrest events. Crude mortality (no. deaths per 100,000) during the observational period was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga. According to the mortality data for age and sex, the estimated number of bath-related deaths nationwide was 13,369 in winter, for the 6 months from October (95% CI: 10,862-16,887). Most cardiac arrest events occurred in tubs filled with water with the face submerged in the water. This suggests that drowning plays a crucial role in the etiology of such phenomena. The estimated nationwide number of deaths was 13,369 (95% CI: 10,862-16,887) in winter, for the 6 months from October. Crude mortality during the winter season was 10.0 in Tokyo, 11.6 in Yamagata and 8.5 in Saga.

  8. Bath of my home (50 yeras report No.1); Wagaya no ofuro (50 nenshi No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-10

    Looking back at the history of bath after the war, the fuel, water heating method, hot water method, bathtub, shape of bathroom, bathing tools and bathing method have undergone surprising changes, from the period just after the war for which the number of households having their baths was small and public baths were at the height of their prosperity, to the present period for which households are generally equipped with a shower and bathtub. This paper describes the history of bath after the war in Japan, including the bathing methods and goods which came to stay in each period, placing the focus on the bathing acts and equipment. For 10 years since 1945, the housing shortage had been serious, and public baths had prospered. For this period, the bath heating fuel was mainly coal and firewood, and soap was still valuable. Since 1955, the housing situation had changed better, and the time had entered the age of bath-at-home. Since this period, aluminum bath furnaces had been mass-produced. Neutral shampoo appeared on the market and were sold like hot cakes.

  9. Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Gomes da Fonseca Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during hot tub bath and shower in healthy newborns in the first hours of life. Study design: This is a randomized blind controlled trial, registered in ReBEC (No. RBR-4z26f3 with 184 newborns divided into hot tub group (n=84 and shower (n=100. Newborns from intervention group were immersed in a hot tub with warm water up to the neck, without exposure to air flow, and control group received traditional shower. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were measured before and immediately after bath by an investigator blinded to the type of bath. Results: Groups were similar in gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5th minute and hours of life, p => 0.05. To analyze thermal and cardiorespiratory adjustments, difference between post-bath variables and pre-bath was calculated. In this analysis, it was found statistically significant difference between two types of bath regarding heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. Hot tub bath decreases heart and respiratory rates and increases temperature, whereas shower provides the opposite effect (0.0001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hot tub baths and shower, in healthy newborns, promote thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptations, reflecting thermal, cardiac and respiratory positive reactions after hot tub bath.

  10. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS QDs in salt water bath heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yinglian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University of China, Qingdao 266109, Shandong Province (China); Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Dongfeng, E-mail: wangdf@ouc.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic promotes formation of crystal nucleus and QDs were synthesized in 0.5 h. • The new heating method provides a PLQY of up to 97.13%. • The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the CdTe/CdS QDs was inferred. • The preparation method was efficient, simple and clean. - Abstract: A novel simple method for fast and efficient synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with core–shell structure was developed by using salt water bath heating with the ultrasonic-assisted technique in this paper. The formation of crystal nucleus was promoted by ultrasonic and CdTe/CdS QDs with blue fluorescence were synthesized only in 0.5 h. The heat source was bath heating in salt water solution at 60% NaCl and the heating temperature could reach 105 °C. The heating method solved the biggest drawback of low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of ordinal bath heating in water. The preparation was cheap, simple and had less pollution to the environment. The properties of the CdTe/CdS QDs were thoroughly investigated by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis), photoluminescence (PL), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser size analysis, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Different CdTe/CdS QDs with core shell structure were efficiently synthesized and the maximum PLQY could reach 97.13% when refluxing at 105 °C for 2 h. These QDs exhibited uniform dispersity, high fluorescence intensity, good optical property and long life of fluorescent. The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the QDs was inferred that the Cd{sup 2+} might coordinate with sulfur (S) as well as thiol propionate (–SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO{sup −1}) to constitute two relatively thick compound layers on the QDs surface as passive shells.

  11. A Water Model Study on Mixing Behavior of the Two-Layered Bath in Bottom Blown Copper Smelting Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Lang; Cui, Zhixiang; Ma, Xiaodong; Jiang, Xu; Chen, Mao; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Baojun

    2018-05-01

    The bottom-blown copper smelting furnace is a novel copper smelter developed in recent years. Many advantages of this furnace have been found, related to bath mixing behavior under its specific gas injection scheme. This study aims to use an oil-water double-phased laboratory-scale model to investigate the impact of industry-adjustable variables on bath mixing time, including lower layer thickness, gas flow rate, upper layer thickness and upper layer viscosity. Based on experimental results, an overall empirical relationship of mixing time in terms of these variables has been correlated, which provides the methodology for industry to optimize mass transfer in the furnace.

  12. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine--an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-12-04

    Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15-30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects - although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  13. Effect and efficacy of thermal environment provided by a new bathing style, “mist sauna bathing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWASE Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mist sauna is a style of bathing in which hot water vapor is sprayed into a bathroom, establishing an air temperature of 40°C with saturated humidity. Bath heater and dryer equipment with mist sauna function was released onto the Japanese market in 2004. After their introduction, various studies investigated the effects of mist sauna bathing, and it has been demonstrated that mist sauna bathing has various effects and efficacies, not only hyperthermic effects but also other effects including on physical appearance. Mist sauna bathing occurs in a bathroom, usually without a toilet, in which the room temperature is approximately 40°C with 100% relative humidity. It has been shown that the mist sauna causes little hemodynamic change, which ensures its safety during bathing. Therefore, we can enjoy safer physiological bathing in a mist sauna than in traditional hot water immersion bathing. In addition, the mist sauna elicits benefits such as improved skin condition, heat acclimation, and autonomic balance. Since mist sauna bathing does not involve immersion of the body in bathtub water, it is less likely to result in an accident during bathing because of the low impact of hemodynamic changes. Recently, mist sauna bathing has drawn attention in the field of nursing care as a bathing style for the hospitalized elderly that can reduce the burden on care-giving personnel during bathing. It is expected that mist sauna will be adopted by homes and various facilities as a useful approach for various purposes, regardless of the user’s age or gender.

  14. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. (Microbiological studies of small hot-bath-pools and hot-whirl-pools (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, M; Havenith, N

    1981-01-01

    Hot small bathing pools and hot whirl-pools have the following characteristics: small watervolume, thick squeeze of swimmers, high water temperature (37-40 degrees C) and small dimension of filters. By this, the quality of bathing-water is influenced detrimentally. To elaborate the hygienic problems, bathing-water samples were taken before, during and after the visiting-hours and were tested for facultative-pathogenic microorganisms. During this investigation E. coli was isolated in 25 degrees, Coliforms and Proteus species in 37.3%, P. aeruginosa in 36%, S. aureus in 26.3%, Enterococci in 42.3 %, Candida albicans in 3.6% and yeast totally in 8.3%.

  16. The Suitability Of Local Quartz Sand In The Production Of Bath Crucibles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Okpanachi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of local quartz sand in the production of bath crucibles is a study that was carried out in order to impart overall strength on bath crucibles hence reduce breakages during fettling. Therefore this research constitutes a study to enhance the efficiency of production of bath crucibles by addition of quartz sand in slip preparation. The steps taken in the beneficiation of quartz sand for the production of bath crucibles are comminution which entails crushing and milling classification washing liquid dispersion sizing and reduction of iron content by magnetic separation. The slip contains materials like plastic clay feldspar kaolin talc sodium silicate water quartz sand etc. These were all milled in the ball mill for slip production casting and fettling glazing and sintering to get final bath crucibles as the end products. Quartz sand is used in a variety of products essentially as raw material for the foundry casting and glass industries and also in chemicals water filtration and ceramics the heat resistance nature of quartz sand makes it an excellent refractory substance for these industrial processes. Slip can be prepared for production of bath crucibles without the inclusion of quartz sand however the addition of quartz sand is needed to improve the mechanical performance of the slip in the production of bath crucibles.

  17. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... would actually make the requirement less restrictive than what is already in the voluntary standard. For... various water levels and possible head positions of occupants vs. angles of bath seats to determine what... instructional literature or warnings, it is foreseeable that caregivers will install the bath seat on a wet and...

  18. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  19. Infant bath seats, drowning and near-drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, R W; Donald, T

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of infant bathtub seats in drowning and near-drowning episodes in infants. A review was conducted of the files of the Forensic Science Centre and Child Protection Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, for significant immersion incidents in infants involving bathtub seats from January 1998 to December 2003. A total of six cases of drowning occurred over the 6-year period of the study in children under 2 years of age, including two infants. One of these cases, a 7-month-old boy, had been left unattended for some time in an adult bath in a bathtub seat. He was found drowned, having submerged after slipping down and becoming trapped in the seat. Three near-drowning episodes occurred in children under the age of 2 years, including two boys aged 7 and 8 months, both of whom had been left for some time in adult baths in bath seats. Both were successfully resuscitated and treated in hospital. These cases demonstrate the vulnerability of infants to immersion incidents when left unattended in bathtubs. Bathtubs are particularly dangerous for infants as the slippery and smooth surfaces predispose to loss of balance and make escape from water difficult. Infant bathtub seats may give parents and child carers a false sense of security leading to infants being left unattended. Unfortunately, however, infants may fall out of, or slip and become trapped in, such seats. Infants and young children cannot be left unsupervised in water, and devices used as bathing aids such as bathtub seats may contribute to immersion incidents.

  20. Herbal bathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte I.E.A.; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; Andel, van Tinde R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and

  1. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future. PMID:19055811

  2. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  3. A brain slice bath for physiology and compound microscopy, with dual-sided perifusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, P M

    2010-12-01

    Contemporary in vitro brain slice studies can employ compound microscopes to identify individual neurons or their processes for physiological recording or imaging. This requires that the bath used to maintain the tissue fits within the working distances of a water-dipping objective and microscope condenser. A common means of achieving this is to maintain thin tissue slices on the glass floor of a recording bath, exposing only one surface of the tissue to oxygenated bathing medium. Emerging evidence suggests that physiology can be compromised by this approach. Flowing medium past both sides of submerged brain slices is optimal, but recording baths utilizing this principle are not readily available for use on compound microscopes. This paper describes a tissue bath designed specifically for microscopy and physiological recording, in which temperature-controlled medium flows past both sides of the slices. A particular feature of this design is the use of concentric mesh rings to support and transport the live tissue without mechanical disturbance. The design is also easily adapted for use with thin acute slices, cultured slices, and acutely dispersed or cultured cells maintained either on cover slips or placed directly on the floor of the bath. The low profile of the bath provides a low angle of approach for electrodes, and allows use of standard condensers, nosepieces and water-dipping objective lenses. If visualization of individual neurons is not required, the bath can be mounted on a simple stand and used with a dissecting microscope. Heating is integral to the bath, and any temperature controller capable of driving a resistive load can be used. The bath is robust, readily constructed and requires minimal maintenance. Full construction and operation details are given. © 2010 The Author Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. A rapid detection method using flow cytometry to monitor the risk of Legionella in bath water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguri, Toshitsugu; Oda, Yasunori; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishikawa, Toru; Endo, Takuro; Izumiyama, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Kura, Fumiaki

    2011-07-01

    Legionella species are the causative agents of human legionellosis, and bathing facilities have been identified as the sources of infection in several outbreaks in Japan. Researchers in Japan have recently reported evidence of significant associations between bacterial counts and the occurrence of Legionella in bathing facilities and in a hot tub model. A convenient and quantitative bacterial enumeration method is therefore required as an indicator of Legionella contamination or disinfection to replace existing methods such as time-consuming Legionella culture and expensive Legionella-DNA amplification. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method (RDM) to monitor the risk of Legionella using an automated microbial analyzing device based on flow cytometry techniques to measure the total number of bacteria in water samples within two minutes, by detecting typical patterns of scattered light and fluorescence. We first compared the results of our RDM with plate counting results for five filtered hot spring water samples spiked with three species of bacteria, including Legionella. Inactivation of these samples by chlorine was also assessed by the RDM, a live/dead bacterial fluorescence assay and plate counting. Using the RDM, the lower limit of quantitative bacterial counts in the spiked samples was determined as 3.0×10(3)(3.48log)counts mL(-1). We then used a laboratory model of a hot tub and found that the RDM could monitor the growth curve of naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria with 1 and 2 days' delayed growth of amoeba and Legionella, respectively, and could also determine the killing curve of these bacteria by chlorination. Finally, samples with ≥3.48 or bacterial counts mL(-1) were tested using the RDM from 149 different hot tubs, and were found to be significantly associated with the positive or negative detection of Legionella with 95% sensitivity and 84% specificity. These findings indicated that the RDM can be used for Legionella control at

  5. Microbiological Guideline Values for Recreational Bathing in Canada: Time for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lévesque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational bathing is an activity practiced by thousands of Canadians every year. While its health benefits are numerous, bathing in polluted water can also be a source of health problems. These problems are generally nonspecific and are difficult to detect through usual health monitoring systems. Most involve ear and eye ailments, febrile respiratory illness and, particularly, gastroenteritis. In 1992, Health Canada recommended microbiological guideline values for recreational water quality. The values are based on the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, namely, enterococci for marine water, and Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms for fresh water. In marine water, the guideline value is set at 35 enterococci/100 mL, while in fresh water, the standard is 200 E coli/100 mL or 200 fecal coliforms/100 mL when experience demonstrates that over 90% of the fecal coliforms are E coli. Notwithstanding certain variances, many Canadian provinces apply these guidelines. However, in Ontario, the guideline is 100 E coli/100 mL. Over the past several years, many epidemiological studies, including randomized clinical trials, have examined the relationship between bathing in polluted water and ensuing health problems. On review of this literature, the Canadian guideline values for marine water seems appropriate, but scientific evidence argues toward lowering the Canadian guideline values for fresh water to 100 E coli/100 mL, in line with the standard currently in effect in Ontario.

  6. Colonization of Legionella species in Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Legionella species in water samples collected from Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey, from August 2003 to September 2013. Water samples were collected in 100-mL sterile containers and then concentrated by filtration. Heat treatment was used to eliminate other microorganisms from the samples, which were then spread on Legionella-selective-buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE-α) agar and on BCYE-α agar supplemented with glycine, vancomycin, polymyxin, and cycloheximide. Cysteine-dependent colonies were identified by latex agglutination. In total, 135 samples from 52 hotels with Turkish baths were evaluated. Legionella species were identified in 11/52 (21.2%) hotels and 18/135 (13.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated species was Legionella pneumophila, with most isolates belonging to serogroups 6 (55.6%) and 1 (22.2%). The colony count was 1000 CFU mL(-1) in three samples. These findings suggest that the hot water systems of Turkish baths in hotels must be viewed as a possible source of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease, and preventative measures should be put in place.

  7. Clinical and anti-aging effect of mud-bathing therapy for patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toyoki; Kudo, Yoshihiro; Horiuchi, Takahiko; Makino, Naoki

    2017-12-06

    Spa bathing is known as a medical treatment for certain diseases causing chronic pains. Spa water contains mineral components which lower the specific heat of the water, resulting in a higher efficiency to warm body-core temperature. This phenomenon yields pain-relieving effect for rheumatoid arthritis, low back pain, sciatic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, etc. Here we introduce medical and biological effects of mud-spa-bathing therapy for fibromyalgia other than pain relief, the changes of blood examination data, and the telomere length of circulating leukocytes. The enrolled 7 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome were hospitalized and were subject to daily mud bathing at 40 °C for 10 min for about a month. Then, their subjective pain was reduced to about a quarter in average. They also showed lowered serum triglyceride and C-reactive protein level, maintaining the levels of aspartate transaminase and creatine phosphokinase, and increases of the red blood cell count, the serum albumin level, and the serum LDL-cholesterol level in comparison with cases without mud-bathing therapy, suggesting that mud bathing prevents inflammation and muscle atrophy and improves nutritional condition in fibromyalgia. In addition, the analysis of telomere length of peripheral leukocytes revealed a trend of negative correlation between telomere shortening and laboratory data change of hemoglobin and serum albumin. These telomeric changes can be explained hypothetically by an effect of mud bathing extending life-span of circulating leukocytes.

  8. Electrodeposition of gold from formaldehyde-sulfite baths: bath stability and deposits characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated Au(I-sulfite baths containing formaldehyde. As a result, high stability was achieved for baths containing formaldehyde concentration close to 10 mL L-1 with a lifetime superior to 600 days. On the other hand, cyclic voltammograms indicated that the increase of formaldehyde concentration in the bath promotes decreasing of the maximum cathodic current, so that, if the formaldehyde concentration is high, the surface areal concentration of gold will be low. Also, the lowest surface roughness was obtained for 10 mL L-1 of formaldehyde.

  9. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2017-11-01

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  10. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Merc

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  11. Bath-Ambience-A Mechatronic System for Assisting the Caregivers of Bedridden People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Karolina; Machado, José; Carvalho, Vítor; Castro, Marcelo; Costa, Pedro; Matos, Demétrio; Soares, Filomena

    2017-05-18

    The health of older people is receiving special attention and dedication nowadays, with the aim of increasing their general wellbeing and quality of life. Studies into different aspects of the care of the elderly have found that emphasis should be given to solving problems related to bathing in different situations and environments. In particular, it is important to develop new assistive technologies to streamline and ease the burden of a caregiver's daily tasks. Generally-speaking, in the case of bedridden patients, bathing is typically carried out manually by a caregiver, using towels, sponges, and a water basin. Nevertheless, this apparently simple task needs some precautions in order to avoid the risk of microbial infections, falls and other injuries. With that in mind, this paper presents the design of a portable washing system, called Bath-Ambience, which enables bedridden patients to be bathed efficiently without having to be moved from their position. This portable system can be installed in different situations, both in a domestic setting, and in specialized institutions, and allows the caregiver to perform the bathing tasks without compromising health and safety, thereby making it possible to offer a comfortable and hygienic procedure to patients, improving their quality of life. This paper presents the design of the portable Bath-Ambience washing system, which provides efficient assistance for bathing bedridden patients without moving them to another place. This system is mainly dedicated for integration a smart home application in to allow bathing everywhere.

  12. Bath-Ambience—A Mechatronic System for Assisting the Caregivers of Bedridden People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Karolina; Machado, José; Carvalho, Vítor; Castro, Marcelo; Costa, Pedro; Matos, Demétrio; Soares, Filomena

    2017-01-01

    The health of older people is receiving special attention and dedication nowadays, with the aim of increasing their general wellbeing and quality of life. Studies into different aspects of the care of the elderly have found that emphasis should be given to solving problems related to bathing in different situations and environments. In particular, it is important to develop new assistive technologies to streamline and ease the burden of a caregiver’s daily tasks. Generally-speaking, in the case of bedridden patients, bathing is typically carried out manually by a caregiver, using towels, sponges, and a water basin. Nevertheless, this apparently simple task needs some precautions in order to avoid the risk of microbial infections, falls and other injuries. With that in mind, this paper presents the design of a portable washing system, called Bath-Ambience, which enables bedridden patients to be bathed efficiently without having to be moved from their position. This portable system can be installed in different situations, both in a domestic setting, and in specialized institutions, and allows the caregiver to perform the bathing tasks without compromising health and safety, thereby making it possible to offer a comfortable and hygienic procedure to patients, improving their quality of life. This paper presents the design of the portable Bath-Ambience washing system, which provides efficient assistance for bathing bedridden patients without moving them to another place. This system is mainly dedicated for integration a smart home application in to allow bathing everywhere. PMID:28524114

  13. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Relieved by Compulsive Bathing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yoon Hee; Windish, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by repeated vomiting and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior due to long-term marijuana use. Research has indentified type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal nerve plexus that have an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This inhibitory effect may lead to hyperemesis in marijuana users. The thermoregulatory role of endocannabinoids may be responsible for the patient's need to take hot showers. ...

  14. Escherichia coli at Ohio Bathing Beaches--Distribution, Sources, Wastewater Indicators, and Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Gifford, Amie M.; Darner, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Results of studies during the recreational seasons of 2000 and 2001 strengthen the science that supports monitoring of our Nation?s beaches. Water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Ancillary water-quality and environmental data were collected or compiled to determine their relation to E. coli concentrations. Data were collected at three Lake Erie urban beaches (Edgewater, Villa Angela, and Huntington), two Lake Erie beaches in a less populated area (Mentor Headlands and Fairport Harbor), and one inland-lake beach (Mosquito Lake). The distribution of E. coli in water and sediments within the bathing area, outside the bathing area, and near the swash zone was investigated at the three Lake Erie urban beaches and at Mosquito Lake. (The swash zone is the zone that is alternately covered and exposed by waves.) Lake-bottom sediments from outside the bathing area were not significant deposition areas for E. coli. In contrast, interstitial water and subsurface sediments from near the swash zone were enriched with E. coli. For example, E. coli concentrations were as high as 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters in some interstitial waters. Although there are no standards for E. coli in swash-zone materials, the high concentrations found at some locations warrant concern for public health. Studies were done at Mosquito Lake to identify sources of fecal contamination to the lake and bathing beach. Escherichia coli concentrations decreased with distance from a suspected source of fecal contamination that is north of the beach but increased at the bathing beach. This evidence indicated that elevated E. coli concentrations at the bathing beach are of local origin rather than from transport of bacteria from sites to the north. Samples collected from the three Lake Erie urban beaches and Mosquito Lake were analyzed to determine whether wastewater indicators could be used as surrogates for E. coli at bathing beaches

  15. Effects of electrical water bath stunning current frequencies on the spontaneous electroencephalogram and somatosensory evoked potentials in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, A B M; O'Callaghan, M

    2004-04-01

    1. The effectiveness of water bath electrical stunning of chickens with a constant root mean square (rms) current of 100 mA per bird delivered for 3 s using 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1500 Hz sine wave alternating current (AC) was investigated in layer hens. The quantitative changes occurring in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were used to determine the effectiveness of stunning. The changes occurring in the EEG were evaluated using Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) and the SEPs were averaged to determine whether they were present or abolished. 2. The results of FFT indicated that stunning of chickens with a constant rms current of 100 mA per bird using 100 or 200 Hz induced epileptiform activity in all the hens, immediately followed by a reduction in the total (2 to 30 Hz) and relative (13 to 30 Hz) power contents in the EEG frequency bands indicative of unconsciousness and insensibility. The SEPs were abolished in the majority of hens stunned with 100 Hz and all the hens stunned with 200 Hz. 3. By contrast, stunning using 400, 800 or 1500 Hz failed to induce epileptiform activity in all the birds, the total and relative power contents in the EEG frequency bands showed a substantial increase, rather than reduction, and the SEPs were also retained in the majority of chickens. It is therefore suggested that stunning using these frequencies failed to stun them satisfactorily. In these birds, occurrence of a painful arousal, rather than unconsciousness, could not be ruled out. 4. It is therefore suggested that water bath electrical stunning of chickens with a minimum rms current of 100 mA per bird delivered using 100 or 200 Hz would be adequate to ensure bird welfare under commercial conditions, provided both the carotid arteries in the neck are severed at slaughter. On humanitarian and bird welfare grounds, a rms current of greater than 100 mA per bird should be applied whilst using frequencies of 400 Hz or more of sine wave AC

  16. Polyamide 6/clay membranes: effect of precipitation bath in morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rodholfo da S.B.; Pereira, Caio H. do O; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Lira, Helio L.

    2015-01-01

    Polyamide 6 membranes and their nanocomposites with 5% clay were obtained by the phase inversion method and the precipitation was made in distilled water bath and also in the mixture of solvent and distilled water. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD and membranes by SEM. By XRD analysis, it was found that the obtained nanocomposite presents a structure probably exfoliated and / or partially exfoliated, it was also possible to observe the presence of two characteristic peaks (α and γ) of the polyamide 6 phases. In the SEM micrographs it was seen that the presence of clay promote alterations in morphology, size and distribution of pores. The presence of acid in the precipitation bath leads to a significant decrease in the filter layer, but also an increase in the quantity of pore size. (author)

  17. Effects of bathing on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers. Using Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Yorizumi, Kouji

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of bathing in warm water on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Seven healthy male volunteers were subjected to experiments. The subjects were bathed in warm water at 39degC for 20 minutes in a sitting position immersed up to the neck. Each subject received two CBF examinations: one under normal conditions and the other after taking a bath mentioned above. There was an interval of at least seven days between the two examinations. To measure CBF, we used the Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc ECD). To examine CBF after bathing, 99m-Tc ECD was injected within 10 minutes after bathing. Brain perfusion index (BPI) and regional CBF (rCBF) were used as indexes for evaluating CBF. The body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, and hematocrit were also measured. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analyses. The following were observed: BPI increased significantly after bathing (p<0.05). rCBF in the cerebral cortex, particularly in the frontal lobe, tended to increase after bathing (p<0.05). No definite changes were observed in the cerebellar cortex, caudate nucleus, or thalamus. The body temperature and pulse increased significantly after bathing. No definite changes were observed in blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, or hematocrit. From the above, we conclude that bathing in warm water causes the cerebral blood flow to increase in healthy subjects. (author)

  18. Water quality monitoring in a bathing area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) using Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) as a tracer of faecal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonia, Alice; Bonamano, Simone; Caruso, Gabriella; Stefani', Chiara; Consalvi, Natalizia; Piermattei, Viviana; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Coastal urban bathing areas are often affected by events of faecal contamination, caused by the discharge of untreated wastewaters during the bathing season that can increase the risk for public health. Monitoring the quality of recreational waters is still closely linked to time-consuming seawater sampling and laboratory analysis, not allowing promptly management interventions. To face this issue, the European environmental policies strongly promote the development of coastal observing systems, above all in the Southern European Seas (SES). Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) has been increasingly used as a tracer of bacterial loads, since wastewaters are characterized by a large amount of organic compounds. The aim of this work was to study the relation between CDOM and Escherichia coli abundance, giving relevance to bacterial physiological state detected using both the standard culture method and the innovative fluorescent antibody technique. Attention has been paid also on the expression of extracellular enzymatic activity by the total microbial community to explore the role of bacteria in the decomposition processes of dissolved organic matter. Data were collected during summer 2015 and 2016 in a bathing area of Civitavecchia at increasing distances from the discharge point. The results confirm the usefulness of CDOM measurements as a proxy of faecal pollution in bathing areas. In this perspective, the low-cost stand-alone systems equipped with CDOM fluorescence sensors developed by the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (Tuscia University) (Marcelli et al., 2014) could allow the continous monitoring of water quality, increasing the capabilities of the Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System (C-CEMS) in the analysis of pollution events. Thanks to the integration of in situ fixed stations, high-resolution satellites imagery and numerical models, C-CEMS provides a management tool to support the stakeholders for timely

  19. Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Stutchfield

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Water reflex epilepsy can mimic a range of other conditions, and a high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. Children with water reflex epilepsy can achieve a good quality of life with modified bathing and appropriate antiepileptic medication.

  20. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Foot bath (Ion Cleanse): Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Seely, D.; Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Einarson, Th.R.; Seely, D.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic foot baths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic foot baths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic foot bath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1) and tap water (n=6) and following four ionic foot baths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks) in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications

  1. Effect of protic solvents on CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Pin-Chuan, E-mail: pcyao@mail.dyu.edu.tw; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2015-03-31

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an aqueous bath containing 10–20 vol.% alcohol. The roles of ethanol as a protic solvent that substantially improves the quality of films are explored extensively. The deposited films in an alcohol bath are found to be more compact and smoother with smaller CdS grains. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples confirm that all films were polycrystalline with mixed wurtzite (hexagonal) and zinkblende (cubic) phases. Raman spectra indicate that, for a film deposited in an alcohol bath, the position of 1LO is closer to the value for single crystal CdS, indicating that these films have a high degree of crystallinity. The as-deposited CdS thin films in a 10 vol.% alcohol bath were found to have the highest visible transmittance of 81.9%. XPS analysis reveals a stronger signal of C1s for samples deposited in the alcohol baths, indicating that there are more carbonaceous residues on the films with protic solvent than on the films with water. A higher XPS S/Cd atomic ratio for films deposited in an alcohol bath indicates that undesirable surface reactions (leading to sulfur containing compounds other than CdS) occur less frequently over the substrates. - Highlights: • Study of CBD-CdS films grown in an alcohol-containing aqueous bath is reported. • The deposited films in an alcohol bath are more compact with smaller CdS grains. • Raman spectra show that in an alcohol bath, the CdS film has a better crystallinity. • XPS reveals more carbon residues remain on the films deposited using alcohol bath. • In an alcohol bath, the undesirable surface reactions with Cd ions were hindered.

  2. Diel cycles of hydrogen peroxide in marine bathing waters in Southern California, USA: In situ surf zone measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Catherine D.; De Bruyn, Warren J.; Hirsch, Charlotte M.; Aiona, Paige

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is photochemically produced in natural waters. It has been implicated in the oxidative-induced mortality of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), a microbial water quality measure. To assess levels and cycling of peroxide in beach waters monitored for FIB, diel studies were carried out in surf zone waters in July 2009 at Crystal Cove State Beach, Southern California, USA. Maximum concentrations of 160-200 nM were obtained within 1 h of solar noon. Levels dropped at night to 20-40 nM, consistent with photochemical production from sunlight. Day-time production and night-time dark loss rates averaged 16 ± 3 nM h -1 and 12 ± 4 nM h -1 respectively. Apparent quantum yields averaged 0.07 ± 0.02. Production was largely dominated by sunlight, with some dependence on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels in waters with high absorption coefficients. Peroxide levels measured here are sufficient to cause oxidative-stress-induced mortality of bacteria, affect FIB diel cycling and impact microbial water quality in marine bathing waters.

  3. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled...

  4. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment.

  5. CFD Modeling of Swirl and Nonswirl Gas Injections into Liquid Baths Using Top Submerged Lances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Naser, J.; Brooks, G.; Reuter, M. A.; Matusewicz, R. W.

    2010-02-01

    Fluid flow phenomena in a cylindrical bath stirred by a top submerged lance (TSL) gas injection was investigated by using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling technique for an isothermal air-water system. The multiphase flow simulation, based on the Euler-Euler approach, elucidated the effect of swirl and nonswirl flow inside the bath. The effects of the lance submergence level and the air flow rate also were investigated. The simulation results for the velocity fields and the generation of turbulence in the bath were validated against existing experimental data from the previous water model experimental study by Morsi et al.[1] The model was extended to measure the degree of the splash generation for different liquid densities at certain heights above the free surface. The simulation results showed that the two-thirds lance submergence level provided better mixing and high liquid velocities for the generation of turbulence inside the water bath. However, it is also responsible for generating more splashes in the bath compared with the one-third lance submergence level. An approach generally used by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system simulations was applied to predict the convective mixing phenomena. The simulation results for the air-water system showed that mean convective mixing for swirl flow is more than twice than that of nonswirl in close proximity to the lance. A semiempirical equation was proposed from the results of the present simulation to measure the vertical penetration distance of the air jet injected through the annulus of the lance in the cylindrical vessel of the model, which can be expressed as L_{va} = 0.275( {do - di } )Frm^{0.4745} . More work still needs to be done to predict the detail process kinetics in a real furnace by considering nonisothermal high-temperature systems with chemical reactions.

  6. 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and Thioglycolic Acid in an Electroless Nickel-Plating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of three different materials, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid, was investigated to improve the performance of electroless nickel-plating baths. By changing the concentrations of these materials, sample plates were coated. Optical microscope images were obtained by selecting representative coated plates. From the results of the investigations, the effects of these materials on electroless nickel plating were observed, and the most appropriate amounts of these materials for nickel plating were determined. Moreover, the nickel plating speed observed with the bath solution containing 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid is higher than that in the case of traditional electroless plating baths, but the nickel consumption amount in the former case is lower. In order to minimize the waste water generated from electroless nickel-plating baths, we determined the lowest amounts of the chemicals that can be used for the concentrations reported in the literature.

  7. Tradeoffs between water requirements and yield stability in annual vs. perennial crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Population growth and changes in climate and diets will likely further increase the pressure on agriculture and water resources globally. Currently, staple crops are obtained from annuals plants. A shift towards perennial crops may enhance many ecosystem services, but at the cost of higher water requirements and lower yields. It is still unclear when the advantages of perennial crops overcome their disadvantages and perennial crops are thus a sustainable solution. Here we combine a probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development with an extensive dataset of traits of congeneric annuals and perennials to identify the conditions for which perennial crops are more viable than annual ones with reference to yield, yield stability, and effective use of water. We show that the larger and more developed roots of perennial crops allow a better exploitation of soil water resources and a reduction of yield variability with respect to annual species, but their yields remain lower when considering grain crops. Furthermore, perennial crops have higher and more variable irrigation requirements and lower water productivity. These results are important to understand the potential consequences for yield, its stability, and water resource use of a shift from annual to perennial crops and, more generally, if perennial crops may be more resilient than annual crops in the face of climatic fluctuations.

  8. Decoherence by engineered quantum baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Davide [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Calarco, Tommaso [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and BEC-CNR-INFM, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Montangero, Simone [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Fazio, Rosario [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    Optical lattices can be used to simulate quantum baths and hence they can be of fundamental help to study, in a controlled way, the emergence of decoherence in quantum systems. Here we show how to implement a pure dephasing model for a two-level system coupled to an interacting spin bath. In this scheme it is possible to implement a large variety of spin environments embracing Ising, XY and Heisenberg universality classes. After having introduced the model, we calculate exactly the decoherence for the Ising and the XY spin bath model. We find universal features depending on the critical behaviour of the spin bath, both in the short- and long-time limits. The rich scenario that emerges can be tested experimentally and can be of importance for the understanding of the coherence loss in open quantum systems.

  9. Domestic water buffaloes: Access to surface water, disease prevalence and associated economic losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Abid, Muhammad; Zhang, Huiming; Cui, Weijun; Ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2018-06-01

    Given the shortage and non-availability of freshwater in Pakistan, wastewater is being used for bathing water buffaloes; however, this has a negative impact on animal welfare. Although there is a vast literature on indirect linkages between wastewater and animal productivity, studies focusing on the direct impacts of water buffaloes bathing in wastewater on animal productivity and economic losses are rare. Therefore, using 360 domestic water buffalo farms, this study examines the expenditure and production losses associated with bathing (in wastewater and freshwater) and non-bathing water buffaloes by employing partial budgeting and resource adjustment component techniques. Furthermore, it investigates the prevalence of animal diseases and associated economic effects using correlation analysis and propensity score matching techniques, respectively. The findings reveal that compared to their counterparts (freshwater bathing and non-bathing water buffaloes), buffaloes bathing in wastewater are at increased risk of clinical mastitis, foot and mouth disease (FMD) and tick infestation. Moreover, the use of wastewater for bathing buffaloes also leads to higher economic and production losses by affecting milk productivity, causing premature culling, and reducing slaughter value. The findings of the double-log model show that economic losses are higher if buffaloes bathe in wastewater within 30 min after milking, as there are more chances that those buffaloes would be exposed to bacterial penetration in the teat ducts, which may result in intramammary infection. According to the propensity score matching method, the higher economic damages per month are associated with buffaloes bathing in wastewater and freshwater, 155 and 110 USD per farm, respectively. The study findings reference the need for policies to restrict wastewater access by water buffaloes, and a regular check of and access to cool clean water wallows for bathing during hot summer days, to reduce excess

  10. Effect of Chlorhexidine Bathing Every Other Day on Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in the Surgical ICU: A Single-Center, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Joshua T; Ashton, Carol M; Bui, Lan N; Pham, Vy P; Shirkey, Beverly A; Blackshear, Jolene E; Bersamin, Jimmy B; Pomer, Rubie May L; Johnson, Michael L; Magtoto, Audrey D; Butler, Michelle O; Tran, Shirley K; Sanchez, Leah R; Patel, Jessica G; Ochoa, Robert A; Hai, Shaikh A; Denison, Karen I; Graviss, Edward A; Wray, Nelda P

    2016-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that compared with daily soap and water bathing, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing every other day for up to 28 days decreases the risk of hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection in surgical ICU patients. This was a single-center, pragmatic, randomized trial. Patients and clinicians were aware of treatment-group assignment; investigators who determined outcomes were blinded. Twenty-four-bed surgical ICU at a quaternary academic medical center. Adults admitted to the surgical ICU from July 2012 to May 2013 with an anticipated surgical ICU stay for 48 hours or more were included. Patients were randomized to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine every other day alternating with soap and water every other day (treatment arm) or to bathing with soap and water daily (control arm). The primary endpoint was a composite outcome of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated pneumonia, incisional surgical site infection, and primary bloodstream infection. Of 350 patients randomized, 24 were excluded due to prior enrollment in this trial and one withdrew consent. Therefore, 325 were analyzed (164 soap and water versus 161 chlorhexidine). Patients acquired 53 infections. Compared with soap and water bathing, chlorhexidine bathing every other day decreased the risk of acquiring infections (hazard ratio = 0.555; 95% CI, 0.309-0.997; p = 0.049). For patients bathed with soap and water versus chlorhexidine, counts of incident hospital-acquired infections were 14 versus 7 for catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 13 versus 8 for ventilator-associated pneumonia, 6 versus 3 for incisional surgical site infections, and 2 versus 0 for primary bloodstream infection; the effect was consistent across all infections. The absolute risk reduction for acquiring a hospital-acquired infection was 9.0% (95% CI, 1.5-16.4%; p

  11. California community water systems annual indicators dataset, 1999-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains annual measures of arsenic and nitrates in public drinking water supplies. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW)...

  12. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  13. The Effect of LiCl and Coagulation Bath Temperature on the Structure and Performance of PVDF Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Sedaghat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membranes are widely used in microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes for their excellent mechanical and chemical resistance and thermal stability in comparison with other polymeric membranes. Non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS is the most important method by which the PVDF membranes are prepared. The structure of the membranes prepared by NIPS method depends on different parameters including the concentration of the polymer solution, polymer molecular weight, the composition and temperature of coagulation bath, type of solvent and the presence of additives in the initial solution. In the present work, the effects of coagulation bath temperature and LiCl content of the dope solution were studied with respect to the structure and performance of PVDF membranes. N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone and water were used as solvent and coagulation bath, respectively. A set of analytical techniques including: scanning electron microscopy, mechanical test, pure water permeability and mean pore radius of pores was used to characterize the membranes. Moreover, the separation of humic acid, a main biological contaminant in surface water resources, was studied to determine membranes performance. The results show that at constant coagulation bath temperature, presence of LiCl in the dope solution increased the number as well as the mean pore radius of the pores at the surface of membranes and consequently, pure water permeability of the membranes was increased, whereas, the mechanical strength and humic acid rejection of the membranes were dropped. Moreover, at a constant content of LiCl, increasing the coagulation bath temperature decreased the size of macrovoids so that the mechanical strength as well as humic acid rejection of the membranes was increased.

  14. Characteristics of sudden bath-related death investigated by medical examiners in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hikiji, Wakako; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Abe, Nobuyuki; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-01-01

    Sudden bath-related deaths occur frequently in Japan, particularly among elderly people. However, the precise mechanism of bath-related death remains uncertain, and effective prevention strategies have not been established. Cases of bath-related deaths (n = 3289) were selected from all cases handled by the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 2009 to 2011 (N = 41 336). The ages and occurrence dates were examined, and major autopsy findings, including toxicological analysis, were evaluated for the autopsied cases (n = 550). Most cases occurred in individuals older than 60 years of age during winter. Analysis of autopsy findings revealed water inhalation signs in many cases (n = 435, 79.1%). Circulatory system diseases constituted more than half of the pathological findings regarding factors that may have contributed significantly to death (n = 300, 54.5%), and cardiac lesions were the most common pathological finding (n = 250, 45.5%). However, approximately one-third of the cases exhibited no remarkable pathological findings (n = 198, 36.0%). A quarter of all cases involved blood ethanol levels that exceeded 0.5 mg/mL (n = 140). The results suggested that drowning plays an important role in the final process of bath-related death. Circulatory system diseases may be the primary underlying pathology; however, there were variations in the medical histories and pathologies of cases of bath-related death. From a preventive perspective, family members should pay attention to elderly people with circulatory system diseases during bathing, particularly in winter. Additionally, the notion that ill or inebriated individuals should not take baths should be reinforced.

  15. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG ampersand G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a open-quotes community water systemclose quotes (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG ampersand G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG ampersand G Idaho production wells

  16. A theory of electron baths: One-electron system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The second-quantized, many-electron, atomic, and molecular Hamiltonian is partitioned both by the identity or labeling of the spin orbitals and by the dynamics of the spin orbitals into a system coupled to a bath. The electron bath is treated by a molecular time scale generalized Langevin equation approach designed to include one-electron dynamics in the system dynamics. The bath is formulated as an equivalent chain of spin orbitals through the introduction of equivalent-chain annihilation and creation operators. Both the dynamics and the quantum grand canonical statistical properties of the electron bath are examined. Two versions for the statistical properties of the bath are pursued. Using a weak bath assumption, a bath statistical average is defined which allows one to achieve a reduced dynamics description of the electron system which is coupled to the electron bath. In a strong bath assumption effective Hamiltonians are obtained which reproduce the dynamics of the bath and which lead to the same results as found in the weak bath assumption. The effective (but exact) Hamiltonian is found to be a one-electron Hamiltonian. A reduced dynamics equation of motion for the system population matrix is derived and found to agree with a previous version. This equation of motion is useful for studying electron transfer in the system when coupled to an electron bath

  17. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  18. Distribution and seasonality of microbial indicators and thermophilic campylobacters in two freshwater bathing sites on the River Lune in northwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri-Danso, K; Jones, K

    1999-12-01

    Two freshwater bathing sites, the Crook O'Lune and the University Boathouse, on the River Lune in the north-west of England, were monitored over a 2 year period for the faecal indicators, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci, the pathogens, Salmonella and Campylobacter, and compliance with the EU Directive on Bathing Water Quality. Faecal indicator numbers showed no seasonal variation, with numbers in the bathing season similar to those in the non-bathing season. They were consistently above the EU Guideline and Imperative standards so that if the EU Bathing Water Quality Directive (76/160/EEC) were applied, neither site would comply. Faecal indicator numbers in the sediments were an order of magnitude higher than in the overlying water. Campylobacter numbers showed seasonal variation in the water with higher counts in winter than in the summer, although numbers were low. Higher numbers were found in the sediments but there was no seasonal variation. Analysis of various inputs showed that indicators and campylobacters came from a mixture of sources, namely a sewage treatment works, agricultural run-off, streams and mallards. Microbial numbers in the water at the Crook O'Lune, which is closer to the sources of pollution, were twice those at the Boathouse. In the sediments they were six to eight times higher. Faecal coliforms were all identified as Escherichia coli of which 80% were a single biotype. Faecal streptococci were all enterococci of which 55% were E. avium, 38% E. faecalis and 7% E. durans. Salmonella was not isolated from either the water column or the sediments. Campylobacters were mainly Camp. jejuni, followed by Camp. coli, UPTC and Camp. lari.

  19. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  20. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Zwick, Analia; Shahmoon, Ephraim

    2015-01-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field–atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom–atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies. (invited comment)

  1. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412... RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold...

  2. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  3. Health effects of freshwater bathing among primary school children; Design for a randomised exposure study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asperen IA van; Medema GJ; Havelaar AH; Borgdorff MW; CIE; MGB

    1997-01-01

    To study the health effects of bathing in freshwaters that meet current water quality standard, large epidemiological studies are needed. A design is presented of a study among primary school children, that aims to evaluate current water quality standard. The study concerns a randomised exposure

  4. Biologic impact on the coastal belt of the province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea): preliminary analysis for the characterization of the bathing water profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoich, Marco; Aimo, Emilia; Fassina, Daniel; Barbaro, Jvan; Vazzoler, Marina; Soccorso, Corrado; Rossi, Chiara

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the water profile with reference to microbiological parameters, required by Directive 2006/07/EC (European Community 2006) concerning the management of bathing water quality, in the coastal belt of the Province of Venice (Italy, Northern Adriatic Sea). A historical database has been implemented with monitoring data for the period 2000-2006 (data on rivers, bathing and marine coastal waters and on the characterization of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharges) from the institutional activity of Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV). An integrated areal analysis for the microbiological investigation of homogeneous stretches along the coast of the Province of Venice was performed for a preliminary characterization of the bathing water profile considering water quality status and existing pressure sources. ARPAV is the institutional body responsible for environmental monitoring and control activities. Data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Regional Environmental Informative System and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2000-2006). Sampling and analysis of microbiological parameters were executed following the official Italian methods in accordance with international procedures (APHA et al. 1998). For the purpose of this study, the coast was divided into eight stretches, which were considered to be homogeneous according to their physical and geographical characteristics. An ANOVA statistical assessment has been performed on stretches I, V and VIII. From the integrated areal analysis of microbiological parameters in the homogeneous stretches along the coast of all the investigated matrices, high mean levels of faecal contamination were found in some cases. The most critical situation amongst the stretches evaluated is to be found in stretch VIII-Ca' Roman, Sottomarina and Isola Verde shores (Southern part of the Province). These results can

  5. Influence of bath temperature and bath composition on Co-Ag electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Valles, Elisa; Gomez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    A study of the best conditions to prepare smooth heterogeneous Co-Ag films with low amounts of S from a thiourea-based electrolytic bath has been performed. Using a 0.01 M AgClO 4 + 0.1 M Co(ClO 4 ) 2 + 0.1 M thiourea + 0.1 M sodium gluconate + 0.3 M H 3 BO 3 + 0.1 M NaClO 4 bath, low temperature (10 o C) allowed obtaining compact and smooth deposits containing 2 wt.% sulphur. Decreasing thiourea content 0.06 M and increasing gluconate concentration up to 0.3 M, better deposits (more compact with lower sulphur content (1.2 wt.%)) were obtained. A clear influence of the species present in the bath on the film quality was observed: while gluconate favoured film cohesion, boric acid hindered hydrogen adsorption. For all films, fcc-Ag, hcp-Co and hcp-CoAg 3 phases were always detected by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction, their proportions varying with the electrodeposition conditions. Magnetic measurements revealed that the increase in the CoAg 3 led to an increase in the film coercivity. GMR values were only measured at cryogenic temperatures, they being higher for the deposits with the lowest sulphur content revealing that sulphur exerts a negative effect on magnetoresistance.

  6. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  7. A quantum Otto engine with finite heat baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozas-Kerstjens, Alejandro; Brown, Eric G.; Hovhannisyan, Karen V.

    2018-01-01

    We study a driven harmonic oscillator operating an Otto cycle by strongly interacting with two thermal baths of finite size. Using the tools of Gaussian quantum mechanics, we directly simulate the dynamics of the engine as a whole, without the need to make any approximations. This allows us...... to understand the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of the engine not only from the perspective of the working medium, but also as it is seen from the thermal baths' standpoint. For sufficiently large baths, our engine is capable of running a number of perfect cycles, delivering finite power while operating very...... close to maximal efficiency. Thereafter, having traversed the baths, the perturbations created by the interaction abruptly deteriorate the engine's performance. Weadditionally study the correlations generated in the system, and, in particular, we find a direct connection between the build up of bath...

  8. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) summarizes the activities of the Board and its subgroups during 1988, its sixth year of existence. Included are descriptions of current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1989, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is intended to provide an introduction to the WSTB and summary of its program for the year.

  9. A Molecular MST Approach to Investigate Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Bioaerosols, Bathing Water, Seaweed Wrack, and Sand at Recreational Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoren, K. M.; Sinigalliano, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    Despite numerous cases of beach bacteria affecting millions of people worldwide, the persistence of the bacteria populations in coastal areas is still not well understood. The purpose of this study was to test the levels of persistence of Fecal Indicating Bacteria (FIB) of enterococci, Escherichia coli, and Human-source Bacteroidales, within the intertidal "swash zone" and the deeper waist zone in which people commonly bathe and play. In addition, the study sought to determine if these bacterial contaminants may also be found in aerosols at the beach. Measuring solar insolation in relation to bacterial persistence in seaweed wrack was used to determine if sunlight plays a role in modifying concentrations of FIB at the beach. Light intensity measured by a solar photometer and air quality measured by aerosol plate counts and qPCR Microbial Source Tracking (MST) was compared to varying locations where the beach samples were collected. Results from water samples demonstrate that bacteria measured using plate counts and qPCR were indeed higher within the swash zone than in the waist zone. This is in contrast with the way that the EPA currently measures and determines the public safety of beach waters. They commonly measure the waist zone, but disregard the swash zone. Results from beach bio-aerosol samples showed a wide variety of fungi and bacteria in the beach air, and qPCR MST analysis of these bio-aerosols showed the presence of FIBs such as enterococci on several of the aerosol collection plates. This emphasizes the need to collect samples from the entire beach instead of just measuring at an isolated area, and that exposure to microbial contaminants may include bathing water, beach sand, seaweed wrack, and bio-aerosols. Thus, the data reveals a potential way to identify harmful levels of bacteria and dangerous levels of poor air quality at recreational beaches. These results expound the need for broader assessment of potential beach contamination, not only the

  10. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Joonsuk; Mostame, Sarah; Fujita, Takatoshi; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Yung, Man-Hong

    2014-01-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics. (paper)

  11. Distribution of Legionella pneumophila bacteria and Naegleria and Hartmannella amoebae in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Elżbieta; Walczak, Maciej; Krawiec, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the coexistence and interactions between free living amoebae of Naegleria and Hartmannella genera and pathogenic Legionella pneumophila bacteria in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy in central Poland. Water samples were collected from November 2010 to May 2011 at intervals longer than 1 month. The microorganisms were detected with the use of a very sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridisation method. In addition, the morphology of the amoebae was studied. Despite relatively high salinity level, ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 %, L. pneumophila were found in all investigated baths, although their number never exceeded 10(6) cells dm(-3). Hartmannella were not detected, while Naegleria fowleri were found in one bath. The observation that N. fowleri and L. pneumophila may coexist in thermal saline baths is the first observation emphasising potential threat from these microorganisms in balneotherapy.

  12. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  13. 200 kilowatt from the sewage system. Waste water energy heats up a swimming bath of Bochum; 200 Kilowatt aus der Kanalisation. Abwasserwaerme heizt Bochumer Schwimmbad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genath, Bernd

    2011-05-15

    A section of the underground sewerage system in Bochum had to be renewed. In cooperation with the City of Bochum and the Emschergenossenschaft, the public utility Bochum used the opportunity in order to install one of the largest waste water-heat recovery systems for the local Nordwest bath, an indoor swimming pool. At the end of the last year the builders and operators presented the technology.

  14. Effect of sonochemical synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and coagulation bath temperature on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes prepared via phase inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini Reza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asymmetric pure CA and CA/ TiO2 composite membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing TiO2 nanopaticles in the CA casting solutions induced by immersion precipitation in water coagulation bath. TiO2 nanoparticles, which were synthesized by the sonochemical method, were added into the casting solution with different concentrations. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration (0 wt. %, 5wt.%, 10wt.%, 15wt.%, 20wt.% and 25wt.% and coagulation bath temperature (CBT= 25°C, 50°C and 75°C on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux (PWF of the prepared membranes were studied and discussed. Increasing TiO2 concentration in the casting solution film along with higher CBT resulted in increasing the membrane thickness, water content (WC, membrane porosity and pure water flux (PWF, also these changes facilitate macrovoids formation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA shows that thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved by the addition of TiO2 nanopaticles. Also TGA results indicated that increasing CBT in each TiO2 concentration leads to the decreasing of decomposition temperature (Td of hybrid membranes.

  15. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath

  16. The Comparison of the Effects of Contrast Bath on Circulation of Contralateral Lower Limb in Type 2 Diabetic and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Shafizadegan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contrast bath is a thermal agent that is used as alternative heat and cold water on a target limb. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in long term leads to vascular insufficiency. It seems that contrast bath is useful for patients with diabetes mellitus due to the increase in blood flow and vascular pumping. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect(s of contrast bath on circulation of contralateral lower limb in women with type 2diabetes mellitus compared to healthy subjects. Methods: Fifteen diabetic females aged between 30-60 years, who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and 30 matched control females participated in this research. The oral temperature, skin temperature of the first web space of the foot, and the pulse of dorsalis pedis artery were measured and recorded. These results were evaluated prior to, immediately and 10 minutes after the contrast bath. The contrast bath protocol included the immersion of the right foot in the warm bath (38-44 °C for four minutes and then in the cold bath (10-18 °C for one minute. These processes were repeated five times as the total duration of the intervention was 24 minutes. The treatment was started and terminated with warm water. Repeated measures and independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: The dorsalis pedis pulse was significantly higher at all times of the measurements except between immediately post the contrast bath and after 10 minutes of applying it in the diabetic group (P=0.58. The results of the skin temperature measurement demonstrated incremental changes in the healthy and the diabetic groups. The oral temperature at all times was not significantly different in the normal and the diabetic groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that contrast bath can increase circulation in the contralateral limb. However, its influence on superficial and deep blood flow is uncertain.

  17. Annual effective dose due to natural radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma Savithri, P.; Srivastava, S.K.; Balbudhe, A.Y.; Vishwa Prasad, K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water supply in and round Hyderabad, Secunderabad was determined. The observed gross alpha activity found in water samples vary from 0.027±0.014 Bq/L to 0.042±0.015 Bq/L with average 0.035 Bq/L while beta activity in all the samples are less than 0.076 Bq/l. Contributions of the drinking water samples to total annual effective dose equivalent from 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 26 Ra, 210 Po, 232 Th, 228 Th 210 Pb and 228 Ra are 1.14, 1.24, 5.30, 7.07, 30.3, 5.81, 1.82, 38.3 and 38.3 μSvy -1 for adults. The results indicate that the annual effective doses are below the WHO recommended reference level for α and β in food and drinking samples. (author)

  18. Factors influencing the choice of bathing with medicated versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soap is a cleansing agent obtained through the chemical interaction between fat and alkali. Bathing has become a daily routine of most people as a result of the ready availability of the bathing soap. The aim of this study is to find out reasons for an individual's choice of bathing soap and awareness of any potential adverse ...

  19. Phosphorus-31 NMR analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths in this department the principle compound observed is aminotrimethyl-phosphonate, or ATMP. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down; and new compounds, aminodimethylphosphonate (ADMP), aminomonomethylphosphonate, (AMMP), and inorganic phosphate (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), are formed. The NMR method has been used for almost three years to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products. In a previous report, results from January through October 1988 were reported. In this report, results from November 1988 through January 1991 are given.

  20. Implementing Evidence-Based Neonatal Skin Care With Parent-Performed, Delayed Immersion Baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Jeanette; Rapkin, Gloria

    2017-12-01

    There has been a recent trend toward delaying newborn baths because of mounting evidence that delayed bathing promotes breastfeeding, decreases hypothermia, and allows for more parental involvement with newborn care. A multidisciplinary team from a maternal-new-born unit at a military medical center designed and implemented an evidence-based practice change from infant sponge baths shortly after birth to delayed immersion baths. An analysis of newborn temperature data showed that newborns who received delayed immersion baths were less likely to be hypothermic than those who received a sponge bath shortly after birth. Furthermore, parents reported that they liked participating in bathing their newborns and that they felt prepared to bathe them at home. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  1. A full bath for the senses - the Roman philosophy of thermal baths as new dimension for modern baths; Vollbad der Sinne - roemische Thermenphilosophie als neue Badedimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunus, C.

    1997-03-01

    The attractiveness of an exquisite bath is mainly determined by its variety of activities harmoniously adjusted to each other. The symbiosis of a feeling of comfort orientated at activities, also termed as ``wellness``, is supposed to be in harmony with the possibilities of passive and active sport (recreation). In order to meet these high demands more and more fun swimming pools, saunas and renowned hotels use the famous Roman custom of thermal baths as an example for the implementation of their visions of baths which exhilarate the senses. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Attraktivitaet einer anspruchsvollen Badeeinrichtung wird im wesentlichen durch ihr harmonisch aufeinander abgestimmtes Erlebnisangebot bestimmt. Hierbei sollte die Symbiose aus erlebnisorientiertem Wohlgefuehl, neudeutsch `Wellness`, in harmonischem Einklang mit den Moeglichkeiten passiver und aktiver Koerperertuechtigung (Recreation) stehen. Um diesen hohen Anspruechen gerecht zu werden, nutzen immer mehr Erlebnis- bzw. Freizeitbaeder, renommierte Hotels, Saunabetriebe etc. die beruehmte roemische Thermenkultur als Vorbild fuer die Realisierung ihrer die Sinne berauschenden Badevisionen. (orig.)

  2. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  3. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  4. Dose in a recreational water park with thermal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassin, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the annual effective dose received by the public due to baths in thermal water of a recreational water park in Royat (France) with significant levels of natural radionuclides. After the context be specified and the measurements of radioactivity presented, an assessment of radiological consequences is performed, based on an hypothetical scenario for persons of the public. Context The french commune of Royat in the Massif Central (centre of France) intends to build a recreational water park, using thermal water from a local source, out of the public water supply network. With this aim in view, the operator builds up a technical file to get a prefectorial authorization. Considering that many waters and thermal waters in this area have significant levels of natural radionuclides (granitic subsoil) on the one hand, and that the operator of establishments receiving public is requested by L 1333-10 article of the Public Health Code to supervise the exposure if an impact on health is possible on the other hand, the operator asked I.R.S.N. to measure the level of radioactivity in the water. Considering the level of radioactivity measured, the competent authority then asks I.R.S.N. if this level is compatible with its use in a recreational water park. After calculations it appears that in the particular case of the commune of Royat, the level of activity of natural radionuclides of the thermal water (22 Bq.L -1 for 222 Rn) is compatible with its use in a recreational water park, the annual effective dose being about 40 μSv with a conservative approach. For other thermal waters in France winch could have much higher levels of natural radioactivity, it is recommended to pay attention to their use in recreational water park. (N.C.)

  5. Impact of daily chlorhexidine baths and hand hygiene compliance on nosocomial infection rates in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reséndez, Michel Fernando; Garza-González, Elvira; Mendoza-Olazaran, Soraya; Herrera-Guerra, Alexis; Rodríguez-López, Juan Manuel; Pérez-Rodriguez, Edelmiro; Mercado-Longoria, Roberto; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián

    2014-07-01

    Up to 25% of all nosocomial infections (NIs) develop in critically ill patients. Our objective was to evaluate chlorhexidine (CHX) bathing and hand hygiene (HH) compliance in the reduction of NIs in the intensive care unit. The study comprised three 6-month periods: preintervention (PIP; soap/water bathing), intervention (IP; bathing with CHX-impregnated wipes), and postintervention (PoIP; soap/water bathing). An HH program was implemented during the IP and PoIP. Primary outcomes were global and specific NI rates. A total of 1007 patients were included. Infection rates per 100 discharges were higher in the PIP compared with the IP and also higher in the PoIP compared with the IP (P = .0004 and .0109, respectively). Global infection rates per 1000 hospital-days were higher in the PIP than in the IP (P = .0268). The rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) were higher in the PIP than in the IP (P = .036 and .0001, respectively). Isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from VAP specimens (P = .0204) and isolation of Candida spp from CAUTI specimens (P = .0005) decreased as well. The combined intervention reduced global and specific infection rates, including rates of VAP associated with A baumannii and CAUTI associated with Candida spp. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, Focusing on Kshipra-A River Associated with Holy Religious Mass-Bathing in India: Protocol Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Purohit, Manju; Chandran, Salesh; Parashar, Vivek; Shah, Harshada; Mahadik, Vijay K; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2017-05-29

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is one of the major health emergencies for global society. Little is known about the ABR of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand ABR reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected during a 3-year follow-up study of a river associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals. Approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No. 2013/07/17-311). The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on a river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. It will enhance our understanding about the relationship between antibiotic residue levels, water-quality, heavy metals and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from river-water and sediment, and seasonal differences that are associated with religious mass-bathing. We will also document, identify and clarify the genetic differences/similarities relating to phenotypic antibiotic resistance in bacteria in rivers during religious mass-bathing or during periods when there is no mass-bathing.

  7. 78 FR 33700 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water Swim... Waterway for the Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water Swim. The Captain of the Port, Sector..., Pleasantville Aquatics 15th Annual 5K Open Water Swim, Intracoastal Waterway; Atlantic City, NJ. (a) Location...

  8. Technological choice and change in the Southwest Bath in the Athenian Agora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artz, James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During its five architectural phases, the Southwest bath in the Athenian Agora changes from a Greek-style bath into a Roman-style bath. This article will focus on the first two phases, when Roman elements begin to be incorporated into the traditional forms of Greek bath architecture – particularly, a hypocaust floor system and a concrete vaulted ceiling built into a traditional Greek tholos bath. After describing these architectural features and analyzing the techniques used in their construction, I will examine possible sources of influence on the design and construction of the Southwest baths. The Roman army, citizenry, and workmen could all have potentially affected the incorporation of Roman bathing technologies and building techniques into the Southwest bath. The available evidence, however, indicates that the most likely source of influence is Roman workmen, who were employed in large numbers for the numerous building projects underway in Augustan Athens.

  9. Sub-exponential spin-boson decoherence in a finite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.; Gruebele, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence of a two-level system coupled to harmonic baths of 4-21 degrees of freedom, to baths with internal anharmonic couplings, and to baths with an additional 'solvent shell' (modes coupled to other bath modes, but not to the system). The discrete spectral densities are chosen to mimic the highly fluctuating spectral densities computed for real systems such as proteins. System decoherence is computed by exact quantum dynamics. With realistic parameter choices (finite temperature, reasonably large couplings), sub-exponential decoherence of the two-level system is observed. Empirically, the time-dependence of decoherence can be fitted by power laws with small exponents. Intrabath anharmonic couplings are more effective at smoothing the spectral density and restoring exponential dynamics, than additional bath modes or solvent shells. We conclude that at high temperature, the most important physical basis for exponential decays is anharmonicity of those few bath modes interacting most strongly with the system, not a large number of oscillators interacting with the system. We relate the current numerical simulations to models of anharmonically coupled oscillators, which also predict power law dynamics. The potential utility of power law decays in quantum computation and condensed phase coherent control are also discussed

  10. Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.

  11. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  12. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  13. Novikov Engine with Fluctuating Heat Bath Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Karsten; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2018-04-01

    The Novikov engine is a model for heat engines that takes the irreversible character of heat fluxes into account. Using this model, the maximum power output as well as the corresponding efficiency of the heat engine can be deduced, leading to the well-known Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. The classical model assumes constant heat bath temperatures, which is not a reasonable assumption in the case of fluctuating heat sources. Therefore, in this article the influence of stochastic fluctuations of the hot heat bath's temperature on the optimal performance measures is investigated. For this purpose, a Novikov engine with fluctuating heat bath temperature is considered. Doing so, a generalization of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is found. The results can help to quantify how the distribution of fluctuating quantities affects the performance measures of power plants.

  14. Quantum mechanical treatment of large spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Robin; Schering, Philipp; Gravert, Lars B.; Fauseweh, Benedikt; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic spin in quantum dots can be described by central spin models (CSMs) with a very large number Neff≈104 to 106 of bath spins posing a tremendous challenge to theoretical simulations. Here, a fully quantum mechanical theory is developed for the limit Neff→∞ by means of iterated equations of motion (iEoM). We find that the CSM can be mapped to a four-dimensional impurity coupled to a noninteracting bosonic bath in this limit. Remarkably, even for infinite bath the CSM does not become completely classical. The data obtained by the proposed iEoM approach are tested successfully against data from other, established approaches. Thus the iEoM mapping extends the set of theoretical tools that can be used to understand the spin dynamics in large CSMs.

  15. Water chemistry, seepage investigation, streamflow, reservoir storage, and annual availability of water for the San Juan-Chama Project, northern New Mexico, 1942-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    The Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority supplements the municipal water supply for the Albuquerque metropolitan area, in central New Mexico, with surface water diverted from the Rio Grande. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, undertook this study in which water-chemistry data and historical streamflow were compiled and new water-chemistry data were collected to characterize the water chemistry and streamflow of the San Juan-Chama Project (SJCP). Characterization of streamflow included analysis of the variability of annual streamflow and comparison of the theoretical amount of water that could have been diverted into the SJCP to the actual amount of water that was diverted for the SJCP. Additionally, a seepage investigation was conducted along the channel between Azotea Tunnel Outlet and the streamflow-gaging station at Willow Creek above Heron Reservoir to estimate the magnitude of the gain or loss in streamflow resulting from groundwater interaction over the approximately 10-mile reach. Generally, surface-water chemistry varied with streamflow throughout the year. Streamflow ranged from high flow to low flow on the basis of the quantity of water diverted from the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, and Navajo River for the SJCP. Vertical profiles of the water temperature over the depth of the water column at Heron Reservoir indicated that the reservoir is seasonally stratified. The results from the seepage investigations indicated a small amount of loss of streamflow along the channel. Annual variability in streamflow for the SJCP was an indication of the variation in the climate parameters that interact to contribute to streamflow in the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, Navajo River, and Willow Creek watersheds. For most years, streamflow at Azotea Tunnel Outlet started in March and continued for approximately 3 months until the middle of July. The majority of annual streamflow

  16. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-04-01

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  17. Two-level system in spin baths: Non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Dvira [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2014-04-28

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  18. A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Antibiotic and Metal Residues, Antibiotic Resistance and Resistance Genes, Focusing on Kshipra—A River Associated with Holy Religious Mass-Bathing in India: Protocol Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Diwan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance (ABR is one of the major health emergencies for global society. Little is known about the ABR of environmental bacteria and therefore it is important to understand ABR reservoirs in the environment and their potential impact on health. Method/Design: Quantitative and qualitative data will be collected during a 3-year follow-up study of a river associated with religious mass-bathing in Central India. Surface-water and sediment samples will be collected from seven locations at regular intervals for 3 years during religious mass-bathing and in absence of it to monitor water-quality, antibiotic residues, resistant bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes and metals. Approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No. 2013/07/17-311. Results: The results will address the issue of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistance with a focus on a river environment in India within a typical socio-behavioural context of religious mass-bathing. It will enhance our understanding about the relationship between antibiotic residue levels, water-quality, heavy metals and antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli isolated from river-water and sediment, and seasonal differences that are associated with religious mass-bathing. We will also document, identify and clarify the genetic differences/similarities relating to phenotypic antibiotic resistance in bacteria in rivers during religious mass-bathing or during periods when there is no mass-bathing.

  19. Stable annual pattern of water use by Acacia tortilis in Sahelian Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Frederic C; Rocheteau, Alain; Diagne, Amadou L; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Granier, André; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Water use by mature trees of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan var. raddiana growing in the northern Sahel was continuously recorded over 4 years. Water use was estimated from xylem sap flow measured by transient heat dissipation. Concurrently, cambial growth, canopy phenology, leaf water potential, climatic conditions and soil water availability (SWA) were monitored. In addition to the variation attributable to interannual variation in rainfall, SWA was increased by irrigation during one wet season. The wet season lasted from July to September, and annual rainfall ranged between 146 and 367 mm. The annual amount and pattern of tree water use were stable from year-to-year despite interannual and seasonal variations in SWA in the upper soil layers. Acacia tortilis transpired readily throughout the year, except for one month during the dry season when defoliation was at a maximum. Maximum water use of about 23 l (dm sapwood area)(-2) day(-1) was recorded at the end of the wet season. While trees retained foliage in the dry season, the decline in water use was modest at around 30%. Variation in predawn leaf water potential indicated that the trees were subject to soil water constraint. The rapid depletion of water in the uppermost soil layers after the wet season implies that there was extensive use of water from deep soil layers. The deep soil profile revealed (1) the existence of living roots at 25 m and (2) that the availability of soil water was low (-1.6 MPa) down to the water table at a depth of 31 m. However, transpiration was recorded at a predawn leaf water potential of -2.0 MPa, indicating that the trees used water from both intermediary soil layers and the water table. During the full canopy stage, mean values of whole-tree hydraulic conductance were similar in the wet and dry seasons. We propose that the stability of water use at the seasonal and annual scales resulted from a combination of features, including an extensive rooting

  20. Efficacy and safety of sodium hypochlorite (bleach) baths in patients with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Su-ming; Ng, Ting Guan; Baba, Roshidah

    2013-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is frequently found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and contributes to disease exacerbation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bleach baths as an adjunctive treatment in AD patients. Patients between 2 and 30 years old with moderate to severe AD were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients soaked in diluted bleach or distilled water baths for 10 min, twice a week for 2 months. Efficacy assessments included the Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) scores and S. aureus density was determined using quantitative bacterial cultures. Patients in the treatment group showed significant reductions in EASI scores. A 41.9% reduction in S. aureus density from baseline was seen at 1 month further reducing to 53.3% at 2 months. Equal numbers of patients in both groups experienced mild side-effects. This study demonstrates that diluted bleach baths clinically improved AD in as little as 1 month. No patient withdrew from the treatment arm because of intolerance to the baths. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. Operational monitoring and forecasting of bathing water quality through exploiting satellite Earth observation and models: The AlgaRisk demonstration service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, J. D.; Warren, M. A.; Miller, P. I.; Barciela, R.; Mahdon, R.; Land, P. E.; Edwards, K.; Wither, A.; Jonas, P.; Murdoch, N.; Roast, S. D.; Clements, O.; Kurekin, A.

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones and shelf-seas are important for tourism, commercial fishing and aquaculture. As a result the importance of good water quality within these regions to support life is recognised worldwide and a number of international directives for monitoring them now exist. This paper describes the AlgaRisk water quality monitoring demonstration service that was developed and operated for the UK Environment Agency in response to the microbiological monitoring needs within the revised European Union Bathing Waters Directive. The AlgaRisk approach used satellite Earth observation to provide a near-real time monitoring of microbiological water quality and a series of nested operational models (atmospheric and hydrodynamic-ecosystem) provided a forecast capability. For the period of the demonstration service (2008-2013) all monitoring and forecast datasets were processed in near-real time on a daily basis and disseminated through a dedicated web portal, with extracted data automatically emailed to agency staff. Near-real time data processing was achieved using a series of supercomputers and an Open Grid approach. The novel web portal and java-based viewer enabled users to visualise and interrogate current and historical data. The system description, the algorithms employed and example results focussing on a case study of an incidence of the harmful algal bloom Karenia mikimotoi are presented. Recommendations and the potential exploitation of web services for future water quality monitoring services are discussed.

  2. DUST-BATHING BEHAVIORS OF AFRICAN HERBIVORES AND THE POTENTIAL RISK OF INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandongo, Zoe R; Mfune, John K E; Turner, Wendy C

    2018-01-01

    :  Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks. We 1) cultured soils from dust-bathing sites for the presence and concentration of B. anthracis spores, 2) monitored anthrax carcass sites, the locations with the highest B. anthracis concentrations, for evidence of dust bathing, including a site where a zebra died of anthrax on a large dust bath, and 3) characterized the ecology and seasonality of dust bathing in plains zebra ( Equus quagga), blue wildebeest ( Connochaetes taurinus), and African savanna elephant ( Loxodonta africana) using a combination of motion-sensing camera traps and direct observations. Only two out of 83 dust-bath soils were positive for B. anthracis, both with low spore concentrations (≤20 colony-forming units per gram). We also detected no evidence of dust baths occurring at anthrax carcass sites, perhaps due to carcass-induced changes in soil composition that may deter dust bathing. Finally, despite observing some seasonal variation in dust bathing, preliminary evidence suggests that the seasonality of dust bathing and anthrax mortalities are not correlated. Thus, although dust bathing creates a dramatic cloud of aerosolized soil around an individual, our microbiologic, ecologic, and behavioral results in concert demonstrate that dust bathing is highly unlikely to transmit inhalational anthrax infections.

  3. New Brightener for Zn-Fe Alloy Plating from Sulphate Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Fe alloy electrodeposition was carried out in the presence of condensation product 2-{[(1E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-3-hydroxypropanoic acid formed between veratraldehyde and serine in acid sulphate bath. Hull cell was used for optimizing the operating parameters and bath constituents. During deposition, the potential was shifted towards cathodic direction in the presence of addition agents and brightener. The polarization studies show that deposition taking place in basic bath and optimum bath was 1.08 and 1.15 V, respectively. Current efficiency and throwing power were reached around 85% and 26%, respectively. The SEM images of bright deposit indicated its fine-grained nature and appreciable reduction in the grain size. XRD studies have showed that the grain size of the deposit generated from optimum bath was 16 nm. UV-visible spectroscopic studies confirm the formation of complex between metal ion and brightener.

  4. Phosphorus-31 NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths, a 50-percent aqueous solution of aminotrimethylphosphonate (ATMP) is the principal compound observed. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down and new materials (phosphate, ADMP, and AMMP) are identified. The NMR method was used to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products for a nine-month period. The 225-liter bath had plated approximately 100 square feet of gold during the nine-month period. These results can be used to predict the performance of baths as they are used in production. The accuracy of the analysis is 96 percent for ATMP and 92 percent for phosphate. The precision (relative standard deviation) is 5.2 percent for ATMP and 4.5 percent for phosphate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Emollient bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): multicentre pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial of clinical and cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Rumsby, Kate; Chorozoglou, Maria; Becque, Taeko; Roberts, Amanda; Liddiard, Lyn; Nollett, Claire; Hooper, Julie; Prude, Martina; Wood, Wendy; Thomas, Kim S; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2018-05-03

    To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of including emollient bath additives in the management of eczema in children. Pragmatic randomised open label superiority trial with two parallel groups. 96 general practices in Wales and western and southern England. 483 children aged 1 to 11 years, fulfilling UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. Children with very mild eczema and children who bathed less than once weekly were excluded. Participants in the intervention group were prescribed emollient bath additives by their usual clinical team to be used regularly for 12 months. The control group were asked to use no bath additives for 12 months. Both groups continued with standard eczema management, including leave-on emollients, and caregivers were given standardised advice on how to wash participants. The primary outcome was eczema control measured by the patient oriented eczema measure (POEM, scores 0-7 mild, 8-16 moderate, 17-28 severe) weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes were eczema severity over one year (monthly POEM score from baseline to 52 weeks), number of eczema exacerbations resulting in primary healthcare consultation, disease specific quality of life (dermatitis family impact), generic quality of life (child health utility-9D), utilisation of resources, and type and quantity of topical corticosteroid or topical calcineurin inhibitors prescribed. 483 children were randomised and one child was withdrawn, leaving 482 children in the trial: 51% were girls (244/482), 84% were of white ethnicity (447/470), and the mean age was 5 years. 96% (461/482) of participants completed at least one post-baseline POEM, so were included in the analysis, and 77% (370/482) completed questionnaires for more than 80% of the time points for the primary outcome (12/16 weekly questionnaires to 16 weeks). The mean baseline POEM score was 9.5 (SD 5.7) in the bath additives group and 10.1 (SD 5.8) in the no bath additives group. The mean POEM score

  6. Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2005) > ... patients to bed bathing by nurses is a very important aspect of quality assurance in nursing care.

  7. Meeting the needs of elderly with bathing disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingmark, Magnus; Bernspång, Birgitta

    2011-06-01

    Difficulties with bathing are frequent among older people and are associated with an increasing need for societal support. As loss of independence has a negative impact on health and wellbeing, it is important to study interventions that can provide the required support for people to be able to remain independent. Occupational therapy interventions can improve clients' abilities enabling them to bathe themselves, thus reducing the need for other, more long-term societal support from, e.g. a home help. In this study, two groups of elderly people with difficulties in bathing were compared; the clients in the intervention group were engaged in occupational therapy. A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used, in which participants with reported difficulties in bathing were recruited consecutively from two municipalities. The clients in the intervention group routinely received occupational therapy, whereas clients in the control group received assistance from a home help for bathing. Activities of daily living, quality of life and home-help allocation were assessed at the baseline and after 15 weeks. Clients in the intervention group received less than three home visits on average, with majority of interventions consisting of graded activity and the use of an encouraging approach. Seventy per cent of the interventions were adaptive. Activities of daily living and quality of life of both groups improved, but the differences of being allocated a home help were significant. Occupational therapy interventions seem beneficial in terms of supporting older people in becoming independent of home help in bathing but the results must be interpreted with caution as there were differences at baseline between the groups. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  8. The Association Between Bathing Habits and Severity of Atopic Dermatitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Ioannis; Pyle, Tia; Kopylov, David; Little, Anthony; Gaughan, John; Kratimenos, Panagiotis

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that frequently affects children. The current recommendations on management using lifestyle modification are highly variable, leading to confusion and uncertainty among patients. To determine current bathing behaviors and the subsequent impact on disease severity. This was an observational cross-sectional study conducted at an urban pediatric emergency department. Parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning the patient's bathing habits. The results were correlated with the atopic dermatitis severity determined by the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) tool. No difference between variables was found to be significant for bathing frequency, time spent bathing, or use of moisturizers. Multivariate analysis showed that atopic dermatitis severity increased with age greater than 2 years (P = .0004) and with greater bathing duration (P = .001). Atopic dermatitis severity may be associated with a longer duration of bathing. The frequency of bathing does not appear to affect atopic dermatitis severity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. New bathing therapy in Japanese hot springs using radiation from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimori, Kenji; Okajima, Maiko; Oowada, Mizuno; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Japanese-style bathing is an important part of the traditional culture of Japan, and most Japanese people love hot springs. Many kinds of hot springs exist all over Japan and are often a major factor when considering where to go for travel, relaxation and rest. However, other countries, especially in Europe, also use hot springs for medical treatments such as balneo therapy, hydrokinetic therapy, fango therapy and inhalation therapy. Some hot springs in Japan are located on radioactive springs. Five typical radioactive spring areas can be found in Tamagawa (Akita Pref.), Murasugi (Niigata Pref.), Masutomi (Yamanashi Pref.), Misasa (Tottori Pref.), and Sekigane (Tottori Pref.). While hot springs in Japan are mainly used for bathing, these radioactive springs are also used for bedrock bathing and/or inhalation therapy. In Italy, Fango therapy is a medical treatment conducted under a medical doctor's super vision with peloids maturated with hot spring water called 'Fango'. Japanese style Fango, named Biofango R , has already been made by using natural hot springs that have been modified with Italian Fango. Medical evaluation of test subjects has shown good results after treatment with Fango therapy. An important point in Fango therapy is how to make satisfactory maturated peloids. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted at Masutomi hot spring to confirm the possibility of using radioactive spring water to make maturated peloids. The basement material for the peloids used for this experiment was made from bentonite mixed with original rock from the Masutomi hot spring area consisting of crushed basalt and granite that have a fine amount of radioactivity. These peloids were circulated through hot spring water for two weeks to a month and then used for treatment. The medical data showed that therapy using this method resulted in greater improvement in 'test subjects' body functions compared with the data from previous observations. This

  10. Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Charles; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2009-01-01

    Standard recommendations for skin care for patients with atopic dermatitis stress the importance of skin hydration and the application of moisturizers. However, objective data to guide recommendations regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing and emollient application are scarce. This study quantified cutaneous hydration status after various combination bathing and moisturizing regimens. Four bathing/moisturizer regimens were evaluated in 10 subjects, five pediatric subjects with atopic dermatitis and five subjects with healthy skin. The regimens consisted of bathing alone without emollient application, bathing and immediate emollient application, bathing and delayed application, and emollient application alone. Each regimen was evaluated in all subjects, utilizing a crossover design. Skin hydration was assessed with standard capacitance measurements. In atopic dermatitis subjects, emollient alone yielded a significantly (p hydration over 90 minutes (206.2% baseline hydration) than bathing with immediate emollient (141.6%), bathing and delayed emollient (141%), and bathing alone (91.4%). The combination bathing and emollient application regimens demonstrated hydration values at 90 minutes not significantly greater than baseline. Atopic dermatitis subjects had a decreased mean hydration benefit compared with normal skin subjects. Bathing without moisturizer may compromise skin hydration. Bathing followed by moisturizer application provides modest hydration benefits, though less than that of simply applying moisturizer alone.

  11. Annual Water Management Program Report Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge’s 1996 annual water management program and describes plans for 1997. The main objective of...

  12. Impact of a Hydrophobic Sphere onto a Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel M.; Edmonds, John; Galeano-Rios, Carlos A.; Milewski, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Small hydrophobic particles impacting a water surface can rebound completely from the interface (Lee & Kim, Langmuir, 2008). In the present work, we focus on the bouncing dynamics of millimetric hydrophobic spheres impacting the surface of a quiescent water bath. Particular attention is given to the dependence of the normal coefficient of restitution and contact time on the impact velocity and the radius and density of the sphere. Our experimental observations are compared to the predictions of a fluid model derived from linearized Navier-Stokes under the assumption of a high Reynolds number regime (Galeano-Rios et al., JFM, in press). In the model, the motions of the sphere and the fluid interface are found by imposing the natural geometric and kinematic compatibility conditions. Future directions will be discussed. C.A.G.-R. and P.A.M. gratefully acknowledge support through the EPSRC project EP/N018176/1.

  13. Belowground Water Dynamics Under Contrasting Annual and Perennial Plant Communities in an Agriculturally-Dominated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G.; Asbjornsen, H.; Helmers, M. J.; Shepherd, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    The conversion from grasslands and forests to row-crops in the Midwest has affected soil water cycling because plant characteristics are one of the main parameters determining soil storage capacity, infiltration rates, and surface runoff. Little is known, however, about the extent of modification of soil water dynamics under different plant communities. To address this important issue, we are documenting soil water dynamics under contrasting perennial and annual plant communities in an agriculturally-dominated landscape. Measurements of soil moisture and depths of uptake of source water were obtained for six vegetative cover types (corn and soybean field, brome pasture, degraded savanna, restored savanna, and restored prairie) at the Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in Prairie City, Iowa. The depths of uptake of soil water were determined on the basis of oxygen isotope composition of soil water and stem water. Measurements were performed once a month during an entire growing season. Preliminary results indicate that soil water present under the different vegetation types show similar profiles with depth during the dry months. Soil water in the upper 5 cm is enriched in oxygen-18 by about 5 per mil relative to soil water at 100 cm. Our preliminary results also indicate that the isotopic composition of stem water from annual plants is typically higher by about 2 per mil relative to that of stem water from perennial plants during the dry period. Whereas the oxygen isotopic composition for corn stem water is -5.49 per mil, that for elm and oak stem water is -7.62 and -7.51 per mil, respectively. The higher isotope values for corn suggest that annual crop plants are withdrawing water from shallower soil horizons relative to perennial plants. Moreover, our preliminary data suggest lower moisture content in soil under annual plant cover. We propose that the presence of deeper roots in the perennial vegetation allows these plants to tap into deeper water sources when

  14. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

  15. Identifying the Correlation between Water Quality Data and LOADEST Model Behavior in Annual Sediment Load Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Shik Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water quality samples are typically collected less frequently than flow since water quality sampling is costly. Load Estimator (LOADEST, provided by the United States Geological Survey, is used to predict water quality concentration (or load on days when flow data are measured so that the water quality data are sufficient for annual pollutant load estimation. However, there is a need to identify water quality data requirements for accurate pollutant load estimation. Measured daily sediment data were collected from 211 streams. Estimated annual sediment loads from LOADEST and subsampled data were compared to the measured annual sediment loads (true load. The means of flow for calibration data were correlated to model behavior. A regression equation was developed to compute the required mean of flow in calibration data to best calibrate the LOADEST regression model coefficients. LOADEST runs were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean flow in calibration data and model behaviors as daily water quality data were subsampled. LOADEST calibration data used sediment concentration data for flows suggested by the regression equation. Using the mean flow calibrated by the regression equation reduced errors in annual sediment load estimation from −39.7% to −10.8% compared to using all available data.

  16. Soil water status under perennial and annual pastures on an acid duplex soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, L.K.; White, R.E.; Chen, D.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive field study of soil water balance, nitrogen (N) cycling, pasture management and animal production was carried out on an acid duplex soil at Book Book near Wagga Wagga in southern New South Wales. The experiment, carried out over a 3-year period, tested the hypothesis that sown perennial grass pastures improve the sustainability of a grazing system through better use of water and N. The treatments were: annual pastures without lime (AP-), annual pastures with lime (AP+), perennial pastures without lime (PP-) and perennial pastures with lime (PP+). Soil water measurement was made using a neutron probe on one set of the treatments comprising four adjacent paddocks. Over three winter and spring periods, the results showed that perennial grass pastures, especially PP+, consistently extracted about 40 mm more soil water each year than did the annual grass pastures. As a result, surface runoff, sub-surface flow and deep drainage (percolation below 180 cm depth) were about 40 mm less from the perennial pastures. The soil water status of the four pasture treatments was simulated reasonably well using a simple soil water model. Together with the long-term simulation of deep drainage, using past meteorological records, it is shown that proper management of perennial pastures can reduce recharge to groundwater and make pastoral systems more sustainable in the high rainfall zone. However, to completely reduce recharge, more-deeply rooted plants or trees are needed. (author)

  17. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748

  18. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 23: Water; Atmospheric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

    Standards for water and atmospheric analysis are compiled in this segment, Part 23, of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) annual book of standards. It contains all current formally approved ASTM standard and tentative test methods, definitions, recommended practices, proposed methods, classifications, and specifications. One…

  19. [Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in various tannery baths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrycka, M; Mierzejewski, J

    2000-01-01

    The influence of tannery baths: liming, deliming, bating, pickling, tanning, retannage on the survival and on the germination dynamism of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) was investigated. The periods and the conditions of this influence were established according to technological process of cow hide tannage. Practically after every bath some part of the spores remained vital. The most effective killing of spores occurred after pickling, liming and deliming. Inversely, the most viable spores remained after bating and retannage process. The lack of correlation that was observed between survival and germination of spores after retannage bath can be explained by different mechanism of spores germination inhibition and their killing.

  20. a 3d Based Approach to the Architectural Study of the Roman Bath at the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates (kourion, Cyprus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faka, M.; Christodoulou, S.; Abate, D.; Ioannou, C.; Hermon, S.

    2017-08-01

    Roman baths represented a popular social practice of everyday life, cited in numerous literary sources and testified by ample archaeological remains all over the Roman Empire. Although regional studies have contributed extensively to our knowledge about how baths functioned and what was their social role in various regions of the Mediterranean, their study in Cyprus is yet to be developed. Moreover, despite the increasing availability of devices and techniques for 3D documentation, various characteristics, especially in relation to the heating and water supply system of the baths, were omitted and were not properly and accurately documented. The pilot case study outlined in this paper presents the 3D documentation of the Roman bath, excavated in the 1950s, within the area of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion (Limassol district). The creation of an accurate 3D model of the documented area through image and range based techniques combined with topographic data, allows the detailed analysis of architectural elements and their decorative features. At the same time, it enables accurate measurements of the site, which are used as input for the archaeological interpretation and virtual reconstruction of the original shape of the bath. In addition, this project aims to answer a number of archaeological research questions related to Roman baths such as their architectural features, function mode, and technological elements related to heating techniques.

  1. A 3D BASED APPROACH TO THE ARCHITECTURAL STUDY OF THE ROMAN BATH AT THE SANCTUARY OF APOLLO HYLATES (KOURION, CYPRUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Roman baths represented a popular social practice of everyday life, cited in numerous literary sources and testified by ample archaeological remains all over the Roman Empire. Although regional studies have contributed extensively to our knowledge about how baths functioned and what was their social role in various regions of the Mediterranean, their study in Cyprus is yet to be developed. Moreover, despite the increasing availability of devices and techniques for 3D documentation, various characteristics, especially in relation to the heating and water supply system of the baths, were omitted and were not properly and accurately documented. The pilot case study outlined in this paper presents the 3D documentation of the Roman bath, excavated in the 1950s, within the area of the Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates at Kourion (Limassol district. The creation of an accurate 3D model of the documented area through image and range based techniques combined with topographic data, allows the detailed analysis of architectural elements and their decorative features. At the same time, it enables accurate measurements of the site, which are used as input for the archaeological interpretation and virtual reconstruction of the original shape of the bath. In addition, this project aims to answer a number of archaeological research questions related to Roman baths such as their architectural features, function mode, and technological elements related to heating techniques.

  2. The Roman-Irish Bath: Medical/health history as therapeutic assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ronan

    2014-04-01

    The invention of a new form of hot-air bath in Blarney, Ireland in 1856, variously known in its lifetime as the Roman-Irish or Turkish Bath, acted as the starting point for a the production of a globalised therapeutic landscape. Tracking the diffusion of the Roman-Irish bath template from its local invention in Ireland to a global reach across the Victorian world and recognizing its place within a wider hydrotherapeutic history, this paper frames that diffusion as a valuable empirical addition to assemblage theory. The specific empirical history of the spread of the Roman-Irish/Turkish bath idea is drawn from primary archival and secondary historical sources. It is then discussed and, drawing from work on assemblage theory, analyzed against three broad themes: mobile networks, socio-material practices and contested emergence. The emergent relational geographies of the Roman-Irish Bath identify important roles for the diffusion and transformation of specific medical settings, identities and functions. These were linked in turn to competing social-healing pathways wherein bodies were technologically and morally managed, to produce a more inhabited form of therapeutic assemblage. In all cases the differential diffusion of the bath idea, it's shifting and fractured material forms and multiple inhabitations and discourses were contested and mobile and spoke to an assemblage approach which has ripe potential for exploration across a range of medical/health geography settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  4. The effectiveness of using a bath oil to reduce signs of dry skin: A randomized controlled pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Kanti, Varvara; Dobos, Gabor; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Richter, Claudia; Hillmann, Kathrin; Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Dry skin (xerosis cutis) is increasingly recognized as a relevant health problem in daily life and in health and nursing care. The use of bath additives such as oils is common to reduce dry skin, but empirical evidence supporting this practice is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a bath oil additive in improving skin barrier function and ameliorating dry skin in comparison to non-oil containing skin cleansers for bathing or showering. Single centre randomized observer blind pragmatic parallel group trial. Outpatient/community care. Volunteers showing clinically mild to moderate dry skin recruited from the city of Berlin. Healthy children and adults were randomly assigned to use either a commercially available bath oil or to continue using their regular non-oil containing skin cleansers every other day over a study period of 28days. Skin barrier parameters and the severity of dry skin were assessed at baseline and at two follow-up visits at the study centre. Transepidermal water loss was the primary outcome. All sixty participants randomized completed the trial. Median age was 32.5 (IQR 8.3 to 69) years. At the end of study the mean transepidermal water loss in the intervention group was statistically significant lower compared to the control group (mean difference -1.9 (95% CI -3.1 to -0.8) g/m 2 /h). Stratum corneum hydration was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group at the end of the study. Skin surface pH and roughness were comparable in both groups and remained unchanged, while both groups showed a trend to improvement in dry skin symptoms CONCLUSIONS: This pragmatic trial provides empirical evidence that the regular use of the investigated bath oil is effective in improving the skin barrier function in children and adults with mild dry skin when used in routine skin care and supports its use as a basic element for the management of a broad spectrum of dry skin conditions. Clinical

  5. New features of entanglement dynamics with initial system–bath correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lin [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zou, Jian, E-mail: zoujian@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); He, Zhi; Li, Jun-Gang; Shao, Bin [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Lian-Ao [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-02-06

    We investigate the influence of initial correlations between two qubits and a family of baths on the entanglement dynamics of these two qubits. We show that initial system–bath correlations can effectively avoid the occurrence of entanglement sudden death, and for the initial states with quantum correlations the entanglement between two qubits can be larger than its initial value. Significantly, we find that there exist initial states which we called entanglement preserving states, such that, although the state of the qubit subsystem evolves the entanglement of two qubits does not evolves at all. -- Highlights: ► We obtain analytically solutions of two qubits interacting with a family of baths. ► Having initial quantum correlation with the bath, the system can gain entanglement. ► For some initial states though the system evolves, the entanglement remain the same.

  6. Characteristic functions of quantum heat with baths at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik

    2018-06-01

    This paper is about quantum heat defined as the change in energy of a bath during a process. The presentation takes into account recent developments in classical strong-coupling thermodynamics and addresses a version of quantum heat that satisfies quantum-classical correspondence. The characteristic function and the full counting statistics of quantum heat are shown to be formally similar. The paper further shows that the method can be extended to more than one bath, e.g., two baths at different temperatures, which opens up the prospect of studying correlations and heat flow. The paper extends earlier results on the expected quantum heat in the setting of one bath [E. Aurell and R. Eichhorn, New J. Phys. 17, 065007 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/6/065007; E. Aurell, Entropy 19, 595 (2017), 10.3390/e19110595].

  7. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray; Barik, D; Banik, S K

    2007-01-01

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise

  8. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713 130, West Bengal (India); Barik, D [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banik, S K [Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise.

  9. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  10. [The influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the functional state of the cardiovascular system of the patients presenting with hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vova, N V; Tupitsyna, Iu Iu; Badalov, N G; Krasnikov, V E; Lebedeva, O D

    2013-01-01

    The results of the study on the influence of carbon dioxide baths differing in the total mineralization levels on the clinical course of hypertensive disease associated with coronary heart disease and on various functional systems of the body. The data obtained provide an insight into the role of salt concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) in carbon dioxide bath water (1.2 g/l) applied for the traditional treatment of the patients with hypertensive disease associated with concomitant coronary heart disease and musculoskeletal pathology. Highly mineralized bath water has a greater influence on the functional state of the cardiovascular system by causing a more pronounced decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and hypotensive effect. Baths with a salt concentration of 20 g/l markedly reduced pain and had anti-inflammatory effect in the patients with pathology of support and locomotor organs.

  11. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers

  12. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) and its subgroups during 1989, it seventh year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1990, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is an introduction to the WSTB and its program for the year. 4 figs.

  13. Performance of Inductors Attached to a Galvanizing Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yuan, Shuo; Liu, Chi; Yang, Peng; Qian, Chaoqun; Song, Bao

    2013-12-01

    By taking a galvanizing bath with inductors from an Iron and Steel Co., Ltd as an example, the distributions of Lorentz force and generated heat in the inductor are simulated. As a result, the zinc flow and the temperature distribution driven by the Lorentz force and the generated heat in the inductor of a galvanizing bath are simulated numerically, and their characteristics are analyzed. The relationship of the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet and the effective power for the inductor is studied. Results show that with an increase in effective power for the inductor, the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet increase gradually. We envisage this work to lay a foundation for the study of the performance of the galvanizing bath in future.

  14. The Complexity of the BATH Words in Cardiff English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mees, Inger; Osorno, Christina Høøck

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how a small number of female speakers from Cardiff pronounce items belonging to the lexical set BATH. The data forms a subsample extracted from a longitudinal study on Cardiff English with recordings from 1977, 1990 and 2011. The BATH set comprises items (e.g., chance......, bath) whose citation forms contain the TRAP vowel /æ/ in General American but the PALM vowel /ɑː/ in British RP. In other accents of English, including Cardiff English, the lexical distribution of the items is often less straightforward, with some items taking PALM while others take TRAP. The situation...... analyses. We attempt to establish the social significance attached to the different pronunciations and also to discover if phonological context plays a role for the choice of vowel...

  15. Theories of quantum dissipation and nonlinear coupling bath descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2018-03-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in nonlinear coupling environments remains in general an intractable task. In this work, we address the key issues toward the solutions to the lowest nonlinear environment, a harmonic bath coupled both linearly and quadratically with an arbitrary system. To determine the bath coupling descriptors, we propose a physical mapping scheme, together with the prescription reference invariance requirement. We then adopt a recently developed dissipaton equation of motion theory [R. X. Xu et al., Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 30, 395 (2017)], with the underlying statistical quasi-particle ("dissipaton") algebra being extended to the quadratic bath coupling. We report the numerical results on a two-level system dynamics and absorption and emission line shapes.

  16. Bioprospecting the thermal waters of the Roman baths: isolation of oleaginous species and analysis of the FAME profile for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The extensive diversity of microalgae provides an opportunity to undertake bioprospecting for species possessing features suited to commercial scale cultivation. The outdoor cultivation of microalgae is subject to extreme temperature fluctuations; temperature tolerant microalgae would help mitigate this problem. The waters of the Roman Baths, which have a temperature range between 39°C and 46°C, were sampled for microalgae. A total of 3 green algae, 1 diatom and 4 cyanobacterial species were successfully isolated into ‘unialgal’ culture. Four isolates were filamentous, which could prove advantageous for low energy dewatering of cultures using filtration. Lipid content, profiles and growth rates of the isolates were examined at temperatures of 20, 30, 40°C, with and without nitrogen starvation and compared against the oil producing green algal species, Chlorella emersonii. Some isolates synthesized high levels of lipids, however, all were most productive at temperatures lower than those of the Roman Baths. The eukaryotic algae accumulated a range of saturated and polyunsaturated FAMEs and all isolates generally showed higher lipid accumulation under nitrogen deficient conditions (Klebsormidium sp. increasing from 1.9% to 16.0% and Hantzschia sp. from 31.9 to 40.5%). The cyanobacteria typically accumulated a narrower range of FAMEs that were mostly saturated, but were capable of accumulating a larger quantity of lipid as a proportion of dry weight (M. laminosus, 37.8% fully saturated FAMEs). The maximum productivity of all the isolates was not determined in the current work and will require further effort to optimise key variables such as light intensity and media composition. PMID:23369619

  17. Century-scale variability in global annual runoff examined using a water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (WB model) is used with CRUTS2.1 monthly temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of monthly runoff for all land areas of the globe for the period 1905 through 2002. Even though annual precipitation accounts for most of the temporal and spatial variability in annual runoff, increases in temperature have had an increasingly negative effect on annual runoff after 1980. Although the effects of increasing temperature on runoff became more apparent after 1980, the relative magnitude of these effects are small compared to the effects of precipitation on global runoff. ?? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

  18. Herbal bathing: an analysis of variation in plant use among Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; van Andel, Tinde R

    2018-03-15

    Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and Aucan Maroons, to see whether similarity in species was related to bath type, ethnic group, or geographical location. We hypothesized that because of their dissimilar cultural background, they used different species for the same type of bath. We assumed, however, that plants used in genital baths were more similar, as certain plant ingredients (e.g., essential oils), are preferred in these baths. We compiled a database from published and unpublished sources on herbal bath ingredients and constructed a presence/absence matrix per bath type and study site. To assess similarity in plant use among and within Saramaccan and Aucan communities, we performed three Detrended Correspondence Analyses on species level and the Jaccard Similarity Index to quantify similarity in bath ingredients. We recorded 349 plants used in six commonly used bath types: baby strength, adult strength, skin diseases, respiratory ailments, genital steam baths, and spiritual issues. Our results showed a large variation in plant ingredients among the Saramaccan and Aucans and little similarity between Saramaccans and Aucans, even for the same type of baths. Plant ingredients for baby baths and genital baths shared more species than the others. Even within the Saramaccan community, plant ingredients were stronger associated with location than with bath type. Plant use in bathing was strongly influenced by study site and then by ethnicity, but less by bath type. As Maroons escaped from different plantations and developed their ethnomedicinal practices in isolation, there has been little exchange in ethnobotanical knowledge after the seventeenth century between ethnic groups. Care should be taken in extrapolating plant

  19. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  20. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Matthew J; Schlaepfer, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis), from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C), including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963).

  1. Nothing a hot bath won't cure: infection rates of amphibian chytrid fungus correlate negatively with water temperature under natural field settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Forrest

    Full Text Available Dramatic declines and extinctions of amphibian populations throughout the world have been associated with chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Previous studies indicated that Bd prevalence correlates with cooler temperatures in the field, and laboratory experiments have demonstrated that Bd ceases growth at temperatures above 28°C. Here we investigate how small-scale variations in water temperature correlate with Bd prevalence in the wild. We sampled 221 amphibians, including 201 lowland leopard frogs (Rana [Lithobates] yavapaiensis, from 12 sites in Arizona, USA, and tested them for Bd. Amphibians were encountered in microhabitats that exhibited a wide range of water temperatures (10-50°C, including several geothermal water sources. There was a strong inverse correlation between the water temperature in which lowland leopard frogs were captured and Bd prevalence, even after taking into account the influence of year, season, and host size. In locations where Bd was known to be present, the prevalence of Bd infections dropped from 75-100% in water 30°C. A strong inverse correlation between Bd infection status and water temperature was also observed within sites. Our findings suggest that microhabitats where water temperatures exceed 30°C provide lowland leopard frogs with significant protection from Bd, which could have important implications for disease dynamics, as well as management applications.There must be quite a few things a hot bath won't cure, but I don't know many of them--Sylvia Plath, "The Bell Jar" (1963.

  2. Effect of non-solvents used in the coagulation bath on morphology of PVDF membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz Thürmer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to prepare a poly (vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane using different non-solvents in the coagulation bath for the phase inversion method. In order to increase the mechanical strength of membranes, facing the pressure of work, was used a macro-porous polyester support. The morphology and structure of the resulting membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, water and 1-octanol uptake, contact angle, pure water flux, hydraulic permeability and hydraulic resistance. The morphology and pure water flux changed significantly using ethanol (symmetric membrane and/or water (asymmetric membrane as the non-solvent. The symmetric membrane presented a high hydrophobic surface (water contact angle ~136º and a higher pure water flux and porosity than the asymmetric membrane, which presented a lower hydrophobicity surface (water contact angle ~90º. The morphologies obtained suggest different applications.

  3. The effectiveness of bed bathing practices on skin integrity and hospital-acquired infections among adult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Pia; Larsen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    is: What is the effectiveness of traditional towel bed bath practice compared to other innovate bed bath practices on maintaining skin integrity, skin barrier function and reduction of pathogen microbial counts on skin among adult patients in all settings? Inclusion criteria: Types of participants...... practices, including all bag bath interventions, not limited to any specific type or brand. For the purpose of this systematic review, bag bath interventions include bathing patients with pre-packaged disposal washcloths by use of a different cloth to wash each part of the patient's body. The washcloths...... typically comprise rayon/polyester cloth pre-moistened with an evaporating no-rinse cleanser and emollients. Comparator: The comparator is the traditional bed bath (towel bed bath) intervention, regardless of type and frequency. For the purposes of this systematic review, traditional bed bath refers...

  4. Beyond annual streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin: a paleo-water-balance approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Subhrendu; McCabe, Gregory J.; Woodhouse, Connie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to use annual tree-ring chronologies and a monthly water balance model to generate annual reconstructions of water balance variables (e.g., potential evapotrans- piration (PET), actual evapotranspiration (AET), snow water equivalent (SWE), soil moisture storage (SMS), and runoff (R)). The method involves resampling monthly temperature and precipitation from the instrumental record directed by variability indicated by the paleoclimate record. The generated time series of monthly temperature and precipitation are subsequently used as inputs to a monthly water balance model. The methodology is applied to the Upper Colorado River Basin, and results indicate that the methodology reliably simulates water-year runoff, maximum snow water equivalent, and seasonal soil moisture storage for the instrumental period. As a final application, the methodology is used to produce time series of PET, AET, SWE, SMS, and R for the 1404–1905 period for the Upper Colorado River Basin.

  5. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites ...

  7. Elephant overflows: Multi-annual variability in Weddell Sea Deep Water driven by surface forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Andrew; Meredith, Michael; Abrahamsen, Povl; Naviera-Garabato, Alberto; Ángel Morales Maqueda, Miguel; Polzin, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    The volume of the deepest and densest water mass in Drake Passage, Lower Weddell Sea Deep Water (LWSDW), is shown to have been decreasing over the last 20 years of observations, with an associated reduction in density driven by freshening. Superimposed on this long term trend is a multi-annual oscillation with a period of 3-5 years. This variability only appears in Drake Passage; observations in the east of the Scotia Sea show a similar long term trend, but with no apparent multi-annual variability. Clues as to the source of this variability may be found on the continental slope at approximately 1000 m immediately north of Elephant Island on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. Here there is an intermittent westward flowing cold/fresh slope current whose volume and properties are strongly correlated with the LWSDW multi-annual variability, although leading the LWSDW by around one year. As the slope current and LWSDW are separated from each other both geographically and in water mass characteristics, their co-variability implies that they are responding to a common forcing, while the lag between deep LWSDW and shallow slope current provides information on the timescale of this response. A newly available high resolution temperature and salinity multi-year time series from the Elephant Island slope at 1000 m is compared with reanalysis and model derived surface fluxes, sea ice extent and wind stress. We find that there are strong positive relationships between the surface wind stress and heat flux over the shelf at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the properties of the slope current at 1000 m on seasonal to annual timescales. We use tracer release experiments in the Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) model to investigate the lag between the slope current and LWSDW timeseries and hypothesise that the observed multi-annual variability in both water masses is driven by surface forcing over the shelf and the overflow of modified water from the slope in

  8. Conjugate gradient heat bath for ill-conditioned actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Bussi, Giovanni; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-08-01

    We present a method for performing sampling from a Boltzmann distribution of an ill-conditioned quadratic action. This method is based on heat-bath thermalization along a set of conjugate directions, generated via a conjugate-gradient procedure. The resulting scheme outperforms local updates for matrices with very high condition number, since it avoids the slowing down of modes with lower eigenvalue, and has some advantages over the global heat-bath approach, compared to which it is more stable and allows for more freedom in devising case-specific optimizations.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The surface oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg melt were analyzed with XPS. • Certain Al must be added in bath containing Mg to get stable galvanizing melts. • The oxidation products vary with the bath composition. • Oxidation can be predicted in galvanizing by using the calculated phase diagrams. • The thermodynamic analysis can be used to design the practical bath melts. - Abstract: Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.

  10. Prediction of Layer Thickness in Molten Borax Bath with Genetic Evolutionary Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Fatih

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the vanadium carbide coating in molten borax bath process is modeled by evolutionary genetic programming (GEP) with bath composition (borax percentage, ferro vanadium (Fe-V) percentage, boric acid percentage), bath temperature, immersion time, and layer thickness data. Five inputs and one output data exist in the model. The percentage of borax, Fe-V, and boric acid, temperature, and immersion time parameters are used as input data and the layer thickness value is used as output data. For selected bath components, immersion time, and temperature variables, the layer thicknesses are derived from the mathematical expression. The results of the mathematical expressions are compared to that of experimental data; it is determined that the derived mathematical expression has an accuracy of 89%.

  11. 1995 annual water monitoring report, LEHR environmental restoration, University of California at Davis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, D.L.; Smith, R.M.; Sauer, D.R. [and others

    1996-03-01

    This 1995 Annual Water Monitoring Report presents analytical data collected between January and December 1995 at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) located at the University of California (UC), Davis. This report has been prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in compliance with the Water Monitoring Plan for the LEHR site, which contains the sample collection, analysis, and quality assurance/quality control procedures and reporting requirements. Water monitoring during 1995 was conducted in conjunction with the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study currently being implemented at the LEHR site as part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored environmental restoration program. Based on a review of historical groundwater monitoring data compiled since the fall of 1990, the list of analytes included in the program was reduced and the schedule for analyzing the remaining analytes was revised. The revision was implemented for the first time in the summer monitoring period. Analytes eliminated from the program were those that were (1) important for establishing baseline groundwater chemistry (alkalinity, anions, Eh, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand); (2) important for establishing sources of contamination; (3) not detected in water samples or not from the LEHR site; and (4) duplicates of another measurement. Reductions in the analytical schedule were based on the monitoring history for each well; the resultant constituents of concern list was developed for individual wells. Depending on its importance in a well, each analyte was analyzed quarterly, semi-annually, or annually. Pollutants of major concern include organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides.

  12. 1995 annual water monitoring report, LEHR environmental restoration, University of California at Davis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, D.L.; Smith, R.M.; Sauer, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    This 1995 Annual Water Monitoring Report presents analytical data collected between January and December 1995 at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) located at the University of California (UC), Davis. This report has been prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in compliance with the Water Monitoring Plan for the LEHR site, which contains the sample collection, analysis, and quality assurance/quality control procedures and reporting requirements. Water monitoring during 1995 was conducted in conjunction with the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study currently being implemented at the LEHR site as part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored environmental restoration program. Based on a review of historical groundwater monitoring data compiled since the fall of 1990, the list of analytes included in the program was reduced and the schedule for analyzing the remaining analytes was revised. The revision was implemented for the first time in the summer monitoring period. Analytes eliminated from the program were those that were (1) important for establishing baseline groundwater chemistry (alkalinity, anions, Eh, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand); (2) important for establishing sources of contamination; (3) not detected in water samples or not from the LEHR site; and (4) duplicates of another measurement. Reductions in the analytical schedule were based on the monitoring history for each well; the resultant constituents of concern list was developed for individual wells. Depending on its importance in a well, each analyte was analyzed quarterly, semi-annually, or annually. Pollutants of major concern include organic compounds, metals, and radionuclides

  13. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  14. Annual analysis of heat pipe PV/T systems for domestic hot water and electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Gang; Fu Huide; Ji Jie; Chow Tintai; Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal system with freeze protection was proposed. ► A detailed annual simulation model for the HP-PV/T system was presented. ► Annual performance of HP-PV/T was predicted and analyzed under different condition. - Abstract: Heat-pipe photovoltaic/thermal (HP-PV/T) systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy. Compared with traditional water-type photovoltaic/thermal systems, HP-PV/T systems can be used in cold regions without being frozen with the aid of a carefully selected heat-pipe working fluid. The current research presents a detailed simulation model of the HP-PV/T system. Using this model, the annual electrical and thermal behavior of the HP-PV/T system used in three typical climate areas of China, namely, Hong Kong, Lhasa, and Beijing, are predicted and analyzed. Two HP-PV/T systems, with and without auxiliary heating equipment, are studied annually under four different kinds of hot-water load per unit collecting area (64.5, 77.4, 90.3, and 103.2 kg/m 2 ).

  15. Inter-annual to multi-decadal variability in prairie water resources over the past millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauchyn, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the Prairie Provinces, declining levels have been recently recorded for various rivers and lakes, and further reductions are projected. These trends reflect human impact in terms of increasing water consumption and possibly anthropogenic climate change. From the coupling of hydrological models and climate change scenarios, researchers have projected lower future summer flows as global warming brings shorter warmer winters and longer and generally drier summers to western Canada. However, the detection and interpretation of trends from gauge records and model outputs are constrained by the relatively short perspective of decades and the uncertainties associated with projecting climate change and its impacts on hydrological regimes. A longer perspective on inter-annual to multi-decadal variability in water resources is available from moisture-sensitive tree-ring chronologies. We have established a dense network of low elevation chronologies spanning the headwaters of the Saskatchewan, Missouri, Churchill and Mackenzie River basins. Standardized tree-ring width for a large sample of trees and sites is a strong regional signal of annual and seasonal hydroclimate, and an especially good proxy of low water levels. Proxy streamflow records, up to 800 years in length, show quasi-periodic variability at inter-annual to multi-decadal scales that correspond to the tempo of sea-surface temperature anomalies. The industrial sponsors of our research, Manitoba Hydro and EPCOR, anticipate the use of our tree-ring reconstructions for informing forecasts of future water supplies and planning adaptation to climate change. Engineers from these companies, and more than 50 other water managers and planners from the Prairie Provinces, attended a workshop in March 2008 to explore potential applications of paleo-hydrological records to water resource management. (author)

  16. Using a Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety to Evaluate a Hospital-wide Daily Chlorhexidine Bathing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caya, Teresa; Musuuza, Jackson; Yanke, Eric; Schmitz, Michelle; Anderson, Brooke; Carayon, Pascale; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a systems engineering approach to evaluate housewide implementation of daily chlorhexidine bathing. We performed direct observations of the bathing process and conducted provider and patient surveys. The main outcome was compliance with bathing using a checklist. Fifty-seven percent of baths had full compliance with the chlorhexidine bathing protocol. Additional time was the main barrier. Institutions undertaking daily chlorhexidine bathing should perform a rigorous assessment of implementation to optimize the benefits of this intervention.

  17. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas

    trout stock which had been vaccinated against both Y.r. bt 1 and 2 with a commercial “state of the art” immersion vaccine and boosted with a commercial ERM oral vaccine 4 month later. The newly isolated Y.r. bt2 strain has been used to develop a standardized challenge model which gives us...... of the vaccine for 30 seconds as recommended by the manufacturer. As a positive control groups of trout were bath vaccinated for 5 minutes. Two months later was all groups bath challenged with Y.r. bt 2 in duplicate. The challenge data obtained in the present study have indicated that neither a “state of the art......” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  18. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In 1982, the National Research Council chose to recognize the importance of water resource issues by establishing the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). During the five years since its first meeting in November 1982, the WSTB has grown and matured. The WSTB has met 14 times to provide guidance and plan activities. Under the WSTB's direction, committees of experts have conducted approximately 30 studies on a broad array of topics, from dam safety to irrigation-induced water quality problems to ground water protection strategies. Studies have ranged in scope from the oversight of specific agency projects and programs to broader scientific reviews, such as a disciplinary assessment of the hydrologic sciences initiated in 1987. In all cases, studies have the general theme of ultimately improving the scientific and technological bases of programs of water management and environmental quality. This fifth annual report of the WSTB summarizes the Board's accomplishments during 1987, its current activities, and its plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program organizations, and the reports produced. The report should provide the reader with a basic understanding of the WSTB's interests, achievements, and capabilities. The WSTB welcomes inquiries and suggestions concerning its activities and will provide more detailed information on any aspects of its work to those interested.

  19. Studying Basin Water Balance Variations at Inter- and Intra-annual Time Scales Based On the Budyko Hypothesis and GRACE Gravimetry Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing intensity in global warming and anthropogenic activities has triggered significant changes over regional climates and landscapes, which, in turn, drive the basin water cycle and hydrological balance into a complex and unstable state. Budyko hypothesis is a powerful tool to characterize basin water balance and hydrological variations at long-term average scale. However, due to the absence of basin water storage change, applications of Budyko theory to the inter-annual and intra-annual time scales has been prohibited. The launch of GRACE gavimetry satellites provides a great opportunity to quantify terrestrial water storage change, which can be further introduced into the Budyko hypothesis to reveal the inter- and intra-annual response of basin water components under impacts of climate variability and/or human activities. This research targeted Hai River Basin (in China) and Murray-Darling Basin (in Australia), which have been identified with a continuous groundwater depletion trend as well as impacts by extreme climates in the past decade. This can help us to explore how annual or seasonal precipitation were redistributed to evapotranspiration and runoff via changing basin water storage. Moreover, the impacts of vegetation on annual basin water balance will be re-examined. Our results are expected to provide deep insights about the water cycle and hydrological behaviors for the targeted basins, as well as a proof for a consideration of basin water storage change into the Budyko model at inter- or intra-annual time steps.

  20. Isotope investigation of anodic slime movements in copper electrorefining baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, T.; Kohman, L.; Strzelecki, M.; Chojecki, M.; Kaczynska, R.; Wieclaw, B.

    1975-01-01

    A method was developed and introduced for monitoring the movement of silver-containing anodic slimes in copper electrorefining baths. Radioactive 111 Ag was used as tracer and copper plates labelled with the tracer were inserted into the anodes. During electrorefining the slime produced was continuously marked by the tracer. The activity of 111 Ag was measured at various points inside the bath by sampling and continuously registered with the aid of integrators. It was found that more than 99 percent of the slime slipped to the bottom of the bath close to the anode surface and did not migrate even at highest electrolyte flow rates. Small quantities of suspended slime contained an insignificant concentration of silver and should not be a source of cathode contamination. (author)

  1. [Sulphureous mud-bath therapy and changes in blood pressure: observational investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Marongiu, M B; Russomanno, G; Conti, V; Manzo, V; Filippelli, A

    2015-01-01

    The chronic arthropathies currently appear to be a major cause of disability with a negative impact on quality of life and health care spending. The mud-bath therapy is a spa treatment that induces benefic effects in chronic rheumatic diseases. It has long been debated on the assumption that the mud-bath spa therapy could have adverse cardiovascular effects which often induce caution and even a contraindication to the use of this treatment in chronic arthropathies associated with cardiovascular alterations such as hypertension. The aim of this observational study was to investigate, in arthrorheumatic subjects, the effects of sulphureous mud-bath cycle on blood pressure and the possible appearance of adverse drug reaction. 169 patients, with age range 42-86 years, suffering by chronic arthropathies were treated with sulphureous mud-bath therapy for 2 weeks. According to the arterial pressure values, measured before the spa treatment, the patients considered were divided in three groups: with normal blood pressure (NOR group); with high blood pressure, after, the latter group was divided in IPET (patients in treatment with antihypertensive drugs) and IPENT (patients not in antihypertensive therapy). The arterial pressure values, maximum and minimum, expressed in mmHg, were detected in the first (T1) - sixth (T6) and twelfth (T12) day of spa treatment. The media arterial pressure values collected before and after T1, before and after T6, before and after T12 , before T1 and after T12 were compared. The data, presented as mean±SD, were compared with the paired Student t test. A p value ≤0.05 was considered significant. The comparison between the mean values detected in pre and post T1, pre and post T6, pre and post T12 have showed that sulphureous mud-bath therapy induced a significant (pmud-bath therapy (post-T12) vs baseline (pre-T1) have demonstrated: in IPET and IPENT groups a significant (pmud-bath therapy in interdisciplinary therapeutic p rotocol of patients

  2. Electrochemical treatment of spent tan bath solution for reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Benhadji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A spent tanning bath contains high concentration of salts, chromium and protein. The treatment system for removal of chlorides or chromium from this effluent is expensive. In this context this waste has to be reused. Our study focuses on the application of advanced oxidation processes for protein removal present in a tanning bath. To improve the quality of the chromium tanning bath, two electrochemical processes (electrooxidation and peroxi-electrocoagulation process, PEP are investigated in a batch reactor. The effects of operational parameters such as reactor configuration, current density and electrolysis time on chemical oxygen demand (COD and protein removal efficiency are examined. Results indicated that under the optimum operating range for process, the COD and protein removal efficiency reached 53 and 100%, respectively. The optimum values are determined for the hybrid process (PEP under 0.13 A·cm−2 over 2 h. The treated tanning bath is used as a tanning solution in leather processing. The influence of chromium salt dose, pH solution, stirring time and contact time on the leather characteristic is evaluated. The hides tanned after the addition of 0.25% of commercial chromium salt, at pH solution, leaving them stirring for 4 h with a contact time of 2 days, and showed good hydrothermal stability and physical characteristics of leather.

  3. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  4. 222Rn determination in some thermal baths of a central eastern Italian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desideri, D.; Bruno, M.R.; Roselli, C.

    2004-01-01

    Some recent Italian laws, based on the Euratom Directive 26/96, introduce the obligation of monitoring the exposition to natural radioactivity in particular worksites (thermal baths, mines, basements, etc.). Results of 222 Rn measurements in some thermal baths of Rimini and Pesaro-Urbino provinces (Central Eastern Italy), by Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha-track detectors are reported. Some areas where radon could accumulate (bathing, reaction, muddy, inhalation, insufflation rooms and swimming pools) were selected for the investigation. The dosimeters have been exposed for 98 days. The results show that 222 Rn concentrations are very low in the considered thermal baths (7-71 Bq x m -3 ). Moreover, no difference was observed between the concentrations measured in the therapy rooms (bathing, muddy, inhalation and insufflation rooms, swimming pools) and in the normal areas (passages, reaction rooms, dressing rooms, etc.). The calculated dose contribution to workers was about one tenth of the legally suggested value. (author)

  5. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    Many people undergo surgical operations during their life-time, which result in surgical wounds. After an operation the incision is closed using stiches, staples, steri-strips or an adhesive glue. Usually, towards the end of the surgical procedure and before the patient leaves the operating theatre, the surgeon covers the closed surgical wound using gauze and adhesive tape or an adhesive tape containing a pad (a wound dressing) that covers the surgical wound. There is currently no guidance about when the wound can be made wet by post-operative bathing or showering. Early bathing may encourage early mobilisation of the patient, which is good after most types of operation. Avoiding post-operative bathing or showering for two to three days may result in accumulation of sweat and dirt on the body. Conversely, early washing of the surgical wound may have an adverse effect on healing, for example by irritating or macerating the wound, and disturbing the healing environment. To compare the benefits (such as potential improvements to quality of life) and harms (potentially increased wound-related morbidity) of early post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. within 48 hours after surgery, the period during which epithelialisation of the wound occurs) compared with delayed post-operative bathing or showering (i.e. no bathing or showering for over 48 hours after surgery) in patients with closed surgical wounds. We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (30th June 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; EBSCO CINAHL; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We considered all randomised trials conducted in patients who had undergone any surgical procedure and had surgical closure of

  6. Density matrix embedding in an antisymmetrized geminal power bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Welborn, Matthew; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Density matrix embedding theory (DMET) has emerged as a powerful tool for performing wave function-in-wave function embedding for strongly correlated systems. In traditional DMET, an accurate calculation is performed on a small impurity embedded in a mean field bath. Here, we extend the original DMET equations to account for correlation in the bath via an antisymmetrized geminal power (AGP) wave function. The resulting formalism has a number of advantages. First, it allows one to properly treat the weak correlation limit of independent pairs, which DMET is unable to do with a mean-field bath. Second, it associates a size extensive correlation energy with a given density matrix (for the models tested), which AGP by itself is incapable of providing. Third, it provides a reasonable description of charge redistribution in strongly correlated but non-periodic systems. Thus, AGP-DMET appears to be a good starting point for describing electron correlation in molecules, which are aperiodic and possess both strong and weak electron correlation

  7. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  8. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  9. Diffusion mechanism in molten salt baths during the production of carbide coatings via thermal reactive diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Ghadi; Hassan Saghafian; Mansour Soltanieh; Zhi-gang Yang

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion mechanism of carbide-forming elements from a molten salt bath to a substrate surface was studied in this research, with particular focus on the processes occurring in the molten bath at the time of coating. Metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths were investi-gated, and the coating process was performed on H13 steel substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis were used to study the coated samples and the quenched salt bath. The thickness of the carbide coating layer was 6.5 ± 0.5, 5.2 ± 0.5, or 5.7 ± 0.5μm depending on whether it was deposited in a metal, oxide, or metal-oxide bath, respectively. The phase distribution of vanadium-rich regions was 63%, 57%, and 74% of the total coating deposited in metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths, respectively. The results obtained using the metal bath indicated that undissolved suspended metal particles deposited onto the substrate surface. Then, carbon subsequently diffused to the sub-strate surface and reacted with the metal particles to form the carbides. In the oxide bath, oxide powders dissolved in the bath with or without binding to the oxidative structure (Na2O) of borax; they were then reduced by aluminum and converted into metal particles. We concluded that, in the metal and oxide baths, the deposition of metal particles onto the sample surface is an important step in the formation of the coating.

  10. Reuse of Expired Cefort Drug in Nickel Electrodeposition From Watts Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Andrada Duca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility to use ceftriaxone (CEFTR active compound from expired Cefort as additive in nickel electrodeposition from Watts baths. Electrochemical behaviour and the influence of CEFTR on nickel electroplating were studied by electrochemical methods. Experimental data recommends CEFTR as additive in nickel electroplating from Watts baths.

  11. Effective interactions between inclusions in an active bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeifi Yamchi, Mahdi; Naji, Ali

    2017-11-01

    We study effective two- and three-body interactions between non-active colloidal inclusions in an active bath of chiral or non-chiral particles, using Brownian dynamics simulations within a standard, two-dimensional model of disk-shaped inclusions and active particles. In a non-chiral active bath, we first corroborate previous findings on effective two-body repulsion mediated between the inclusions by elucidating the detailed non-monotonic features of the two-body force profiles, including a primary maximum and a secondary hump at larger separations that was not previously reported. We then show that these features arise directly from the formation, and sequential overlaps, of circular layers (or "rings") of active particles around the inclusions, as the latter are brought to small surface separations. These rings extend to radial distances of a few active-particle radii from the surface of inclusions, giving the hard-core inclusions relatively thick, soft, repulsive "shoulders," whose multiple overlaps then enable significant (non-pairwise) three-body forces in both non-chiral and chiral active baths. The resulting three-body forces can even exceed the two-body forces in magnitude and display distinct repulsive and attractive regimes at intermediate to large self-propulsion strengths. In a chiral active bath, we show that, while active particles still tend to accumulate at the immediate vicinity of the inclusions, they exhibit strong depletion from the intervening region between the inclusions and partial depletion from relatively thick, circular zones further away from the inclusions. In this case, the effective, predominantly repulsive interactions between the inclusions turn to active, chirality-induced, depletion-type attractions, acting over an extended range of separations.

  12. Kinetic analysis of cooking losses from beef and other animal muscles heated in a water bath--effect of sample dimensions and prior freezing and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oillic, Samuel; Lemoine, Eric; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2011-07-01

    Cooking loss kinetics were measured on cubes and parallelepipeds of beef Semimembranosus muscle ranging from 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm to 7 cm × 7 cm × 28 cm in size. The samples were water bath-heated at three different temperatures, i.e. 50°C, 70°C and 90°C, and for five different times. Temperatures were simulated to help interpret the results. Pre-freezing the sample, difference in ageing time, and in muscle fiber orientation had little influence on cooking losses. At longer treatment times, the effects of sample size disappeared and cooking losses depended only on the temperature. A selection of the tests was repeated on four other beef muscles and on veal, horse and lamb Semimembranosus muscle. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final water contents. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests first-order kinetics. Copyright © 2011 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method and apparatus for replenishing the helium bath in the rotor of a superconducting generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Schnapper, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to replenish a helium bath in the super-conducting rotor of an electrical machine, in which bath liquid helium boils at subatmospheric pressure, with liquid helium from a helium reservoir, the liquid helium in the reservoir being at ambient pressure and a part of the liquid helium changing to the vapor phase during flow from the reservoir to the bath, liquid helium is introduced into the bath at a distance from the rotor axis of rotation, the liquid and vapor phases of the helium flowing from the reservoir to the bath are separated from one another in a phase separator fixed to the rotor, and the separated vapor phase is extracted from the separator. (MM) [de

  14. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  15. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  16. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  17. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Zakine

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non-Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  18. Stochastic Stirling Engine Operating in Contact with Active Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakine, Ruben; Solon, Alexandre; Gingrich, Todd; van Wijland, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    A Stirling engine made of a colloidal particle in contact with a nonequilibrium bath is considered and analyzed with the tools of stochastic energetics. We model the bath by non Gaussian persistent noise acting on the colloidal particle. Depending on the chosen definition of an isothermal transformation in this nonequilibrium setting, we find that either the energetics of the engine parallels that of its equilibrium counterpart or, in the simplest case, that it ends up being less efficient. Persistence, more than non Gaussian effects, are responsible for this result.

  19. Additive Benefits of Twice Forest Bathing Trips in Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gen Xiang; Cao, Yong Bao; Yang, Yan; Chen, Zhuo Mei; Dong, Jian Hua; Chen, Sha Sha; Wu, Qing; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Jia, Bing Bing; Yan, Jing; Wang, Guo Fu

    2018-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome resulting from the consequences of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is increasingly becoming a global cause of morbidity and mortality. We had earlier demonstrated that a 4-day forest bathing trip can provide an adjunctive therapeutic influence on patients with CHF. To further investigate the duration of the impact and the optimal frequency of forest bathing trips in patients with CHF, we recruited those subjects who had experienced the first forest bathing trip again after 4 weeks and randomly categorized them into two groups, namely, the urban control group (city) and the forest bathing group (forest). After a second 4-day forest bathing trip, we observed a steady decline in the brain natriuretic peptide levels, a biomarker of heart failure, and an attenuated inflammatory response as well as oxidative stress. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrated the additive benefits of twice forest bathing trips in elderly patients with CHF, which could further pave the way for analyzing the effects of such interventions in CVDs. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of nonbilinear system-bath coupling on quantum-mechanical activated rate processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotskaya, Irina; Geva, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of quantum-mechanical activated rate processes on the system-bath coupling strength was investigated in the case of a double-well nonbilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath, where the system-bath coupling is linear in the bath coordinates and nonlinear in the reaction coordinate. Such nonbilinear coupling is known to give rise to a classical friction kernel which is explicitly dependent on the reaction coordinate. We show that it can also lead to quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing rates, whose dependence on the system-bath coupling strength is qualitatively different from that observed in the quantum-mechanical bilinear case and classical nonbilinear case. More specifically, it is shown that the quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing rate may monotonically increase as a function of the system-bath coupling strength, in cases where the classical barrier-crossing rate goes through a turnover, and that the rate of quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing can be lower than that of classical barrier-crossing. We show that those purely quantum-mechanical effects are of a thermodynamical, rather than dynamical, nature, and that they originate from the difference in friction between the barrier top and the reactant and product wells. Our conclusions are supported by results obtained via the CMD method, which were also found to be in very good agreement with numerically exact calculations based on the QUAPI method

  1. Hypercalcemic crisis resulting from near drowning in an indoor public bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Yamada, Go; Amano, Aya; Yamada, Tomoko; Hamamatsu, Keita; Murabe, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Male, 66. Hypercalcemic crisis. Near drowning state. - - Critical care medicine. Challenging differential diagnosis. Hypercalcemic crisis, generally caused by malignancy or primary hyperparathyroidism, is a life-threatening emergency that can result in multi-organ failure. Lowering the patient's calcium level immediately and determining the correct etiology are essential. We report a case of hypercalcemic crisis with a novel etiology. A 66-year-old male presented to the emergency room in cardiac arrest with a ventricular arrhythmia after being discovered submerged in an indoor public bath. He underwent cardioversion and was emergently intubated. Computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary edema, suspected from water aspiration. Laboratory data revealed severe hypercalcemia and mild hypernatremia. Following three days of continuous hemodiafiltration, serum Ca decreased to and remained within normal limits. We concluded the etiology of hypercalcemia was absorption of Ca resulting from aspirated water. Near drowning can be a cause of hypercalcemic crisis. For cases of near drowning, it is important to investigate the source of the aspirated water and consider electrolyte abnormalities in the diagnosis.

  2. Effect of temperature and pH of ammonium galvanic bath on the properties of Zn-Co alloy coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciej, A; Michalska, J [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Simka, W; Nawrat, G; Piotrowski, J, E-mail: artur.maciej@polsl.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    The results of investigations on Zn-Co coatings obtained electrochemically in acidic and neutral ammonium baths are presented. The chemical composition, morphology and surface roughness of received coatings were determined together with the current efficiency. It was found that the coatings morphology depends on the process parameters. In the case of neutral bath the increase of bath temperature resulted in decrease of cobalt contents in the coatings, whereas it was not practically observed for acidic baths. It was also observed that surface roughness of the Zn-Co coatings decreased with the increase of temperature for both types of baths. It was also found that the grain size of coatings obtained in neutral bath depends on pH of bath.

  3. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team

    2017-11-01

    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  4. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Two-Dimensional Physical and CFD Modelling of Large Gas Bubble Behaviour in Bath Smelting Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Pan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of large gas bubbles in a liquid bath and the mechanisms of splash generation due to gas bubble rupture in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces were investigated by means of physical and mathematical (CFD modelling techniques. In the physical modelling work, a two-dimensional Perspex model of the pilot plant furnace at CSIRO Process Science and Engineering was established in the laboratory. An aqueous glycerol solution was used to simulate liquid slag. Air was injected via a submerged lance into the liquid bath and the bubble behaviour and the resultant splashing phenomena were observed and recorded with a high-speed video camera. In the mathematical modelling work, a two-dimensional CFD model was developed to simulate the free surface flows due to motion and deformation of large gas bubbles in the liquid bath and rupture of the bubbles at the bath free surface. It was concluded from these modelling investigations that the splashes generated in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces are mainly caused by the rupture of fast rising large gas bubbles. The acceleration of the bubbles into the preceding bubbles and the rupture of the coalescent bubbles at the bath surface contribute significantly to splash generation.

  6. Effects of system-bath coupling on a photosynthetic heat engine: A polaron master-equation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M.; Shen, H. Z.; Zhao, X. L.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-07-01

    Stimulated by suggestions of quantum effects in energy transport in photosynthesis, the fundamental principles responsible for the near-unit efficiency of the conversion of solar to chemical energy became active again in recent years. Under natural conditions, the formation of stable charge-separation states in bacteria and plant reaction centers is strongly affected by the coupling of electronic degrees of freedom to a wide range of vibrational motions. These inspire and motivate us to explore the effects of the environment on the operation of such complexes. In this paper, we apply the polaron master equation, which offers the possibilities to interpolate between weak and strong system-bath coupling, to study how system-bath couplings affect the exciton-transfer processes in the Photosystem II reaction center described by a quantum heat engine (QHE) model over a wide parameter range. The effects of bath correlation and temperature, together with the combined effects of these factors are also discussed in detail. We interpret these results in terms of noise-assisted transport effect and dynamical localization, which correspond to two mechanisms underpinning the transfer process in photosynthetic complexes: One is resonance energy transfer and the other is the dynamical localization effect captured by the polaron master equation. The effects of system-bath coupling and bath correlation are incorporated in the effective system-bath coupling strength determining whether noise-assisted transport effect or dynamical localization dominates the dynamics and temperature modulates the balance of the two mechanisms. Furthermore, these two mechanisms can be attributed to one physical origin: bath-induced fluctuations. The two mechanisms are manifestations of the dual role played by bath-induced fluctuations depending on the range of parameters. The origin and role of coherence are also discussed. It is the constructive interplay between noise and coherent dynamics, rather

  7. Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

  8. Bath parameter dependence of chemically deposited Copper Selenide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A.B.M.O.

    2004-09-01

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation Of Cu 2-x Se thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin fms (0.2-0.6/μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that completing the Cu 2+ ions with EA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu 2-x Se. (author)

  9. Reduction in hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus with daily chlorhexidine gluconate bathing for medical inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Christopher F; Lloyd-Smith, Elisa; Sidhu, Baljinder; Ritchie, Gordon; Sharma, Azra; Jang, Willson; Wong, Anna; Bilawka, Jennifer; Richards, Danielle; Kind, Thomas; Puddicombe, David; Champagne, Sylvie; Leung, Victor; Romney, Marc G

    2017-03-01

    Daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is increasingly used in intensive care units to prevent hospital-associated infections, but limited evidence exists for noncritical care settings. A prospective crossover study was conducted on 4 medical inpatient units in an urban, academic Canadian hospital from May 1, 2014-August 10, 2015. Intervention units used CHG over a 7-month period, including a 1-month wash-in phase, while control units used nonmedicated soap and water bathing. Rates of hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization or infection were the primary end point. Hospital-associated S. aureus were investigated for CHG resistance with a qacA/B and smr polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agar dilution. Compliance with daily CHG bathing was 58%. Hospital-associated MRSA and VRE was decreased by 55% (5.1 vs 11.4 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .04) and 36% (23.2 vs 36.0 cases per 10,000 inpatient days, P = .03), respectively, compared with control cohorts. There was no significant difference in rates of hospital-associated Clostridium difficile. Chlorhexidine resistance testing identified 1 isolate with an elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (8 µg/mL), but it was PCR negative. This prospective pragmatic study to assess daily bathing for CHG on inpatient medical units was effective in reducing hospital-associated MRSA and VRE. A critical component of CHG bathing on medical units is sustained and appropriate application, which can be a challenge to accurately assess and needs to be considered before systematic implementation. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The provision of patient personal hygiene in the intensive care unit: a descriptive exploratory study of bed-bathing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyer, Fiona M; O'Sullivan, Judy; Cadman, Nicola

    2011-08-01

    The provision of the patient bed-bath is a fundamental nursing care activity yet few quantitative data and no qualitative data are available on registered nurses' (RNs) clinical practice in this domain in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to describe ICU RNs current practice with respect to the timing, frequency and duration of the patient bed-bath and the cleansing and emollient agents used. The study utilised a two-phase sequential explanatory mixed method design. Phase one used a questionnaire to survey RNs and phase two employed semi-structured focus group (FG) interviews with RNs. Data was collected over 28 days across four Australian metropolitan ICUs. Ethical approval was granted from the relevant hospital and university human research ethics committees. RNs were asked to complete a questionnaire following each episode of care (i.e. bed-bath) and then to attend one of three FG interviews: RNs with less than 2 years ICU experience; RNs with 2-5 years ICU experience; and RNs with greater than 5 years ICU experience. During the 28-day study period the four ICUs had 77.25 beds open. In phase one a total of 539 questionnaires were returned, representing 30.5% of episodes of patient bed-baths (based on 1767 bed occupancy and one bed-bath per patient per day). In 349 bed-bath episodes 54.7% patients were mechanically ventilated. The bed-bath was given between 02.00 and 06.00h in 161 episodes (30%), took 15-30min to complete (n=195, 36.2%) and was completed within the last 8h in 304 episodes (56.8%). Cleansing agents used were predominantly pH balanced soap or liquid soap and water (n=379, 71%) in comparison to chlorhexidine impregnated sponges/cloths (n=86, 16.1%) or other agents such as pre-packaged washcloths (n=65, 12.2%). In 347 episodes (64.4%) emollients were not applied after the bed-bath. In phase two 12 FGs were conducted (three FGs at each ICU) with a total of 42 RN participants. Thematic analysis of FG transcripts across the three

  11. Effects of single moor baths on physiological stress response and psychological state: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier-Jarmer, M.; Frisch, D.; Oberhauser, C.; Immich, G.; Kirschneck, M.; Schuh, A.

    2017-11-01

    Moor mud applications in the form of packs and baths are widely used therapeutically as part of balneotherapy. They are commonly given as therapy for musculoskeletal disorders, with their thermo-physical effects being furthest studied. Moor baths are one of the key therapeutic elements in our recently developed and evaluated 3-week prevention program for subjects with high stress level and increased risk of developing a burnout syndrome. An embedded pilot study add-on to this core project was carried out to assess the relaxing effect of a single moor bath. During the prevention program, 78 participants received a total of seven moor applications, each consisting of a moor bath (42 °C, 20 min, given between 02:30 and 05:20 p.m.) followed by resting period (20 min). Before and after the first moor application in week 1, and the penultimate moor application in week 3, salivary cortisol was collected, blood pressure and heart rate were measured, and mood state (Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire) was assessed. A Friedman test of differences among repeated measures was conducted. Post hoc analyses were performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A significant decrease in salivary cortisol concentration was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 1 ( Z = -3.355, p = 0.0008). A non-significant decrease was seen between pre- and post-moor bath in week 3. Mood state improved significantly after both moor baths. This pilot study has provided initial evidence on the stress-relieving effects of single moor baths, which can be a sensible and recommendable therapeutic element of multimodal stress-reducing prevention programs. The full potential of moor baths still needs to be validated. A randomized controlled trial should be conducted comparing this balneo-therapeutic approach against other types of stress reduction interventions.

  12. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ... Cadmium sulfide; chemical bath deposition; doping; optical window. 1. ..... at low temperature (10 K), finding similar trends than.

  13. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  14. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  15. Bath temperature effect on magnetoelectric performance of Ni-lead zirconate titanate-Ni laminated composites synthesized by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Y.G., E-mail: yingang.wang@nuaa.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Bi, K. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconate titanate-Ni laminated composites have been prepared by electroless deposition at various bath temperatures. The structure of the Ni layers deposited at various bath temperatures was characterized by X-ray diffraction, and microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The magnetostrictive coefficients were measured by means of a resistance strain gauge. The transverse ME voltage coefficient {alpha}{sub E,31} was measured with the magnetic field applied parallel to the sample plane. The deposition rate of Ni increases with bath temperature. Ni layer with smaller grain size is obtained at higher bath temperature and shows higher piezomagnetic coefficient, promoting the ME effect of corresponding laminated composites. It is advantageous to increase the bath temperature, while trying to avoid the breaking of bath constituents. - Research Highlights: Laminated composites without interlayer are prepared by electroless deposition. Bath temperature affects the grain size of the deposited Ni layers. Higher bath temperature is beneficial to obtain stronger ME response.

  16. Experimental Validation of a Domestic Stratified Hot Water Tank Model in Modelica for Annual Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    The use of stratified hot water tanks in solar energy systems - including ORC systems - as well as heat pump systems is paramount for a better performance of these systems. However, the availability of effective and reliable models to predict the annual performance of stratified hot water tanks...

  17. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. I. Gaussian-white case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y

    The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by

  18. Trends in annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow characteristics at 227 streamgages in the Missouri River watershed, water years 1960-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Parker A.; Anderson, Mark T.; Stamm, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The Missouri River and its tributaries are an important resource that serve multiple uses including agriculture, energy, recreation, and municipal water supply. Understanding historical streamflow characteristics provides relevant guidance to adaptive management of these water resources. Streamflow records in the Missouri River watershed were examined for trends in time series of annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow. A total of 227 streamgages having continuous observational records for water years 1960–2011 were examined. Kendall’s tau nonparametric test was used to determine statistical significance of trends in annual, seasonal, and monthly streamflow. A trend was considered statistically significant for a probability value less than or equal to 0.10 that the Kendall’s tau value equals zero. Significant trends in annual streamflow were indicated for 101 out of a total of 227 streamgages. The Missouri River watershed was divided into six watershed regions and trends within regions were examined. The western and the southern parts of the Missouri River watershed had downward trends in annual streamflow (56 streamgages), whereas the eastern part of the watershed had upward trends in streamflow (45 streamgages). Seasonal and monthly streamflow trends reflected prevailing annual streamflow trends within each watershed region.

  19. Detection of Legionella species in environmental water by the quantitative PCR method in combination with ethidium monoazide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Takama, Tomoko; Yoshizaki, Miwa; Agata, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    We detected Legionella species in 111 bath water samples and 95 cooling tower water samples by using a combination of conventional plate culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR combined with ethidium monoazide treatment (EMA-qPCR) methods. In the case of bath water samples, Legionella spp. were detected in 30 samples by plate culture, in 85 samples by qPCR, and in 49 samples by EMA-qPCR. Of 81 samples determined to be Legionella-negative by plate culture, 56 and 23 samples were positive by qPCR and EMA-qPCR, respectively. Therefore, EMA treatment decreased the number of Legionella-positive bath water samples detected by qPCR. In contrast, EMA treatment had no effect on cooling tower water samples. We therefore expect that EMA-qPCR is a useful method for the rapid detection of viable Legionella spp. from bath water samples.

  20. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I.; Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl 2 , KOH, NH 4 NO 3 and CS(NH 2 ) 2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  1. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  2. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  3. Additional Quantum Properties of Entangled Bipartite Qubit Systems Coupled to Photon Baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, C

    2016-01-01

    The time evolution of an entangled bi-partite qubit interacting with two independent photon baths in isolated cavities is not unitary. It is shown that the bi-partite qubit oscillates between pure and mixed states, and that the initial entanglement is lost and recovered in time by time as a consequence of its interaction with the baths. (paper)

  4. Evaluation of passive recovery, cold water immersion, and contrast baths for recovery, as measured by game performances markers, between two simulated games of rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor; Cameron, Melainie; Climstein, Mike

    2012-06-11

    ABSTRACT: In team sports, during the competitive season, peak performance in each game is of utmost importance to coaching staff and players. To enhance recovery from training and games a number of recovery modalities have been adopted across professional sporting teams. To date there is little evidence in the sport science literature identifying the benefit of modalities in promoting recovery between sporting competition games. This research evaluated hydrotherapy as a recovery strategy following a simulated game of rugby union and a week of recovery and training, with dependent variables between two simulated games of rugby union evaluated. Twenty-four male players were randomly divided into three groups: one group (n=8) received cold water immersion therapy (2 X 5min at 10oC, whilst one group (n=8) received contrast bath therapy (5 cycles of 10oC/38oC) and the control group (n=8) underwent passive recovery (15mins, thermo neutral environment). The two forms of hydrotherapy were administered following a simulated rugby union game (8 circuits x 11 stations) and after three training sessions. Dependent variables where generated from five physical stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union and one skilled based station, as well as sessional RPE values between two simulated games of rugby union. No significant differences were identified between groups across simulated games, across dependent variables. Effect size analysis via Cohen's d and ηp2 did identify medium trends between groups. Overall trends indicated that both treatment groups had performance results in the second simulated game above those of the control group of between 2% and 6% across the physical work stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union. In conclusion, trends in this study may indicate that ice baths and contrasts baths may be more advantageous to athlete's recovery from team sport than passive rest between successive games of rugby union We are pleased to

  5. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  6. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  7. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-01-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  8. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  9. ANOMALOUS ELECTRODEPOSITION OF Fe-Ni ALLOY COATING FROM SIMPLE AND COMPLEX BATHS AND ITS MAGNETIC PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Fe-Ni thin films has been carried on copper substrate under various electrodeposition conditions from two simple and six complex baths. Sulfate baths composing of NiSO4. 7H2O, FeSO4.7H2O, H3BO3 and Na2SO4KEYWORDS: Anomalous Electrodeposition, Fe-Ni Coating, Complexing agent, Current Density, Magnetic Property. 1. INTRODUCTION Alloy electrodeposition technologies can extend tremendously the potential of electrochemical deposition processes to provide coatings that require unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties [1]. There has been a great research interest in the development and characterization of iron-nickel (Fe-Ni thin films due to their operational capacity, economic interest, magnetic and other properties [2]. Due to their unique low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE and soft magnetic properties, Fe-Ni alloys have been used in industrial applications for over 100 years [3]. Typical examples of applications that are based on the low CTE of Fe-Ni alloys include: thermostatic bimetals, glass sealing, integrated circuit packaging, cathode ray tube, shadow masks, membranes for liquid natural gas tankers; applications based on the soft magnetic properties include: read-write heads for magnetic storage, magnetic actuators, magnetic shielding, high performance transformer cores. comprise the simple baths whereas complex baths were prepared by adding ascorbic acid, saccharin and citric acid in simple baths. The effect of bath composition, pH and applied current density on coating appearance, composition, morphology and magnetic property were studied. Wet chemical analysis technique was used to analyze the coating composition whereas SEM and VSM were used to study the deposit morphology and magnetic property respectively. Addition of complexing agents in plating baths suppressed the anomalous nature of Fe-Ni alloy electrodeposition. Coatings obtained from simple baths were characterized by coarse grained non

  10. Interleukin-6 responses to water immersion therapy after acute exercise heat stress: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elaine C; Watson, Greig; Casa, Douglas; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Kraemer, William; Vingren, Jakob L; Spiering, Barry A; Maresh, Carl M

    2012-01-01

    Cold-water immersion is the criterion standard for treatment of exertional heat illness. Cryotherapy and water immersion also have been explored as ergogenic or recovery aids. The kinetics of inflammatory markers, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), during cold-water immersion have not been characterized. To characterize serum IL-6 responses to water immersion at 2 temperatures and, therefore, to initiate further research into the multidimensional benefits of immersion and the evidence-based selection of specific, optimal immersion conditions by athletic trainers. Controlled laboratory study. Human performance laboratory Patients or Other Participants: Eight college-aged men (age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.08 m, mass = 77.14 ± 9.77 kg, body fat = 10% ± 3%, and maximal oxygen consumption = 50.48 ± 4.75 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)). Participants were assigned randomly to receive either cold (11.70°C ± 2.02°C, n = 4) or warm (23.50°C ± 1.00°C, n = 4) water-bath conditions after exercise in the heat (temperature = 37°C, relative humidity = 52%) for 90 minutes or until volitional cessation. Whole-body cooling rates were greater in the cold water-bath condition for the first 6 minutes of water immersion, but during the 90-minute, postexercise recovery, participants in the warm and cold water-bath conditions experienced similar overall whole-body cooling. Heart rate responses were similar for both groups. Participants in the cold water-bath condition experienced an overall slight increase (30.54% ± 77.37%) in IL-6 concentration, and participants in the warm water-bath condition experienced an overall decrease (-69.76% ± 15.23%). We have provided seed evidence that cold-water immersion is related to subtle IL-6 increases from postexercise values and that warmer water-bath temperatures might dampen this increase. Further research will elucidate any anti-inflammatory benefit associated with water-immersion treatment and possible multidimensional uses of cooling

  11. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartale, S.D. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Sankapal, B.R. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: ennaoui@hmi.de

    2005-06-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature.

  12. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartale, S.D.; Sankapal, B.R.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Ennaoui, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature

  13. Printability Study of Bioprinted Tubular Structures Using Liquid Hydrogel Precursors in a Support Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houzhu Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microextrusion-based bioprinting within a support bath material is an emerging additive manufacturing paradigm for complex three-dimensional (3D tissue construct fabrication. Although a support bath medium enables arbitrary in-process geometries to be printed, a significant challenge lies in preserving the shape fidelity upon the extraction of the support bath material. Based on the bioprinting in a support bath paradigm, this paper advances quantitative analyses to systematically determine the printability of cell-laden liquid hydrogel precursors towards filament-based tissue constructs. First, a yield stress nanoclay material is judiciously selected as the support bath medium owing to its insensitivity to temperature and ionic variations that are considered in the context of the current gelatin-alginate bio-ink material formulation. Furthermore, phenomenological observations for the rheology-mediated print outcomes enable the compositions for the bio-ink material (10% gelatin, 3% alginate, in tandem with the support bath medium (4% nanoclay, 0.5% CaCl2, to be identified. To systematically evaluate the performance outcomes for bioprinting within a support bath, this paper advances an experimental parametric study to optimize the 3D structural shape fidelity by varying parameters such as the layer height, extrusion flowrate, printing temperature, and printhead speed, towards fabricating complex 3D structures with the stabilization of the desired shape outcome. Specifically, it is found that the layer height and printhead speed are determinant parameters for the extent of successive layer fusion. Moreover, maintenance of an optimal bath temperature is identified as a key parameter for establishing the printability for the hydrogel bio-ink. Studying this effect is enabled by the custom design of a PID temperature control system with integration with the bioprinter for real-time precision control of the support bath temperature. In order to qualify

  14. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  15. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  16. Approach to equilibrium in models of a system in contact with a heat bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, S.; Lebowitz, J.L.; Ravishankar, K.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate simple model systems in contact with an infinite heat bath. The former consists of a finite number of particles in a bounded region Λ of R/sup d/, d = 1, 2. The heat baths are infinite particle systems which can penetrate Λ and interact with the system via elastic collisions. Outside Λ the particles move freely and have a Gibbs probability measure prior to entering Λ. We show that starting from almost any initial configuration, the system approaches, as t → ∞, the appropriate Gibbs distribution. The combined system plus bath is Bernoulli

  17. Portable bathtub: technology for bed bath in bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Gomes, Carine Alves; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Teles, Noelucy Ferreira; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein

    2017-04-01

    determine the benefits of the Portable Bathtub as technology for bed bath in bedridden patients. qualitative research of exploratory-descriptive character, whose data were collected by means of 30 interviews with patients, family members and professionals directly involved in bed bath, carried out with Portable Bathtub, in bedridden patients of a medical clinic, from July to December 2015. from the data encoded by thematic content analysis resulted two categories: Portable Bathtub: from morphine to the patient's rekindled eyes; From mechanized practice to unique, transforming care. we concluded that the Portable Bathtub constitutes enhancing technology, as it enables clinical improvement of the patient's general condition and transcends traditional mechanized practices by the reach of advanced nursing care practices.

  18. Nursing Care at the Time of Death: A Bathing and Honoring Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Debra; Calmes, Beth; Grotts, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    To explore family members' experience of a bathing and honoring practice after a loved one's death in the acute care setting.
. A descriptive, qualitative design using a semistructured telephone interview script.
. The Inpatient Adult Oncology Unit at Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital in California. 
. 13 family members who participated in the bathing and honoring practice after their loved one's death on the oncology unit.
. Participants were selected by purposive sampling and interviewed by telephone three to six months after their loved one's death. Interviews using a semistructured script with open-ended questions were recorded, transcribed, verified, and analyzed using phenomenologic research techniques to identify common themes of experience.
. 24 first-level themes and 11 superordinate themes emerged from the data. All participants indicated that the bathing and honoring practice was a positive experience and supported the grieving process. The majority found the practice to be meaningful and stated that it honored their loved one. Many expressed that the bathing and honoring was spiritually significant in a nondenominational way and that they hope it will be made available to all families of patients who die in the hospital. 
. After patient death, a bathing and honoring practice with family member participation is positive and meaningful, and it supports family members' initial grieving.
. This study is a first step toward establishing specific nursing interventions as evidence-based practice that can be incorporated in routine nursing care for patients and families at the end of life.

  19. Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelmann, S.; Buenger, T.; Fusban, H.U.; Ruehle, H.; Viertel, H.; Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs [de

  20. Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide films from sodium citrate-selenosulphite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) film has been carried out from deposition bath containing sodium selenosulphite, along with cadmium complexed with sodium citrate under potentiostatic deposition condition on titanium substrates. The pH of deposition bath was weakly basic (< 9.0). The CdSe films up to 3.0 μm were deposited. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the CdSe films are microcrystalline with increased grain size after annealing. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the films are porous with cauliflower-like morphology. The photelectrochemical characterization showed that the CdSe films are photoactive

  1. Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-27

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Federal Energy Management Program to identify trends in annual water and wastewater price escalation rates across the United States. This study can be used to inform the selection of an appropriate escalation rates for inclusion in LCCA.

  2. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on salt bath nitrocarburizing of 17-4PH stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Xiong Ji; Fan Hongyuan; Peng Qian; Wang Ying; Li Guijiang; Shen Baoluo

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the salt bathing nitriding under different temperature on the microstructure of Martensite stainless steel and the change of hardness and wear ability under different treatment temperature are comparatively studied. The study results show that when 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to the salt bathing nitriding, the main items in the nitrided layer are the expanded (nitride contended) martensite (α'), Fe 2-3 (N, C), CrN, Fe 4 N and Fe 3 O 4 . The amount of Fe 3 O 4 and CrN was increased with the treatment temperature going up. The lattice constant of expanded martensite has the similar change. The activation energy of nitriding in this salt bath was 190.9 kJ/mol. The depth of the nitrided layer was increased with the treatment temperature increasing. After the alloy nitriding at 580 degree C, the mass loss in the slide wear test was reduced from 21.1 mg for H 1100 condition to 1.0 mg. (authors)

  4. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  5. Collaboration between physician Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole in restoring the Sokobanja Turkish bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of twosection baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men’s baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women’s bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole’s architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam’s original function and its valuable architecture.

  6. Phase-controlled preparation of TiO{sub 2} films and micro(nano)spheres by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingsong, E-mail: wangms@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Qihui; Yu, Haiyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Hur, Seung Hyun [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jung, E-mail: ejkim@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Simultaneously preparation of TiO{sub 2} films and sphere-like precipitates by low-temperature chemical bath deposition. •The same building blocks observed in the films and precipitates. •Cluster-by-cluster attachment is succeeded by the ion-by-ion growth. •Phase-controlled growth of TiO{sub 2} by the effects of solvent or fluorine ion. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} films and micro(nano)spheres have been simultaneously prepared by means of low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films and precipitates are found to be constructed of the same building blocks regardless of the bath conditions. Thin nanosheets of ca. 20 nm in thickness serve as the building blocks of rutile TiO{sub 2} grown in an acidic bath. They aggregate to form spheres to reduce the surface energy of the precipitates, while in the films they grow into discrete crystallites on the seeded substrate. Fine control over the crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} is achieved by replacing some water with ethanol or the addition of NH{sub 4}F. A gradual transition from rutile to anatase is observed as the ethanol and NH{sub 4}F contents are increased. Moreover, the crystallite size of TiO{sub 2} is significantly reduced and there exists monodisperse nanoparticles and aggregate microspheres in the products modified with ethanol and NH{sub 4}F, respectively. This size-dependent phase transition is consistent with previous theoretical and thermodynamic studies. The facile tune of the TiO{sub 2} phase by low-temperature CBD method may be useful to improve the performance of TiO{sub 2} for its various applications.

  7. Flashback phenomenon and residual neurological deficits after the use of "bath salt" 3, 4- methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Aaron R; Bravo, Thomas P; Traub, Stephen J; Maher, Steven A; Lipinski, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The use and abuse of designer drugs has been recognized for decades; however there are many derivatives of compounds that make their way into the community. Abuse of compound(s) known on the street as "bath salt" is on the rise. We report the case of a 33-year-old man who complained of "flashbacks" and right arm shaking that followed a night of "bath salt" snorting. The active compound methylenedioxypyrovalerone methamphetamine (MDPV) was confirmed; however, analysis of three different "bath salt" products showed difference in their active components. The patient's symptoms remained stable and he was discharged home after observation in the emergency department with instructions to return for any symptom progression. Practitioners should be aware of the abuse of the compounds and that not all "bath salt" products contain MDPV.

  8. A real-frequency solver for the Anderson impurity model based on bath optimization and cluster perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingl, Manuel; Nuss, Martin; Bauernfeind, Daniel; Aichhorn, Markus

    2018-05-01

    Recently solvers for the Anderson impurity model (AIM) working directly on the real-frequency axis have gained much interest. A simple and yet frequently used impurity solver is exact diagonalization (ED), which is based on a discretization of the AIM bath degrees of freedom. Usually, the bath parameters cannot be obtained directly on the real-frequency axis, but have to be determined by a fit procedure on the Matsubara axis. In this work we present an approach where the bath degrees of freedom are first discretized directly on the real-frequency axis using a large number of bath sites (≈ 50). Then, the bath is optimized by unitary transformations such that it separates into two parts that are weakly coupled. One part contains the impurity site and its interacting Green's functions can be determined with ED. The other (larger) part is a non-interacting system containing all the remaining bath sites. Finally, the Green's function of the full AIM is calculated via coupling these two parts with cluster perturbation theory.

  9. Portable bathtub: technology for bed bath in bedridden patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Stein Backes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: determine the benefits of the Portable Bathtub as technology for bed bath in bedridden patients. Method: qualitative research of exploratory-descriptive character, whose data were collected by means of 30 interviews with patients, family members and professionals directly involved in bed bath, carried out with Portable Bathtub, in bedridden patients of a medical clinic, from July to December 2015. Results: from the data encoded by thematic content analysis resulted two categories: Portable Bathtub: from morphine to the patient's rekindled eyes; From mechanized practice to unique, transforming care. Conclusion: we concluded that the Portable Bathtub constitutes enhancing technology, as it enables clinical improvement of the patient's general condition and transcends traditional mechanized practices by the reach of advanced nursing care practices.

  10. Nonequlibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

    2008-12-01

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined. (orig.)

  11. THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELING VIA PHOTOGRAPHS FOR DOCUMENTATION OF A VILLAGE BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Balta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is supporting the conceptual discussions of architectural restoration with three dimensional modeling of monuments based on photogrammetric survey. In this study, a 16th century village bath in Ulamış, Seferihisar, and Izmir is modeled for documentation. Ulamış is one of the historical villages within which Turkish population first settled in the region of Seferihisar – Urla. The methodology was tested on an antique monument; a bath with a cubical form. Within the limits of this study, only the exterior of the bath was modeled. The presentation scale for the bath was determined as 1 / 50, considering the necessities of designing structural interventions and architectural ones within the scope of a restoration project. The three dimensional model produced is a realistic document presenting the present situation of the ruin. Traditional plan, elevation and perspective drawings may be produced from the model, in addition to the realistic textured renderings and wireframe representations. The model developed in this study provides opportunity for presenting photorealistic details of historical morphologies in scale. Compared to conventional drawings, the renders based on the 3d models provide an opportunity for conceiving architectural details such as color, material and texture. From these documents, relatively more detailed restitution hypothesis can be developed and intervention decisions can be taken. Finally, the principles derived from the case study can be used for 3d documentation of historical structures with irregular surfaces.

  12. Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack

    OpenAIRE

    Stutchfield, C.J.; Loh, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    Bath-induced paroxysmal events in infants and children can be triggered by various etiologies, including cardiological, neurological, and metabolic causes. It is important to ascertain the underlying cause for such events as this significantly affects the child's management and prognosis. We present the case of a 19-month-old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of apnea, cyanosis, and reduced level of consciousness in response to bathing. Through detailed history and investigation, the ...

  13. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  14. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  15. Influence of an oscillator bath on the nucleation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amritkar, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    The nucleation rate of a system in a metastable state coupled to an oscillator bath is considered. It is shown that for a weak coupling and small oscillator frequencies the nucleation rate increases. (author)

  16. Socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Consol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disinfection by-products in drinking water are chemical contaminants that have been associated with cancer and other adverse effects. Exposure occurs from consumption of tap water, inhalation and dermal absorption. Methods We determined the relationship between socioeconomic status and exposure to disinfection by-products in 1271 controls from a multicentric bladder cancer case-control study in Spain. Information on lifetime drinking water sources, swimming pool attendance, showering-bathing practices, and socioeconomic status (education, income was collected through personal interviews. Results The most highly educated subjects consumed less tap water (57% and more bottled water (33% than illiterate subjects (69% and 17% respectively, p-value = 0.003. These differences became wider in recent time periods. The time spent bathing or showering was positively correlated with attained educational level (p Conclusions The most highly educated subjects were less exposed to chlorination by-products through ingestion but more exposed through dermal contact and inhalation in pools and showers/baths. Health risk perceptions and economic capacity may affect patterns of water consumption that can result in differences in exposure to water contaminants.

  17. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  18. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  19. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfanti, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.bonfanti@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jackson, Bret [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Martinazzo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.martinazzo@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  20. Numerical modeling of transferred arc melting bath heating; Modelisation numerique du chauffage de bains par arc transfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, A. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Trenty, L.; Guillot, J.B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the modeling of a transferred electric arc inside a bath of melted metal. After a recall of the context of the study, the problem of the modeling, which involves magnetohydrodynamic coupling inside the arc and the bath, is described. The equations that govern the phenomena inside the arc and the bath are recalled and the approach used for the modeling of the anode region of the arc is explained using a 1-D sub-model. The conditions of connection between arc and bath calculations are explained and calculation results obtained with a 200 kW laboratory furnace geometry are presented. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  1. Kinetics of Ni–Mo electrodeposition from Ni-rich citrate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltowska-Lehman, E.; Indyka, P.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni–Mo alloy electrodeposition on steel substrates from an aqueous citrate–ammonia complex baths has been investigated by means of steady-state polarisation measurements in a system with a rotating disc electrode (RDE). Partial current densities for discharge of Ni(II) and Mo(VI) ions and hydrogen evolution as a function of molybdate concentration in the bath, cathode potentials and the rate of mass transport were determined. It has been shown that – under all investigated conditions – Ni–Mo alloy deposition is more favourable than pure nickel and the cathodic process is strongly influenced by the Mo(VI) content in the solution. The Ni(II) electroreduction rate initially increases, as the cathode potential shifts towards more negative values and the concentration of molybdate grows in the solution. However, for the highest examined MoO 4 2− content, a considerable decrease in the rate of the process is subsequently observed at certain limit potentials, the values of which depend on molybdate concentration and hydrodynamic conditions. This effect, related to the formation of intermediate molybdenum oxides (characterised by very low overvoltage for hydrogen evolution), becomes less pronounced when the RDE rotation speed is increased. Hydrogen evolution is strongly associated with molybdenum deposition. An increase of the molybdate ions concentration in the bath, as well as an increase in the rate of mass transport, leads to an increase in Mo content in deposits and to the reduction of current efficiency. The Ni–Mo coatings electrodeposited from the designed bath (with the current efficiency of about 70%) containing about 30 wt.% Mo, are characterised by a shiny-grey appearance and good adhesion to the steel substrate. They are characterised by column growth and amorphous microstructure with randomly distributed nanocrystallites of the MoNi 4 intermetallic phase.

  2. Daily chlorhexidine bathing does not increase skin toxicity after remission induction or stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeren, Dries; Dewulf, Evelyne; Verfaillie, Lydie

    2016-12-01

    A recent multicenter study demonstrated that bathing with chlorhexidine reduces the transmission of resistant organisms and the risk of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in ICUs. We wanted to confirm the feasibility of this strategy in a cohort of patients in a typical intensive haematology unit. Patients treated with remission induction chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation received daily chlorhexidine bathing. To avoid deshydratation of skin, we used prophylactic application of hydrating lotion, replaced by corticosteroid cream in case of skin toxicity of chemotherapy or conditioning. We studied 15 consecutive admissions of 12 patients. Daily chlorhexidine bathing never needed to be interrupted, even though 53% of patients were treated with intravenous cytarabine. Patients were satisfied with the skin treatment and reported few unwanted effects. Daily chlorhexidine bathing was feasible in our intensive haematology unit in all patients and did not increase skin toxicity, even when treated with IV cytarabine.

  3. Genuine three-qubit entanglement from coupling to a heat bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg Univ. (Germany); Braun, Daniel [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Initially unentangled qubits which do not interact which each other can become entangled by interacting with a common heat bath. But with more than two qubits, there exist several inequivalent types of entanglement. Therefore it is an important question which types of entanglement can be generated. While exactly determining and quantifying the entanglement for mixed states of more than two qubits is an unsolved problem, recent advancements based on the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger symmetry allow to determine a good lower bound for the entanglement. By using those methods we show that for three qubits coupled to the same heat bath indeed all types of entanglement can be generated for almost all separable initial states.

  4. Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Takeshi; Uto, H.; Shimokawa, Takaya; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing ...

  5. 67. The safety engineering at driving of destroyed hearth and repair of bath fettling during operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The safety engineering at driving of destroyed hearth and repair of bath fettling during operation was considered. All operational conditions at driving of destroyed hearth and repair of bath fettling during operation were studied.

  6. Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Şahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath.

  7. Annual and Seasonal Mean Net Evaporation Rates of the Red Sea Water during Jan 1958 - Dec 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Nassir, Sahbaldeen Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    Data set including sea level, temperature, salinity, and current from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) is used in this study to estimate the mean net annually and seasonally evaporation rates. Then wind data is used to examine its impact on the evaporation. This work calculated the seasonal and annual evaporation rates based on assumption of that there is no net mass transport (balanced). Hence, the difference in the transport supposed to be equal to the water that has eva...

  8. Movement of liquid metal in welding bath during welding in longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, I.M.; Rybakov, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The specific features are considered of liquid metal flow in a bath during welding of steel 12Kh18N10T plates with a non-consumable electrode in argon under interaction of the arc and bath with a longitudinal constant magnetic field. In controlling the velocity field of metal flow, the longitudinal magnetic field permits to form a seam at automatic welding of horizontal joints on a vertical plane

  9. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  10. Balneological use of thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W

    2001-01-01

    People have used geothermal water and mineral waters for bathing and their health for many thousand of years. Balneology, the practice of using natural mineral water for the treatment and cure of disease, also has a long history. Based on archeological finds in Asia, mineral water has been used for bathing since the Bronze Age, about 5000 years ago. Many hot springs have been used in connection with religious rites in Egypt and by the Jews of the Middle East. The Greeks, Turks and Romans were famous for their spa development and use from Persia to England. The word “spa” traces its origin to a town near Liège in southern Belgium near the German border. Here a spring of iron-bearing water was used by an iron master in 1326 to cure his ailments. He founded a health resort at the spring called Espa (meaning fountain in the Walloon language). Espa became so popular that the word know in English as spa became the common designation for similar health resorts around the world.

  11. Effects of single low-temperature sauna bathing in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiyama, Junichi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2008-07-01

    We have previously reported that thermal vasodilation following warm-water bathing and low-temperature sauna bathing (LTSB) at 60 degrees C for 15 min improves the cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure. Through a comparative before-and-after study, we studied the hemodynamic and clinical effects of single exposure to LTSB in cerebral palsy (CP) patients who usually suffer from chilled extremities and low cardiac output. The study population comprised 16 patients ranging between 19 and 53 years with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Noninvasive methods were used to estimate the systemic and peripheral circulatory changes before and after LTSB. Using blood flow velocity analysis, the pulsatile and resistive indexes of the peripheral arteries of the patients' lower limbs were calculated. Following LTSB, the patients' deep body temperature increased significantly by 1 degrees C. Their heart rates increased and blood pressure decreased slightly. The total peripheral resistance decreased by 11%, and the cardiac output increased by 14%. There was significant improvement in the parameters that are indicative of the peripheral circulatory status, including the skin blood flow, blood flow velocity, pulsatile index, and resistive index. Numbness and chronic myalgia of the extremities decreased. There were no adverse side effects. Thus, it can be concluded that LTSB improves the peripheral circulation in CP patients.

  12. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model predictions of annual maximum pesticide concentrations in high vulnerability watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Michael F; Peranginangin, Natalia; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Chen, Wenlin

    2018-05-01

    Recent national regulatory assessments of potential pesticide exposure of threatened and endangered species in aquatic habitats have led to increased need for watershed-scale predictions of pesticide concentrations in flowing water bodies. This study was conducted to assess the ability of the uncalibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations in the flowing water bodies of highly vulnerable small- to medium-sized watersheds. The SWAT was applied to 27 watersheds, largely within the midwest corn belt of the United States, ranging from 20 to 386 km 2 , and evaluated using consistent input data sets and an uncalibrated parameterization approach. The watersheds were selected from the Atrazine Ecological Exposure Monitoring Program and the Heidelberg Tributary Loading Program, both of which contain high temporal resolution atrazine sampling data from watersheds with exceptionally high vulnerability to atrazine exposure. The model performance was assessed based upon predictions of annual maximum atrazine concentrations in 1-d and 60-d durations, predictions critical in pesticide-threatened and endangered species risk assessments when evaluating potential acute and chronic exposure to aquatic organisms. The simulation results showed that for nearly half of the watersheds simulated, the uncalibrated SWAT model was able to predict annual maximum pesticide concentrations within a narrow range of uncertainty resulting from atrazine application timing patterns. An uncalibrated model's predictive performance is essential for the assessment of pesticide exposure in flowing water bodies, the majority of which have insufficient monitoring data for direct calibration, even in data-rich countries. In situations in which SWAT over- or underpredicted the annual maximum concentrations, the magnitude of the over- or underprediction was commonly less than a factor of 2, indicating that the model and uncalibrated parameterization

  13. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  14. Appropriate technology for solar energy system aiming water heating for human bath in houses of rural areas; Tecnologia apropriada para sistema de energia solar visando aquecimento de agua para o banho humano em moradias do meio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], e-mail: gatica@dglnet.com.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian land receives a great amount of solar radiation all over the year, therefore, because both the culture and practical aspects, Brazilians use in a non-moderate way the electricity to boil the water for human bath in the rural homes, in the lower income residences even at part of the medium class homes. That happens due to the very low price of an electrical shower, about US$ 6,5. In fact, that way of heating water is largely used because, besides the very low electrical shower price, it is not necessary to install a complete hot water both hydraulic and electrical building systems, but just both single hydraulic pipes and electrical devices. On the other hands, at rural regions where the electricity does not achieve the rural people uses firewood in order to get hot water for human bath. At the rural places the use of electrical showers has meaning an increase in the electrical transformers powers, heavier electrical transmission rural lines, with greater prices and, at the urban zones, the use of electrical showers in the lower social classes has contributed to a more expressive electrical load at the nacional electrical system load peck, between 5:30 to 8:30 a.m. The public administration, mostly, does not take into account both social, economic and environmental costs in order to think about the electricity offer. The solar heating systems, generally used in Brazil, conserves the same reservoirs used in France at 1880. Therefore, this paper presents some technical subsidies applied to rural homes, even to lower income people's homes aiming to stimulate the Brazilian public authorities to make a public police to facilitate both the industrialization and dissemination of solar heating systems, appropriate to the rural area, with lower costs, compounded by good technology equipment, with guarantee of lasting and quality. (author)

  15. The annual cycle of stratospheric water vapor in a general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, Philip W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of general circulation models (GCM's) to stratospheric chemistry and transport both permits and requires a thorough investigation of stratospheric water vapor. The National Center for Atmospheric Research has redesigned its GCM, the Community Climate Model (CCM2), to enable studies of the chemistry and transport of tracers including water vapor; the importance of water vapor to the climate and chemistry of the stratosphere requires that it be better understood in the atmosphere and well represented in the model. In this study, methane is carried as a tracer and converted to water; this simple chemistry provides an adequate representation of the upper stratospheric water vapor source. The cold temperature bias in the winter polar stratosphere, which the CCM2 shares with other GCM's, produces excessive dehydration in the southern hemisphere, but this dry bias can be ameliorated by setting a minimum vapor pressure. The CCM2's water vapor distribution and seasonality compare favorably with observations in many respects, though seasonal variations including the upper stratospheric semiannual oscillation are generally too small. Southern polar dehydration affects midlatitude water vapor mixing ratios by a few tenths of a part per million, mostly after the demise of the vortex. The annual cycle of water vapor in the tropical and northern midlatitude lower stratosphere is dominated by drying at the tropical tropopause. Water vapor has a longer adjustment time than methane and had not reached equilibrium at the end of the 9 years simulated here.

  16. The Use of Wetting Agents/Fume Suppressants for Minimizing the Atmospheric Emissions from Hard Chromium Electroplating Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    PFOA), perfluorooctane sulphonic acid (PFOSA) and clofibric acid . Biochim Biophys Acta 1128: 65-72 Kannan K, Koistinen J, Beckmen K, Evans T...mg/dscm (6.6 x 10-6 gr/dscf) Decorative Chromium Plating Baths Using Chromic Acid All new and existing baths 0.01 mg/dscm (4.4 x 10-6 gr/dscf...surface of the baths, causing the production of chromic acid mist. “Surface active” fume suppressants (also called surfactants) are added directly

  17. Toxin production and antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli isolated from bathing areas along the coastline of the Oslo fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Colin; Nordlie, Anne-Lise; Hjeltnes, Bjarne

    2014-09-01

    The presence of enterovirulent and/or antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in recreational bathing waters would represent a clear health issue. In total, 144 E. coli isolated from 26 beaches along the inner Oslo fjord were examined for virulence determinants and resistance to clinically important antibiotics. No isolates possessed the genetic determinants associated with enterotoxigenic strains and none showed the prototypic sorbitol negative, O157:H7 phenotype. A small number (∼1 %) produced alpha-hemolysin. Occurrences and patterns of antibiotic resistances were similar to those of E. coli isolated previously from environmental samples. In total, 6 % of the strains showed one or more clinically relevant resistances and 1.4 % were multi-drug resistant. Microarray analyses suggested that the resistance determinants were generally associated with mobile genetic elements. Resistant strains were not clonally related, and were, furthermore not concentrated at one or a few beach sites. This suggests that these strains are entering the waters at a low rate but in a widespread manner. The study demonstrates that resistant E. coli are present in coastal bathing waters where they can come into contact with bathers, and that the resistance determinants are potentially transferable. Some of the resistances registered in the study are to important antibiotics used in human medicine such as fluoroquinolones. The spread of antibiotic resistant genes, from the clinical setting to the environment, has clear implications with respect to the current management of bacterial infections and the long term value of antimicrobial therapy. The present study is the first of its kind in Norway.

  18. Effect of Bath Temperature on Cooling Performance of Molten Eutectic NaNO3-KNO3 Quench Medium for Martempering of Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranesh Rao, K. M.; Narayan Prabhu, K.

    2017-10-01

    Martempering is an industrial heat treatment process that requires a quench bath that can operate without undergoing degradation in the temperature range of 423 K to 873 K (150 °C to 600 °C). The quench bath is expected to cool the steel part from the austenizing temperature to quench bath temperature rapidly and uniformly. Molten eutectic NaNO3-KNO3 mixture has been widely used in industry to martemper steel parts. In the present work, the effect of quench bath temperature on the cooling performance of a molten eutectic NaNO3-KNO3 mixture has been studied. An Inconel ASTM D-6200 probe was heated to 1133 K (860 °C) and subsequently quenched in the quench bath maintained at different temperatures. Spatially dependent transient heat flux at the metal-quenchant interface for each bath temperature was calculated using inverse heat conduction technique. Heat transfer occurred only in two stages, namely, nucleate boiling and convective cooling. The mean peak heat flux ( q max) decreased with increase in quench bath temperature, whereas the mean surface temperature corresponding to q max and mean surface temperature at the start of convective cooling stage increased with increase in quench bath temperature. The variation in normalized cooling parameter t 85 along the length of the probe increased with increase in quench bath temperature.

  19. Water treatment in public swimming pools - reduction of energy consumption; Vandbehandling i svoemmebade - reduktion af energiforbrug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerich, H.; Radisch, N. (Ramboell, Koege (Denmark)); Olesen, Jens Christian (Gladsaxe Sportscenter, Gladsaxe (Denmark)) (and others)

    2010-04-15

    Measurements were made in five public swimming baths, and energy savings were achieved using new filters, pumps, water treatment control depending on bather load, etc. In a 50 metre pool, electricity consumption for water treatment decreased by 50%, and in a hot-water/paddling pool, electricity consumption decreased by 30-40% while still maintaining satisfactory water quality - even during periods of heavy bather load. In another swimming bath, ventilation electricity consumption was reduced by 15%. The results will e.g. be used to revise the Danish executive order on swimming pools and water quality to allow bather load-dependent water circulation. (ln)

  20. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  1. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON SULPHIDE THIN FILMS BY CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FeS2 thin films have been deposited by using low cost chemical bath deposition technique. The films obtained under deposition parameters such as bath temperature (90 °C, deposition period (90 min, electrolyte concentration (0.15 M and pH of the reactive mixture (pH 2.5. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in order to study the structural and morphological properties. The band gap energy, transition type and absorption properties were determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction displayed a pattern consistent with the formation of an orthorhombic structure, with a strong (110 preferred orientation. Atomic force microscopy image showed the substrate surface is well covered with irregular grains. A direct band gap of 1.85 eV was obtained according to optical absorption studies.   Keywords: Iron sulfide, X-ray diffraction, chemical bath deposition, thin films

  2. Regional annual water yield from forest lands and its response to potential deforestation across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Lu; Devendra M. Amatya; Y. Liang; R.K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Regional water yield at a meso-scale can be estimated as the difference between precipitation input and evapotranspiration output. Forest water yield from the southeastern US varies greatly both in space and time. Because of the hot climate and high evapotranspiration, less than half of the annual precipitation that falls on forest lands is available for stream flow...

  3. Theory of open quantum systems with bath of electrons and phonons and spins: many-dissipaton density matrixes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, YiJing

    2014-02-07

    This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics.

  4. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  5. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  6. Nuclear spin bath effects in molecular nanomagnets: Direct quantum mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, N. A.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2004-11-01

    We investigate the influence of nuclear spins on the electronic spin tunneling in magnetic molecules such as Fe8 , focusing on the role of the spin diffusion in the nuclear spin bath. We simulate the quantum spin dynamics by numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the compound system (the electronic spin plus the bath spins). Our results demonstrate that the effect of the spin bath cannot always be modeled as a randomly varying magnetic field acting on the electronic spin. We consider two dynamical regimes: the spin relaxation in a constant magnetic field, and the spin tunneling in the linearly varying magnetic field passing the avoided level crossing, so-called Landau-Zener-Stückelberg (LZS) transition. For the first regime, we confirmed that the hole in the magnetization distribution has the width of the hyperfine fields distribution. For the second regime, we found that the transition probability for moderately slow sweeps deviates from the standard LZS prediction, while for the fast sweeps the deviation is negligible.

  7. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  8. Superconducting-circuit quantum heat engine with frequency resolved thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Patrick P.; Souquet, Jean-René; Clerk, Aashish A.

    The study of quantum heat engines promises to unravel deep, fundamental concepts in quantum thermodynamics. With this in mind, we propose a novel, realistic device that efficiently converts heat into work while maintaining reasonably large output powers. The key concept in our proposal is a highly peaked spectral density in both the thermal baths as well as the working fluid. This allows for a complete separation of the heat current from the working fluid. In our setup, Cooper pairs tunnelling across a Josephson junction serve as the the working fluid, while two resonant cavities coupled to the junction act as frequency-resolved thermal baths. The device is operated such that a heat flux carried entirely by the photons induces an electrical current against a voltage bias, providing work.

  9. Impact of intra- versus inter-annual snow depth variation on water relations and photosynthesis for two Great Basin Desert shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loik, Michael E; Griffith, Alden B; Alpert, Holly; Concilio, Amy L; Wade, Catherine E; Martinson, Sharon J

    2015-06-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water in certain ecosystems of North America. We tested the hypothesis that snow depth variation affects soil water content, which in turn drives water potential (Ψ) and photosynthesis, over 10 years for two widespread shrubs of the western USA. Stem Ψ (Ψ stem) and photosynthetic gas exchange [stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s), and CO2 assimilation (A)] were measured in mid-June each year from 2004 to 2013 for Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae). Snow fences were used to create increased or decreased snow depth plots. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient plots in most years, and 20 % lower on -snow plots, consistent with several down-scaled climate model projections. Maximal soil water content at 40- and 100-cm depths was correlated with February snow depth. For both species, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) showed that Ψ stem, g s, and A were significantly affected by intra-annual variation in snow depth. Within years, MANOVA showed that only A was significantly affected by spatial snow depth treatments for A. tridentata, and Ψ stem was significantly affected by snow depth for P. tridentata. Results show that stem water relations and photosynthetic gas exchange for these two cold desert shrub species in mid-June were more affected by inter-annual variation in snow depth by comparison to within-year spatial variation in snow depth. The results highlight the potential importance of changes in inter-annual variation in snowfall for future shrub photosynthesis in the western Great Basin Desert.

  10. Simulation of a DC electric arc furnace for steelmaking: study in the arc and bath regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Argaez, M. A.; Trapaga Martinez, L. G.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe fluid flow, heat transfer, and electromagnetic phenomena in the arc and bath regions of DC electric Arc Furnaces (DC-EAF). The model is used to examine the effect on flow patterns and temperature distribution in the bath, under the influence of both an arc and bottom argon injection in steel or steel/slag systems. Validation of the model employed experimental measurements from systems physically related to DC-EAF from literature. For the conditions analyzed, electromagnetic forces dominate the fluid motion in the bath. Buoyancy and shear forces from the arc have a negligible effect in driving the flow; however, they partially counteract the electromagnetic forces. Slag decreases fluid motion in the steel and enhances temperature stratification in the system. Stirring of the bath, using a 3-nozzle inert gas injection system, is found to promote temperature uniformity in the regions near the lateral wall of the furnace. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  12. Electrocrystallisation of zinc from acidic sulphate baths; A nucleation and crystal growth process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilakopoulos, D.; Bouroushian, M.; Spyrellis, N.

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical nucleation and growth of zinc on low-carbon steel from acidic (pH 2.0-4.5) baths containing ZnSO 4 , NaCl, and H 3 BO 3 , was studied by means of chronoamperometry at various cathodic potentials under a charge-transfer controlled regime. It is shown that at overpotentials in the range 0.30-0.55 V (negative to the Zn 2+ /Zn redox value) the electrodeposition proceeds by instantaneous three-dimensional nucleation, which turns to progressive at higher overpotentials and/or very acidic baths. At low cathodic overpotentials (<0.30 V), a two-dimensional contribution limited by the incorporation of Zn ad-atoms in the developing lattice becomes significant at the early stages of deposition, and is more progressive in type the more acidic is the bath pH. Nucleation rate constants were calculated and correlated analytically with the respective potentials, using the classical theory of heterogeneous nucleation, which though fails to lead to reasonable values for the critical nucleus size

  13. Coherent oscillation in a linear quantum system coupled to a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, N.F.; Volkas, R.R.; Sawyer, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the time development of the density matrix for a system coupled to a thermal bath, in models that go beyond the standard two-level systems through addition of an energy excitation degree of freedom and through the possibility of the replacement of the spin algebra by a more complex algebra. We find conditions under which increasing the coupling to the bath above a certain level decreases the rate of entropy production, and in which the limiting behavior is a dissipationless sinusoidal oscillation that could be interpreted as the synchronization of many modes of the uncoupled system

  14. Topology of a dissipative spin: Dynamical Chern number, bath-induced nonadiabaticity, and a quantum dynamo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Loïc; Sclocchi, Antonio; Orth, Peter P.; Le Hur, Karyn

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the topological deformations of the ground state manifold of a quantum spin-1/2 in a magnetic field H =H (sinθ cosϕ ,sinθ sinϕ ,cosθ ) induced by a coupling to an ohmic quantum dissipative environment at zero temperature. From Bethe ansatz results and a variational approach, we confirm that the Chern number associated with the geometry of the reduced spin ground state manifold is preserved in the delocalized phase for α <1 . We report a divergence of the Berry curvature at αc=1 for magnetic fields aligned along the equator θ =π /2 . This divergence is caused by the complete quenching of the transverse magnetic field by the bath associated with a gap closing that occurs at the localization Kosterlitz-Thouless quantum phase transition in this model. Recent experiments in quantum circuits have engineered nonequilibrium protocols to access topological properties from a measurement of a dynamical Chern number defined via the out-of-equilibrium spin expectation values. Applying a numerically exact stochastic Schrödinger approach we find that, for a fixed field sweep velocity θ (t )=v t , the bath induces a crossover from (quasi)adiabatic to nonadiabatic dynamical behavior when the spin bath coupling α increases. We also investigate the particular regime H /ωc≪v /H ≪1 with large bath cutoff frequency ωc, where the dynamical Chern number vanishes already at α =1 /2 . In this regime, the mapping to an interacting resonance level model enables us to analytically describe the behavior of the dynamical Chern number in the vicinity of α =1 /2 . We further provide an intuitive physical explanation of the bath-induced breakdown of adiabaticity in analogy to the Faraday effect in electromagnetism. We demonstrate that the driving of the spin leads to the production of a large number of bosonic excitations in the bath, which strongly affect the spin dynamics. Finally, we quantify the spin-bath entanglement and formulate an analogy with an effective

  15. Flatbed scanners as a source of imaging. Brightness assessment and additives determination in a nickel electroplating bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Ostra, M; Ubide, C; Zuriarrain, J

    2011-05-23

    Desktop flatbed scanners are very well-known devices that can provide digitized information of flat surfaces. They are practically present in most laboratories as a part of the computer support. Several quality levels can be found in the market, but all of them can be considered as tools with a high performance and low cost. The present paper shows how the information obtained with a scanner, from a flat surface, can be used with fine results for exploratory and quantitative purposes through image analysis. It provides cheap analytical measurements for assessment of quality parameters of coated metallic surfaces and monitoring of electrochemical coating bath lives. The samples used were steel sheets nickel-plated in an electrodeposition bath. The quality of the final deposit depends on the bath conditions and, especially, on the concentration of the additives in the bath. Some additives become degraded with the bath life and so is the quality of the plate finish. Analysis of the scanner images can be used to follow the evolution of the metal deposit and the concentration of additives in the bath. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to find significant differences in the coating of sheets, to find directions of maximum variability and to identify odd samples. The results found are favorably compared with those obtained by means of specular reflectance (SR), which is here used as a reference technique. Also the concentration of additives SPB and SA-1 along a nickel bath life can be followed using image data handled with algorithms such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector regression (SVR). The quantitative results obtained with these and other algorithms are compared. All this opens new qualitative and quantitative possibilities to flatbed scanners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of nanocrystalline nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4) thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, D.K.; Pawar, S.M.; Patil, P.S.; Kolekar, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → We have successfully synthesized nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films on stainless steel substrates using a low temperature chemical bath deposition method. → The surface morphological study showed the compact flakes like morphology. → The as-deposited thin films are hydrophilic (10 o o ) whereas the annealed thin films are super hydrophilic (θ o ) in nature. → Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films could be used in supercapacitor. - Abstract: The nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates using a chemical bath deposition method from alkaline bath. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static water contact angle and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that deposited Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films were oriented along (3 1 1) plane. The FTIR spectra showed strong absorption peaks around 600 cm -1 which are typical for cubic spinel crystal structure. SEM study revealed compact flakes like morphology having thickness ∼1.8 μm after air annealing. The annealed films were super hydrophilic in nature having a static water contact angle (θ) of 5 o .The electrochemical supercapacitor study of Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films has been carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The values of interfacial and specific capacitances obtained were 0.0285 F cm -2 and 19 F g -1 , respectively.

  17. Electrodeposition in the Ni-plating bath containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Baigang; Li Lixiang; Li Hongxi

    2008-01-01

    An electrodeposition procedure is performed in the Ni-plating bath containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The effects of MWNTs on the electrodeposits and process of Ni deposition are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The results show that there is an optimum concentration of MWNTs, at which the surface of the cathode can be uniformly and completely covered by MWNTs and thus Ni can be uniformly deposited on the MWNTs to form the MWNTs coated with a uniform Ni layer. The introduction of MWNTs in the Ni-plating bath increases the cathodic polarization of Ni deposition due to the two aspects as follows: The addition of MWNTs enhances the charge transfer for the reduction of Ni and also supplies a large active surface area for a great deal of nucleation of Ni, consequently results in an increase of concentration polarization. The deposition of Ni on the MWNTs requires the higher activation energy than that on the Cu. The MWNTs adsorbed on the cathode also induce Ni to deposit as smaller grains due to a large increase of nucleation sites of Ni. Therefore, more uniform and compact coating in appearance than Ni coating formed in the plating bath without MWNTs can be obtained

  18. Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... 2Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA ... The robustness of synchronization strategy is tested using a local and global ..... enhancement effect that the oscillatory bath has in the ...

  19. Water heating solar system using collector with polycarbonate absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira de; Sodre, Dilton; Cavalcanti, Eduardo Jose Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Vieira Meira de; Mendes, Jose Ubiragi de Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)], e-mails: lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br, diltonsodre@ifba.edu.br, ubiragi@ct.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    It is presented s solar collector to be used in a heating water for bath system, whose main characteristics are low cost and easy fabrication and assembly processes. The collector absorber surface consists of a polycarbonate plate with an area of 1.5 m{sup 2}. The water inlet and outlet are made of PVC 50mm, and were coupled to a 6mm thick polycarbonate plate using fiberglass resin. A 200 liters thermal reservoir will be used. This reservoir is also alternative. The absorber heating system works under thermo-siphon regimen. Thermal parameters will be evaluated to prove the feasibility of the studied solar heating system to obtain bath water for a four people family. (author)

  20. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-08-16

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need.

  1. Comparing the effects of reflexology and foot bath on sleep quality in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyedrasooli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common mental problems reported among elders. It seems some non-pharmacological interventions, can improve their sleep quality. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions, reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people. Methods: This is a clinical trial without control group, conducted on 46 elderly men in two groups of reflexology and foot bath. Written informed consent was completed by subjects. Reflexolo...

  2. Dynamics and quantum Zeno effect for a qubit in either a low- or high-frequency bath beyond the rotating-wave approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiufeng; You, J. Q.; Zheng, H.; Kofman, A. G.; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We use a non-Markovian approach to study the decoherence dynamics of a qubit in either a low- or high-frequency bath modeling the qubit environment. This is done for two separate cases: either with measurements or without them. This approach is based on a unitary transformation and does not require the rotating-wave approximation. In the case without measurement, we show that, for low-frequency noise, the bath shifts the qubit energy toward higher energies (blue shift), while the ordinary high-frequency cutoff Ohmic bath shifts the qubit energy toward lower energies (red shift). In order to preserve the coherence of the qubit, we also investigate the dynamics of the qubit subject to measurements (quantum Zeno regime) in two cases: low- and high-frequency baths. For very frequent projective measurements, the low-frequency bath gives rise to the quantum anti-Zeno effect on the qubit. The quantum Zeno effect only occurs in the high-frequency-cutoff Ohmic bath, after counterrotating terms are considered. In the condition that the decay rate due to the two kinds of baths are equal under the Wigner-Weisskopf approximation, we find that without the approximation, for a high-frequency environment, the decay rate should be faster (without measurements) or slower (with frequent measurements, in the Zeno regime), compared to the low-frequency bath case. The experimental implementation of our results here could distinguish the type of bath (either a low- or high-frequency one) and protect the coherence of the qubit by modulating the dominant frequency of its environment.

  3. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinneke M. J. Beirens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Drowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0–1 years. The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision during bathing, socio-demographic factors, and Protection Motivation Theory-constructs. To determine correlates of parents who leave their infant unsupervised, logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the parents, 6.2% left their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Parents with older children (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00–1.54 were more likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. First-time parents (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.36–0.97 and non-Western migrant fathers (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.05–0.63 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Furthermore, parents who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.47–0.69, higher response efficacy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.24–0.48, and higher severity (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58–0.93 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised. Since young children are at great risk of drowning if supervision is absent, effective strategies for drowning prevention should be developed and evaluated. In the meantime, health care professionals should inform parents with regard to the importance of supervision during bathing.

  4. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Mitsuzak, Naotoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Chen, Zhidong, E-mail: zdchen.lab@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials, Surface and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Material and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ChCl was applied as additive and conducting salt in Watts-type bath. • Progressive addition of ChCl leads to the crystal orientation (1 1 1) predominant. • The grain size and microhardness were refined and enhanced by increasing ChCl. • ChCl could be a good alternative to NiCl{sub 2} and additives for bright Ni electroplating. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h{sup −1} when 20 g L{sup −1} ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  5. Electrodeposition of CdTe thin film from acetate-based ionic liquid bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Bhagat, Dharini; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    CdTe being a direct band gap semiconductor, is mostly used in photovoltaics. Here we present, the synthesis of CdTe thin film on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate potentiostatically using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]) ionic liquid (IL) bath at 90 °C. Major advantages of using electrodeposition involves process simplicity, large scalability & economic viability. Some of the benefits offered by IL electrolytic bath are low vapour pressure, wide electrochemical window, and good ionic mobility. Cd(CH3COO)2 (anhydrous) and TeO2 were used as the source precursors. The IL electrolytic bath temperature was kept at 90 °C for deposition, owing to the limited solubility of TeO2 in [Bmim][Ac] IL at room temperature. Cathodic electrodeposition was carried out using a three electrode cell setup at a constant potential of -1.20 V vs. platinum (Pt) wire. The CdTe/FTO thin film were annealed in argon (Ar) atmosphere. Optical study of nanostructured CdTe film were done using UV-Vis-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Raman analysis confirms the formation of CdTe having surface optics (SO) mode at 160.6 cm-1 and transverse optics (TO) mode at 140.5 cm-1. Elemental Te peaks at 123, 140.5 and 268 cm-1 were also observed. The optical band gap of Ar annealed CdTe thin film were found to be 1.47 eV (absorbance band edge ˜ 846 nm). The optimization of deposition parameters using acetate-based IL electrolytic bath to get nearly stoichiometric CdTe thin film is currently being explored.

  6. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-01-01

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need. (orig.)

  7. Quantum trajectory analysis of multimode subsystem-bath dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Robert E; Na, Kyungsun

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics of a swarm of quantum trajectories is investigated for systems involving the interaction of an active mode (the subsystem) with an M-mode harmonic reservoir (the bath). Equations of motion for the position, velocity, and action function for elements of the probability fluid are integrated in the Lagrangian (moving with the fluid) picture of quantum hydrodynamics. These fluid elements are coupled through the Bohm quantum potential and as a result evolve as a correlated ensemble. Wave function synthesis along the trajectories permits an exact description of the quantum dynamics for the evolving probability fluid. The approach is fully quantum mechanical and does not involve classical or semiclassical approximations. Computational results are presented for three systems involving the interaction on an active mode with M=1, 10, and 15 bath modes. These results include configuration space trajectory evolution, flux analysis of the evolving ensemble, wave function synthesis along trajectories, and energy partitioning along specific trajectories. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a small number of quantum trajectories to obtain accurate quantum results on some types of open quantum systems that are not amenable to standard quantum approaches involving basis set expansions or Eulerian space-fixed grids.

  8. Evaluation of the quality of coastal bathing waters in Spain through fecal bacteria Escherichia coli and Enterococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragonés, L; López, I; Palazón, A; López-Úbeda, R; García, C

    2016-10-01

    Sun. and beach tourism is very important to the economy of Spain, so the control of the quality of the environment on the beaches is essential. Therefore, the analysis and control of the quality of bathing water is necessary, which is defined by the European Directive 2006/7/EC as excellent, good or sufficient depending on the presence of microbiological contamination or other organisms or waste presenting a risk to bathers' health. For that, 1392 beaches of the Iberian Peninsula and its islands were analysed, taking into account: fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus), physical characteristics of sediment, level of urbanization, climatic and anthropogenic factors, and maritime climate. Thus, it was observed that urban sand beaches located in seas with fewer hours of sunshine and important tide have higher concentrations of E. coli and Enterococcus. There is also an indirect relationship between these microorganisms with salinity (R(2) 0.746 for E. coli and 0.606 for Enterococcus), temperature (R(2) 0.743 for E. coli and 0.604 for Enterococcus) and hours of sunshine (R(2) 0.781 for E. coli and 0.706 for Enterococcus), while this relationship is direct with rainfall (R(2) 0.640 for E. coli and 0.607 for Enterococcus) or wave height (R(2) 0.769 for E. coli and 0.601 for Enterococcus). From all this, it follows that the Directive 2006/7/EC should define more specific criteria as to the place and time of sampling, and take into account the different environment variables that influence the survival of bacteria, so that the results may reflect reality, and avoid staff responsible for sampling freely choose the place and time of sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Systems Study on the Antirheumatic Mechanism of Tibetan Medicated-Bath Therapy Using Wuwei-Ganlu-Yaoyu-Keli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice at Tibetan area of China, Traditional Tibetan Medicine formula Wuwei-Ganlu-Yaoyu-Keli (WGYK is commonly added in warm water of bath therapy to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, its mechanism of action is not well interpreted yet. In this paper, we first verify WGYK’s anti-RA effect by an animal experiment. Then, based on gene expression data from microarray experiments, we apply approaches of network pharmacology to further reveal the mechanism of action for WGYK to treat RA by analyzing protein-protein interactions and pathways. This study may facilitate our understanding of anti-RA effect of WGYK from perspective of network pharmacology.

  10. Effects of gelling bath on the physical properties of alginate gel beads and the biological characteristics of entrapped HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hao; Ren, Ying; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Huijian; Sun, Guangwei

    2018-03-01

    Optimizing alginate gel beads is necessary to support the survival, proliferation, and function of entrapped hepatocytes. In this study, gelling bath was modified by decreasing calcium ion concentration and increasing sodium ion concentration. Alginate gel beads (using 36% G sodium alginate) prepared in the modified gelling bath had more homogeneous structure and better mass transfer properties compared with the traditional gelling bath that contains only calcium ions. Moreover, alginate gel beads generated in the modified gelling bath could significantly promote the HepG2 cell proliferation and the growth of cell spheroids, and maintain the albumin secretion ability similar to alginate gel beads prepared in the traditional gelling bath with only calcium ions. The mass transfer properties and cell proliferation were similar in ALG beads with different M/G ratio (36% G and 55% G) generated in the modified gelling bath, whereas they were significantly increased compared with alginate gel beads (55% G) in traditional gelling bath. These results indicated that adjusting the gelling bath was a simple and convenient method to enhance the mass transfer properties of alginate gel beads for 3D hepatocyte culture, which might provide more hepatocytes for the bioartificial liver support system. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Usefulness of implantable loop recorder in a patient with syncope during bathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Nakao, MD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 1-year-hisory of repeated syncope, which particularly occurred while bathing or on a hot day. The head-up tilt test did not induce arrhythmia; however, blood pressure decreased by 39 mm Hg without any symptoms. Given that no bradycardia/tachycardia was induced on electrophysiological study and carotid sinus massage, an implantable loop recorder (ILR was implanted. After 2 months, syncope again occurred during bathing at midnight. Sinus arrest and a maximum ventricular pause of 10.2 s were documented using the ILR. After pacemaker implantation, the patient had not experienced syncope for 14 months.

  12. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωbrate for the quantum and for the classical Kramers models. Results for the classical escape rate are in very good agreement with the numerical simulations for high barriers. The results can serve as an additional proof of the robustness and accuracy of the linear response theory.

  13. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2018-02-01

    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  14. Microbial safety assessment of recreation water at Lake Nabugabo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Key words: Lake Nabugabo, microbial safety assessment, recreation water, water quality. ... the environment is favourable for growth (Jaiani et al., ... Swimming and bathing in inland waters are recognized .... in India. This can be attributed to variation in number of recreational users and the frequency of use of the various.

  15. Reproductive allocation strategies in desert and Mediterranean populations of annual plants grown with and without water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J; Kigel, J; Shmida, A

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive effort (relative allocation of biomass to diaspore production) was compared in matched pairs of Mediterranean and desert populations of three unrelated annual species, Erucaria hispanica (L.) Druce, Bromus fasciculatus C. Presl. and Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv., grown under high and low levels of water availability in a common-environment experiment. Desert populations in all three species showed higher reproductive effort than corresponding Mediterranean populations, as expressed by both a reproductive index (RI= reproductive biomass/vegetative biomass), and a reproductive efficiency index (REI=number of diaspores/total plant biomass). Moreover, in E. hispanica and Brachypodium distachyon, inter-populational differences in reproductive effort were greater under water stress, the main limiting factor for plant growth in the desert. These results indicate that variability in reproductive effort in response to drought is a critical and dynamic component of life history strategies in annual species in heterogeneous, unpredictable xeric environments. When subjected to water stress the Mediterranean populations of E. hispanica and B. distachyon showed greater plasticity (e.g. had a greater reduction) in reproductive effort than the desert populations, while in Bromus fasciculatus both populations showed similar amounts of plasticity.

  16. Effects and safety of mechanical bathing as a complementary therapy for terminal stage cancer patients from the physiological and psychological perspective: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Sawako; Iwawaki, Yoko; Takishita, Yukie; Yamamoto, Yoko; Murota, Masako; Yoshioka, Saori; Hayano, Azusa; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2017-11-01

    In palliative care hospitals in Japan, mechanical bathing is conducted to maintain cleanliness. However, the physiological and psychological influence of mechanical bathing on patients has not been sufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to assess, using physiological and psychological indices, the effects of mechanical bathing care for patients in the terminal stage of cancer. Mechanical bathing was performed using a Marine Court SB7000 in a supine or semi-seated position. The heart rate variability analysis method was used to measure autonomic nervous system function. The patients' state of anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a psychological index, and patients' verbal responses were also collected after mechanical bathing. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. Their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity did not differ before and after bathing. A significant difference was found between pre- and post-bathing anxiety, as evaluated by STAI (P mechanical bathing according to STAI evaluation and their verbal responses. The findings suggest that the method of bathing used in this study is safe and pain-relieving for terminal stage cancer patients. It is thus possible to provide safe and comfortable care for terminal stage cancer patients using mechanical baths. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-07-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  18. Thermal equilibrium properties of surface hopping with an implicit Langevin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, M. C.; Corcelli, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) approach, where the classical degrees of freedom are coupled to an implicit Langevin bath, to establish and maintain an appropriate thermal equilibrium was evaluated in the context of a three site model for electron transfer. The electron transfer model consisted of three coupled diabatic states that each depends harmonically on the collective bath coordinate. This results in three states with increasing energy in the adiabatic representation. The adiabatic populations and distributions of the collective solvent coordinate were monitored during the course of 250 ns FSSH-Langevin (FSSH-L) simulations performed at a broad range of temperatures and for three different nonadiabatic coupling strengths. The agreement between the FSSH-L simulations and numerically exact results for the adiabatic population ratios and solvent coordinate distributions was generally favorable. The FSSH-L method produces a correct Boltzmann distribution of the solvent coordinate on each of the adiabats, but the integrated populations are slightly incorrect because FSSH does not rigorously obey detailed balance. The overall agreement is better at high temperatures and for high nonadiabatic coupling, which agrees with a previously reported analytical and simulation analysis [J. R. Schmidt, P. V. Parandekar, and J. C. Tully, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 044104 (2008)] on a two-level system coupled to a classical bath

  19. Replication of Annual Cycles in Mn in Hudson River Cores: Mn Peaks During High Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. H.; Hutson, D.; Marrero, A. M.; Block, K. A.; Chang, C.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using the results from an ITRAX, XRF scanner, we previously reported apparent annual cycles in Mn in a single, high sedimentation rate Hudson River core, LWB1-8, taken off Yonkers, NY (Carlson et al., 2016). We replicated these results in three more high sedimentation rate cores and found stratigraphic markers that verify our inferences about the annual nature of the Mn cycles. The three new cores are LWB4-5 taken off Peekskill, NY, and LWB3-44 and LWB3-25, both taken in Haverstraw Bay. The cores are from water depths of 7-9 meters and all have high magnetic susceptibilities (typically > 30 cgs units) in their upper 1 to 2 meters. The high susceptibilities are primarily produced by magnetite from modern industrial combustion. One core, LWB1-8, has reconnaissance Cs dates that verify the annual nature of the cycles. More Cs dates are expected before the meeting. We developed several new methods of verifying the annual nature of our layer counts. The first is looking at the grain size distribution and age of layers with unusually high Mn peaks. Peaks in Si, Ni and Ti and peaks in percentage of coarse material typically accompany the peaks in Mn. Some are visible as yellow sandy layers. The five highest peaks in Mn in LWB1-8 have layer counted ages that correspond (within 1 year in the top meter and within 2 years in the bottom meter) to 1996, 1948, 1913, 1857 and 1790. The latter three events are the three largest historical spring freshets on the Hudson. 1996 is a year of unusually high flow rate during the spring freshet. Based on our work and previous work on Mn cycling in rivers, we infer that the peaks in Mn are produced by extreme erosional events that erode sediment and release pore water Mn into the water column. The other methods of testing our chronology involve marine storms that increase Ca and Sr and a search for fragments of the Peekskill meteorite that fell in October 1992. More information on the latter will be available by the meeting.

  20. Effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime of a deep water body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, O.B.; Zinov'ev, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of any large hydraulic structure leads to the occurrence of new ecosystems in the upper and lower pools of the hydro development. A study of scenarios of the development of these ecosystems and an investigation of the possibilities of minimizing the negative ecological consequences of waterpower engineering by means of mathematical modeling in many respects determine the quality of developing the scientific and technical project. For high-head hydroelectric stations, an effective tool for controlling the water quality in the upper and lower pools is the withdrawal of water form different horizons of the upper pool reservoir. Temperature stratification of a deep sluggish water body is modeled in a one-dimensional vertical approximation with the use of an improved method of describing fluid outflow. The effect of selective withdrawal on the annual thermal regime and temperature of the outflowing water was studied. The results obtained permit estimating the effect of selective withdrawal on the thermal regime of the upper pool of the planned hydro development and temperature of the water being discharged into the lower pool on the possibility, in principle, of the water temperature in the lower pool approaching the natural both in winter and summer

  1. Deposition and characterization of ZnS thin films using chemical bath deposition method in the presence of sodium tartrate as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, A.; Tee, T.W.; Min, H.S.; Nagalingam, S.

    2011-01-01

    ZnS thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition method. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The influence of bath temperature on the structure and morphology of the thin films was investigated at three different bath temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C in the presence of sodium tartrate as a complexing agent. The XRD results indicated that the deposited ZnS thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of ZnS peaks increased from three to four peaks as the bath temperature was increased from 60 to 80 deg. C based on the XRD patterns. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the bath temperature. The grain size increased as the bath temperature was increased from 60 to 80 deg. C. (author)

  2. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liang

    Full Text Available Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds.

  3. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics

  4. THE AROMATIC PHYTO-BATHS ARE AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF HYDROTHERAPY IN COMPLEX REHABILITATIVE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Konova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drugs and phytoaromatic substances increases the efficacy of balneotherapy. Mineral, medicinal and aromatic baths are widely used in complex rehabilitation of patients from 1 month of age. Aromatic phyto-baths have a complex mechanism of action and a wide variety of therapeutic effects. Today special products based on natural plant components and essential oilsare are developed to prepare the aromatic phyto-baths. Only officially registered industrial drugs with clinical efficacy and safety were proven by clinical researches can be recommended for the pediatric using. Our studies demonstrated a positive impact aromatic phyto-baths to the dynamics of clinical symptoms at the patients with acute respiratory infections, atopic dermatitis; and also were revealed an increase of adaptive organism reserves.

  5. The Salutary Influence of Forest Bathing on Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genxiang Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that forest bathing would be beneficial for elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF as an adjunctive therapy. Two groups of participants with CHF were simultaneously sent to the forest or an urban control area for a four-day trip, respectively. Subjects exposed to the forest site showed a significant reduction of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in comparison to that of the city group and their own baseline levels. The values for the cardiovascular disease related pathological factors, including endothelin-1 (ET-1, and constituents of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, including renin, angiotensinogen (AGT, angiotensin II (ANGII, and ANGII receptor type 1 or 2 (AT1 or AT2 in subjects exposed to the forest environment were lower than those in the urban control group. Obviously, a decreased level of inflammatory cytokines and improved antioxidant function was observed in the forest group rather than in the city group. The assessment of the profile of mood states (POMS indicated that the negative emotional mood state was alleviated after forest bathing. As anticipated, a better air quality in the forest site was observed according to the detection of PM2.5 (particulate matter <2.5 μm and negative ions. These results provided direct evidence that forest bathing has a beneficial effect on CHF patients, and thus may pave the way for potential development of forest bathing as an effective adjunctive therapy on cardiovascular disorders.

  6. Characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of grey water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. Thorough characterization of 192 time proportional samples of grey water from 32 houses was conducted over a period of 14 months. COD concentrations were 724 ± 150 mg L- 1, of which 34% was

  7. Topical analgesic added to paraffin enhances paraffin bath treatment of individuals with hand osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrer, Joseph William; Johnson, Aaron Wayne; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Measom, Gary J; Fellingham, Gilbert W

    2011-01-01

    To compare treating patients with symptomatic hand osteoarthritis (OA) with paraffin baths only (PO) (100% wax) or paraffin baths 80% wax with 20% topical analgesic (PTA). Subjects met criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for classifying symptomatic hand OA and had a Dreiser's index score >5 points. Current and average pain at rest and with movement was assessed with visual analogue scales. Hand function was assessed by the functional index for hand OA (FIHOA). Both groups had a significant reduction in their 'current' pain 15 min after the first and twelfth treatments compared to pre-treatment but there was no difference between groups (t = 0.10, p > 0.05). The PTA group had greater improvement over the 12 treatment sessions for their pain at rest (t = 2.92, p paraffin produced significantly greater pain relief at rest and during movement than paraffin baths alone after 12 treatments. Additionally, the PTA group experienced greater improved hand function.

  8. Water quality, streamflow conditions, and annual flow-duration curves for streams of the San Juan–Chama Project, southern Colorado and northern New Mexico, 1935-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Sarah E.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Hafich, Katya A.

    2013-01-01

    The Albuquerque–Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority supplements the municipal water supply for the Albuquerque metropolitan area, in central New Mexico, with water diverted from the Rio Grande. Water diverted from the Rio Grande for municipal use is derived from the San Juan–Chama Project, which delivers water from streams in the southern San Juan Mountains in the Colorado River Basin in southern Colorado to the Rio Chama watershed and the Rio Grande Basin in northern New Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Albuquerque–Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority, has compiled historical streamflow and water-quality data and collected new water-quality data to characterize the water quality and streamflow conditions and annual flow variability, as characterized by annual flow-duration curves, of streams of the San Juan–Chama Project. Nonparametric statistical methods were applied to calculate annual and monthly summary statistics of streamflow, trends in streamflow conditions were evaluated with the Mann–Kendall trend test, and annual variation in streamflow conditions was evaluated with annual flow-duration curves. The study area is located in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado and includes the Rio Blanco, Little Navajo River, and Navajo River, tributaries of the San Juan River in the Colorado River Basin located in the southern San Juan Mountains, and Willow Creek and Horse Lake Creek, tributaries of the Rio Chama in the Rio Grande Basin. The quality of water in the streams in the study area generally varied by watershed on the basis of the underlying geology and the volume and source of the streamflow. Water from the Rio Blanco and Little Navajo River watersheds, primarily underlain by volcanic deposits, volcaniclastic sediments and landslide deposits derived from these materials, was compositionally similar and had low specific-conductance values relative to the other streams in the study area. Water from the Navajo River

  9. CT-QMC-simulations on the single impurity Anderson model with a superconducting bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Florian; Pruschke, Thomas [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Coupling a heavy fermion impurity to a superconducting lead induces a competition between the Kondo effect and superconductivity in the low temperature regime. This situation has been modeled with a single impurity Anderson model, where the normal state bath is replaced by a BCS-type superconducting bath in mean field approximation. We study this model using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo hybridization expansion algorithm. Results include the impurity Green's functions as well as the corresponding spectral functions obtained from analytic continuation. Two side bands are observed which we discuss in the light of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after oral, intramuscular and bath administration in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Fan, J; Wang, J; Zhu, X; Yin, Y; Zheng, G

    2018-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) was studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after single administration by intramuscular (IM) injection and oral gavage (PO) at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight and by 5 mg/L bath for 5 hr at 25°C. The plasma concentrations of ENR and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were determined by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated based on mean ENR or CIP concentrations using WinNonlin 6.1 software. After IM, PO and bath administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of 2.29, 3.24 and 0.36 μg/ml was obtained at 4.08, 0.68 and 0 hr, respectively; the elimination half-life (T 1/2β ) was 80.95, 62.17 and 61.15 hr, respectively; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 223.46, 162.72 and 14.91 μg hr/ml, respectively. CIP, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was detected and measured after all methods of drug administration except bath. It is possible and practical to obtain therapeutic blood concentrations of enrofloxacin in the crucian carp using IM, PO and bath immersion administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The annual cycle of plutonium in the water column of a warm, monomictic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; Bowling, J.W.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    An annual cycle occurs in the 239,240 Pu inventories of the water column of Pond B, an 87-ha warm monomictic reservoir on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The pond has elevated concentrations of 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu in sediments due to releases from former reactor operations and continues to receive additional Pu input from atmospheric deposition. For surface waters, the 239,240 Pu inventory increases following turnover in November to a maximum in March followed by a decline until later summer when minimum inventories occur. For deeper waters, the 239,240 Pu inventories increase rapidly following turnover and reach maximum values in March. The inventories in deeper waters remain large from March until turnover. Maximum inventories for the entire water column occur in March with minimum inventories at turnover in October and November. Turnover results in a redistribution of Pu across water depth but no measurable Pu loss from the water column. Ratios of 238 Pu: 239,240 Pu indicate that the cycle involves primarily Pu from sediment sources with little influence from atmospheric sources. Thus, the cycle represents net remobilization of 239,240 Pu from the sediments to the water column during the oxic, holomictic portion of the year followed by a net loss of Pu from the water column once stratification occurs. (author)

  12. Quantum thermodynamics of the resonant-level model with driven system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughian, Patrick; Esposito, Massimiliano; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2018-02-01

    We study nonequilibrium thermodynamics in a fermionic resonant-level model with arbitrary coupling strength to a fermionic bath, taking the wide-band limit. In contrast to previous theories, we consider a system where both the level energy and the coupling strength depend explicitly on time. We find that, even in this generalized model, consistent thermodynamic laws can be obtained, up to the second order in the drive speed, by splitting the coupling energy symmetrically between system and bath. We define observables for the system energy, work, heat, and entropy, and calculate them using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We find that the observables fulfill the laws of thermodynamics, and connect smoothly to the known equilibrium results.

  13. Ultrahydrophobic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, J.; Kanitz, C.

    2017-05-01

    When a water drop falls on an oscillating soapy water surface it is observed that coalescence of the drop is inhibited because the drops are bouncing on the surface like on a trampoline. In our research we made experimental and theoretical investigations to an undeformable drop on a deformable bath. We described the vertical movement, predicted the critical bouncing threshold and also made experiments to the effects of an increased Weber number and the horizontal movement of the drop caused by a vertical movement.

  14. Books, Baths, and Burials: Notes on Certain Nineteenth Century Adoptive Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Early legislation relating to street lighting, baths and washhouses, burial of the dead, public libraries and public improvements in England and Wales, reflected Parliament's suspicion of local democracy and distrust of local authorities. (9 references) (Author)

  15. Change of Dye Bath for Sensitisation of Nanocrystalline TiO Films: Enhances Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of the heteroleptic H102 and HRD2 sensitizers was measured in DSSC and compared with that of reference N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions. The Dye-Sensitised TiO2 electrodes were prepared by staining the electrodes in ethanol bath and 1/1 v/v acetonitrile/tert-butanol (binary liquid mixture bath separately and the DSSCs based on these sensitizers show that the change of dye bath from ethanol to the binary liquid mixture enhances the photocurrent action spectrum and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies, (η. Using ethanol for sensitisation of TiO2 electrodes, the efficiencies obtained for H102, HRD2 and N719 are 4.31%, 4.62%, and 5.46%, respectively, while in binary liquid mixture bath, the corresponding values are enhanced to 5.89%, 4.87%, and 7.23%, respectively, under comparable conditions.

  16. Optimisation of the formulation of a bubble bath by a chemometric approach market segmentation and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Bertetto, Mariella

    2003-03-01

    The optimisation of the formulation of a commercial bubble bath was performed by chemometric analysis of Panel Tests results. A first Panel Test was performed to choose the best essence, among four proposed to the consumers; the best essence chosen was used in the revised commercial bubble bath. Afterwards, the effect of changing the amount of four components (the amount of primary surfactant, the essence, the hydratant and the colouring agent) of the bubble bath was studied by a fractional factorial design. The segmentation of the bubble bath market was performed by a second Panel Test, in which the consumers were requested to evaluate the samples coming from the experimental design. The results were then treated by Principal Component Analysis. The market had two segments: people preferring a product with a rich formulation and people preferring a poor product. The final target, i.e. the optimisation of the formulation for each segment, was obtained by the calculation of regression models relating the subjective evaluations given by the Panel and the compositions of the samples. The regression models allowed to identify the best formulations for the two segments ofthe market.

  17. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  18. Electrolytically generated hydrogen warm water cleanses the keratin-plug-clogged hair-pores and promotes the capillary blood-streams, more markedly than normal warm water does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Tanaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical properties of hydrogen water have been extensively investigated, but the effect of hydrogen on good healthy subjects remains unclear. This study was designed to explore the hygiene improvement by electrolytically generated hydrogen warm water (40°C on capillary blood streams, skin moisture, and keratin plugs in skin pores in normal good healthy subjects with their informed consents. Fingertip-capillary blood stream was estimated after hand-immersing in hydrogen warm water by videography using a CCD-based microscope, and the blood flow levels increased to about 120% versus normal warm water, after 60 minutes of the hand-immersing termination. Skin moisture of subjects was assessed using an electro-conductivity-based skin moisture meter. Immediately after taking a bath filled with hydrogen warm water, the skin moisture increased by 5–10% as compared to before bathing, which was kept on for the 7-day test, but indistinct, because of lower solubility of hydrogen in “warm” water than in room-temperature water. Cleansing of keratin plugs in skin-pores was assessed by stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. After hydrogen warm water bathing, the numbers of cleansed keratin plugs also increased on cheek of subjects 2.30- to 4.47-fold as many as the control for normal warm water. And areas of cleansed keratin plugs in the cheeks increased about 1.3-fold as much as the control. More marked improvements were observed on cheeks than on nostrils. Hydrogen warm water may thoroughly cleanse even keratin-plugs of residual amounts that could not be cleansed by normal warm water, through its permeability into wide-ranged portions of hair-pores, and promote the fingertip blood streams more markedly than merely through warmness due to normal warm water.

  19. Fabrication of CdS films with superhydrophobicity by the microwave assisted chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tan, T; Wang, B; Zhai, R; Song, X; Li, E; Wang, H; Yan, H

    2008-04-15

    A simple method of microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (CA) of 151 degrees was obtained. Via a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, the film was proved having a porous micro/nano-binary structure which can change the property of the surface and highly enhance the hydrophobicity of the film. A possible mechanism was suggested to describe the growth of the porous structure, in which the microwave heating takes an important role in the formation of two distinct characteristic dimensions of CdS precipitates, the growth of CdS sheets in micro-scale and sphere particles in nano-scale. The superhydrophobic films may provide novel platforms for photovoltaic, sensor, microfluidic and other device applications.

  20. A multidisciplinary approach to study the effects of balneotherapy and mud-bath therapy treatments on fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzichi, Laura; Da Valle, Ylenia; Rossi, Alessandra; Giacomelli, Camillo; Sernissi, Francesca; Giannaccini, Gino; Betti, Laura; Ciregia, Federica; Giusti, Laura; Scarpellini, Pietro; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Marazziti, Donatella; Bombardieri, Stefano; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of both balneotherapy and mud-bath therapy treatments in patients affected by primary fibromyalgia (FM) using rheumatological, psychiatric, biochemical and proteomic approaches. Forty-one FM patients (39 females, 2 males), who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria received a 2-week thermal therapy programme consisting of therapy once daily for 6 days/week. Twenty-one patients received mud-bath treatment, while the other twenty balneotherapy. Pain, symptoms, and quality of life were assessed. Oxytocin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ATP and serotonin transporter levels during therapy were assayed. Comparative whole saliva (WS) proteomic analysis was performed using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry techniques. We observed a reduction in pain, FIQ values and improvement of SF36 in both groups of patients treated with mud-bath or balneotherapy. The improvement of the outcome measures occurred with different timing and duration in the two spa treatments. A significant decrease in BDNF concentrations was observed either after balneotherapy or mud-bath therapy when assayed after twelve weeks, while no significant change in oxytocin levels, ATP levels and serotonin transporter were detected. Significant differences were observed for phosphoglycerate mutase1 (PGAM1) and zinc alpha-2-glycoprotein 1 (AZGP1) protein expression. Our results showed that the thermal treatment might have a beneficial effect on the specific symptoms of the disease. In particular, while balneotherapy gives results that in most patients occur after the end of the treatment but which are no longer noticeable after 3 months, the mud-bath treatment gives longer lasting results.

  1. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  2. Characterization of CuS nanocrystalline thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M.P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2014-01-01

    CuS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques at ambient temperature. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays of the thin films confirmed that both the as synthesized thin films are stoichiometric. The X-ray diffraction of the chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited thin films showed that the films possess hexagonal structure having lattice parameters, a = b = 3.79 A and c = 16.34 A. The crystallite sizes determined from the X-ray diffraction data using Scherrer's formula for the chemical bath deposition and dip coating deposition thin films came out to be nearly 11 nm and 13 nm, respectively. The optical microscopy of the as deposited thin films surfaces showed that the substrates are well covered in both the deposited films. The scanning electron microscopy of the thin films clearly showed that in chemical bath deposited thin films the grain size varies from few μm to nm, while in dip coating deposited films the grain size ranges in nm. The optical bandgap determined from the optical absorbance spectrum analysis showed, chemical bath deposited thin films possess direct bandgap of 2.2 eV and indirect bandgap of 1.8 eV. In the case of dip coating deposited thin films, the direct bandgap is 2.5 eV and indirect bandgap is 1.9 eV. The d.c. electrical resistivity variation with temperature for both the deposited films showed that the resistivity decreases with temperature thus confirming the semiconducting nature. The thermoelectric power variations with temperature and the room temperature Hall Effect study of both the synthesized CuS thin films showed them to be of p-type conductivity. The obtained results are discussed in details. - Highlights: • CuS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques. • The films possessed hexagonal structure. • The optical absorption showed that the films had direct and indirect bandgap. • Study of electrical transport properties

  3. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  4. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  5. Effect of bath temperature on structure, morphology and thermoelectric properties of CoSb{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Suchitra, E-mail: suchitrayadav87@gmail.com; Pandya, Dinesh K.; Chaudhary, Sujeet [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    CoSb{sub 3} thin films are deposited on conducting glass substrates (FTO) by electrodeposition at different bath temperatures (60°C, 70°C and 80°C) and the resulting influence of the bath temperature on the structure, morphology and electrical properties of films is investigated. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of CoSb{sub 3} phase in the films. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that different morphologies ranging from branched nano-flakes to nano-needles evolve as bath temperature increases. It is concluded that a growth temperature of 80°C is suitable for producing CoSb{sub 3} films with such properties that show potential feasibility for thermoelectric applications.

  6. The effects of daily chlorhexidine bathing on cutaneous bacterial isolates: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma VL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya L Soma1, Xuan Qin2, Chuan Zhou1, Amanda Adler1, Jessica E Berry2, Danielle M Zerr11Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG is a topical antiseptic used in a myriad of clinical settings. Recently, CHG baths have been shown to decrease multidrug-resistant organism acquisition and infections and catheter-associated bloodstream infections. The present study examined the effects of daily bathing with CHG on the recovery and antimicrobial susceptibility of cultivable cutaneous bacteria. The objectives of this study were to (1 explore the effects of clinical CHG bathing on cultivable cutaneous bacteria, (2 study the relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci, and (3 demonstrate the feasibility of the approach so a more definitive study may be performed. Significant decreases in bacterial colony counts and phenotypic diversity occurred with greater CHG exposure. The findings also suggest an inverse relationship between CHG minimum inhibitory concentration and antimicrobial susceptibility. Larger prospective studies are necessary to fully investigate the clinical impact of CHG usage.Keywords: antiseptic, resistance, Staphylococcus, coagulase-negative

  7. An effective Hamiltonian approach for Donor-Bridge-Acceptor electronic transitions: Exploring the role of bath memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Bittner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here a formally exact model for electronic transitions between an initial (donor and final (acceptor states linked by an intermediate (bridge state. Our model incorporates a common set of vibrational modes that are coupled to the donor, bridge, and acceptor states and serves as a dissipative bath that destroys quantum coherence between the donor and acceptor. Taking the memory time of the bath as a free parameter, we calculate transition rates for a heuristic 3-state/2 mode Hamiltonian system parameterized to represent the energetics and couplings in a typical organic photovoltaic system. Our results indicate that if the memory time of the bath is of the order of 10-100 fs, a two-state kinetic (i.e., incoherent hopping model will grossly underestimate overall transition rate.

  8. Facile Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Paper with Excellent Water Repellency and Moisture Resistance by Phase Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple but effective method of fabricating superhydrophobic paper with excellent moisture resistance was developed by precipitating carnauba wax onto the surface of cellulose fibers using a phase separation method. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the effects of the preparation variables on the water contact angle (WCA of the paper surface. The four independent variables were carnauba wax concentration, immersion time, coagulation bath ratio (water/ethanol, and coagulation bath time. The optimal treatment conditions were as follows: wax concentration, 3.78% (wax/chloroform, w/v; immersion time, 1.46 h; coagulation bath ratio, 13/87 (water/ethanol, v/v; and coagulation bath time, 2.63 h. Under these conditions, the experimental WCA reached 152.7°, which agreed closely with the predicted value of 154.1°. The surface morphology of the superhydrophobic paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM, and the images showed that cluster-like carnauba wax aggregation completely covered the fiber surface, resulting in increased roughness. Moreover, the moisture resistance of the obtained superhydrophobic paper was evaluated. The results demonstrated that under high relative humidity conditions, the moisture resistance of the superhydrophobic paper significantly improved, and its tensile strength remained high.

  9. Thermal Analysis Of Cover Plate Of Galvanizing Bath Tub At Bridge amp Roof Co. I Ltd. By Shape Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Jana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This project is aimed for thermally analyzing stress and strain on cover plate of galvanizing bath tub at Bridge amp Roof co. I Ltd in order to maintain 450C in bath tub. Along with analysis part cover plate shape was modified due to its continuous use amp prevailing conditions at the workshop. The cover plate consist of insulating materials compacted to retain the heat in the bath tub. The thermal convection of air is less than thermal resistance of insulating materials used thus heat loss is negligible. Thermal convection air 0.0579 w m k Thermal Resistance Insulator 7.046 w m k. Thermal analysis report show at 450C. Deformation is effecting end portion 2-3 mm. Stress amp Strain at that portion is also low 0.1-0.3 Mpa. Heat transfer of air is more than insulating materials. Thus Heat transfer rate of Insulating materials being low they dont conduct heat from the bath tub to the atmosphere. So temperature of the bath tub is maintained. QA 1806.25 W Heat transfer rate of Air by convection QI 270.43 W Heat transfer rate of Insulation materials

  10. Determination of radon concentration in drinking water resources of villages nearby Lalehzar fault and evaluation the annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Malakootian; Zahra Darabi Fard; Mojtaba Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    The radon concentration has been measured in 44 drinking water resources, in villages nearby Lalehzar fault in winter 2014. Some samples showed a higher concentration of radon surpassing limit set by EPA. Further, a sample was taken from water distribution networks for these sources of water. Soluble radon concentration was measured by RAD7 device. Range radon concentration was 26.88 and 0.74 BqL -1 respectively. The maximum and minimum annual effective dose for adults was estimated at 52.7 and 2.29 µSvY -1 , respectively. Reducing radon from water before use is recommended to improve public health. (author)

  11. Investigation of CdS/InP heterojunction prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovics, V.; Horvath, Zs.J.; Horvath, Zs.E.; Barsony, I.; Frigeri, C.; Besagni, T.

    2007-01-01

    CdS thin films have been deposited on InP and glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. Baths containing CdSO 4 , thiourea, and NH 3 were used. The temperature of the deposition process was 65 C and the duration of deposition varied between 20 and 160 minutes. The properties of the CdS/InP heterojunction were investigated by TEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. TEM pictures, EDS and X-ray rocking curves indicate the formation of a β-In 2 S 3 transition layer at the InP-CdS interface, which may reduce the lattice mismatch between InP and CdS. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the western Black Sea shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Shapiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra-seasonal and inter-annual temperature variations. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water mass between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season due to formation of a seasonal pycnocline. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from in-situ observations taken over the 2nd half of the 20th century. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the shelf area during the summer stratification period (May–November.The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by a cold phase between 1985 and 1995 and a further warming after 1995. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter convection is well preserved over the following months in the deep sea, the signal of winter cooling in the BSW significantly reduces during the warm season. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. It is shown that temperature in the BSW is stronger correlated with the temperature of Cold Intermediate Waters (CIW in the deep sea than with the severity of the previous winters, thus indicating that the isopycnal exchanges with the deep sea are more important for inter-annual/inter-decadal variability of the BSW on the western Black Sea shelf than effects of winter convection on the shelf itself.

  13. New open source medical imaging tools released by CERN and University of Bath collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, KT group

    2016-01-01

    New toolbox has applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis.   3D X-ray imaging of a patient’s lungs and thorax. The TIGRE toolbox provides a high resolution image with only 1/30th of the radiation for the patient. (Image: Ander Biguri) CERN and the University of Bath have released a new toolbox for fast, accurate 3D X-ray image reconstruction with applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis. The software offers a very simple and affordable way to improve imaging and potentially reduce radiation doses for patients. The toolbox is based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), a type of scanning process that takes a series of 2D X-ray pictures and that then processes them into a 3D image. As part of the collaborative project between CERN and the University of Bath, Ander Biguri, a PhD student at Bath, has reviewed a broad range of published CBCT algorithms and adapted them to be faster. Ander Biguri modified the algorithms to run on a laptop fitted with a GPU &ndash...

  14. Superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Pihui, E-mail: phpi@scut.edu.cn; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic film with macro/nano structure was fabricated on copper surface. • The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency and long-term storage stability. • The same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh. • The obtained mesh could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}S and Cu{sub 2}O composite (Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  15. Ergodicity of the Stochastic Nosé-Hoover Heat Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Chung Lo,; Baowen Li,

    2010-07-01

    We numerically study the ergodicity of the stochastic Nosé-Hoover heat bath whose formalism is based on the Markovian approximation for the Nosé-Hoover equation [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77 (2008) 103001]. The approximation leads to a Langevin-like equation driven by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is the canonical distribution. We investigate the dynamics of this method for the case of (i) free particle, (ii) nonlinear oscillators and (iii) lattice chains. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the free particle and present approximate analytical solution for the stationary distribution in the context of the Markovian approximation. Numerical simulation results for nonlinear oscillators show that this method results in a Gaussian distribution for the particles velocity. We also employ the method as heat baths to study nonequilibrium heat flow in one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-β) and Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices. The establishment of well-defined temperature profiles are observed only when the lattice size is large. Our results provide numerical justification for such Markovian approximation for classical single- and many-body systems.

  16. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  17. Teaching the "A" Level Text: "The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggs, Gillian

    1988-01-01

    Presents an approach for teaching Chaucer's "Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale" (from "The Canterbury Tales"). Recommends several reference texts related to the "The Canterbury Tales" and medieval literature in general. (MM)

  18. Microbiological quality for bathing water in the "Conde del Guadalhorce" reservoir of Málaga City, Spain, 2000-2005 Calidad microbiológica de las aguas de baño del embalse Conde de Guadalhorce, de Málaga (España, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jesús Gámez de la Hoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determine the presence and evolution of indicators microorganisms of water pollution in “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir, Málaga city, Spain. A second objective was to analyze pollution degree and evaluate the sanitary quality of bathing water and compliance with European Directive 76/160/CE. Method. A total of 120 water samples were collected in two bathing freshwater sites during May to September sampling period between 2000 to 2005, and the numbers of total coliforms (CT, faecal coliforms (CF and faecal streptococci (EF were enumerated using the membrane filtration method. We used the log-normal distribution method and calculate the logarithmic means, percentile points, ratios CF:EF, ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Results. Only two samples overcome CF limit values at Camping sampling station during 2000 year. Ratios CF:EF values were higher (> 4 during 2000 to 2002, and lower (∝ ∝ Conclusions. “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir showed hygienic conditions for safety bathing. Globally, water bathing quality is good. CT, CF y EF indicators were agreed with UE Directive during 2000-2005, with exception CF at Camping station in 2000 year. CT y CF concentrations at Camping were frecuently higher than Kiosko, it could be caused to swimmers abundance and recreational activities. There was a trend towards rising EF, it could be caused to faecal pollution source of animal origin, needed to research it.Introducción. Determinar la presencia y evolución de microorganismos indicadores de contaminación en las aguas del embalse Conde del Guadalhorce, Málaga (España. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el grado de contaminación y evaluar la calidad sanitaria del agua de baño según la Directiva 76/160/CE. Método. Se tomaron 120 muestras de aguas en 2 lugares de baño durante la temporada de mayo a septiembre en el período 2000 a 2005, y se enumeraron las bacterias coliformes totales (CT, coliformes fecales (CF y estreptococos

  19. Hydrodynamic modelling of the influence of stormwater and combined sewer overflows on receiving water quality: Benzo(a)pyrene and copper risks to recreational water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Bondelind, Mia; Karlsson, Anna; Karlsson, Dick; Sokolova, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The risk from chemical substances in surface waters is often increased during wet weather, due to surface runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and erosion of contaminated land. There are strong incentives to improve the quality of surface waters affected by human activities, not only from ecotoxicity and ecosystem health perspectives, but also for drinking water and recreational purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of urban stormwater discharges and CSOs on receiving water in the context of chemical health risks and recreational water quality. Transport of copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the Göta River (Sweden) was simulated using a hydrodynamic model. Within the 16 km modelled section, 35 CSO and 16 urban stormwater point discharges, as well as the effluent from a major wastewater treatment plant, were included. Pollutant concentrations in the river were simulated for two rain events and investigated at 13 suggested bathing sites. The simulations indicate that water quality guideline values for Cu are exceeded at several sites, and that stormwater discharges generally give rise to higher Cu and BaP concentrations than CSOs. Due to the location of point discharges and the river current inhibiting lateral mixing, the north shore of the river is better suited for bathing. Peak concentrations have a short duration; increased concentrations of the pollutants may however be present for several days after a rain event. Monitoring of river water quality indicates that simulated Cu and BaP concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as measured concentrations. It is concluded that hydrodynamic modelling is a useful tool for identifying suitable bathing sites in urban surface waters and areas of concern where mitigation measures should be implemented to improve water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Military Land-Based Water Purification and Distribution Program (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dusenbury, James S

    2003-01-01

    .... During World War II, it became increasingly apparent that this technology was only partially effective in providing potable and uncontaminated water for drinking, washing, culinary, bathing and laundering purposes...

  1. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  2. Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... The possibility of using a dynamic environment to achieve and optimize phase synchronization in a network of self-excited cells with free-end boundary conditions is addressed in this paper. The dynamic environment is an oscillatory bath coupled linearly to a network of four cells. The boundaries of the ...

  3. Experimental determination of surface heat transfer coefficient in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath using a numerical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    BACKGROUND: Dry ice-ethanol bath (-78 degree C) have been widely used in low temperature biological research to attain rapid cooling of samples below freezing temperature. The prediction of cooling rates of biological samples immersed in dry ice-ethanol bath is of practical interest in cryopreservation. The cooling rate can be obtained using mathematical models representing the heat conduction equation in transient state. Additionally, at the solid cryogenic-fluid interface, the knowledge of the surface heat transfer coefficient (h) is necessary for the convective boundary condition in order to correctly establish the mathematical problem. The study was to apply numerical modeling to obtain the surface heat transfer coefficient of a dry ice-ethanol bath. A numerical finite element solution of heat conduction equation was used to obtain surface heat transfer coefficients from measured temperatures at the center of polytetrafluoroethylene and polymethylmetacrylate cylinders immersed in a dry ice-ethanol cooling bath. The numerical model considered the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties of plastic materials used. A negative linear relationship is observed between cylinder diameter and heat transfer coefficient in the liquid bath, the calculated h values were 308, 135 and 62.5 W/(m 2 K) for PMMA 1.3, PTFE 2.59 and 3.14 cm in diameter, respectively. The calculated heat transfer coefficients were consistent among several replicates; h in dry ice-ethanol showed an inverse relationship with cylinder diameter.

  4. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  5. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  6. Beneficial effect of hot spring bathing on stress levels in Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Rafaela S C; Bercovitch, Fred B; Kinoshita, Kodzue; Huffman, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    The ability of animals to survive dramatic climates depends on their physiology, morphology and behaviour, but is often influenced by the configuration of their habitat. Along with autonomic responses, thermoregulatory behaviours, including postural adjustments, social aggregation, and use of trees for shelter, help individuals maintain homeostasis across climate variations. Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are the world's most northerly species of nonhuman primates and have adapted to extremely cold environments. Given that thermoregulatory stress can increase glucocorticoid concentrations in primates, we hypothesized that by using an available hot spring, Japanese macaques could gain protection against weather-induced cold stress during winter. We studied 12 adult female Japanese macaques living in Jigokudani Monkey Park, Japan, during the spring birth season (April to June) and winter mating season (October to December). We collected faecal samples for determination of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) metabolite concentrations by enzyme immunoassay, as well as behavioural data to determine time spent in the hot springs, dominance rank, aggression rates, and affiliative behaviours. We used nonparametric statistics to examine seasonal changes in hot spring bathing, and the relationship between rank and air temperature on hot spring bathing. We used general linear mixed-effect models to examine factors impacting hormone concentrations. We found that Japanese macaques use hot spring bathing for thermoregulation during the winter. In the studied troop, the single hot spring is a restricted resource favoured by dominant females. High social rank had both costs and benefits: dominant females sustained high fGC levels, which were associated with high aggression rates in winter, but benefited by priority of access to the hot spring, which was associated with low fGC concentrations and therefore might help reduce energy expenditure and subsequent body heat loss. This unique

  7. "Why not bathe the baby today?": A qualitative study of thermal care beliefs and practices in four African sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Bee, Margaret Helen; Amare, Yared; Omotara, Babatunji Abayomi; Iganus, Ruth Buus; Manzi, Fatuma; Shamba, Donat Dominic; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Odebiyi, Adetanwa; Hill, Zelee Elizabeth

    2015-10-14

    Recommendations for care in the first week of a newborn's life include thermal care practices such as drying and wrapping, skin to skin contact, immediate breastfeeding and delayed bathing. This paper examines beliefs and practices related to neonatal thermal care in three African countries. Data were collected in the same way in each site and included 16-20 narrative interviews with recent mothers, eight observations of neonatal bathing, and in-depth interviews with 12-16 mothers, 9-12 grandmothers, eight health workers and 0-12 birth attendants in each site. We found similarities across sites in relation to understanding the importance of warmth, a lack of opportunities for skin to skin care, beliefs about the importance of several baths per day and beliefs that the Vernix caseosa was related to poor maternal behaviours. There was variation between sites in beliefs and practices around wrapping and drying after delivery, and the timing of the first bath with recent behavior change in some sites. There was near universal early bathing of babies in both Nigerian sites. This was linked to a deep-rooted belief about body odour. When asked about keeping the baby warm, respondents across the sites rarely mentioned recommended thermal care practices, suggesting that these are not perceived as salient. More effort is needed to promote appropriate thermal care practices both in facilities and at home. Programmers should be aware that changing deep rooted practices, such as early bathing in Nigeria, may take time and should utilize the current beliefs in the importance of neonatal warmth to facilitate behaviour change.

  8. Hot Water Bathing Impairs Training Adaptation in Elite Teen Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ta-Cheng; Liao, Yi-Hung; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2018-04-30

    Despite heat imposes considerable physiological stress to human body, hot water immersion remains as a popular relaxation modality for athletes. Here we examined the lingering effect of hot tub relaxation after training on performance-associated measures and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in junior archers. Ten national level archers, aged 16.6 ± 0.3 years (M = 8, F = 2), participated in a randomized counter-balanced crossover study after baseline measurements. In particular, half participants were assigned to the hot water immersion (HOT) group, whereas another halves were assigned to the untreated control (CON) group. Crossover trial was conducted following a 2-week washout period. During the HOT trial, participants immersed in hot water for 30 min at 40°C, 1 h after training, twice a week (every 3 days) for 2 weeks. Participants during CON trial sat at the same environment without hot water after training. Performance-associated measures and salivary DHEA-S were determined 3 days after the last HOT session. We found that the HOT intervention significantly decreased shooting performance (CON: -4%; HOT: -22%, P HOT: -16%, P HOT: -60%, P < 0.05) of archers, compared with untreated CON trial. No group differences were found in motor unit recruitment (root mean square electromyography, RMS EMG) of arm muscles during aiming, autonomic nervous activity (sympathetic and vagal powers of heart rate variability, HRV), and plasma cortisol levels after treatments. Our data suggest that physiological adaptation against heat exposure takes away the sources needed for normal training adaptation specific to shooting performance in archers.

  9. Control and optimization of baths for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasad

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization and control of an electrodeposition process for depositing boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of cobalt-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having cobalt sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, 1-dodecylsulfate-Na, ammonium sulfate and ammonia or sulfuric acid for pH adjustments has been studied. Detailed studies on bath composition, pH, temperature, mechanical agitation and cathode current density have led to optimum conditions for obtaining satisfactory alloy deposits. These alloys were found to have interesting properties such as high hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and also sufficient ductility. A voltammetric method for automatic monitoring and control of the process has been proposed.

  10. TREATMENT OF GREY WATER USING CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Prashant Asirvadam; K. Dhivya Bharathi; P. Durairaj; M. Kaleeswaran; S. Abinaya

    2017-01-01

    The grey water is the waste water that is generated in the households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination. Sources of grey water include water from sinks, showers, baths, washing machine or dish washers. As grey water contains fewer pathogens than domestic waste, it is generally safer to handle and easier to treat and reuse onsite for toilet flushing, landscape or crop irrigation. The removal of toxic content in grey water in this era is one of the most needed process...

  11. [Bath Plug Closure Method for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage by Endoscopic Endonasal Approach:Cooperative Treatment by Neurosurgeons and Otolaryngologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Kazuya; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Katori, Yukio; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-12-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery, an innovative surgical technique, is used to approach sinus lesions, lesions of the skull base, and intradural tumors. The cooperation of experienced otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons is important to achieve safe and reliable surgical results. The bath plug closure method is a treatment option for patients with cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)leakage. Although it includes dural and/or intradural procedures, surgery tends to be performed by otolaryngologists because its indications, detailed maneuvers, and pitfalls are not well recognized by neurosurgeons. We reviewed the cases of patients with CSF leakage treated by using the bath plug closure method with an endoscopic endonasal approach at our institution. Three patients were treated using the bath plug closure method. CSF leakage was caused by a meningocele in two cases and trauma in one case. No postoperative intracranial complications or recurrence of CSF leakage were observed. The bath plug closure method is an effective treatment strategy and allows neurosurgeons to gain in-depth knowledge of the treatment options for CSF leakage by using an endoscopic endonasal approach.

  12. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  13. Effect of triethanolamine and heliotropin on cathodic polarization of weakly acidic baths and properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinqiu; An Maozhong; Chang Limin; Liu Guiyuan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of triethanolamine (TEA) and heliotropin (HT) on the cathodic polarization of weakly acidic baths and the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits were investigated. Lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy were electrodeposited in weakly acidic baths (pH 5.5) containing Sn(CH 3 SO 3 ) 2 , AgI, Cu(CH 3 SO 3 ) 2 , K 4 P 2 O 7 , KI, hydroquinone, TEA, HT and methylsulfonic acid (MSA). The cathodic polarization of baths and the properties of electrodeposits were evaluated by Liner sweep voltammetry (LSV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that HT is a main brightening agent that increases the cathodic polarization of baths and refines the grains of electrodeposits; TEA is a complexing agent for copper ions and a brightening promoter that decreases the cathodic polarization of baths and densifies the electrodeposits. The bright, compact, and smooth Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits contain 88-95 wt% tin, 5-10 wt% silver and 0.5-2 wt% copper. Organic compounds used in the baths neither adsorb on the electrodeposits surfaces nor are included in the electrodeposits. It can be therefore concluded that the use of both TEA and HT is better than that of them either in the process of electroplating bright Sn-Ag-Cu alloy

  14. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  15. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Koda, K.; Eguchi, K.; Morimura, T.; Takashima, K.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-04-01

    We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  16. In situ, real-time thickness measurement techniques for bath-deposited CdS thin films on Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Jonathan R.; Noufi, Rommel

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed that can measure the thickness of a 30–70 nm thin film of cadmium sulfide on a Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 substrate, in real time, as it grows in a chemical bath. The technique does not damage the film, and can be used to monitor batch depositions and roll-to-roll depositions with equal accuracy. The technique is based on reflectance spectroscopy through the chemical bath. - Highlights: ► Reflection spectra were collected during the chemical bath deposition of CdS. ► Two algorithms were generated to extract film thickness from each spectrum. ► Two conventional techniques were used to independently verify CdS film thicknesses. ► The accuracies of the algorithms are within 7% of the actual thicknesses. ► The algorithms offer in situ, real time thicknesses through the chemical bath.

  17. AECB staff annual assessment of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant for the year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board's staff annual assessment of the operation of Bruce Heavy Water Plant (BHWP) during 1995. BHWP operation was acceptably safe in 1995. At BHWP, Ontario Hydro complied with the regulations issued under the authority of the Atomic Energy Control Act. AECB is satisfied that BHWP did not pose any undue risk to public health or safety or to the environment. Ontario Hydro met all safety system and safety related system availability targets at BHWP in 1995. The emergency response capability is satisfactory. 2 figs

  18. Electrodeposited copper oxide films: Effect of bath pH on grain orientation and orientation-dependent interfacial behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.C.; Tacconi, N.R. de; Chenthamarakshan, C.R.; Rajeshwar, K.; Tao, M.

    2007-01-01

    Copper (I) oxide (Cu 2 O) films were cathodically electrodeposited on Sn-doped indium oxide substrates. The influence of electrodeposition bath pH on grain orientation and crystallite shape was carefully re-examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In addition to the (100) and (111) preferred orientations identified in two previous sets of studies, as the bath pH was varied in the present study from ∼ 7.5 to ∼ 12, a third preferred orientation, (110), was identified in a narrow pH range, ∼ 9.4 to ∼ 9.9. A remarkable shift in the flat-band potential (spanning ∼ 500 mV) was measured in a non-aqueous electrolyte medium for the various Cu 2 O samples obtained from baths of varying pH

  19. Monte Carlo calculation of correction factors for radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurement by manganese bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunjuan; Liu Yi'na; Zhang Weihua; Wang Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The manganese bath method for measuring the neutron emission rate of radionuclide sources requires corrections to be made for emitted neutrons which are not captured by manganese nuclei. The Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP was used to simulate the manganese bath system of the standards for the measurement of neutron source intensity. The correction factors were calculated and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through the key comparison for the radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurements organized by BIPM. The uncertainties in the calculated values were evaluated by considering the sensitivities to the solution density, the density of the radioactive material, the positioning of the source, the radius of the bath, and the interaction cross-sections. A new method for the evaluation of the uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculation was given. (authors)

  20. Effect of radon baths having a radon concentration of 100 mach units (36. 4 nanocuries/liter) on patients having a deforming osteoarthrosis with myocardial damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarfis, P G; Kostrova, V D; Gerasimenko, V N; Fiveiskaya, A A

    1974-01-01

    The patients took the radon baths at a temperature of 36/sup 0/C for a period of 15 minutes. The treatment consisted of 14 to 16 baths with a break of one day between baths. After completing the baths, pain in the limbs subsided significantly and disappeared in three-fourths of the patients. Locomotor function improved. Muscle tone increased. Improvement in physical function was noted in 75 out of 80 patients. 3 references. (SJR)

  1. Bathe the baby to make it strong and healthy: plant use and child care among Saramaccan Maroons in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruysschaert, Sofie; van Andel, Tinde; Van de Putte, Kobeke; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-01-12

    Young children are vulnerable to a range of illnesses and evil forces. Ethnobotanical folk remedies often play a major role in combating these afflictions. Here we show that plant use is highly valued and practiced within the Saramaccan Maroon Society in Suriname to maintain the general health and well-being of children. To assess the plant use importance in child care, we (1) quantified diversity and current status of herbal pharmacopoeia used in child care and (2) elucidated the reasons why care takers (mostly mothers) use these plants. We collected botanical vouchers of plants used in child care, carried out an ethnobotanical household survey with 105 women and interviewed 19 key informants. A total of 178 plant species were used in child care for different purposes. Preventive practices were preferred over curing remedies and plants were most frequently used to keep young children strong and healthy. Child care had a strong magical connotation. Bathing proved to be the most important type of application, often combined with drinking small amounts of the bath water. Plants play an important role in child care, but more research is needed on how Maroon plant use reflects actual health problems in young children in the Surinamese interior.

  2. Temporal trends in water-quality constituent concentrations and annual loads of chemical constituents in Michigan watersheds, 1998–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2018-02-21

    In 1998, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Geological Survey began the Water Chemistry Monitoring Program for select streams in the State of Michigan. Objectives of this program were to provide assistance with (1) statewide water-quality assessments, (2) the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permitting process, and (3) water-resource management decisions. As part of this program, water-quality data collected from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed to identify potential trends for select constituents that were sampled. Sixteen water-quality constituents were analyzed at 32 stations throughout Michigan. Trend analysis on the various water-quality data was done using either the uncensored Seasonal Kendall test or through Tobit regression. In total, 79 trends were detected in the constituents analyzed for 32 river stations sampled for the study period—53 downward trends and 26 upward trends were detected. The most prevalent trend detected throughout the State was for ammonia, with 11 downward trends and 1 upward trend estimated.In addition to trends, constituent loads were estimated for 31 stations from 2002 to 2013 for stations that were sampled 12 times per year. Loads were computed using the Autobeale load computation program, which used the Beale ratio estimator approach to estimate an annual load. Constituent loads were the largest in large watershed streams with the highest annual flows such as the Saginaw and Grand Rivers. Likewise, constituent loads were the smallest in smaller tributaries that were sampled as part of this program such as the Boardman and Thunder Bay Rivers.

  3. Dynamics of a driven spin coupled to an antiferromagnetic spin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiaozhong; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-01-01

    We study the behavior of the Rabi oscillations of a driven central spin (qubit) coupled to an antiferromagnetic spin bath (environment). It is found that the decoherence behavior of the central spin depends on the detuning, driving strength, qubit-bath coupling and an important factor Ω, associated with the number of coupled atoms, the detailed lattice structure and the temperature of the environment. If detuning exists, Rabi oscillations may show the behavior of collapses and revivals; however, if detuning is absent, such a behavior will not appear. We investigate the weighted frequency distribution of the time evolution of the central spin inversion and give a reasonable explanation of this phenomenon of collapses and revivals. We also discuss the decoherence and pointer states of the qubit from the perspective of von Neumann entropy. We found that the eigenstates of the qubit self-Hamiltonian emerge as pointer states in the weak system-environment coupling limit.

  4. THE MEDIEVAL AND OTTOMAN HAMMAMS OF ALGERIA; ELEMENTS FOR A HISTORICAL STUDY OF BATHS ARCHITECTURE IN NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Cherif-Seffadj

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Algerian medinas (Islamic cities have several traditional public baths (hammams. However, these hammams are the least known in the Maghreb countries. The first French archaeological surveys carried out on Islamic monuments and sites in Algeria, have found few historic baths in medieval towns. All along the highlands route, from Algiers (capital city of Algeria located in the North to Tlemcen (city in the Western part of Algeria, these structures are found in all the cities founded after the Islamic religion expanded in the Western North Africa. These buildings are often associated to large mosques. In architectural history, these baths illustrate original spatial and organizational compositions under form proportions, methods of construction, ornamental elements and the technical skills of their builders. The ancient traditions of bathing interpreted in this building type are an undeniable legacy. They are present through architectural typology and technical implementation reflecting the important architectural heritage of the great Roman cities in Algeria. Furthermore, these traditions and buildings evolved through different eras. Master builders, who left Andalusia to seek refuge in the Maghreb countries, added the construction and ornamentation skills and techniques brought from Muslim Spain, while the Ottomans contribution in the history of many urban cities is important. Hence, the dual appellation of the hammam as “Moorish bath” and “Turkish bath” in Algeria is the perfect illustration of the evolution of bath architecture in Algeria.

  5. Effects of Alder Mine on the Water, Sediments, and Benthic Macroinvertebrates of Alder Creek, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Dan

    1999-05-28

    The Alder Mine, an abandoned gold, silver, copper, and zinc mine in Okanogan County, Washington, produces heavy metal-laden effluent that affects the quality of water in a tributary of the Methow River. The annual mass loading of heavy metals from two audits at the Alder Mine was estimated to exceed 11,000 kg per year. In this study, water samples from stations along Alder Creek were assayed for heavy metals by ICP-AES and were found to exceed Washington State's acute freshwater criteria for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn).

  6. Immunomodulatory Effects of Deokgu Thermomineral Water Balneotherapy on Oxazolone-Induced Atopic Dermatitis Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Sae Mi; Lee, Kyung Ho; Han, Hyung Jin; Yu, Dong Soo; Woo, So Youn; Yun, Seong Taek; Hamm, Se-Yeong; Kim, Hong Jig; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-04-01

    Although the therapeutic mechanism of balneotherapy for atopic dermatitis has not been clarified, many atopic patients who visit thermomineral springs have shown clinical improvements. This study was aimed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of thermomineral water balneotherapy on the atopic dermatitis murine model. The oxazolone-induced atopic dermatitis murine model was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of balneotherapy with Deokgu thermomineral water compared with distilled water. Histologic evaluation and confocal microscopic imaging were performed to analyze the lesional expression of cluster-of-differentiation (CD)4 and forkhead box p3 (Foxp3). Lesional mRNA expression of interleukin (IL) 33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and Foxp3 was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the distilled water bath group, confocal microscopic evaluation of CD4 and Foxp3 merged images showed increased expression of regulatory T cells in the thermomineral balneotherapy group. The lesional mRNA level of IL-33 showed a reduced trend in the thermomineral balneotherapy group, whereas the level of mRNA of Foxp3 was increased. TSLP showed a decreased trend in both distilled water and thermomineral water bath groups. There was a trend of reduced expression in lesional IL-33 mRNA but increased cell count of CD4(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in thermomineral balneotherapy compared with distilled water bath. Therefore, thermomineral balneotherapy can be an effective and safe adjuvant therapeutic option for atopic dermatitis.

  7. Characterization of CuInS2 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition and their implementation in a solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, S.; López, I.; Peña, Y.; Calixto, M.; Hernández, T.; Messina, S.

    2014-01-01

    CuInS 2 thin films were formed by the sequential deposition of In 2 S 3 –CuS layers on glass substrates, by chemical bath deposition technique, and heating these multilayer 1 h at 350 °C and 400 mPa. The morphology and thickness of the CuInS 2 thin films were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, showing particles with elongated shape and length about 40 nm, and thickness of 267 and 348 nm for samples from 15 and 24 h of deposition time in the chemical bath of In 2 S 3 , respectively. The energy band gap values of the films were around 1.4 eV, whereas the electrical conductivity showed values from 64.91 to 4.11 × 10 −3 Ω −1 cm −1 for the samples of 15 and 24 h of In 2 S 3 deposition bath, respectively. The obtained CuInS 2 films showed appropriate values for their application as an absorbing layer in photovoltaic structures of the type: glass/SnO 2 :F/CdS/Sb 2 S 3 /CuInS 2 /PbS/C/Ag. The whole structure was obtained through chemical bath deposition technique. The solar cell corresponding to 15 h of In 2 S 3 deposition duration bath showed energy-conversion efficiency (η) of 0.53% with open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 530 mV, short circuit current density (J sc ) of 2.43 mA cm −2 , and fill factor (FF) of 0.41. In the case of the structure with 24 h of deposition of In 2 S 3 bath, η = 0.43% was measured with the following parameters: V oc = 330 mV, J sc = 4.78 mA cm −2 and FF = 0.27. - Highlights: • CuInS 2 films were formed by chemical bath deposition followed by a heat treatment. • Prepared CuInS 2 thin films can work as an effective absorbing layer in a solar cell. • A complete solar cell structure was made by a chemical bath deposition method

  8. Ammonia-free chemical bath method for deposition of microcrystalline cadmium selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Chemical deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) films has been carried out from alkaline aqueous solution containing Cd 2+ and Se 2- ions. In general, the alkaline pH of the CdSe deposition bath has been adjusted by addition of liquid ammonia. However, the use of ammonia in large-scale chemical deposition method represents an environmental problem due to its volatility and toxicity. The volatility of ammonia changes the pH of deposition bath and results into irreproducible film properties. In the present paper, ammonia-free and weak alkaline (pH < 9.0) chemical method for cadmium selenide film has been developed. The cadmium selenide films are microcrystalline (grain size 0.5-0.7 μm) with hexagonal crystal structure. These films are photoactive and therefore, useful in photo conversion of light into electrical power

  9. Experimental study on the formation and growth of electroless nickel-boron coatings from borohydride-reduced bath on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitry, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.vitry@umons.ac.be [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Sens, Adeline [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Kanta, Abdoul-Fatah [Service de Sciences des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delaunois, Fabienne [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiation mechanism of electroless Ni-B on St-37 steel has been identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different phases of the plating process were observed and identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of chemical heterogeneity on coating morphology was revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch replenishment of the plating bath induces new germination phase. - Abstract: Quality and homogeneity of electroless nickel-boron coatings are very important for applications in corrosion and electronics and are completely dependent on the formation of the deposit. The growth and formation process of electroless nickel-boron was investigated by immersing mild steel (St-37) samples in an un-replenished bath for various periods of time (from 5 s to 1 h). The coatings obtained at the different stages of the process were then characterized: thickness was measured by SEM, morphology was observed, weight gain was recorded and top composition of the coatings was obtained from XPS. Three main phases were identified during the coating formation and links between plating time, instantaneous deposition rate, chemistry of last formed deposit and morphology were established. The mechanism for initial deposition on steel substrate for borohydride-reduced electroless nickel bath was also observed. Those results were confronted with chemistry evolution in the unreplenished plating bath during the process. This allowed getting insight about phenomena occurring in the plating bath and their influence on coating formation.

  10. Effect of an annealing on magnetic properties of Fe-Ni films electroplated in citric-acid-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yanai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have already reported Fe-Ni films with good soft magnetic properties prepared by using an electroplating method. In the present study, we employed an annealing for further improvement in soft magnetic properties of the electroplated Fe-Ni films. The annealing reduces the coercivity of the films, and the reduction rate of the coercivity depended on the Cl- ion concentration in the bath. The Fe22Ni78 films prepared in the plating bath with high Cl- ion concentration showed large reduction rate of the coercivity, and we found that the annealing is more effective for high Cl- ion concentration bath since much lower coercivity value can be obtained compared with that for low Cl- ion concentration one.

  11. A new capillary electrophoresis buffer for determining organic and inorganic anions in electroplating bath with surfactant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Lau, K M; Fung, Y S

    2010-05-07

    Monitoring of trace impurities in electroplating bath is needed to meet EU requirements for WEEE and RoHS and for quality control of electrodeposits. Methods using IC and 100% aqueous CE buffer were found producing non-repeatable results attributed to interference of surfactants and major methanesulphonate anion. A new CE buffer containing 1.5mM tetraethylenepentaamine, 3mM 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and 15 mM Tris in 20% (v/v) methanol at pH=8.4 was shown to enhance the separation window, reduce interaction between buffer and bath constituents, and give satisfactory repeatability with baseline separation for 14 organic and inorganic anions within 14 min, good repeatability for migration time (0.32-0.57% RSD), satisfactory peak area and peak height (2.9-4.5 and 3-4.7% respectively), low detection limit (S/N=2, 20-150 ppb), and wide working ranges (0.1-100 ppm). The CE buffer with 20% (v/v) methanol has demonstrated its capability for identifying anion impurities causing problem in aged tin bath and the use of only 10-fold dilution to produce reliable results for quality assessment in plating bath containing high surfactant additives. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WATER SORPTION BY DIFFERENT ACRYLIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kostić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic materials are used daily for the production of mobile dental restorations and orthodontic appliances. The presence of residual monomer, as a product of incomplete polymerisation of material, results in more porous structure of the material, which greatly reduces the mechanical and physical quality of the acrylic restorations and increases the absorption of liquids. The aim of this study was to examine the water absorption of different types of resin material. In the study it was assumed that the cold polymerized acrylates show a greater potential for absorbing fluid from the environment in relation to the hot polymerized acrylic. The study included two hot and two cold polymerized acrylates, and cold polymerized acrylate impregnated with aesthetic pearls. In order to determine the degree of water absorption, the mass of the samples was measured before and after one day, seven days and thirty days of immersion in a water bath of body temperature. The tested hot and cold polymerized acrylates after immersion in water bath showed standard values of water absorption. The degree of water absorption was not significantly influenced by the type and manner of polymerisation. Water absorption values were significantly higher after seven days and thirty days of water storage relative to the observational period of one day.

  13. Analysis of the first- and second-generation Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts containing methylone and pentedrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin L; Wolf, Carl E; ElJordi, Omar I; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Shijun; Poklis, Alphonse

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of designer drugs sold as "Bath Salts" have appeared on the market. In July of 2011, Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts was obtained over the Internet. This product became unavailable in October of that year coinciding with the DEA issuing a temporarily schedule of mephedrone, methylone, and MDPV. Four months later in February of 2012, a new product was released from the same company under the new name Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust. The contents of both products were identified using spectroscopy methods: nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, UV-visible, tandem mass spectrometry, and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. It was determined that Raving Dragon Novelty Bath Salts contained methylone. The replacement product Raving Dragon Voodoo Dust contained the unscheduled drug pentedrone. The Raving Dragon brand of products illustrates the rapid change of ingredients in these products to circumvent laws restricting availability, distribution, and use. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Achievement report for fiscal 1974 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature and high-pressure water electrolysis; 1974 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-30

    The goals at present are to clarify conditions for the realization of the water electrolysis process relative to various primary energy sources and to experimentally construct a small practical electrobath to operate at high temperature and high pressure for the attainment of high economic efficiency. Efforts in this fiscal year are mentioned below. Surveys and studies are conducted about hydrogen production by water electrolysis and about achievements in the past and problems at present concerning hydrogen production by water electrolysis in Japan and overseas. The expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources is also studied and evaluated. For a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis bath conceptual design (small test plant, bathing temperature 120 degrees C, pressure 20atm, hydrogen production rate 2Nm{sup 3}/h), studies are conducted about a constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath and a variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath. Surveys and studies are also conducted about the expected role of water electrolysis in various primary energy sources, and the role is evaluated. (NEDO)

  15. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  16. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  17. Chemical Bath Deposition and Characterization of CdS layer for CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Tasnim; Parvez, Sheikh; Matin, Rummana; Bashar, Mohammad Shahriar; Hossain, Tasnia; Sarwar, Hasan; Rashid, Mohammad Junaebur

    2016-01-01

    CZTS is a new type of an absorber and abundant materials for thin film solar cells (TFSC). Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the n-type buffer layer of it with band gap of 2.42 eV. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer of CZTS solar cell was deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the Chemical Bath Deposition(CBD) method, using anhydrous Cadmium chloride(CdCl_2) and Thiourea (CS(NH_2)_2). Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd^ ions and S^ ions in an alkaline bath which is achi...

  18. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, Dorota; Pilch, Wanda; Szarek, Marta; Szygula, Zbigniew; Tota, Łukasz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5-16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  19. C Chemic cal and s d phys seed oi sicoch il from emica m 'Gefn l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    west longitude, at 500 m altitude. The average annual ... were separated and washed with distilled water, weighed and dried ... prevent uncontrollable oxidative changes, according to the ... placed in a boiling bath for 5 min, where 2.5 mL of esterifying ... linear ramp of 5°C/min until reaching 240°C; this temperature was.

  20. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  1. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystalline nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, D.K. [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (M.S.) (India); Pawar, S.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 500 757 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (M.S.) (India); Kolekar, S.S., E-mail: kolekarss2003@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (M.S.) (India)

    2011-02-24

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > We have successfully synthesized nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films on stainless steel substrates using a low temperature chemical bath deposition method. > The surface morphological study showed the compact flakes like morphology. > The as-deposited thin films are hydrophilic (10{sup o} < {theta} < 90{sup o}) whereas the annealed thin films are super hydrophilic ({theta} < 10{sup o}) in nature. > Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films could be used in supercapacitor. - Abstract: The nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates using a chemical bath deposition method from alkaline bath. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static water contact angle and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that deposited Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were oriented along (3 1 1) plane. The FTIR spectra showed strong absorption peaks around 600 cm{sup -1} which are typical for cubic spinel crystal structure. SEM study revealed compact flakes like morphology having thickness {approx}1.8 {mu}m after air annealing. The annealed films were super hydrophilic in nature having a static water contact angle ({theta}) of 5{sup o}.The electrochemical supercapacitor study of Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films has been carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The values of interfacial and specific capacitances obtained were 0.0285 F cm{sup -2} and 19 F g{sup -1}, respectively.

  3. Mud-bath therapy and oral glucosamine sulfate in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Rosario; Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Sorbo, Dario; Carraturo, Nello; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Carraturo, Federica; Oriente, Alfonso; Balestrieri, Umberto; Minicucci, Annamaria; Del Puente, Antonio; Scarpa, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined treatment of mud-bath therapy and glucosamine crystalline sulfate (GlcN-S) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). This study was a randomised, controlled, crossover investigation. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by the investigators to two groups, named group 1 and 2. Group 1 included twenty-three patients receiving oral GlcN-S treatment from the beginning of the study (T0) to the end of the 3rd month of treatment (T3) and a combined treatment of both mud-bath therapy and GlcN-S from T3 to the end of the study at six months (T6). Group 2 included twenty-two patients receiving a combined treatment of both mud-bath therapy and GlcN-S from T0 to T3 and that discontinued mud-bath therapy, receiving GlcN-S treatment alone, from T3 to T6. Primary endpoints of the study consisted of evaluating OA severity and activity at baseline and at follow-up visits. All 45 patients, eligible for the study, completed the period of the crossover. In group 1, no significant difference was shown in the comparison from T0 to T3, while from T3 to T6 most variables were significantly improved. In group 2, instead, the comparison between T0 and T3 showed a significant difference in different parameters. When comparing T3 and T6, despite an improvement of all the variables, no significant difference was shown. The association of GlcN-S and mud-bath therapy has a positive and safe role in improving pain, function and quality of life in knee OA patients.

  4. Effects of heat and cold on health, with special reference to Finnish sauna bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2018-05-01

    Environmental stress such as extremely warm or cold temperature is often considered a challenge to human health and body homeostasis. However, the human body can adapt relatively well to heat and cold environments, and recent studies have also elucidated that particularly heat stress might be even highly beneficial for human health. Consequently, the aim of the present brief review is first to discuss general cardiovascular and other responses to acute heat stress, followed by a review of beneficial effects of Finnish sauna bathing on general and cardiovascular health and mortality as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease risk. Plausible mechanisms included are improved endothelial and microvascular function, reduced blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and possibly increased angiogenesis in humans, which are likely to mediate the health benefits of sauna bathing. In addition to heat exposure with physiological adaptations, cold stress-induced physiological responses and brown fat activation on health are also discussed. This is important to take into consideration, as sauna bathing is frequently associated with cooling periods in cold(er) environments, but their combination remains poorly investigated. We finally propose, therefore, that possible additive effects of heat- and cold-stress-induced adaptations and effects on health would be worthy of further investigation.

  5. Image analysis for maintenance of coating quality in nickel electroplating baths--real time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; van den Berg, F; Ostra, M; Ubide, C

    2011-11-07

    The aim of this paper is to show how it is possible to extract analytical information from images acquired with a flatbed scanner and make use of this information for real time control of a nickel plating process. Digital images of plated steel sheets in a nickel bath are used to follow the process under degradation of specific additives. Dedicated software has been developed for making the obtained results accessible to process operators. This includes obtaining the RGB image, to select the red channel data exclusively, to calculate the histogram of the red channel data and to calculate the mean colour value (MCV) and the standard deviation of the red channel data. MCV is then used by the software to determine the concentration of the additives Supreme Plus Brightner (SPB) and SA-1 (for confidentiality reasons, the chemical contents cannot be further detailed) present in the bath (these two additives degrade and their concentration changes during the process). Finally, the software informs the operator when the bath is generating unsuitable quality plating and suggests the amount of SPB and SA-1 to be added in order to recover the original plating quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1976 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of hydrogen production technology using high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis; 1976 nendo koon koatsusui denkaiho ni yoru suiso seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    Basic data are collected for the construction of a high-temperature high-pressure membrane-assisted water electrolysis test plant of the constant load type and another of the variable load type. To collect the data, basic experiments are conducted on a small water electrolysis unit, diaphragms are fabricated and tested for performance, design calculation is performed using a computer, a test unit for testing electrolysis bath constituting materials is built for the construction of a gas/liquid separation unit. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop a high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis test apparatus. The first part of this report is titled 'Outline' and states the objectives of this research, summarizes the achievements of fiscal 1974, 1975, and 1976, and mentions the names of officers responsible for the execution of the research and development, etc. The second part is titled 'Contents of research' and reports the details of the research conducted in fiscal 1976. The subjects taken up in the second part are 'Research on constant-load type high-temperature high-pressure (bipolar) diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on Teflon-based diaphragms for high-temperature high-pressure water electrolysis baths,' 'Research on variable-load type high-temperature high-pressure diaphragm-assisted water electrolysis bath,' 'Research on small test plant electrolysis bath design,' etc., which are being undertaken by Showa Denko K.K. and four other corporations. (NEDO)

  7. The effectiveness of a simulated scenario to teach nursing students how to perform a bed bath: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Renata Pinto Ribeiro; de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Érika; Silva Lima, Rogério; Braga, Cristiane Giffoni; Simões, Ivandira Anselmo Ribeiro; Fava, Silvana Maria Coelho Leite; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-10-01

    Simulation allows students to develop several skills during a bed bath that are difficult to teach only in traditional classroom lectures, such as problem-solving, student interactions with the simulator (patient), reasoning in clinical evaluations, evaluation of responses to interventions, teamwork, communication, security and privacy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a simulated bed bath scenario on improving cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction among nursing students. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Nursing students that were in the fifth period from two educational institutions in Brazil. Nursing students (n=58). The data were collected using the assessments of cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction were made through a written test about bed baths, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and a satisfaction questionnaire. We identified that the acquisition and assimilation of cognitive knowledge was significantly higher in the simulation group (p=0.001). The performance was similar in both groups regardless of the teaching strategy (p=0.435). At follow-up, the simulation group had significantly more satisfaction with the teaching method than the control group (p=0.007). The teaching strategy based on a simulated scenario of a bed bath proved to be effective for the acquisition of cognitive knowledge regarding bed baths in clinical practice and improved student satisfaction with the teaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Annual Report of Groundwater Monitoring at Everest, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In March 2009, the CCC/USDA developed a plan for annual monitoring of the groundwater and surface water (Argonne 2009). Under this plan, approved by the KDHE (2009), monitoring wells are sampled by using the low-flow procedure, and surface water samples are collected at five locations along the intermittent creek. Vegetation sampling is conducted as a secondary indicator of plume migration. Results of annual sampling in 2009-2011 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and water level measurements (Argonne 2010a, 2011a,b) were consistent with previous observations (Argonne 2003, 2006a,d, 2008). No carbon tetrachloride was detected in surface water of the intermittent creek or in tree branch samples collected at locations along the creek banks. This report presents the results of the fourth annual sampling event, conducted in 2012.

  9. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, M.; Faurschou, A.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application. METHODS: Seven areas were marked on the back of 24 volunteers. One area was phototested ...

  10. Surface-Water Data, Georgia, Water Year 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadeff, S. Jack; Landers, Mark N.; McCallum, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1999 water year for Georgia consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; and the stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs published in one volume in a digital format on a CD-ROM. This volume contains discharge records of 121 gaging stations; stage for 13 gaging stations; stage and contents for 18 lakes and reservoirs; continuous water quality records for 10 stations; and the annual peak stage and annual peak discharge for 75 crest-stage partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Georgia. Records of discharge and stage of streams, and contents or stage of lakes and reservoirs were first published in a series of U.S. Geological water-supply papers entitled, 'Surface-Water Supply of the United States.' Through September 30, 1960, these water-supply papers were in an annual series and then in a 5-year series for 1961-65 and 1966-70. Records of chemical quality, water temperature, and suspended sediment were published from 1941 to 1970 in an annual series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Quality of Surface Waters of the United States.' Records of ground-water levels were published from 1935 to 1974 in a series of water-supply papers entitled, 'Ground-Water Levels in the United States.' Water-supply papers may be consulted in the libraries of the principal cities in the United States or may be purchased from the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Information Services, Federal Center, Box 25286, Denver, CO 80225. For water years 1961 through 1970, streamflow data were released by the U.S. Geological Survey in annual reports on a State-boundary basis prior to the two 5-year series water-supply papers, which cover this period. The data contained in the water-supply papers are considered the official record. Water-quality records for water years 1964 through 1970 were similarly released

  11. Anomalous diffusion of a probe in a bath of active granular chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Michael Jade Y.; Confesor, Mark Nolan P.; Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria; Bernido, Christopher C.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a passive probe particle in a bath of active granular chains (AGC). The bath and the probe are enclosed in an experimental compartment with a sinusoidal boundary to prevent AGC congestion along the boundary while connected to an electrodynamic shaker. Single AGC trajectory analysis reveals a persistent type of motion compared to a purely Brownian motion as seen in its mean squared displacement (MSD). It was found that at small concentration, Φ ≤ 0.44, the MSD exhibits two dynamical regimes characterized by two different scaling exponents. For small time scales, the dynamics is superdiffusive (1.32-1.63) with the MSD scaling exponent increasing monotonically with increasing AGC concentration. On the other hand, at long time, we recover the Brownian dynamics regime, MSD = DΔt, where the mobility D ∝ Φ. We quantify the probe dynamics at short time scale by modeling it as a fractional Brownian motion. The analytical form of the MSD agrees with experimental results.

  12. Composition and properties of nanocrystalline Zn S thin films prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei, R.; Goudarzi, A.; Ahmadpoor, H.; Motedayen Aval, Gh.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc sulfide nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route on soda lime glass and quartz substrates using a weak acidic bath, in which disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) acts as a complexing agent and thioacetamide acts as a source of sulfide ions. The thickness of the films varied from a few nm to 500 nm. The chemical composition of films was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films are very close to Zinc sulfide stoichiometry and we did not observed any organic compounds in the impurity form in them. X-ray diffraction indicates that the film and powder formed in the same reaction bath have cubic zinc blende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy (E g ) was determined to be 3.75 eV from the absorption spectrophotometry measurements.

  13. 33 CFR 273.17 - Annual budget request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual budget request. 273.17... DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL § 273.17 Annual budget request. The Aquatic Plant Control Program is a... to utilize within the budget year taking into account the foreseeable availability of local funds to...

  14. PbS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications Obtained by Non-Traditional Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-García Claudia Elena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize cost-efficiency relation for thin film solar cells, we explore the recently developed versions of chemical deposition of semiconductor films, together with classic CBD (Chemical Bath Deposition: SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction and PCBD (Photo Chemical Bath Deposition, all of them ammonia-free and ecologically friendly. The films of CdS and PbS were made, and experimental solar cells with CdS window layer and PbS absorber elaborated. We found that band gap of PbS films can be monitored by deposition process due to porosity-induced quantum confinement which depends on the parameters of the process. We expect that the techniques employed can be successfully used for production of optoelectronic devices.

  15. Source Apportionment of Annual Water Pollution Loads in River Basins by Remote-Sensed Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to determine the efficiency of estimating annual water pollution loads from remote-sensed land cover classification and ground-observed hydrological data, an empirical model was investigated. Remote sensing data imagery from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer were applied to an 11 year (1994–2004 water quality dataset for 30 different rivers in Japan. Six water quality indicators—total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen (DO—were examined by using the observed river water quality data and generated land cover map. The TN, TP, BOD, COD, and DO loads were estimated for the 30 river basins using the empirical model. Calibration (1994–1999 and validation (2000–2004 results showed that the proposed simulation technique was useful for predicting water pollution loads in the river basins. We found that vegetation land cover had a larger impact on TP export into all rivers. Urban areas had a very small impact on DO export into rivers, but a relatively large impact on BOD and TN export. The results indicate that the application of land cover data generated from the remote-sensed imagery could give a useful interpretation about the river water quality.

  16. Determination of Radon Level in Drinking Water in Mehriz Villages and Evaluation the Annual Effective Absorbed Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2015-03-01

    Results: Radon concentrations of samples ranged from 0.187 BqL-1 to 14.8 BqL-1.These results were related to samples No.12 and 9 and also to aqueducts of Tang-e-chenar and Malekabad village respectively. Based on the amount of radon in the sample, the lowest annual effective absorbed dose through drinking water or breathing(In an environment where water was used was 0.0005msv/y and the maximum amount was 0.04msv/y. Conclusion: Apart from samples No.9 and 16 that were elated to the aqueduct of Malekabad village and a private well in Dare Miankoohvillagehaving48 persons as total population, Radon concentrations of other samples used by people of Mehriz villages as drinking water was low and less than permitted limit set by the Environmental Protection Agency of United States of America.

  17. Effect of Mud-Bath Therapy on Serum Biomarkers in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarelli, Nicola A; Cheleschi, Sara; Bacaro, Giovanni; Guidelli, Giacomo M; Galeazzi, Mauro; Fioravanti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Balneotherapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for osteoarthritis (OA). Recent data indicate that some biomarkers could be useful to predict OA progression and to assess therapeutic response. To evaluate the effects of mud-bath therapy on serum biomarkers in patients with knee OA. The study group comprised 103 patients with primary symptomatic bilateral knee OA who were randomly assigned to receive a cycle of mud-bath therapy over a period of 2 weeks or to continue their standard therapy alone. Clinical and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks. Clinical assessments included global pain score on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum levels were assessed by ELISA. At the end of mud-bath therapy we observed a statistically significant improvement in VAS and WOMAC subscores. Serum levels of COMP, MPO and hsCRP did not show any significant modification in either group, while a significant increase (P mud-bath group after the treatment. A cycle of mud-bath therapy added to the usual treatment had a beneficial effect on pain and function in patients with knee OA. The evaluation of serum biomarkers showed a significant increase of CTX-II only, perhaps due to an increase of cartilage turnover induced by thermal stress.

  18. Zinc electrodeposition on copper substrate using cyanide bath for the production of 66,67,68Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakavand, T.; Mokhtari, L.; Sadeghi, M.; Majdabadi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in an alkaline cyanide bath. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density and amount of the electrolyte components are optimized. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of zinc were as follows: 2.7 g L -1 ZnO, 7.1 g L -1 KCN, 11.1 g L -1 KOH, pH = 13-14, DC current density of ca 8.55 mA cm -2 at 40-50 deg C temperature with 89% current efficiency. SEM photomicrographs revealed fine-grained structure of the deposit from the bath. (author)

  19. United Nations Environment Programme. Annual Review 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This edition of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) annual report is structured in three parts. Part 1 focuses on three contemporary problems (ground water, toxic chemicals and human food chains and environmental economics) and attempts to solve them. Also included is a modified extract of "The Annual State of the Environment…

  20. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  1. Dynamics of the two-spin spin-boson model with a common bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Tianrui [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Optical and Electromagnetic Research, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Sensing Technologies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yan, Yiying; Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang, E-mail: YZhao@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Materials Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2016-04-14

    Dynamics of the two-spin spin-boson model in the presence of Ohmic and sub-Ohmic baths is investigated by employing a multitude of the Davydov D{sub 1} trial states, also known as the multi-D{sub 1} Ansatz. Its accuracy in dynamics simulations of the two-spin SBM is improved significantly over the single D{sub 1} Ansatz, especially in the weak to moderately strong coupling regime. Validity of the multi-D{sub 1} Ansatz for various coupling strengths is also systematically examined by making use of the deviation vector which quantifies how faithfully the trial state obeys the Schrödinger equation. The time evolution of population difference and entanglement has been studied for various initial conditions and coupling strengths. Careful comparisons are carried out between our approach and three other methods, i.e., the time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TD-NRG) approach, the Bloch-Redfield theory, and a method based on a variational master equation. For strong coupling, the multi-D{sub 1} trial state yields consistent results as the TD-NRG approach in the Ohmic regime while the two disagree in the sub-Ohmic regime, where the multi-D{sub 1} trial state is shown to be more accurate. For weak coupling, the multi-D{sub 1} trial state agrees with the two master-equation methods in the presence of both Ohmic and sub-Ohmic baths, but shows considerable differences with the TD-NRG approach in the presence of a sub-Ohmic bath, calling into question the validity of the TD-NRG results at long times in the literature.

  2. Eco-labelling of shampoos, shower gels and foam baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschka, Ursula; Liebig, Markus; Knacker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues of personal care products have been met with little attention in the past. Monitoring data as well as preliminary environmental risk assessments indicate that some ingredients in personal care products might be relevant pollutants in the environment. Following the precautionary principle, eco-labelling is proposed as an effective tool for source control of one major group of personal care products, shampoos, shower gels and foam baths (SSBs). Eco-labelling is a soft, but effective market driven and product specific approach to lower discharge of environmentally detrimental substances. Products that fulfil the criteria proposed help to minimise the impact of SSBs on the environment. Available assessment tools for dangerous substances (e.g. current legislation on environmental risk assessments and classification, and labelling, eco-labelling criteria for similar products, the calculation of the critical dilution volume) were adapted and integrated into the criteria for the eco-labelling of SSBs. A short outline of the eco-labelling criteria developed for SSBs is provided. The basic criteria concern the effects of the substances discharged into the waste water during and after use. Products with an eco-label award may exclusively contain substances for which basic information about their effects on the environment is available. They may not contain persistent, bioaccumulating, toxic or ecotoxicological substances. In addition, the basic criteria include requirements for the container and consumer information. The basic criteria for eco-labelling SSBs are based on the actual state of science and are at the same time as simple and transparent as possible to ensure the best applicability. SSBs that comply with the described basic criteria can contribute to a lower chemical burden of waste water treatment plants and surface water. The proposal for basic criteria described should stimulate discussion on eco-labelling of SSBs. It should help to pass

  3. Morphology and growth behavior of O_2-free chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet Meitzner, K.; Tillotson, Brock M.; Siedschlag, Amanda T.; Moore, Frederick G.; Kevan, Stephen D.; Richmond, Geraldine L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of reagent concentrations and ambient O_2 on the morphology and growth behavior of ZnS thin films grown with the chemical bath deposition method. We investigate the role of substrate on film morphology, and find significant differences between films deposited on SiO_2 versus Si. The films are also sensitive to dissolved O_2 in the bath, as it causes a layer of SiO_2 to form at the ZnS/Si interface during deposition. Degassing of solutions and an N_2 atmosphere are effective to minimize this oxidation, allowing deposition of ZnS films directly onto Si. Under these conditions, we examine film properties as they relate to reagent bath concentrations. As the reagent concentrations are decreased, both the film roughness and growth rate decrease linearly. We also observe deformation and shifting of X-ray diffraction peaks that increases with decreasing reagent concentrations. The shifts are characteristic of lattice compression (caused by the substitution of oxygen for sulfur), and the deformation is characteristic of distortion of the lattice near crystal grain interfaces (caused by tensile stress from interatomic forces between neighboring crystal grains). At the weakest concentrations, the low roughness suggests a mixed growth mode in which both clusters and individual ZnS nanocrystallites contribute to film growth. With increasing reagent concentrations, the growth mode shifts and becomes dominated by deposition of clusters. - Highlights: • We deposit ZnS thin films by chemical bath deposition in an O_2-free environment. • The O_2-free environment is effective to minimize oxidation of the Si substrate. • The dominant growth mechanism changes with reagent concentrations. • Film morphology and composition change with reagent concentrations. • X-ray diffraction reveals tensile stress between ZnS crystal grains.

  4. Psoriasis treatment: faster and long-standing results after bathing in geothermal seawater. A randomized trial of three UVB phototherapy regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysteinsdóttir, Jenna Huld; Ólafsson, Jón Hjaltalín; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Lúðvíksson, Björn Rúnar; Sigurgeirsson, Bárður

    2014-02-01

    The combination of seawater baths and narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is a known treatment for psoriasis. This study evaluates two treatment regimens that combine bathing in geothermal seawater and NB-UVB therapy in comparison with NB-UVB monotherapy. Sixty-eight psoriasis patients were randomly assigned to outpatient bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy three times a week, intensive daily treatment involving bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy, or NB-UVB therapy alone three times a week; treatment period was 6 weeks. Disease severity [Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Lattice System Physician's Global Assessment scores], quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index) and histological changes were evaluated before, during and after treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who achieved PASI 75 at 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the percentage of patients who achieved PASI 75 and PASI 90 was significantly greater for both regimens, bathing in geothermal seawater three times a week (68.1% and 18.2%, respectively) and intensive treatment with geothermal seawater (73.1% and 42.3%, respectively) than for NB-UVB monotherapy (16.7% and 0%, respectively) (P seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy in psoriasis induces faster clinical and histological improvement, produces longer remission time and permits lower NB-UVB doses than UVB therapy alone. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  6. Characterization of CuInS{sub 2} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition and their implementation in a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S.; López, I. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Peña, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Calixto, M. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 62580, Temixco, Morelos, México (Mexico); Hernández, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Messina, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, S/N C.P. 63155, Tepic, Nayarit, México (Mexico); and others

    2014-10-31

    CuInS{sub 2} thin films were formed by the sequential deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CuS layers on glass substrates, by chemical bath deposition technique, and heating these multilayer 1 h at 350 °C and 400 mPa. The morphology and thickness of the CuInS{sub 2} thin films were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, showing particles with elongated shape and length about 40 nm, and thickness of 267 and 348 nm for samples from 15 and 24 h of deposition time in the chemical bath of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, respectively. The energy band gap values of the films were around 1.4 eV, whereas the electrical conductivity showed values from 64.91 to 4.11 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1} for the samples of 15 and 24 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition bath, respectively. The obtained CuInS{sub 2} films showed appropriate values for their application as an absorbing layer in photovoltaic structures of the type: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuInS{sub 2}/PbS/C/Ag. The whole structure was obtained through chemical bath deposition technique. The solar cell corresponding to 15 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition duration bath showed energy-conversion efficiency (η) of 0.53% with open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 530 mV, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.43 mA cm{sup −2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.41. In the case of the structure with 24 h of deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} bath, η = 0.43% was measured with the following parameters: V{sub oc} = 330 mV, J{sub sc} = 4.78 mA cm{sup −2} and FF = 0.27. - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2} films were formed by chemical bath deposition followed by a heat treatment. • Prepared CuInS{sub 2} thin films can work as an effective absorbing layer in a solar cell. • A complete solar cell structure was made by a chemical bath deposition method.

  7. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... § 382.203 Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. (a) The adjusted costs of administration of...

  8. Unlocking annual firn layer water equivalents from ground-penetrating radar data on an Alpine glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial representation of accumulation measurements is a major limitation for current glacier mass balance monitoring approaches. Here, we present a method for estimating annual accumulation rates on a temperate Alpine glacier based on the interpretation of internal reflection horizons (IRHs in helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR data. For each individual GPR measurement, the signal travel time is combined with a simple model for firn densification and refreezing of meltwater. The model is calibrated at locations where GPR repeat measurements are available in two subsequent years and the densification can be tracked over time. Two 10.5 m long firn cores provide a reference for the density and chronology of firn layers. Thereby, IRHs correspond to density maxima, but not exclusively to former summer glacier surfaces. Along GPR profile sections from across the accumulation area we obtain the water equivalent (w.e. of several annual firn layers. Because deeper IRHs could be tracked over shorter distances, the total length of analysed profile sections varies from 7.3 km for the uppermost accumulation layer (2011 to 0.1 km for the deepest (i.e. oldest layer (2006. According to model results, refreezing accounts for 10% of the density increase over time and depth, and for 2% of the water equivalent. The strongest limitation to our method is the dependence on layer chronology assumptions. We show that GPR can be used not only to complement existing mass balance monitoring programmes on temperate glaciers but also to retrospectively extend newly initiated time series.

  9. Removal of micropollutants from grey water : combining biological and physical/chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.

    2010-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. The amount of grey water produced per person in The Netherlands is about 90 Ld-1, accounting for up to 75 % of the wastewater volume produced by households, and over 90 % if vacuum toilets are

  10. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  11. Annual environmental monitoring report, January--December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Environmental monitoring results continue to demonstrate that, except for penetrating radiation, environmental radiological impact due to SLAC operation is not distinguishable from natural environmental sources. During 1978, the maximum neutron dose near the site boundary was 6.6 mrem. This represents about 6.6% of the annual dose from natural sources at this elevation, and 1.3% of the technical standard of 500 mrem per person annually. There have been no measurable increases in radioactivity in ground water attributable to SLAC operations since 1966. Because of major new construction, well water samples were not collected and analyzed during 1978. Construction activities have also temporarily placed our sampling stations for the sanitary and storm sewers out of service. They will be re-established as soon as construction activities permit. Airborne radioactivity released from SLAC continues to make only a negligible environmental impact, and results in a site boundary annual dose of less than 0.01 mrem; this represents less than 0.01% of the annual dose from the natural radiation environment, and about 0.002% of the technical standard

  12. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596), a model for northern peatland CO2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunjing; Zhu, Dan; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Krinner, Gerhard; Peng, Shushi; Aurela, Mika; Bernhofer, Christian; Brümmer, Christian; Bret-Harte, Syndonia; Chu, Housen; Chen, Jiquan; Desai, Ankur R.; Dušek, Jiří; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Fortuniak, Krzysztof; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Friborg, Thomas; Grygoruk, Mateusz; Gogo, Sébastien; Grünwald, Thomas; Hansen, Birger U.; Holl, David; Humphreys, Elyn; Hurkuck, Miriam; Kiely, Gerard; Klatt, Janina; Kutzbach, Lars; Largeron, Chloé; Laggoun-Défarge, Fatima; Lund, Magnus; Lafleur, Peter M.; Li, Xuefei; Mammarella, Ivan; Merbold, Lutz; Nilsson, Mats B.; Olejnik, Janusz; Ottosson-Löfvenius, Mikaell; Oechel, Walter; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Peichl, Matthias; Pirk, Norbert; Peltola, Olli; Pawlak, Włodzimierz; Rasse, Daniel; Rinne, Janne; Shaver, Gaius; Schmid, Hans Peter; Sottocornola, Matteo; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Sachs, Torsten; Urbaniak, Marek; Zona, Donatella; Ziemblinska, Klaudia

    2018-02-01

    Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC) observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP) (r2 = 0.76; Nash-Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF = 0.76) and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 = 0.78, MEF = 0.75), with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 = 0.42, MEF = 0.14) and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 = 0.38, MEF = 0.26). Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57-0.86). For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT) variation was not well predicted (r2 < 0.1), likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However, the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized Vcmax and latitude (temperature), which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value.

  13. Sustainability Annual Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  14. Sustainability Annual Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  15. Sustainability Annual Report 2017

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  16. Sustainability Annual Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  17. Sustainability Annual Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  18. Sustainability Annual Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  19. Sustainability Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Virginia Tech releases a sustainability annual report to show the university’s progress in meeting the sustainability goals. The key sustainability metrics these reports cover include: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use intensity, alternative transportation use, recycling, and water consumption.

  20. Reproducibility of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Indices of disease activity (BASDAI), functional status (BASFI) and overall well-being (BAS-G) in anti-tumour necrosis factor-treated spondyloarthropathy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole R; Rytter, Anne; Hansen, Lonnie B

    2010-01-01

    The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Function Index (BASFI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G) (ranges 0-10) have gained widespread in use as self-reported measures of disease activity, functional impairment and ove...

  1. THE BALNEARY RESOURCE, A GENERATOR OF BUILT HERITAGE. THE STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF HERCULANE BATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SPÂNU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The balneary resource, a generator of built heritage. The stratigraphic features of Herculane Baths. The exploitation of natural resources, regardless of type, usually consists of two phases: firstly, the development of exploitation processes and secondly the development of exploitation structures – elements or built structures intended for the processing of the concerned natural resources. Many such structures have been declared architectural heritage monuments due to their historical, documentary, representative and aesthetical value, examples being numerous and varied. Water is the main resource that dictates the occurrence and development of human settlements and creates various typologies that derive from the accessibility, exploitation methods, and adaptation to the conditions and characteristics of the resource. With a peculiar evolution in terms of the dynamics of the binomial composed of natural resource and architectural heritage resource, mineral resources (especially balneal waters fall in a distinct category: although mainly utilitarian in function, they have also cultural, aesthetic and even religious purposes. Besides their curative properties, spa mineral waters can be used as is, in many cases directly from the source, this being the explanation why they have generated such great and continuous interest - forming today a highly stratified built heritage background. Keeping in mind the sustainable development for a medium or a long period of time, an analysis of the interrelations between the balneal natural resource and the deriving architectural heritage is necessary. The purpose of such analysis is determining the limitations of exploitation and identifying the optimal means of safeguarding both elements, the natural water resource and the anthropogenic one, for a more rational territory management.

  2. Reconstruction of three centuries of annual accumulation rates based on the record of stable isotopes of water from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjola, V.; Martma, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Moore, J.; Isaksson, E.; Vaikmae, R.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2002-01-01

    We use the upper 81 in of the record of stable isotopes of water from a 122 in long ice core from Lomonosovfonna, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard, to construct an ice-core chronology and the annual accumulation rates over the icefield. The isotope cycles are counted in the ice-core record using a

  3. A strongly coupled open system with a non-linear bath: fluctuation-dissipation and Langevin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Chitrak

    2018-03-01

    The study of Langevin dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) for a generic probe system (represented by a mass M ), bilinearly coupled to a bath of harmonic oscillators, has been a standard paradigm for the microscopic theory of stochastic processes for several decades. The question that we probe in this paper is, how robust the structure of the classical FDR is, when one replaces the harmonic bath by an anharmonic one in the limit of strong system-bath coupling? Such a picture carries the signature of the probe system in the zeroth order through a nonlocal time kernel. We observe that the two-time noise correlations hold a rich structure from which the usual FDR emerges only in the leading order of perturbation. Beyond this order, multiple time scales and nontrivial dependence on the temperature starts to manifest. These new aspects conspire to break the time-translational invariance of the noise-correlations. Several other interesting features show up and we discuss them methodically through rigorous calculations order-by-order in perturbation. This formalistic derivation along with a specific example of non-linearity can be easily applied to a huge range of processes and statistical observables that fall under the purview of a system-reservoir theory.

  4. Drought impact on water use efficiency and intra-annual density fluctuations in Erica arborea on Elba (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; DE Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Saurer, Matthias; Aronne, Giovanna; Linke, Petra; Cherubini, Paolo

    2014-02-01

    Erica arborea (L) is a widespread Mediterranean species, able to cope with water stress and colonize semiarid environments. The eco-physiological plasticity of this species was evaluated by studying plants growing at two sites with different soil moistures on the island of Elba (Italy), through dendrochronological, wood-anatomical analyses and stable isotopes measurements. Intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) were abundant in tree rings, and were identified as the key parameter to understand site-specific plant responses to water stress. Our findings showed that the formation of IADFs is mainly related to the high temperature, precipitation patterns and probably to soil water availability, which differs at the selected study sites. The recorded increase in the (13) C-derived intrinsic water use efficiency at the IADFs level was linked to reduced water loss rather than to increasing C assimilation. The variation in vessel size and the different absolute values of δ(18) O among trees growing at the two study sites underlined possible differences in stomatal control of water loss and possible differences in sources of water uptake. This approach not only helped monitor seasonal environmental differences through tree-ring width, but also added valuable information on E. arborea responses to drought and their ecological implications for Mediterranean vegetation dynamics. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effect of carbonated mineral water and mofette treatment in Baile Tusnad after ischemic stroke – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dogaru

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide baths might represent an effective therapeutic method in the rehabilitation of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction and stroke, as well as in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, inflammatory diseases and functional disorders. According to the World Health Organization, 5.5 million deaths from stroke were recorded in 2001, and about 15 million people survive stroke every year. Mortality from stroke is 11% for women and 8.4% for men. According to the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention  Rehabilitation, phase II and III cardiovascular rehabilitation is performed in Romania only in a proportion of 10%. The therapeutic effects of carbonated mineral waters are due to the action of carbon dioxide. This induces cutaneous vasodilation, with a decrease in blood pressure values. It also causes an increase of cardiac output, while reducing blood pressure and heart rate. Mofettes are natural emanations along the Harghita volcanic massif, which contain CO2 in concentrations of 90-98% with cutaneous vasodilator effects, increasing cerebral and muscle blood flow. The natural therapeutic factors in Baile Tusnad, consisting of carbonated mineral water baths, mofettes, climate therapy, along with medical physical culture, indicated in the rehabilitation treatment of post-stroke patients had a beneficial effect on clinical and functional symptomatology, improving the quality of gait and balance, functionality and exercise capacity in a patient who suffered stroke five years before and was followed up for three years, while she attended an annual medical rehabilitation program in Baile Tusnad. Continuing medical rehabilitation programs, in the absence of contraindications, in Romanian spa resorts for cardiovascular treatment, as well as conducting randomized clinical studies on the efficiency of these treatments is important.

  6. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... mark or other means that identifies the date (month and year, as a minimum) of manufacture. Section 9... instructions with infant bath seats thus would be ``usual and customary'' and not within the definition of... a GS-12 level, salaried employee. The average hourly wage rate for a mid-level salaried GS-12...

  7. Unexplained neurological events during bathing in young people: Possible association with the use of gas geysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Prabhjeet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report sudden, unexplained neurological collapse in 14 young people while bathing with hot water associated with the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG-based water heaters (gas geysers in ill-ventilated bathrooms. None of the patients reported any circumstantial evidence of seizures or prior epilepsy. One patient developed cortical blindness and demonstrated posterior leucoencephalopathy on imaging studies. The remaining patients made rapid and excellent recovery without any residual neurological sequelae. In these cases, the results of all routine investigations, i.e., serum chemistry, brain imaging (computed tomography in 2 and magnetic resonance imaging in 10 and electroencephalography were normal. The clinical clustering of these cases in winter months with similar presentations of reversible encephalopathy probably indicates an inhalational toxin exposure. Therefore, we postulate a hypothesis that harmful emissions consisting of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon gases (HC and nitrogen oxides (NOx, produced by incomplete combustion of LPG might be responsible for the cellular injury and subsequent transient neurological deficits. Physicians should be aware of this entity in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this condition as seizures, and a public awareness should also be created regarding the proper use of these devices.

  8. Study of heat transfer at the upper boundary of a fluid bath with voluminal power dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaz, L.

    1998-01-01

    In order to examine the possibilities of external cooling of reactor vessels in the case of core meltdown accident in PWR reactors, it is necessary to determine the distribution of heat fluxes at the boundaries of the hemispherical bath. This distribution is controlled by the natural convection movements inside the bath. The first part of the document introduces the problem. The second part is a bibliographic analysis of previous works performed on natural convection inside a liquid bath with an internal heat source. The modeling of heat transfer at the upper boundary is assimilated to the Rayleigh-Benard turbulent convection. An analytical model of weak turbulence regime is developed in part 3. Different laws about the relationship between thermal plume characteristics and the parameters of the system are defined. Part 4 presents the experimental devices and scale models (MARABEC and BALI) used for the validation of the theoretical model and for the obtention of a database of reactor parameters. The laser induced fluorescence visualisation technique is used for the parametric study of between plumes spacing. The fifth part is devoted to the presentation and interpretation of results. (J.S.)

  9. Effect of Initial Iron Content in a Zinc Bath on the Dissolution Rate of Iron During a Hot Dip Galvanizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Myung; Lee, Suk Kyu; Paik, Doo-Jin; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of iron dissolution and the effect of initial Fe content in a Zn bath on the dissolution rate of iron were investigated using a finger rotating method (FRM). When the initial iron content, [Fe]°, in the zinc bath was less than the solubility limit, the iron content in the zinc bath showed a rapid increase, whereas a moderate increase was observed when [Fe]° was close to the solubility limit. Based on Eisenberg's kinetic model, the mass transfer coefficient of iron in the present experimental condition was calculated to be k M = 1.2 × 10-5 m/s, which was similar to the results derived by Giorgi et al. under industrial practice conditions. A dissolution of iron occurred even when the initial iron content in the zinc bath was greater than the solubility limit, which was explained by the interfacial thermodynamics in conjunction with the morphology of the surface coating layer. By analyzing the diffraction patterns using TEM, the outermost dendritic-structured coating layer was confirmed as FeZn13 ( ζ). In order to satisfy the local equilibrium based on the Gibbs-Thomson equation, iron in the dendrite-structured phase spontaneously dissolved into the zinc bath, resulting in the enrichment of iron in front of the dendrite tip. Through the diffusion boundary layer in front of the dendritic-structured layer, dissolved Fe atoms diffused out and reacted with Zn and small amounts of Al, resulting in the formation of dross particles such as FeZn10Al x ( δ). It was experimentally confirmed that the smaller the difference between the initial iron content in the zinc bath and the iron solubility limit at a given temperature, the lower the number of formed dross particles.

  10. Radon water to air transfer measured in a bathroom in an energy-efficient home with a private well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, Naomi H.; Chittaporn, Passaporn; Cook, Gordon B.; Fisenne, Isabel M.

    2014-01-01

    Monthly measurements of radon in kitchen and bath tap water along with indoor air concentrations were made from 1994 to 1996 in an energy-efficient home with a private well. The well supplies all water to the home. The radon in cold and hot kitchen water averaged 69±2 and 52±2 Bq l -1 , respectively. Radon in cold and hot water from the bath/shower room shower head averaged 60±1 and 38±2 Bq l -1 , respectively, whereas hot water collected in the shower at the tub base averaged 5±1 Bq l -1 or a 92 % radon loss to air. While the calculated transfer factor of 1/10 000, i.e. radon concentration in air to radon in water, conventionally applies to the whole house, measurements for the specific water release during showering in a bathroom exhibit a larger transfer factor of 1/2300, due to smaller room volume. (authors)

  11. 33 CFR 165.151 - Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... annual fireworks displays. 165.151 Section 165.151 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.151 Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays. (a) Safety Zones. The following...) Indian Harbor Yacht Club Fireworks Safety Zone. All waters of Long Island Sound off Greenwich CT, within...

  12. Surface-Water Conditions in Georgia, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jaime A.; Landers, Mark N.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Georgia Water Science Center-in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies-collected surface-water streamflow, water-quality, and ecological data during the 2005 Water Year (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). These data were compiled into layers of an interactive ArcReaderTM published map document (pmf). ArcReaderTM is a product of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc (ESRI?). Datasets represented on the interactive map are * continuous daily mean streamflow * continuous daily mean water levels * continuous daily total precipitation * continuous daily water quality (water temperature, specific conductance dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) * noncontinuous peak streamflow * miscellaneous streamflow measurements * lake or reservoir elevation * periodic surface-water quality * periodic ecological data * historical continuous daily mean streamflow discontinued prior to the 2005 water year The map interface provides the ability to identify a station in spatial reference to the political boundaries of the State of Georgia and other features-such as major streams, major roads, and other collection stations. Each station is hyperlinked to a station summary showing seasonal and annual stream characteristics for the current year and for the period of record. For continuous discharge stations, the station summary includes a one page graphical summary page containing five graphs, a station map, and a photograph of the station. The graphs provide a quick overview of the current and period-of-record hydrologic conditions of the station by providing a daily mean discharge graph for the water year, monthly statistics graph for the water year and period of record, an annual mean streamflow graph for the period of record, an annual minimum 7-day average streamflow graph for the period of record, and an annual peak streamflow graph for the period of record. Additionally, data can be accessed through the layer's link

  13. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee

    2012-01-01

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45 o ) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  14. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; /Indiana U.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  15. Annual sulfate budgets for Dutch lowland peat polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaat, Jan E.; Harmsen, Joop; Hellmann, Fritz A.; Geest, van der Harm G.; Klein, de Jeroen J.M.; Kosten, Sarian; Smolders, Alfons J.P.; Verhoeven, Jos T.A.; Mes, Ron G.; Ouboter, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Annual sulfate mass balances have been constructed for four low-lying peat polders in the Netherlands, to resolve the origin of high sulfate concentrations in surface water, which is considered a water quality problem, as indicated amongst others by the absence of sensitive water plant species.

  16. Effect of daily chlorhexidine bathing on the acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a medical intensive care unit with methicillin-resistant S aureus endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Chung, Yun Kyung; Lee, Seung Soon; Lee, Jeong-A; Kim, Han-Sung; Park, Eun Young; Shin, Kyong-Sok; Kang, Bog Soun; Lee, Hee Jung; Kang, Hyun Joo

    2016-12-01

    Universal decolonization is recommended in intensive care units (ICUs) that have unacceptably high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) despite implementation of basic prevention strategies. An interrupted time series study was performed to evaluate the effect of daily chlorhexidine bathing on the acquisition of MRSA in a medical ICU with MRSA endemicity. There was a 14-month control period and a 16-month chlorhexidine bathing period. Segmented Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of daily chlorhexidine bathing on the incidence density of MRSA. Also, chlorhexidine susceptibility testing with polymerase chain reaction for the qacA/B gene was performed on MRSA isolates collected during the chlorhexidine bathing period. There was a significant reduction in trend (-0.056; 95% confidence interval, -0.095 to -0.017; P = .005) of incidence density of MRSA despite a significant increase in both level and trend of MRSA prevalence rates during the chlorhexidine bathing period. However, there was no significant reduction in level of incidence density of MRSA during the interventional period. Minimum inhibitory concentration of chlorhexidine and the detection rates of the qacA/B gene for a total of 174 MRSA isolates did not increase during the chlorhexidine bathing period. Daily chlorhexidine bathing resulted in a significantly decreasing trend of MRSA acquisition rates irrespective of increased MRSA prevalence rates in the medical ICU. There was no shift of chlorhexidine-resistant MRSA strains. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, O.; Aquilonius, K.

    1995-12-31

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of (e) water, (f) vegetables, (g) cereals, and (h) root vegetables and (i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs.

  18. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, O.; Aquilonius, K.

    1995-01-01

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of e) water, f) vegetables, g) cereals, and h) root vegetables and i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs

  19. A comparison of individual doses for continuous annual unit releases of tritium and activation products into brackish water and lake-river ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edlund, O; Aquilonius, K

    1996-12-31

    The annual effective doses to critical group from potential unit releases of tritium and activation products (32 nuclides) from a hypothetical fusion reactor into two aquatic environments, one with brackish water and the other with fresh water, are assessed. Unit continuous releases (1 Bq/year during 50 years) for each relevant activation product are analyzed, and the effective dose rate is calculated for each nuclide. The transfer of released activity is simulated by compartment models using first-order linear differential equations for the transport. The rate constants for the brackish-water ecosystem are based on measurements. Four exposure pathways are considered in the brackish water system, the Tvaeren Bay, (a) consumption of fish, (b) consumption of milk, (c) consumption of meat, and (d) exposure from swimming. For the freshwater system, five additional pathways are considered, namely consumption of (e) water, (f) vegetables, (g) cereals, and (h) root vegetables and (i) external exposure from contaminated ground. The paper presents the compartment models used and a description of how the exposure pathways are treated, especially the pathways via food consumption. The dominating exposure pathways are for most of the nuclides consumption of fish and water. For Ag-isotopes other exposure pathways, such as ground-shine, cereals and meat, are of importance. The results of this study show that individual annual effective doses attributed to unit releases of most of the nuclides to the lake-river system become 1.3-60 times lower than those released to the brackish-water system. The niobium isotopes, however, give a factor 2.5-4.8 higher dose. The reason to that is that the values of the bioaccumulation factor for these isotopes are higher in fresh water than in marine water. An uncertainty analysis is performed on each ecosystem and the results are obtained in the form of distributions. 38 refs, 29 tabs.

  20. Israel Geological Society, annual meeting 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amit, R.; Arkin, Y.; Hirsch, F.

    1994-02-01

    The document is a compilation of papers presented during the annual meeting of Israel Geological Society. The document is related with geological and environmental survey of Israel. It discusses the technology and instruments used to carry out such studies. Main emphasis is given to seismology, geochemical analysis of water, water pollution and geophysical survey of rocks

  1. Assessment of a new seasonal to inter-annual operational Great Lakes water supply, water levels, and connecting channel flow forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.; Pei, L.; Smith, J.; Lucier, H.; Mueller, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has recently operationalized a suite of ensemble forecasts of Net Basin Supply (NBS), water levels, and connecting channel flows that was developed through a collaboration among USACE, NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), New York Power Authority (NYPA), and the Niagara River Control Center (NRCC). These forecasts are meant to provide reliable projections of potential extremes in daily discharge in the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers over a long time horizon (5 years). The suite of forecasts includes eight configurations that vary by (a) NBS model configuration, (b) meteorological forcings, and (c) incorporation of seasonal climate projections through the use of weighting. Forecasts are updated on a weekly basis, and represent the first operational forecasts of Great Lakes water levels and flows that span daily to inter-annual horizons and employ realistic regulation logic and lake-to-lake routing. We will present results from a hindcast assessment conducted during the transition from research to operation, as well as early indications of success rates determined through operational verification of forecasts. Assessment will include an exploration of the relative skill of various forecast configurations at different time horizons and the potential for application to hydropower decision making and Great Lakes water management.

  2. Alternative irradiation system for efficiency manganese bath determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos Leite, Sandro, E-mail: sandro@ird.gov.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wagner Pereira, Walsan, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Xavier da Silva, Ademir, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Simoes da Fonseca, Evaldo, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Patrao, Karla Cristina de, E-mail: karla@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria LNMRI/IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CEP: 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    An alternative irradiation system, which works with a radionuclide neutron source and manganese sulphate solution volume have been proposed for efficiency determination of a Manganese Bath System (MBS). This irradiation system was designed by simulation with MCNP5 code, considering a californium neutron source in several manganese sulphate volumes and different neutron reflectors. Although its solution specific activity are less than those in nuclear reactors, the simulation results have showed that the irradiation system proposed takes a manganese neutron capture increase up to 200 times when it compared to manganese neutron capture from a MBS whose diameter is about 100 cm. That becomes possible to use those samples for some of the absolute specific activity measuring methods.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of gold (III) in cyanide-free bath with 5,5′-dimethylhydantoin as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaowei; An Maozhong; Zhang Yunwang; Zhang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The DMH gold plating electrolyte with good stability studied in this paper is cyanide-free and the influence of novel additive (pyridyl-compound) on the nucleation and growth of gold is also investigated. ► The electrochemical behavior of gold electrodeposition in DMH bath is firstly analyzed using cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometry techniques. - Abstract: Gold electrodeposits are prepared in a cyanide-free bath with 5,5′-dimethylhydantoin (DMH) as complexing agent. The electrochemical behavior of the electrodeposition is then investigated together with the influence of additive A (pyridyl-compound) as an additive on the nucleation and growth of gold using electrochemical techniques on gold working electrode at different temperatures. Cyclic voltammogram consists of a single cathodic reduction wave at −0.62 V which corresponds to the reduction of Au(III) to Au without anodic oxidation wave observed. The diffusion coefficient of Au(III) in the bath is found to be ∼10 −6 cm 2 /s and the energy of activation (43 kJ/mol) is deduced from the cyclic voltammograms at different temperatures. The nucleation and growth of gold on gold working electrode is investigated by chronoamperometry. The progressive nucleation mechanism is found for gold deposition using Scharifker–Hills’ model with three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-controlled growth nucleation. The introduction of the additive A does not influence this mechanism. The gold electrodeposits are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cathodic polarization measurements. Experimental results indicate that additive A increases the cathodic polarization of bath, refines the grains of electrodeposit and changes the preferred orientation of electrodeposit from [1 1 1] direction to [2 0 0] direction.

  4. Analysis rbs of CdS thin films grown by cbd to different intensities of the magnetic field and temperature of the chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrero, E.; Vigil, O.

    1999-01-01

    Depth and composition of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition under different temperature and magnetic DC field conditions, were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. The above parameters were evaluated as a function of the bath temperature and the intensity of the induction magnetic field applied

  5. The annual cycle of African climate and its variability | Jury | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low) annual cycle correspond with La Nina (El Nino) and increased (decreased) inter-annual fluctuations of the African climate. A composite analysis shows that the South Atlantic Hadley cell and standing waves in the subtropical jet may connect ...

  6. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model to visualize infection dynamics of Vibrio anguillarum following intraperitoneal injection and bath exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Korbut, Rozalia; Ohtani, Maki

    2017-01-01

    , for which the vaccines are targeted. The zebrafish is by now a well established practical vertebrate model species due in part to its size and ease of maintenance and genetic manipulation. Here we use zebrafish as a model to visualize and compare the development of infection of Vibrio anguillarum......Vaccine development is important for sustainable fish farming and novel vaccines need to be efficacy tested before release to the market. Challenge of fish with the pathogen towards which the vaccine has been produced can be conducted either by external exposure though bathing or cohabitation...... on and in the fish following injection or bathing. Injection of 103 bacteria per fish resulted in approximately 50% mortality by day 4 post-injection. Similar mortality levels were reached in the other group by bathing in 1.25 × 109 bacteria for 1 min. The spreading of bacteria was followed for the first 24 h after...

  7. Reduced dynamics in spin-boson models: A method for both slow and fast bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, Andrei A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Pechukas, Philip

    2000-01-01

    We study a model for treating dissipative systems, a one dimensional quantum system coupled to a harmonic bath. The dynamics of such a system can be described by Feynman's path integral expression for the reduced density matrix. In this formulation the interaction of the system with the environment is stored in the influence functional. Recently we showed that fast environmental modes that give rise to correlations in the influence functional which are short range in time can be treated efficiently by a memory equation algorithm, which is a discretized version of a master equation. In this work we extend this approach to treat slow environmental modes as well, thereby efficiently linking adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes. In this extended method the long range correlations in the influence functional arising from slow bath modes are taken into account through Stock's semiclassical self-consistent-field approach. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  8. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  9. ORCHIDEE-PEAT (revision 4596, a model for northern peatland CO2, water, and energy fluxes on daily to annual scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Qiu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands store substantial amounts of carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We present a modified version of the Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE land surface model for simulating the hydrology, surface energy, and CO2 fluxes of peatlands on daily to annual timescales. The model includes a separate soil tile in each 0.5° grid cell, defined from a global peatland map and identified with peat-specific soil hydraulic properties. Runoff from non-peat vegetation within a grid cell containing a fraction of peat is routed to this peat soil tile, which maintains shallow water tables. The water table position separates oxic from anoxic decomposition. The model was evaluated against eddy-covariance (EC observations from 30 northern peatland sites, with the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax being optimized at each site. Regarding short-term day-to-day variations, the model performance was good for gross primary production (GPP (r2 =  0.76; Nash–Sutcliffe modeling efficiency, MEF  =  0.76 and ecosystem respiration (ER, r2 =  0.78, MEF  =  0.75, with lesser accuracy for latent heat fluxes (LE, r2 =  0.42, MEF  =  0.14 and and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, r2 =  0.38, MEF  =  0.26. Seasonal variations in GPP, ER, NEE, and energy fluxes on monthly scales showed moderate to high r2 values (0.57–0.86. For spatial across-site gradients of annual mean GPP, ER, NEE, and LE, r2 values of 0.93, 0.89, 0.27, and 0.71 were achieved, respectively. Water table (WT variation was not well predicted (r2 < 0.1, likely due to the uncertain water input to the peat from surrounding areas. However, the poor performance of WT simulation did not greatly affect predictions of ER and NEE. We found a significant relationship between optimized Vcmax and latitude (temperature, which better reflects the spatial gradients of annual NEE than using an average Vcmax value.

  10. EXPERIENCE VERSUS AUTHORITY: THE SEARCH FOR GENDER EQUALITY IN CHAUCER'S "THE WIFE OF BATH'S PROLOGUE AND TALE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setefanus Suprayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years much interest has been put on gender equality. There has been a changing perception of the attitudes which emerges and shapes women's role in society and relationships. Formerly, social ideas and customs dictated women to be subservient. But now the changing social structure gives women space to pursue gender equality. Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343-1400 had addressed this issue in his work, "The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." This paper discusses how Alisoun, the wife Bath, through her prologue and tale, shows the contradiction of the oppressive traditions and customs imposed on women and attempts to present the idea of gender equality.

  11. Oxidation of hydroxylamine by cytochrome P-460 of the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, J A; Duncan, C; DiSpirito, A A

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme capable of the oxidation of hydroxylamine to nitrite was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The absorption spectra in cell extracts, electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, molecular weight, covalent attachment of heme group to polypeptide, and enzymatic activities suggest that the enzyme is similar to cytochrome P-460, a novel iron-containing protein previously observed only in Nitrosomonas europaea. The native and subunit molecular masses of the M. capsulatus Bath protein were 38,900 and 16,390 Da, respectively; the isoelectric point was 6.98. The enzyme has approximately one iron and one copper atom per subunit. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of the protein showed evidence for a high-spin ferric heme. In contrast to the enzyme from N. europaea, a 13-nm blue shift in the soret band of the ferrocytochrome (463 nm in cell extracts to 450 nm in the final sample) occurred during purification. The amino acid composition and N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme from M. capsulatus Bath was similar but not identical to those of cytochrome P-460 of N. europaea. In cell extracts, the identity of the biological electron acceptor is as yet unestablished. Cytochrome c-555 is able to accept electrons from cytochrome P-460, although the purified enzyme required phenazine methosulfate for maximum hydroxylamine oxidation activity (specific activity, 366 mol of O2 per s per mol of enzyme). Hydroxylamine oxidation rates were stimulated approximately 2-fold by 1 mM cyanide and 1.5-fold by 0.1 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline. Images PMID:7928947

  12. BOREAS RSS-8 BIOME-BGC SSA Simulation of Annual Water and Carbon Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Kimball, John

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-8 team performed research to evaluate the effect of seasonal weather and landcover heterogeneity on boreal forest regional water and carbon fluxes using a process-level ecosystem model, BIOME-BGC, coupled with remote sensing-derived parameter maps of key state variables. This data set contains derived maps of landcover type and crown and stem biomass as model inputs to determine annual evapotranspiration, gross primary production, autotrophic respiration, and net primary productivity within the BOREAS SSA-MSA, at a 30-m spatial resolution. Model runs were conducted over a 3-year period from 1994-1996; images are provided for each of those years. The data are stored in binary image format. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  13. Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-07-01

    This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPDδ) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPDδ) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 μm which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 μm for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 33 CFR 100.1302 - Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. 100.1302 Section 100.1302 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... § 100.1302 Special Local Regulation, Annual Dragon Boat Races, Portland, Oregon. (a) Regulated area. All...

  15. Iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" in Books of Hours of 15th and 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Guyot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of biblical exegesis and medieval literature, this paper proposes an iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" as it appears in Books of Hours. From the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, pictorial representations of this Old Testament scene experienced a boom justified by the underlying eroticism of this episode in which David surprises Bathsheba as she is performing a ritual purification bath. The illuminations that we study reflect the encounter between the Christian tradition and humanistic culture.

  16. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier