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Sample records for annotinum ssp alpestre

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    determined. Conformation of acrifoline was characterized using NOESY spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Ligand docking studies based on mutated 3D structure of Torpedo...

  2. Phyllotaxis diversity in Lycopodium clavatum L. and Lycopodium annotinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Gola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In shoots of Lycopodium microphyllous phyllotaxis is extremely diverse. 24 various patterns were found in anisotomous L. clavatum and "only" 11 in isotomous L. annotinum. Spiral patterns expressed by k:(k+1 parastichy numbers were present together with typically whorled k:k patterns. In both species k number was higher in plagiotropic shoots than in orthotropic. It was also higher in L. clavatum than in L. annotinum. In the first species phyllotactic spectrum was wider with many patterns almost equally frequent, whereas narrow spectrum of L. annotinum showed clear dominance of only one pattern. The patterns, which are the most frequent in other plants, such as Fibonacci or Lucas, were uncommon in studied Lycopodium species. Discontinuous phyllotactic transitions occurred typically in two locations on the shoot: just below the dichotomic branching or above the borders, that separate the annual increments of the axis. Transitions were moderately frequent occurring in more than 7% of developmentally independent shoot segments. Dichotomous branching, resulting in variable shoot diameter, seasonal fluctuations of growth as well as a small size of microphylls relative to the shoot circumference are proposed to be the main factors contributing to the high phyllotactic diversity in studied species.

  3. The dynamics of stiff clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum L. patches in clumps of trees left on the clear-cutting in pine forest Leucobryo-Pinetum

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    Bogdanowicz Monika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clumps of trees left on the clear-cuttings have an important role in protecting populations of endangered plant species against destruction during silviculture activities. The aim of this study is to describe the changes in the area of the Lycopodium annotinum patches. The area of L. annotinum patch in clump of trees, have been significantly reduced during 5 years after clear-cut. In the first year of the observations, the studied population occupied an area of 69.8 m2 whereas in 2012, it was only 37.5 m2. Most of the shoots were withered away on the south side of the clump. The probable reason was too strong insolation. Shoots that survived were located in the north part of the clump – shielded by young trees and shrubs layer. At this time, the control patch of L. annotinum located inside the forest increased its area. Before the clear-cuttings, the annual growth of vertical shoots of clubmoss was higher in the patch located in future tree clump. After the clear-cutting, growth of shoots in this patch was shorter than in patch located all the time inside the forests. The most effective growth was observed in the third studied patch located in the clear-cutting border. The explanation for this phenomenon could be the higher humidity of habitat on this site. Clumps of trees left after the clear-cutting contribute to the protection of endangered populations, but do not eliminate the significant microhabitat changes. The clubmoss patches located in moist habitats are more likely to survive even if they are partially exposed to the sunlight.

  4. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies nan

  5. Risk analysis of Safety Service Patrol (SSP) systems in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Brett D; Santos, Joost R

    2011-12-01

    The transportation infrastructure is a vital backbone of any regional economy as it supports workforce mobility, tourism, and a host of socioeconomic activities. In this article, we specifically examine the incident management function of the transportation infrastructure. In many metropolitan regions, incident management is handled primarily by safety service patrols (SSPs), which monitor and resolve roadway incidents. In Virginia, SSP allocation across highway networks is based typically on average vehicle speeds and incident volumes. This article implements a probabilistic network model that partitions "business as usual" traffic flow with extreme-event scenarios. Results of simulated network scenarios reveal that flexible SSP configurations can improve incident resolution times relative to predetermined SSP assignments.

  6. School Teams up for SSP Functional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for

  7. Etude chimique et biologique des huiles essentielles de Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia et Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri, N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological study of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia and Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata. The composition of the essential oils of the branches and berries of Juniperus phoenicea (Cupressaceae, J. phoenicea ssp. lycia (plain and J. phoenicea ssp. turbinata (mountain, obtained by hydrodistillation, collected from Morocco, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of essential oils were varying in function of the subspecies and of the part of the plant studied. The essential oils of these tree species are largely dominated by α-pinene and may be an important source of this component of a great interest on the international market. The effectiveness of essential oils from branches of the subspecies lycia against fungi decay wood has also been emphasized.

  8. The SSP4: A world of deepening inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Eom, Jiyong; Hartin, Corinne; Kim, Sonny; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Moss, Richard; McJeon, Haewon; Patel, Pralit; Smith, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Wise, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4 (SSP4), “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of the five SSPs developed to guide the creation of new scenarios for the “Parallel Process”. We describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demand for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income. These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6.4 Wm-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions. In particular, the SSP4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Finally, we compare the GCAM SSP4 results to other integrated assessment model (IAM) quantifications of the SSP4 and to other SSPs, both those generated by GCAM and those of the other IAMs.

  9. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  10. Estudio etnobotánico, arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana Etnobotany, leaf architecture, and vegetative anatomy of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana

    OpenAIRE

    Magali A. Santillán-Ramírez; Ma. Edith López-Villafranco; Silvia Aguilar-Rodríguez; Abigail Aguilar-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo incluye información etnobotánica, así como la arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado) y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco), con la finalidad de que sean incluidas en la Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM) y que sus caracteres anatómicos se utilicen para validar la identidad del material vegetal en el control de calidad. El registro de la información etnobotánica se efectuó por me...

  11. Galanthindole: a new indole alkaloid from Galanthus plicatus ssp. byzantinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Nehir; Kaya, G Irem; Werner, Christa; Verpoorte, Robert; Gözler, Belkis

    2003-09-01

    A new indole alkaloid, galanthindole, was isolated from Galanthus plicatus ssp. byzantinus (Amaryllidaceae), a plant native to northwestern Turkey. Incorporating a non-fused indole ring, galanthindole may represent the prototype of a new subgroup of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Two other bases, (+)-11-hydroxyvittatine and hordenine, are also reported from the same plant.

  12. Molecular typing for the MHC with PCR-SSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, K; Bunce, M

    1999-01-01

    Sequence-specific amplification (SSP) is simply a form of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) which involves designing one or both primers so that they will or will not allow amplification (the 3'-mismatch principle). Its origins are probably legion, i.e. many people probably thought of it at the same time. For example, in 1988 a group from Guy's Hospital, London, described a form of SSP for HLA-DR4 detection and in the same year a group from Upjohn described its use at the American Society of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI). Both are published in abstract form (British Society of Rheumatology and ASHI). The 3'-mismatch principle can be used to identify virtually any single nucleotide point mutation (SNP) within one or two PCR-SSP reactions and the first peer-reviewed statements of this came in 1989 (1, 2). Thus, although the use of SSP probably began around 1990, it was 5 years before its popularity erupted, mainly due to the work of Olerup & Zetterquist (3, 4), who defined its potential for solid organ transplantation. It is now the method of choice for high resolution HLA typing in many laboratories. In addition, over a thousand applications for genes outside the MHC are in the literature.

  13. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  14. Estudio etnobotánico, arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana Etnobotany, leaf architecture, and vegetative anatomy of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali A. Santillán-Ramírez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo incluye información etnobotánica, así como la arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco, con la finalidad de que sean incluidas en la Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM y que sus caracteres anatómicos se utilicen para validar la identidad del material vegetal en el control de calidad. El registro de la información etnobotánica se efectuó por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas a pobladores del municipio de Temoaya, Estado de México, México. Para el estudio anatómico y arquitectura foliar, se elaboraron preparaciones semipermanentes y permanentes de tallos y hojas. Ambos toronjiles son utilizados por los habitantes de la zona de estudio como recurso terapéutico y de ornato; los distinguen por la forma de las hojas, el color de la flor y el aroma, pero no existen preferencias de uso entre ambos. La arquitectura foliar sigue el patrón acródromo de posición basal con un desarrollo imperfecto; las areolas muestran un desarrollo imperfecto con disposición al azar, con vénulas simples o ramificadas una vez y el margen con dientes cunonioides en ambas especies. Diferencias anatómicas se observan en el tallo y son los tricomas no glandulares uniseriados en mayor abundancia y las bandas de esclerénquima más desarrolladas los caracteres que distinguen a A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana de A. mexicana ssp. mexicana.This work provides information on ethnobotany, leaf architecture and anatomy of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco, with the purpose that they will be included in the Pharmacopeia Herbolaria of the Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM and that their anatomical characters could be used to validate the identity of the botanical material in quality control. We gathered ethnobotanical information using semi

  15. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER KEJUJURAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hariyati Qodriyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran berupa SSP Tematik yang dapat mengembangkan karakter siswa kelas 2 sekolah dasar, meliputi karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri dari tujuh tahap, yaitu studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk awal, uji coba awal, revisi produk utama, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi terhadap produk operasional. SSP yang dikembangkan dievaluasi oleh seorang ahli materi dan media untuk mengetahui validitasnya. Subjek uji coba berjumlah 90 siswa terdiri dari 23 siswa SD Sonosewu, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY sebagai subjek uji coba terbatas dan 33 siswa untuk kelas control dan 34 siswa untuk kelas eksperimen SD 1 Kadipiro, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY. Hasil penelitian ini berupa SSP yang meliputi: silabus, RPP, LKS, dan lembar penilaian. Hasil evaluasi dari ahli materi dan ahli media untuk menguji tingkat kevalidan SSP menyatakan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan adalah valid dan berkategori “baik”. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan dinyatakan layak serta memenuhi kriteria praktis dan efektif dalam mengembangkan karakter siswa. Pembelajaran dengan SSP yang dikembangkan mampu mengembangkan karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Kata Kunci: SSP, karakter jujur dan peduli   DEVELOPING THEMATIC INTEGRATIVE SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF HONESTY AND CARE GRADE II STUDENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Abstract This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of honesty and care of grade II students of elementary school. This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, i.e. preliminary study, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary tryout, main product revision, field tryout, revision of operational product, operational product revision, and revision of the final product. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess

  16. Two new sesquiterpene lactones from Montanoa tomentosa ssp. microcephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braca, A; Cioffi, G; Morelli, I; Venturella, F; Pizza, C; De Tommasi, N

    2001-11-01

    Two new sesquiterpene lactones: 8alpha-(4'-acetoxymethacryloyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alpha-olide (1) and 8alpha-(2'E)-(2'-acetoxymethyl-2'-butenoyloxy)-3alpha,9beta-dihydroxy-1(10)E,4Z,11(13)-germacratrien-12,6alphaolide (2), together with the known zoapatanolide A were isolated from the aerial parts of Montanoa tomentosa Cerv. in La Llave et Lex ssp. microcephala (Sch. Bip. In K. Koch) V.A. Funk (Asteraceae). The structures of all compounds were established on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and EIMS analysis.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar)

  18. Kvalitet, faglighed og legitime videnformer i SSP-samarbejdet under transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    2016-01-01

    Quality, professionalism and legitimate knowledge in a changing SSP-collaboration. This article explores the inter professional collaboration in a crime preventive initiative called SSP, which is a collaboration between school, social work and police. By drawing on interviews of actors from...

  19. Bactericidal Influence of Silver Nanocomposites on Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfileva А.I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying the effect of silver nanocomposites received by chemical synthesis on the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms are presented. Cms is a Gram-positive bacterium, which causes one of the most dangerous potato diseases, ring rot. The effective alongside ecologically safe methods for combating Cms are lacking. As the agent, possible for application for this purpose, we investigated silver nanocomposites. For definition of nanocomposites influence on Cms we applied seedings to calculation the colony-forming units, after an incubation of bacteria with a nanocomposite in the distilled water (the grown poor environment and on a nutrient medium. Influence of silver nanocomposites on cellular respiration which was estimated on oxygen absorption speed is also investigated. Thus, the obtained results demonstrate the occurrence of bactericidal effects of the substances under study, and favor the supposition on advisability of further research into the silver nanocomposites as the agents for agricultural recovery from the bacterial pathogens.

  20. Phytochemical analysis of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiruba S; Mahesh M; Nisha SR; Miller Paul Z; Jeeva S

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary phytochemical screening of the flower extracts of Rhododendron arboreum (R. arboreum) Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed by the standard methods as described by Harborne. Results: The phytochemical analysis carried out on the flowers of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg showed the presence of phenols, saponins, steroids, tannin, xanthoprotein and coumarin. Conclusions:The present study suggested that the flower extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg possess significant phytochemical constituents and it can be used as antimicrobial agents against clinically isolated pathogens.

  1. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Kiruba; Mony Mahesh; Zachariah Miller Paul; Solomon Jeeva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the secondary metabolites present in the leaf extracts of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was done to determine the phytochemical constituents in the various solvents studied.Results:nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. confirm the existence of secondary metabolites such as phenols, saponins and tannins. Conclusions: The study suggests that the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg. can be best utilized in developing bioactive compounds against pathogenic infection. The phytochemical study carried out on the leaf extracts of R. arboreum Sm. ssp.

  2. Final Critical Habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Kincaid's lupine (Lupinus sulphureus (=oreganus) ssp. kincaidii (=var. kincaidii))...

  3. Evaluación de la calidad funcional y sensorial en cultivares de Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare y ssp. spelta en cultivo ecológico

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Kostiuk, María Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    En esta Tesis Doctoral se ha estudiado la influencia del cultivar sobre el comportamiento reológico y panadero de cinco cultivares de trigo sembrados en el mismo año y en el mismo ambiente, en condiciones de cultivo ecológico. Tres de ellos eran de trigo panadero (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare), ‘Bonpain’, ‘Craklin’ y ‘Sensas’ y los otros dos de trigo espelta (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta), ‘Espelta Álava’ y ‘Espelta Navarra’. Actualmente, el alohexaploide trigo panadero (2n=6x=42 genomio A...

  4. Estudio etnobotánico, arquitectura foliar y anatomía vegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana

    OpenAIRE

    Magali A. Santillán-Ramírez; Ma. Edith López-Villafranco; Silvia Aguilar-Rodríguez; Abigail Aguilar-Contreras

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo incluye información etnobotánica, así como la arquitectura foliar y anatomíavegetativa de Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (toronjil morado) y A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (toronjil blanco), con la finalidad de que sean incluidas en la Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (FHEUM) y que sus caracteres anatómicos se utilicen para validar la identidad del material vegetal en el control de calidad. El registro de la información etnobotánica se efectuó por me...

  5. A sporulation-specific, sigF-dependent protein, SspA, affects septum positioning in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanis, Angelos; Dalton, Kate A; Hesketh, Andrew; den Hengst, Chris D; Buttner, Mark J; Thibessard, Annabelle; Kelemen, Gabriella H

    2014-01-01

    The RNA polymerase sigma factor SigF controls late development during sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The only known SigF-dependent gene identified so far, SCO5321, is found in the biosynthetic cluster encoding spore pigment synthesis. Here we identify the first direct target for SigF, the gene sspA, encoding a sporulation-specific protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that SspA is a secreted lipoprotein with two PepSY signature domains. The sspA deletion mutant exhibits irregular sporulation septation and altered spore shape, suggesting that SspA plays a role in septum formation and spore maturation. The fluorescent translational fusion protein SspA-mCherry localized first to septum sites, then subsequently around the surface of the spores. Both SspA protein and sspA transcription are absent from the sigF null mutant. Moreover, in vitro transcription assay confirmed that RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing SigF is sufficient for initiation of transcription from a single sspA promoter. In addition, in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that sspA is a direct target of BldD, which functions to repress sporulation genes, including whiG, ftsZ and ssgB, during vegetative growth, co-ordinating their expression during sporulation septation.

  6. SSP: an interval integer linear programming for de novo transcriptome assembly and isoform discovery of RNA-seq reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp.

  7. COMPARISON OF HLA CLASS I ANIIGEN BY SEROLOGY AND PCR- SSP TYPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭建明; 唐孝达; 谢桐

    1999-01-01

    Objeetive A dcuble blind study was canied cut to evaluate the relative performance and reliability of PCR-SSP assay compared to standard serollgical typing in identifying HLA class I alleles in Chinses population, Methods A total of 525 consecutive samples were entered into the study-HLA-A and B antigens were typed by serology with two - stage microlympbocytotoxicity and by PCR arnplification with sequence - specific primers, Reliability, reproducibility and clinical practicability wine compared acocrding to typing results by both methods. Results All sarnples were successfully typed by both methods THe serological discrepancy far HLA - A was 8.95 %, consisting of 21 antigens being iocorrectly interpreced and 26 of serologic blankx tuming out to be second definable alleles by SSP typing, Misassignments of HLA-B by serology were 12.19%. In 4.8% (25/525)a serologic blank tumed out to be a definable allele by SSP, while in 7,4 % (39/525) an allele was incorrectly interpreted by serology. The results of this study study showed that PCR- SSP technique could proved ta be equivalent to or surpass deal serology, suitable for routine clinical typing of patients and donors for transplantation. Conclusion PCR-SSP typing for HLA-A and B araigens could offer the advantages 4 hettre reagent availability and greater precision than setology in Chinese population, It is necessary to adopt the DNA typing for HLA class I in whcm serology often fails with“blank”,“difficult", or cross-reactive antigens.

  8. The P-SSP7 cyanophage has a linear genome with direct terminal repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabehi, Gazalah; Lindell, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    P-SSP7 is a T7-like phage that infects the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. MED4 is a member of the high-light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes that are abundant in the surface oceans and contribute significantly to primary production. P-SSP7 has become a model system for the investigation of T7-like phages that infect Prochlorococcus. It was classified as T7-like based on genome content and organization. However, because its genome assembled as a circular molecule, it was thought to be circularly permuted and to lack the direct terminal repeats found in other T7-like phages. Here we sequenced the ends of the P-SSP7 genome and found that the genome map is linear and contains a 206 bp repeat at both genome ends. Furthermore, we found that a 728 bp region of the genome originally placed downstream of the last ORF is actually located upstream of the first ORF on the genome map. These findings suggest that P-SSP7 is likely to use the direct terminal repeats for genome replication and packaging in a similar manner to other T7-like phages. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of experimentally verifying the ends of phage genomes, and will facilitate the use of P-SSP7 as a model for the correct assembly and end determination of the many T7-like phages isolated from the marine environment that are currently being sequenced.

  9. The P-SSP7 cyanophage has a linear genome with direct terminal repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazalah Sabehi

    Full Text Available P-SSP7 is a T7-like phage that infects the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. MED4 is a member of the high-light-adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes that are abundant in the surface oceans and contribute significantly to primary production. P-SSP7 has become a model system for the investigation of T7-like phages that infect Prochlorococcus. It was classified as T7-like based on genome content and organization. However, because its genome assembled as a circular molecule, it was thought to be circularly permuted and to lack the direct terminal repeats found in other T7-like phages. Here we sequenced the ends of the P-SSP7 genome and found that the genome map is linear and contains a 206 bp repeat at both genome ends. Furthermore, we found that a 728 bp region of the genome originally placed downstream of the last ORF is actually located upstream of the first ORF on the genome map. These findings suggest that P-SSP7 is likely to use the direct terminal repeats for genome replication and packaging in a similar manner to other T7-like phages. Moreover, these results highlight the importance of experimentally verifying the ends of phage genomes, and will facilitate the use of P-SSP7 as a model for the correct assembly and end determination of the many T7-like phages isolated from the marine environment that are currently being sequenced.

  10. Versatile modes of peptide recognition by the AAA+ adaptor protein SspB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levchenko, Igor; Grant, Robert A.; Flynn, Julia M.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A. (MIT)

    2010-07-19

    Energy-dependent proteases often rely on adaptor proteins to modulate substrate recognition. The SspB adaptor binds peptide sequences in the stress-response regulator RseA and in ssrA-tagged proteins and delivers these molecules to the AAA+ ClpXP protease for degradation. The structure of SspB bound to an ssrA peptide is known. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between SspB and its recognition peptide in RseA. Notably, the RseA sequence is positioned in the peptide-binding groove of SspB in a direction opposite to the ssrA peptide, the two peptides share only one common interaction with the adaptor, and the RseA interaction site is substantially larger than the overlapping ssrA site. This marked diversity in SspB recognition of different target proteins indicates that it is capable of highly flexible and dynamic substrate delivery.

  11. A modified PCR-SSP method for the identification of ABO blood group antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J; Darke, C

    2003-08-01

    The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate molecules synthesized by the glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene on chromosome 9. Kidney transplantation across the ABO barrier generally leads to rapid humoral graft rejection due to the presence of naturally occurring antibodies to the A and B antigens. We have developed a method for ABO typing our cadaveric organ donors by the polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). The method uses 12 primers in eight PCR mixtures and is performed under the same conditions as our routine HLA-A, B, C PCR-SSP typing. The PCR-SSP-based types of 166 regular blood donors and 148 cadaveric organ donors all showed total concordance with their serologically assigned ABO groups. Six individuals possessing the ABO A subgroups (A3, Ax and Aend) all typed as A1 by PCR-SSP, as expected. PCR-SSP is an appropriate method for ABO typing of cadaveric organ donors and, importantly, enables both ABO and HLA typing to be performed on the same DNA material.

  12. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence.

  13. Assessment of Applying the PMaC Prediction Framework to NERSC-5 SSP Benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, Noel

    2006-09-30

    NERSC procurement depends on application benchmarks, in particular the NERSC SSP. Machine vendors are asked to run SSP benchmarks at various scales to enable NERSC to assess system performance. However, it is often the case that the vendor cannot run the benchmarks at large concurrency as it is impractical to have that much hardware available. Additionally, there may be difficulties in porting the benchmarks to the hardware. The Performance Modeling and Characterization Lab (PMaC) at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC) have developed a framework to predict the performance of codes on large parallel machines. The goal of this work was to apply the PMaC prediction framework to the NERSC-5 SSP benchmark applications and ultimately consider the accuracy of the predictions. Other tasks included identifying assumptions and simplifications in the process, determining the ease of use, and measuring the resources required to obtain predictions.

  14. The transfer RNA genes in Oryza sativa L.ssp.indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiyin(王希胤); SHI; Xiaoli(史晓黎); HAO; Bailin(郝柏林)

    2002-01-01

    The availability of the draft genome sequence of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica has made it possible to study the rice tRNA genes. A total of 596 tRNA genes, including 3 selenocysteine tRNA genes and one suppressor tRNA gene are identified in 127551 rice contigs. There are 45 species of tRNA genes and the revised wobble hypothesis proposed by Guthrie and Abelson is perfectly obeyed. The relationship between codon usage and the number of corresponding tRNA genes is discussed. Redundancy may exist in the present list of tRNA genes and novel ones may be found in the future. A set of 33 tRNA genes is discovered in the complete chloroplast genome of Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica. These tRNA genes are identical to those in ssp. japonica identified by us independently from the origional annotation.

  15. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  16. A Novel Bluetooth Man-In-The-Middle Attack Based On SSP using OOB Association model

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, K; Negesh, R K

    2012-01-01

    As an interconnection technology, Bluetooth has to address all traditional security problems, well known from the distributed networks. Moreover, as Bluetooth networks are formed by the radio links, there are also additional security aspects whose impact is yet not well understood. In this paper, we propose a novel Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack against Bluetooth enabled mobile phone that support Simple Secure Pairing(SSP). From the literature it was proved that the SSP association models such as Numeric comparison, Just works and passkey Entry are not more secure. Here we propose the Out Of Band (OOB) channeling with enhanced security than the previous methods.

  17. Analysis of COPII Vesicles Indicates a Role for the Emp47-Ssp120 Complex in Transport of Cell Surface Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Neil G; Wilson, Joshua D; Bentivoglio, Christine M; Dhungel, Nripesh; Gitler, Aaron D; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle formation at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transports nascent secretory proteins forward to the Golgi complex. To further define the machinery that packages secretory cargo and targets vesicles to Golgi membranes, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified COPII vesicles. In addition to previously known proteins, we identified new vesicle proteins including Coy1, Sly41 and Ssp120, which were efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles for trafficking between the ER and Golgi compartments. Further characterization of the putative calcium-binding Ssp120 protein revealed a tight association with Emp47 and in emp47Δ cells Ssp120 was mislocalized and secreted. Genetic analyses demonstrated that EMP47 and SSP120 display identical synthetic positive interactions with IRE1 and synthetic negative interactions with genes involved in cell wall assembly. Our findings support a model in which the Emp47-Ssp120 complex functions in transport of plasma membrane glycoproteins through the early secretory pathway.

  18. Megastigmane Glucosides and Megastigmanes from the Leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yuka; Iwami, Mio; Kawakami, Susumu; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the leaves of Meliosma lepidota ssp. squamulata, megastigmane glucosides with spiro-structures and megastigmanes were isolated. Their structures were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses and spectroscopic investigation. The absolute structures of the megastigmanes were determined by the modified Mosher's method.

  19. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  20. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Teucrium flavum ssp. flavum from Zakynthos, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Formisano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil extracted from dried aerial parts of Teucrium flavum ssp. flavum harvested in Zakynthos, Greece, was analysed by gas phase chomatography (GC and gas chomatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main constituents were caryophyllene (13.5%, caryophyllene oxide (8.5%, 4-vinyl guaiacol (6.0% and α-humulene (5.0%.

  1. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN SSP FISIKA BERBASIS PENDEKATAN CTL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS DAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq Makhdum Noor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a learning device as Subject-Specific Pedagogy (SSP of physics, and to improve science process skills and learning motivation of the students. This research used the 4D model. The subjects of this research were the XI grade students of Muhammadiyah High School 2 Yogyakarta. The data collecting instruments were expert validation sheets, science process skill observation sheets, questionnaire of students’ response to the student books and worksheets, question-naire of students’ response to teaching process, students’ motivation learning sheets, and science process skill paper test. The research data were collected through observation, questionnaire, and paper test, and analyzed quantitatively. The results show as follows. (1 The development of physics SSP is carried out in accordance with the procedures of 4D model product development. (2 The results of expert’s validation show the physics SSP is in the very good criteria. (3 The readability of the student books and worksheets is in the good criteria. (4 The increasing of the score of science process skills and students’ learning motivation in the experimental class is higher than that in the control class. This shows that the physics SSP is fit for use in physics teaching.

  3. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, Combined load. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt;

    This report is part of the research project entitled “Eksperimentel vingeforskning: Strukturelle mekanismer i nutidens og fremtidens store vinger under kombineret last” where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of...

  4. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  5. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  6. A sporulation-specific, sigF-dependent protein, SspA, affects septum positioning in Streptomyces coelicolor

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The RNA polymerase sigma factor SigF controls late development during sporulation in the filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor. The only known SigF-dependent gene identified so far, SCO5321, is found in the biosynthetic cluster encoding spore pigment synthesis. Here we identify the first direct target for SigF, the gene sspA, encoding a sporulation-specific protein. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that SspA is a secreted lipoprotein with two PepSY signature domains. The sspA deletion ...

  7. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  8. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...... genes, with the cultivated carrot. We investigated the susceptibility of wild carrots to S. sclerotiorum isolates from cultivated carrot under controlled and outdoor conditions. Inoculated roots from both wild and cultivated plants produced sclerotia and soft rot in a growth chamber test. Two isolates...... differed significantly in the ability to produce lesions and sclerotia on roots of both wild carrots and cv. Bolero. Flowering stems of wild carrots produced dry, pale lesions after inoculation with the pathogen, and above-ground plant weight was significantly reduced 4 weeks after inoculation...

  9. Enduring toxicity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing mosquito larvicidal genes from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasherob, Robert; Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Miaskovsky, Rina; Boussiba, Sammy; Zaritsky, Arieh

    2003-10-01

    Persistence of biological control agents against mosquito larvae was tested under simulated field conditions. Mosquito larvicidal activity of transgenic Anabaena PCC 7120 expressing cry4Aa, cry11Aa and p20 from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis was greater than B. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis primary powder (fun 89C06D) or wettable powder (WP) (Bactimos products) when either mixed with silt or exposed to sunlight outdoors. Reduction of Bactimos primary powder toxicity was at least 10-fold higher than Anabaena's after mixing with silt. In outdoors experiments, Bactimos WP remained toxic (over 30% mortality of 3rd instar Aedes aegypti larvae) for 2-4 days only, while transgenic Anabaena's toxicity endured 8-21 days.

  10. Lactic acid production by mixed cultures of Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Bosnea, L; Psarianos, C; Koutinas, A A; Marchant, R; Banat, I M

    2008-09-01

    Lactic acid production using Kluyveromyces marxianus (IFO 288), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (ATCC 11842) and Lactobacillus helveticus (ATCC 15009) individually or as mixed culture on cheese whey in stirred or static fermentation conditions was evaluated. Lactic acid production, residual sugar and cell biomass were the main features examined. Increased lactic acid production was observed, when mixed cultures were used in comparison to individual ones. The highest lactic acid concentrations were achieved when K. marxianus yeast was combined with L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and when all the strains were used revealing possible synergistic effects between the yeast and the two lactic acid bacteria. The same synergistic effects were further observed and verified when the mixed cultures were applied in sourdough fermentations, proving that the above microbiological system could be applied in the food fermentations where high lactic acid production is sought.

  11. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus Essential Oil from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada V. Petrović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of wild growing Thymus praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus were studied. trans-Nerolidol (19.79%, germacrene D (18.48% and thymol (9.62% were the main components in essential oil. This study is the first report of the antimicrobial activity of essential oil obtained from the T. praecox Opiz ssp. polytrichus. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil was investigated on Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus flavus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella typhimurium, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, A. niger, Trichoderma viride, Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium strains. In the antimicrobial assays, essential oil showed high antimicrobial potential (MIC 19–150 m g/mL, MBC 39–300 m g/mL for bacteria; and MIC 19.5–39 m g/mL, MFC 39–78 m g/mL for fungi.

  13. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  14. Evaluating the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP to assess the bond between dogs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Rehn

    Full Text Available The Strange Situation Procedure (SSP is increasingly being used to study attachment between dogs and humans. It has been developed from the Ainsworth Strange Situation Procedure, which is used extensively to investigate attachment between children and their parents. In this experiment, 12 female beagle dogs were tested in two treatments to identify possible order effects in the test, a potential weakness in the SSP. In one treatment (FS, dogs participated together with a 'familiar person' and a 'stranger'. In a control treatment (SS, the same dogs participated together with two unfamiliar people, 'stranger A' and 'stranger B'. Comparisons were made between episodes within as well as between treatments. As predicted in FS, dogs explored more in the presence of the familiar person than the stranger. Importantly, they also explored more in the presence of stranger A (who appeared in the same order as the familiar person and followed the same procedure than stranger B in SS. Furthermore, comparisons between treatments, where a familiar person was present in FS and stranger A was present in SS, showed no differences in exploration. In combination, these results indicate that the effect of a familiar person on dogs' exploratory behaviour, a key feature when assessing secure attachment styles, could not be tested reliably due to the order in which the familiar person and the stranger appear. It is proposed that in the future only counterbalanced versions of the SSP are used. Alternatively, since dogs reliably initiated more contact with the familiar person compared to the strangers, it is suggested that future studies on attachment in dogs towards humans should focus either on the behaviour of the dog in those episodes of the SSP when the person returns, or on reunion behaviour in other studies, specially designed to address dog-human interactions at this time.

  15. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests and 7 controls (negative serology, all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  16. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  17. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  18. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  19. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays. These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  20. Cytogenetic diversity of simple sequences repeats in morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshuang Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is occupied by simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Although thesis sequences have sparked great interest as a means of studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. This paper report the long-range organization of all possible classes of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphtypes of B. rapa, with trinucleotide SSRs more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The chromosomal characterizations of mono-, di- and tri-nucleotide repeats have been acquired. The data has revealed the non-random and motif-dependent chromosome distribution of SSRs in different morphtypes, and allowed the relative variability characterized by SSRs amount and similar chromosomal distribution in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences of SSRs in the abundance and distribution indicated the driving force of SSRs in relationship with the evolution of B. rapa species. The results provided a comprehensive view on the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphtypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  1. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C.; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K.; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S.; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W.; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4+ T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria. Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD.

  2. SLA typing using the PCR-SSP method and establishment of the SLA homozygote line in pedigreed SNU miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Su-Cheong; Park, Chung-Gyu; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Lee, Wang-Jae

    2010-04-01

    Seoul National University (SNU) miniature pigs represent a closed colony with 24 founder pigs and a well preserved pedigree. Characterization using mRNA sequence analysis was conducted for 6 swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) loci in parental or founder pigs, and 17 defined alleles were detected. Based on these complete coding sequences, 17 sequence specific primers (SSPs) were designed for polymorphic sites. To validate the specificity of each allele SSP, the PCR-SSP was conducted with defined allele clones as templates. PCR-SSP was conducted with the hot start polymerase and touch-down PCR. The parental or found SNU miniature pigs showed overall SLA class I and II heterozygotes. Using the established PCR-SSP method, we conducted SLA typing for breeding stock including 2 pedigreed pigs and identified the novel SLA class II homozygote haplotye (DRA*0201, DRB1*0403, DQA*0102 and DQB1*0701) and 2 SLA homozygote pig lines: SLA class I Hp-3.0 and class II Hp-0.3, and SLA class I Hp-2.0 and class II Hp-0.2. We thought that our PCR-SSP SLA typing method could be applicable for new SLA homozygote line establishment by assignment and scheduled breeding.

  3. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

    2008-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay.

  4. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Abou-Mandour, A A; Czygan, F Ch

    2005-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate dynamics of accumulation of five linear furanocoumarins and umbelliferone in stationary liquid cultures of Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The contents of individual metabolites in biomass increased 1.8-3.5 times while their total content rose 2.3 times. Maximum contents of xanthotoxin, bergapten and isopimpinellin (112.3, 76.2 and 84.0mg/100g d.w., respectively) and maximum total content of all metabolites (283.4 mg/100 g d.w.), obtained on 35th culture day, are interesting from practical point of view.

  5. Chemical composition and possible in vitro phytotoxic activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Scognamiglio, Maria Rosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2011-09-08

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected.

  6. [Alkaloids and flavonoid from aerial parts of Hammada articulata ssp. scoparia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkrief, R; Brum-Bousquet, M; Tillequin, F; Koch, M

    1990-01-01

    Two alkaloids (N-methylisosalsoline and carnegine) had been previously described from the aerial parts of Hammada articulata ssp. scoparia. A thorough study of this plant material has now led to the isolation of eight minor alkaloids and one flavonoid. The alkaloids include four isoquinolines (isosalsoline, salsolidine, dehydrosalsolidine and isosalsolidine), one isoquinolone (N-methylcorydaldine), tryptamine, N-omega-methyltryptamine and one beta-carboline (tetrahydroharman). The flavonoid has been identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-robinobioside. The structures have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data, mainly mass spectrometry (D-IC) and 1H NMR.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY (SSP IPA TERPADU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yuliawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background of this research is the analysis of the results of interviews some junior secondary schools in Yogyakarta and the conclusion that teachers do not use an integrated science teaching and teachers still find difficulties in the application of learning science in an integrated manner. It can be influenced by several factors, such as the lack of reference used by teachers in presenting the material Integrated Science relevantly, most of science teachers are from educational background of chemistry, physics, and biology instead of science education, so that teachers find difficulties to create an integrated learning of science. In addition, teachers feel difficulty in determining the depth of the material, limits of integration in integrated science teaching, and did not know the concept of integrated science teaching. This research is a development research. Learning tools developed included : student books, lesson plans, student activity sheets and evaluation tools. The development of the learning which is done in this study use the models of 4D development which includes the step of Define (definition which at this stage conducted a needs analysis. Design : it is the stage of Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP software design. Development, it is the stage of development after the draft was made followed by a learning device validation by experts. This stage is also conducted to seek input from all the responses, reactions and comments from teachers, students, and observers so that it can be used for further improvement of science teaching later. The Disseminate, it is the stage of field tests are widely but not done. Data collection instruments used in this study include : test items and questionnaire. The conclusion of this development research are as follows : the results of the validation SSP integrated science by learning tools expert, material experts and media experts indicate the category of Very Good (SB so that SSP integrated

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum), TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack) EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA) se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm), longitud de las espigas (cm...

  9. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILE OF LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI-1 ISOLATED FROM REGIONAL YOGURTS OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummay Honi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 was identified from traditional yogurts of Khulna region, Bangladesh and its enzyme and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. A commercially available API Zym kit was employed to determine the activities of 19 different enzymes. We found that L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 showed strong activities for several enzymes, viz. leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, α –Glucosidase, N-Acetyl- β- glucosaminidase while activities for other enzymes were absent. Antibiotic resistance profile was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC test for 61 major antibiotics and 4 antifungal agents obtained from commercial sources in MRS Agar media. The strain generally showed resistance to gram negative spectrum antibiotic while it showed susceptibility towards β-lactam antibiotic to gram positive spectrum antibiotic. The findings provide the therapeutic basis of using L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 in finished food products.

  10. The Non-universality of the Low-mass End of the IMF is Robust against the Choice of SSP Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiniello, C.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a direct comparison of two state-of-the art single stellar population (SSP) models that have been used to demonstrate the non-universality of the low-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) slope. The two public versions of the SSP models are restricted to either solar abundance patte

  11. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted.

  12. The Essential Oil Composition of Tanacetum densum (Labill. Heywood ssp. eginense Heywood from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Polatoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum densum (L. Heywood ssp. eginense Heywood, from Turkey was analysed by GC and GC-MS. T. densum ssp. eginense flower, stem and leaf oils were characterized with camphor (30.9% , 25.7%, 27.7%, 1,8-Cineole (12.4% flower oil, camphene (10.6%, %7.0, flower and leaf oils, bornyl acetate, (9.4%, 11.8%, stem and leaf oils, α-pinene (7.0%, %5.3, flower and leaf oils , borneol (5.1%, 5.2%, stem and leaf oils, neodihydrocarveol (5.1%, flower oil. An unidentified compound was also present in flower, stem and leaf oils (11.5%, 27.2%, 20.5%. A comparison is done with the previous investigations on the other subspecies of T. densum and the differences were investigated. Flower and stem oils did not show any significant activity to the tested microorganisms when compared to positive control chloramphenicol. Flower and stem oils both showed cytotoxicity to Vibrio fischeri.

  13. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  14. DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Anna-Lea; Schneide, Magnus; Wiedemann, Günter

    2012-09-01

    We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution échelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectroastrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Coudé spectrograph of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. The observations of Capella led to the determination of the orbital position angle. Our value of 37.2° is in agreement with the values previously found in the literature. As such we verified that both method and instrument are valid.

  15. DeSSpOt: an instrument for stellar spin orientation determination

    CERN Document Server

    Lesage, Anna-Lea; Wiedemann, Günter

    2012-01-01

    We designed and constructed a special instrument to enable the determination of the stellar's spin orientation. The Differential image rotator for Stellar Spin Orientation, DeSSpOt, allows the simultaneous observations of two anti-parallel orientations of the star on the spectrum. On a high resolution \\'echelle spectrum, the stellar rotation causes a slight line tilt visible in the spatial direction which is comparable to a rotation curve. We developed a new method, which exploits the variations in these tilts, to estimate the absolute position angle of the rotation axis. The line tilt is retrieved by a spectro-astrometric extraction of the spectrum. In order to validate the method, we observed spectroscopic binaries with known orbital parameters. The determination of the orbital position angle is equivalent to the determination of the stellar position angle, but is easier to to detect. DeSSpOt was successfully implemented on the high resolution Coud\\'e spectrograph of the Th\\"uringer Landessternwarte Tautenb...

  16. The Salmonella type III effector SspH2 specifically exploits the NLR co-chaperone activity of SGT1 to subvert immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit P Bhavsar

    Full Text Available To further its pathogenesis, S. Typhimurium delivers effector proteins into host cells, including the novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL effector SspH2. Using model systems in a cross-kingdom approach we gained further insight into the molecular function of this effector. Here, we show that SspH2 modulates innate immunity in both mammalian and plant cells. In mammalian cell culture, SspH2 significantly enhanced Nod1-mediated IL-8 secretion when transiently expressed or bacterially delivered. In addition, SspH2 also enhanced an Rx-dependent hypersensitive response in planta. In both of these nucleotide-binding leucine rich repeat receptor (NLR model systems, SspH2-mediated phenotypes required its catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interaction with the conserved host protein SGT1. SGT1 has an essential cell cycle function and an additional function as an NLR co-chaperone in animal and plant cells. Interaction between SspH2 and SGT1 was restricted to SGT1 proteins that have NLR co-chaperone function and accordingly, SspH2 did not affect SGT1 cell cycle functions. Mechanistic studies revealed that SspH2 interacted with, and ubiquitinated Nod1 and could induce Nod1 activity in an agonist-independent manner if catalytically active. Interestingly, SspH2 in vitro ubiquitination activity and protein stability were enhanced by SGT1. Overall, this work adds to our understanding of the sophisticated mechanisms used by bacterial effectors to co-opt host pathways by demonstrating that SspH2 can subvert immune responses by selectively exploiting the functions of a conserved host co-chaperone.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Two Silenced y-type Genes for Glu-B1 in Triticum aestivum ssp. yunnanese and ssp. tibetanum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Wei Yuan; Qi-Jiao Chen; Lian-Quan Zhang; Ze-Hong Yan; You-Liang Zheng; Deng-Cai Liu

    2009-01-01

    The high molecular weight glutenln subunits (HMW-GSs) are a major class of common wheat storage proteins. The bread-making quality of common wheat flour is influenced by the composition of HMW-GSs. In the present study, two unexpressed 1By genes from Triticum aesitvum L.ssp.yunnanese AS332 and T. aesitvum sep.tibetanum AS908 were respectively cloned and characterized. The results indicated that both of the silenced 1By genes in AS332 and AS908 were 1By9. in contrast to previously reported mechanisms for silenced genes 1Ax and 1Ay, which was due to the insertion of transposon elements or the presence of premature stop codon via base substitution of C→T transition in tdnucleotides CAA or CAG, the silence of 1By9 genes was caused by premature stop codons via the deletion of base A in tdnucleotide CAA, which lead to frameshift mutation and indirectly produced several premature stop codons (TAG) downstream of the coding sequence.

  18. The response of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma to elevated CO2 is modulated by the formation of secondary shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, F; DenHertog, J; Stulen, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 on the relative growth rate (RGR) of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma was studied during the vegetative stage, in relation to plant development, by growing plants at 350 mu l l(-1) or at 700 mu l l(-1) CO2 in non-limiting nutrient solution with nitrate. To minimize interfer

  19. The effects of progressing and nonprogressing Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Pradhan, A. K.; Whitlock, R. H.; Van Kessel, J. S.; Smith, J. M.; Wolfgang, D. R.; Schukken, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test res

  20. Fate of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus, the causal organism of bacterial ring rot in potato, in weeds and field crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Hukkanen, A.; Karjalainen, R.; Muller, P.

    2005-01-01

    Crops and weeds were tested for their ability to host Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot in potato. Ten crops grown in rotation with potato in Europe, namely maize, wheat, barley, oat, bush bean, broad bean, rape, pea and onion and five cultivars

  1. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides, var. Calcutta 4 (AA) leaves submitted to temperature stresses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, C.R.; Martins, N.F.; Horberg, H.M.; Almeida, E.R.P.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Togawa, R.; Silva, F.R.; Caetano, A.R.; Miller, R.N.G.; Souza, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    In order to discover genes expressed in leaves of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides var. Calcutta 4 (AA), from plants submitted to temperature stress, we produced and characterized two full-length enriched cDNA libraries. Total RNA from plants subjected to temperatures ranging from 5°C to 25°C and

  2. Growth Responses of Plantago major L. ssp. pleiosperma (Pilger) to Changes in Mineral Supply : Evidence for Regulation by Cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, D

    1988-07-01

    Plants of an inbred line of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma were subjected to an alteration in mineral supply. Observed responses of growth rate and shoot to root ratio are thought to be induced by changes in endogenous cytokinin concentration and not by mineral concentration in plant tissue.

  3. Effect of a switch from elevated to ambient CO2 on growth and carbohydrate allocation of Plantago major ssp pleiosperma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, F; Stulen, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    Transfer of plants of Plantago major ssp. pleiosperma (L.) Pilger to elevated CO2 (700 mul l(-1)) showed a transient stimulation of the relative growth rate (RGR). Thereafter the RGR of the plants grown at elevated CO2 was the same as for plants grown at ambient CO2 (350 mul l(-1)). At that time sta

  4. Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors - small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell.  We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor.  Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars.  The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process.  Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we further discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots.  We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi.  

  5. CITOGENETICS EFFECTS INDUCED BY THE ASCORBIC ACID TREATMENT OF LARIX DECIDUA MILL. SSP. CARPATICA AND PICEA ABIES (L. KARST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Ieremia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the influence of ascorbic acid upon the mitotic division of Larix decidua Mill ssp. carpatica and Picea abies (L. Karst. The treatment is applied of two variants, germinated seed in ascorbic acid (variantAand germinated seeds in disttilate water, than treated with ascorbic acid in 3 concentrations (variant B.

  6. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components i

  7. Identification of a small molecule that modifies MglA/SspA interaction and impairs intramacrophage survival of Francisella tularensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algevis P Wrench

    Full Text Available The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. In this study, we used a small molecule screening to identify quinacrine as a thermal stabilizing compound for F. tularensis SCHU S4 MglA and SspA. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to analyze the in vivo effect of quinacrine on the heterodimer complex. The results show that quinacrine affects the interaction between MglA and SspA, indicated by decreased β-galactosidase activity. Further in vitro analyses, using size exclusion chromatography, indicated that quinacrine does not disrupt the heterodimer formation, however, changes in the alpha helix content were confirmed by circular dichroism. Structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that quinacrine makes contact with amino acid residues Y63 in MglA, and K97 in SspA, both located in the "cleft" of the interacting surfaces. In F. tularensis subsp. novicida, quinacrine decreased the transcription of the FPI genes, iglA, iglD, pdpD and pdpA. As a consequence, the intramacrophage survival capabilities of the bacteria were affected. These results support use of the MglA/SspA interacting surface, and quinacrine's chemical scaffold, for the design of high affinity molecules that will function as therapeutics for the treatment of Tularemia.

  8. Identification of Heat Tolerance Linked Molecular Markers of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L.ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xiao-ying; WANG Yong-jian; SONG Shun-hua; LI Li; YU Shuan-cang

    2002-01-01

    Genetically stable population of recombination inbred line (RIL) was derived from a cross between a heat tolerant line 177 and a heat sensitive line 276 of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp.pekinensis ) by single seed descent. The RILs were analyzed using isozyme, RAPD and AFLP techniques in order to find molecular markers that are linked to heat tolerance quantitative trait loci (QTL). The results of variance analysis of single factor indicated that there were 9 molecular markers closely linked with heat tolerance QTL, including 5 AFLP markers, 3 RAPD markers and 1 PGM isozyme marker. Total genetic contribution of these makers to heat tolerance was 46.7%. Five of the nine markers distributed in one linkage group,the remaining 4 markers were located in separate groups. Thus the 9 heat tolerance linked markers distributed in 5 independent locations in the genome of Chinese cabbage.

  9. Variations in the mosquito larvicidal activities of toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno-Ayayo, Zachariah Ngalo; Zaritsky, Arieh; Wirth, Margaret C; Manasherob, Robert; Khasdan, Vadim; Cahan, Rivka; Ben-Dov, Eitan

    2008-09-01

    Comparing activities of purified toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis against larvae of seven mosquito species (vectors of tropical diseases) that belong to three genera, gleaned from the literature, disclosed highly significant variations in the levels of LC(50) as well as in the hierarchy of susceptibilities. Similar toxicity comparisons were performed between nine transgenic Gram-negative species, four of which are cyanobacterial, expressing various combinations of cry genes, cyt1Aa and p20, against larvae of four mosquito species as potential agents for biological control. Reasons for inconsistencies are listed and discussed. Standard conditions for toxin isolation and presentation to larvae are sought. A set of lyophilized powders prepared identically from six Escherichia coli clones expressing combinations of four genes displayed toxicities against larvae of three mosquito species, with levels that differed between them but with identical hierarchy.

  10. New Benzophenones and Xanthones from Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium and Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantapakul, Cholpisut; Maneerat, Wisanu; Sripisut, Tawanun; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Andersen, Raymond J; Cheng, Ping; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2016-11-23

    Two new benzophenones (1 and 2) and four new xanthones (4-6 and 17) together with 24 known compounds (3, 7-16, and 18-30) were isolated from the roots and twigs of Cratoxylum sumatranum ssp. neriifolium. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 5 and 26 showed antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus epidermis with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 4 to 8 μg/mL, whereas compounds 7, 20, and 26 displayed selective antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (8 μg/mL), Salmonella typhimurium (4 μg/mL), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 μg/mL), respectively. The radical scavenging effects of some isolated compounds were investigated. Compounds 11 and 21 exhibited potent activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with IC50 values of 7.0 ± 1.0 and 6.0 ± 0.2 μM, respectively.

  11. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, combined load. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-11-15

    This report is part of the research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S was tested in combined flap and edgewise load. The applied load is 55% of an imaginary extreme event based on the certification load of the blade. This report describes the reason for choosing the loads and the load direction and the method of applying the loads to the blade. A novel load introduction allows the blade to deform in a more realistic manner, allowing the observation of e.g. transverse shear distortion. The global and local deformation of the blade as well as the blades' respond to repeated tests has been studied and the result from these investigations are presented, including the measurements performed. (Author)

  12. The identification of MacSe in Streptococcus equi ssp. equi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiande YANG; Yanfei LIU; Jun XU; Jifei MA

    2009-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp, equi (S. equi ssp. equi) causes equine strangles, a highly contagious and widespread purulent lymphadenitis of the head and neck. We have identified MacSe, a novel protein of S. equi, by screening a phage library of 3-8 kb random DNA fragments of S. equi CF32. MacSe shares 62% and 67.5% amino acid homology with Mac5005 and Mac8345 of S. pyogenes respectively. Expression during infection was shown by strong reactivity of the protein with convalescent sera and mucosal wash IgA of ponies infected by commingling exposure. Release into the culture medium was detected during the log phase of growth. Dose dependent anti-phagocytic activity for equine neutrophils involved interaction of MacSe with C3 and neutrophils.

  13. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-08-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar) and the Salpeter (S) IMF. General information about the models is given in table1. For further information, please refer to the paper. Each set of models and their corresponding predictions are available in the website and VIZIER. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from those pages in ascii format . The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) can be downloaded in a zip-file from t hose pages in ascii format . The nomenclature of each SED is as follows: isochroneIMFsedXXXXHZX.XXXXXXXXXTgXX.XXXXXXXe+XX - where XXXX tells whether those models contain C-stars or no (COMBO or NOCS respectively) H is the spectral band in which normalization occurred Z_X.XXXXXXXXX is the metallicity in terms of Z Tg_XX.XXXXXXXe+XX is the age in years. Each set of models contains MarS - 96 SEDs GirS - 96 SEDs BaSS - 116 SEDs We have also included in the websites the Integrated colours and line-strength indices from all our models (MarS, GirS and BaSS). The SEDs were convolved to a velocity dispersion of 350km/s before calculating indices. (5 data files).

  15. Die Coenologie der Narzisse (Narcissus poeticus L. ssp. stellaris (Haw.) Dost.) in den Karpaten im Vergleich zu ihrer Vergesellschaftung in anderen Teilen Europas

    OpenAIRE

    Dragulescu, Constantin

    1987-01-01

    Das Vorkommen von Narcissus poëticus ssp. stellaris in verschiedenen Pflanzengesellschaften der Karpaten wird beschrieben und mit anderen Teilen Europas verglichen. In den Karpaten hat die Art ihr Optimum in mesophilen bis meso-hydrophilen Gesellschaften der Molinio-Arrhenatheretea und hier im Molinion und Cynosurion, in Mittel- und Westeuropa dagegen im Triseto-Polygonion. The appearance of Narcissus poeticus ssp. stellaris in different plant communities is described and compared with oth...

  16. Analysis of essential oils from Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and S. utriculata by GC and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).

  17. Generation and characterization of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien addition lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ai xia Gu; Shu Xing Shen; Yan Hua Wang; Jian Jun Zhao; Shu Xin Xuan; Xue Ping Chen; Xiao Feng Li; Shuang Xia Luo; Yu Jing Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage group-specific markers as B. oleracea linkage groups C2, C3, C6, C7 and C8. Based on the chromosomal karyotype of root tip cells, these five MAALs added individual chromosomes from B. oleracea var. capitata: chr 1 (the longest), chr 2 or 3, chr 5 (small locus of 25S rDNA), chr 7 (satellite-carrying) and chr 9 (the shortest). Five disomic alien addition lines were then generated by selfing their corresponding MAALs.

  18. Computer-assisted diagnostic system for neurodegenerative dementia using brain SPECT and 3D-SSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Shimada, Kenichi; Ohkawa, Shingo [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Minoshima, Satoshi [University of Washington, Radiology and Bioengineering, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    To develop a computer-assisted automated diagnostic system to distinguish among Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild dementia. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with injection of N-Isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) were obtained from patients with mild degenerative dementia. First, datasets from 20 patients mild AD, 15 patients with dementia with DLB, and 17 healthy controls were used to develop an automated diagnosing system based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP). AD- and DLB-specific regional templates were created using 3D-SSP, and critical Z scores in the templates were established. Datasets from 50 AD patients, 8 DLB patients, and 10 patients with non-AD/DLB type degenerative dementia (5 with frontotemporal dementia and 5 with progressive supranuclear palsy) were then used to test the diagnostic accuracy of the optimized automated system in comparison to the diagnostic interpretation of conventional IMP-SPECT images. These comparisons were performed to differentiate AD and DLB from non-AD/DLB and to distinguish AD from DLB. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The area under the ROC curve (Az) and the accuracy of the automated diagnosis system were 0.89 and 82%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the visual inspection were 0.84 and 77%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 65%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The mean Az and the accuracy of the combination of visual inspection and this system were 0.96 and 91%, respectively, for AD/DLB vs. non-AD/DLB patients, and 0.70 and 66%, respectively, for AD vs. DLB patients. The system developed in the present study achieved as good discrimination of AD, DLB, and other degenerative disorders in patients with mild

  19. Characterizing the Syphilis-Causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Proteome Using Complementary Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Lithgow, Karen V.; Meehan, Conor J.; Strouhal, Michal; Šmajs, David; Cameron, Caroline E.; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Kenyon, Chris R.; Van Raemdonck, Geert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap) tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6033 peptides were detected, corresponding to 557 unique T. pallidum proteins at a high level of confidence, representing 54% of the predicted proteome. A previous gel-based T. pallidum MS proteome study detected 58 of these proteins. One hundred fourteen of the detected proteins were previously annotated as hypothetical or uncharacterized proteins; this is the first account of 106 of these proteins at the protein level. Detected proteins were characterized according to their predicted biological function and localization; half were allocated into a wide range of functional categories. Proteins annotated as potential membrane proteins and proteins with unclear functional annotations were subjected to an additional bioinformatics pipeline analysis to facilitate further characterization. A total of 116 potential membrane proteins were identified, of which 16 have evidence supporting outer membrane localization. We found 8/12 proteins related to the paralogous tpr gene family: TprB, TprC/D, TprE, TprG, TprH, TprI and TprJ. Protein abundance was semi-quantified using label-free spectral counting methods. A low correlation (r = 0.26) was found between previous microarray signal data and

  20. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell division cycle under limited glucose requires Ssp1 kinase, the putative CaMKK, and Sds23, a PP2A-related phosphatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyu, Yuichiro; Imai, Kumiko K; Kawasaki, Yosuke; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakaseko, Yukinobu; Nagao, Koji; Kokubu, Aya; Ebe, Masahiro; Fujisawa, Asuka; Hayashi, Takeshi; Obuse, Chikashi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2009-05-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) is required for diverse cellular functions, and similar kinases exist in fungi. Although mammalian CaMK kinase (CaMKK) activates CaMK and also evolutionarily-conserved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), CaMKK is yet to be established in yeast. We here report that the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Ssp1 kinase, which controls G2/M transition and response to stress, is the putative CaMKK. Ssp1 has a CaM binding domain (CBD) and associates with 14-3-3 proteins as mammalian CaMKK does. Temperature-sensitive ssp1 mutants isolated are defective in the tolerance to limited glucose, and this tolerance requires the conserved stretch present between the kinase domain and CBD. Sds23, multi-copy suppressor for mutants defective in type 1 phosphatase and APC/cyclosome, also suppresses the ssp1 phenotype, and is required for the tolerance to limited glucose. We demonstrate that Sds23 binds to type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2A) and PP2A-related phosphatase Ppe1, and that Sds23 inhibits Ppe1 phosphatase activity. Ssp1 and Ppe1 thus seem to antagonize in utilizing limited glucose. We also show that Ppk9 and Ssp2 are the catalytic subunits of AMPK and AMPK-related kinases, respectively, which bind to common beta-(Amk2) and gamma-(Cbs2) subunits.

  1. Axenically culturing the bryophytes: A case study of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. ssp. ruderalis Bischl. & Boisselier (Marchantiophyta, Marchantiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vujičić, Milorad; Cvetić, Tijana; Sabovljević, Aneta; Sabovljević, Marko; id_orcid 0000-0001-5809-0406

    2010-01-01

    Axenic culture of Marchantia polymorpha ssp. ruderalis were establish from the gemmae. The most appropariate condition of culturing were searched concerning mineral nutrition, light and temperature with other invariable conditions. The best material to start aseptic in vitro culture were to use gemmae and to use commercial bleach for surface sterilization (7%). The fully developed plants developed in long day condition at mild temperature 18-20°C and high humidity. The best biomass yields wer...

  2. 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop “Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems”

    CERN Document Server

    Kadyrzhanov, K. K; SSP 2004

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems", held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, 23–26 August 2004. It should be of interest to researchers and PhD students working or interested in recent results in the locally inhomogeneous system investigations by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and the new concepts of data evaluation of complex Mössbauer spectra.

  3. Accumulation of biologically active furanocoumarins in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiert, H; Czygan, F-Ch

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dynamics of accumulation of linear furanocoumarins (psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin, imperatorin) and their biogenetic precursor, umbelliferone, in agitated cultures of Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta graveolens ssp. divaricata (Tenore) Gams during 6-week growth cycles. The metabolites under study were almost exclusively accumulated in the cultured biomass. The total content of all metabolites increased 4.8- and 2.0-fold, in R. graveolens and R. graveolens ssp. divaricata cultures, respectively. Xanthotoxin and bergapten, which are the most important therapeutic compounds, were the dominating metabolites in cultures of both plants. The maximum content of xanthotoxin (25.0 mg/100 g dry wt.) and bergapten (18.4 mg/100 g dry wt) and the maximum content of all metabolites (64.0 mg/100 g dry wt) in R. graveolens ssp. divaricata callus obtained on the 35th culture day were relatively low. However, maximum contents of xanthotoxin (136.8 mg/100 g dry wt), bergapten (210.4 mg/100 g dry wt.) and isopimpinellin (96.7 mg/100 g dry wt), and total content of all metabolites in R. graveolens shoots (520.8 mg/100 g dry wt) obtained on the 42nd culture day are interesting from a practical point of view.

  4. Two Novel Alliin Lyase (Alliinase Genes from Twisted-Leaf Garlic (Allium obliquum and Mountain Garlic (Allium senescens ssp. montanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae DRAGOŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliinase (Alliin lyase EC 4.4.1.4, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent lyase, represents one of the major protein components of Allium species. The enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein and catalyzes the synthesis of allicin (diallyl thiosulfinate, a biologically active compound, pyruvate, and ammonia starting from the specific non-protein sulfur-containing amino acid alliin ((+S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide. Using newly developed specific primers two new alliinase genes from Allium obliquum and Allium senescens ssp. montanum were amplified and sequenced, as well as their homologs, from Allium fistulosum and Allium schoenoprasum. The G+C content of the alliinase region ranges between that of other dicot plants and that reported in monocot cereal plants, in all four species. Investigations of gene expression revealed a significantly higher enzyme expression level in bulbs than in leaves in all four taxa. The deduced alliinase sequences displayed a high variability among different species, since the lowest sequence similarity was found to be 55.5% between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium cepa, while the highest similarity is 77.5%, between Allium senescens ssp. montanum and Allium fistulosum. Leucine is the most common amino acid in all four alliinases, while cysteine is also more frequent than in other enzymes, suggesting a high stability of the molecules due to the possible disulfide bonds.

  5. Influence of different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on induction of hairy roots and lignan production in Linum tauricum ssp. tauricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Ionkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairy root cultures were induced from leaf explants of Linum tauricum ssp. Tauricum by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Different bacterial strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes - TR 105 and ATCC 15834 were evaluated for induction of transformed hairy roots in Linum tauricum ssp. Tauricum. These different strains varied in their virulence for induction of hairy roots in this species. Acetosyringon in cultivation medium was used to increase of frequency of hairy root induction. Growth kinetics of transgenic roots indicated a similar pattern of growth, with maximum growth occurring between 17 and 20 days. The transformed nature of tissue was confirmed by the production of opines. The lignin production of different clones was found to be growth-related. The cultures produced to 2.6% of the lignin 4′-demethyl-6-methoxypodophylotoxin (4′-DM-MPTOX and to 3.5% of the lignin 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (6MPTOX on a dry weight basis, which was 10 to 12 times higher than in Linum tauricum ssp. Tauricum cell suspensions. Transformed cultures showed significant differences in lignin content. The highest amount of 4′-DM-MPTOX and MPTOX was found in transformed line induced by strain ATCC 15834. Rapidly growing root lines were selected to increase the efficiency of he production of lignans.

  6. Allee effects within small populations of Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, a protected subspecies in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cadre, Solenn; Tully, Thomas; Mazer, Susan J; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Moret, Jacques; Machon, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Plants growing at low density can suffer from Allee effects as a result of pollen limitation. Previous studies of Allee effects have focused on the effects of variation among populations in size or density on reproduction. Here, the effects of plant distribution within populations on fitness components are explored in a rare plant, Aconitum napellus ssp. lusitanicum, and ecological and genetic mechanisms underlying these effects are identified. To detect pollen limitation, seed production was compared under natural versus hand-supplemented pollinations on inflorescences of different sizes in natural patches differing both in flower density and in isolation from other patches. Germination rate and juvenile survival of seeds produced in low- and high-density patches were also compared. Pollen-supplemented flowers always produced more seeds than open-pollinated flowers, especially among small plants and plants growing at low density. Offspring produced in low-density patches exhibited lower fitness that those produced in high-density patches. This could have been caused by post-fertilization mechanisms, including inbreeding depression or differential maternal resource allocation. These results show that Allee effects on fitness components (ecological and genetic Allee effects) occur within A. napellus populations at different spatial scales. The spatial distribution of plants seems to be a crucial factor affecting reproductive output and fitness.

  7. Urease inhibitory profile of extracts and chemical constituents of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Ghias; Ismail; Rauf, Abdur; Raza, Muslim; Khan, Haroon; Nasruddin; Khan, Majid; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Arifullah

    2016-06-01

    The current study was designed to evaluate the urease inhibitory profile of extract and fractions of Pistacia atlantica ssp. cabulica Stocks followed by bioactivity-guided isolated compounds. The crude extract was found significantly active with urease inhibitor (95.40% at 0.2 mg/mL) with IC50 values of 32.0 ± 0.28 μg/mL. Upon fractionation, ethyl acetate fraction displayed 100% urease inhibition with IC50 values of 19.9 ± 0.51 μg/mL at 0.2 mg/mL. However, n-hexane and chloroform fractions exhibited insignificant urease inhibition. Similarly, the isolated compound, transilitin (1) and dihydro luteolin (2) demonstrated marked urease attenuation with 95 and 98% respectively, at 0.15 mg/mL. Both the isolated compounds showed marked potency with IC50 values of 8.54 ± 0.54 and 9.58 ± 2.22 μg/mL, respectively. In short, both the extract and fractions and isolated compounds showed marked urease inhibition and thus a useful natural source of urease inhibition.

  8. Influence of mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on winter habitat for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jonathan D; Johnson, Dustin D; Nafus, Aleta M

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time. Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height (P plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves (P winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strain SS14 determined with oligonucleotide arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodergren Erica

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum remains the enigmatic pathogen, since no virulence factors have been identified and the pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood. Increasing rates of new syphilis cases per year have been observed recently. Results The genome of the SS14 strain was sequenced to high accuracy by an oligonucleotide array strategy requiring hybridization to only three arrays (Comparative Genome Sequencing, CGS. Gaps in the resulting sequence were filled with targeted dideoxy-terminators (DDT sequencing and the sequence was confirmed by whole genome fingerprinting (WGF. When compared to the Nichols strain, 327 single nucleotide substitutions (224 transitions, 103 transversions, 14 deletions, and 18 insertions were found. On the proteome level, the highest frequency of amino acid-altering substitution polymorphisms was in novel genes, while the lowest was in housekeeping genes, as expected by their evolutionary conservation. Evidence was also found for hypervariable regions and multiple regions showing intrastrain heterogeneity in the T. pallidum chromosome. Conclusion The observed genetic changes do not have influence on the ability of Treponema pallidum to cause syphilitic infection, since both SS14 and Nichols are virulent in rabbit. However, this is the first assessment of the degree of variation between the two syphilis pathogens and paves the way for phylogenetic studies of this fascinating organism.

  10. Leaf water relations of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus and E. nitens: seasonal, drought and species effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D A; Beadle, C L; Worledge, D

    1996-05-01

    In August 1990, a 2-ha plantation was established in an area where rainfall (about 515 mm year(-1)) was insufficient to meet evaporative demand. On nine occasions between September 1991 and April 1993, pressure-volume curves were constructed for irrigated and rainfed Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus Labill. and E. nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden trees. During the experiment, rainfed trees experienced six periods when predawn water potential was significantly lower than that of irrigated trees. In early spring of 1991 and 1992, osmotic potentials at full turgor and turgor loss point in the irrigated E. nitens were significantly lower than at other times of the year, probably because of winter hardening. Water stress reduced osmotic potential and increased bulk elastic modulus in E. nitens, whereas the reverse occurred in E. globulus. However, treatment differences with respect to changes in osmotic and elastic properties were commonly overshadowed by interspecific differences. These were most apparent at the end of the sixth period of water stress when osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were significantly higher and bulk elastic modulus and relative water content at turgor loss point were significantly lower in E. globulus than in E. nitens. We conclude that the drought-tolerance responses of E. globulus make it a more suitable species than E. nitens for establishment on sites where moderate water stress is experienced.

  11. Improving green roofs and rail road greening systems using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, H; Oschmann, C; Dunya, S; Ulrichs, C

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present study was the improvement of existing methods for green roof and rail road greening systems using soil borne bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp. alone and in combination with vinasse applied to different growing substrates were tested. The substrates were brick chips, textile mats, mineral wool mats, and a commercial available substrate for the Swedish company VegTech. All four substrates were tested along an artificial rail track on the experimental station at Humboldt University Berlin, and partly on an existing rail track in Munich, Germany. Plants selected for the experiments belong to the genus Sedum, which is relatively tolerant to dry conditions. Inoculation of plants with bacteria had no effect on plant growth parameters and on coverage of different mobile bedding systems with Sedum plants. There was no significant difference between the various treatments in Munich. In both experiments, the addition of vinasse alone improved plant growth. Plant growth was significantly different on all substrates, whereas brick chips and the commercial roof soil was the best substrate. Brick chips are a cheap substrate which can be used for rail track greening. The results indicate that the quality of the substrate is the most important factor for remediation and greening of rail tracks and roof tops. The rapid growth of plants can be influenced by the application of vinasse as additional nutrient solution (potash (K) source) or nutrient enriched substrate.

  12. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats.

  13. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely "Baad-Avard", collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides.

  14. Effects of amendments on the uptake and distribution of DDT in Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Lunney, Alissa I. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.c [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of soil amendments on the phytoextraction of SIGMADDT (DDT + DDD + DDE) from soil ([SIGMADDT] approx 1500 ng/g) by a pumpkin variety of Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo were tested and the patterns of SIGMADDT storage throughout the plant shoot were examined. The soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT extracted into plant shoots, but new information about SIGMADDT distribution in the plants was obtained. As observed previously, the SIGMADDT concentration in plant leaves (mean 290 ng/g) was significantly lower than in plant stems (mean 2600 ng/g). Further analysis revealed that SIGMADDT composition was consistent throughout the plant shoot and that SIGMADDT concentration in leaves and stems decreased exponentially as distance from the root increased, which was previously unknown. This new information about the patterns of SIGMADDT uptake and translocation within pumpkin plants highlights the need for appropriate plant sampling strategies in future POPs phytoextraction research. - Patterns of SIGMADDT storage in a pumpkin plant are elucidated and specific surfactant and mycorrhizal soil amendments did not increase the total amount of SIGMADDT phytoextracted into plant shoots.

  15. RAPID HLA-DRB1 GENERIC TYPING BY PCR-SSP METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱长春; 赵岩; 陶贞寅; 朱席林; 徐作军; 董怡

    1995-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid HLA-DRB1 generic typing metbod,PCR-SSP,which is practical and inexpensive.We use 9 sequence-specific primers and 2 group specific primers to define the HLA-DRB1 specificities DR1,DR2,DR3,DR4,DR5,DR6,DR7,DR8,DR9 and DR10. The HLA DR3,DR5,DR6 and DR8 can be amplified by the two primers of DR3568 are positive.Any individuals can be typed with some exception: the three pairs of phenotype DR3/DR3 and DR3/DR6,DR5/DR5 and DR5/DR6, DR8/DR8 and DR8/DR6 cannot be discriminated from each other.We typed 106 unrelated healthy people from Beijing locations in two weeks.We think this typing method is suitable to replace the error-Prone serologic HLA-DR tests in routine clinical practice,including the prospective typing of cadaveric organ donors.

  16. Immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, CpG-like motif exists in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus NIAI B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Haruki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimosato, Takeshi; Kawai, Yasushi; Itoh, Takatoshi; Saito, Tadao

    2003-08-15

    The present study was conducted to find an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide derived from yogurt starter cultures. The chromosomal DNA was purified from nine strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and six strains of Streptococcus thermophilus. An immunostimulatory ability of the DNA was examined in a proliferation of peyer's patch and splenic B cells. Only the DNA from L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 induced a significant proliferation of both cells. When the DNA was cloned and amplified using PCR, the mitogenic activities to B cells were significantly increased by 13 of 135 DNA clones. Ten homologous nucleotide sequences were found as possible oligonucleotide sequences of mitogens, and were then chemically synthesized (sOL-LB1 to sOL-LB10). One CpG-like motif (sOL-LB7; 5'-CGGCACGCTCACGATTCTTG-3') was identified as an immunostimulatory oligonucleotide, but it did not contain palindromic CpG structure known as a B cell-specific mitogen. The sOL-LB7 substantially bound to B cells and increased the CD69 positive cells in peyer's patch cells. This study demonstrated that L. bulgaricus NIAI B6 was a good candidate of a starter culture for the production of new functional foods, "Bio-Defense Foods".

  17. Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus from plants in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaylova, Michaela; Minkova, Svetlana; Kimura, Katsunori; Sasaki, Takashi; Isawa, Kakuhei

    2007-04-01

    One of the traditional ways of preparation of yogurt starter in Bulgaria is placing a branch of a particular plant species into boiled sheep's milk maintained at about 45 degrees C, which is further incubated until a dense coagulum is obtained. To investigate the possible origin of the yogurt starter bacteria, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus), the traditional way of yogurt-starter preparation was followed. Hundreds of plant samples were collected from four regions in Bulgaria and incubated in sterile skim milk. The two target bacteria at low frequencies from the plant samples collected were successfully isolated. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these bacterial isolates revealed that they were identified as L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Twenty isolates of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, respectively, were selected from the isolated strains and further characterized with regard to their performance in yogurt production. Organoleptic and physical properties of yogurt prepared using the isolated strains from plants were not significantly different from those prepared using commercial yogurt-starter strains. It was therefore suggested that L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains widely used for commercial yogurt production could have originated from plants in Bulgaria. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation and characterization of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains from plants.

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  19. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

  20. Internalization-dependent recognition of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis by intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Johanna; Basler, Tina; Duerr, Claudia U; Rohde, Manfred; Goethe, Ralph; Hornef, Mathias W

    2009-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease, a highly prevalent chronic intestinal infection in domestic and wildlife ruminants. The microbial pathogenesis of MAP infection has attracted additional attention due to an association with the human enteric inflammatory Crohn's disease. MAP is acquired by the faecal-oral route prompting us to study the interaction with differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. MAP was rapidly internalized and accumulated in a late endosomal compartment. In contrast to other opportunistic mycobacteria or M. bovis, MAP induced significant epithelial activation as indicated by a NF-kappaB-independent but Erk-dependent chemokine secretion. Surprisingly, MAP-induced chemokine production was completely internalization-dependent as inhibition of Rac-dependent bacterial uptake abolished epithelial activation. In accordance, innate immune recognition of MAP by differentiated intestinal epithelial cells occurred through the intracellularly localized pattern recognition receptors toll-like receptor 9 and NOD1 with signal transduction via the adaptor molecules MyD88 and RIP2. The internalization-dependent innate immune activation of intestinal epithelial cells is in contrast to the stimulation of professional phagocytes by extracellular bacterial constituents and might significantly contribute to the histopathological changes observed during enteric MAP infection.

  1. Growth Behavior of Phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus Treated with Selenium Biocomposites of Mushroom Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Perfileva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying the effect of biologically obtained selenium nanocomposites on the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms are presented. Cms is a Gram-positive bacterium, which causes one of the most dangerous potato diseases, ring rot. The effective alongside ecologically safe methods for combating Cms are lacking. As the agents feasible for use in this purpose, we examined the selenium nanocomposites obtained from the macrobasidiomycetes' submerged cultures. For exploring the bionanocomposites effect on Cms, the methods of agar well diffusion, the suspension turbidity measurement, and the colony-forming units count were applied. The results showed that all the nanocomposites under study lowered the bacterial suspension's absorption values compared to the reference specimen, that testified to the observation of bacteriostatic effect of the agents tested. The suppression action of nanocompostes was elucidated by means of both agar well diffusion assay and colony-forming units count. Thus, the results obtained demonstrate the occurrence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of the substances under study, and favor the supposition on advisability of further research into the selenium nanocomposites as the agents for agricultural recovery from the bacterial pathogens.

  2. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  3. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of three sesquiterpene lactones from Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçelik, Berrin; Gürbüz, Ilhan; Karaoglu, Taner; Yeşilada, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones (centaurepensin = chlorohyssopifolin A, chlorojanerin and 13-acetyl solstitialin A) isolated from the aerial parts of Centaurea solstitialis L. ssp. solstitialis (Asteraceae) were investigated for antimicrobial and antiviral activities. For the antimicrobial activity assessment, both standard and isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis were employed by the microdilution method. Herpes simplex type-1, a DNA virus, and Parainfluenza, an RNA virus, were employed for the determination of the antiviral activity of these three sesquiterpene lactones using Vero cell lines. Ampicilline, ofloxocine, ketoconazole, fluconazole, acyclovir and oseltamivir were used as the reference drugs. 13-Acetyl solstitialin A displayed remarkable antibacterial activity against isolated strains of E. faecalis at 1 microg/ml concentration, which was close to the effective concentrations of ampicillin. The same compound also showed significant activity against the DNA virus, being as potent as the reference compound acyclovir at maximum and minimum concentrations of 16-<0.00006 microg/ml. This is the first report showing that 13-acetyl solstitialin A possesses significant antiviral activity.

  4. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Data Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find M.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2010-01-15

    This report is a part of a research project where a 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The applied load is 60% of an unrealistic extreme event, corresponding to 75% of a certificated extreme load. This report describes the background, the test set up, the tests and the results. For this project, a new solution has been used for the load application and the solution for the load application is described in this report as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new load areas. The global deflection is compared with results from a previous test and results from FEM analyses in order to validate the solution as to how the gravity load on the blade was handled. Furthermore, the DIC measurement and the displacement sensors measurements are compared in order to validate the results from the DIC measurements. The report includes the results from the test and a description of the measurement equipment and the data acquisition. (author)

  5. Las pinturas alpestres de la Penya de l'Ermita del Vicari (Altea, Alicante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Francia GALIANA BOTELLA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La zona central mediterránea de la Península Ibérica cuenta con un nuevo descubrimiento de Arte Rupestre Postpaleolítico en su versión esquemática. Las manifestaciones pintadas se revelan de gran interés al existir representaciones antropomorfas bitriangulares y oculadas, desconocidas en las variantes tipológicas al uso, asociadas a soliformes, zigzags, puntiformes y grupos de barras paralelas. La complejidad compositiva y figurativa, con un fuerte componente simbólico, indican la existencia de creencias difícilmente comprensibles desde nuestros conocimientos actuales. En los últimos años, este arte se fecha a partir del V milenio a.C. hasta el II milenio a.C, según los paralelos muebles del contexto arqueológico.ABSTRACT: A new discovery in Post Paleolithic Schematic Rock Art has been made in the central Mediterranean zone of the Iberian Peninsula. The Paintings are very interesting due to the presence of bitriangular anthropomorphic representations and idols, unknown before in typologies, usually associated to sunforms, zigzags, dots and groups of paralells bars. The complexity in figuration and composition and the strong symbolic component show the existence of beliefs not easily understandable with our present knowledge. In the present state of research this art is dated from the V millennium BC to the II millennium BC on the basis of comparisons with mobiliary art from an archeological context.

  6. Identification of an HLA-A* 0201-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitope SSp-1 of SARS-CoV spike protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang B; Yu Y; Wang X; Yang R; Cao X; Chen H; Jiang X; Zhang M; Wan T; Li N; Zhou X; Wu Y; Yang F

    2004-01-01

    A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), has been identified as the causal agent of SARS. Spike (S) protein is a major structural glycoprotein of the SARS virus and a potential target for SARS-specific cell-mediated immune responses. A panel of S protein-derived peptides was tested for their binding affinity to HLA-A * 0201 molecules. Peptides with high affinity for HLA-A * 0201 were then assessed for their capacity to elicit specific immune responses mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) both in vivo, in HLA-A2. 1/Kb transgenic mice, and in vitro, from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) harvested from healthy HLA-A2.1 + donors. SARS-CoV protein-derived peptide-1 (SSp-1 RLNEVAKNL), induced peptide-specific CTLs both in vivo (transgenic mice) and in vitro (human PBLs), which specifically released interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) upon stimulation with SSp-1-pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) or T2 cells. SSp-1-specific CTLs also lysed major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched tumor cell lines engineered to express S proteins. HLA-A * 0201-SSp-1 tetramer staining revealed the presence of significant populations of SSp-1-specific CTLs in SSp-1-induced CD8+ T cells. We propose that the newly identified epitope SSp-1 will help in the characterization of virus control mechanisms and immunopathology in SARS-CoV infection, and may be relevant to the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for SARS.

  7. A draft sequence of the rice(Oryza sativa ssp. indica) genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The sequence of the rice genome holds fundamental information for its biology, including physiology, genetics, development, and evolution, as well as information on many beneficial phenotypes of economic significance. Using a "whole genome shotgun" approach, we have produced a draft rice genome sequence of Oryza sativa ssp. indica, the major crop rice subspecies in China and many other regions of Asia. The draft genome sequence is constructed from over 4.3 million successful sequencing traces with an accumulative total length of 2214.9 Mb. The initial assembly of the non-redundant sequences reached 409.76 Mb in length, based on 3.30 million successful sequencing traces with a total length of 1797.4 Mb from an indica variant cultivar 93-11, giving an estimated coverage of 95.29% of the rice genome with an average base accuracy of higher than 99%. The coverage of the draft sequence, the randomness of the sequence distribution, and the consistency of BIG-ASSEM- BLER, a custom-designed software package used for the initial assembly, were verified rigorously by comparisons against finished BAC clone sequences from both indica and japanica strains, available from the public databases. Over all, 96.3% of full-length cDNAs, 96.4% of STS, STR, RFLP markers, 94.0% of ESTs and 94.9% unigene clusters were identified from the draft sequence. Our preliminary analysis on the data set shows that our rice draft sequence is consistent with the comman standard accepted by the genome sequencing community. The unconditional release of the draft to the public also undoubtedly provides a fundamental resource to the international scientific communities to facilitate genomic and genetic studies on rice biology.

  8. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species.

  9. [Effects of ruta SSP on the activity of the smooth gastrointestinal muscle isolated of rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorjev, Carlota A; Brizuela, Nilda Y

    2010-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L. and Ruta chalepensis L. are plants used in folkloric medicine as antispasmodics, digestive and for intestinal gases. Animals used as experimental model were rats of the Wistar line, adult females, clinically healthy and with a weight average of 250 grams. We used strips of stomach and duodenum. Each one of the segments mounted on two stirrups in a bath of organ isolated with Ringer-lactate solution, at 37° C , pH: 7.3-7.4, and bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2. One of the stirrups was connected vertically to the bottom of the bath and the other to a transducer of tension connected to a Beckman polygraph. We applied 500 mgs of basal tension. After the stabilization, the ethanolic extract of Ruta ssp was added in increasing doses. At 50μl/ml the tone lower 23% in small intestine and lower 27% in stomach. However at 100 μl/ml the tone lower 32% and 35% respectively. In the other parameters the amplitude decrease 50% in the stomach at dose of 5 μl/ml while in the small intestine the amplitude lower 60%. With 10 μl/ml the amplitude change in both organs ( 96% in small intestine, and 75% in stomach). The frequency changes in both organs ( 32% in small intestine, and 50% in stomach) at 10 μl/ml Rue showed decreased effects on isolated small intestine and stomach were is dose dependent, maybe we were demonstrated the effects digestive of Ruta.

  10. Ontogenetic differences in mesophyll structure and chlorophyll distribution in Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S A; Smith, W K; Vogelmann, T C

    1999-02-01

    Mesophyll structure has been associated with the photosynthetic performance of leaves via the regulation of internal light and CO(2) profiles. Differences in mesophyll structure and chlorophyll distribution within three ontogenetically different leaf types of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus were investigated. Juvenile leaves are blue-grey in color, dorsiventral (adaxial palisade layer only), hypostomatous, and approximately horizontal in orientation. In contrast, adult leaves are dark green in color, isobilateral (adaxial and abaxial palisade), amphistomatous, and nearly vertical in orientation. The transitional leaf type has structural features that appear intermediate between the juvenile and adult leaves. The ratio of mesophyll cell surface area per unit leaf surface area (A(mes)/A) of juvenile leaves was maximum at the base of a single, adaxial palisade layer and declined through the spongy mesophyll. Chlorophyll a + b content showed a coincident pattern, while the chlorophyll a:b ratio declined linearly from the adaxial to abaxial epidermis. In comparison, the mesophyll of adult leaves had a bimodal distribution of A(mes)/A, with maxima occurring beneath both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces within the first layer of multiple palisade layers. The distribution of chlorophyll a + b content had a similar pattern, although the maximum ratio of chlorophyll a:b occurred immediately beneath the adaxial and abaxial epidermis. The matching distributions of A(mes)/A and chlorophyll provide further evidence that mesophyll structure may act to influence photosynthetic performance. These changes in internal leaf structure at different life stages of E. globulus may be an adaptation for increased xeromorphy under increasing light exposure experienced from the seedling to adult tree, similar to the characteristics reported for different species according to sunlight exposure and water availability within their native habitats.

  11. Systemic and mucosal immune reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Arzu; Bargen, Imke; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Roderfeld, Martin; Tschuschner, Annette; Rath, Timo; Gerlach, Gerald F; Hornef, Mathias; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried; Roeb, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2-/- mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RB(hi) T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired.

  12. Systemic and mucosal immune reactivity upon Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Koc

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD. Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2-/- mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RB(hi T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RB(lo/int T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RB(lo/int T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired.

  13. Metal extraction by Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum on mine-spoil soils from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, P S; Monterroso, C

    2005-01-05

    The efficiency of Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum (Brassicaceae) for use in phytoextraction of polymetallic contaminated soils was evaluated. A. serpyllifolium was grown on two mine-spoil soils (MS1 and MS2): MS1 is contaminated with Cr (283 mg kg(-1)) and MS2 is moderately contaminated with Cr (263 mg kg(-1)), Cu (264 mg kg(-1)), Pb (1433 mg kg(-1)) and Zn (377 mg kg(-1)). Soils were limed to about pH 6.0 (MS1/Ca and MS2/Ca) or limed and amended with NPK fertilisers (MS1/NPK and MS2/NPK). Biomass was reduced on MS2/Ca due to Cu phytotoxicity. Fertilisation increased biomass by 10-fold on MS1/NPK, but root growth was reduced by 7-fold compared with MS1/Ca. Plants accumulated Mn, Ni and Zn in shoots, and both metal content and transportation were generally greater in MS2 than in MS1. Zinc bioaccumulation factors (BF, shoot([metal])/soil([metal])) were significantly greater in MS2 than in MS1. However, metal yields were greatest in plants grown on MS1/NPK. Concentrations of EDTA-, NH(4)Cl- and Mehlich 3 (M3)-extractable Mn and Zn were greater after plant growth. Concentrations of M3-extractable Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were increased at the rhizosphere. Sequential extractions showed changes in the metal distribution among different soil fractions after growth. This could reflect the buffering capacity of these soils or the plants' ability to mobilise metals from less plant-available soil pools. Results suggest that A. serpyllifolium could be suitable for phytoextraction uses in polymetallic-contaminated soils, provided Cu concentrations were not phytotoxic. However, further optimisation of growth and metal extraction are required.

  14. Rapid turnover of the W chromosome in geographical populations of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshido, Atsuo; Síchová, Jindra; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František; Sahara, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Our previous studies revealed a considerably high level of chromosomal polymorphism in wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae). Geographical populations of this species complex differ in chromosome numbers and show derived sex chromosome systems including Z0/ZZ in S. cynthia ricini (2n = 27/28; Vietnam), neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z in S. cynthia walkeri (2n = 26/26; Sapporo, Hokkaido) and neo-WZ1Z2/Z1Z1Z2Z2 in S. cynthia subsp. indet. (2n = 25/26; Nagano, Honshu). In this study, we collected specimens of S. cynthia pryeri in Japanese islands Kyushu, Shikoku and Honshu, with an ancestral-like karyotype of 2n = 28 in both sexes and a WZ/ZZ sex chromosome system, except for one population, in which females have lost the W chromosome. However, the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome showed a very unusual morphology: It was composed of a highly heterochromatic body, which remained condensed throughout the whole cell cycle and of a euchromatin-like "tail." We examined molecular composition of the W and neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia subspecies by comparative genomic hybridisation and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with W chromosome painting probes prepared from laser-microdissected W chromatin of S. cynthia pryeri. These methods revealed that the molecular composition of highly heterochromatic part of the S. cynthia pryeri W chromosome is very different and lacks homology in the genomes of other subspecies, whereas the euchromatin-like part of the W chromosome corresponds to a heterochromatic part of the neo-W chromosomes in S. cynthia walkeri and S. cynthia subsp. indet. Our findings suggest that the curious WZ system of S. cynthia pryeri may represent an ancestral state of the Samia species complex but do not exclude an alternative hypothesis of its derived origin.

  15. Starch-bound 2S proteins and kernel texture in einkorn, Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Federica; Gazza, Laura; Conti, Salvatore; Muccilli, Vera; Foti, Salvatore; Pogna, Norberto Edgar

    2009-11-01

    The starch granule proteins from 113 einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum ssp monococcum) accessions were analyzed by acidic, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE), and two-dimensional A-PAGE x SDS-PAGE. All accessions were confirmed to contain equal amounts of two polypeptide chains corresponding to puroindoline B (Pin-B), as well as a prominent component plus a faint band corresponding to puroindoline A (Pin-A). When compared with soft-textured common wheat, "monococcum" accessions showed an increase of 3.2- and 2.7-fold in Pin-A and Pin-B levels on the starch granules, respectively. In addition, all accessions contained a novel component of the 2S super-family of seed proteins named Einkorn Trypsin Inhibitor (ETI), which was found to be encoded as a pre-protein 148 residues long. Wild-type ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1a and "valine-type" ETI encoded by allele Eti-A(m) 1b, which occurred in 107 and six einkorn accessions, respectively, were found to accumulate on starch granules as a mature protein of 121 amino acids with a hydrophobic central domain. The einkorn accessions exhibited an average SKCS index as low as -2.05 +/- 11.4, which is typical of extra-soft kernels. The total surface area of starch granules in "monococcum" wheat, as determined by visual assessments in counting chambers, was estimated at 764 mm(2)/mg of starch, and was about 1.5 times higher than that for common wheat. The results are discussed in relation to the identification of factors that cause the extra-soft texture of einkorn kernels.

  16. Evaluation of the wood CCA preservative treatment process of Eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp) by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias, E-mail: matias@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil produces around 1,2 mi m{sup 3} of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucaliptus ssp)and pine (Pinus ssp). The most wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (Chromated Copper Arsenate) and CCB (Copper Chromium and Boron Salt). The analytical methods, such as Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) and Plasma Inductively Coupled Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICPOES) have been used for the evaluation of those treatment processes. In this work, the sapwood sample was obtained from eucalyptus trees (Eucaliptus ssp) obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Sawdust sapwood sample was grounded and submitted to different additions of CCA solutions (0.2, 0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3.6, 6.3, 11.7and17.9 kg m{sup -3}). Power and pressed pellets sapwood samples, analyzed by EDXRFS, showed a good linear relation (r{sup 2}>0.99) between the characteristic intensity fluorescent lines (CuΚα, CrΚαand AsΚΒ) and their concentration, also, showed adequate sensitivity (LQ < 5mgkg{sup -1}) for Cu, Cr and As determination in treated woods. Cu, Cr and As were determined in powdered sawdust samples by FAA spectrometry, using the AWPA A11-93 standard method; the relation between the CCA retention and their concentration showed a lower linear relation than EDXRFS; the FAAS spreading result could be attributed to laboratorial CCA addition process. (author)

  17. Large scale profiles of galaxies at z=0-2 studied by stacking the HSC SSP survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Mariko; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi

    2017-03-01

    We are carrying out the study of the evolution of radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies from z = 0 to 2 by stacking analysis using data corrected by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). This will allow us to constrain the large scale average profiles of various galaxy populations at high redshift. From the stacking analysis of galaxies selected based on their photometric redshifts, we successfully detected the outer components of galaxies at z > 1 extending to at least ~80 kpc, which imply an early formation for the galaxy outskirts.

  18. Influence of protein isolate from lupin seeds (Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus) on processing and quality characteristics of frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamanou, S; Bloukas, J G; Paneras, E D; Doxastakis, G

    1996-01-01

    Lupin protein isolate (92% protein) from seeds of Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus (LSPI) was used as powder ingredient for the manufacture of frankfurters at levels 0, 1, 2 and 3% of the formulation weight. Additional 1% water was added during batter formulation to each 1% protein used. LSPI increased (P LSPI level resulted in higher (P LSPI. Frankfurters with 3% LSPI were judged as unacceptable. Incorporation of LSPI at 1% level either in hydrated form or as stabilizer in pre-emulsified fat improved the processing characteristics and overall acceptability of frankfurters made with LSPI as powder ingredient and did not affect the color and texture.

  19. A study of System Interface Sets (SIS) for the host, target and integration environments of the Space Station Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Charles; Auty, David; Rogers, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    System interface sets (SIS) for large, complex, non-stop, distributed systems are examined. The SIS of the Space Station Program (SSP) was selected as the focus of this study because an appropriate virtual interface specification of the SIS is believed to have the most potential to free the project from four life cycle tyrannies which are rooted in a dependance on either a proprietary or particular instance of: operating systems, data management systems, communications systems, and instruction set architectures. The static perspective of the common Ada programming support environment interface set (CAIS) and the portable common execution environment (PCEE) activities are discussed. Also, the dynamic perspective of the PCEE is addressed.

  20. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced....... They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains...

  1. Refractory Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis and Intravenous Immunoglobulin as Salvage Therapy: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections from Streptococcus dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis (SDSE can cause a wide variety of infections, ranging from mild cellulitis to invasive disease, such as endocarditis and streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS. Despite prompt and appropriate antibiotics, mortality rates associated with shock have remained exceedingly high, prompting the need for adjunctive therapy. IVIG has been proposed as a possible adjunct, given its ability to neutralize a wide variety of superantigens and modulate a dysregulated inflammatory response. We present the first reported cases of successful IVIG therapy for reversing shock in the treatment of SDSE TSLS.

  2. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus: UNA ENFERMEDAD BACTERIANA EN EL CULTIVO DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) EN SONORA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente; Maricela Duarte Medina; Ana Gabriela Alvarado Martínez; Adrián Mauricio García Ortega; Mario Antonio Tarazón Herrera; Ramón Jaime Holguín Peña; Bernardo Murillo Amador; José Luís García Hernández; Arnoldo Flores-Hernández; Ignacio Orona-Castillo

    2009-01-01

    A nivel mundial la papa junto con el arroz, el maíz y el trigo, constituyen los cuatro cultivos más importantes para la alimentación humana. En años recientes se ha detectado en algunas regiones de Estados Unidos (EUA) y Canadá, la bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis ssp sepedonicus (Cms) la cual provoca la enfermedad denominada podredumbre anular (PA) en el cultivo de papa. Esta bacteria ocasiona una pudrición en el tubérculo, tallos y hojas de este cultivo y tiene la particularidad de disemi...

  3. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  4. Fertilization in Brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis and its duration of each stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jie; SHEN Jiaheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the process of fertilization in Brassica campestris ssp.pekinensis and the duration of each stage.The results are as follows:(1)Pollen germinates on stigma 2-3 h after pollination.(2)4-8 h after pollination,pollen tube grows in the style.(3)8-14 h after pollination,pollen tube grows in the ovary and gets into the ovule via the micropyle.(4)16 h after pollination,one sperm nucleus moves to the egg and enters it.(5)The sperm nucleus adheres to the nuclear membrane of the egg 18 h after pollination.(6)20 h after pollination,it enters the egg nucleus and male chromatin gradually disperses and 24 h after pollination,a male nucleolus appears.A large female nucleolus and a small male nucleolus occur in the nucleus of the fertilized egg,and zygote formed.The dispersing of sperm chromatin in the egg nucleus takes about 4 h.(7)32--34 h after pollination,the division of zygote begins.The dormancy stage of the zygote lasts for about 8-10 h.(8)The pair polar nuclei lie in the chalazal end of the egg betbre fertilization,which may fuse into a secondary nucleus or not.(9)16-18 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus moves to the polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus.18 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus adheres to the nuclear membrane of the polar nuclei or that of the secondary nucleus.(10)20 h after pollination,the sperm nucleus enters one of the polar nuclei or the secondary nucleus and a triple fusion takes place.The process of fusion is similar to the karyogamy but faster.The dispersing of the sperm chromatin in the polar nucleus or secondary nucleus takes about 2 h.(11)22 h after pollination,the primary endosperm nucleus formed.The female and male nucleoli cannot fuse with each other betbre mitotic division of the primary endosperm nucleus.(12)24 h after pollination,the division of the primary endosperm nucleus actually takes place.

  5. A new synonym of Hylodesmum podocarpum ssp.podocarpum (Leguminosae)%圆菱叶长柄山蚂蝗一新异名

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高信芬

    2004-01-01

    Close examination of the type material of Podocarpium lancangense Y. Y. Qian has shown that this species is indistinguishable from Hylodesmum podocarpum (DC.) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill ssp. Podocarpum, and thus is reduced to synonymy herein.%查阅了澜沧长柄山蚂蝗Hylodesmum lancangense (Y. Y. Qian) X. Y. Zhu & H. Ohashi的模式标本后,确认该种应归并入圆菱叶长柄山蚂蝗H. podocarpum (DC.) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill ssp. podocarpum.

  6. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  7. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) and comparison with the broader species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Baogen; Liu, Yonghua; Ehlers, Jeffery D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A; Diop, Ndeye-Ndack; Qin, Dehui; Hu, Tingting; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2011-01-06

    Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L.) Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs), with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs) identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  8. Content of capsaicin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. and its use as an ecopesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleva-Gudeva Liljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The newest world trends in the scientific research are directed to production of secondary metabolites, their use and application. Capsaicin, the pungent principle of hot peppers is one of the best known natural compound. Nowadays, the research work is directed to the influence of capsaicin on physiological and biochemical processes of humans, animals, and recently plants as a biopesticide. Phytochemical studies of Capsicum annuum L. increase the application of secondary metabolites in pharmacy, food technology and medicine. In this paper, the possibilities of utilization of Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. for extracting capsaicin and its use as a biopesticide against the green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. in pepper culture are sublimed. The content of capsaicin was evaluated spectrophotometrically, and the ability of capsaicin for acting as biopesticide was calculated according to Abbott. Results showed that oleoresin from Capsicum annuum ssp. microcarpum L. and its dilution 1:20 are the most efficient as biopesticide. From these results we can say that this kind of peppers can be used as a raw material for extraction of capsaicin, because of its high concentration and efficiency.

  9. Experimental and genomic evidence for theindica-type cytoplasmic effect inOryza sativa L. ssp.japonica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU You-hong; TANG Liang; XU Quan; MA Dian-rong; ZHAO Ming-hui; SUN Jian; CHEN Wen-fu

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic effects are important agronomical phenomena that have generated widespread interest in both theory and application. In the present study, ifve high yield rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. ssp.japonica) in large-scale cultivation in northeast China were determined to possessOryza sativa L. ssp.indica-type cytoplasmusing cytoplasmic subspecies-spe-ciifc molecular markers. This was conifrmed by cytoplasmic genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and functional gene sequencing. Two of these ifvejaponicacultivars were core breeding parents with high yield and the other three were super-high-yield varieties registered by the Ministry of Agriculture of China. We constructed nuclear substitution lines to further demonstrate whether and how thisindica-type cytoplasm contributed to yield improvement by comparing yield components. The results showed that under the samejaponicanuclear background, the lines withindica-type cytoplasm had a signiifcant decrease in tilers in exchange for increased grain number per panicle compared with their recurrent parents. Our results implied that botanical basis of this cytoplasmic effect was to reduce the plant’s branching differentiation to pro-duce more lforal organs under the constant nutrition. Our ifndings open another door for the utilization of inter-subspeciifc hybridization for the improvement of rice cultivar.

  10. Macrolide Resistance in the Syphilis Spirochete, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum: Can We Also Expect Macrolide-Resistant Yaws Strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmajs, David; Paštěková, Lenka; Grillová, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) causes over 10 million new cases of syphilis worldwide whereas T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, affects about 2.5 million people. Although penicillin remains the drug of choice in the treatment of syphilis, in penicillin-allergic patients, macrolides have been used in this indication since the 1950s. Failures of macrolides in syphilis treatment have been well documented in the literature and since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in a number of clinical samples with macrolide-resistant TPA. Scarce data regarding the genetics of macrolide-resistant mutations in TPA suggest that although macrolide-resistance mutations have emerged independently several times, the increase in the proportion of TPA strains resistant to macrolides is mainly due to the spread of resistant strains, especially in developed countries. The emergence of macrolide resistance in TPA appears to require a two-step process including either A2058G or A2059G mutation in one copy of the 23S rRNA gene and a subsequent gene conversion unification of both rRNA genes. Given the enormous genetic similarity that was recently revealed between TPA and TPE strains, there is a low but reasonable risk of emergence and spread of macrolide-resistant yaws strains following azithromycin treatment.

  11. Application of a Simple In-House PCR-SSP Technique for HLA-B* 27 Typing in Spondyloarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devraj J. Parasannanavar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microlymphocytotoxicity (MLCT and flowcytometry (FC are the conventional serological methods to detect HLA-B* 27. Due to some disadvantages in these methods, most of the HLA laboratories have now switched over to molecular methods. Molecular techniques based on commercial kits are expensive; as such many laboratories with limited funds in developing countries cannot afford these techniques. Aims. Our main aim was to standardize a simple inexpensive in-house PCR-SSP technique for HLA-B* 27 typing. Materials and Methods. Sequence Specific primers were designed to amplify all the subtypes of B* 27 using IMGT-HLA sequence database. Accuracy was checked by retyping of 90 PCR-SSOP typed controls. Results. The presence of 149 bp specific band with control band on 2% agarose gel showed B* 27 positivity. No discrepancies were found when compared with PCR-SSOP results. The frequency of HLA-B* 27 was found to be significantly increased (68.75% versus 4.40%, O.R 46.909: P value 6.62E-32 among 700 SpA patients as compared to controls. Clinically, 54% of patients had polyarticular arthritis with SI joints involvement (68% and restricted spine flexion (60%. Conclusion. In-house PCR-SSP technique is very simple and inexpensive technique to detect B* 27 allele, which was strongly associated with SpA patients from Western India.

  12. A SNP and SSR based genetic map of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis and comparison with the broader species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xu

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea [Vigna. unguiculata (L. Walp.] that apparently originated in East Asia and is characterized by extremely long and thin pods and an aggressive climbing growth habit. The crop is widely cultivated throughout Asia for the production of immature pods known as 'long beans' or 'asparagus beans'. While the genome of cowpea ssp. unguiculata has been characterized recently by high-density genetic mapping and partial sequencing, little is known about the genome of asparagus bean. We report here the first genetic map of asparagus bean based on SNP and SSR markers. The current map consists of 375 loci mapped onto 11 linkage groups (LGs, with 191 loci detected by SNP markers and 184 loci by SSR markers. The overall map length is 745 cM, with an average marker distance of 1.98 cM. There are four high marker-density blocks distributed on three LGs and three regions of segregation distortion (SDRs identified on two other LGs, two of which co-locate in chromosomal regions syntenic to SDRs in soybean. Synteny between asparagus bean and the model legume Lotus. japonica was also established. This work provides the basis for mapping and functional analysis of genes/QTLs of particular interest in asparagus bean, as well as for comparative genomics study of cowpea at the subspecies level.

  13. USE OF METHYL JASMONATE TO ENHANCE THE PRODUCTION OF 6-METHOXYPODOPHYLLOTOXIN IN CELL CULTURES OF LINUM THRACICUM SSP. THRACICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Sasheva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites, such as lignans have important ecological role for plants and at the same time are lead structures for drug design in human medicine. The aryltetralin type of lignans are strong cytotoxic agents and are found in members of the genus Linum (Linaceae.Objective: In vitro cultures of Linum thracicum ssp. thracicum were developed to identify a medium type and an elicitation technique that favor enhanced production of the aryltetralin lignan 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin.Method: Methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid were administered to four cell lines of Linum thracicum ssp. thracicum for 24 and 72 hours. The 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin was identified by HPLS-ESI-MS/MS in positive ion mode, and its production was determined via quantitative HPLC analysis.Results: A cell line, called Li-20, which was developed in reduced sucrose environment proved to be the fastest growing and the highest producing among the tested cell lines. Within 24 hours upon MJ elicitation, the eight-day-old Li-20 increased 2.3-fold in 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin content, reaching 4.3 mg on a dry weight basis. Negative or no effect was registered after salicylic acid application.Conclusion: MJ elicitation is an effective strategy to improve the 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin accumulation within short periods of time, and an optimization of the cultivation medium beforehand is a prerequisite in the pipeline.

  14. [Ssp DnaB intein-mediated ligation of heavy and light chains of coagulation factor VIII in Escherichia coli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fuxiang; Liu, Zelong; Qu, Huige; Xin, Xiaolin; Dong, Hongxin; Liu, Xiangqin

    2009-07-01

    We studied the ligation of coagulation factor VIII heavy and light chains in Escherichia coli by utilizing the intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. A B-domain deleted factor VIII (BDD-FVIII) gene was broken into two halves of heavy and light chains before Ser1657 which meets the splicing required conserved residue and then fused to 106 and 48 amino acid-containing N-part termed Int-N and C-part termed Int-C coding sequences of split mini Ssp DnaB intein respectively. These two fusion genes were constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector pBV220. Through induction for expression of recombinant protein it displayed an obvious protein band as predicted size of BDD-FVIII protein on SDS-PAGE gel. Western blotting using factor VIII specific antibodies confirmed that this protein band is BDD-FVIII produced by protein trans-splicing. It demonstrated that the heavy and light chains of BDD-FVIII can be efficiently ligated with the Ssp DnaB intein-mediated protein trans-splicing. These results provided evidence for encouraging our ongoing investigation with intein as a means in dual AAV vectors carrying the factor VIII gene to overcome the packaging size limitation of a single AAV vector in hemophilia A gene therapy.

  15. Isolation of diterpenoid alkaloids from herb and flowers of aconitum napellus ssp. vulgare and electrospray ion trap multiple MS study of these alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; Koelliker; Oehme; Katz

    1999-05-01

    Chemical investigation of herb and flowers of Aconitum napellus L. ssp. vulgare led to the isolation of 12 diterpenoid alkaloids. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of NMR and MS and of their complete ion trap multiple fragmentation mass spectrometry study.

  16. The possible involvement of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in the aetiology of Crohn's disease: a case control study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrewegh AAPM; Overduin P; Roholl PJM; Gielis FK; Robinson JE; Mahmmod N; Lieverse RJ; Robijn RJ; Zanden AGM van der; Soolingen D van; Dept of Medical Microbiology; Biomedics Scientific Consultancy; LIS; LPI

    2005-01-01

    A case control study was performed to investigate the possible role of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) in the aetiology of Crohn's disease (CD). Biopsy samples were collected from the ileum and colon of CD patients, Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients and control persons. The biopsy sam

  17. The possible involvement of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in the aetiology of Crohn's disease: a case control study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrewegh AAPM; Overduin P; Roholl PJM; Gielis FK; Robinson JE; Mahmmod N; Lieverse RJ; Robijn RJ; van der Zanden AGM; van Soolingen D; LIS; LPI

    2005-01-01

    De bacterie Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) wordt beschouwd als een mogelijke oorzaak van de ziekte van Crohn (morbus Crohn, MC). In samenwerking met Gelre ziekenhuizen heeft het RIVM een onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het voorkomen van Map in darmbiopten van patienten met MC, patienten

  18. A longitudinal study of factors influencing the result of a Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis antibody ELISA in milk or dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenberg, S.W.F.; Veldman, E.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Koets, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of milk yield and milk composition on the diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by milk ELISA in the context of the total IgG secretion patterns in milk throughout lactation and serum concentrations were investigated. A 2-yr trial was performed in which 1,410 dai

  19. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and Allium cepa red and white varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, Yamina; Yahia, Ouahiba Ait; Belkebir, Aicha; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Illicium verum (badiane or star anise), Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna (hawthorn) and Allium cepa (onion), have traditionnally been used as medicinal plants in Algeria. This study showed that the outer layer of onion is rich in flavonols with contents of 103 ± 7.90 µg/g DW (red variety) and 17.3 ± 0.69 µg/gDW (white variety). We also determined flavonols contents of 14.3 ± 0.21 µg/g 1.65 ± 0.61 µg/g for Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna leaves and berries and 2.37 ± 0.10 µg/g for Illicium verum. Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins showed highest content in Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna berries (5.11 ± 0.266 mg/g), while, inner and outer layers of white onion had the lowest contents with 0.045 ± 0.003mg/g and 0.077 ± 0.001 mg/g respectively.   Flavonols extracts presented high antioxidant activity as compared with anthocyanins and standards antioxidants (ascorbic acid and quercetin). Allium cepa and Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity.

  20. Pólen 2n e mecanismos meióticos de formação em Solanum commersonii ssp 2n pollen and meiotic mechanisms of Formation in Solanum commersonii ssp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gracielle Oliveira Tomé

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. e Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 - 1EBN não podem ser diretamente cruzadas com a batata cultivada de S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 -4 EBN em razão da barreira da ploidia e do número de equilíbrio do endosperma (EBN. No entanto, a produção de pólen não reduzido por S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 - 1EBN, permite o cruzamento desta com dihaplóides de batata e com as espécies diplóides S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. e S. chacoense Bitt., que possuem 2 EBN. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar o mecanismo meiótico e a freqüência dos grãos de pólen não reduzidos em cinco clones de Solanum commersonii ssp. Foram avaliados três clones de S. commersonii subsp. commersonii (SCC e dois de S. commersonii subsp. malmeanum (SCM. Nas avaliações, duzentos grãos de pólen viáveis foram corados (carmim acético 2% e mensurados, sendo considerados não reduzidos aqueles com o diâmetro igual ou superior a 25 µm. O clone Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC 100 produz 26.1% de polen não reduzido, por fusos fundidos e fusos paralelos, o qual pode ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento.Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. and Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 -1EBN cannot be directly crossed with the cultivated Solanum tuberosum subsp. Tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 - 4EBN species due to ploidy barriers and endosperm balance number (EBN. However, non-reduced pollen production by the wild species S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 -1EBN, allows the crossing of these species with dihaploids of potato and with the diploids species, S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. and S. chacoense Bitt., all with 2EBN. The aim of this work was to determine the meiotic mechanism and frequency of non-reduced pollen production of five clones of S. commersonii ssp. Three different clones of S. commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC and two of S

  1. Primula munroi 的产自东喜马拉雅的一个新亚种 --P. munroi ssp. schizocalyx%A new subspecies of Primula munroi Lindl. from the Eastern Himalaya--P. munroi ssp. schizocalyx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the course of revising the genus Primula Linn.(Primulaceae) in the Himalayas of Indian region, the authors came across a set of collections identified as P. involucrata Wall. gathered by the pioneer Himalayan travellers, merely written on determinavit slips as P. involucrata Wall. forma schizocalyx by I. B. Balfour without any date. Critical studies revealed that these specimens are quite distinct from the species proper so far described. The new taxon is described as a subspecies and illustrated. As P. involucrata Wall. ex Duby (1844) is a later homonym of P. involucrata Sweet (1839) and illegitimate, and its correct name is P. munroi Lindl. (1847), we name our new subspecies as P. munroi ssp. schizocalyx Balf. f. ex Basak et Maiti. 

  2. Enhanced natural killer cell activation by exopolysaccharides derived from yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Seiya; Sato, Asako; Goto, Ayako; Nakamura, Marie; Ogawa, Miho; Chiba, Yoshika; Hemmi, Jun; Kano, Hiroshi; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Ko; Asami, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    Yogurt is generally recognized as a beneficial food for our health, but research into its physiological effects has focused mainly on intestinal dysfunctions such as constipation and diarrhea. We previously found yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 (hereafter OLL1073R-1) could reduce risks of catching the common cold and flu in human trials. It was assumed that immunostimulatory exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced from OLL1073R-1 play an important role in this context. However, few studies have examined the immunostimulatory effects of traditional Bulgarian yogurts fermented with different strains of lactobacilli and their metabolites. Therefore, we screened 139 L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains and identified OLL1073R-1 as the most robust producer of EPS. This strain was also the only strain that induced the production of IFN-γ in vitro. Oral administration of the EPS or yogurt fermented with OLL1073R-1 and Streptococcus thermophilus OLS3059 (OLL1073R-1 yogurt) augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity and induced IFN-γ production in spleen cells in mice, whereas 2 other yogurts fermented with other strains had no effect on NK cell activity. Cellular preparations of the OLL1073R-1 strain also slightly augmented NK cell activity, but were less effective than EPS itself. The EPS-dependent stimulation of NK cell activity was abrogated in IFN-γ knockout mice and in myeloid differentiation factor 88 knockout mice. Furthermore, IFN-γ production from spleen cells stimulated with EPS was completely blocked with both anti-IL-12 and anti-IL-18 antibodies in vitro. These findings suggest that NK cell activation by OLL1073R-1 yogurt is EPS-dependent, occurs via IL-12- and IL-18-mediated IFN-γ production, and requires myeloid differentiation factor 88. We showed that traditional Bulgarian yogurt could exert immunostimulatory effects by selecting starter strains and part of the mechanisms depend on IFN-γ inducible EPS produced

  3. EVALUACIÓN DE UNA COLECCIÓN DEL GÉNERO Triticum: TRIGO HARINERO (Triticum aestivum ssp aestivum, TRIGO DURO (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Y TRITICALE (X Triticum secale Wittmack EN LAS CONDICIONES DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Plana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas (INCA se evaluó una colección del género Triticum, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de diferentes especies en las condiciones del occidente de Cuba. Las especies estudiadas fueron: Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum y X Triticum secale Wittmack. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los caracteres analizados fueron altura de la planta (cm, longitud de las espigas (cm, masa de mil granos (g y rendimiento agrícola (t.ha-1. Se utilizó la estadística descriptiva para cada una de las variables estudiadas, estimándose la media y desviación típica por especie. La variedad cubana de trigo harinero CC-204 fue utilizada como control. La matriz de datos obtenida (genotipo x variable fue procesada mediante la técnica multivariada de Componentes Principales. Los datos para todos los análisis estadísticos se ejecutaron por el paquete estadístico SPSS 11. 0 para Windows. La mayoría de los genotipos tuvieron un comportamiento medio general, aunque se separaron del resto algunos genotipos de trigo harinero y triticale. Los valores de la media y desviación estándar para las variables analizadas muestran que no fue posible distinguir diferencias por especie, aunque las plantas de trigo duro fueron las de menor altura, siendo los mejores genotipos: 12 y 54 de la especie T. aestivum (trigo harinero; 17, 18 y 25 de T. durum (trigo duro; 29 y 37 del X Triticum secale (tritic

  4. Transformation of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp.pekinensis) by Agrobacterium Micro-Injection into Flower Bud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ji-yong; HE Yu-ke; CAO Jia-shu

    2003-01-01

    We obtained two lines of Chinese head cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) selfed progenies containing both an anti-sense gene of BcpLH and a gene for resistance to kanamycin by micro-injecting buds of their primary transformants (T0) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. 31 positive plants resistant to kanamycien were recovered. Southern blot analysis confirmed the presence of T-DNA in two transgenic plants. One (DHZ-13-1) exhibits the characteristics of out-toward rosette and cauline leaves, and nested flower model in which secondary complete flower developed from the base of the primary ovary and the third flower from the ovary in the secondary flower, and so on, while another(DHZ-6-1) has no phenotype change. ABA and IAA affected the root growth of progeny of DHZ-13-1, but 6-BA was insensitive to hypocotyl growth during its seedling development.

  5. Development of a typing system for epidemiological studies of porcine toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fussing, V.; Nielsen, Jens; Bisgaard, M.

    1999-01-01

    pneumonic lungs. Strains from lungs were all of capsular Type A, whereas strains from nasal swabs were of both capsular Types A and D. Only 9% of the strains contained plasmids, which could not be associated with antibiotic resistance. Phage-typing divided 61% of strains into 10 groups, while 39% were non......The aim of the present study was to evaluate capsular-typing, plasmid-profiling, phage-typing and ribotyping for epidemiological studies of toxin-producing Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida in Denmark. The evaluation of methods was based on 68 strains from nasal swabs and 14 strains from...... of Danish strains. Phage-typing of isolates from an outbreak of atrophic rhinitis involving six herds in 1985 showed the existence of an epidemic strain. This type was recognised in the herd suspected of being the source of the infections and in four of the five infected herds. These findings were supported...

  6. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  7. Preventative effects of a probiotic,Lactobacillus salivarius ssp.salivarius,in the TNBS model of rat colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Peran; Julio Galvez; Desiree Camuesco; Monica Comalada; Ana Nieto; Angel Concha; Maria Paz Diaz-Ropero; Monica Olivares; Jordi Xaus; Antonio Zarzuelo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of a probiotic Lactobacillus sakuvarius ssp.salivariusCECT5713 in the TNBS model of rat colitis.METHODS: Female Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used in this study. A group of rats were administered orally the probiotic L. salivarius ssp. salivarius (5×108 CFU suspended in 0.5 mL of skimmed milk) daily for 3 wk. Two additional groups were used for reference, a non-colitic and a control colitic without probiotic treatment, which received orally the vehicle used to administer the probiotic. Two weeks after starting the experiment, the rats were rendered colitic by intracolonic administration of 10 mg of TNBS dissolved in 0.25 mL of 500 mL/L ethanol. One week after colitis induction, all animals were killed and colonic damage was evaluated both histologically and biochemically. The biochemical studies performed in colonic homogenates include determination of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity,glutathione (GSH) content, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. In addition, the luminal contents obtained from colonic samples were used for microbiological studies, in order to determine Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts.RESULTS: Treatment of colitic rats with L. salivarius ssp.salivarius resulted in amelioration of the inflammatory response in colitic rats, when compared with the corresponding control group without probiotic treatment. This antiinflammatory effect was evidenced macroscopically by a significant reduction in the extent of colonic necrosis and/or inflammation induced by the administration of TNBS/ethanol (2.3+0.4 cm vs3.4+0.3 cm in control group,P<0.01) and histologically by improvement of the colonic architecture associated with a reduction in the neutrophil infiltrate in comparison with non-treated colitic rats. The latter was confirmed biochemically by a significant reduction of colonic MPO

  8. Kinetics of Batch Fermentation in the Cultivation of a Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus Delbrueckii Ssp. Bulgaricus B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goranov Bogdan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of kinetic models to describe the dynamics of the fermentation process of culturing of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B1 was performed. The models of Monod, Aiba, Tiessier, Hinshelwood and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were used. It has been found that the different models described the observed fermentation dynamics differently. The conducted comparative study demonstrated that the models of Monod and the equation of the logistic curve combined with the model of Ludeking-Piret were suitable for the description of the fermentation dynamics. The mathematical models showed no significant product and/or substrate inhibition. The culture developed with a low specific growth rate, but nevertheless it accumulated 1012-1013 viable cells. The substrate was absorbed primarily from cells in the stationary growth phase rather than cells in the exponential growth phase

  9. Whole genome sequence of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, strain Mexico A, suggests recombination between yaws and syphilis strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pětrošová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA, the causative agent of syphilis, and Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE, the causative agent of yaws, are closely related spirochetes causing diseases with distinct clinical manifestations. The TPA Mexico A strain was isolated in 1953 from male, with primary syphilis, living in Mexico. Attempts to cultivate TPA Mexico A strain under in vitro conditions have revealed lower growth potential compared to other tested TPA strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The complete genome sequence of the TPA Mexico A strain was determined using the Illumina sequencing technique. The genome sequence assembly was verified using the whole genome fingerprinting technique and the final sequence was annotated. The genome size of the Mexico A strain was determined to be 1,140,038 bp with 1,035 predicted ORFs. The Mexico A genome sequence was compared to the whole genome sequences of three TPA (Nichols, SS14 and Chicago and three TPE (CDC-2, Samoa D and Gauthier strains. No large rearrangements in the Mexico A genome were found and the identified nucleotide changes occurred most frequently in genes encoding putative virulence factors. Nevertheless, the genome of the Mexico A strain, revealed two genes (TPAMA_0326 (tp92 and TPAMA_0488 (mcp2-1 which combine TPA- and TPE- specific nucleotide sequences. Both genes were found to be under positive selection within TPA strains and also between TPA and TPE strains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed mosaic character of the TPAMA_0326 and TPAMA_0488 loci is likely a result of inter-strain recombination between TPA and TPE strains during simultaneous infection of a single host suggesting horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies.

  10. Possibilities Concerning Diagnosis of the SSP-FK Aircraft Fire Suppression System in Terms of Determination of Reasons for False Fire Alarms / Możliwości Diagnozowania Lotniczego Systemu Przeciwpożarowego SSP-FK w Aspekcie Określania Przyczyn Fałszywego Sygnalizowania Pożaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelmanowski Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono wybrane wyniki prac realizowanych w Instytucie Technicznym Wojsk Lotniczych (ITWL w zakresie badań instalacji przeciwpożarowej SSP-FK stosowanej na wielu typach wojskowych statków powietrznych eksploatowanych w Siłach Zbrojnych RP. Dla określania warunków fałszywego sygnalizowania pożaru opracowano modele symulacyjne działania bloków wykonawczych SSP-FK. Badania modeli symulacyjnych wykonano w pakietach obliczeniowych Matlab-Simulink i Circuit-Maker. Wyniki tych prac zostały wykorzystane do diagnostyki instalacji SSP-FK w trakcie badania rzeczywistych przypadków fałszywego zadziałania tych urządzeń.

  11. Possibilities Concerning Diagnosis of the SSP-FK Aircraft Fire Suppression System in Terms of Determination of Reasons for False Fire Alarms / Możliwości Diagnozowania Lotniczego Systemu Przeciwpożarowego Ssp-Fk W Aspekcie Określania Przyczyn Fałszywego Sygnalizowania Pożaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelmanowski Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule przedstawiono wybrane wyniki prac realizowanych w Instytucie Technicznym Wojsk Lotniczych (ITWL w zakresie badań instalacji przeciwpożarowej SSP-FK stosowanej na wielu typach wojskowych statków powietrznych eksploatowanych w Siłach Zbrojnych RP. Dla określania warunków fałszywego sygnalizowania pożaru opracowano modele symulacyjne działania bloków wykonawczych SSP-FK. Badania modeli symulacyjnych wykonano w pakietach obliczeniowych Matlab-Simulink i Circuit-Maker. Wyniki tych prac zostały wykorzystane do diagnostyki instalacji SSP-FK w trakcie badania rzeczywistych przypadków fałszywego zadziałania tych urządzeń.

  12. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activitiy of extracts from Gochnatia polymorpha (Less ssp floccosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Élida A. Stefanello

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo procedeu-se a avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana e citotóxica de extratos de Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa, espécie empregada na medicina popular contra doenças respiratórias. Folhas, cascas do tronco e ramos foram extraídos com hexano, diclorometano e etanol, sucessivamente, sendo obtidos os respectivos extratos brutos. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar utilizando-se bactérias Gram-positivas, Gram-negativas e fungos. A avaliação da citotoxicidade foi realizada empregando-se o ensaio de letalidade contra Artemia salina. Nenhum dos extratos mostrou atividade citotóxica. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram uma fraca atividade antimicrobiana frente a algumas cepas de Staphylococcus aureus e Streptococcus mutans, enquanto o extrato em diclorometano dos ramos e o extrato em etanol das cascas foram ativos contra Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus e S. epidermidis. A maior atividade antimicrobiana foi observada para o extrato em diclorometano das cascas, que inibiu o crescimento de Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis e Candida albicans. Esta atividade parece estar relacionada à presença de diterpenos no extrato. Nenhum dos extratos estudados (a 5,0 mg/mL mostrou atividade frente a cepas de bactérias Gram-negativas. Esses resultados demonstram o potencial dessa planta como fonte de compostos antibacterianos e justificam, parcialmente, seu uso popular.The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Gochnatia polymorpha ssp floccosa, a medicinal plant used against respiratory diseases, were evaluated. Successive petroleum ether, dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of dried leaves, trunk bark and stems were used in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay and tested against 22 strains of microorganisms (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by the well-diffusion agar method. None of the extracts

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprint characterization of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus garvieae isolated from bovine intramammary infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; Barberio, A; Franklin-Guild, R; Werner, B; McDonough, P; Bennett, J; Gioia, G; Rota, N; Welcome, F; Nydam, D V; Moroni, P

    2015-09-01

    In total, 181 streptococci-like bacteria isolated from intramammary infections (IMI) were submitted by a veterinary clinic to Quality Milk Production Services (QMPS, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). The isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, and 46 Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and 47 Lactococcus garvieae were tested for susceptibility to 17 antibiotics. No resistant strains were found for β-lactam antibiotics widely used in clinical practice (penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin), and all minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were far from the resistance breakpoints. Eight strains had MIC intermediate to cefazolin. The random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR fingerprint patterns showed a slightly higher heterogeneity for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis isolates than for Lc. garvieae isolates.

  14. Inactivation of Mycobacterium bovis ssp. caprae in high-temperature, short-term pasteurized pilot-plant milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, P; Richter, E; Rüsch-Gerdes, S; Walte, H-G C; Matzen, S; Kiesner, C

    2015-03-01

    Experiments to determine the efficacy of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization of milk in terms of inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms were mainly performed between 1930 and 1960. Among the target organisms were Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result, the Codex Alimentarius prescribes that HTST treatment of milk should lead to a significant reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during milk pasteurization. Due to the development of improved methods for the detection of survivors and of more advanced heating technology, verification of this requirement seemed to be necessary. To address recent outbreaks of tuberculosis in cattle caused by M. bovis ssp. caprae (M. caprae) in the southern regions of Germany, this organism was tested and compared with M. bovis ssp. bovis (M. bovis). Experiments were performed in a pilot plant for HTST pasteurization of milk with 3 strains of M. caprae and 1 strain of M. bovis. In preliminary trials at a fixed holding time of 25 s, the temperature at which significant inactivation occurred was 62.5°C for all strains. To determine D-values (decimal reduction times) for the inactivation kinetics, the strains were tested at 65, 62.5, and 60°C at holding times of 16.5, 25, and 35 s. At 65°C, the D-values of all strains ranged from 6.8 to 7.8 s, and at 62.5°C, D-values ranged from 14.5 to 18.1 s. Low inactivation was observed at 60°C. When the low slope of the inactivation curve allowed calculation of a D-value, these ranged from 40.8 to 129.9 s. In terms of log10 reductions, the highest values for all strains were 4.1 to 4.9 log at 65°C, with a holding time of 35 s. The tested strains of M. caprae and M. bovis showed similar low resistance to heat. Standard HTST treatment should result in a high reduction of these organisms and thus the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for inactivation of pathogens by this process are far exceeded.

  15. A Simplified PCR-SSP Method for HLA-A2 Subtype in a Population of Wuhan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Liang; Lijun Zhu; Zhihui Liang; Xiufang Weng; Xiaoling Lu; Cai'e Zhang; Hui Li; Xiongwen Wu

    2006-01-01

    HLA-A2 is the most frequent HLA-A allele in all ethnic populations, and an important restriction element for peptide presentation to T cells in infectious disease and cancer. However, the HLA-A2 supertype consisting of up to 75 subtypes, mutation studies and analyses using cytotoxic T lymphocytes suggest the functional relevance of subtype-specific differences in HLA-A2 molecules for peptide binding and T-cell recognition. Therefore, it is necessary for T-cell response study to discriminate the HLA-A2 subtypes and to understand the profile of HLA-A2 allelic distribution in a given population. In this study, we developed a simple, robust approach based on the nested polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to discriminate 17 HLA-A2 subtypes which cover the most HLA-A2 alleles (> 99% allele frequency) reported in Chinese, using 15 combinations of 19 allelic specific primers. In the first round of PCR, 3 combinations of 5 primers were used to determine whether the tested sample was HLA-A2 positive, meanwhile the subtypes of HLA-A*0209 and HLA-A*0215N were determined for the variant position of these two subtypes is in exon 4 instead of exon 2, 3. Samples of HLA-A2 positive were subtyped in the second round of PCR, using PCR products of the first round as templates. This strategy was applied to test the samples of 78 random HLA-A2 positive individuals for their HLA-A2 subtypes. Those samples were screened for HLA-A2 positive by the first round PCR-SSP from 154 healthy blood donors in Wuhan, China. The subtyping results were verified by using flow cytometric analysis (FCM) with HLA-A2 specific monoclonal antibody BB7.2 and DNA sequencing. The typing results of the samples show 50.7% random individuals in the population carry HLA-A2, HLA-A*0201 ranks the first (allele frequency = 15.5%), followed by A*0207 (5.8%),A*0206 (4.7%), A*0203 (2.6%), A*0210 (0.7%), and these 5 alleles account for 99.0% HLA-A2 subtypes of allele frequency. Our study

  16. Lutzomyia gasparviannai Martins, Godoy & Silva, 1962, probable vector of Leishmania mexicana ssp. in Viana municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil

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    Aloísio Falqueto

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos flebótomos atraídos pelo Proechimys iheringi numa área onde esse roedor foi achado naturalmente infectado por Leishmania mexicana ssp., 98,1% foram Lutzomyia gasparviannai, o que sugere que essa espécie não antropofílica seja o transmissor entre os roedores mas não habitualmente ao homem.

  17. Silicon substrates for thin-film solar arrays manufactured by means of the SSP method. Final report on the research project. Silicium-Substrate fuer Duennschicht-Solarzellen nach dem SSP-Verfahren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, F.; Osswald, D.; Zimmermann, W.; Faller, F.; Bau, S.

    1998-10-01

    The first year of the present project saw the design of a plant and construction office for the manufacture of silicon substrates for thin-film solar arrays by means of the SSP (Silicon Sheets from Powder) method. The plant was designed with a mind to flexibility and user friendliness so as to facilitate later optimisation of the ribbon manufacturing process as required by future demands. For the most part the plant was built by a local fine mechanics company. Some components such as the entire electricity supply system for the lamp heater had to be purchased separately. After the first project year the plant was ready for operation, though some components had to be reworked after the first ribbon manufacturing runs. The remaining year of the projected run time was dedicated to the optimisation of the ribbon manufacturing process. Not all of the aims set out at the beginning were actually achieved, notably due to the unavailability of a powder of optimum grain size (100 - 300 [mu]m). The manufactured Si ribbons have the specified width (210 mm)and length (1.5 m), but they are too thick (800 [mu]m). It proved possible to increase process speed to 100 mm/min, resulting in an output of 1.2 m-2/h. Given an optimum rate of utilisation, i.e. four-shift operation, the plant can produce 700,000 modules of 100 x 100 mm-2, the equivalent of 1 MW, per year.

  18. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2016-06-01

    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Arbutin from Leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas ssp. elaeagnifolia (Rosaceae by Response Surface Methodology Mehtap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONMEZ SAHIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrus elaeagnifolia Pallas. ssp. elaeagnifolia is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases in Turkey. The leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia are a rich source of arbutin, which is a naturally occurring derivative of hydroquinone. It is found in various plant species belonging to diverse families, such as Lamiaceae, Ericaceae, Saxifragaceae and Rosaceae. It inhibits tyrosinase and has been employed as a cosmetic skin whitening agent. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM using a Box Behnken Design (BBD was employed to optimize the condition for extraction of arbutin from the leaves of Pyrus elaeagnifolia ssp. elaeagnifolia. Three influencing factors; methanol concentration, period of ultrasoundassisted extraction and extraction temperature were investigated in the ultrasonic aqueous extraction. The Response Surface Methodology was applied to optimize the extraction process focused on arbutin content with respect to the above influencing factors. The best combination of each significant factor was determined by RSM design and optimum pretreatment conditions for maximum arbutin content were established to be methanol concentration of 48.54 %, extraction time of 39.32 min. And extraction temperature of 43.71 0C. Under these conditions 5.37 % of arbutin content was observed experimentally, similar to the theoretical prediction of 5.30 %.

  20. Further molecular evidence for the Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in Tibet as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    106 accessions of Tibetan wild barley, including 50 accessions of the two-rowed wild barley Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum(HS), 27 accessions of the six-rowed bottle-shaped wild barley H. lagunculiforme(HL) and 29 accessions of the six-rowed wild barley H. agriocrithon(HA) that separately represent different agrigeographical regions of Tibet, were used to study the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation using SSR markers selected from seven barley linkage groups. 229 allelic variants were identified with an average of 7.6 alleles/locus. The average of total number of alleles per locus in HA(6.4) is much higher than that in HS(3.9) and HL(3.4). The genetic diversity and its standard deviation among the three subspecies were in the order of HS>HL>HA. Very significant genetic differentiation was observed among the three subspecies of wild barley. Comparisons of the results from this and previous studies showed a strong Oriental-Occidental differentiation of barley, and that Shannan region of Tibet might be the center of origin of the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley, thus supporting not only the hypothesis of a mono-phyletic origin of cultivated barley but also the proposition that the Tibetan two-rowed wild barley as ultimate progenitor of Chinese cultivated barley.

  1. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J H

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  2. Genetic Variation in Triticum turgidum L.ssp.turgidum Landraces from China Assessed by EST-SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; DONG Pan; WEI Yu-ming; CHENG Guo-yue; ZHENG You-liang

    2008-01-01

    It was helpful for the wheat improvement to evaluate the genetic resources of Triticum turgidum L.ssp.turgidum landraces.In this study,68 turgidum landraces accessions,belonging to four geographic populations in China,were investigated by using EST-SSR markers.A total of 63 alleles were detected on 22 EST-SSR loci,and the number of alleles on each locus ranged from 1 to 5,with an average of 2.9.The results of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA)indicated that 92.5% of the total variations was attributed to the genetic variations within population,whereas only 7.5%variations among populations.Although the four populations had similar genetic diversity parameters,Sichuan population was yet distinguished from other populations when comparing the population samples in pairs.Significant correlations were detected by the statistic analysis among six genetic diversity parameters among each other.The selection difference between heterozygosty and homozygosty was also observed among different EST-SSR locus.The genetic similarity (GS)ranged from 0.18 to 0.98,with the mean of 0.72,and all accessions could be clustered into 7 groups.The dendrogram suggested that the genetic relationships among turgidum accessions evaluated by EST-SSR markers were unrelated to their geographic distributions.These results implied that turgidum landraces from China had the unique characters of genetic diversity.

  3. Foraging leaf-cutting ants learn to reject Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera plants that emit herbivore-induced volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Theresa; Kost, Christian; Roces, Flavio; Wirth, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are dominant herbivores of the Neotropics, as well as economically important pests. Their foraging ecology and patterns/mechanisms of food selection have received considerable attention. Recently, it has been documented that LCAs exhibit a delayed rejection of previously accepted food plants following treatment with a fungicide that makes the plants unsuitable as substrate for their symbiotic fungus. Here, we investigated whether LCAs similarly reject plants with induced chemical defenses, by combining analysis of volatile emissions with dual-choice bioassays that used LCA subcolonies (Atta sexdens L.). On seven consecutive days, foraging ants were given the choice between leaf disks from untreated control plants and test plants of Vitis vinifera ssp. vinifera L. treated with the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) to mimic herbivore attack. Chemical analysis revealed the emission of a characteristic set of herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOC) from JA-induced plants. Dual-choice experiments indicated that workers did not show any preference initially, but that they avoided JA-treated plants from day five onwards. Our finding that A. sexdens foragers learn to avoid VOC-emitting plants, which are likely detrimental to their symbiotic fungus, represents the first evidence for avoidance learning in attine ants toward plants with induced defenses.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizibekmez, Hasan; Demirci, Betül; Yeşilada, Erdem; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2009-07-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the dried leaves and flowers of Lavandula stoechas L. ssp. stoechas were separately identified by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. The main components were alpha-fenchone (41.9 +/- 1.2%), 1,8-cineole (15.6 +/- 0.8%), camphor (12.1 +/- 0.5%), and viridiflorol (4.1 +/- 0.4%) in the leaves; and alpha-fenchone (39.2 +/- 0.9%), myrtenyl acetate (9.5 +/- 0.4%), alpha-pinene (6.1 +/- 0.09%), camphor (5.9 +/- 0.05%) and 1,8-cineole (3.8 +/- 0.1%) in the flowers. Overall, 55 and 66 constituents were identified in the leaf and flower essential oils representing more than 90% and 94% of the total, respectively. In addition, the essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticandidal activities by broth microdilution. The flower essential oil was found to be relatively more active than the leaf oil towards the tested pathogenic microorganisms. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the flower oil (MIC = 31.2 microg/mL). The oils, evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity using a TLC-DPPH assay, were inactive at a concentration of 2 mg/mL.

  5. Characteristic of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) beverage by lactic acid bacteria (LAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. ssp.) has a relatively high nutrient content, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and fiber and contain bioactive compounds that act as antioxidants. In order to increase the nutritional value and innovate new products, fermentation process involving rich-antioxidants lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was done. The aim of this study is to determine the content of bioactive components, such as total polyphenols, total acid and antioxidant activity of the mixed culture of LAB (L. bulgaricus, S. thermophulus, L. acidophilus, Bd. bifidum)-fermented broccoli extracts. Ratio of fermented broccoli extract and concentration of starter cultureLAB was varied in the range of 5, 10, 15 and 20% (v/v), and the alterations of characteristics of the fermented broccoli extract, before and after fermentation (0 and 24 hours), were evaluated. The results showed that fermentation functional beverage broccoli with different concentrations of LAB cultures affect the antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total acid and total cell of LAB generated. The optimum conditions obtained for the highest antioxidant activity of 6.74%, at aculture concentration of 20% during fermentation time of 24 h with a pH value of 4.29, total sugar of 10.89%, total acids of 0.97%, total polyphenols of 0.076%, and total LAB of 13.02 + 0.05 log cfu /ml.

  6. The fate of W chromosomes in hybrids between wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia ssp.: no role in sex determination and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshido, A; Marec, F; Sahara, K

    2016-05-01

    Moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) have sex chromosome systems with female heterogamety (WZ/ZZ or derived variants). The maternally inherited W chromosome is known to determine female sex in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. However, little is known about the role of W chromosome in other lepidopteran species. Here we describe two forms of the W chromosome, W and neo-W, that are transmitted to both sexes in offspring of hybrids from reciprocal crosses between subspecies of wild silkmoths, Samia cynthia. We performed crosses between S. c. pryeri (2n=28, WZ/ZZ) and S. c. walkeri (2n=26, neo-Wneo-Z/neo-Zneo-Z) and examined fitness and sex chromosome constitution in their hybrids. The F1 hybrids of both reciprocal crosses had reduced fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed not only the expected sex chromosome constitutions in the backcross and F2 hybrids of both sexes but also females without the W (or neo-W) chromosome and males carrying the W (or neo-W) chromosome. Furthermore, crosses between the F2 hybrids revealed no association between the presence or absence of W (or neo-W) chromosome and variations in the hatchability of their eggs. Our results clearly suggest that the W (or neo-W) chromosome of S. cynthia ssp. plays no role in sex determination and reproduction, and thus does not contribute to the formation of reproductive barriers between different subspecies.

  7. Experimental weed control of Najas marina ssp. intermedia and Elodea nuttallii in lakes using biodegradable jute matting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Hoffmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of jute matting in managing the invasive aquatic macrophyte species Elodea nuttallii (Planch. H. St. John and Najas marina ssp. intermedia (Wolfg. ex Gorski Casper (Najas intermedia was studied in laboratory experiments and field trials. Four German lakes with predominant population of Najas intermedia or Elodea nuttalli were chosen for the experiment and areas between 150 and 300 m² were covered with jute textile. The effect of the matting on the growth of invasive and non-invasive macrophytes was determined through comparison with control transects. Biodegradable jute matting successfully suppressed the invasive macrophyte Najas intermedia and significantly reduced the growth of Elodea nuttalli in lakes. The results indicate that the capability of the matting to inhibit the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia depends on the mesh size of the jute weaving and that environmental conditions can affect its efficiency. Various indigenous species like Charales or Potamogeton pusillus L. were able to grow through the jute fabric and populate the treated areas. Until the end of the vegetation period, none of the invasive species were able to penetrate the covering and establish a stable population; in fact, in the subsequent year the jute matting affected only the spread of Najas intermedia. Jute matting proved to be an easy-to-use and cheap method to control the growth of Elodea nuttallii and Najas intermedia.

  8. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  9. Phenotype definition is a main point in genome-wide association studies for bovine Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, J; Brandt, H; Donat, K; Erhardt, G

    2014-10-01

    Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes economic losses and is present in dairy herds worldwide. Different studies used different diagnostic tests to detect infection status and are the basis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies with inconsistent results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic regions associated with MAP susceptibility in the same cohort of cattle using different diagnostic tests. The GWA study was performed in German Holsteins within a case-control assay using 305 cows tested for MAP by fecal culture and additional with four different commercial ELISA-tests. Genotyping was performed with the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip. The results using fecal culture or ELISA test led to the identification of different genetic loci. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed significant association with the ELISA-status. However, no significant association for MAP infection could be confirmed. Our results show that the definition of the MAP-phenotype has an important impact on the outcome of GWA studies for paratuberculosis.

  10. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

    2011-06-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69 μmol/μL of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P oregano essential oils obtained by SFME at different microwave power levels were found to be similar and ranged from 0.72 to 0.84 μmol/μL of oil. Essential oils obtained by CH and SFME at different microwave powers inhibited the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, whereas survival of Staphylococcus aureus was not influenced. In addition, oregano oil obtained by SFME at 40% power level did not show any inhibitory effect on E. coli O157:H7.

  11. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73 genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliécer eGonzález Muñoz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73 reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members.

  12. TP0262 is a modulator of promoter activity of tpr Subfamily II genes of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacani, Lorenzo; Godornes, Charmie; Puray-Chavez, Maritza; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Tompa, Martin; Lukehart, Sheila A; Centurion-Lara, Arturo

    2009-06-01

    Transcriptional regulation in Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is poorly understood, primarily because this organism cannot be cultivated in vitro or genetically manipulated. We have recently shown a phase variation mechanism controlling transcription initiation of Subfamily II tpr (T. pallidumrepeat) genes (tprE, tprG and tprJ), a group of virulence factor candidates. Furthermore, the same study suggested that additional mechanisms might influence the level of transcription of these tprs. The T. pallidum genome sequence has revealed a few open reading frames with similarity to known bacterial transcription factors, including four catabolite activator protein homologues. In this work, sequences matching the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) binding motif were identified in silico upstream of tprE, tprG and tprJ. Using elecrophoretic mobility shift assay and DNaseI footprinting assay, recombinant TP0262, a T. pallidum CRP homologue, was shown to bind specifically to amplicons obtained from the tpr promoters containing putative CRP binding motifs. Using a heterologous reporter system, binding of TP0262 to these promoters was shown to either increase (tprE and tprJ) or decrease (tprG) tpr promoter activity. This is the first characterization of a T. pallidum transcriptional modulator that influences tpr promoter activity.

  13. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  14. Ogura-CMS in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) causes delayed expression of many nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiangshu; Kim, Wan Kyu; Lim, Yong-Pyo; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Hur, Yoonkang

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism regulating cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis using floral bud transcriptome analyses of Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage and its maintainer line in B. rapa 300-K oligomeric probe (Br300K) microarrays. Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage produced few and infertile pollen grains on indehiscent anthers. Compared to the maintainer line, CMS plants had shorter filaments and plant growth, and delayed flowering and pollen development. In microarray analysis, 4646 genes showed different expression, depending on floral bud size, between Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line. We found 108 and 62 genes specifically expressed in Ogura-CMS and its maintainer line, respectively. Ogura-CMS line-specific genes included stress-related, redox-related, and B. rapa novel genes. In the maintainer line, genes related to pollen coat and germination were specifically expressed in floral buds longer than 3mm, suggesting insufficient expression of these genes in Ogura-CMS is directly related to dysfunctional pollen. In addition, many nuclear genes associated with auxin response, ATP synthesis, pollen development and stress response had delayed expression in Ogura-CMS plants compared to the maintainer line, which is consistent with the delay in growth and development of Ogura-CMS plants. Delayed expression may reduce pollen grain production and/or cause sterility, implying that mitochondrial, retrograde signaling delays nuclear gene expression.

  15. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  16. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 can inhibit cytotoxic effects and adhesion of pathogenic Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Pratik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotic microorganisms are receiving increasing interest for use in the prevention, treatment, or dietary management of certain diseases, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD. Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of AAD and the resulting C. difficile – mediated infection (CDI, is potentially deadly. C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD is manifested by severe inflammation and colitis, mostly due to the release of two exotoxins by C. difficile causing destruction of epithelial cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus B-30892 (LDB B-30892 on C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity using Caco-2 cells as a model. Methods Experiments were carried out to test if the cytotoxicity induced by C. difficile-conditioned-medium on Caco-2 cells can be altered by cell-free supernatant (CFS from LDB B-30892 in different dilutions (1:2 to 1:2048. In a similar experimental setup, comparative evaluations of other probiotic strains were made by contrasting the results from these strains with the results from LDB B-30892, specifically the ability to affect C. difficile induced cytotoxicity on Caco-2 monolayers. Adhesion assays followed by quantitative analysis by Giemsa staining were conducted to test if the CFSs from LDB B-30892 and other probiotic test strains have the capability to alter the adhesion of C. difficile to the Caco-2 monolayer. Experiments were also performed to evaluate if LDB B-30892 or its released components have any bactericidal effect on C. difficile. Results and discussion Co-culturing of LDB B-30892 with C. difficile inhibited the C. difficile-mediated cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. When CFS from LDB B-30892-C. difficile co-culture was administered (up to a dilution of 1:16 on Caco-2 monolayer, there were no signs of cytotoxicity. When CFS from separately grown LDB B-30892 was mixed with the cell-free toxin

  17. Tissue Culture as a Source of Replicates in Nonmodel Plants: Variation in Cold Response in Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenta, Tanaka; Edwards, Jessica E M; Butlin, Roger K; Burke, Terry; Quick, W Paul; Urwin, Peter; Davey, Matthew P

    2016-12-07

    While genotype-environment interaction is increasingly receiving attention by ecologists and evolutionary biologists, such studies need genetically homogeneous replicates-a challenging hurdle in outcrossing plants. This could be potentially overcome by using tissue culture techniques. However, plants regenerated from tissue culture may show aberrant phenotypes and "somaclonal" variation. Here, we examined somaclonal variation due to tissue culturing using the response to cold treatment of photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', and ΦPSII, representing maximum efficiency of photosynthesis for dark- and light-adapted leaves, and the actual electron transport operating efficiency, respectively, which are reliable indicators of photoinhibition and damage to the photosynthetic electron transport system). We compared this to variation among half-sibling seedlings from three different families of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea Somaclonal variation was limited, and we could detect within-family variation in change in chlorophyll fluorescence due to cold shock successfully with the help of tissue-culture derived replicates. Icelandic and Norwegian families exhibited higher chlorophyll fluorescence, suggesting higher performance after cold shock, than a Swedish family. Although the main effect of tissue culture on Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', and ΦPSII was small, there were significant interactions between tissue culture and family, suggesting that the effect of tissue culture is genotype-specific. Tissue-cultured plantlets were less affected by cold treatment than seedlings, but to a different extent in each family. These interactive effects, however, were comparable to, or much smaller than the single effect of family. These results suggest that tissue culture is a useful method for obtaining genetically homogenous replicates for studying genotype-environment interaction related to adaptively-relevant phenotypes, such as cold response, in

  18. The evolutionary history and diagnostic utility of the CRISPR-Cas system within Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Pettengill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary studies of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs and their associated (cas genes can provide insights into host-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics and the frequency at which different genomic events (e.g., horizontal vs. vertical transmission occur. Within this study, we used whole genome sequence (WGS data to determine the evolutionary history and genetic diversity of CRISPR loci and cas genes among a diverse set of 427 Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica isolates representing 64 different serovars. We also evaluated the performance of CRISPR loci for typing when compared to whole genome and multilocus sequence typing (MLST approaches. We found that there was high diversity in array length within both CRISPR1 (median = 22; min = 3; max = 79 and CRISPR2 (median = 27; min = 2; max = 221. There was also much diversity within serovars (e.g., arrays differed by as many as 50 repeat-spacer units among Salmonella ser. Senftenberg isolates. Interestingly, we found that there are two general cas gene profiles that do not track phylogenetic relationships, which suggests that non-vertical transmission events have occurred frequently throughout the evolutionary history of the sampled isolates. There is also considerable variation among the ranges of pairwise distances estimated within each cas gene, which may be indicative of the strength of natural selection acting on those genes. We developed a novel clustering approach based on CRISPR spacer content, but found that typing based on CRISPRs was less accurate than the MLST-based alternative; typing based on WGS data was the most accurate. Notwithstanding cost and accessibility, we anticipate that draft genome sequencing, due to its greater discriminatory power, will eventually become routine for traceback investigations.

  19. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to develop a method to determine the viability of cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 (L. bulgaricus) that may have entered into a viable but nonculturable state. This can happen due to its susceptibility to cold shock during lyophilization and storage. Propidium monoazide concentration, PMA incubation time, and light exposure time were optimized to fully exploit the PMA-qPCR approach to accurately assess the total number of living L. bulgaricus ND02. Although PMA has little influence on living cells, when concentrations of PMA were higher than 30μg/mL the number of PCR-positive living bacteria decreased from 10(6) to 10(5) cfu/mL in comparison with qPCR enumeration. Mixtures of living and dead cells were used as method verification samples for enumeration by PMA-qPCR, demonstrating that this method was feasible and effective for distinguishing living cells of L. bulgaricus when mixed with a known number of dead cells. We suggest that several conditions need to be studied further before PMA-qPCR methods can be accurately used to distinguish living from dead cells for enumeration under more realistic sampling situations. However, this research provides a rapid way to enumerate living cells of L. bulgaricus and could be used to optimize selection of cryoprotectants in the lyophilization process and develop technologies for high cell density cultivation and optimal freeze-drying processes.

  20. Genetic Variation in Rhizome Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) Germplasms from China Assessed by RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Na; GUO Hong-bo; KE Wei-dong

    2009-01-01

    To estimate genetic variation in rhizome lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. ssp. nucifera) gcrmplasms in China, a total of 94 rhizome lotus germplasms collected from 18 provinces in China were assessed. The RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA) marker was employed. The selected 17 random primers detected 139 polymorphic alleles out of a total 207 (67.15%). Nei's gene diversity statistics and region differentiation parameters indicated that all germplasms had a relatively high level of genetic diversity with ne=1.3202, h=0.1937, I=0.2982 and the gene flow among all regions was Nm=5.5742. The UPGMA dendrogram clustered all 94 germplasms into two clusters: One contained eight commercial cultivars and major landraces, and the other included the wild and some special landraces from five regions, and the PCA analysis exhibited the similar result. Those germplasms from southwestern and eastern China had higher genetic diversity than those from the southern, northern and central China. Predominant proportion of genetic variation (95.61%) was found significant within rather than among (4.39%) regions, as revealed by AMOVA analysis. The data analysis also revealed that the genetic diversity of rhizome lotus germplasms among different regions is positively related to their geographic distances, though it is ambiguous to find the trend from the UPGMA dendrogram and the PCA analysis. A relatively high genetic diversity and gene flow resided in the root lotus germplasms; about 96% of the variation was found within region; accessions from southwest and eastern China have higher genetic diversity than those from the southern, northern and central China.

  1. Enhancement of tolerance to soft rot disease in the transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanjildorj, Enkhchimeg; Song, Seo Young; Yang, Zhi Hong; Choi, Jae Eul; Noh, Yoo Sun; Park, Suhyoung; Lim, Woo Jin; Cho, Kye Man; Yun, Han Dae; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2009-10-01

    We developed a transgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) inbred line, Kenshin, with high tolerance to soft rot disease. Tolerance was conferred by expression of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AHL-lactonase) in Chinese cabbage through an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. To synthesize and express the AHL-lactonase in Chinese cabbage, the plant was transformed with the aii gene (AHL-lactonase gene from Bacillus sp. GH02) fused to the PinII signal peptide (protease inhibitor II from potato). Five transgenic lines were selected by growth on hygromycin-containing medium (3.7% transformation efficiency). Southern blot analysis showed that the transgene was stably integrated into the genome. Among these five transgenic lines, single copy number integrations were observed in four lines and a double copy number integration was observed in one transgenic line. Northern blot analysis confirmed that pinIISP-aii fusion gene was expressed in all the transgenic lines. Soft rot disease tolerance was evaluated at tissue and seedling stage. Transgenic plants showed a significantly enhanced tolerance (2-3-fold) to soft rot disease compared to wild-type plants. Thus, expression of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii reduces susceptibility to soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. We conclude that the recombinant AHL-lactonase, encoded by aii, can effectively quench bacterial quorum-sensing and prevent bacterial population density-dependent infections. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate the transformation of Chinese cabbage inbred line Kenshin, and the first to describe the effect of the fusion gene pinIISP-aii on enhancement of soft rot disease tolerance.

  2. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  3. Inhibition of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in Vidiago cheese by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IPLA 729, a nisin Z producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilla, Natalia; Martínez, Beatriz; Delgado, Teresa; Rodríguez, Ana

    2003-08-15

    Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis IPLA 729 is a nisin Z producer isolated from raw milk cheese able to grow and produce nisin Z in milk. The ability of this strain to inhibit the growth of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CECT 4011, a late blowing agent, in Vidiago cheese, a semi-hard farmhouse variety, manufactured in Asturias, Northern Spain, was investigated. For control purposes, cheeses were manufactured with the mesophilic mixed starter IPLA-001. In experimental cheeses, the nisin-producing strain L. lactis IPLA 729 was combined with this starter. Nisin Z activity reached a concentration of 1600 AU/ml in 1-day cheeses and this level was maintained until 15 days of ripening. Furthermore, to compare the inhibitory activity of the nisin-producing strain to nitrate, cheeses were also manufactured with a commercial starter culture and potassium nitrate as anti-blowing agent was added in accordance with Vidiago's cheesemakers. The control, experimental and commercial cheeses were contaminated with C. tyrobutyricum CECT 4011. The composition of the three different cheeses showed only slight differences with respect to total solids, protein and fat, although control and experimental cheeses showed a richer flavour-compound profile than commercial cheeses. The level of the spoilage strain C. tyrobutyricum CECT 4011 decreased from 1.2x10(6) to 1.3x10(3) cfu/g during ripening in presence of the nisin Z producer, while it increased to 1.99x10(9) cfu/g in control cheeses and to 3.5x10(7) cfu/g in commercial cheeses.

  4. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding bovine interleukin-10 receptor alpha are associated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelton David F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Johne's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Since this pathogen has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human IBDs, the goal of this study was to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs in several well-known candidate genes for human IBD are associated with susceptibility to MAP infection in dairy cattle. Methods The bovine candidate genes, interleukin-10 (IL10, IL10 receptor alpha/beta (IL10RA/B, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1, TGFB receptor class I/II (TGFBR1/2, and natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (SLC11A1 were sequenced for SNP discovery using pooled DNA samples, and the identified SNPs were genotyped in a case-control association study comprised of 242 MAP negative and 204 MAP positive Holstein dairy cattle. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of SNPs and reconstructed haplotypes with MAP infection status. Results A total of 13 SNPs were identified. Four SNPs in IL10RA (984G > A, 1098C > T, 1269T > C, and 1302A > G were tightly linked, and showed a strong additive and dominance relationship with MAP infection status. Haplotypes AGC and AAT, containing the SNPs IL10RA 633C > A, 984G > A and 1185C > T, were associated with an elevated and reduced likelihood of positive diagnosis by serum ELISA, respectively. Conclusions SNPs in IL10RA are associated with MAP infection status in dairy cattle. The functional significance of these SNPs warrants further investigation.

  5. Growth and acid production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 in the fermentation of algal carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Zhang, G F; Mao, X; Wang, J Y; Duan, C Y; Wang, Z J; Liu, L B

    2016-06-01

    Algal carcass is a low-value byproduct of algae after its conversion to biodiesel. Dried algal carcass is rich in protein, carbohydrate, and multiple amino acids, and it is typically well suited for growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 was used to ferment different algal carcass media (ACM), including 2% ACM, 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose (ACM-G), and 2% ACM with 1.9% glucose and 2g/L amino acid mixture (ACM-GA). Concentrations of organic acids (lactic acid and acetic acid), acetyl-CoA, and ATP were analyzed by HPLC, and activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetokinase (ACK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were determined by using a chemical approach. The growth of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM-GA was close to that in the control medium (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe). Lactic acid and acetic acid contents were greatly reduced when L. bulgaricus cells were grown in ACM compared with the control medium. Acetyl-CoA content varied with organic acid content and was increased in cells grown in different ACM compared with the control medium. The ATP content of L. bulgaricus cells in ACM was reduced compared with that of cells grown in the control medium. Activities of PFK and ACK of L. bulgaricus cells grown in ACM were higher and those of PK and LDH were lower compared with the control. Thus, ACM rich in nutrients may serve as an excellent substrate for growth by lactic acid bacteria, and addition of appropriate amounts of glucose and amino acids can improve growth and acid production.

  6. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  7. Development of a rapid SNP-typing assay to differentiate Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis strains used in probiotic-supplemented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonaco, Sara; Furumoto, Emily J; Loquasto, Joseph R; Morra, Patrizia; Grassi, Ausilia; Roberts, Robert F

    2015-02-01

    Identification at the genus, species, and strain levels is desirable when a probiotic microorganism is added to foods. Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (BAL) are commonly used worldwide in dairy products supplemented with probiotic strains. However, strain discrimination is difficult because of the high degree of genome identity (99.975%) between different genomes of this subspecies. Typing of monomorphic species can be carried out efficiently by targeting informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Findings from a previous study analyzing both reference and commercial strains of BAL identified SNP that could be used to discriminate common strains into 8 groups. This paper describes development of a minisequencing assay based on the primer extension reaction (PER) targeting multiple SNP that can allow strain differentiation of BAL. Based on previous data, 6 informative SNP were selected for further testing, and a multiplex preliminary PCR was optimized to amplify the DNA regions containing the selected SNP. Extension primers (EP) annealing immediately adjacent to the selected SNP were developed and tested in simplex and multiplex PER to evaluate their performance. Twenty-five strains belonging to 9 distinct genomic clusters of B. animalis ssp. lactis were selected and analyzed using the developed minisequencing assay, simultaneously targeting the 6 selected SNP. Fragment analysis was subsequently carried out in duplicate and demonstrated that the assay yielded 8 specific profiles separating the most commonly used commercial strains. This novel multiplex PER approach provides a simple, rapid, flexible SNP-based subtyping method for proper characterization and identification of commercial probiotic strains of BAL from fermented dairy products. To assess the usefulness of this method, DNA was extracted from yogurt manufactured with and without the addition of B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12. Extracted DNA was then subjected to the minisequencing

  8. Research on Evaluation of SaaSSP Service Quality Based on SLA%基于SLA的SaaSSP服务质量评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁昌勇; 江贵红; 陆文星

    2013-01-01

    以软件即服务(SaaS)模式中服务提供商(SaaSSP)的服务质量为研究对象,在 SaaS 电子服务质量评价指标实证研究的基础上获得评价维度和指标,结合由服务等级协议(SLA)形成的用户期望,采用SERVQUAL模型的服务质量差距思想,提出一种基于SLA的SaaSSP服务质量评价方法。算例结果表明,该方法能较好地融合服务质量差距理论与SaaS,为SaaS市场运营中软件服务提供商的服务质量评价提供参考。%This paper emphasizes on building a new evaluation method of Software as a Service’s Service Provider(SaaSSP) service quality based on Service Level Agreement(SLA). Based on the evaluation indicators of Software as a Service(SaaS) electronic service quality in the empirical research, this method is developed with consideration of user’s expectation which is result from SLA and adoption of the thought about quality gaps in the classical SERVQUAL model. Example results show that this method can combine the service quality gaps model and the characteristics of SaaS model well and it can provide reference to evaluate SaaSSP service quality.

  9. Características da bacteriocina produzida por Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484 e seu efeito sobre Listeria monocytogenes em carne bovina

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberg,Renata; Moreno,Izildinha; Delboni,Roberta R.; Cintra,Helen C.

    2006-01-01

    O isolamento de linhagens de bactérias lácticas produtoras de bacteriocinas em carnes e seus produtos derivados resultou na detecção de Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484, proveniente de frango. A bacteriocina inibiu não apenas uma outra bactéria láctica (Lactobacillus helveticus), mas também microorganismos patogênicos (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens e Enterococcus faecalis). Ela foi inativada por causa de enzimas como: alfa-quim...

  10. Application of the ligase chain reaction to the detection of nisinA and nisinZ genes in Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L J; Brown, J C; Davey, G P

    1994-03-15

    This paper reports on the application of the ligase chain reaction (LCR) to the specific detection of variants of the nisin structural gene (nisinA and nisinZ) in nisin producing strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis. The LCR assay was used to screen nisin producing strains to determine which form of the nisin structural gene they contained. This method of differentiating the nisin structural gene variants provides a useful alternative to the only other available genetic differentiation, that of sequencing the gene.

  11. Role of nitrification inhibitor DMPP( 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) in NO3--N accumulation in greengrocery( Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis )and vegetable soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; WU Liang-huan; JU Xiao-tang; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2005-01-01

    The influence of nitrification inhibitor(NI) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on nitrate accumulation in greengrocery( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil at surface layer were investigated in field experiments in 2002 and 2003.Results showed that NI DMPP took no significant effect on yields of edible parts of greengrocery, but it could significantly decrease NO3- -N concentration in greengrccery and in vegetable soil at surface layer. In addition, NI DMPP could reduce the NO3--N concentration during the prophase stage of storage.

  12. Role of nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate) in NO(3-)-N accumulation in greengrocery( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Wu, Liang-huan; Ju, Xiao-tang; Zhang, Fu-suo

    2005-01-01

    The influence of nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) on nitrate accumulation in greengrocery (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis) and vegetable soil at surface layer were investigated in field experiments in 2002 and 2003. Results showed that NI DMPP took no significant effect on yields of edible parts of greengrocery, but it could significantly decrease NO(3-)-N concentration in greengrocery and in vegetable soil at surface layer. In addition, NI DMPP could reduce the NO(3-)-N concentration during the prophase stage of storage.

  13. SSP Boosts Air Transport Safety Management%SSP——民航安全从规章管理到绩效管理的转变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元; 李敬

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2008年,国际民航组织(ICAO)对附件1、6、8、11、13和14进行了新一轮的修订.在此次修订中,ICAO在对各成员国建立安全管理体系(SMS)提出了更为详细要求的同时,还次对各成员国建立并实施国家航空安全纲要(SSP)提出了具体的要求,并将SSP作为USOAP审计的一部分.

  14. Estudio molecular de gluteninas de alto y bajo peso molecular en Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. y su relación con la calidad panadera

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El trigo blando (Triticum aestivum ssp vulgare L., AABBDD, 2n=6x=42) presenta propiedades viscoélasticas únicas debidas a la presencia en la harina de las prolaminas: gluteninas y gliadinas. Ambos tipos de proteínas forman parte de la red de gluten. Basándose en la movilidad en SDS-PAGE, las gluteninas se clasifican en dos grupos: gluteninas de alto peso molecular (HMW-GS) y gluteninas de bajo peso molecular (LMW-GS). Los genes que codifican para las HMW-GS se encuentran en tres loci del gru...

  15. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This d...

  16. Snakebites by Crotalus durissus ssp in children in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Acidentes por serpentes Crotalus durisssus ssp em crianças em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio BUCARETCHI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From January, 1984 to March, 1999, 31 children under 15 y old (ages 1-14 y, median 8 y were admitted after being bitten by rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus ssp. One patient was classified as "dry-bite", 3 as mild envenoming, 9 as moderate envenoming and 18 as severe envenoming. Most patients had neuromuscular manifestations, such as palpebral ptosis (27/31, myalgia (23/31 and weakness (20/31. Laboratory tests suggesting rhabdomyolysis included an increase in total blood creatine kinase (CK, 28/29 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, 25/25 levels and myoglobinuria (14/15. The main local signs and symptoms were slight edema (20/31 and erythema (19/31. Before antivenom (AV administration, blood coagulation disorders were observed in 20/25 children that received AV only at our hospital (incoagulable blood in 17/25. AV early reactions were observed in 20 of these 25 cases (9/9 patients not pretreated and 11/16 patients pretreated with hydrocortisone and histamine H1 and H2 antagonists. There were no significant differences in the frequency of patients with AV early reactions between the groups that were and were not pretreated (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.12. Patients admitted less than and more than 6 h after the bite showed the same risk of developing severe envenoming (Fisher's exact test, p = 1. No children of the first group (De janeiro de 1984 a março de 1999, 31 crianças com menos de 15 anos de idade (1 a 14 anos, mediana = 8 anos foram admitidas após terem sido picadas por Crotalus durissus ssp. Uma criança não apresentou manifestações clínicas de envenenamento, enquanto 3 foram classificadas como acidente leve, 9 como moderado e 18 como grave. A maioria das crianças apresentou envolvimento neuromuscular, tais como ptose palpebral (27/31, mialgia (23/31 e fraqueza (20/31. Alterações laboratoriais sugerindo rabdomiólise também foram observadas, como aumento das enzimas séricas CK (28/29 e LDH (25/25 e mioglobinúria (14/15. As

  17. Comparative Analysis of WRKY Genes Potentially Involved in Salt Stress Responses in Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Makhloufi, Emna; Marande, William; Ghorbel, Abdel W.; Bouzayen, Mondher; Bergès, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are involved in multiple aspects of plant growth, development and responses to biotic stresses. Although they have been found to play roles in regulating plant responses to environmental stresses, these roles still need to be explored, especially those pertaining to crops. Durum wheat is the second most widely produced cereal in the world. Complex, large and unsequenced genomes, in addition to a lack of genomic resources, hinder the molecular characterization of tolerance mechanisms. This paper describes the isolation and characterization of five TdWRKY genes from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum). A PCR-based screening of a T. turgidum BAC genomic library using primers within the conserved region of WRKY genes resulted in the isolation of five BAC clones. Following sequencing fully the five BACs, fine annotation through Triannot pipeline revealed 74.6% of the entire sequences as transposable elements and a 3.2% gene content with genes organized as islands within oceans of TEs. Each BAC clone harbored a TdWRKY gene. The study showed a very extensive conservation of genomic structure between TdWRKYs and their orthologs from Brachypodium, barley, and T. aestivum. The structural features of TdWRKY proteins suggested that they are novel members of the WRKY family in durum wheat. TdWRKY1/2/4, TdWRKY3, and TdWRKY5 belong to the group Ia, IIa, and IIc, respectively. Enrichment of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses in the promoters of some TdWRKY genes indicated their potential roles in mediating plant responses to a wide variety of environmental stresses. TdWRKY genes displayed different expression patterns in response to salt stress that distinguishes two durum wheat genotypes with contrasting salt stress tolerance phenotypes. TdWRKY genes tended to react earlier with a down-regulation in sensitive genotype leaves and with an up-regulation in tolerant genotype leaves. The TdWRKY transcripts levels in roots increased

  18. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiaoying

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71 from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon” formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22 were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2% than among populations (45.8%. Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin, Dof (DNA binding with one finger, and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important

  19. Implications of PCR and ELISA results on the routes of bulk-tank contamination with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, A; Cazer, C L; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, may enter the bulk tank via environmental contamination or direct excretion into milk. Traditionally, diagnostics to identify MAP in milk target either MAP antibodies (by ELISA) or the organism itself (by culture or PCR). High ELISA titers may be directly associated with excretion of MAP into milk but only indirectly linked to environmental contamination of the bulk tank. Patterns of bulk-milk ELISA and bulk-milk PCR results could therefore provide insight into the routes of contamination and level of infection or environmental burden. Coupled with questionnaire responses pertaining to management, the results of these diagnostic tests could reveal correlations with herd characteristics or on-farm practices that distinguish herds with high and low environmental bulk-tank MAP contamination. A questionnaire on hygiene, management, and Johne's specific parameters was administered to 292 dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Bulk-tank samples were collected from each farm for evaluation by real-time PCR and ELISA. Before DNA extraction and testing of the unknown samples, bulk-milk template preparation was optimized with respect to parameters such as MAP fractionation patterns and lysis. Two regression models were developed to explore the relationships among bulk-tank PCR, ELISA, environmental predictors, and herd characteristics. First, ELISA optical density (OD) was designated as the outcome in a linear regression model. Second, the log odds of being PCR positive in the bulk tank were modeled using binary logistic regression with penalized maximum likelihood. The proportion of PCR-positive bulk tanks was highest for New York and for organic farms, providing a clue as to the geographical patterns of MAP-positive bulk-tank samples and relationship to production type. Bulk-milk PCR positivity was also higher for large relative to small herds. The models

  20. Effect of the Antisense BcMF12 Driven by the BcA9 Promoter on Gene Silencing in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The study analyzed the silencing of BcMF12 gene regulated by BcA9 promoter in the transgenic pakchoi and confirmed the effect of antisense BcMF12 gene on the pollen development. A conserved BcMF12 gene fragment was amplified from the cDNA of flower buds in pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis) and was fused to the anther specific BcA9 promoter. The plant antisense expression vector was constructed and then introduced into pakchoi via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transgenic plants were screened by antibiotics and molecular analysis. PCR and Southern blot revealed that the antisense BcMF12-GUS fusion gene regulated by BcA9 promoter was integrated into transgenic plants. Northern blot suggested that the expression of BcMF12 gene was down-regulated significantly. The pollen germination rate of transgenic plants with antisense BcMF12 gene decreased as compared with that of the control plants. The expression of the gene BcMF12 related to the pollen development was inhibited by the antisense BcMF12 driven by BcA9 promoter, which consequently affected the pollen development in pakchoi.

  1. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  2. Growth and exopolysaccharide yield of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Susann; Krzyzanowski, Leona; Weber, Jost; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Some Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains are able to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS) and are therefore highly important for the dairy industry as starter cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional requirements for growth and EPS production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081. A medium was developed from a semi-defined medium (SDM) in which glucose was replaced by lactose and different combinations of supplements (nucleobases, vitamins, salts, sodium formate and orotic acid) were added. Constant pH batch fermentation with the modified medium resulted in an EPS yield of approximately 210 mg glucose equivalents per liter medium. This was a 10-fold increase over flask cultivation of this strain in SDM. Although not affecting cell growth, the mixture of salts enhanced the EPS synthesis. Whereas EPS production was approximately 12 mg/g dry biomass without salt supplementation, a significantly higher yield (approximately 20 mg/g dry biomass) was observed after adding the salt mixture. In continuous fermentation, a maximal EPS concentration was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.31/h (80 mg EPS/L), which corresponded to a specific EPS production of 49 mg/g dry biomass.

  3. Characterization of BcMF23a and BcMF23b, two putative pectin methylesterase genes related to pollen development in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue; Huang, Li; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiong, Xingpeng; Yue, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingting; Liang, Ying; Lv, Meiling; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    Two homologous genes, Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23a (BcMF23a) and Brassica campestris Male Fertility 23b (BcMF23b), encoding putative pectin methylesterases (PMEs) were isolated from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (syn. Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis). These two genes sharing high sequence identity with each other were highly expressed in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile line system ('Bcajh97-01A/B'). Results of RT-PCR and in situ hybridization suggested that BcMF23a and BcMF23b were pollen-expressed genes, whose transcripts were first detected at the binucleate pollen and maintained throughout to the mature pollen grains. Western blot indicated that both of the putative BcMF23a and BcMF23b proteins are approximately 40 kDa, which exhibited extracellular localization revealed by transient expression analysis in the onion epidermal cells. The promoter of BcMF23a was active specifically in pollen during the late pollen developmental stages, while, in addition to the pollen, BcMF23b promoter drove an extra gene expression in the valve margins, abscission layer at the base of the first true leaves, taproot and lateral roots in seedlings.

  4. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  5. Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus enhances non specific protection against Plasmodium chabaudi AS in mice Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus aumenta la protección no específica contra Plasmodium chabaudi AS en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Martínez-Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus to enhance resistance against Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: NIH mice were IP injected with viable lactobacillus casei seven days (LC1 group or 7 and 14 days (LC2 group before the challenge (day 0 with Plasmodium chabaudi parasitized red blood cells (pRBC. Control mice were inoculated with pRBC only. When parasitaemia was resolved, naive mice were injected with spleen cells from each group. The parasitaemia was measured. Nitric oxide (NO. in serum was determined. RESULTS: Mice from the LC1 group presented a reduction in parasitaemia, with a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted 11 days, and the peak was (36.3 % pRBC on the 12th day post-infection. Mice from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of five days, parasitaemia lasted eight days, and the peak (30 % pRBC was of on the 11th day. In the control, the prepatent period was three days, the parasitaemia lasted 15 days, and the peak (51% pRBC was on day nine. Mice inoculated with spleen cells from the LC2 group showed a prepatent period of 21 days, parasitaemia lasted seven days, and the peak (13.5% pRBC was on the 26th day. CONCLUSION: L. casei enhanced nonspecific resistance to P. chabaudi, as indicated by longer prepatent periods, reduced parasitaemia, and reduction in the viability of the parasites recovered from the spleen of infected mice, along with high concentrations of NO. in serum.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la capacidad de Lactobacillus casei de aumentar la resistencia a la infección con Plasmodium chabaudi en ratones. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Ratones NIH fueron inyectados intraperitonealmente con L. casei viable 7 días (grupo LC1 o 7 y 14 días (grupo LC2 antes del reto (día 0 con glóbulos rojos parasitados (GRP con P. chabaudi. Los testigos fueron inoculados con GRP solamente. Cuando la parasitemia se resolvió, se inocularon ratones limpios con células de bazo de cada grupo. Se

  6. SSP在护理技能实训中的应用效果%The effect of SSP used in the nursing skills training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡妤珂; 周丽君

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of SSP in the nursing skills training courses to vocational nurs-ing students about critical thinking and communication skills. Methods Two classes were divided into experimental group and control group, experimental group selected SSP care skills training, and the control group were taught by con-ventional show - practice model of nursing skills training. After the end of the course, students were investigated using critical thinking questionnaire ( CTDI-CV) and the communication skills test questionnaire. Results The total score of critical thinking and the average score of finding out the truth, analytical ability, systematic ability and cognitive maturi-ty, and scores of communication skills were higher in the experimental group, there were statistically significant differ-ences between experimental group and control group ( P<0. 05 , P<0. 01 ) . Conclusions SSP can improve critical thinking skills and communication skills for vocational nursing students.%目的:探讨在护理技能实训课程中应用SSP对高职护生评判性思维及沟通能力的影响。方法选取2009级两个班级分为实验组和对照组,实验组应用SSP进行护理技能实训,对照组按常规示教-练习模式进行护理技能实训,课程结束后采用评判性思维倾向问卷( CTDI-CV)及沟通能力测试问卷调查。结果实验组护生在评判性思维倾向总分和寻找真相、分析能力、系统化能力、认知成熟度方面的平均分及沟通能力评分上均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论 SSP可以提高高职护生的评判性思维能力和沟通能力。

  7. Separation and Identification of Erwinia caratovora ssp . caratovora Pathogen of Coriandrum sativum L%芫荽软腐病病原菌分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立微; 张景涛; 李小梅

    2015-01-01

    为有效防治芫荽软腐病,提高其产质量,通过对引起芫荽腐烂而绝产的病害的病原菌进行分离、纯化,对19个菌株进行17项生理生化指标测定。结果表明:根据伯杰氏细菌鉴定手册(第八版)以 Ecc为对照进行鉴定,确定E1(Ames24923)、E3(Ames24927)、E4(CORI107)、E7(CORI139)、E8(CORI140)、E10(CORI147)、E12(CORI289)、E13(CORI318)、E18(PI664510)为芫荽胡萝卜欧文氏杆菌属胡萝卜软腐欧文氏杆菌胡萝卜软腐病亚种(Erw inia carotovora ssp .carotovora ,Ecc)细菌,而其余供试菌株通过测定可确定为细菌,但属何种还需进一步鉴定。%In order to control the Erwinia caratovora ssp .caratovora of Coriandrum sativum L .,and improve the quality ,through the isolating and purificating of the pathogen which causes coriander decay ,19 strains were isolated and purified .The results showed that according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (eighth edition) and 17 tests of physiology and biochemistry ,9 strainss were Erwiniacarotovora ssp .carotovora ,inclu‐ding E1(Ames24923) ,E3(Ames24927) ,E4(CORI107) ,E7(CORI139) ,E8(CORI140) ,E10(CORI147) ,E12 (CORI289) ,E13(CORI318) ,E18(PI664510) .Other strains should to be identified by other tools .

  8. Serotipos de Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni aislado en carne de ave para consumo humano y en muestras de heces de niños con diarrea Campylobacter jejuni ssp. jejuni serotypes in avian meat for human consumption and in faecal samples of children with diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fernández

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a las aves de consumo como un importante reservorio de C. jejuni ssp jejuni y sus subproductos alimenticios como principal vehículo, fueron serotipificadas 50 cepas aisladas de carne de ave para consumo humano, correlacionándolas epidemiológicamente con los serotipos encontrados en 50 cepas aisladas de niños con diarrea. Las cepas de C.jejuni ssp jejuni fueron serotipificadas mediante la técnica de hemaglutinación pasiva descrita por Penner, utilizando un kit comercial (DENKA SEIKEN, conteniendo los 25 sueros tipificadores para los serotipos descritos como los más frecuentes. Los serotipos A, B, F, L, N e Y fueron aislados concomitantemente en ambos tipos de muestras. Los serotipos de mayor aislamiento en las muestras de origen humano fueron Z2 (16% y Z5 (12%, mientras que en las de origen aviar fueron los serotipos A (28%, C (10%, L (10% e Y (10%. Al no coexistir los serotipos Z y C, en ambos grupos muestrales, es posible inferir la existencia de otros reservorios y vehículos que estén actuando como agentes transmisores de esta bacteria al ser humano.Having in mind that fowl and avian byproducts for human consumption are important reservoirs and vehicles for C. jejuni ssp. jejuni, a serotyping study was conducted in 50 strains isolated from avian meat and 50 isolated from human diarrhoeic stools. C. jejuni ssp. jejuni serotyping was carried out using a commercial kit with 25 antisera (DENKA SEIKEN, based on the Penner’s passive haemagglutination technique. Serotypes A, B, F, L, N e Y were concomitantly found in both kinds of samples. Serotypes Z2 (16% and Z5 (12% were the most frequently found in human strains, whereas serotypes A (28%, C (10%, L (10% and Y (10% were the most frequently isolated from avian samples. However, serotypes Z and C did not coexist in both types of samples. The latter results suggest that additionally to fowl and avian meat, there might be other animal reservoirs and vehicles that could act as

  9. Antiphytoviral Activity of Satureja montana L. ssp. variegata (Host P. W. Ball Essential Oil and Phenol Compounds on CMV and TMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Cukrov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Satureja montana L. ssp. variegata (Host P. W. Ball (Lamiaceae was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes (71.3%, among which carvacrol (19.4% and thymol (16.6% were the major compounds. When the essential oil was applied on local hosts Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste & Reyn. and Chenopodium quinoa Willd. simultaneously with the infecting virus, the number of local lesions on both Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV infected plants was reduced for 29.2% and 24.1%, respectively. When applied individually for each virus, thymol was more effective in reducing CMV infection (33.2%, while carvacrol was more effective in reducing the TMV infection (34.3%. No synergistic effect of both monoterpenes was observed in the antiviral activity of the oil.

  10. Determination of antimutagenic properties of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia with yeast DEL assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Adiguzel, Ahmet; Bal, Tugba; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Dermirezer, Lutfiye Omur

    2013-07-01

    Lamiaceae is an important plant family that has been investigated for its medicinal properties due to its large amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in different test systems, but their certain mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia. The possible antimutagenic potential of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside (A7R) was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine (AC) in a eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS112. The results showed that A7R has different inhibition rates against EMS and AC-induced mutagenicity. Thus, the properties of A7R are of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial for reducing the risk of reactive oxygen species-related diseases.

  11. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality of Cabbage (Brassica campastris L.ssp.pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chao; WU Liang-huan; JU Xiao-tang; ZHANG Fu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [(NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP)(ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastrisL. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  12. The effect of calcium ions on adhesion and competitive exclusion of Lactobacillus ssp. and E. coli O138

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Nissen, Peter; Willats, William G.T.

    2007-01-01

    The adhesion abilities of 11 strains of Lactobacillus were determined in vitro using the IPEC-J2 cell line as a model system. Bacteria cultures included the probiotic strains L. rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri ATCC 55730, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri DSM 12246, and new isolates of Lactobacillus ssp....... Adhesion was quantified by scintillation counting of radiolabelled bound bacteria. The highest adhesion of 38%, was determined for L. reuteri DSM 12246 followed by L. plantarum Q47 with an adhesion level of 24%. Other strains showed moderate to low binding of less than 16%. Competitive adhesion experiments...... on IPEC-J2 cells demonstrated that strongly adhesive strains, as L. reuteri DSM 12246 and L. plantarum Q47, significantly reduced the attachment of the less adhesive strains, such as L. rhamnosus GG and L. johnsonii NCC 533, both under condition of co-incubation and in displacement assays, indicating...

  13. Monosomic Addition Lines of Flowering Chinese Cabbage (B. campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis L. H. Bailey)-Chinese Kale (B. oleracea L. var. alboglabra L. H. Bailey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-ne; ZHANG Cheng-he; XUAN Shu-xin; MAN Hong; LIU Hai-he; SHEN Shu-xing

    2008-01-01

    Interspecific alien addition lines have played significant roles in gene mapping, intergenomic gene transfer and chromosomal homoeological identification between closely related species. Selection of alien addition lines was conducted by karyotype analysis and morphological observation with the reference of parents. Triploid interspecies hybrid (AAC, 2n=3x=29) was obtained from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis Qinglu 9601 (tetraploid, AAAA, 2n=4x=40)×B. oleracea vat. alboglabra Baihua 9705 (diploid, CC, 2n=2x=18) by immature hybrid embryo culture in vitro. Five different alien monosomic addition lines (AA+C2, AA+C3, AA+C4, AA+C6, AA+C7) were obtained from the backcross progenies of AAC×AA. Each alien monosomic addition line has some specific morphological characters. It is feasible to obtain alien addition lines from the progenies of AAC×AA by karyotype analysis and morphological observation based on the reference of parents.

  14. Potential for evolutionary change in the seasonal timing of germination in sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) mediated by seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagmann, Kristen; Hautekèete, Nina-Coralie; Piquot, Yves; Van Dijk, Henk

    2010-07-01

    In sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima), germination occurs in autumn or spring and is mediated by dormancy which can be released by cold or dry periods. Environmental change such as current climate change may require evolutionary response in seasonal timing. Here, we explore the potential for such evolutionary change. Seed dormancy was studied in a composite population based on seeds from all over the species range in France together with several generations of reciprocal crosses. We found high, repeatable variability for dormancy rate among individuals under greenhouse conditions and confirmed its relevance for germination phenology in the field. Our data fitted best with an exclusively maternal determination of the dormancy phenotype. Narrow-sense heritability, h(2) approximately 0.5 in the composite population and approximately 0.4 in the original local populations, was such that rapid evolutionary change in the relative proportions of autumn and spring germination may be possible.

  15. X-ray peak broadening analysis of Fe50Ni50 nanocrystalline alloys prepared under different milling times and BPR using size strain plot (SSP) method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Hosseinzadeh; J Baedi; A Khorsand Zak

    2014-08-01

    Fe50Ni50 nanocrystalline alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying method at different milling times of 2, 5, 10, 30, 50 and 70 h and ball powder ratios (BPR) of 10 : 1, 20 : 1 and 30 : 1. The structures of prepared powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The broadening of the diffraction peaks were analysed using size strain plot (SSP) method and the lattice strain and crystallite size of the nanocrystals were calculated. In addition, the typical morphological studies were performed by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM). The results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocrystals decreased with the milling time and BPR increases; whereas, the lattice constant () increased. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) study of the powder prepared at 50 h and BPR 30 : 1 showed that the sample exhibits both the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic properties in nanocrystallite size range.

  16. Organogenesis from in vitro-derived leaf and internode explants of Hoya wightii ssp. palniensis -a vulnerable species of Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbaiah Revathi Lakshmi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient system was developed for indirect plant regeneration from in vitro-derived leaf and internode explants of Hoya wightii ssp. palniensis. Maximum percentage of the organogenic callus was obtained on MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/l and 2,4-D (2.0 mg/l. The best shoot bud induction was observed on MS medium with BA (1.0 mg/l +IBA (0.5 mg/l. The coconut water (15% was better, resulting in a differentiation of the shoot initials in to well-developed shoots. The elongated shoots (› 3cm long were rooted on a full strength MS basal medium, supplemented with 0.2 mg/l of IBA. Finally, the rooted plants were transferred to the soil with 80% success rate. This protocol was utilized for the in vitro propagation of this endangered plant species.

  17. [Synergistic action of entomopathogenic hyphomycetes and the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni in the infection of Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukov, V Iu; Khodyrev, V P; Iaroslavtseva, O N; Kamenova, A S; Duĭsembekov, B A; Glupov, V V

    2009-01-01

    A synchronous coinfection of the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) with the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. morrisoni Bonnifoi & de Barjak var. tenebrionis Krieg et al. and hyphomycete Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin or Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill leads to the rapid death of 95-100% of larvae. The bacteria arrest the nutrition of insects, while the fungal spores kill the weakened larvae. The synergistic effect of two pathogens is recorded at a relatively low hyphomycete titer (1-5 x 10(6) conidia/ml) and is evident in the mortality dynamics at all larval ages. These bacterial and fungal pathogens display no antagonism on artificial nutrient media. This microbial complex is highly efficient under natural conditions (80-90% larval mortality rate and no plant defoliation).

  18. A novel Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. MYC-type ICE-like transcription factor gene ZmmICE1, enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Yu, Mengyuan; Lai, Jianbin; Wang, Chao; McNeil, David; Zhou, Meixue; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L., a member of the teosinte group, is a close wild relative of maize and thus can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, an ICE-like gene, ZmmICE1, was isolated from a cDNA library of RNA-Seq from cold-treated seedling tissues of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. The deduced protein of ZmmICE1 contains a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and C-terminal region of ICE-like proteins. The ZmmICE1 protein localizes to the nucleus and shows sumoylation when expressed in an Escherichia coli reconstitution system. In addition, yeast one hybrid assays indicated that ZmmICE1 has transactivation activities. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmmICE1 in the Arabidopsis ice1-2 mutant increased freezing tolerance. The ZmmICE1 overexpressed plants showed lower electrolyte leakage (EL), reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). The expression of downstream cold related genes of Arabidopsis C-repeat-binding factors (AtCBF1, AtCBF2 and AtCBF3), cold-responsive genes (AtCOR15A and AtCOR47), kinesin-1 member gene (AtKIN1) and responsive to desiccation gene (AtRD29A) was significantly induced when compared with wild type under low temperature treatment. Taken together, these results indicated that ZmmICE1 is the homolog of Arabidopsis inducer of CBF expression genes (AtICE1/2) and plays an important role in the regulation of freezing stress response.

  19. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7, that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L. ssp. Chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Li; CAO JiaShu; ZHANG YuChao; YE YiQun

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction, To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analysis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized.The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites,2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage,and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  20. New Antifungal Bacteriocin-Synthesizing Strains of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis as the Perspective Biopreservatives for Protection of Raw Smoked Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Stoyanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Screening for the effective bacteriocin-synthesizing strains of Lactococcus lactis as the perspective biopreservatives was performed. We used a raw milk and dairy products from different climatic regions as well as from powerful drinks of mixed lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation: kurunga, kumiss and Iranian Dough, that were widely used by local population to prevent diseases. Approach: The special interest was paid to isolates of lactococci with antagonistic activity. According to their morphological, cultural, physiological, biochemical properties and sequence of 16S rRNA gene they were identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis. Only nine from the selected 94 strains expressed a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gramnegative bacteria including pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella gallinarum, moulds (Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium genera, as well as yeasts (Rhodotorula, Candida. Results: It reveals the unique biological properties for isolated natural strains of Lactococcus lactis species. Most effective new bacteriocin-synthesizing strains 194 and K-205 were isolated from raw cow milk and kurunga from Buryatia. These strains had high antibiotic activity up to 3600 and 2700 IU mL-1 as compared to nisin and up to 2500-1700 IU mL-1 as compared to fungicidal antibiotic nistatin. In our experiments we used raw smoked sausages that were infected with fungi. The identification of this infection showed the presence of Eurotium repens de Bary on the sausages. Treatment of the raw smoked sausages with cultural broth of L.lactis ssp. lactis 194 and K-205 inhibited growth of these microorganisms. After treatment the sausages had longer shelf-life and was in accordance with basal production data (Russian State Standard Specification 16131-86. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the treatment with

  1. Effects of fractionated colostrum replacer and vitamins A, D, and E on haptoglobin and clinical health in neonatal Holstein calves challenged with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, L A; Reinhardt, T A; Beitz, D C; Stuart, R L; Stabel, J R

    2016-04-01

    Thirty Holstein calves were obtained from 2 dairy farms in central Iowa at birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 treatment groups: (1) colostrum deprived (CD), no vitamins; (2) colostrum replacer (CR), no vitamins; (3) CR, vitamin A; (4) CR, vitamin D3; (5) CR, vitamin E; and (6) CR, vitamins A, D3, E, with 5 calves per treatment in a 14-d study. Calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (CD) or fractionated colostrum replacer (CR) at birth (d 0) and injected with vitamins according to treatment group. From d 1 through d 14 of the study, all calves were fed pasteurized whole milk (PWM) supplemented with vitamins as assigned. All calves were inoculated with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis on d 1 and 3 of age. Calves fed CR acquired IgG1 and haptoglobin in serum within 24 h of birth, whereas CD calves did not. The CR-fed calves were 2.5 times less likely to develop scours, and CR calves supplemented with vitamins D3 and E also demonstrated a decreased incidence of scours. Serum vitamin levels of A, D, and E increased within treatment group by d 7 and 14 of the study. Interestingly, synergistic effects of supplemental vitamins A, D3, and E on serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D were observed at d 7, resulting in higher levels than in calves administered vitamin D only. Further, vitamin D3 deficiency was observed in CD and CR calves fed a basal diet of pasteurized whole milk and no supplemental vitamins. Colonization of tissues with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was negligible and was not affected by colostrum feeding or vitamin supplementation. Results demonstrated passive transfer of haptoglobin to neonatal calves, and potential health benefits of supplemental vitamins D3 and E to calves fed pasteurized whole milk.

  2. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  3. Characterization of the intracellular survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: phagosomal pH and fusogenicity in J774 macrophages compared with other mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnel, M P; Goethe, R; Habermann, A; Mueller, E; Rohde, M; Griffiths, G; Valentin-Weigand, P

    2001-08-01

    The phagosomes containing viable pathogenic mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium (M. avium), are known to be limited in their ability to both acidify and fuse with late (but not early) endocytic organelles. Here, we analysed the pH and fusogenicity of phagosomes containing M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (M. ptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis in ruminants. Using the murine J774 macrophage cell line, we compared viable and heat-killed M. ptb and, in addition, viable or dead M. avium, as well as two non-pathogenic mycobacteria, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium gordonae. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that M. ptb persisted intracellularly in phagosomes for up to 15 days. The phagosomes containing live M. ptb and M. avium were significantly reduced in their ability to acquire some markers for the endocytic pathway, such as internalized calcein, BSA-gold or the membrane protein Lamp 2. However, they were almost completely accessible to 70 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran and Lamp 1. Overall, the phagosomes containing dead pathogenic mycobacteria behaved similarly to the ones containing live non-pathogenic mycobacteria in all experiments. Using FITC-dextran in a novel fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based method, we could also show that the bulk of endocytic compartments, including phagosomes, were only very mildly acidified to approximately pH 6.3 over at least 72 h in J774 cells infected with live M. ptb and M. avium. In contrast, J774 cells treated with heat-killed M. ptb or BSA-coated latex beads showed substantial acidification of the phagosome/endocytic compartments to a pH value of approximately 5.2. After infection with M. smegmatis and M. gordonae, acidification was initially (1-5 h after infection) inhibited, but increased after longer infection to levels similar to those with dead mycobacteria.

  4. Targeted sequence capture provides insight into genome structure and genetics of male sterility in a gynodioecious diploid strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Liston, Aaron; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-08-07

    Gynodioecy is a sexual system wherein females coexist with hermaphrodites. It is of interest not only because male-sterile plants are advantageous in plant breeding but also because it can be a crucial step in the evolutionary transition to entirely separate sexes (dioecy) from a hermaphroditic ancestor. The gynodioecious diploid wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae), is a member of a clade with both dioecious and cultivated species, making it an ideal model in which to study the genetics of male sterility. To create a genetic map of F. v. ssp. bracteata, we identified informative polymorphisms from genomic sequencing (3-5x coverage) of two outbred plants from the same population. Using targeted enrichment, we sequenced 200 bp surrounding each of 6575 polymorphisms in 48 F1 offspring, yielding genotypes at 98% of targeted sites with mean coverage >100x, plus more than 600-kb high-coverage nontargeted sequence. With the resulting linkage map of 7802 stringently filtered markers (5417 targeted), we assessed recombination rates and genomic incongruities. Consistent with past work in strawberries, male sterility is dominant, segregates 1:1, and maps to a single location in the female. Further mapping an additional 55 offspring places male sterility in a gene-dense, 338-kb region of chromosome 4. The region is not syntenic with the sex-determining regions in the closely related octoploids, F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, suggesting either independent origins or translocation. The 57 genes in this region do not include protein families known to control male sterility and thus suggest alternate mechanisms for the suppression of male function.

  5. Impact of mistletoe attack (Viscum album ssp. abietis on the radial growth of silver fir. A case study in the North of Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cãtãlina Barbu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Viscum album ssp. abietis (Wiesb. Abrom L. is one of the three subspecies of Viscum album L that is frequently encountered in Romanian forests. The mistletoe has notoriously negative effects on trees and forests health. The mistletoe infections not only reduce both height and diameter growth, it can also cause partial or total die-back of the trees. The present study on the incidence of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis on silver fir (Abies alba increments was carried out in natural stands of the Forest District Gura Humorului (one permanent plot Păltinoasa and one experimental plot Voroneţ, because this location (400-1000 m elevation is characteristic for pure silver fir stands that can be found on the border of Carpathians Mountains at the contact zone with Suceava plateau. Four classes describing the level of infection were distinguished: no infection, low, moderate and strong infection. As only a few of healthy trees (class 0 were found, the comparison was made on the trees from the 1st class of attack. In parasited silver trees development were distinguished 3 phases: i phase 1 - from 1920 till 1945 when the trees that nowadays are falling into the 2nd and 3rd class had similar growth with the ones recorded in the 1st class; ii phase 2 - from 1946 till 1976-1977; during this period the trees had been reducing their growth. The growth of silver fir trees that fall into the 2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism represents 80% of the average growth of 1st class trees; iii phase 3 - from 1977 till 2007 (with a couple of episodes when trees growths from 1st, 2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism were clearly differentiated.

  6. Impact of mistletoe attack (Viscum album ssp. abietis on the radial growth of silver fir. A case study in the North of Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Barbu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Viscum album ssp. abietis (Wiesb. Abrom L. is one of the three subspecies of Viscum album L that is frequently encountered in Romanian forests. The mistletoe has notoriously negative effects on trees and forests health. The mistletoe infections not only reduce both height and diameter growth, it can also cause partial or total die-back of the trees. The present study on the incidence of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. abietis on silver fir (Abies alba increments was carried out in natural stands of the Forest District Gura Humorului (one permanent plot Pãltinoasa and one experimental plot Voronet, because this location (400-1000 m elevation is characteristic for pure silver fir stands that can be found on the border of Carpathians Mountains at the contact zone with Suceava plateau. Four classes describing the level of infection were distinguished: no infection, low, moderate and strong infection.As only a few of healthy trees (class 0 were found, the comparison was made on the trees from the 1st class of attack. In parasited silver trees development were distinguished 3 phases: i phase 1 - from 1920 till 1945 when the trees that nowadays are falling into the 2nd and 3rd class had similar growth with the ones recorded in the 1stclass; ii phase 2 - from 1946 till 1976-1977; during this period the trees had been reducing their growth. The growth of silver fir trees that fall into the 2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism represents 80% of the average growth of 1st class trees; iii phase 3- from 1977 till 2007 (with a couple of episodes when trees growths from 1st,2nd and 3rd classes of parasitism were clearly differentiated.

  7. Characterization of a novel gene, BcMF7,that is expressed preferentially in pollen of Brassica campestris L.ssp. chinensis Makino

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Pollen formation is important for plant sexual reproduction. To identify the genes that are involved in pollen formation, we performed the genome-wide transcriptional profiling in the flower buds of both male meiotic cytokinesis (mmc) mutant and its wild-type plants of Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinen-sis, syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) analy-sis showed that the mmc mutation resulted in changes in expression of a variety of genes. BcMF7, a transcript-derived fragment (TDF) accumulated in the wild-type flower buds was further characterized. The BcMF7 gene has 1161 bp in length with two introns. The full-length BcMF7 cDNA has 609 bp in length and encodes a protein of 129 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of BcMF7 protein shares no similarity to any function-known protein in Swiss-Prot database, but has 8 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, 2 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, 2 tyrosine kinase phosphorylation sites, 2 N-glycosylation sites and 2 N-myristoylation sites. Spatial and temporal expression patterns analysis showed that BcMF7 was expressed exclusively in pollen. The expression signal of BcMF7 was first detected at the tetrad stage of microspore development, reached a peak level at the uninucleate stage, and decreased to a slightly low level at the mature pollen stage. All these results show that BcMF7 may play a certain role in the signal transduction during pollen development.

  8. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  9. Rapid DNA typing for HLA-C using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP): identification of serological and non-serologically defined HLA-C alleles including several new alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, M; Welsh, K I

    1994-01-01

    Detection of HLA-C antigens by complement mediated cytotoxicity using human alloantisera is often difficult. Between 20 to 40% of individuals in every race have undetectable HLA-C locus antigens and 9 out of the 29 sequenced HLA-C alleles so far published encode serologically undetected antigens. In addition, HLA-C molecules are expressed at the cell surface at about 10% of the levels of HLA-A and HLA-B. Recently, amplification of DNA using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) has proved a reliable and rapid method for typing HLA-DR, HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB genes. PCR-SSP takes two hours to perform and is therefore suitable for the genotyping of cadaveric donors. We have designed a set of primers which will positively identify the HLA-C alleles corresponding to the serologically defined series HLA-Cw1, Cw2, Cw3, Cw4, Cw5, Cw6, Cw7 and Cw8. The serologically undetectable alleles have also been detected in groups according to sequence homology. In addition, three new unsequenced variants have been identified. DNA samples from 56 International Histocompatibility Workshop reference cell lines and 103 control individuals have been typed by the HLA-C PCR-SSP technique. 4/56 cell line types and 11/103 normal control individuals types were discrepant with the reported serological types. All combinations of serologically detectable and most of the serologically blank HLA-C antigens can be readily identified. DNA typing for HLA-Cw by PCR-SSP can take as little as 130 minutes from start to finish, including DNA preparation.

  10. A NEW RECORD OF SUBSPECIES TO CHINA(LEGUMINOSAE)--MUCUNA HAINANENSIS SSP. MULTILAMELLATA%中国一新记录亚种--多褶果黧豆(豆科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱相云

    2001-01-01

    作者在给中国科学院植物研究所生态室鉴定标本时,发现一西藏新记录属--黧豆属(Mucuna Adans.), 所鉴定标本是多褶果黧豆Mucuna hainanensis ssp. multilamellata Wilmot-Dear,为一中国新记录亚种, 现特予报道.

  11. Untersuchungen zur Beeinflussung der α-Amylase-Aktivität durch Pflanzenextrakte und polyphenolische Reinstoffe unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl. und seiner Inhaltsstoffe

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Ines

    2010-01-01

    The creation of a microplate-reader-based kinetic assay led to a rapid screening of plant extracts and pure compounds. Plant extracts were found to be able to inhibit the α-amylase activity. Cynara cardunculus L. ssp. flavescens Wikl., Melissa officinalis L., Pyrus communis L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., Malus domestica Borkh., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del., Tamarindus indica L. were found to be active in the used in vitro test model. A performed bioguided extraction showed that the active...

  12. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, C.; Palmé, A. E.; Felber, François

    2008-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flo...

  13. Cu,Cr and As determination in preserved woods (Eucalyptus ssp.) by X-ray fluorescence spectrometries; Determinacao de cobre, cromo e arsenio em madeira preservada (Eucalyptus sp.) pelas espectrometrias de fluorescencia de raios X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Junior, Sergio Matias

    2014-07-01

    Brazil produces around 2.2 millions of cubic meters of treated wood to meet the annual demand of railway, electric, rural and construction sectors. The most used wood species are eucalyptus (Eucalyptus ssp.) and pine (Pinus ssp.).The treated woods used for poles, sleepers, fence posts and plywoods should be according to Brazilian norms requirements. The most usual wood preservative products used in Brazil are CCA (chromated copper arsenate) and CCB (copper chromium and boron salt). The analytical methods, such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), plasma inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS) have been used for the analytical control of those treatment processes. In this work, the eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus ssp) samples was obtained from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, cut plantation areas. Under pressure, eucalyptus wood samples were submitted to different concentration of CCA solution reaching 3.9, 6.7, 9.1, 12.4 and 14.0 kg of CCA by m-³ sapwood retentions. Samples in cylinders and sawdust forms were obtained from treated wood samples. Copper, chromium and arsenic determination was performed using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRFS), portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRFS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and instrumental neutron activation analysis. In this work, the method of analysis, sensitivity, precision and accuracy performances of the related techniques were outlined. (author)

  14. Molecular surveillance of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and detection of Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ndeereh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human–wildlife–livestock interface. For this purpose, 79 wild animals in Laikipia County and 73 in Maasai Mara National Reserve were sampled. DNA extracted from blood was tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the intergenic spacer rpmE-tRNAfMet and the citrate synthase-encoding gene gltA. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 2 of the 79 (2.5% animals in Laikipia and 4 of the 73 (5.5% in Maasai Mara. The PCR-positive amplicons of the gltA gene were sequenced to determine the detected Rickettsia species. This revealed Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela. This is the first report of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and the first to report R. sibirica in Kenya. The finding demonstrates the potential role of wild animals in the circulation of the diseases.

  15. Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10 kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10 kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  16. A 560 yr summer temperature reconstruction for the Western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio (Corsica/France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuhlemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be affected strongly by current climate change. However, temperature records for the past centuries which can contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse for this region. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often mirror temperature history but their application as climate proxies is difficult due to the influence of the anthropogenic change in atmospheric CO2 on the carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthetic CO2 uptake. We tested the influence of different correction models accounting for plant response to increased atmospheric CO2 on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 yr derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica. The different correction factors have only a minor influence on the main climate signals and resulting temperature reconstructions. Carbon isotope series show strong correlations with summer temperature and precipitation. A summer temperature reconstruction (1448–2007 AD reveals that the Little Ice Age was characterised by low, but not extremely low temperatures on Corsica. Temperatures have been to modern temperatures at around 1500 AD. The reconstruction reveals warm summers during 1480–1520 and 1950–2007 AD and cool summers during 1580–1620 and 1820–1890 AD.

  17. Promotion by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid of Germination of Pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee) Seeds Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Ju WANG; Wei-Bing JIANG; Hui LIU; Wei-Qin LIU; Lang KANG; Xi-Lin HOU

    2005-01-01

    The seed germination and seedling growth of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var.communis Tsen et Lee cv. Hanxiao) were not significantly inhibited until the concentration of NaCl was increased to150 mmol/L. Treatment of pakchoi seeds with exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10.00 mg/L, promoted seed germination when seeds were stressed by salinity, whereas levulinic acid (LA), an inhibitor of ALA dehydrase, significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, suggesting that metabolism of ALA into porphyrin compounds was necessary for seed germination and seedling growth. Determination of respiratory rate during seed germination showed that ALA increased seed respiration under both normal conditions and salt stress. Furthermore, salt stress decreased levels of endogenous ALA, as well as heme, in etiolated seedlings. More salt-tolerant cultivars of pakchoi contained higher relative levels of endogenous ALA and heme under conditions of salt stress.These results indicate that salt stress may inhibit the biosynthesis of endogenous ALA and then heme,which is necessary for seed germination, and treatment of seeds with exogenous ALA prior to germination may be associated with the biosynthesis of heme.

  18. Microsatellite analysis of a population crash and bottleneck in the Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense (Asteraceae), and its implications for reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friar, E A; Ladoux, T; Roalson, E H; Robichaux, R H

    2000-12-01

    The Mauna Kea silversword, Argyroxiphium sandwicense ssp. sandwicense, has experienced both a severe population crash associated with an increase in alien ungulate populations on Mauna Kea, and a population bottleneck associated with reintroduction. In this paper, we address the genetic consequences of both demographic events using eight microsatellite loci. The population crash was not accompanied by a significant reduction in number of alleles or heterozygosity. However, the population bottleneck was accompanied by significant reductions in observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, and expected heterozygosity, though not in observed heterozygosity. The effective size of the population bottleneck was calculated using both observed heterozygosities and allele frequency variances. Both methods corroborated the historical census size of the population bottleneck of at most three individuals. The results suggest that: (i) small populations, even those that result from severe reductions in historical population size and extent, are not necessarily genetically depauperate; and (ii) species reintroduction plans need to be conceived and implemented carefully, with due consideration to the genetic impact of sampling for reintroduction.

  19. Daphne oleoides Schreber ssp. oleoides Exhibits Potent Wound Healing Effect: Isolation of the Active Components and Elucidation of the Activity Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Süntar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical surveys revealed that Daphne oleoidesSchreber has been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. The aim of the present study is to verify the folkloric assertion of D. oleoides ssp. oleoides (DOO by bioassay-guided fractionation procedures leading to determination of the active component(s and to elucidate the activity mechanisms of the isolated compounds. The wound healing activity of the methanol extract, its subextracts, fractions and isolates was evaluated by using two different in vivo wound healing experimental techniques . Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the test materials were also evaluated. For the determination of the activity mechanisms, the isolated compounds were screened for hyaluronidase, collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibitory activities. The methanolic extract of DOO was found to possess potent wound healing activity. This extract was then subjected to successive solvent extractions with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc and n-butanol. EtOAc subextract yielded three compounds, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, triumbellin and rutarensin by using chromatographic separation techniques. The experimental study revealed that D. oleoides subsp. oleoides methanolic extract possesses significant wound healing effect and quercetin 3-O-glucoside was determined as the active component responsible from the activity.

  20. Relationships between functional genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus isolates and phenotypic characteristics associated with fermentation time and flavor production in yogurt elucidated using multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Song, Yuqin; Wang, Xueni; Wang, Hongmei; Wuren, Tuoya; Zha, Musu; Menghe, Bilige; Heping, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is well known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. Flavor production and acid producing are considered as the most important characteristics for starter culture screening. To our knowledge this is the first study applying functional gene sequence multilocus sequence typing technology to predict the fermentation and flavor-producing characteristics of yogurt-producing bacteria. In the present study, phenotypic characteristics of 35 L. bulgaricus strains were quantified during the fermentation of milk to yogurt and during its subsequent storage; these included fermentation time, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, and flavor characteristics (acetaldehyde concentration). Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing analysis of 7 functional genes associated with fermentation time, acid production, and flavor formation was done to elucidate the phylogeny and genetic evolution of the same L. bulgaricus isolates. The results showed that strains significantly differed in fermentation time, acidification rate, and acetaldehyde production. Combining functional gene sequence analysis with phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that groups of strains established using genotype data were consistent with groups identified based on their phenotypic traits. This study has established an efficient and rapid molecular genotyping method to identify strains with good fermentation traits; this has the potential to replace time-consuming conventional methods based on direct measurement of phenotypic traits.

  1. Full scale test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC{sub I}nvE Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, A.; Jensen, Find M. (and others)

    2010-09-15

    This report is the second report covering the research and demonstration project 'Experimental blade research: Structural mechanisms in current and future large blades under combined loading', supported by the EUDP program. A 34m wind turbine blade from SSP-Technology A/S has been tested in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risoe load, where 80% Risoe load corresponds to 100% certification load. These pulls at 80% Risoe load were repeated and the results from these pulls were compared. The blade was reinforced according to a Risoe DTU invention, where the trailing edge panels are coupled. The coupling is implemented to prevent the out of plane deformations and to reduce peeling stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risoe load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile deformation. (Author)

  2. Esterification of bio-oil from mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves with a solid acid catalyst: Conversion of the cyclic ether and terpenoids into hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Wang, Yi; Lievens, Caroline; Chaiwat, Weerawut; Wu, Liping; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2012-11-01

    Bio-oil from pyrolysis of mallee (Eucalyptus loxophleba ssp. gratiae) leaves differs from that obtained with wood by its content of cyclic ethers, terpenoids and N-containing organic compounds. Upgrading of the leaf bio-oil in methanol with a solid acid catalyst was investigated and it was found that the N-containing organics in the bio-oil lead to deactivation of the catalyst in the initial stage of exposure and have to be removed via employing high catalyst loading to allow the occurrence of other acid-catalysed reactions. Eucalyptol, the main cyclic ether in the bio-oil, could be converted into the aromatic hydrocarbon, p-cymene, through a series of intermediates including α-terpineol, terpinolene, and α-terpinene. Various steps such as ring-opening, dehydration, isomerisation, and aromatization were involved in the conversion of eucalyptol. The terpenoids in bio-oil could also be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons that can serve as starting materials for the synthesis of fine chemicals, via the similar processes.

  3. Geosmin (2β,6α-dimethylbicyclo[4.4.0]decan-1β-ol) production associated with Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivar specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidig, Amy K; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-03-01

    The characteristic earthy flavor and aroma of table beet [Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (garden beet group)] is due to the presence of geosmin, C₁₂H₂₂O, a volatile terpenoid compound commonly produced by many soil microorganisms. This study screened beet and related subspecies cultivars grown in three different environments (field, greenhouse in nonautoclaved soil, greenhouse in autoclaved soil) to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on geosmin level in table beet. There was no significant difference between years or between cultivars grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil, indicating geosmin content may not be primarily attributable to microbial associations. A significant interaction between cultivar and environment was found, but generalizations could be made for high- or low-producing cultivars, demonstrating that geosmin levels were cultivar specific. 'Bull's Blood', 'Chioggia', and sugar beet exhibited the highest geosmin levels. Cultivars grown in the field had the smallest range of geosmin production, from 4.84 to 20.82 μg geosmin (kg root tissue)⁻¹. The high degree of consistency in cultivar performance across years and in ranking for geosmin levels across environments as well as the lack of a significant difference between plants grown in autoclaved and nonautoclaved soil suggests characteristic levels of geosmin may be present in and produced endogenously by cultivars of table beet. It may be possible to establish breeding populations with defined geosmin levels and to identify variety-specific aroma and flavor intensities that would be durable across environments.

  4. Production of intergeneric allotetraploid between autotetraploid non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino and autotetraploid radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Cheng-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Intergeneric hybrids between non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino; 2n = 4x = 40 and radish (Raphanus sativus L.; 2n = 4x = 36 were obtained through ovary culture and embryo rescue. Some hybrid embryos (0.11 per ovary were produced, but only 4 of them germinated. As most hybrid embryos failed to develop into plantlets directly, plants were regenerated by inducing shoots on the cultured cotyledon and inducing roots on the root induction medium. All hybrid plants were morphologically uniform. They resembled the non-heading Chinese cabbage in the long-lived habit, the plant status, the vernalization requirement and the petiole color, while the petiole shape, leaf venation pattern and flowers were more similar to those of radish. Upon examination of the flowers, these were found to have normal pistil, but rudimentary anthers with non-functional pollen grains. The somatic chromosome number of F1 plants was 38. Analysis of SSR banding patterns provided additional confirmation of hybridity.

  5. Anthocyanin Accumulation, Antioxidant Ability and Stability, and a Transcriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Purple Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiong; Zhang, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Lugang

    2016-01-13

    Heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a significant dietary vegetable for its edible heading leaves in Asia countries. The new purple anthocyanin-rich pure line (11S91) was successfully bred, and the anthocyanins were mainly distributed in 2-3 cell layers beneath the leaf epidermis, whereas siliques and stems accumulated only a cell layer of anthocyanins. The anthocyanins of 11S91 were more stable at pHs below 3.0 and temperatures below 45 °C. The total antioxidant ability was highly positive correlated with the anthocyanin content in 11S91. Thirty-two anthocyanins were separated and identified, and 70% of them were glycosylated and acylated cyanidins. The four major anthocyanins present were cyanidin-3-sophoroside(p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), cyanidin-3-sophoroside(sinapyl-p-coumaroyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl), and cyanidin-3-sophoroside-(sinapyl-ferulyl)-5-glucoside(malonyl). According to the expression of biosynthetic genes and the component profile of anthocyanins in 11S91 and its parents, regulatory genes BrMYB2 and BrTT8 probably activate the anthocyanin biosynthesis but other factors may govern the primary anthocyanins and the distribution.

  6. Differential Expression Analysis of Genic Male Sterility A/B Lines in Chinese Cabbage-Pak-Choi(Brassica Campestris ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-qin; CAO Jia-shu; FU Qing-gong; YU Xiao-lin; YE Wan-zhi; XIANG Xun

    2003-01-01

    To determine differential expression of genic male sterility A/B lines in Chinese cabbage-pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis Makino var. communis Teen et Lee), we used the RNA fingerprinting technique, cDNA-AFLP analysis, in different developmental stages and different tissues. While no obvious differential expressions were observed in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes, some differential expressions were found in alabstrums of A/B lines and among leaves, scapes and alabstrums. We analyzed the alabstrums collected in different developmental stages with 10 primer combinations. We got a unique band between middle size alabstrums and large alabstrums in B line in one of the ten pair primers, and in another one pair, one band reflecting a higher gene-expression level in A line than that in B line was obtained. No unique bands were found with the other primer combinations. The bands reflecting different gene-expression level were confirmed by Northern hybridization. The results indicated that cDNA-AFLP was a suitable tool for studying differential expression of genic male sterility in plants. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of soluble proteins further verified the difference in A/B lines.

  7. Glucosinolate Accumulation and Related Gene Expression in Pak Choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis [N. Tsen & S.H. Lee] Hanelt) in Response to Insecticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Biao; Yang, Jing; He, Yong; Zang, Yunxiang; Zhu, Zhujun

    2015-11-11

    Glucosinolates and their breakdown products are well-known for their cancer-chemoprotective functions and biocidal activities against pathogens and generalist herbivores. Insecticides are commonly used in the production of pak choi (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. communis [N. Tsen & S.H. Lee] Hanelt). We studied the effects of four commonly used insecticides, namely, β-cypermethrin, acephate, pymetrozine, and imidacloprid, on glucosinolate metabolism in pak choi. All insecticides significantly increased both the transcription of glucosinolate biosynthetic genes and the aliphatic and total glucosinolate accumulations in pak choi. β-Cypermethrin and acephate caused gradual and continuous up-regulation of gene expression from 0.5 to 24 h after treatment, whereas pymetrozine and imidacloprid did so more rapidly, reaching a peak at 1 h and returning to normal at 3 h. Our findings indicate that the four insecticides affect glucosinolate metabolism in pak choi plants to various degrees and suggest that glucosinolates may be involved in plant insecticide metabolism.

  8. Efficient lactic acid production from high salt containing dairy by-products by Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salicinius with pre-treatment by proteolytic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasala, Antti; Panula, Johanna; Neubauer, Peter

    2005-06-29

    Lactic acid bacteria have an inefficient proteolytic system. Therefore, cultivation media which may have high protein content are usually supplemented with yeast extract or protein lysates (peptones). These additives might be conveniently replaced by in situ treatment of the cultivation medium with proteolytic enzymes or proteolytic microbes. Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salicinius, a lactic acid bacterium species that can grow at high salt concentration, was used to ferment lactic acid in cheese whey (with 3 gl(-1) whey protein content) and lactose mother liquor (90 gl(-1) lactose, 9 gl(-1) proteins, 30 gl(-1) minerals). The contribution of protease enzymes or proteolytic microbes to acid production by lactobacilli was examined. Efficient conversion of lactose to lactic acid was obtained in the presence of additional proteolytic activity. Fastest acid production was obtained with the addition of protease enzymes. However, almost equally efficient acid production was obtained by treating the medium with Bacillus megaterium. The results show that fast and complete conversion of lactose to lactic acid can be obtained in dairy by-products without expensive additives.

  9. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  10. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  11. Effect of the absence of the CcpA gene on growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Sun, J W; Zhang, G F; Liu, L B

    2016-01-01

    The catabolite control protein A (CcpA) is a kind of multi-effect regulatory protein. In the study, the effect of the inactivation of CcpA and aerobic conditions on the growth, metabolic production, and stress tolerance to heat, oxidative, and cold stresses in Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was investigated. Results showed that inactivation of CcpA distinctly hindered growth. Total lactic acid concentration was significantly lower in aerobiosis for both strains and was lower for the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. Acetic acid production from the mutant strain was higher than L. bulgaricus in aerobiosis compared with anaerobiosis. Enzyme activities, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphate fructose kinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and pyruvic dehydrogenase (PDH), were significantly lower in the mutant strain than L. bulgaricus. The diameters of inhibition zone were 13.59 ± 0.02 mm and 9.76 ± 0.02 mm for L. bulgaricus in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively; and 8.12 ± 0.02 mm and 7.38 ± 0.02 mm for the mutant in anaerobiosis and aerobiosis, respectively. For both strains, cells grown under aerobic environment possess more stress tolerance. This is the first study in which the CcpA-negative mutant of L. bulgaricus is constructed and the effect of aerobic growth on stress tolerance of L. bulgaricus is evaluated. Although aerobic cultivation does not significantly improve growth, it does improve stress tolerance.

  12. Sensitivity of solid culture, broth culture, and real-time PCR assays for milk and colostrum samples from Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis-infectious dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Emilie; McKenna, Shawn; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be shed in feces, milk, and colostrum. The goal of this study was to assess assays that detect MAP in these sample types, including effects of lactation stage or season. Understanding the performance of these assays could improve how they are used, limiting the risk of infection to calves. Forty-six previously confirmed MAP-positive cows from 7 Atlantic Canadian dairy farms were identified for colostrum sampling and monthly sampling of milk and feces over a 12-mo period. Samples were assayed for MAP using solid culture, broth culture, and direct real-time PCR (qPCR). Across assay types, test sensitivity when applied to milk samples averaged 25% of that when applied to fecal samples. For colostrum samples, sensitivity depended on assay type, with sensitivity of qPCR being approximately 46% of that in feces. Across sample types, sensitivity of qPCR was higher than that of the other assays. Sensitivity of qPCR, when applied to milk samples, was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. Summer was also the season with highest agreement between milk and fecal samples collected within the same month. Our results suggest that qPCR would detect more cows shedding MAP in their milk and colostrum than solid or broth culture assays, particularly during the summer, thus providing better management information to limit exposure of calves to this infectious organism.

  13. Full scale test of a SSP 34m box girder 2. Data report; Reinforced glass fiber/epoxy used in wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2008-05-15

    This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe National Laboratory for sustainable energy--Technical university of Denmark, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results, no conclusions are drawn. These can be found in papers and patent referenced in the data report. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, force transducers, strain gauges and optical deformation measuring system (DIC). The experimental investigation consisted of the following tests: 1) Flapwise bending with no reinforcement 2) Flapwise bending with wire reinforcements 3) Flapwise bending with rib reinforcements. (au)

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel pollen predominantly membrane protein gene BcMF12 from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianghua; Zhang, Lixin; Cao, Jiashu

    2009-11-01

    A novel membrane protein gene, BcMF12, was isolated from Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends based on a pollen-specific cDNA fragment (DN237936). The cDNA was 1,155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 894 bp capable of encoding a putative polypeptide of 297 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 34.6 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 9.6. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses revealed that BcMF12 showed high similarities with some membrane protein sequences previously published in the public database and contained six highly conserved transmembrane domains corresponding to six highly hydrophobic regions. This indicates that BcMF12 may be a putative membrane protein. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that the transcripts of BcMF12 were abundant in the flower bud, flower and anther, but not detected in the root, stem, leaf and pistil. Moreover, the BcMF12 transcripts were detectable at the late stages of pollen development. Morphological investigations of pollen from the BcMF12 antisense transgenic plants showed that most of pollen grains of transgenic plants were abnormal. These results strongly suggest that BcMF12 is a novel pollen-preferentially membrane protein which play an important role during the pollen development in Chinese cabbage.

  15. Molecular surveillance of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and detection of Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndeereh, David; Thaiyah, Andrew; Muchemi, Gerald; Miyunga, Antoinette A

    2017-01-30

    Spotted fever group rickettsioses are a group of tick-borne zoonotic diseases caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. The diseases are widely reported amongst international travellers returning from most sub-Saharan Africa with fever, yet their importance in local populations largely remains unknown. Although this has started to change and recently there have been increasing reports of the diseases in livestock, ticks and humans in Kenya, they have not been investigated in wildlife. We examined the presence, prevalence and species of Rickettsia present in wildlife in two regions of Kenya with a unique human-wildlife-livestock interface. For this purpose, 79 wild animals in Laikipia County and 73 in Maasai Mara National Reserve were sampled. DNA extracted from blood was tested using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the intergenic spacer rpmE-tRNAfMet and the citrate synthase-encoding gene gltA. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 2 of the 79 (2.5%) animals in Laikipia and 4 of the 73 (5.5%) in Maasai Mara. The PCR-positive amplicons of the gltA gene were sequenced to determine the detected Rickettsia species. This revealed Rickettsia sibirica in a Topi (Damaliscus lunatus ssp. jimela). This is the first report of spotted fever group rickettsioses in wildlife and the first to report R. sibirica in Kenya. The finding demonstrates the potential role of wild animals in the circulation of the diseases.

  16. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  17. Cucumis melo ssp. Agrestis var. Agrestis Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Syrian Golden Hamsters and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kripa Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis (CMA is a wild variety of C. melo. This study aimed to explore anti-dyslipidemic and anti-adipogenic potential of CMA. Materials and Methods: For initial anti-dyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic potential of CMA fruit extract (CMFE, male Syrian golden hamsters were fed a chow or high-fat diet with or without CMFE (100 mg/kg. Further, we did fractionation of this CMFE into two fractions namely; CMA water fraction (CMWF and CMA hexane fraction (CMHF. Phytochemical screening was done with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry LC- (MS/MS and direct analysis in real time-MS to detect active compounds in the fractions. Further, high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic hamsters were treated with CMWF and CMHF at 50 mg/kg for 7 days. Results: Oral administration of CMFE and both fractions (CMWF and CMHF reduced the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low‐density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in high fat diet-fed dyslipidemic hamsters. CMHF also modulated expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and reverse cholesterol transport. Standard biochemical diagnostic tests suggested that neither of fractions causes any toxicity to hamster liver or kidneys. CMFE and CMHF also decreased oil-red-O accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is concluded that CMA possesses anti-dyslipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity along with the anti-adipogenic activity.

  18. 菜心组织培养技术初探%Preliminary Study on Tissue Culture Technique in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. utilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔燕春; 黄红弟; 张华; 李光光; 郑岩松; 刘自珠

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish rapid propagation system of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. utilis, the anthers as explants were in vitro cultured. The results showed that the anthers should be selected from unopened buds, which stigma was slightly higher than petal, and most of microspores were at uninucleate stage. The pollen germination rate was not high, and that in autumn and winter was higher than that in summer. The callus induction medium for anthers was MS+1.0 mg L-1 KT+1.0 mg L-1 2,4-D+3%sugar+6 g L-1 agar+8%coconut milk (pH=5.8). The adventitious bud differentiation medium was MS+2.0 mg L-1 6-BA+0.5 mg L-1 NAA+1.0 g L-1 active carbon+2%sugar+6 g L-1 agar or MS+2.0 mg L-1 ZT+0.5 mg L-1 IAA+0.5 g L-1 AgNO3+1.0 g L-1 active carbon+2%sugar+6 g L-1 agar (pH=5.8). The adventitious bud rate inducted from anthers was 36.7%, and the regeneration plantlet rate was low owing to adventitious buds browning, while the regeneration plantlet rate reached to 80%induced from cotyledon or petioles.%为建立菜心(Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. utilis)的快繁技术体系,以花药和子叶-子叶柄为外植体进行组织培养研究。结果表明,花药培养以选取未开放的花蕾为宜,且花柱略高于花瓣,此时小孢子多数处于单核靠边期。菜心花粉的萌发率不高,且秋冬季的花粉比夏季的萌发率高。菜心花药愈伤组织诱导培养基为:MS+1.0 mg L-1 KT+1.0 mg L-12,4-D+3%糖+6 g L-1琼脂+8%椰乳,不定芽诱导培养基为:MS+2.0 mg L-16-BA+0.5 mg L-1 NAA+1.0 g L-1活性炭+2%糖+6 g L-1琼脂或MS+2.0 mg L-1 ZT+0.5 mg L-1 IAA+0.5 g L-1 AgNO3+1.0 g L-1活性炭+2%糖+6 g L-1琼脂。花药培养的不定芽诱导率为36.7%,不定芽培养出现褐化现象,不能形成再生植株;而以子叶-子叶柄为外植体培养获得的植株再生率可达80%。

  19. 厚皮甜瓜的离体培养植株再生%In vitro Culture and Plantlet Regeneration of Cucumis melo ssp. Pang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新霞; 乐锦华

    2001-01-01

    @@1 植物名称厚皮甜瓜(Cucumis melo ssp.Pang)主栽品种“皇后”。 2 材料类别种子。 3 培养条件诱导胚性愈伤组织培养基:(1)MS大量及微量元素(下同)+6-BA 1.5 mg·L-1(单位下同);(2)MS+B5有机+6-BA 1;(3)MS+NAA1+6-BA 1;(4)MS+NAA 1+6-BA 0.5;(5)MS+NAA 1+6-BA 0.1;(6)MS+IAA 0.1+6-BA 1。芽分化培养基:(7)MS+6-BA 0.2;(8)MS+6-BA0.5;(9)MS+6-BA 1.0;(10)改良MS+6-BA 0.2;(11)改良MS+6-BA 0.5;(12)改良MS+6-BA1.0。生根培养基:(13)MS+IAA 0.2;(14)MS+IAA 0.5;(15)MS+NAA 1。上述培养基均加入0.65%琼脂粉、2%蔗糖,pH为5.8。

  20. Soil water effect on crop growth, leaf gas exchange, water and radiation use efficiency of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel in semi-arid Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Scordia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been placed to identify the most suited bioenergy crop under different environments and management practices, however, there is still need to find new genetic resources for constrained areas. For instance, South Mediterranean area is strongly affected by prolonged drought, high vapour pressure deficit (VPD and extremely high temperatures during summertime. In the present work we investigated the soil water effect on crop growth and leaf gas exchange of Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd. Hackel, a perennial, rhizomatous, herbaceous grass. Furthermore, the net increase of biomass production per unit light intercepted [radiation use efficiency (RUE] and per unit water transpired [water use efficiency (WUE] was also studied. To this end a field trial was carried out imposing three levels of soil water availability (I100, I50 and I0, corresponding to 100%, 50% and 0% of ETm restutition under a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Leaf area index (LAI, stem height, biomass dry matter yield, CO2 assimilation rate, and transpiration rate resulted significantly affected by measurement time and irrigation treatment, with the highest values in I100 and the lowest in I0. RUE was the highest in I100 followed by I50 and I0; on the other hand, WUE was higher in I0 than I50 and I100. At LAI values greater than 2.0, 85% photosynthetically active radiation was intercepted by the Saccharum stand, irrespective of the irrigation treatment. Saccharum spontaneum spp. aegyptiacum is a potential species for biomass production in environment characterized by drought stress, high temperatures and high VPD, as those of Southern Europe and similar semi-arid areas.

  1. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Rigassio-Radler, Diane; Denmark, Robert; Haley, Timothy; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2013-06-01

    College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34% with probiotics v. placebo (P,0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P=0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P=0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost-benefit of prophylactic supplementation.

  2. Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6 h and up to 72 h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120 h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (XccΔfliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker.

  3. Genome wide linkage disequilibrium in Chinese asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm: implications for domestication history and genome wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Wu, X; Wang, B; Luo, J; Liu, Y; Ehlers, J D; Close, T J; Roberts, P A; Lu, Z; Wang, S; Li, G

    2012-07-01

    Association mapping of important traits of crop plants relies on first understanding the extent and patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the particular germplasm being investigated. We characterize here the genetic diversity, population structure and genome wide LD patterns in a set of asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) germplasm from China. A diverse collection of 99 asparagus bean and normal cowpea accessions were genotyped with 1127 expressed sequence tag-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs). The proportion of polymorphic SNPs across the collection was relatively low (39%), with an average number of SNPs per locus of 1.33. Bayesian population structure analysis indicated two subdivisions within the collection sampled that generally represented the 'standard vegetable' type (subgroup SV) and the 'non-standard vegetable' type (subgroup NSV), respectively. Level of LD (r(2)) was higher and extent of LD persisted longer in subgroup SV than in subgroup NSV, whereas LD decayed rapidly (0-2 cM) in both subgroups. LD decay distance varied among chromosomes, with the longest (≈ 5 cM) five times longer than the shortest (≈ 1 cM). Partitioning of LD variance into within- and between-subgroup components coupled with comparative LD decay analysis suggested that linkage group 5, 7 and 10 may have undergone the most intensive epistatic selection toward traits favorable for vegetable use. This work provides a first population genetic insight into domestication history of asparagus bean and demonstrates the feasibility of mapping complex traits by genome wide association study in asparagus bean using a currently available cowpea SNPs marker platform.

  4. Resequencing of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum strains Nichols and SS14: correction of sequencing errors resulted in increased separation of syphilis treponeme subclusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pětrošová

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA, the causative agent of syphilis, is a highly clonal bacterium showing minimal genetic variability in the genome sequence of individual strains. Nevertheless, genetically characterized syphilis strains can be clearly divided into two groups, Nichols-like strains and SS14-like strains. TPA Nichols and SS14 strains were completely sequenced in 1998 and 2008, respectively. Since publication of their complete genome sequences, a number of sequencing errors in each genome have been reported. Therefore, we have resequenced TPA Nichols and SS14 strains using next-generation sequencing techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genomes of TPA strains Nichols and SS14 were resequenced using the 454 and Illumina sequencing methods that have a combined average coverage higher than 90x. In the TPA strain Nichols genome, 134 errors were identified (25 substitutions and 109 indels, and 102 of them affected protein sequences. In the TPA SS14 genome, a total of 191 errors were identified (85 substitutions and 106 indels and 136 of them affected protein sequences. A set of new intrastrain heterogenic regions in the TPA SS14 genome were identified including the tprD gene, where both tprD and tprD2 alleles were found. The resequenced genomes of both TPA Nichols and SS14 strains clustered more closely with related strains (i.e. strains belonging to same syphilis treponeme subcluster. At the same time, groups of Nichols-like and SS14-like strains were found to be more distantly related. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified errors in 11.5% of all annotated genes and, after correction, we found a significant impact on the predicted proteomes of both Nichols and SS14 strains. Corrections of these errors resulted in protein elongations, truncations, fusions and indels in more than 11% of all annotated proteins. Moreover, it became more evident that syphilis is caused by treponemes belonging to two separate genetic

  5. Characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) polymorphism by sequence-based and PCR-SSP methods in Chinese Bama miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Caixia; Jiang, Qian; Guo, Dongchun; Liu, Jiasen; Han, Lingxia; Qu, Liandong

    2014-07-01

    The highly polymorphic swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) genes have been repeatedly shown to influence swine immune traits, disease resistance, vaccine responsiveness and tumour penetrance. Analysis of the SLA diversity in as many pig breeds as possible is important to clarify the relationships between SLA genes and diseases or traits, and develop these pigs as valuable animal models for biomedical research. The Chinese Bama miniature pig breed is an economically significant breed that is available at several research institutions in China. In this study, we identified a total of 32 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing nine class I and seven class II haplotypes using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) sequence-based typing (SBT) method. The possible functional sites of the SLA genes were predicted and analyzed by comparison with those of the human and mouse. Based on the sequence information, we subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the progeny. In the studied cohort (2n = 562), the most prevalent Haplotype Hp-35.6 (SLA-1(∗)1201, SLA-1(∗)1301-SLA-3(∗)0502-SLA-2(∗)1001-DRB1(∗)0501-DQB1(∗)0801) was identified in 182 Bama pigs with a frequency of 32.38%. The presence of the duplicated SLA-1 locus was confirmed in five of the class I haplotypes. Moreover, we identified two crossovers within the class I region and one between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.36% and 0.18%, respectively. The information of this study is essential for an understanding of the SLA allelic architecture and diversity, and it will be helpful for studying the adaptive immune response and further developing the more effective vaccines in the context of SLA specificities.

  6. Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michał; Błaszczyk, Lidia

    2013-07-26

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  7. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Błaszczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax, and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  8. SEASONALITY OF ANNUAL PLANT ESTABLISHMENT INFLUENCES THE INTERACTIONBETWEEN THE NON-NATIVE ANNUAL GRASS BROMUS MADRITENSIS SSP. RUBENS AND MOJAVE DESERT PERENNIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Competition between native and non-native species can change the composition and structure of plant communities, but in deserts the timing of non-native plant establishment can modulate their impacts to native species. In a field experiment, we varied densities of the non-native annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens around individuals of three native perennials--Larrea iridentata, Achnatherum hymenoides, and Pleuraphis rigida--in either winter or spring. Additional plots were prepared for the Same perennial species and seasons, but with a mixture of native annual species. Relative growth rates of perennial shoots (RGRs) declined with increasing Bromus biomass when Bromus that was established in winter had 2-3 mo of growth and high water use before perennial growth began. However, this high water use did not significantly reduce water potentials for the perennials, suggesting Bromus that established earlier depleted other soil resources, such as N, otherwise used by perennial plants. Spring-established Bromus had low biomass even at higher densities and did not effectively reduce RGRs, resulting in an overall lower impact to perennials than when Bromus was established in winter. Similarly, growth and reproduction of perennials with mixed annuals as neighbors did not differ from those with Bromus neighbors of equivalent biomass, but densities of these annuals did not support the high biomass necessary to reduce perennial growth. Thus, impacts of native Mojave Desert annuals to perennials are expected to be lower than those of Bromus because seed dormancy and narrow requirements for seedling survivorship produce densities and biomass lower than those achieved by Bromus. In comparing the effects of Bromus among perennial species, the impact of increased Bromus biomass on RGR was lower for Larrea than for the two perennial grasses, probably because Lurrea maintains low growth rates throughout the year, even after Bromus has completed its life cycle. This contrasts

  9. Full scale test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report; Reinforced glass fiber/expoxy used in wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Find M.; Branner, K.; Nielsen, Per H. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risoe DTU, the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark -, SSP-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Moelholt Jensen's PhD study. This report contains the complete test data for the final test, in which the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured surface deformation. A prediction was made on the location of the failure of the girder. At this location the majority of the measuring equipment was concentrated. The prediction was proved to be correct and valuable information of the behaviour of the box girder prior to failure was obtained. The experimental investigation consisted of the following load configurations: -Flapwise bending -Torsion Ultrasonic scanning of the box girder was performed before, during and after the test the box girder. This was done to investigate whether the girder was damaged by the load or imperfection (productions defects) growth. (au)

  10. Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Öberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007 treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may

  11. Ecological role of reindeer summer browsing in the mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests: effects on plant defense, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Kumpula, Jouko

    2007-03-01

    Mammalian herbivores commonly alter the concentrations of secondary compounds in plants and, by this mechanism, have indirect effects on litter decomposition and soil carbon and nutrient cycling. In northernmost Fennoscandia, the subarctic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) forests are important pasture for the semidomestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). In the summer ranges, mountain birches are intensively browsed, whereas in the winter ranges, reindeer feed on ground lichens, and the mountain birches remain intact. We analyzed the effect of summer browsing on the concentrations of secondary substances, litter decomposition, and soil nutrient pools in areas that had been separated as summer or winter ranges for at least 20 years, and we predicted that summer browsing may reduce levels of secondary compounds in the mountain birch and, by this mechanism, have an indirect effect on the decomposition of mountain birch leaf litter and soil nutrient cycling. The effect of browsing on the concentration of secondary substances in the mountain birch leaves varied between different years and management districts, but in some cases, the concentration of condensed tannins was lower in the summer than in the winter ranges. In a reciprocal litter decomposition trial, both litter origin and emplacement significantly affected the litter decomposition rate. Decomposition rates were faster for the litter originating from and placed into the summer range. Soil inorganic nitrogen (N) concentrations were higher in the summer than in the winter ranges, which indicates that reindeer summer browsing may enhance the soil nutrient cycling. There was a tight inverse relationship between soil N and foliar tannin concentrations in the winter range but not in the summer range. This suggests that in these strongly nutrient-limited ecosystems, soil N availability regulates the patterns of resource allocation to condensed tannins in the absence but not in the presence of browsing.

  12. Characterization of genetic coefficients of durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA'

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    Marco Garrido

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genetic coefficients, representative of a crop, are necessary to use growth models; in many cases the range of the species is known, but there are no specific values for varieties. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidumL. ssp. durum'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA' were sown under irrigation in the experiment station Antumapu of the Universidad de Chile on 29 June 2007, 19 May 2009, and 15 June 2010 in order to determinate four genetic coefficients: developmental thermal time, phyllochron (PHLN, extinction coefficient (k, and radiation use efficiency (RUE, and to evaluate the performance of these coefficients. Thermal times to anthesis and from anthesis to physiological maturity were 652 and 541 °C d, respectively. Two PHLN values were found, 46.6 °C d leaf-1 from emergence to fifth leaf and 102.9 °C d leaf-1 from fifth to eighth leaf. In both cases neither variety nor sowing date was significant. The value of kdid not vary among sowing dates for 'Llareta-INIA' and was not significantly different from that of 'Corcolén-INIA' for normal planting date, due to which a single fit for the two varieties was adjusted, obtaining a value of 0.46. However, 'Corcolén-INIA' had a lower value of kfor later sowing dates. RUE did not vary between varieties or sowing dates; its estimated value was 2.83 g MJ-1. The evaluation of the coefficients obtained showed coherent results, thus they can be used in model simulations.

  13. Desempeño del crecimiento y sobrevivencia de larvas de Oreochromis ssp. utilizando un probiótico en el alimento

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    Lara Mantilla Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a bio-prepared with probiotic characteristics was evaluated for promoting growth and survival of red tilapia Oreochromis ssp during sexual inversion. Through four treatments, under a completely randomized design were seeded four larvae L-1 in aquariums of 20 L, to which they were delivered, for 45 days, with Hormone commercial food of 45% CP, plus the addition of bio -prepared composed for malt extract broth and a yeast of the genus Saccharomyces in concentrations: 104 (T1, 106 (T2, 108 CFU ml-1 (T3 and (T4 control without the addition of bio-prepared. At the beginning and end of the experiment the larvae were weighed (mg, measured (cm and counted. The physical and chemical parameters monitored water remained within ranges considered normal for fish species. The highest values for the variables of larval growth were recorded in the T2 and T3; Final weight (Pf (305.9 ± 113.2 and 326.1 ± 79.5mg, weight gain (Gp (299.2 ± 113.2 and 319.4 ± 79.5mg Final Length (Lf (2.5 ± 0.3 and 2.5 ± 0.2cm, Gain length (Gl (1.7 ± 0.3 and 1.7 ± 0.2cm and specific growth rate (G (12.5 ± 0.7 and 12.7 ± 0.5% / day, likewise, the highest values of survival (S of the larvae were recorded in T3 (68.1 ± 6.8% and T2 (59.4 ± 20.2%. Therefore the best results were presented in larvae of T2 and T3, to which were given the bio-prepared, showing that the larvae of red tilapia have better growth and survival with the implementation of a bio-prepared probiotic.

  14. Characterization of a novel murine model of Staphylococcus saprophyticus urinary tract infection reveals roles for Ssp and SdrI in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Ingersoll, Molly A; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Sakinc, Türkan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Gatermann, Sören; Caparon, Michael G; Hultgren, Scott J

    2010-05-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus, an obligate human pathogen, is the most common Gram-positive causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young, healthy women. Despite the clinical importance of S. saprophyticus, little is known about how it causes disease in the urinary tract or how the host responds to the infection. Here we established an in vivo model to study both host and bacterial factors contributing to S. saprophyticus UTI. Using this model, we show that S. saprophyticus preferentially infects C3H/HeN murine kidneys instead of the bladder, a trait observed for multiple clinical isolates. Bacterial persistence in the kidneys was observed in C3H/HeN mice but not in C57BL/6 mice, indicating that host factors strongly contribute to the ability of S. saprophyticus to cause UTI. Using C3H/HeN mice as a model, histologic and immunofluorescence analyses of infected tissues revealed that S. saprophyticus induced epithelial cell shedding in the bladder and an inflammatory response characterized by macrophage and neutrophil infiltration in the bladder and kidneys. The inflammatory response correlated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in both the bladder and the kidneys. Finally, we observed that the putative S. saprophyticus virulence factors Ssp and SdrI were important for persistence, but not for initial colonization, in the murine urinary tract. Thus, we characterized both host and bacterial factors involved in progression of S. saprophyticus UTI, and we describe a useful model system for studying factors involved in the pathogenesis of this Gram-positive uropathogen.

  15. Características da bacteriocina produzida por Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484 e seu efeito sobre Listeria monocytogenes em carne bovina Characterisation of the bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484 and the effect of this compound on Listeria monocytogenes in beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bromberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento de linhagens de bactérias lácticas produtoras de bacteriocinas em carnes e seus produtos derivados resultou na detecção de Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484, proveniente de frango. A bacteriocina inibiu não apenas uma outra bactéria láctica (Lactobacillus helveticus, mas também microorganismos patogênicos (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens e Enterococcus faecalis. Ela foi inativada por causa de enzimas como: alfa-quimotripsina, tripsina, pronase E, ficina, pepsina, papaína e lipase. Além disso, a bacteriocina mostrou-se termoestável, mesmo a temperaturas de autoclavagem (121°C/10 min e foi produzida em condições de armazenamento sob refrigeração. A bacteriocina mostrou-se ativa dentro de uma ampla faixa de valores de pH (2-10, porém a maior atividade ocorreu em valores menores de pH. A eficiência da linhagem CTC 484, assim como a de sua bacteriocina na redução e inibição do crescimento de Listeria monocytogenes em carne bovina estéril, foram avaliadas. Os resultados indicaram que o tratamento da carne por meio da inoculação desta bactéria contribuiu para o aumento da segurança e extensão da vida útil deste alimento.Screening for the bacteriocin production of strains of lactic acid bacteria from various meat and meat products resulted in the detection of a bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. hordniae CTC 484, isolated from chicken. The bacteriocin inhibited not only closely related lactic acid bacterium (Lactobacillus helveticus, but also pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Enterococcus faecalis. This compound was inactivated by alpha-chymotrypsin, trypsin, pronase E, ficin, pepsin, papain, and also by lipase. It was heat stable even at autoclaving temperature (121°C/10 min and was produced under refrigerated storage. It was also active over a wide

  16. Otimização de metodologia PCR-SSP para identificação de polimorfismos genéticos de TNF e IL2 Optimization of the PCR-SSP methodology in the identification of TNF and IL2 genetic polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo A. S. Franceschi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A análise de polimorfismos únicos de nucleotídeos (SNPs de citocinas pode ser útil em estudos de frequências alélicas e genotípicas em populações saudáveis de diversas regiões, em estudos de associação com doenças infecciosas ou autoimunes, em estudos antropológicos e na evolução pós-transplante. Estes SNPs podem ser avaliados por diferentes métodos moleculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi aperfeiçoar uma metodologia PCR-SSP simples e rápida para a genotipagem de três SNPs de citocinas usando um único teste laboratorial. Para a identificação de IL2-330T/G e IL2+166G/T foram utilizados dois procedimentos na mesma genotipagem, cada um baseado no uso de quatro iniciadores. Para a detecção de TNF-238G/A foram utilizados dois iniciadores que amplificam a guanina e adenina na posição -238. Este estudo permitiu aperfeiçoar um método simples e rápido para identificar três SNPs de citocinas num único teste, podendo ser utilizado em qualquer laboratório de biologia molecular, como alternativa ao uso de kits de alto custo.The analysis of cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs can be useful in studies of allelic and genotypic frequencies in healthy populations from different regions of Brazil, in association studies of infectious or auto-immune diseases, in anthropological studies and in studies on post-transplant evolution. These SNPs can be assessed by different molecular methods. The objective of this study was to improve a simple and fast methodology, PCR-SSP, for the genotyping of three cytokine SNPs using a single laboratorial test. To identify IL2-330T/G and IL2+166G/T, two procedures were used in the same genotyping assay, each one based on the use of 4 primers. To detect TNF-238G/A, two primers were used that amplify guanine and adenine at position -238. This study enabled the improvement of a simple and fast method for identifying three cytokine SNPs in a single test, which can be adopted in any Molecular

  17. 无化成熟化过磷酸钙生产技术的开发和应用%Development and application of technology without curing and formation for SSP production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁德承; 邱红侠; 朱亚; 石朝晖; 邓履富

    2012-01-01

    Through the analysis on production process ot SSP at present, it is concluded that the reaction environment is not favorable to the mass transfer between sulfuric acid and phosphate rock, which needs a platform to make the reaction between the sulfuric acid and phosphate rock unbloeked. It is put forward that the process of SSP production without formation is similar to the process of phosphoric acid production with dihydrate method, the conversion rate is increased by improving the fineness of phosphate rock and the stirring intensity, decreasing the sulfuric acid concentration and reaction temperature. The new production technology of SSP that cancels curing and formation is environment-friendly, energy saving, accord with the industrial policy at present.%分析了目前过磷酸钙的生产过程,认为在过程后续阶段反应环境不利于硫酸和磷矿问进行质量交换。为搭建一个平台使硫酸和磷矿粉之间的反应渠道始终畅通,提出无熟化过磷酸钙工艺与二水物磷酸生产过程类似,通过提高矿粉细度和搅拌强度,降低硫酸浓度和反应温度,达到提高转化率的目的。过磷酸钙生产新工艺取消了化成、熟化工序,环保,节能,符合当前产业政策。

  18. La población de oso de las cavernas (Ursus spelaeus parvilatipedis n. ssp. de Troskaeta'ko-Kobea (Ataun - Gipuzkoa (Campañas de excavación de 1987 y 1988.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinidad de Torres Perezhidalgo

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia una abundante colección de restos óseos de oso de las cavernas (Ursus spelaeus parvilatipedis n.ssp. procedente de dos campañas de excavación paleontológica (1987 y 1988 llevadas a cabo en la cueva de Troskaeta (Gipuzkoa. El material es analizado métrica, taxonómica, morfológica y tafonómicamente. El trabajo incluye datos geomorfológicos sobre la cavidad.

  19. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity ofEnicostema axillare (Lam.)Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume)Raynal:An important medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kousalya Loganathan; VNarmatha Bai

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for high frequency plantlets regeneration protocol forEnicostema axillare(Lam.)Raynal ssp.littoralis(Blume)Raynal(E. axillare) without intermediate callus phase and to determine the content and correlation of phenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity of both the plants derived from nature and nodal culture byDPPH assay.Methods:The nodal explants were cultured onMS basal medium fortified with different concentration of various growth regulators such asBAP,KIN,TDZ and2iP(0.5-2 mg/L) individually and in combinations with or withoutGA3 for shoot bud induction and multiplication.Total phenol and flavonoid content was determined in both plants from nature and nodal culture and antioxidant activity was determined byDPPH assay.Results:The highest number of multiple shoot(108.00±3.55 shoots/explants) was obtained onMS medium supplemented withBAP(2 mg/L) in combination withKIN (0.5 mg/L) andGA3(2 mg/L).Rooting was optimized on half-strengthMS medium supplemented withIAA(0.5 mg/L).The rooted plantlets were transferred to paper cups containing vermiculite and hardening was successfully attained with75% survival.Among the four extract of methanol and water extract from both the plantlet from nature and nodal culture, the concentration of flavonoid was found to be higher in methanol extract of the plants from nature(146.57±1.68 mg rutin/g extract) and phenol content was higher in the water extract of plant from nature(52.53±1.67 mgGAE /g extract).The radical scavenging activity of four extracts.Methanol extract of plant grown in nature showed the highest radical scavenging activity(IC50 =87.10 μg/mL) was investigated byDPPH test.Conculsion:The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations usingex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets.A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major

  20. A phase 1 randomized study evaluating the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist, revexepride (SSP-002358, in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available David Pierce,1 Mary Corcoran,2 Maria Velinova,3 Stuart Hossack,4 Mieke Hoppenbrouwers,5 Patrick Martin,21Shire, Basingstoke, UK; 2Shire, Wayne, PA, USA; 3PRA International, Zuidlaren, the Netherlands; 4Covance, Leeds, UK; 5Shire-Movetis NV, Turnhout, BelgiumBackground: About 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease continue to experience symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist revexepride (SSP-002358 is a novel prokinetic that stimulates gastrointestinal motility, which has been suggested as a continued cause of symptoms in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether revexepride pharmacokinetics were affected by co-administration of omeprazole, in preparation for a proof-of-concept evaluation of revexepride added to proton pump inhibitor treatment.Methods: In this phase 1, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study, healthy adults aged 18–55 years were given a single dose of revexepride 1 mg or revexepride 1 mg + omeprazole 40 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for up to 48 hours after administration of the investigational product. Adverse events, clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, electrocardiograms, and vital signs were monitored.Results: In total, 42 participants were enrolled and 40 completed the study. The median age was 24 years (18–54 years, 55% were women and 93% were white. The pharmacokinetic parameters of revexepride were similar without or with omeprazole co-administration. The mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞ was 23.3 ng · h/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 6.33 ng · h/mL versus 24.6 ng · h/mL (SD: 6.31 ng · h/mL, and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax were 3.89 ng/mL (SD: 1.30 ng/mL and 4.12 ng/mL (SD: 1.29 ng/mL in participants without and with omeprazole, respectively. For AUC0–∞ and Cmax, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric least

  1. A 500 year early summer temperature reconstruction for the western Mediterranean basin based on stable carbon isotopes from Pinus nigra ssp. laricio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, S.; Joachimski, M. M.; Bräuning, A.; Hetzer, T.; Kuhlemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Mediterranean is considered as an area which will be severely affected by modern climate change. Strong temperature increase and precipitation decrease is expected for large regions, resulting in a northward extension of arid conditions. Information of past temperature changes which could contribute to a better understanding of future climate changes are still sparse. Carbon isotope chronologies from tree-rings often carry strong temperature information but they are critically in their application as climate proxies because of the influence by the change of atmopsheric CO2-concentration due to the fossil fuel burning effect. These changes are recorded in the chronologies by a remarkable downward trend over the last approximately 150 years and are routinely corrected. However, these correction values do not account for a plant physiological response to higher pCO2, a factor which is especially important in high mountain environments. We tested the influence of different correction models on four annually resolved long-term carbon isotope records (between 400 and 800 years) derived from Corsican pine trees (Pinus nigra ssp. laricio) growing at ecologically varying mountain sites on the island of Corsica in the Western Mediterranean. A negative trend in the carbon isotope ratios during the last 150 years is still visible after correcting for changes of atmospheric CO2-concentration indicating that plant physiological responses to increased CO2 levels significantly influence the δ13C tree-ring values. Carbon isotope series corrected for both, increase in atmospheric CO2 and plant physiological response, show stronger correlations with climate parameters, especially summer temperature, and better mirror increasing temperatures in the climate data. Carbon isotope records from trees at cooler and wetter sites show generally lower δ13C-values and are more sensitive to temperature at the beginning of the vegetation period. δ13C records from drier and warmer sites are

  2. Metabolism, swimming performance, and tissue biochemistry of high desert redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.): evidence for phenotypic differences in physiological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamperl, A Kurt; Rodnick, Kenneth J; Faust, Heather A; Venn, Emilee C; Bennett, Max T; Crawshaw, Larry I; Keeley, Ernest R; Powell, Madison S; Li, Hiram W

    2002-01-01

    Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ssp.) in southeastern Oregon inhabit high-elevation streams that exhibit extreme variability in seasonal flow and diel water temperature. Given the strong influence and potential limitations exerted by temperature on fish physiology, we were interested in how acute temperature change and thermal history influenced the physiological capabilities and biochemical characteristics of these trout. To this end, we studied wild redband trout inhabiting two streams with different thermal profiles by measuring (1) critical swimming speed (U(crit)) and oxygen consumption in the field at 12 degrees and 24 degrees C; (2) biochemical indices of energy metabolism in the heart, axial white skeletal muscle, and blood; and (3) temperature preference in a laboratory thermal gradient. Further, we also examined genetic and morphological characteristics of fish from these two streams. At 12 degrees C, maximum metabolic rate (Mo2max) and metabolic power were greater in Little Blitzen redband trout as compared with those from Bridge Creek (by 37% and 32%, respectively). Conversely, Bridge Creek and Little Blitzen trout had similar values for Mo2max and metabolic power at 24 degrees C. The U(crit) of Little Blitzen trout was similar at the two temperatures (61+/-3 vs. 57+/-4 cm s(-1)). However, the U(crit) for Bridge Creek trout increased from 62+/-3 cm s(-1) to 75+/-3 cm s(-1) when water temperature was raised from 12 degrees to 24 degrees C, and the U(crit) value at 24 degrees C was significantly greater than for Little Blitzen fish. Cost of transport was lower for Bridge Creek trout at both 12 degrees and 24 degrees C, indicating that these trout swim more efficiently than those from the Little Blitzen. Possible explanations for the greater metabolic power of Little Blitzen redband trout at 12 degrees C include increased relative ventricular mass (27%) and an elevation in epaxial white muscle citrate synthase activity (by 72%). Bridge Creek trout had

  3. One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamien, Charles Euloge; Spergser, Joachim; Lelenta, Mamadou; Wade, Abel; Gelaye, Esayas; Loitsch, Angelika; Minoungou, Germaine; Thiaucourt, Francois; Diallo, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. In the present study, a one-step multiplex RT-qPCR assay was developed for simultaneous detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV), Peste de petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Pasteurella multocida (PM) and Mycoplasma capricolum ssp. capripneumonia (Mccp) in pathological samples collected from small ruminants with respiratory disease symptoms. The test performed efficiently without any cross-amplification. The multiplex PCR efficiency was 98.31%, 95.48%, 102.77% and 91.46% whereas the singleplex efficiency was 93.43%, 98.82%, 102.55% and 92.0% for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99 for all the targets in both multiplex and singleplex. Based on cycle threshold values, intra and inter assay variability, ranged between the limits of 2%–4%, except for lower concentrations of Mccp. The detection limits at 95% confidence interval (CI) were 12, 163, 13 and 23 copies/reaction for CaPV, PPRV, PM and Mccp, respectively. The multiplex assay was able to detect CaPVs from all genotypes, PPRV from the four lineages, PM and Mccp without amplifying the other subspecies of mycoplasmas. The discriminating power of the assay was proven by accurate detection of the targeted pathogen (s) by screening 58 viral and bacterial isolates representing all four targeted pathogens. Furthermore, by screening 81 pathological samples collected from small ruminants showing respiratory disease symptoms, CaPV was detected in 17 samples

  4. Relative distribution and abundance of fishes and crayfish in 2010 and 2014 prior to saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.) removal in the Amargosa River Canyon, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Mark E.

    2016-07-22

    The Amargosa River Canyon, located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern California, contains the longest perennial reach of the Amargosa River. Because of its diverse flora and fauna, it has been designated as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern and a Wild and Scenic River by the Bureau of Land Management. A survey of fishes conducted in summer 2010 indicated that endemic Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were abundant and occurred throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. The 2010 survey reported non-native red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) captures were significantly higher, whereas pupfish captures were lower, in areas dominated by non-native saltcedar (Tamarix ssp.). Based on the 2010 survey, it was hypothesized that the invasion of saltcedar could result in a decrease in native species. In an effort to maintain and enhance native fish populations, the Bureau of Land Management removed saltcedar from a 1,550 meter reach of stream on the Amargosa River in autumn 2014 and autumn 2015. Prior to the removal of saltcedar, a survey of fishes and crayfish using baited minnow traps was conducted in the treatment reach to serve as a baseline for future comparisons with post-saltcedar removal surveys. During the 2014 survey, 1,073 pupfish and 960 speckled dace were captured within the treatment reach. Catch per unit effort of pupfish and speckled dace in the treatment reach was less in 2014 than in 2010, although differences could be owing to seasonal variation in capture probability. Non-native mosquitofish catch per unit effort decreased from 2010 to 2014; however, the catch per unit effort of crayfish increased from 2010 to 2014. Future monitoring efforts of this reach should be conducted at the same time period to account for potential seasonal fluctuations of abundance and distribution of fishes and crayfish. A more robust study design that

  5. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis detection in animals, food, water and other sources or vehicles of human exposure: A scoping review of the existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lisa; Rajić, Andrijana; Stärk, Katharina; McEwen, Scott A

    2016-09-15

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease in ruminants and is hypothesized to be an infectious cause of Crohn's disease, as well as some other human diseases. Due to key knowledge gaps, the potential public health impact of M. paratuberculosis is unknown. This scoping review aims to identify and characterised the evidence on potential sources and vehicles of M. paratuberculosis exposure for humans to better understand how exposure is likely to occur. Evidence from 255 primary research papers is summarized; most examined the prevalence or concentration of M. paratuberculosis in animals (farmed domestic, pets and wildlife) (n=148), food for human consumption (62) (milk, dairy, meat, infant formula) or water (drinking and recreational) and the environment (farm, pasture and areas affected by runoff water) (20). The majority of this research has been published since 2000 (Figure- abstract). Nine case-control studies examining risk factors for Crohn's disease highlighted significant associations with the consumption of processed meats and cheese, while direct contact with ruminants, high risk occupations (farmer, veterinarian), milk consumption and water source were factors not associated with the disease and/or M. paratuberculosis exposure status. Molecular epidemiology studies demonstrated strain-sharing between species. Produce and seafood were the only previously suggested sources of human exposure for which there was no supporting evidence identified in this scoping review. The results of this review indicate that ruminant populations from around the globe are infected with M. paratuberculosis and many non-ruminant species have also been found to carry or be infected with M. paratuberculosis. Several potential sources for human exposure to M. paratuberculosis were identified; however there remain important gaps in quantitative information on the prevalence and concentration of M. paratuberculosis in contaminated sources of

  6. Comparative risk assessment for new cow-level Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infections between 3 dairy production types: Organic, conventional, and conventional-grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, A; Ruegg, P L; Gröhn, Y T; Schukken, Y H

    2016-12-01

    Johne's disease, a granulomatous enteritis of ruminant animals, is a hidden threat on dairy farms, adversely affecting animal welfare as well as herd productivity. Control programs in the United States advocate for specific management practices to temper the spread of the causal organism (Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, MAP), such as improving calving area hygiene and limiting introduction of replacement stock with unknown infection status. A need remains for direct exploration of Johne's disease prevention strategies in the United States with respect to production type. Alongside the growing demand for organic products, the safety of organic dairy practices with respect to MAP control is warranted. Further, conventional herds for which organic practices such as pasture grazing are used should be situated within the risk spectrum. We developed a risk assessment model using the US Voluntary Bovine Johne's Disease Control Program as a framework, with the goal of evaluating the risk of new cow-level MAP infections. A total of 292 organic and conventional farms in 3 states were surveyed on management practices, and an overall analysis was conducted in which each farm was first scored on individual practices using a range of "no risk" to "high risk," according to the literature. The sum of all risk factors was then analyzed to quantify and compare the risk burden for each production type. Organic herds received higher overall risk scores compared with both conventional grazing and nongrazing subtypes. To identify which factors contributed to the overall increased risk for organic herds, the management practices were categorized and evaluated by logistic regression. We determined that the increased risk incurred by organic herds was predominantly due to decisions made in the calving area and preweaned calf group. However, although certain individual risk factors related to calf management are commonly involved in prevention strategies (e.g., cow

  7. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar 'ASD7' (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-12-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH.

  8. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar ‘ASD7’ (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH. PMID:26719745

  9. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152).

  10. Notes on Salamandra salamandra ssp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenius, D.

    1968-01-01

    On 22-VII-1960 I caught some specimens of Salamandra salamandra fastuosa Schreiber between Lago Ercina and Lago Enol, ± 1000 m above Covadonga (Picos de Europa, Cantabrian Mountains, Spain). On 14-VIII-1961 from one of the salamanders two young were born (length 40 and 45 mm). Only one specimen show

  11. RhC Phenotyping, Adsorption/Elution Test, and SSP-PCR: The Combined Test for D-Elute Phenotype Screening in Thai RhD-Negative Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijinda, Songsak; Suwanasophon, Chamaiporn; Visawapoka, Unchalee; Pongsavee, Malinee

    2012-01-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) blood group is the most polymorphic human blood group and it is clinically significant in transfusion medicine. Especially, D antigen is the most important and highly immunogenic antigen. Due to anti-D, it is the cause of the hemolytic disease of the newborn and transfusion reaction. About 0.1%-0.5% of Asian people are RhD-negative, whereas in the Thai population, the RhD-negative blood type only occurs in 0.3%. Approximately 10%-30% of RhD-negative in Eastern Asian people actually were D-elute (DEL) phenotype, the very weak D antigen that cannot be detected by indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). There are many reports about anti-D immunization in RhD-negative recipients through the transfusion of red blood cells from individuals with DEL phenotype. D-elute phenotype screening in Thai RhD-negative blood donors was studied to distinguish true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype. A total of 254 Thai serologically RhD-negative blood donors were tested for RhCE phenotypes and anti-D adsorption/elution test. In addition, RhC(+) samples were tested for RHD 1227A allele by SSP-PCR technique. The RhD-negative phenotype samples consisted of 131 ccee, 4 ccEe, 1 ccEE, 101 Ccee, 16 CCee, and 1 CcEe. The 42 Ccee and 8 CCee phenotype samples were typed as DEL phenotype and 96% of DEL samples were positive for RHD 1227A allele. The incidence of RhC(+) was 46.4%, and 48 of the 118 RhC(+) samples were positive for both anti-D adsorption/elution test and SSP-PCR technique for RHD 1227A allele. The sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 100%, respectively, for RHD 1227A detection as compared with the adsorption/elution test. In conclusion, RhC(+) phenotype can combine with anti-D adsorption/elution test and RHD 1227A allele SSP-PCR technique for distinguishing true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype.

  12. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer with Nitrification Inhibitor DMPP (3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate) on Nitrate Accumulation and Quality ofCabbage (Brassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChao; WULiang-huan; JUXiao-tang; ZHANGFu-suo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effects of N fertilizer ammonium sulphate nitrate [ (NH4)2SO4 plus NH4NO3;ASN] with the new nitrification inhibitor (NI) 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) (ASN+DMPP) on yield, nitrate accumulation, and quality of cabbage (Brassica campastris L. ssp. pekinesis), two field trials were carried out under various soil-climatic conditions in Jinhua City and Xinchang County, Zhejiang Province of China in 2002.Results showed that DMPP could increase the mean yield by + 2.0 t ha-1 in Jinhua, +5.5 t ha-1 in Xinchang, decrease NO3--N content by -9.4% in Jinhua, -7.3% in Xinchang and improve nutritional quality by increasing vitamin C (VC), soluble sugar, K, Fe, Zn contents significantly.

  13. Effects of Copper Stress on Seedling Growth of Brassica campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino%铜胁迫对小白菜幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志平; 张海霞; 赵智灵; 杜清洁

    2015-01-01

    以北京新一号四季小白菜为材料,研究了 CuSO4胁迫对基质栽培小白菜幼苗生长、光合色素含量和膜脂过氧化的影响。试验结果表明,较低浓度 CuSO4使株高、叶片数、最大叶长、最大叶宽、根长及地上部、根系鲜质量和干质量显著增加,较高浓度 CuSO4则显著抑制了各形态指标和生物量积累;20μmol/L CuSO4使叶绿素 a、叶绿素 b 和类胡萝卜素含量显著增加,较高浓度 CuSO4则使各光合色素含量显著降低;随 CuSO4浓度提高,叶片质膜透性显著增加,抗坏血酸含量则呈先升高后降低的趋势。说明低浓度 CuSO4处理对小白菜生长有一定的促进作用,高浓度CuSO4胁迫则使光合能力降低,膜脂过氧化程度加剧,最终造成小白菜生长受到显著抑制。%Taking Beijing New No.1 as material, the experiment studied the effects of CuSO4 stress on the growth, photosynthetic pigment contents and membrane lipid peroxidation of Brassica campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino cultivated in mixed substrate. The results showed that, the plant height, leaf number, maximum leaf length, maximum leaf width, root length and shoot and root fresh weight and dry weight of B. campestris ssp. chinenses (L.) Makino were significantly increased under lower CuSO4 concentration treatments, while all morphological indicators and biomass accumulation were significantly inhibited under higher CuSO4 concentration treatments. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents were significantly increased when the CuSO4 concentration was 20 μmol/L, while all photosynthetic pigment contents were significantly reduced under higher CuSO4 concentration treatments. with CuSO4 concentration increased, membrane permeability of leaves was significantly increased, and ascorbic acid content was increased firstly and then decreased. The results indicated that lower CuSO4 concentrations could promote the growth of campestris ssp

  14. Identification of fetal ABO blood groups by analyzing amniotic fluid cells via PCR-SSP%PCR-SSP技术对羊水细胞ABO血型的基因鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣; 陈江

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过PCR-SSP基因技术检测胎儿羊水细胞ABO血型基因型,产前诊断胎儿ABO血型.方法 选取了6名孕16 W以上的孕妇,抽取羊水细胞并进行分离,提取羊水细胞DNA,运用PCR-SSP技术分析其ABO血型基因型,并通过出生后的脐带血的血型鉴定进行确认.结果 6例羊水标本均通过PCR-SSP方法检测出了ABO血型的基因型;该6名胎儿的脐带血的ABO血型与羊水细胞的血型一致.结论 PCR-SSP技术可以准确地检测胎儿羊水细胞的ABO血型.%Objective To identify fetal ABO blood groups by analyzing amniotic fluid cells via PCR-SSP. Methods Six pregnant women with gestational age between 16 weeks and 25 weeks were selected. DNA was taken in amniotic fluid cells from these pregnant women and then ABO genotypes of amniotic fluid cells were detected by PCR-SSP. And the ABO genotypes were conformed by detecting the cord blood . Results The ABO genotypes were identified from the 6 samples of amniotic fluid cells, and the results were in accordance with cord blood. Conclusion Fetal ABO blood group can be accurately detected out by amniotic fluid cells.

  15. Avaliação do estado nutricional azotado de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus com recurso a um medidor portátil de clorofila Evaluation of nitrogen status of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus mother plants with a portable chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objectivo de avaliar a possibilidade de utilizar as leituras do medidor portátil de clorofila SPAD 502 (leitura SPAD, como um indicador do estado nutricional azotado de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus (E. globulus foi instalado, em 1999, um ensaio de fertilização azotada de pés-mãe desta espécie. Utilizaram-se 2 clones (HD161 e CN5 aos quais se aplicaram 5 soluções nutritivas com diferentes concentrações de azoto (50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 mg N L-1. No primeiro ano os pés-mãe foram sujeitos a uma poda de formação. Nos dois anos seguintes (2000 e 2001 avaliou-se: o número de estacas produzidas por pé-mãe, o enraizamento das estacas obtidas, o teor de azoto na folha mais jovem completamente expandida e as leituras SPAD na mesma folha. Os resultados obtidos indicam a ocorrência de uma relação assimptótica entre a disponibilidade de azoto e a leitura SPAD e a existência de uma relação linear, positiva e altamente significativa, entre o teor foliar de azoto (x e as leituras SPAD (y: y=23,27+0,75x; r=0,94; n=150. Na avaliação da possibilidade de utilização da leitura SPAD como indicador do estado nutricional azotado dos pés-mãe, observou-se um bom ajustamento do modelo quadrático à relação entre as leituras SPAD e as “produções relativas” (estacas e enraizamento, com coeficientes de determinação elevados e idênticos aos obtidos com o teor foliar de azoto. Desta forma, nestas condições experimentais, a “qualidade” da avaliação do estado nutricional azotado, utilizando as leituras SPAD, foi idêntica à conseguida com o teor foliar de azoto, o que sugere a sua utilização, com bons resultados, como indicador do estado nutricional azotado de pésmãe de E. globulus.With the aim of evaluating the use of the portable chlorophyll meter “Minolta SPAD 502” readings (SPAD readings as an indicator of the nitrogen status of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus (E. globulus

  16. PCR-SSP法检测人胰腺癌细胞株PCNA-1的K-ras基因点突变的方式%Detection of K-ras Gene Point Mutation's Style in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line PANC-1 by PCR-SSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 王春友; 董继华; 赵刚; 陈雄; 张敏

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect the style of K-ras gene point mutation in human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and decide the bp sequence of Ras target position interfered by RNA. Methods: Three kinds of special sequence primers (SSP) for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with regard to the mutation styles (GAT, CGT and GGT) at codon 12 of K-fas were used to study the human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. The amplification products were studied with polyacrylamine gel electrophoresis to detect the style of point mutation. Results: The style of K-ras gene point mutation at codon 12 was GAT in human pancreatic cancer cell line. Conclusion: PCR-SSP is rapid, convenient and high specific. The results provide a basis for further gene therapy by RNA interference for pancreatic cancer.

  17. Avaliação da qualidade de caldo de cana envasado a quente e por sistema asséptico Quality of sugarcane (Sacharum ssp. juice packed by hot fill and aseptic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Samorano da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois processos térmicos foram aplicados ao caldo de cana com o objetivo de se obter um produto estável à temperatura ambiente. A variedade de cana de açúcar (Sacharum ssp. utilizada foi a RB72 - 454. A metodologia de planejamento fatorial foi aplicada a fim de se verificar a melhor combinação entre acidez (pH e doçura (°Brix. Houve uma tendência para melhor aceitação sensorial quando o pH foi maior que 4,0 e °Brix maior que 15. Primeiramente, o caldo foi submetido a 141 °C /10 s e envasado assepticamente em garrafas de vidro previamente esterilizadas. No segundo processo, o caldo foi submetido ao tratamento térmico a 110 °C /10 s e envasado a quente (90 ± 5 °C em garrafas de vidro. Análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais foram realizadas durante a estocagem dos lotes à temperatura ambiente. O lote processado assepticamente apresentou vida útil de 30 dias e o envasado a quente, 60 dias, não apresentando diferença estatística (p The objective of this work is to evaluate two thermal processes in order to obtain sugarcane (Sacharum ssp. juice stable at room temperature in glass bottles. An experimental methodology was applied to obtain the best combination between pH and °Brix based on the sensory results. There was a tendency for a better sensory acceptance for pH > 4.0 and °Brix > 15. Two thermal processes were applied to sterilize the juice. Firstly, the juice was submitted to 141 °C /10 s, and then aseptically filled in glass bottles previously sterilized. In the second process, the juice was submitted to 110 °C /10 s and filled into glass bottles at 90 ± 5 °C. Physical-chemical changes, microbiological counts and sensory acceptance were evaluated during the storage at room temperature. The shelf life of aseptically processed juice was 30 days and 60 days for the hot filled juice based on the sensory evaluation. These results indicated that the hot fill process was more efficient for sugarcane

  18. 大花百子莲的花粉活力与柱头可授性1)%Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Agapanthus praecox ssp.orientalis ‘Big Blue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the pollen viability and stigma receptivity of A.praecox ssp.orientalis‘Big Blue’ in Shanghai, Chi-na, and analyzed the influence of pollen viability and stigma receptivity to reproduction.The best composition of medium is 10%sucrose+0.1%H3 BO3+0.2 g・ L-1 Ca(NO3 ) 2 .Pollen viability gradually reduces with the flowering process.Pollen viability is 80%at initial time of florescence and the value is 3%at the end of florescence.Survival time of pollen is seven days in 4℃.The value is five days in 25℃and two days in 35℃.Pollen has the germination ability at the first day of flowering and stigma has receptivity ability at the next day of flowering.Therefore, A.praecox ssp.orientalis‘Big Blue’ is dichogamy.%  以引种植物大花百子莲为对象,对其在引种地的花粉活力、柱头可授性进行了研究,探讨了两者与授粉成功的关系。结果表明:大花百子莲花粉萌发的最佳培养基为10%蔗糖+0.1% H3 BO3+0.2 g・ L-1 Ca(NO3)2;随着开花进程的不断深入,花粉活力不断下降,始花期的花粉活力接近80%,末花期花粉活力只有3%左右;花粉在4℃条件下存活时间约为7 d,25℃条件下存活时间为5 d,而在35℃条件下存活时间只有2 d;大花百子莲花粉在开花当天已具有萌发能力,而柱头在开花第2天具有可授性,因此大花百子莲存在雌雄异熟现象。

  19. PCR-SSP法检测HPA-15基因频率的可靠性分析%Analysis on reliability of PCR-SSP method in detecting gene frequencies of HPA-15

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春燕; 聂咏梅; 周豪杰

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨聚合酶链反应-序列特异性引物(PCR-SSP)法检测人类血小板抗原(HPA)-15基因的可靠性.方法 设计序列特异性引物,采用PCR-SSP法对惠州地区100例无偿血小板献血者进行HPA-15基因分型,同时采用DNA测序法检测HPA-15基因频率,与PCR-SSP方法检测结果进行比对.结果 PCR-SSP法检测HPA-15a和HPA-15b的基因频率分别为0.535 0和0.465 0,DNA测序法检测HPA-15a和HPA-15b的基因频率分别为0.530 0和0.470 0,两种方法检测HPA-15基因频率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 PCR-SSP方法可作为一种快速、便捷、可靠的筛查HPA-15基因频率技术,可为临床病人提供HPA-15相合的血小板.

  20. Ectopic expression of a phytochrome B gene from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) in Arabidopsis thaliana promotes seedling de-etiolation, dwarfing in mature plants, and delayed flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Pei; Shang, Hong-Zhong; Gu, Hai-Ke; Li, Jing-Juan; Xiao, Yang; Guo, Lin; Su, Liang; Gao, Jian-Wei; Yang, Jian-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Phytochrome B (phyB) is an essential red light receptor that predominantly mediates seedling de-etiolation, shade-avoidance response, and flowering time. In this study, we isolate a full-length cDNA of PHYB, designated BrPHYB, from Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), and we find that BrphyB protein has high amino acid sequence similarity and the closest evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana phyB (i.e., AtphyB). Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results indicate that the BrPHYB gene is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues under all light conditions. Constitutive expression of the BrPHYB gene in A. thaliana significantly enhances seedling de-etiolation under red- and white-light conditions, and causes dwarf stature in mature plants. Unexpectedly, overexpression of BrPHYB in transgenic A. thaliana resulted in reduced expression of gibberellins biosynthesis genes and delayed flowering under short-day conditions, whereas AtPHYB overexpression caused enhanced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T and earlier flowering. Our results suggest that BrphyB might play an important role in regulating the development of Chinese cabbage. BrphyB and AtphyB have conserved functions during de-etiolation and vegetative plant growth and divergent functions in the regulation of flowering time.

  1. Enhanced formation of aerenchyma and induction of a barrier to radial oxygen loss in adventitious roots of Zea nicaraguensis contribute to its waterlogging tolerance as compared with maize (Zea mays ssp. mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Tomomi; Kotula, Lukasz; Shiono, Katsuhiro; Malik, Al Imran; Colmer, Timothy David; Nakazono, Mikio

    2012-09-01

    Enhancement of oxygen transport from shoot to root tip by the formation of aerenchyma and also a barrier to radial oxygen loss (ROL) in roots is common in waterlogging-tolerant plants. Zea nicaraguensis (teosinte), a wild relative of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), grows in waterlogged soils. We investigated the formation of aerenchyma and ROL barrier induction in roots of Z. nicaraguensis, in comparison with roots of maize (inbred line Mi29), in a pot soil system and in hydroponics. Furthermore, depositions of suberin in the exodermis/hypodermis and lignin in the epidermis of adventitious roots of Z. nicaraguensis and maize grown in aerated or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution were studied. Growth of maize was more adversely affected by low oxygen in the root zone (waterlogged soil or stagnant deoxygenated nutrient solution) compared with Z. nicaraguensis. In stagnant deoxygenated solution, Z. nicaraguensis was superior to maize in transporting oxygen from shoot base to root tip due to formation of larger aerenchyma and a stronger barrier to ROL in adventitious roots. The relationships between the ROL barrier formation and suberin and lignin depositions in roots are discussed. The ROL barrier, in addition to aerenchyma, would contribute to the waterlogging tolerance of Z. nicaraguensis.

  2. Breeding of New Hybrid Glutinous Rice Combination ( Oryza sativa L.ssp.Japonic) and Its Characteristics%水稻粳糯杂交新组合的选育及其特征特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新其; 林金元; 殷丽青; 沈革志

    2012-01-01

    选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯( HFwx),与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行杂交、回交转育成粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯A( HFwxA),与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系糯恢2号配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合糯杂2号.小区试验和生产示范结果表明,该组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点.介绍了糯杂2号的选育经过、产量表现和特征特性.%In this study, we had bred the new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm( Oryza saliva L ssp. Japonic) , named Nuoza No. 2, which was obtained by crossing between HFwxA, a japonica glutinous rice CMS which came from crossing and backcrossing between HFwx ( a japonica glutinous rice variety with good comprehensive charaters) and HFA ( a japonica rice CMS) , and a autonomously bred japonica glutinous restoring line. The results of spot experiment and demonstration trials indicated that the characters of the new combination were high - yielding. Good quality and strong resistance. The breeding and selecting process, yield performance and characteristics of Nuoza No. 2 were introduced.

  3. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. grown under two levels of chemical protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007-2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Science in Lublin. The studies comprised two cultivation lines of durum wheat (Triticum durum L.: STH 716 and STH 717, as well as the 'Tonacja' cultivar of common wheat (T. aestivum ssp. vulgare L.. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation: minimal and complex protection. Infection of wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Tottman's scale, 1987. After three years of study, the mean disease indexes for the analyzed wheat genotypes in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 31.13, 30.43 and 38.83 for, respectively, the 'Tonacja' cultivar and the cultivation lines of T. durum STH 716 and STH 717. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after three years of study the disease indexes ranged from 25.26 (T. durum STH 716 to 30.83 (T. durum STH 717. The results of mycological analysis of diseased plants showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, F. avenaceum as well as Bipolaris sorokiniana and Rhizoctonia solani, caused root rot and necrosis of wheat stem bases. The analyzed chemical protection levels did not significantly influence grain yield of the investigated genotypes of T. aestivum and T. durum.

  4. 湖北汉族人群人血小板同种抗原系统基因分型研究%Genotyping of HPA Blood Group by PCR-SSP in Hubei Han Population of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗成伟; 胡丽华; 王琳; 饶神宗

    2003-01-01

    目的研究湖北汉族人群人血小板同种抗原系统(HPA)基因型及其多态性分布特征,并与其他种族相比较.方法用DNA提取试剂盒提取外周血标本中的DNA,用聚合酶链式反应-序列特异性引物(PCR-SSP)扩增HPA等位基因.结果 100名健康、无血缘关系的湖北汉族人群HPA基因频率为HPA-la:0.97、HPA-1b:0.03;HPA-2a:0.98、HPA 2b:0.02;HPA-3a:0.82、HPA-3b:0.18;HPA-4a:0.99、HPA-4b:0.01;HPA 5a:0.91、HPA-5b:0.09(P>0.05,u=1,符合Hardy-Weinberg公式).结论 HPA血型系统多态性具有人群特征,在不同的国家和地区HPA基因频率均不相同.与其他种族相比,中国人群HPA血型系统中a基因频率较高,b基因频率较低,理论杂合率与实际杂合率均低于其他种族,说明在中国人群中由b基因不合所引起的同种免疫病理反应要低于其他种族人群.

  5. The occurrence of fungi on roots and stem bases of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. grown under two levels of chemical protection and harmfulness of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe to seedlings of selected genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cegiełko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 2007–2009 on the plots of the Felin Experimental Station belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland. The studies comprised two breeding lines of spelt wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. Thell. – STH 3 and STH 715. Two levels of chemical protection were applied in the cultivation with minimal and complex protection. Infection of winter spelt wheat roots and stem bases was recorded in each growing season at hard dough stage (87 in Zadok’s scale. After 3 years of the study, the mean values of disease indexes for the analyzed spelt wheat lines in the experimental treatment with minimal protection were 28.53 and 40.30 respectively for STH 3 and STH 715. In the experimental combination with complex protection, after 3 years of the study the mean values of disease indexes ranged from 25.96 (STH 3 to 26.90 (STH 715. The mycological analysis showed that Fusarium spp., especially F. culmorum, caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat in the experimental combination with minimal and complex protection. Moreover, Fusarium avenaceum and Bipolaris sorokiniana caused root rot and necrosis of stem bases of spelt wheat. Investigation carried out in a growth chamber on susceptibility of seedlings of three lines of spelt wheat (LO 2/09/n/2, LO 5/09/13/3, LO 5/09/5/4 to infection with Fusarium graminearum No. 8 and F. graminearum No. 45 showed that the genotypes did not differ in their susceptibility. All of them were susceptible, as indicated by high values of the disease indexes. No interaction was found between genotypes and strains of the fungus. This indicates the differential pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species.

  6. Cloning and Expression Analysis of Ty1-copia-like Retrotransposons in Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis%不结球白菜Ty1-copia类逆转座子序列的克隆及表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖栋; 侯喜林; 马景蕃; 王枫; 齐莉; 李音孜

    2009-01-01

    参照Ty1-copia类逆转座子逆转录酶的保守区设计简并引物,分别从10个不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis)品种的全基因组中均扩增出260 bp左右的目标条带. 将目的条带回收、克隆和测序后进行分析,DNAstar分析发现,这些序列存在高度的异质性,28个核苷酸序列变化范围为224~278 bp,同源性范围为16.7%~83.0%.28条序列通过核苷酸聚类分为8个家族.推导氨基酸序列有移框突变、终止子突变或二者兼有;与已登录的不同物种同一类型逆转录酶氨基酸系统进化树分析表明,不结球白菜Ty1-copia类逆转座子与芥菜型油菜、拟南芥、芜菁、甜菜可能有共同的起源.半定量和实时定量PCR检测表明,水杨酸(salicylic acid)和Peronospora parasitica均能激活不结球白菜Ty1-copia类逆转座子,逆转座子在不结球白菜叶片中的表达特征说明它可能参与寄主对病原菌的抗性.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process LPR based on EREMA Advanced and Colortronic SSP ® technology used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process LPR (EU register No RECYC061 which is based on the EREMA advanced and Colortronic SSP ® technologies. The input to the process is hot caustic washed and dried PET flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET bottles and containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and dried PET flakes are heated successively in two continuous reactors under vacuum before being extruded into pellets. After extrusion they are crystallised and solid state polymerized. Having examined the results of the challenge test provided, the Panel concluded that the four steps, the decontamination in two continuous reactors, extrusion, crystallisation and solid state polymerization are the critical steps that determine the decontamination efficiency of the process. The operating parameters to control the performance of these critical steps are temperature, pressure, gas flow and residence time. Under these conditions, it was demonstrated that the recycling process is able to ensure that the level of migration of potential unknown contaminants into food is below the modelled migration of 0.1 μg/kg food derived from exposure scenario for infants and 0.15 μg/kg food derived from the exposure scenario for toddlers. The Panel concluded that recycled PET obtained from LPR process is not of safety concern when used to manufacture articles intended for food contact materials applications in compliance with the conditions as specified in the conclusion of the opinion.

  8. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy of cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 demonstrates that group I cations are particularly effective in providing structure and stability to this halophilic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Reed

    Full Text Available Proteins from extremophiles have the ability to fold and remain stable in their extreme environment. Here, we investigate the presence of this effect in the cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase from Halobacterium salinarum ssp. NRC-1 (NRC-1, which was used as a model halophilic protein. The effects of salt on the structure and stability of NRC-1 and of E. coli CysRS were investigated through far-UV circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal denaturation melts. The CD of NRC-1 CysRS was examined in different group I and group II chloride salts to examine the effects of the metal ions. Potassium was observed to have the strongest effect on NRC-1 CysRS structure, with the other group I salts having reduced strength. The group II salts had little effect on the protein. This suggests that the halophilic adaptations in this protein are mediated by potassium. CD and fluorescence spectra showed structural changes taking place in NRC-1 CysRS over the concentration range of 0-3 M KCl, while the structure of E. coli CysRS was relatively unaffected. Salt was also shown to increase the thermal stability of NRC-1 CysRS since the melt temperature of the CysRS from NRC-1 was increased in the presence of high salt, whereas the E. coli enzyme showed a decrease. By characterizing these interactions, this study not only explains the stability of halophilic proteins in extremes of salt, but also helps us to understand why and how group I salts stabilize proteins in general.

  9. 新疆哈密瓜永久遗传图谱构建及比较分析%Construction of Permanent Genetic Map and Comparative Analysis of Xinjiang Hami Melon[Cucumis melo L.ssp.melo convar.ameri(Pang.)Greb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆芳; 张海英; 许勇; 赵越; 曹迪; 冯建明; 郭绍贵; 宫国义; 伊鸿平; 吴明珠

    2009-01-01

    新疆哈密瓜[Cucumis melo L.ssp.melo convar.ameri(Pang.)Greb.]是我国特有的栽培甜瓜种质资源,具有不同于网纹甜瓜[Cucumis melo L.ssp.melo convar.cantalupa(Pang.)Greb.]的独立遗传背景.以新疆哈密瓜和网纹甜瓜为亲本构建F_2S_6作图群体,采用SSR标记技术获得同时具有哈密瓜和网纹甜瓜遗传背景的永久遗传图谱.图谱由22个连锁群组成,包括201个SSR标记,1个白粉病抗性基因标记,覆盖基因组长度977.153 cM,标记间的平均距离4.837 cM.本图谱中的17个连锁群与Fernandez-Silva 等构建的网纹甜瓜遗传背景图谱具有线性关系,两张图谱共有46个相同SSR标记.

  10. Tungsten phosphanylarylthiolato complexes [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa3S,S',P} 2] and [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa4S,S',S",P}2]: synthesis, structures and redox chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alexandra; Lönnecke, Peter; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminita; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2008-09-14

    PhP(2-SHC6H4)2 (PS2H2) reacts with WCl6 with reduction of tungsten to give the air-sensitive tungsten(IV) complex [W{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}2] (1). 1 is oxidised in air to [WO{PhPO(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',O}{PhP(2-SC6H4)2-kappa(3)S,S',P}] (2). The attempted synthesis of 2 by reaction of 1 with iodosobenzene as oxidising agent was unsuccessful. [W{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}2] (3) was formed in the reaction of P(2-SHC6H4)3 (PS3H3) with WCl6. The W(VI) complex 3 contains two PS3(3-) ligands, each coordinated in a tetradentate fashion resulting in a tungsten coordination number of eight. The reaction of 3 with AgBF4 yields the dinuclear tungsten complex [W2{P(2-SC6H4)3-kappa(4)S,S',S",P}3]BF4 (4). Complexes 1-4 were characterised by spectral methods and X-ray structure determination.

  11. 大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)中DnaE intein介导ABCA1蛋白的连接%Separate expression of ABCA1 and ligation mediated by Ssp DnaE intein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱甫祥; 缪静; 屈慧鸽; 迟晓艳

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]By exploring Ssp DnaE intein-catalyzed protein trans-splicing we investigated the ligation of expression product of ATP-binding cassette transporter Al(ABCAl) gene in E. coli.[Methods]The ABCA1 cDNA was broken into two halves of N-part and C-part before Cys~(978) codon which meets the splicing required conserved residue, and then fused to 123 and 36 amino acid-containing N terminal and C terminal coding sequences of Ssp DnaE intein naturally occurring trans-splicing intein respectively. These two fusion genes were constructed into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). After transformation into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells followed by induction the expression of recombinant proteins and the ligation of ABCA1 were observed.[Results]Through IPTG induction for expression of recombinant protein it displayed an obvious protein band as predicted size of ABCA1 on SDS-PAGE gel. Western blotting using His-Tag specific antibody confirmed that this protein band is trans-spliced ABCA1.[Conclusion]The data demonstrated that Ssp DnaE inlein can efficiently catalyze the ligation of ABCA1 providing an evidence for our ongoing study on ABCA1 gene transfer by a dual AAV vector system to circumvent AAV volume limitation in gene therapy of Tangier disease which resulted from ABCA1 gene mutations.%[目的]利用Ssp DnaE intein的蛋白质反式剪接技术研究在大肠杆菌中对ABCAl基因表达产物的连接作用.[方法]将ABC:A1的cDNA于满足剪接所需的保守性氨基酸Cys~(978)密码子前断裂为N端和C端两部分,分别与天然存在的反式作用Ssp DnaE intein的123个氨基酸的N端和36个氨基酸的C端编码序列融合,构建到原核表达载体pET-28a(+).转化感受态大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)细胞,诱导表达后观察重组蛋白的表达和ABCA1的连接.[结果]转化菌经IPTG诱导表达,SDS-PAGE分析显示预期大小的ABCAl剪接蛋白条带,并进一步为His-Tag抗体进行的Westem blotting证实.[

  12. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with {sup 3}H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with {sup 125}I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae.

  13. Influência da densidade de plantio e da cama de frango na produção da carobinha (Jacaranda decurrens Cham. ssp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Gouvea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carobinha (Jacaranda decurrens Cham. ssp. symmetrifoliolata Farias & Proença é uma planta medicinal que ocorre no Cerrado de Mato Grosso do Sul. A espécie vem sendo amplamente utilizada pela medicina popular como depurativa do sangue e cicatrizante de feridas uterinas e dos ovários, resultando na sua exploração predatória. Por ser uma espécie identificada recentemente, os estudos sobre adaptação ex situ são ainda escassos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento, o desenvolvimento, e a produção da carobinha cultivada ex situ em cinco espaçamentos entre plantas dentro das fileiras, em parcelas adubadas com e sem cama semidecomposta de frango de corte. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Horto de Plantas Medicinais (HPM da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados - UFGD, em Dourados-MS, de abril de 2006 a outubro de 2007. Os espaçamentos entre plantas foram: 0,30; 0,35; 0,40; 0,45 e 0,50 m, sendo a cama de frango aplicada na dose de 10 t ha-1 nas parcelas com este tratamento. O ensaio fatorial 5x2, foi conduzido no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, sendo a parcela constituída de 4,5 m², com quatro repetições. As mudas foram obtidas a partir de sementes coletadas de uma população de 40 plantas nativas, distribuídas ao acaso, em área de cerca de 100 m² com vegetação característica de Cerrado. Durante o cultivo avaliou-se a altura das plantas a cada 30 dias a partir de 150 até 480 dias após o transplante (DAT. As plantas foram colhidas aos 480 DAT, quando avaliou-se as massas fresca e seca da parte aérea, raízes, área foliar, e o comprimento e o diâmetro da maior raiz. A altura máxima (1,58 m foi alcançada aos 471 DAT no espaçamento de 0,50 m entre plantas, tratadas com a cama de frango. Os dados de produtividade foram influenciados significativamente pelos espaçamentos, mas não pela adição da cama. O rendimento de massa seca das folhas por hectare não foi influenciado pelo espa

  14. Morphological Studies on the Development of Anther of Three Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines and Their Maintainer Lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.%大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药发育的细胞学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书强; 刘俊英; 崔辉梅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The development of anther microspore of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp. pekinensis were studied.[Method]The development of anther of three Ogura cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and their maintainer lines of Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis were observed from the perspective of cytology.【Result]Microspore abortion of three Ogura CMS lines (OBY, OBK, OD5) have occurred in mononuclear microspore early, and anthers have aborted entirely before blossom.[Conclusion] Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines formed vacuoles is earlier than their maintainer lines. Tapetum cell of three Ogura CMS lines has been degenerating at microsporocyte meiosis stage, and tapetum cell of their maintainer lines degenerated naturally, providing nutrients and space for microsporogenesis.%[目的]研究3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及保持系花药小抱子发育过程.[方法]对3对大白菜Ogura雄性不育系及其保持系花药发育进行细胞学观察.[结果]3个大白菜Ogura雄性不育系(OBY,OBK,OD5)的小孢子败育均发生在单核早期,在开花前完全败育.[结论]不育系绒毡层液泡化早于保持系,花粉母细胞减数分裂时不育系绒毡层细胞已开始退化,而保持系(BY,BK,D5)绒毡层自然解体,供给小孢子发育所需的营养物质和发育空间.

  15. Induced role of calcium, salicylic acid, and chitosan complexed treatment on salt tolerance in Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis L%钙、水杨酸和壳聚糖复配处理对小白菜抗盐性的诱导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芬芬; 韩金多; 李坚; 罗晓燕

    2011-01-01

    The inducing effects of CaCl2, chitosan(CTS) , and salicylic acid(SA) binary compound and ternary compound on salt resistance of Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis L. With the method of rhizosphere and foliar spray were investigated. The results showed that SA, CTS, CaCl2 complex could significantly reduce the salt injury index, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, enhance peroxidase (POD) activity and chlorophyll content of pakchoi. The treatment with CTS + CaCl2 showed the best salt resistance and the most significant promoting effect on growth. The treatment of SA, CTS and CaCl2 ternary compound was inferior to that of binary compounds.%以小白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis.L)为对象,采用根际施用结合叶面喷洒的方法,研究CaCl2、壳聚糖(chitosan,CTS)和水杨酸(salicylic acid,SA)两两复配及三元复配对小白菜盐胁迫逆境的诱抗作用.结果表明:SA,CTS,CaCl2复配施用均能显著降低盐胁迫下小白菜的盐害指数,降低小白菜叶片的丙二醛(MDA)含量,增强过氧化物酶(POD)活性,提高叶绿素含量.各处理以CTS+CaCl2复配施用对小白菜的诱导抗盐效果最好,对小白菜生长的促进作用最显著.SA,CTS,CaCl2三元复配的效果不如二元复配效果好,复配后存在一定的拮抗作用.

  16. Allometries for Widely Spaced Populus ssp. and Betula ssp. in Nurse Crop Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Stark

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nurse crops of widely spaced pioneer trees are a silvicultural approach to protect the regeneration of frost sensitive target tree species. If overstorey nurse crops are harvested, they can provide additional short-term benefits through increased biomass production, e.g., for bioenergy. However, the intensification of biomass exports from forests might impact negatively on ecosystem nutrient pools. Thus, precise allometric biomass equations are required to quantify biomass and nutrient removals. Since an analysis of published allometric equations developed for typical, dense aspen or birch forests showed that the tree height-to-diameter ratio correlated positively and the proportion of branch biomass negatively with stand density, we developed new allometric biomass equations for widely spaced aspen and birch growing at 4 x 4 m spacing. These equations yielded a root mean squared error of 13% when predicting total aboveground woody biomass for our sample trees. In contrast, the corresponding root mean squared error produced by allometric biomass equations from the literature ranged between 17% to 106% of actual dry biomass. Our results show that specific allometric biomass equations are needed for widely spaced pioneer trees both for accurate estimates of biomass and the nutrients contained within.

  17. Breeding and High-Yield Cultivation Technology of Good Quality Cross Combination Waxy Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.ssp.japonic)%优质粳型杂交糯稻新组合选育及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新其; 邱美良; 郭萱昊; 殷丽青; 李茂柏; 卢有林; 沈革志

    2012-01-01

    为了快速培育高产、优质、抗性强的杂交粳型糯稻新种质,选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯(HFwx),将其与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行育性转换,获得了粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯(HFwxA),并与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合(HFwxA/N2R).小区和示范试验结果表明,选育获得的杂交糯稻新组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点,具有生产应用前景.杂交糯稻新组合的生育特征特性和高产栽培技术的试验总结,对杂交糯稻的推广应用和产业化发展都具有十分重要的参考意义.%In order to quick breed a new high yield,high quality and strong resistance hybrid glutinous rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic) ,japonica rice (HFwxB) with good comprehensive agronomic was obtained and translated into HFwxA by using it's the same type of CMS (HFA), a new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm was gotten and named Nuoza 2 (HFwxA/N2R). The small field test and demonstration trials indicated that the new combination of Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic was high-yield, good quality and strong resistance, which could be applied and extended. The high-yield cultivation techniques and breeding characters of the hybrid new combination are very useful for its application and industrialization development.

  18. Studies on Tetraploid Breeding Techniques by Using Isolated Microspore Culture Techniques in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino%基于小孢子培养的青梗菜多倍体育种技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯辉; 付颖; 杨硕; 包美丽; 刘雪利

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop diversified tetraploid lines in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis(L.)Makino and thereby facilitate heterosis breeding.Sixteen hybrid varieties were used for isolated microspore culture and 393 regenerated plants were obtained.Among these,113 plants were identified as tetraploids based on morphological identification,examination of stomatal characteristics,size measurement and viability testing of pollen,and chromosome counts of the pollen mother cells.Furthermore,3 tetraploid lines showing excellent characteristics were screened.The 3 selected tetraploid lines were used as parents,and a tetraploid hybrid‘T24 × T11’with significant heterosis and comprehensive quality traits was selected through a variety comparison tests.A technical system for tetraploid heterosis breeding was established based on isolated microspore in Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino.%为创制多样性的青梗菜多倍体纯系用于多倍体育种实践,以16个青梗菜杂交种为试材进行游离小孢子培养,获得了393株小孢子植株。再生植株经过形态鉴定、叶片气孔特征检测、花粉粒大小及生活力检测、花粉母细胞染色体计数,鉴定出113个自然加倍的四倍体植株,从中筛选出3个优良株系。以可育的四倍体株系为亲本配制杂交组合,通过品种比较试验筛选出1个优势显著、综合性状优良的四倍体杂交组合‘T24×T11’。建立了基于游离小孢子培养的青梗菜多倍体育种技术体系。

  19. Effects of high temperature stress on the photosynthesis and osmoregulation substances of flag leaves in Oryza stavia L. ssp. javanica%高温胁迫对爪哇稻剑叶光合特性和渗透调节物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵森; 于江辉; 肖国樱

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of high temperature during anthesis in rice was expected to occur more frequently in future climates. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of high temperature stress on the photosynthesis and the osmoregulation substances and to reveal the mechanisms for physiological metabolism change. Two varieties of Oryza stavia L. ssp. javanica IRAT109 (thermo-tolerant) and 19 D (thermo-sensitive) were treated in phytron under high temperature of 33.5 °C. The results showed that the stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis rate decreased and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased in both of the varieties during high temperature stress. But the thermo-tolerant variety IRAT109 maintained higher level of photosynthesis than thermo-sensitive variety 19 D. For two varieties, the stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis rate in plants under high temperature for 12 d were significant different from those under natural temperature. The soluble sugar and protein contents decreased gradually and the heat stable proteins increased gradually as high temperature gone in both of the varieties during high temperature stress. The proline content increased in the beginning and decreased at the end during high temperature treatment in two varieties of rice. However, the reductions in soluble sugars and proteins in IRAT109 were smaller than those in 19 D, while the increases in heat stable protein and proline content in IRAT109 were greater than those in 19 D. The contents of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and heat stable proteins in plants under high temperature stress for 6 d, 9 d and 12 d were significant different with that under nature condition in both varieties of rice. The content of proline in plants treated for 3 d, 6d and 9d increased significantly than that under natural condition in both varieties of rice. We proposed that maintaining a higher level of photosynthesis and osmoregulation

  20. 抑制差减杂交法研究复等位基因遗传的大白菜核雄性不育分子机制%The Molecular-mechanism Research of Genic Multiple-allele Inherited Male-sterile in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.chinensis) by Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀瑞琴; 宋倩; 辛喜凤; 周雪; 冯辉

    2011-01-01

    AB01, the two-type line of multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. Chinensis ) was bred by our research group, the technology system of this material had been build, but its sterile molecular mechanism was not clear yet. In this research, sterility and fertility cDNA libraries including 27 differentially expressed clones were constructed using the fertile and sterile buds of AB01 by the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). According to BLAST screening and functional annotation, 25 ESTs were homology to known sequence of the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI). The 25 genes, with homology to known proteins, could be divided into 4 groups (7 flowers developing-felated genes, 5 lipid metabolism, 3 energy metabolism genes, 3 chloroplast related genes and 7 encode the unclassified proteins). The results suggested the molecular mechanism of genic multiple-allele inherited male-sterile Chinese cabbage was related with lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and photosynthesis progress.%AB01是本课题组培育的复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜甲型“两用系”,目前已建立了一套该材料的应用技术体系,但其不育分子机制尚不明确.本研究以AB01的不育株和可育株为材料,利用抑制差减杂交技术构建了正反抑制差减cDNA文库,并通过测序及生物信息学手段寻找育性相关基因,以此来推断该材料的不育分子机制.研究共找到27个差异表达基因,其中25个基因在NCBI数据库中均有同源序列,这些基因中7个与花发育相关,5个与脂类代谢相关,3个与活性氧及能量代谢相关,3个与光合作用及叶绿体合成相关,其余7个为功能未知基因.由此推测复等位基因遗传的核雄性不育大白菜不育的发生与脂类、能量代谢及光合作用有关.

  1. 茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸诱导的大白菜叶片与根系硫苷含量系统性变化研究%Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xiang ZANG; Jia-li GE; Ling-hui HUANG; Fei GAO; Xi-shan LV; Wei-wei ZHENG; Seung-beom HONG; Zhu-jun ZHU

    2015-01-01

      结论:茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸处理后,大白菜根系比叶片积累更多的硫苷,吲哚族硫苷比其他种类的硫苷积累更快;茉莉酸甲酯诱导硫苷合成的效果好于水杨酸,而且诱导时间更长;茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸在诱导大白菜根系硫苷合成过程中具有反协同效应。%Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Re-gardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. Al three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that ac-cumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elici-tation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA-and MeJA-mediated systemic response sys-tems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on

  2. 硅对镉胁迫下白菜光合作用及相关生理特性的影响%Effect of Silicon on Photosynthesis and Its Related Physiological Parameters of Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino Grown Under Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋阿琳; 李萍; 李兆君; 梁永超

    2011-01-01

    Two pakchoi[Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino]cultivars:i.e.Hangyoudong(HYD),a Cd-tolerant cultivar and Shanghaiqing(SHQ),a Cd-susceptible cultivar,were selected among 12 pakchoi genotypes based on the root tolerance index,and then grown hydroponically to investigate the effects of Si on biomass,photosynthetic parameters and leaf stoma structure and chloroplast ultrastructure in two contrasting pakchoi cultivars grown under Cd stress.Theresults showed that shoot and root biomass of SHQ and HYD with Cd treatment decreased by 33.8%,30.9% and 28.2%,6.8% compared with the corresponding controls;Cd contents were 56.2,86.6 and 44.7,62.9 times as high in the Cd treatment alone as in the corresponding control treatment.Net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),transpiration rate(Tr)and chlorophyll content of the two pakchoi cultivars tested were all decreased under Cd-stress,while intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci)was increased under Cd-stress.Microscopic observations showed that the stoma transmutated and chloroplast structure swelled observably with chloroplast granae being destroyed heavily under Cd-stress,which were all counteracted by addition of Si.Addition of Si to Cd treatment significantly increased shoot and root biomass of SHQ and HYD by 24.9%,41.8% and 32.0%,43.5%,decreased Cd contents in shoot of both cultivars by 15.1% and 26.3%,and increased Cd contents in root of both cultivars by 24.7% and 33.6%,compared with the corresponding Cd treatments alone.The results showed that addition of Si suppressed Cd uptake in shoots and root-to-shoot transport,improved the photosynthetic efficiency.However,the alleviation of Si on above-mentioned parameters was smaller in Cd-sensitive plant cultivar than in Cd-resistant plant.%通过水培试验,采用前期以根系耐性指数为指标从12个白菜[Brassica campestris L.ssp.chinensis(L.)Makino]品种中筛选的两个对Cd耐性不同的白菜品种‘上海青

  3. Efecto del hidrogel sobre el rendimiento de semilla en tres cultivares de Brachiaria spp en el valle de Iguala, gro., México (Efect of hidrogel on yield of seed of three cultivars of Brachiaria ssp in the valley of Iguala guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolo Hernández Santana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenBajo un diseño de bloques completamente al azar en un arreglo de parcelas divididas, se evaluó el efecto de tres niveles de hidrogel sobre el rendimiento de semilla de tres cultivares de Brachiaria ssp . Los niveles fueron 0,10 y 20 Kg ha-¹ de hidrogel, y los cultivares; Insurgente, Mulato y Toledo. Las variables consideradas fueron: altura de planta al 100% de floración (APF,densidad de tallos (DT, densidad de tallos reproductivos primarios (DTRP,densidad de tallos reproductivos secundarios (DTRS, porcentaje de acame (PA, rendimiento de semilla bruta (RSBR, rendimiento de semilla ventilada (RSVE y rendimiento de semilla pura (RSPU. En el análisis estadístico a todas las variables se les aplicó el análisis de varianza para evaluar el efecto del hidrogel y el comportamiento de los cultivares en el rendimiento de semilla. Se efectuaron las pruebas de comparación múltiple de medias de Tukey para conocer si existió asociación de las variables de estudio. El análisis de varianza mostró que existió diferencias significativas (P <0.05 para el factor cultivar en las variables: (RSVE, (RSPU, (DT, (DTRP y (PA y altamente significativas (P<0.01 en (RSBR, (APF y (DTRS. En relación al factor hidrogel no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas en ninguna de las variables estudiadas. En tanto que en la interacción cultivar por hidrogel sólo la variable (DT presentó diferencias significativas (P<0.05. La comparación múltiple de medias evidenció que existió diferencias estadísticas entre cultivares en todas las variables de estudio, destacando que en la variable (RSBR, el cv Mulato fue el que presentó la mejor media con 516.06 Kg de semilla ha-¹ mientras que para las variables (RSVE y (RSPU fue el cv Toledo, con 88.36 y 82.45 Kg ha-¹ respectivamente. En relación a los niveles de hidrogel no se encontró diferencias estadísticas en ninguna de las variables de estudio.AbstractIt was evaluated the effect of three hidrogel levels

  4. 不结球白菜根尖体细胞染色体制片及其二倍体和四倍体有丝分裂过程观察%Chromosome preparation of somatic cell in root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis ) and observation of mitosis process of its diploid and tetraploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金双; 张蜀宁; 孙成振; 王雅美

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)根尖为材料,对染色体制片过程中根长(小于0.5 cm、0.5 ~ 1.0 cm、1.0~2.0 cm及大于2.0 cm)、预处理方法、预处理剂种类(2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉、2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉与质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素等体积混合液、质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素、饱和对二氯苯、质量浓度20或40 mg·L-1放线菌酮、质量浓度40mg·L-1放线菌酮与2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉等体积混合液)及预处理时间(1.0~3.5 h)进行了比较和筛选;在此基础上,对二倍体和四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程进行观察.结果表明:根长度对分裂相的数量有显著影响;根长1.0~2.0 cm,分裂相相对较多,占细胞总数的64.75%.冰冻预处理22 ~ 23 h,能获得一定量的分裂相.采用不同的预处理剂及预处理时间,分裂相的数量及染色体形态有明显差异;用质量浓度40 mg·L-1放线菌酮溶液处理3.5h,分裂相数量最多,但易导致染色体加倍;用质量浓度20mg·L-1放线菌酮预处理3.5h,染色体长且着丝点及随体清晰,且分裂相较多,占细胞总数的53.65%.因而,根长度以1.0 ~2.0 cm为宜,适宜的预处理方法为用质量浓度20 mg·L-1放线菌酮浸泡2.0~3.0 h.二倍体及四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程基本相似,在有丝分裂的间期、前期、中期、后期和末期染色体的行为基本一致,但在四倍体的有丝分裂过程中会出现多价体、染色体桥、落后染色体、染色体异常分离及内源有丝分裂等异常现象.%Using root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) as experimental material, root length (shorter than 0.5 cm, 0.5-1.0 cm, 1.0-2.0 cm and longer than 2.0 cm) , pretreatment method, pretreatment agent types (2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline, equivalent volume mixed solution of 2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline and 0. 2 g

  5. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;

    This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test......, no conclusions are drawn. These can be found in papers and patent referenced in the data report. Various kinds of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, force transducers, strain gauges and optical deformation measuring system (DIC). The experimental investigation consisted...

  6. Evaluation of proposed Skylab and SSP soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, R. L.; Spurlock, J. M.; Whitmore, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Four candidate cleansing agents evaluated in terms of potential hazards to crew members included two soaps (Neutrogena bar soap and Olive Leaf Liquid), one nonfoaming surfactant (Miranol JEM), and one laundry detergent (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate). None of the four exhibited adverse dermatological effects from skin patch tests or supported growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Aqueous solutions of Neutrogena did support a mold species. Neutrogena and Miranol JEM were used in a simulated Skylab personal hygiene regimen with no adverse effects on skin or skin microflora. Based on our results, each of these agents appear to be a promising candidate material for the use intended.

  7. Disruption of SSP/VWI states by a stable stratification

    CERN Document Server

    Eaves, T S

    2015-01-01

    We identify `minimal seeds' for turbulence, i.e. initial conditions of the smallest possible total perturbation energy density $E_c$ that trigger turbulence from the laminar state, in stably stratified plane Couette flow using the `direct-adjoint-looping' (DAL) method for finding nonlinear optimal perturbations that optimise the time averaged total dissipation of energy in the flow. These minimal seeds are located adjacent to the edge manifold, the manifold in state space that separates trajectories which transition to turbulence from those which eventually decay to the laminar state. The edge manifold is also the stable manifold of the system's `edge state'. The trajectories from the minimal seed initial conditions spend a large amount of time in the vicinity of some states: the edge state; another state contained within the edge manifold; or even in dynamically slowly varying regions of the edge manifold, allowing us to investigate the effects of a stable stratification on any coherent structures associated...

  8. COMUNICACIONES CORTAS TERPENOS ISLADOS DE LOS FRUTOS DE CLUSIA ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron triterpenos de los frutos de tres especies de Clusia (familia Guttiferae. En C.multlflora y C. grandiflora se encontraron eufenol, epímero en C-20 del tirucallol, y 3 ceto eufano antes no reportados para este género. También se encontró isocariofileno en C. grandiflora.

  9. Structural studies of exopolysaccharides produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez de Medina Herrera, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactic acid bacteria are widely used in the food industry, especially for the preparation of dairy products, such as yoghurt and cheese. Their interesting physical and rheological properties make them suitable as gellifying or viscosifying agents in the developm

  10. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  11. Study on multi-PCR-SSP technique for HPA-1 ~ 17bw genotyping and the distribution of HPAs polymorphism in Chinese Zhuang population%多重PCR-SSP技术应用于HPA-1~17bw基因分型研究和广西壮族人群HPA多态性的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申卫东; 李丽兰; 廖燕; 赵桐茂; 吴国光

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立应用于HPA-1~ 17bw基因分型的多重聚合酶链反应-序列特异性引物(PCR-SSP)技术,对广西壮族人群HPA多态性分布进行调查.方法 设计多种HPA序列特异性引物的组合,在1个PCR反应体系中同时扩增多个HPA基因,根据扩增片断的有无和大小,指定相应的HPA基因型,并以17例国际合作研究项目提供的HPA参比DNA配组标本,以及100例已知HPA型的血小板供者的DNA标本作验证.使用验证后的技术对2659名无血缘关系的广西壮族人群展开PA-1~17bw的基因分型和抗原多态性研究.结果 建立了由16种PCR引物混合液,其中有6种多重PCR引物混合液组成的PCR-SSP反应体系,可用于HPA-1~17bw等位基因的检测.以HPA参比DNA配组标本,以及已知HPA型的供者的DNA标本的检测作验证,HPA分型结果完全一致;在2 659名广西壮族人群中各HPA等位基因频率分布为:HPA-1a和-1b为0.991 5和0.008 5,HPA-2a和-2b为0.956 9和0.043 1,HPA-3a和-3b为0.512 2和0.487 8,HPA-5a和-5b为0.985 0和0.015 0,HPA-6a和-6b为0.985 1和0.014 9,HPA-15a和-15b为0.5256和0.474 4;HPA-4、HPA-7~14bw、HPA-16~ 17bw只有a/a的纯合子;HPA-2~3、HPA-6bw以及HPA-15均存在a/a和b/b纯合子基因型个体.结论 多重PCR-SSP技术应用于HPA基因分型减少了PCR扩增反应数量,节省了人力、物力,HPA分型系统性强,可用于大量标本的HPA-1~ 17bw基因分型等研究和筛查工作;应用该方法研究证明广西壮族人群HPA多态性分布具有民族特征,有助于对壮族人群血小板免疫学特点的了解.

  12. hexA of Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora strain Ecc71 negatively regulates production of RpoS and rsmB RNA, a global regulator of extracellular proteins, plant virulence and the quorum-sensing signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Cui, Y; Ma, W; Liu, Y; Chatterjee, A K

    2000-04-01

    The soft-rotting bacterium, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E. c. carotovora), produces an array of extracellular enzymes (= exoenzymes), including pectate lyase (Pel), polygalacturonase (Peh), cellulase (Cel) and protease (Prt), as well as HarpinEcc, the elicitor of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The production of these exoenzymes and HarpinEcc responds to plant products and the quorum-sensing signal [N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone; OHL] and is subject to both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. hexA of E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71 (hereafter hexA71), like that of another E. c. carotovora strain, negatively controls the production of exoenzymes, OHL and virulence in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71. In addition to exoenzymes, HexA71 negatively regulates the expression of hrpNEcc, the structural gene for HarpinEcc. Exoenzyme overproduction is abolished by OHL deficiency in a HexA- and Ohll- double mutant, indicating that HexA and OHL are components of a common regulatory pathway controlling exoenzyme production. HexA71 negatively affects RpoS, as the levels of this alternative sigma factor are higher in the HexA- mutant than in the HexA+ strain. However, a HexA- and RpoS double mutant produces higher levels of exoenzymes and transcripts of pel-1, peh-1 and celVgenes than the HexA- and RpoS+ parent. Thus, the elevated levels of RpoS protein in the HexA- mutant do not account for exoenzyme overproduction. The following evidence associates for the first time the phenotypic changes in the HexA mutant to overproduction of rsmB RNA, a global regulator of exoenzymes, HarpinEcc, OHL and secondary metabolites. Analyses of rsmB transcripts and expression of an rsmB-lacZoperon fusion in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71 revealed that HexA71 negatively regulates transcription of rsmB. Multiple copies of hexA71+ DNA suppress various phenotypes, including exoenzyme production in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71, and concomitantly inhibit the production of rsm

  13. Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora Infection Induced "Defense Lignin" Accumulation and Lignin Biosynthetic Gene Expression in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) infects and causes soft rot disease in hundreds of crop species including vegetables, flowers and fruits. Lignin biosynthesis has been implicated in defensive reactions to injury and pathogen Infection in plants. In this work, variations of lignin content and gene expression in the molecular interaction between Chinese cabbage and Ecc were investigated. H2O2 accumulation and peroxidase activity were detected by 3, 3'-Dimethoxybenzidine staining at mocked and Ecc-inoculated sites of Chinese cabbage leafstalks. Klason lignin content in inoculated plants increased by about 7.84%, 40.37%, and 43.13% more than that of the mocked site at 12, 24 and 72 h after inoculation, respectively. Gas chromatography detected more p-coumaryl (H) and less coniferyl (G) and sinapyl (S)monolignins in leafstalks of Chinese cabbage. All three monomers increased in Ecc-infected leafstalks, and the Ecc-induced "defense lignin" were composed of more G and H monolignins, and less S monolignin. After searching the expressed sequence tags (EST) data of Chinese cabbage, 12 genes putatively encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis were selected to study their expression. All of these genes could be Induced by mock inoculation and Ecc infection, while the gene expression lasted for several more hours in the infected samples than in mocked and untreated plants. Our results indicated that "defense lignin" was different from the developmental lignin in composition; G and S monolignins were significantly induced in plants in response to the soft rot Ecc; thus, lignin biosynthesis was differentially regulated and played a role in plant response to the soft rot Ecc.

  14. Kinetics of carotenoids degradation during the storage of einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2008-12-10

    To evaluate the effect of storage temperature, the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in wholemeal and white flour of einkorn cv. Monlis and bread wheat cv. Serio, stored at -20, 5, 20, 30, and 38 degrees C, was assessed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. In Monlis, the carotenoids content (8.1 and 9.8 mg/kg for wholemeal and white flour, respectively) was 8-fold higher than in Serio (1.0 and 1.1 mg/kg). Only lutein and zeaxanthin were detected in bread wheat, while significant quantities of (alpha and beta)-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin were observed in einkorn. Carotenoids degradation was influenced by temperature and time, following first-order kinetics. The degradation rate was similar in wholemeal and white flour; however, loss of lutein and total carotenoids was faster in Serio than in Monlis. The activation energy E(a) ranged from 35.2 to 52.5 kJ/mol. Temperatures not exceeding 20 degrees C better preserve carotenoids content and are recommended for long-term storage.

  15. ALKALOIDS OF THE SEDUM ACRE-GROUP (CRASSULACEAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1993-01-01

    The 16 species of the Sedum acre-group were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. They are S. acre of S. ser. Acria, S. alpestre, S. annuum, S. apoleipon, S. borissovae, S. euxinum, S. grisebachii, S. laconicum, S. multiceps, S. sexangulare, S. tuberiferum, S. tuberosum, S. ursi, and S. urvill

  16. A study of the diterpene alkaloids of Aconitum napellus ssp. neomontanum during its onthogenetic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, M L; Bravin, M; Tome, F

    1988-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative variations in the diterpene alkaloids content in the neomontanum subspecies of Aconitum napellus, growing near lake of Como, were studied throughout its complete onthogenetic cycle. Aconitine, N-deethylaconitine and two compounds with m.w. = 688 and m.w. = 629 have been detected in the various organs of plant almost at any time during the vegetative cycle.

  17. New flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Aconitum napellus ssp. tauricum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fico, G; Braca, A; Bilia, A R; Tomè, F; Morelli, I

    2001-04-01

    From the methanolic extract of the flowers of A. napellus spp. tauricum four new flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7- O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (2), quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3), and kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (4), together with the known beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl beta-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structural elucidation of all compounds was deduced on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data, including those derived from 2D-NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results.

  18. Evaluation and characterization in bananas (Musa ssp.) at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banana, Musa spp., is a key horticultural crop in tropical regions of the world where they provide sustenance and serve as cash crops. The plantain subgroup in particular, is an important staple in the Caribbean, Central America and some countries in South America. One of the integral research comp...

  19. Seakeeping Trials of the Stable Semi-Submerged Platform (SSP Kaimalino)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    pressures on the craft structure duet y matn DD I AN7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IsO 0 11 ./UNCLASSI FI ED t S/N 0102-014-6601 SECURIT CLSIFICATION OF THIS...reiultt. CRAFT DESCRIPTION Prindipal dimfniioni and other craft charactertitict are cretenmd ii Table 1, 4 detailed ditcu~ilon of craft de%19" amd

  20. THE DAMAGE, BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF PINE MISTLETOES (Viscum album ssp. austriacum (Wiesb.) Vollman)

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Beşir; Akbulut, Süleyman; KETEN, Akif

    2009-01-01

    Although mistletoes are known as parasitic plants on coniferous forest of Turkey, their control is still an important problem for Forest Service. In this paper, the information on the characteristics of pine mistletoe (biology, damage, and control methods) were gathered from different sources and observations. Possible control methods and damage ratings of mistletoe were discussed. Keywords: Mistletoes, Parasite plant, Pine

  1. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado Butterfly Plant (Gaura neomexicana ssp.coloradensis)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify, in general, the areas where final critical habitat for the Desert yellowhead (Yermo xanthocephalus) occur. The geographic extent includes...

  2. Windrow burning eliminates Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning of crop residues that have been concentrated behind the harvest combine (windrowed) is one of several harvest weed seed control strategies that have been developed and evaluated in Australia to address the widespread evolution of multiple herbicide resistance in annual weeds. Herbicide-resis...

  3. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m box girder 1. Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;

    This report presents the setup and result of a full-scale test of a reinforced glass fibre/epoxy box girder used in 34m wind turbine blade. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2006. The test is an important part of a research project established in cooperation between...... the box girder was loaded until failure. A comprehensive description of the test setup is given. This report deals only with tests and results. There are no conclusions on the data in this report, but references are given to publications, where the data are used and compared with FEM etc. Various kinds...... of measuring equipment have been used during these tests: acoustic emission, 330 strain gauges, 24 mechanical displacement devices and two optical deformation measuring systems. The mechanical displacement devices measured both global (absolute) and local (relative) deflection and the optical systems measured...

  4. The essential oils of the Greek endemic Satureja horvatii ssp. macrophylla in relation to bioclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardioti, Antonia; Hanlidou, Effie; Lanaras, Tom; Kokkini, Stella

    2010-08-01

    The essential oils of the Greek endemic Satureja horvatii subsp. macrophylla collected from 36 areas (among them, 23 are included in twelve sites of the EU network NATURA 2000) belonging to different bioclimatic types were studied. The total essential-oil content is negatively related to the altitude. The variation of the essential oil composition follows a geographical pattern, which is related to the bioclimatic belts along the taxon's range. Carvacrol dominates in areas with Mediterranean and Submediterranean bioclimate (mainly in the S and C part of the taxon's distribution), linalool or trans-sabinene hydrate, and/or borneol in the Submediterranean or Temperate Axeric bioclimates (in the N part of distribution), whereas thymol is found as main oil constituent in all three bioclimates.

  5. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Gupta, Vijai K.; Singh, Bhim P.; Handique, Pratap J.; Saikia, Ratul

    2016-01-01

    Information on rhizosphere microbiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant Rhododendron arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang Thang (PTSO), Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border; in triplicates each) along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs. rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912 m) to Bum La (4509 m), revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), organic matter (OM) significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02). Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%), Acidobacteria (24.02%), Proteobacteria (16.00%), AD3 (9.23%), WPS-2 (5.1%), and Chloroflexi (1.48%) dominated the core microbiome. PMID:27642287

  6. SEROTYPES AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ENTERICA SSP IN CENTRAL THAILAND, 2001-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantip, Sirichote; Aroon, B.; Kanokwan, Tienmanee;

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to elucidate the epidemiological trends and antimicrobial susceptibilities against Salmonella serovars among Thai patients and asymptomatic carriers during 2001-2006 in central Thailand. A total of 1,401 human and 260 non-human isolates from various sources were included....... Choleraesuis, S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Typhi. Children under five years old suffered the most frequently from gastroenteritis. The patients most commonly infected with an invasive serovar were children and people from 26 to 55 years of age. Antimicrobial susceptibility data revealed that S...

  7. Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Endemic Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ssp. delavayi along Eastern Himalayan Slope in Tawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Debnath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on rhizosphere micobiome of endemic plants from high mountain ecosystems against those of cultivated plantations is inadequate. Comparative bacterial profiles of endemic medicinal plant R. arboreum Sm. subsp. delavayi rhizosphere pertaining to four altitudinal zonation Pankang-Thang (PTSO, Nagula, Y-junction and Bum La (Indo-China border (in triplicates each along cold adapted Eastern slope of Himalayan Tawang region, India is described here. Significant differences in DGGE profile between below ground bulk vs rhizospheric community profile associated with the plant was identified. Tagged 16S amplicon sequencing from PTSO (3912m to Bum La (4509 m, revealed that soil pH, total nitrogen (TN, organic matter (OM significantly influenced the underlying bacterial community structure at different altitudes. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria was inversely related to pH, as opposed to TN which was positively correlated to Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria abundance. TN was also the significant predictor for less abundant taxonomic groups Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes and Nitrospirae. Bum La soil harbored less bacterial diversity compared to other sites at lower altitudes. The most abundant phyla at 3% genetic difference were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria amongst others. Analysis of similarity indicated greater similarity within lower altitudinal than higher altitudinal group (ANOSIM, R = 0.287, p = 0.02. Constraining the ordination with the edaphic factor explained 83.13% of variation. Unique phylotypes of Bradyrhizobium and uncultured Rhizobiales were found in significant proportions at the four regions. With over 1% relative abundance Actinobacteria (42.6%, Acidobacteria (24.02%, Proteobacteria (16.00%, AD3 (9.23%, WPS-2 (5.1% and Chloroflexi (1.48% dominated the core microbiome.

  8. Extension of the source-sink potential (SSP) approach to multichannel quantum transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Philippe; Ernzerhof, Matthias

    2012-11-07

    We present an extension of the single channel source-sink potential approach [F. Goyer, M. Ernzerhof, and M. Zhuang, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 144104 (2007)] for molecular electronic devices (MEDs) to multiple channels. The proposed multichannel source-sink potential method relies on an eigenchannel description of conducting states of the MED which are obtained by a self-consistent algorithm. We use the newly developed model to examine the transport of the 1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene molecule connected to two coupled rows of atoms that act as contacts on the left and right sides. With an eigenchannel description of the wave function in the contacts, we determined that one of the eigenchannels is effectively closed by the interference effects of the side chain. Furthermore, we provide an example where we observe a complete inversion (from bonding to antibonding and vice versa) of the transverse character of the wave function upon passage through the molecule.

  9. Resistance to β-Lactams in Neisseria ssp Due to Chromosomally Encoded Penicillin-Binding Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Zapun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are human pathogens that cause a variety of life-threatening systemic and local infections, such as meningitis or gonorrhoea. The treatment of such infection is becoming more difficult due to antibiotic resistance. The focus of this review is on the mechanism of reduced susceptibility to penicillin and other β-lactams due to the modification of chromosomally encoded penicillin-binding proteins (PBP, in particular PBP2 encoded by the penA gene. The variety of penA alleles and resulting variant PBP2 enzymes is described and the important amino acid substitutions are presented and discussed in a structural context.

  10. Induction and purification of chitinase in Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera infected with Phoma lingam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Giese, H.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    A pathogen-induced chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) was isolated from cotyledons of oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Bienvenu) 8 d after inoculation with Phoma lingam. The purified chitinase has a molecular weight of 30 kDa, and an isoelectric point of approx. 9.1. A partial amino-acid sequence obtained...

  11. Fifteenth EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella ssp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad IE; Jacobs-Reitsma WF; Maas HME; de Pinna E; Mooijman KA; LZO; cib

    2012-01-01

    De Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de 27 Europese lidstaten en de NRL's van Kroatië, Voormalige Joegoslavische Republiek Macedonië, Noorwegen, Turkije en Zwitserland scoorden in 2010 goed bij de kwaliteitscontrole op Salmonella-typering. Vier laboratoria hadden hiervoor een he

  12. Quality Index Method developed for gutted and ungutted red tilapia (Oreochromis ssp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a Quality Index Method (QIM for gutted and ungutted red tilapia from aquaculture ponds. Materials and methods. 40 specimens of gutted red tilapia and 40 ungutted ones were located in foam polyethylene boxes within layers of ice and storage at 4°C. Three fish were randomly sampled on days 0, 3, 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 for gutted tilapia, and on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 11, 14 and 16 for ungutted tilapia. A sensorial panel of 8 experts was formed to evaluate the product. With three samples each day with average points of the sensorial attributes proposed in the method, the quality index for gutted and ungutted red tilapia was obtained based on the storage time on ice. Results. The Quality Index Method obtained for gutted and ungutted red tilapia showed maximum values of 21 and 29, respectively. It was adjusted in an increasing lineal model with high correlation between the Quality Index and the storage time on ice. Conclusions. The developed model is useful to determine deterioration levels and to define storage and consumption time. For gutted red tilapia the panel rejected the fish after 8 - 11 days of storage whereas the ungutted red tilapia was rejected after 6 - 9 days.

  13. Genetic loci involved in antibody response to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulietta Minozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP causes chronic enteritis in a wide range of animal species. In cattle, MAP causes a chronic disease called Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, that is not treatable and the efficacy of vaccine control is controversial. The clinical phase of the disease is characterised by diarrhoea, weight loss, drop in milk production and eventually death. Susceptibility to MAP infection is heritable with heritability estimates ranging from 0.06 to 0.10. There have been several studies over the last few years that have identified genetic loci putatively associated with MAP susceptibility, however, with the availability of genome-wide high density SNP maker panels it is now possible to carry out association studies that have higher precision. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of the current study was to localize genes having an impact on Johne's disease susceptibility using the latest bovine genome information and a high density SNP panel (Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip to perform a case/control, genome-wide association analysis. Samples from MAP case and negative controls were selected from field samples collected in 2007 and 2008 in the province of Lombardy, Italy. Cases were defined as animals serologically positive for MAP by ELISA. In total 966 samples were genotyped: 483 MAP ELISA positive and 483 ELISA negative. Samples were selected randomly among those collected from 119 farms which had at least one positive animal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: THE ANALYSIS OF THE GENOTYPE DATA IDENTIFIED SEVERAL CHROMOSOMAL REGIONS ASSOCIATED WITH DISEASE STATUS: a region on chromosome 12 with high significance (P<5x10(-6, while regions on chromosome 9, 11, and 12 had moderate significance (P<5x10(-5. These results provide evidence for genetic loci involved in the humoral response to MAP. Knowledge of genetic variations related to susceptibility will facilitate the incorporation of this information into breeding programmes for the improvement of health status.

  14. Transcriptome-Based Examination of Putative Pollen Allergens of Rice(Oryza sativa ssp.japonica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott D.Russell; Prem L Bhalla; Mohan B.Singh

    2008-01-01

    Pollen allergens are among the most abundantly transcribed and translated products in the Iife history of plants,and particularly grasses.To identify different pollen allergens in rice,putative allergens were identified in the rice genome and their expression characterized using the Affymetrix 57K rice GeneChip microarray.Among the most abundant pollen-specific candidate transcripts were Ory s 1 beta-expansin.Ory s 2,Ory s 7 EFhand,Ory s 11,Ory s 12 profilin A,Ory s 23,glycosyl hydrolase family 28(polygalacturonase).and FAD binding proteins.Highly expressed pollen proteins are frequently present in multiple copy numbers,sometimes with mirror images Iocated on nearby regions of the opposite DNA strand.Many of these are intronless and inserted as copies that retain nearly exact copies of their regulatory elements.Ory s 23 reflects low variability and high copy number,suggesting recent gene amplification.Some copies contain pseudogenes,which may reflect their origin through activity of retrotransposition;some putative allergenic sequences bear fusion products with repeat sequences of transposable elements(LTRs).The abundance of nearby repetitive sequences,activation of transposable elements.and high production of mRNA transcripts appear to coincide in pollen and may contribute to a syndrome in which highly transcribed proteins may be copied and inserted with streamlined features for translation,including grouping and removaI of introns.

  15. Occurrence and fluctuations of Acidithiobacillus ssp. in uranium mine effluents, Caldas, MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Michelle Burato de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Gomes, Heliana de Azevedo [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: michelle_borato@hotmail.com; cvroque@cnen.gov.br; hgomes@cnen.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Sulphide ores that are present in mining areas can cause serious environmental problems because of the action of chemolithotrophic bacteria of the Acidithiobacillus genera, mainly A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans. These microorganisms are capable of oxidizing sulphide minerals, elemental sulphur and ferrous ion, possibly mobilizing radionuclides such as uranium into the environment. In this context, the present study was undertaken in order to determine the occurrence and fluctuations of populations of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans in effluents from an uranium mine, part of the Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) in Caldas, MG - Brazil, analyzing samples from 9 sampling points (CM, BS, D3, 25, 27, 32, 41, 75, and 76). The results showed that the population of A. thiooxidans occurs more often (44.4%) than the population of A. ferroxidans (31.5%). In the sample points within the UTM-environment interface, points 25 and 76 were considered the most susceptible to acid mine drainage and activity of bacteria involved in metal bioleaching. The seasonal behavior of some of the variables observed at points CM, D3, and BS, when evaluated simultaneously, such as high Eh values, low pH values, the detection of greater percentages of incidence and higher counts of A. ferroxidans and A. thiooxidans, showed that these points are the main locations for the occurrence of acid mine drainage and bacterial bioleaching in the UTM and should be considered as critical points for a possible decommissioning action. (author)

  16. ICLUS v2.1 Land Use for the Fourth National Climate Assessment (SSP2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Climate and land-use change are major components of global environmental change. The first version of the Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project...

  17. The potential Public Health Impact of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis: Global Opinion Survey of Topic Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L A; Rajić, A; Stärk, K D C; McEwen, S A

    2016-05-01

    Global research knowledge has accumulated over the past few decades, and there is reasonable evidence for a positive association between Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease in humans, although its role as a human pathogen has not been entirely accepted. For this reason, management of public health risk due to M. paratuberculosis remains an important policy issue in agri-food public health arenas in many countries. Responsible authorities must decide whether existing mitigation strategies are sufficient to prevent or reduce human exposure to M. paratuberculosis. A Web-based questionnaire was administered to topic specialists to elicit empirical knowledge and opinion on the overall public health impact of M. paratuberculosis, the importance of various routes of human exposure to the pathogen, existing mitigation strategies and the need for future strategies. The questionnaire had four sections and consisted of 20 closed and five open questions. Topic specialists believed that M. paratuberculosis is likely a risk to human health (44.8%) and, given the paucity of available evidence, most frequently ranked it as a moderate public health issue (40.1%). A significant correlation was detected between topic specialists' commitment to M. paratuberculosis in terms of the number of years or proportion of work dedicated to this topic, and the likelihood of an extreme answer (high or low) to the above questions. Topic specialists identified contact with ruminants and dairy products as the most likely routes of exposure for humans. There was consensus on exposure routes for ruminants and what commodities to target in mitigation efforts. Described mandatory programmes mainly focused on culling diseased animals and voluntary on-farm prevention programmes. Despite ongoing difficulties in the identification of subclinical infections in animals, the topic specialists largely agreed that further enhancement of on-farm programmes in affected commodities by the agri-food industry (68.4%) and allocation of resources by governments to monitor the issue (92%) are most appropriate given the current state of evidence.

  18. Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Elke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara. The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species.

  19. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  20. Chitosan oligosaccharides promote the content of polyphenols in Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Heng; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai

    2012-01-11

    Greek oregano is commonly used as a spice and in traditional medicine in Eurasia. The plant is rich in secondary metabolites, such as volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polyphenols. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) are used as a plant elicitor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of COS on the growth and content of secondary metabolites in Greek oregano. Four COS treatments (50, 200, 500, and 1000 ppm) were used in a field experiment. The 200 and 500 ppm COS treatments promoted plant height growth, whereas 50 and 200 ppm COS upregulated the content of polyphenols significantly (38 and 29%, respectively). The COS treatments induced H(2)O(2) generation in Greek oregano leaves; thus, the effect of H(2)O(2) treatment was studied to investigate the possible role of H(2)O(2) in growth and polyphenol production. A low concentration of H(2)O(2) also promoted plant height growth, but only tendencies to higher polyphenol content were seen.

  1. Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris varieties using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Riek Jan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient Fis was 0.282 ± 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from Fis = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency to Fis = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes. The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (Fst = 0.232 ± 0.027. Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (Fst = 0.100 ± 0.010. The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was Fst = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Conclusions Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations.

  2. Differential expression patterns of non-symbiotic hemoglobins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Eriksson, Nélida; Pin, Pierre A; Kraft, Thomas; Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Bülow, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Biennial sugar beet (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is a Caryophyllidae that has adapted its growth cycle to the seasonal temperature and daylength variation of temperate regions. This is the first time a holistic study of the expression pattern of non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHbs) is being carried out in a member of this group and under two essential environmental conditions for flowering, namely vernalization and length of photoperiod. BvHb genes were identified by sequence homology searches against the latest draft of the sugar beet genome. Three nsHb genes (BvHb1.1, BvHb1.2 and BvHb2) and one truncated Hb gene (BvHb3) were found in the genome of sugar beet. Gene expression profiling of the nsHb genes was carried out by quantitative PCR in different organs and developmental stages, as well as during vernalization and under different photoperiods. BvHb1.1 and BvHb2 showed differential expression during vernalization as well as during long and short days. The high expression of BvHb2 indicates that it has an active role in the cell, maybe even taking over some BvHb1.2 functions, except during germination where BvHb1.2 together with BvHb1.1-both Class 1 nsHbs-are highly expressed. The unprecedented finding of a leader peptide at the N-terminus of BvHb1.1, for the first time in an nsHb from higher plants, together with its observed expression indicate that it may have a very specific role due to its suggested location in chloroplasts. Our findings open up new possibilities for research, breeding and engineering since Hbs could be more involved in plant development than previously was anticipated.

  3. Genetic Transformation of Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis via Agrobacterium- with Bt Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By means of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, 43 kanamycin-resistant buds of Chinese cabbage were got. PCR, PCR-Southern blot and dot blot analysis were used to identify and characterize the putative transgenic plants. 26 plants had the predicted bands of the fragment of npt II gene. Insect bioassays of 4 transformants showed that toxic protein had been translated and the translation levels were different among these transformants.

  4. ICLUS v2.1 Land Use for the Fourth National Climate Assessment (SSP5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Climate and land-use change are major components of global environmental change. The first version of the Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project...

  5. Mechanical properties of structural maritime pine sawn timber from Galicia (Pinus pinaster Ait. ssp. atlantica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carballo, J.; Hermoso, E.; Fernandez-Golfin, J. I.

    2009-07-01

    The use of maritime pine sawn timber in structural applications requires knowledge of its mechanical properties. Standards have changed, however, since the last research on this timber was performed. In the present study, 491 beams of maritime pine from Gaelic, of structural-use size but different cross-section, were tested according to these modified standards. Each beam was visually graded according to standard UNE 56.544 and subjected to a four point bending test. The strength classes assigned by the visual grades awarded suggest this material to have greater structural capacity than that currently assumed. The relationships between the modulus of elasticity, strength and density were also examined. (Author) 25 refs.

  6. Changes of quality of Pleurotus ssp. carpophores in modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sapata

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a general trend towards a continuous increase in fresh market sales of mushrooms and many methods have been researched to improve quality and shelf life during storage and marketing. As it is known, mushrooms are a very perishable commodity, with very high respiration rate and rapid quality deterioration, when kept at ambient temperature. In order to study the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP on the quality of three species of oyster mushrooms, P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju and P. eryngii, whole mushrooms were packaged with two polymeric low density polyethylene films – Vileda Freshmate (A and PE 52 LV Amcor (B, with passive modified atmosphere and stored at 4ºC. The quality and stability of MA packaged mushrooms were assessed, during storage, by package atmosphere composition (O2, CO2, soluble solid contents, weight loss, texture, surface colour and exudates measurements. It was verified that on the seventh day the P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju carpophores presented identical quality, when packaged with the two films types, thereafter some decay was observed. Carpophores of P. eryngii had the same quality in the two film types at the end of the established storage.

  7. Hairy Root Induction in Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum, an Anti-Tumor Lignans Producing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh SAMADI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic hairy root system is a promising source of secondary metabolites in medicinal plants with high pharmaceutical value.For the first time, hairy roots were established in different explants of Linum mucronatum, an anti-cancer agent producing plant, via amikimopine type strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, ‘A13’. The percentage of hairy root induction varied from 0 to 60% depended onthe explants and hypocotyl (including cotyledonary node explants were found to be highly susceptible to A. rhizogenes infection withthe highest (60% rate of hairy root induction. four different Murashige and Skoog (MS-based liquid culture media were used for wellestablishment of hairy roots. Hairy root growth medium D (HRGM-D containing hormone-free MS basal medium with an extra oneday pre-incubation period at 35°C was found to be more efficient for profuse growth (fresh weight; 8500 mg per 25 ml culture mediumof hairy roots. Hairy root system presented in this study may offer a suitable platform for optimization and production of satisfactorylevel of aryltetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin and its derivatives from L. mucronatum.

  8. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent.

  9. Reliability of water distribution networks due to pumps failure: comparison of VSP and SSP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mehzad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is an important indicator to ensure the operation of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs. To optimize the operation of WDN, it is necessary to incorporate the reliability of active components (such as pumps and tanks besides the reliability of pipes. In this research, a concept is suggested to calculate the reliability of WDNs' pumping stations. A computer code is provided in Visual Basic and is linked to EPANET2.0. To evaluate the proposed methodology a real WDN near the city of Tehran is considered. According to the obtained results, it is concluded that by increasing the demand of the WDN during a day, the reliability of pumps decrease. Therefore, it seems that decision-making is necessary if high demand hours are considered, in order to increase the reliability of the system. On the other hand, it is observed in this research that using variable speed pumps not only reduces the energy cost of the network, but also the reliability of the pumping stations with variable speed pumps is higher than single speed pumps. Therefore, using VSP is highly recommended in WDNs.

  10. Impact of thermal processing on sulforaphane yield from broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace C; Farnham, Mark; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2012-07-11

    In broccoli, sulforaphane forms when the glucosinolate glucoraphanin is hydrolyzed by the endogenous plant thiohydrolase myrosinase. A myrosinase cofactor directs hydrolysis away from the formation of bioactive sulforaphane and toward an inactive product, sulforaphane nitrile. The cofactor is more heat sensitive than myrosinase, presenting an opportunity to preferentially direct hydrolysis toward sulforaphane formation through regulation of thermal processing. Four broccoli cultivars were microwave heated, boiled, or steamed for various lengths of time. Production of nitrile during hydrolysis of unheated broccoli varied among cultivars from 91 to 52% of hydrolysis products (Pinnacle > Marathon > Patriot > Brigadier). Boiling and microwave heating caused an initial loss of nitrile, with a concomitant increase in sulforaphane, followed by loss of sulforaphane, all within 1 min. In contrast, steaming enhanced sulforaphane yield between 1.0 and 3.0 min in all but Brigadier. These data are proof of concept that steaming for 1.0-3.0 min provides less nitrile and more sulforaphane yield from a broccoli meal.

  11. Rational Discovery of T Helper Epitopes Specific for Bovine Infections with Mycobacterium avium ssp paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus; Aagaard, C.; Ussery, David;

    2011-01-01

    bioinformatics tools has been used to identify peptides in the MAP genome, which are predicted to bind to bovine MHC (BoLA) class II antigen presenting molecules. Comparative genomics tools has been used to further select MAP specific peptides 100% conserved in the two MAP strains and with low similarity...... to peptides from any of the M. bovis strains according to available sequence data. Unique MAP specific predicted epitopes is selected and is to be synthesized as 15–20 aa peptides. In addition we will select peptides specifically from antigens, which have previously shown to induce a CD4+ T cell response......, again with the emphasis of avoiding similarities to M. bovis sequences. Blood from cattle experimentally infected with MAP will be used for proliferation and cytokine assays to determine if and which of the selected peptides that will be recognized specifically by CD4+ T cells from infected cattle...

  12. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  13. Biomphalaria Tenagophila Guaibensis ssp. n. from Southern Brazil and Uruguay (pulmonata: Planorbidae. I. Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies of planorbid snail, biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, is described. It has been found along the coastal belt of the Brazilian state of rio grande do Sul and the middle part of Uruguay, from Porto Alegre to Mercedes. It differs from the nominate subspecies, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, in the appearance of the penial complex (prepuce longer and proportionally slenderer in B. t. guaibensis, shorter and proportionally stouter in b. t. tenagophila, in the ratio between the lengths of the penial sheath and the prepuce, in the ratio between the lengths of the uterine complex and the penial complex, and in a coefficient of difference of 2.44 for the ratio between the penis sheath and prepuce and of 2.02 for the ratio between the uterine complex and penial complex. The shell and the other organs of the genital system are similar in both subspecies. B. t. guaibensis is very similar to Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981, but is readily separated from it by the presence of a vaginal pouch, which is lacking in the latter, besides showing highly significant difference in the penis sheath: prepuce and uterine complex: penial complex ratios. Crossbreeding experiments which lend additional support to the recognition of B. t. guaibensis as a subspecies will be reported elsewhere.É descrita uma nova subespécie de molusco planorbídeo, Biomphalaria tenagophila guaibensis, que tem sido encontrada ao longo da faixa costeira do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e da parte média do Uruguai, de Porto Alegre a Mercedes. Distingue-se da espécie nominativa, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, pelo aspecto do complexo peniano (prepúcio mais longo e proporcionalmente mais delgado em B. t. guaibensis, mais curto e proporcionalmente mais grosso em b. t. tenagophila0, pela razão entre os comprimentos da bainha do pênis e do prepúcio, pela razão entre os comprimentos do complexo uterino e do complexo peniano, e por um coeficiente de diferença de 2.44 para a razão entre a bainha do pênis e o prepúcio e de 2.02 para a razão entre o complexo uterino e o complexo peniano. A concha e os outros órgãos do sistema genital são semelhantes nas duas subespécies. A B. t guaibensis tem grande semelhança com a Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981, mas dela se distingue facilmente pela presença de uma bolsa vaginal, que falta na B. occidentalis, além de apresentar diferença altamente significante nas razões bainha do pênis: prepúcio e complexo uterino: complexo peniano. Experiências de cruzamento que trazem apoio adicional ao reconhecimento da B. t. guaibensis como subespécie serão relatadas em outra publicação.

  14. Full Scale Test of SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Jensen, Find Mølholt; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk;

    as well. The blade has been submitted to thorough examination. More areas have been examined with DIC, both global and local deflections have been measured, and also 378 strain gauge measurements have been performed. Furthermore Acoustic Emission has been used in order to detect damage while testing new...

  15. Carrot (Daucus carota L . ssp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. as source of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita BYSTRICKÁ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carrot (Daucus carota L. s sp. sativus (Hoffm. Arcang. is a significant source of vitamins (A, B, C and beta carotene. Further it contains vitamins B, C, E, H, folic acid and pantothenic acid. Carrot is an important source of trace elements (K, Na, Ca, Mg, P, S, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Consumption of carrot improves eyesight, lowers cholesterol and improves digestion. In this work we evaluated and compared content of total polyphenols, ß-caroteneand antioxidant activity in five varieties of carrot (’Jitka’, Kardila’, Katlen , Rubína’ and Koloseum Samples of carrot were collected at full maturity stages from area of Bardejov. Samples of fresh carrot were homogenized (25 g in 50 ml 80 % ethanol and analysed after sixteen hours. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The content of ß-carotene was determined spectrophotometricaly at 450 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm using spectrophotometer. Total polyphenols content in samples ranged from 81.25 ± 13.11 mg/kg to 113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg and content of ß-carotenes ranged from 24.58 ± 2.38 mg/kg to 124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg. We also evaluated and compared the antioxidant activity in selected varieties of ca rrot, which varied from 6.88 ± 0.92 % to 9.83 ± 0.62 %. Statistically si gnificant the highest value of total polyphenols was recorded in variety of Koloseum (113.69 ± 11.57 mg/kg. This variety is also character ized by the highest content of ß- carotene (124.28 ± 3.54 mg/kg as well as the highest value of antioxidant activity (9.83 ± 0.62 %.

  16. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤vulgaris¤) into Danish populations of sea beet (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤maritima¤ (L.) Arcangeli)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.S.; Siegismund, H.R.; Meyer, V.

    2005-01-01

    test using a Bayesian method provided 100% assignment success of diploid individuals into their correct subspecies of origin, and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MC MC) approach revealed clear distinction of individuals into groups according to their subspecies of origin, with a zero level...

  17. Sensory acceptance tests of red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimally processed and irradiated; Testes sensoriais de aceitacao da beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada e irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho, E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Freire Junior, Murillo [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-08-15

    Red beet (Early Wonder) was cultivated in an experimental area of the Department of Fitotecnia at the Institute of Agronomy at the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. After harvest, the roots were minimally processed; packed; exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and stored for 20 days at 8.0 deg C. Sensory evaluations were performed 1; 9; 13 and 20 days after irradiation by 12 testers who rated the overall appearance and aroma on a hedonic scale. The results indicated that the irradiated samples remained within the limit of acceptance for 20 days. In addition, the aroma was found to be a more sensitive indicator of the effect of different doses of radiation to the acceptance of the product. (author)

  18. Environmental Assessment for Slope Stabilization Projects at Fort MacArthur, San Pedro, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    pusillula ssp.) Cassin’s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) Song Sparrow (samuelis ssp) Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) Source: DoDPIF...roselaari ssp.) Spotted Towhee (clementae ssp.) Short-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus) Black-chinned Sparrow Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica) Song ...Sparrow (graminea ssp.) Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger) Song Sparrow (maxillaries ssp.) Xantus’s Murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) Song Sparrow

  19. Seed reserve composition and mobilization during germination and early seedling establishment of Cereus jamacaru D.C. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara L.M. Alencar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereus jamacaru, a Cactaceae found throughout northeast Brazil, is widely used as cattle food and as an ornamental and medicinal plant. However, there has been little information about the physiological and biochemical aspects involved in its germination. The aim of this study was to investigate its reserve mobilization during germination and early seedling growth. For this, C. jamacaru seeds were germinated in a growth chamber and collected at 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 days after imbibition for morphological and biochemical analyses. Dry seeds had wrinkled seed coats and large, curved embryos. Lipids were the most abundant reserve, comprising approximately 55% and 65% of the dry mass for cotyledons and the hypocotylradicle axis, respectively. Soluble sugars and starch were the minor reserves, corresponding to approximately 2.2% of the cotyledons' dry mass, although their levels showed significant changes during germination. Soluble proteins corresponded to 40% of the cotyledons' dry mass, which was reduced by 81% at the final period of germination compared to dry seeds. C. jamacaru seed can be classified as an oil seed due to its high lipid content. Moreover, lipids were the main reserve mobilized during germination because their levels were strongly reduced after seed germination, while proteins were the second most utilized reserve in this process.Cereus jamacaru, uma cactácea encontrada comumente no nordeste brasileiro, é amplamente usada como planta forrageira e como ornamental e medicinal. No entanto, existem poucas informações sobre os aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos relacionados à sua germinação. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a mobilização de reservas durante a germinação e o crescimento inicial de plântulas de C. jamacaru. Para isso, as sementes foram germinadas em câmaras de germinação e coletadas aos 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 e 12 dias após a germinação para as análises fisiológicas e bioquímicas. As sementes quiescentes apresentaram tegumento espesso e rugoso e embriões curvados. Os lipídios foram as reservas mais abundantes, correspondendo aproximadamente a 55% e 65% da massa seca dos cotilédones e eixo hipocótilo-radícula, respectivamente. Os açúcares solúveis e o amido foram as reservas menos abundantes, correspondendo aproximadamente a 2,2% da massa seca dos cotilédones, embora suas reservas tenham apresentado mudanças significativas durante a germinação. As proteínas solúveis corresponderam a 40% da massa seca dos cotilédones, que foi reduzida a 81% no período final de germinação comparado a sementes quiescentes. As sementes de C. jamacaru podem ser consideradas oleaginosas devido ao seu alto conteúdo de lipídios. Além disso, os lipídios foram as principais reservas mobilizadas durante a germinação porque seus níveis foram fortemente reduzidos durante esse período, enquanto que as proteínas foram a segunda reserva mais utilizada nesse processo.

  20. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    (III) at concentrations of 10-50-mu-g/ml did not significantly alter the concentrations of polyamines nor the chitinase activities in either species, however, at 100-mu-g/ml in barley Cr(III) induced an increase in putrescine concentration after 6 days of exposure. The induction of chitinases and the increases...... in the putrescine level caused by Cr(VI) but not by Cr(III) (10-50-mu-g/ml) exposure is similar in the two species suggesting an analogous defense system in both mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. The anionic form of Cr(VI) seems to be more potent than the cationic form of Cr(III). Grain of barley plants grown...

  1. Selenium, putrescine, and cadmium influence health-promoting phytochemicals and molecular-level effects on turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Muthu; Chung, Ill-Min

    2015-04-15

    The effects of selenium, putrescine, and cadmium on the contents of glucosinolates, total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, chlorophyll, anthocyanin, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidant capacities as well as gene regulation of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates biosynthesis were investigated in turnip plants. Selenium dioxide (SeO2) treatment significantly induced the amount of gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoallysin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2)- and putrescine-treated plants had considerably enhanced gluconasturtiin and 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin levels, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoid content as well as antioxidant capacities were significantly increased in SeO2-treated plants. Lutein was higher in control plants followed by, in decreasing order, SeO2-, putrescine-, and CdCl2-treated plants. The chlorophyll content was significantly decreased and anthocyanin, MDA, and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with CdCl2 treatment. Moreover, plants treated with selenium and cadmium showed significant induction of genes related to glucosinolate, phenolic, and carotenoid biosynthesis. These results demonstrated that SeO2 significantly increased the contents of health-promoting compounds and enhanced the antioxidant capacities of turnip plants.

  2. RESPONSE OF PEA (PISUM SATIVUM SSP. ARVENSE L. AT SOWING TERM, STAND AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT VINKOVCI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pea is an exquisite protein crop (it contains 20-37% of protein used for human diet, animal feeding and as sideration. The hypothesis has been set up that the spring field pea for the grain production (cultivar Sobel will respond differently to the sowing term, stand (840,000 and 1,250,000 plants ha-1 and nitrogen fertilization (0 and 60 kg ha-1 The Vinkovci site was known for the grain yield (t ha . In 1997 and 1998 the investigations were conducted via field experiments on semigley soil at Vinkovci sites. Observations and measuring of, for example, phenological phase and more important climatic factors were accomplished during the growing season (temperature and precipitations. The harvest was followed by determination of number of pods, number of grains and grain yield. Obtained results were statistically processed by an adequate method (by a variance analysis of the split-split-plot experiment in four replicates whereas averages of the reached values were used for the results interpretation. -1 being 0.07-1.72 t ha-1 in the first investigation year and 0.14-2.12 t ha-1 in the second one. In 1997 thousand grain weight at Vinkovci site varied between 224.75 and 232.63 g whereas in 1998 it was 203.90-249.73 g. Results of the research justified the hypothesis of the optimal sowing date and stand as well as their interaction.

  3. Characterization and Development of EST-SSRs by Deep Transcriptome Sequencing in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are among the most important markers for population analysis and have been widely used in plant genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Expressed sequence tag-SSR (EST-SSR markers, located in the coding regions, are potentially more efficient for QTL mapping, gene targeting, and marker-assisted breeding. In this study, we investigated 51,694 nonredundant unigenes, assembled from clean reads from deep transcriptome sequencing with a Solexa/Illumina platform, for identification and development of EST-SSRs in Chinese cabbage. In total, 10,420 EST-SSRs with over 12 bp were identified and characterized, among which 2744 EST-SSRs are new and 2317 are known ones showing polymorphism with previously reported SSRs. A total of 7877 PCR primer pairs for 1561 EST-SSR loci were designed, and primer pairs for twenty-four EST-SSRs were selected for primer evaluation. In nineteen EST-SSR loci (79.2%, amplicons were successfully generated with high quality. Seventeen (89.5% showed polymorphism in twenty-four cultivars of Chinese cabbage. The polymorphic alleles of each polymorphic locus were sequenced, and the results showed that most polymorphisms were due to variations of SSR repeat motifs. The EST-SSRs identified and characterized in this study have important implications for developing new tools for genetics and molecular breeding in Chinese cabbage.

  4. AFLP Marker Linked to Turnip Mosaic Virus Susceptible Gene in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa L.ssp.pekinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN He-ping; SUN Ri-fei; ZHANG Shu-jiang; LI Fei; ZHANG Shi-fan; NIU Xin-ke

    2004-01-01

    Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) which has several strains causes the most important virusdisease in Chinese cabbage in terms of crop damage. In China, Chinese cabbage is infectedby a mixture of strains, breeding of cultivar for the TuMV resistance has become themajor aim. Screening the molecular marker linked to the TuMV-resistance gene formolecular assisted selection is the major method to improve the breeding efficiency. Inthis study, we used AFLP technique and the method of bulked segregant analysis(BSA) tostudy the progeny of Brp0058 x Brp0108, and identified two DNA molecular marker linked toTurnip mosaic virus-resistance gene with a recombination frequency 7.5 cM and 8.4 cM.

  5. Differential expression of salt tolerance related genes in Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis (L.) Makino var. communis Tsen et Lee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang QIU; Xi-xiang LI; Hai-ying ZHI; Di SHEN; Peng LU

    2009-01-01

    We examined salt tolerance responsive genes in Pak-choi under salt stress and analyze their potential function. The mRNA differential display was used to screen the transcript derived fragments (TDFs) related to salinity tolerance in tolerant and moderately tolerant Pak-choi germplasm. Seventy-eight primer combinations generated 101 differential cDNA fragments, which were divided into 10 expression types. Seven cDNA sequences (GenBank accession Nos. DQ006915-DQ006921) obtained and sequenced were highly homologous to some known expression genes or the genes related to the signaling pathways in plants under different abiotic stress.

  6. FORMULAÇÃO E ESTABILIDADE DE CORANTES DE ANTOCIANINAS EXTRAÍDAS DAS CASCAS DE JABUTICABA (MYRCIARIA ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geirla Jane Freitas SILVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A busca de fontes alternativas de pigmentos naturais tem estimulado o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em diferentes frutos tropicais, como a jabuticaba. Esse fruto é rico em antocianinas, um pigmento natural que, além da capacidade de conferir cor, também possui capacidade antioxidante na captura de radicais livres, responsáveis, dentre outras ações, pela proliferação de células tumorais e pelo envelhecimento precoce. Assim, o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi caracterizar e avaliar a estabilidade de corantes formulados a partir de cascas de jabuticaba. Os pigmentos naturais desse fruto foram associados a dois veículos estabilizantes (maltodextrina e goma arábica em três proporções diferente, submetidos ao processo de atomização e expostos a luz a uma temperatura de 25 ± 2°C, comparando-se com amostras controle não expostas a luz, armazenadas a 10 ± 2°C. A estabilidade foi avaliada através de análises de antocianinas totais, polifenóis totais, atividade antioxidante e avaliação colorimétrica. Os corantes apresentaram elevados teores de antocianinas (p0,05, tendo havido maiores degradações nas amostras armazenadas sob incidência de luz a 25°C (p0,05, evidenciando o efeito deletério da luz sob esses compostos. Comparando as três proporções dos dois carboidratos utilizados, os pigmentos antociânicos mostraram-se mais estáveis quando utilizados somente o carboidrato maltodextrina na proporção de 30%. Portanto, as cascas de jabuticaba apresentaram-se como boas fontes de pigmentos naturais, apresentando-se como alternativa viável na obtenção de corantes.

  7. Samenstelling van de vluchtige olie van Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare gedurende de ontwikkeling van de plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarse, Henk

    1971-01-01

    INLEIDING EN DOEL VAN HET ONDERZOEK Vele onderzoekers hebben de laatste jaren de vorming van de verbindingen in vluchtige olien van planten bestudeerd door het bepalen van de verandering in de samenstelling van de vluchtige olie tijdens de groei van de plant. Lemli (68) wees als eerste op de noodzaa

  8. Preparation of low galactose yogurt using cultures of Gal(+) Streptococcus thermophilus in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbukkarasi, Kaliyaperumal; UmaMaheswari, Thiyagamoorthy; Hemalatha, Thiagarajan; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rameshwar

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is an important lactic starter used in the production of yogurt. Most strains of S. thermophilus are galactose negative (Gal(-)) and are able to metabolize only glucose portion of lactose and expel galactose into the medium. This metabolic defect leads to the accumulation of free galactose in yogurt, resulting in galactosemia among consumers. Hence there is an absolute need to develop low galactose yogurt. Therefore, in this study, three galactose positive (Gal(+)) S. thermophilus strains from National Collection of Dairy Cultures (NCDC) viz. NCDC 659 (AJM), NCDC 660 (JM1), NCDC 661 (KM3) and a reference galactose negative (Gal(-)) S. thermophilus NCDC 218 were used for preparation of low galactose yogurt. In milk fermented using S. thermophilus isolates alone, NCDC 659 released less galactose (0.27 %) followed by NCDC 661 (0.3 %) and NCDC 660 (0.45 %) after 10 h at 42 °C. Milk was fermented in combination with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04, in which NCDC 659 released least galactose upto 0.49 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %) and NCDC 660 (0.60 %) than reference Gal(-) NCDC 218(0.79 %). Low galactose yogurt was prepared following standard procedure using Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates and Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04 in 1:1 ratio. Among which low galactose yogurt by NCDC 659 combination contained less galactose 0.37 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %), NCDC 660 (0.65 %) and reference Gal(-) NCDC 218 (0.98 %) after 4 h of fermentation. This study clearly reveals that Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates can be paired with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus for developing low galactose yogurt.

  9. Mitochondrial COI and morphological specificity of the mealy aphids (Hyalopterus ssp. collected from different hosts in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Rakauskas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forty three European population samples of mealy aphids from various winter and summer host plants were attributed to respective species of Hyalopterus by means of their partial sequences of mitochondrial COI gene. Used Hyalopterus samples emerged as monophyletic relative to outgroup and formed three major clades representing three host specific mealy aphid species in the Neighbor joining, Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees. H. pruni and H. persikonus emerged as a sister species, whilst H. amygdali was located basally. Samples representing different clades in the molecular trees were used for canonical discrimination analysis based on twenty two morphological characters. Length of the median dorsal head hair enabled a 97.3 % separation of H. amygdali from the remaining two species. No single character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of H. pruni and H. persikonus. A modified key for the morphological identification of Hyalopterus species is suggested and their taxonomic status discussed.

  10. Stereoselective uptake and distribution of the chiral neonicotinoid insecticide, Paichongding, in Chinese pak choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinenesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Zhen; Liu, Ruyang; Fu, Qiuguo; Zhang, Sufen; Cai, Zhiqiang; Li, Juying; Zhao, Xiaojun [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Wang, Wei [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Absorption of foliar applied Paichongding by pak choi was not stereoselective. • Foliar uptake and downward transport of Paichongding were both found in pak choi. • Enantioselective and epimer-selective root uptake were observed for Paichongding. • Foliage/root uptake showed diastereoselective transport of Paichongding epimers. • The SR and RS are more easily taken up by roots and accumulated in edible parts. -- Abstract: Neonicotinoid chiral insecticidal Paichongding is a promising substitute for the widely used imidacloprid. Four stereoisomers of Paichongding, 5R,7R, 5S,7S, 5S,7R and 5R,7S, were employed in both foliage and roots of Chinese pak choi to investigate their stereoselective uptake and distribution in pak choi. Results showed that after foliar application, no stereoselective absorption into pak-choi plants was observed among the enantiomers. Total absorptions were 35.40% of the applied amount for 5R,7R, 36.66% for 5S,7S, 36.80% for 5S,7R and 38.20% for 5R,7S at 96 HAT. The translocation of the four absorbed stereoisomers within pak choi occurred both acropetally and basipetally and the transport of {sup 14}C from enantiomers 5R,7R and 5S,7S were significantly higher than for 5R,7S and 5S,7R. Significant stereoselective translocation inside plants was observed between Paichongding epimers. Total root uptake reached 16.49–19.85% for 5R,7R and 5S,7S, and 24.57–28.82% for 5S,7R and 5R,7S at 144 HAT. Both enantioselective and diastereoselective root uptake into pak-choi occurred between the four stereoisomers. The 5R,7S and 5S,7R enantiomers were more readily uptaken by the roots than 5R,7R and 5S,7S and accumulated in the edible leaves. These results will help to develop an understanding of Paichongding using only the target-active enantiomer of pesticides.

  11. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

  12. EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) populations from Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas, USA in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations was studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify altern...

  13. Full Scale Test SSP 34m blade, edgewise loading LTT. Extreme load and PoC_InvE Data report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Magda; Roczek-Sieradzan, Agnieszka; Jensen, Find Mølholt

    in edgewise direction (LTT). The blade has been submitted to thorough examination by means of strain gauges, displacement transducers and a 3D optical measuring system. This data report presents results obtained during full scale testing of the blade up to 80% Risø load, where 80% Risø load corresponds to 100......% certification load. These pulls at 80% Risø load were repeated and the results from these pulls were compared. The blade was reinforced according to a Risø DTU invention, where the trailing edge panels are coupled. The coupling is implemented to prevent the out of plane deformations and to reduce peeling...... stresses in the adhesive joints. Test results from measurements with the reinforcement have been compared to results without the coupling. The report presents only the relevant results for the 80% Risø load and the results applicable for the investigation of the influence of the invention on the profile...

  14. Frugivory and seed dispersal by birds in Cereus jamacaru DC. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae) in the Caatinga of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, V G N; Quirino, Z G M; Araujo, H F P

    2014-02-01

    Studies of the dispersal modes of plants aid our understanding of the dynamics of resource and its availability for dispersal agents. The present work sought to characterize the fruiting patterns of the native Caatinga (dryland) cactus Cereus jamacaru, identify its principal dispersers, and evaluate the effects of seed passage through digestive tract of dispersers on its germination. Cereus jamacaru present an annual fruiting pattern and fruiting peaks occurred during June/2009 and February/2010. A total of 135 visits by nine species of resident Caatinga bird species were recorded. The most frequent visiting bird species were Paroaria dominicana and Euphonia chlorotica. Length of bird visits varied from 15 seconds to 4 minutes and seeds removed by birds travelled 10.6 ± 11.2 m until dispersers make the first landing perch, in some cases more than 40 meters away. Germination tests show birds had a high quantity of viable seeds of C. jamacaru in its feces. Seeds that passed through the digestive tract of birds showed a similar germinability of the seeds of the control group. However, the seeds dispersed by birds showed lowest mean germination time related to the control group seeds. This study highlights the potential role of birds as seed dispersers of C. jamacaru, swallowing the whole seeds and defecating intact seeds, accelerating the germination process and transporting seeds away from the mother plant.

  15. Seed reserve composition and mobilization during germination and early seedling establishment of Cereus jamacaru D.C. ssp. jamacaru (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Nara L M; Innecco, Renato; Gomes-Filho, Enéas; Gallão, Maria Izabel; Alvarez-Pizarro, Juan C; Prisco, José T; Oliveira, Alexandre B De

    2012-09-01

    Cereus jamacaru, a Cactaceae found throughout northeast Brazil, is widely used as cattle food and as an ornamental and medicinal plant. However, there has been little information about the physiological and biochemical aspects involved in its germination. The aim of this study was to investigate its reserve mobilization during germination and early seedling growth. For this, C. jamacaru seeds were germinated in a growth chamber and collected at 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 days after imbibition for morphological and biochemical analyses. Dry seeds had wrinkled seed coats and large, curved embryos. Lipids were the most abundant reserve, comprising approximately 55% and 65% of the dry mass for cotyledons and the hypocotylradicle axis, respectively. Soluble sugars and starch were the minor reserves, corresponding to approximately 2.2% of the cotyledons' dry mass, although their levels showed significant changes during germination. Soluble proteins corresponded to 40% of the cotyledons' dry mass, which was reduced by 81% at the final period of germination compared to dry seeds. C. jamacaru seed can be classified as an oil seed due to its high lipid content. Moreover, lipids were the main reserve mobilized during germination because their levels were strongly reduced after seed germination, while proteins were the second most utilized reserve in this process.

  16. Selection and RAPD analysis of Pseudomonas ssp. isolates able to improve biological viability of potato seed tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poštić Dobrivoj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoleacetic acid (IAA producing Pseudomonas isolates from the rhizosphere of maize (Q4 and Q20, alfalfa (Q1 and Q16 and wild red clover (B25 were selected for the investigation of their effect on the biological vitality of the potato seed tubers. The production of IAA ranged from 4.09 to 15.9 µ gmL- 1 after 24h of cultivation and 4.08 to 26.4 µ gmL-1 after 48h of cultivation. The molecular comparison by RAPD analysis also was done. RAPD patterns of selected Pseudomonas spp. isolates obtained by BC318, AF14, SPH 1 and AP 10 primers demonstrated the suitability of RAPD method in distinguishing a high variability among the four isolates (44 to 68%. The effect on the biological viability of potato (industrially important variety Pirol was observed during the seven weeks of sprouting at the temperature of 18-20°C. Potato tubers treated by the selected isolates formed slightly lower number of sprouts, but statistically higher mean length - up to 129.9% higher than the control. The mean sprouting capacity was 64.5% higher than a control. Obtained results suggested positive effects of selected IAA producing Pseudomonas isolates on the length of potato tubers and sprouting capacity as the parameters which define biological viability. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46007

  17. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of volatile oils from Sardinian Foeniculum vulgare ssp. vulgare (Apiaceae): chemical composition and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results on the composition and antifungal effect of volatile extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Sardinian wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation (HD). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for qualitative composition and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector to establish the percentage of constituents. The main components were fenchone (7.1% vs. 8.8%), estragole (34.9% vs. 42.6%) and (E)-anethole (24.6% vs. 43.4%) in the SFE and HD extract, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth macrodilution protocols. Minimum lethal concentrations were determined by subsequent subculturing of the same cell suspensions in solid medium. The essential oil was more active against Candida albicans, whereas the supercritical fluid extract possesses higher activity against Candida guillermondii and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.32 μL/mL.

  18. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Brassica rapa ssp.chinensis and Transferability Among Related Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite marker is a valuable tool for several purposes, such as mapping, fingerprinting,and breeding.In the present study, an inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR)-PCR technique was applied for developing SSR markers in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa). A total of 190 SSRs were obtained. Among these, AG or CT (54.7%) was the most frequent repeat, followed by AC or GT (31.6%) of the microsatellites. The average number of the SSRs length array was 16 and 10 times, respectively. Based on the determined SSR sequences, 143 SSR primer pairs were designed to evaluate their transferabilities among the related species of Brassica. The number of alleles produced per marker averaged 2.91, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0 to 0.863 with an average of 0.540. Monomorphism was observed in 16 primer pairs. The transferability percentage in CC genome was higher than in BB genome. More loci occurred in the BBCC genome. This result supported the hypothesis that BB genome was divergent from A and C genomes, and AA and CC genomes were relatively close. The polymorphic primers can be exploited for further evolution, fingerprinting, and variety identification.

  19. Probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp.cremoris and Streptococcus thermophilus induce IL-12 and IFN-γ production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the capacity of potentially probiotic strains from six bacterial genera to induce cytokine production alone or in combinations in order to identify potential enhancing or synergistic effects in order to select probiotic bacteria for in vivo purposes. METHODS: Cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in response to stimulation with eleven different potentially probiotic bacterial strains from Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Propionibacterium genera was analysed. Production and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-12,IFN-γ and IL-10 were determined by ELISA and Northern blotting, respectively. RESULTS: All tested bacteria induced TNF-α production. The best inducers of Thl type cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ were Streptococcus and Leuconostoc strains. All Bifidobacteriurn and Propionibacteriurn strains induced higher IL-10 production than other studied bacteria. Stimulation of PBNC with any bacterial combinations did not result in enhanced cytokine production suggesting that different bacteria whether gram-positive or gram negative compete with each other during host cell interactions. CONCLUSION: The probiotic S. thermophilus and Leuconostoc strains are more potent inducers of Thl type cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ than the probiotic Lactobacillus strains. Bacterial combinations did not result in enhanced cytokine production.

  20. Phage types of Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from production animals and humans in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1994-01-01

    S. Typhimurium is one of the 2 most common salmonella serotypes causing human salmonellosis in Denmark. In order to illustrate the significance of different production animals as a source of infection, 1461 isolates were characterized by phage typing. The isolates originated from human patients...

  1. Propagation of internal errors in explicit Runge–Kutta methods and internal stability of SSP and extrapolation methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2014-04-11

    In practical computation with Runge--Kutta methods, the stage equations are not satisfied exactly, due to roundoff errors, algebraic solver errors, and so forth. We show by example that propagation of such errors within a single step can have catastrophic effects for otherwise practical and well-known methods. We perform a general analysis of internal error propagation, emphasizing that it depends significantly on how the method is implemented. We show that for a fixed method, essentially any set of internal stability polynomials can be obtained by modifying the implementation details. We provide bounds on the internal error amplification constants for some classes of methods with many stages, including strong stability preserving methods and extrapolation methods. These results are used to prove error bounds in the presence of roundoff or other internal errors.

  2. Resistance of mixed subalpine forest to fire frequency changes: the ecological function of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Trevisan, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The availability of fuel and climate are major factors responsible for forest fire activity over time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forest ecosystems containing a high shrub biomass, which constitutes a fuel load, and affected by a warmer climate, which is associated with drier conditions and a longer fire season, are more prone to fire. Fire occurrence and woody vegetation histories were reconstructed for a subalpine site (Lago di Colbricon Inferiore) in the Dolomites, part of the eastern Italian Alps, for the past 13,000 years. The modern wet climate prevents fire in this area, in spite of the warm summers and an abundant biomass of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and three other conifer tree species (Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua). Past fire history reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal showed a median fire return interval of 140 years (30-735 yr fire-1), with a high variability (SD ± 170 years) throughout the Holocene, suggesting that the past environment was more favourable to fire than the modern one, probably due to a drier climate or to different fuel availability. The subalpine community containing P. mugo remained stable for the past 9000 years, despite the variability of the fire return interval. Interestingly, the fire frequency is higher at Lago di Colbricon than at sites in the western Alps that lack P. mugo, suggesting that this species tolerates fire disturbance. In fact, it probably favours the spread of fire due to its flammable biomass, prostrated form, and dense layering canopy, thus offsetting the influence of the wet climate. Since the 19th century, the removal of dwarf pine to promote subalpine grasslands may have suppressed fires in this region.

  3. The arginine deiminase system facilitates environmental adaptability of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus through pH adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Yang, Xinyi; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Zhe; Lin, Huixing; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-06-01

    The arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a secondary metabolic system found in many different bacterial pathogens and it is often associated with virulence. Here, a systematic study of ADS functions in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was performed. Transcriptional levels of ADS operon genes were observed to be significantly increased when SEZ was grown under acidic conditions. We constructed arcA and arcD deletion mutants (SEZ ΔarcA and SEZ ΔarcD, respectively) and found that SEZ ΔarcA was unable to metabolize arginine and synthesize ammonia; however, arcD deletion resulted in an initial decrease in arginine consumption and ammonia production, followed by recovery to the levels of wild-type SEZ after 24 h of cultivation. Cell extracts of SEZ ΔarcA showed no arginine deiminase (AD) activity, whereas no difference in AD activity between SEZ ΔarcD and wild-type SEZ was observed. SEZ survival tests demonstrated a significant decrease in survival for SEZ ΔarcA, when compared with wild-type SEZ, under acidic conditions and in epithelial cells. These findings indicate that ADS in SEZ contributes to environmental adaptability via ammonia synthesis to reduce pH stress.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Σpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ΣDDTs, Σhexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Σpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Σchlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ΣDDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ΣDDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ΣPCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  5. Enzymatic fragmentation of the antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, George A; Paul, Moushumi

    2010-06-01

    The cumulative effect of peptidase and protease activities associated with cells of Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (LB) was evaluated on the milk protein-based antimicrobial peptides casocidin and isracidin. Reaction mixtures of casocidin or isracidin and nonproliferating mid-log cells of these essential yogurt starter cultures were individually incubated for up to 4 h at pH 4.5 and 7.0, and samples removed at various time points were analyzed by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Both casocidin and isracidin remained largely unchanged following exposure to cell suspensions of ST or LB strains at pH 4.5. Casocidin was extensively degraded by both ST and LB strains at pH 7.0, whereas isracidin remained largely intact after incubation for 4 h with ST strains but was degraded by exposure to LB strains. The results showed the feasibility of using the bovine casein-based peptides casocidin and isracidin as food grade antimicrobial supplements to impart fermented dairy foods additional protection against bacterial contamination. The structural integrity and efficacy of these biodefensive peptides may be preserved by timing their addition near the end of the fermentation of yogurt-like dairy foods (at or below pH 4.5), when conditions for bacterial proteolytic activity become unfavorable.

  6. Genetic variation for glutenin and gliadins associated with quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum) landraces from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiriano, E.; Ruiz, M.; Fite, R.; Carrillo, J. M.

    2008-07-01

    The allelic variation at seven prolamin loci involved in quality has been studied in a set of durum wheat land races from all the Spanish regions where this crop has been traditionally cultivated. The genetic variability was higher than that found in other germplasm collections. All the loci, except Glu-B2, displayed a genetic variability higher than 0.62, with Glu-3 the most polymorphic. In total, five alleles were studied at Glu-A1, nine at Glu-B1, 15 at Glu-A3, 18 at Glu-B3, two at Glu- B2, and eight at Gli-A1 and Gli-B1. New allelic variants not previously identified in durum wheat were detected. The 30 different genotypes of B low-molecular-weight (B-LMW) glutenin subunits analysed, of which 25 are novel, provide an important source of genetic variability for quality breeding. Protein patterns for convars. durum and turgidum, and for the North and South of Spain were identified for the loci with significant influence on quality. Higher variability was observed in convar. turgidum and in the North zone than in convar. durum and the South, respectively, mainly for the Glu-B1 and Glu-B3. Also, convar. turgidum appeared to be a valuable source for new alleles for the LMW glutenin subunits. Wheats from the South were, however, more diverse for prolamins encoded at Glu-A3. (Author) 33 refs.

  7. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd-) induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots—this effect was more pronounced at 5 μM NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5 μM NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage. PMID:26078819

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd- induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots—this effect was more pronounced at 5 μM NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5 μM NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage.

  9. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  10. A Genomic Island in Salmonella enterica ssp. salamae provides new insights on the genealogy of the locus of enterocyte effacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandry, P Scott; Gladman, Simon; Moore, Sean C; Seemann, Torsten; Crandall, Keith A; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-01-01

    The genomic island encoding the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is an important virulence factor of the human pathogenic Escherichia coli. LEE typically encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) and secreted effectors capable of forming attaching and effacing lesions. Although prominent in the pathogenic E. coli such as serotype O157:H7, LEE has also been detected in Citrobacter rodentium, E. albertii, and although not confirmed, it is likely to also be in Shigella boydii. Previous phylogenetic analysis of LEE indicated the genomic island was evolving through stepwise acquisition of various components. This study describes a new LEE region from two strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies salamae serovar Sofia along with a phylogenetic analysis of LEE that provides new insights into the likely evolution of this genomic island. The Salmonella LEE contains 36 of the 41 genes typically observed in LEE within a genomic island of 49, 371 bp that encodes a total of 54 genes. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on the entire T3SS and four T3SS genes (escF, escJ, escN, and escV) to elucidate the genealogy of LEE. Phylogenetic analysis inferred that the previously known LEE islands are members of a single lineage distinct from the new Salmonella LEE lineage. The previously known lineage of LEE diverged between islands found in Citrobacter and those in Escherichia and Shigella. Although recombination and horizontal gene transfer are important factors in the genealogy of most genomic islands, the phylogeny of the T3SS of LEE can be interpreted with a bifurcating tree. It seems likely that the LEE island entered the Enterobacteriaceae through horizontal gene transfer as a single unit, rather than as separate subsections, which was then subjected to the forces of both mutational change and recombination.

  11. Genomic Analyses Reveal Demographic History and Temperate Adaptation of the Newly Discovered Honey Bee Subspecies Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan n. ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Zhiguang; Pan, Qi; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Huihua; Guo, Haikun; Liu, Shidong; Lu, Hongfeng; Tian, Shilin; Li, Ruiqiang; Shi, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Studying the genetic signatures of climate-driven selection can produce insights into local adaptation and the potential impacts of climate change on populations. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is an interesting species to study local adaptation because it originated in tropical/subtropical climatic regions and subsequently spread into temperate regions. However, little is known about the genetic basis of its adaptation to temperate climates. Here, we resequenced the whole genomes of ten individual bees from a newly discovered population in temperate China and downloaded resequenced data from 35 individuals from other populations. We found that the new population is an undescribed subspecies in the M-lineage of A. mellifera (Apis mellifera sinisxinyuan). Analyses of population history show that long-term global temperature has strongly influenced the demographic history of A. m. sinisxinyuan and its divergence from other subspecies. Further analyses comparing temperate and tropical populations identified several candidate genes related to fat body and the Hippo signaling pathway that are potentially involved in adaptation to temperate climates. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of the newly discovered A. m. sinisxinyuan, as well as the genetic basis of adaptation of A. mellifera to temperate climates at the genomic level. These findings will facilitate the selective breeding of A. mellifera to improve the survival of overwintering colonies.

  12. A Genomic Island in Salmonella enterica ssp. salamae provides new insights on the genealogy of the locus of enterocyte effacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Scott Chandry

    Full Text Available The genomic island encoding the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE is an important virulence factor of the human pathogenic Escherichia coli. LEE typically encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS and secreted effectors capable of forming attaching and effacing lesions. Although prominent in the pathogenic E. coli such as serotype O157:H7, LEE has also been detected in Citrobacter rodentium, E. albertii, and although not confirmed, it is likely to also be in Shigella boydii. Previous phylogenetic analysis of LEE indicated the genomic island was evolving through stepwise acquisition of various components. This study describes a new LEE region from two strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies salamae serovar Sofia along with a phylogenetic analysis of LEE that provides new insights into the likely evolution of this genomic island. The Salmonella LEE contains 36 of the 41 genes typically observed in LEE within a genomic island of 49, 371 bp that encodes a total of 54 genes. A phylogenetic analysis was performed on the entire T3SS and four T3SS genes (escF, escJ, escN, and escV to elucidate the genealogy of LEE. Phylogenetic analysis inferred that the previously known LEE islands are members of a single lineage distinct from the new Salmonella LEE lineage. The previously known lineage of LEE diverged between islands found in Citrobacter and those in Escherichia and Shigella. Although recombination and horizontal gene transfer are important factors in the genealogy of most genomic islands, the phylogeny of the T3SS of LEE can be interpreted with a bifurcating tree. It seems likely that the LEE island entered the Enterobacteriaceae through horizontal gene transfer as a single unit, rather than as separate subsections, which was then subjected to the forces of both mutational change and recombination.

  13. Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Díaz, María Teresa; Del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Martínez-Valdivieso, Damián; Font, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    The food industry and plant breeding programmes require fast, clean and low-cost screening techniques for nutritional compounds determination in food matrices. This is the first report on the study of the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the prediction of antioxidant compounds in summer squash tissues collected since 2009-2012. Modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression was used to correlate spectral information and the different antioxidant compounds in the samples. The coefficients of determination in the external validation (r(2)ev) obtained were for ascorbic acid (0.77 and 0.86), chlorophyll a (0.79 and 0.66), chlorophyll b (0.86 and 0.79) and total phenolic compounds (0.65 and 0.68) in exocarp and mesocarp tissues, respectively, supporting that NIRS is able to predict in a rapid way these components for screening purposes. Major wavelengths influencing the calibration equations showed that chromophores as well as fibre components of the fruits highly participated in developing the NIR equations.

  14. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32 and A. variegatum (2n= 16. II. Cytological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of chromosomes was determined in mitosis, the course of meiosis was analysed and the degree of pollen viability determined in plants with intermediate enzymatic phenotypes between Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum. One allotriploid plant was found with 2n=24 and a group of plants with 2n=32 showing disturbances in mitosis and meiosis. In mitosis somatic reduction and polysomaty were observed and in meiosis monads, diads, triads and polyads were present. These plants are considered as introgressive hybrids arising owing to a small scale gene flow from A. variegatum to A. napellus.

  15. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32) and A. variegatum (2n= 16). I Electrophoretic evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    The variability of six enzymes in pure and mixed populations of Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum, both from the Tatra Mountains was analysed by means of electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The enzymes differentiating the studied species are: glutamate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, esterases and peroxidases. A group of plants was isolated with phenotypes intermediate between A. napellus and A. variegatum. Among them were most probably both F1 and introgressive hybr...

  16. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32) and A. variegatum (2n= 16). II. Cytological evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    The number of chromosomes was determined in mitosis, the course of meiosis was analysed and the degree of pollen viability determined in plants with intermediate enzymatic phenotypes between Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum. One allotriploid plant was found with 2n=24 and a group of plants with 2n=32 showing disturbances in mitosis and meiosis. In mitosis somatic reduction and polysomaty were observed and in meiosis monads, diads, triads and polyads were present. These plants are considere...

  17. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes suggests that relaxed purifying selection is driving high nonsynonymous evolutionary rate of the NADH2 gene in whitefish (Coregonus ssp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Magnus W.; Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Bernatchez, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have recently reported evidence for positive selection acting on the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), emphasizing its potential role in adaptive divergence and speciation. In this study we searched 107 full mitogenomes of recently diverged species and lineages of whitefish (Core...

  18. Tolerancia aL NaCI de plantas andaluzas de vid silvestre (Vitis vinifera L., ssp sylvestris (sylvestris (Gmelin) Hegi)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivasplata, Paula E.

    2005-01-01

    68 páginas, 10 fotos, 18 tablas, 96 referencias.-- Memoria final presentada al XLII Curso Internacional de Edafología y Biología Vegetal, patrocinado por UNESCO-AECI y CSIC que desde 1963 hasta 2009 se ha impartido en el Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Cuarto (CEBAC) y a partir de 1987 pasó a denominarse Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC).-- Existe un ejemplar de la publicación en la Biblioteca del Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología...

  19. Culture and fusion of pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica with haploid mesophyll protoplasts of B. rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Ryschka, U; Marthe, F; Klocke, E; Schumann, G; Zhao, H

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid callus was formed from the successful protoplast fusion between pollen protoplasts of Brassica oleracea var. italica and haploid mesophyll protoplasts of Brassica rapa. The pollen protoplast isolation frequency in broccoli was highly related to the ratio of trinucleate pollens in the male gametophyte population. Large quantities of pollen protoplasts with high vigor could be isolated, and the isolation frequency reached up to 90% in 6.0-7.0 mm long flower buds with about 94.7% trinucleate-stage pollens. Pollen protoplasts could be collected and purified by discontinuous gradient centrifugation. In 1% Na-alginate embedding culture, cell divisions were observed but no further development was found. The haploid mesophyll protoplasts were isolated from in vitro haploid plants of B. rapa. Results strongly showed the variability in culturability of mesophyll protoplasts from different haploid lines. Both pollen protoplasts and haploid mesophyll protoplasts retained a stable round shape in the designed prefusion solution with an osmotic pressure of 0.74 osmol/kg. Polyethylene glycol was used for the protoplast fusion, and 40% polyethylene glycol 4000 enabled the highest fusion frequency of about 20%. Some postfusion protoplasts showed cell divisions up to callus proliferation. Calli were screened by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis for their hybrid character. Results revealed the existence of the hybrid calli. Some of the hybrid calli grew well with green color and shoot primordia. According to our knowledge, this is the first report about a hybrid formation between two haploid protoplasts. Potential comprehensive applications, as well as problems of this technique, are discussed.

  20. PCV2-DNA in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded lymph nodes of wild boar (Sus scrofa ssp. scrofa: one sampling approach for two laboratory techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morandi Federico

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Superficial inguinal lymph nodes from 72 wild boars examined in a previous immunohistochemical (IHC study on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 were selected for a PCV2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. Four of these lymph nodes were PCV2-IHC strongly positive with PMWS histological lesions (outcome 1, 6 weak to mild PCV2-IHC positive without PMWS histological lesions (outcome 2 and 62 PCV2-IHC negative. Considering IHC the gold standard for diagnosis, the aims of the study were to evaluate the suitability of the PCV2-DNA extraction from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue and the sensitivity and specificity of PCR under two IHC interpretations criteria: (A the sample was considered positive if the result was outcome 1; (B the sample was considered positive if the result was outcome 1 or 2. Under (A criteria, sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 100% and 89.7%, respectively; the Cohen's Kappa coefficient was 0.49. Under (B criteria, sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 80.0% and 95.2%, respectively; the Cohen's Kappa coefficient was 0.72. The high Cohen's Kappa coefficient under the (B interpretative criteria indicates good agreement between the two methods. In conclusion, 1 DNA extracted from FFPE specimens of wild boar is suitable for PCR and further represents a screening test for PCV2/PCVD (PCV2 Diseases investigations in wild boar as well; 2 routine histological sampling can also be useful for PCV2 virological studies in wild boar.

  1. 海尔手机获得Insignia SSP使用授权%Haier Mobile Phone Received SSP License from Insignia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Insignia和海尔日前宣布,双方已经达成协议,将共同为海尔手机实现Insignia公司的移动设备管理软件(Mobile Device Management Software)功能,通过合作,海尔手机用户将可以通过无线下传的(over-the-air)固件更新来维修手机中的一些软件问题,并且可以增加新的功能.据了解,海尔是中国大陆第三家得到Insignia SSP使用授权的手机制造商,南方高科和CECT已经在使用这些软件授权.

  2. Use of PCR and PCR-SSP for detection of urinary donor-origin DNA in renal tran splant recipients with acute rejection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宏; 大河内信弘; 岗崎肇; 郭应禄

    2003-01-01

    Objective To analyze the urine of renal recipients for the presence of donor DNA in an attempt to establish an alternative diagnostic means of acute rejection.Methods Sixty-four renal transplant recipients were examined. Thirty-seven were norma lafter transplantation, while 22 others developed acute rejection, based on ser um creatinine levels and/or needle biopsy findings of the graft. Five developed drug-induced renal dysfunction. In female recipients with a male graft, we ex amined urine for the presence of Y chromosome (SRY and DYZ-1) and in recipients receiving an HLA mismatched graft, we looked for HLA-DR gene (DRB1) using PCR .Results Among the 14 female recipients with male grafts demonstrating stable renal function, only one was positive for SRY and DYZ-1 on the Y chromosome. However, SRY and DYZ-1 were found in the urine of four female patients with acute rejection , but these DNA fragments were not detected in 3 of the 4 after anti-rejection therap y. The last patient was referred to hemodialysis. Of 23 recipients of a graft from HLA mismatch donors with stable renal function, DRB1 was negative in 21 (91 %). Of 18 patients with acute rejection, DRB1 was positive in 16 (89%) and nega tive in 2. These DNA fragments were no longer found in 13 patients after anti -rejection therapy. In all patients with drug induced renal dysfunction, donor -derived DNA was negative.Conclusions Presence of door specific DNA in the urine of the recipient is strongly associat ed with acute rejection. Analysis of DNA derived from donor cells in urine was an effective and accurate method for the diagnosis of acute rejection of a renal transplant.

  3. UN PROTOCOLO DE EMBRIOGÉNESIS SOMÁTICA PARA LA REGENERACIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN IN VITRO DE Laelia anceps ssp. dawsonii

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda E. Lee Espinosa; Antonio Laguna Cerda; Joaquín Murguía González; Lourdes Iglesias-Andreu; Benjamín García Rosas; Diana Escobedo López; Yolanda M. Martínez Ocampo; Felipe A. Barredo Pool; Nancy Santana Buzzy

    2010-01-01

    Laelia anceps subespecie dawsonii, es una de las orquídeas silvestres mexicanas más apreciadas, con potencial ornamental por sus atractivas características que le permiten cumplir estándares internacionales de calidad y la convierten en una especie económicamente importante. Ello ha provocado su colecta excesiva y el consecuente riesgo de extinción. Para asegurar su conservación, es necesario desarrollar protocolos eficientes de propagación para esta especie, que permitan su uso sustentable y...

  4. Crescimento e desenvolvimento do amaranto (amaranthus spp. sob estresse salino e cobertura morta Growth and development of amaranth (amaranthus ssp under saline stress and mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeson Mateus Alves da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigar cultivares tolerantes à salinidade da água de irrigação e do solo é uma necessidade nas áreas agrícolas abastecidas por água de qualidade insatisfatória. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação e da cobertura morta do solo no desenvolvimento vegetativo do amaranto (Amaranthus spp. cultivado em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi realizado entre março e maio de 2006, utilizando-se colunas de PVC com 30 kg de um solo de textura franco-siltosa. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo testado o uso ou não de cobertura morta e quatro níveis de salinidade na água de irrigação (0,147; 1,5; 3,0; e 4,5 dS m-1, a 25 °C. A cobertura morta antecipou o início da floração e aumentou a área foliar, a altura de planta, o diâmetro de caule e a produção de biomassa. O aumento na concentração salina não ocasionou redução nos teores de Ca e Mg, no tecido foliar. O aumento na concentração de sais na água de irrigação retardou a floração do amaranto, porém a espécie apresentou tolerância até o limite de 4,5 dS m-1, pois a produção de biomassa seca não foi afetada por esse aumento de salinidade.In agricultural areas irrigated with water of unsatisfactory quality, plants that are tolerant to the salinity in water and soil are needed. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the salinity of irrigation water and soil mulch on the vegetative development of amaranth (Amaranthus spp in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out from March to May 2006 in PVC columns with 30 kg of soil with silt loam texture. The non-use of mulch and four salinity levels of the irrigation water (0.147; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5 dS m-1, to 25 °C was evaluated in a completely randomized design with eight treatments and four replications. Mulch reduced the beginning of flowering and increased the leaf area, plant height, stalk diameter and biomass production. The increase of the saline concentration did not reduce the calcium and magnesium concentrations in the leaf tissue. The higher salt concentration of the irrigation water delayed amaranth flowering, but the species was tolerant up to 4.5 dS m-1, since dry biomass production was not affected by the higher water salinity.

  5. 水稻和拟南芥中几丁质酶的分析%Chitinases in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凤华; 范成明; 何月秋

    2007-01-01

    Chitinases (EC3.2.1.14), found in a wide range of organisms, catalyze the hydrolysis of chitin and play a major role in defense mechanisms against fungal pathogens. The alignment and typical domains were analyzed using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) and simple modular architecture research tool (SMART), respectively. On the basis of the annotations of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Arabidopsis genomic sequences and using the bio-software SignalP3.0, TMHMM2.0, TargetPl.1, and big-Pi Predictor, 25 out of 37 and 16 out of 24 open reading frames (ORFs) with chitinase activity from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively, were predicted to have signal peptides (SPs), which have an average of 24.8 amino acids at the N-terminal region. Some of the chitinases were secreted extracellularly, whereas some were located in the vacuole. The phylogenic relationship was analyzed with 61 ORFs and 25 known chitinases and they were classified into 6 clusters using Clustal X and MEGA3.1. This classification is not completely consistent when compared with the traditional system that classifies the chitinases into 7 classes. The frequency of distribution of amino acid residues was distinct in different clusters. The contents of alanine, glycine, serine, and leucine were very high in each cluster, whereas the contents of methionine, histidine, tryptophan, and cysteine were lower than 20%. Each cluster had distinct amino acid characteristics. Alanine, valine, leucine, cysteine, serine, and lysine were rich in Clusters Ⅰ to Ⅵ, respectively.%几丁质酶(EC3.2.1.14)是一种降解几丁质的糖苷酶,广泛存在于各种生物体中,并在植物中对病原真菌起重要抗性作用.首先通过BLAST在GenBank中对其同源性进行搜索,用SMART分析其结构.基于水稻和拟南芥的基因组注释,借助4个生物学软件(SignalP3.0,TMHMM2.0,TargetP1.1 and big-Pi Predictor),分析了水稻所有37条和拟南芥所有24条几丁质酶序列,发现有些几丁质酶都分泌到细胞外,有些定位于液泡中,水稻中仅25条和拟南芥中仅16条几丁质酶序列有信号肽,这些信号肽的平均长度为24.8aa.利用Clustal X和MEGA3.1两个生物软件分析了59条几丁质酶序列和25条标准几丁质酶的系统发育关系,这些几丁质酶可分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ等6大类.这种聚类结果与几丁质酶传统分为7类有些差异.通过对6大类中各个氨基酸残基的分析,发现丙氨酸、甘氨酸、丝氨酸和亮氨酸的使用频率在每类中都非常高,而蛋氨酸、组氨酸、色氨酸和半胱氨酸均低于20%.各大类中彼此之间的某些氨基酸使用频率明显不同,Ⅰ-Ⅵ分别富含丙氨酸、缬氨酸、亮氨酸、半胱氨酸、丝氨酸和赖氨酸.

  6. Aggregation of European storm-petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus ssp. melitensis) around cage fish farms. Do they benefit from the farmś resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado-Giménez, F; Sallent-Sánchez, A; Eguía-Martínez, S; Martínez-Ródenas, J; Hernández-Llorente, M D; Palanca-Maresca, C; Molina-Pardo, J L; López-Pastor, B; García-Castellanos, F A; Ballester-Moltó, M; Ballesteros-Pelegrín, G; García-García, B; Barberá, G G

    2016-12-01

    Cage aquaculture aggregates wild fauna due to food provision. Several seabirds frequent fish farms, including the European storm-petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus melitensis). This work investigates the presence of storm-petrels around two aquaculture areas interspersed between breeding colonies in western Mediterranean Sea. Contribution of aquaculture-derived resources to their diet was assessed. Storm-petrels were mist-netted at the colonies and marked by bleaching feathers. Density around aquaculture areas was estimated through visual counts. Marks recognition was conducted visually and by photo-capture. Storm-petrel regurgitates were used as target tissue to estimate diet sources contribution. Contribution of surface zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and aquaculture wastes was estimated through Bayesian mixing modelling combining carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and fatty acids as biomarkers. Storm-petrel density was high in open-sea aquaculture area, but not observed around near shore farms. Temporal variability of storm-petrels density during the breeding season was linked to their reproductive phenology. Within the open-sea aquaculture area, bluefin tuna farm was more attractive for storm-petrels than seabream/seabass farms. Visual identification of bleaching marks was not useful. Photo-capture showed that 8.3% of the storm-petrels watched around farms were firstly trapped in some of the nearby colonies, and 91.7% were unmarked. Qualitative evidence of aquaculture-derived wastes utilization was obtained. However, its estimated contribution was low (4.3%) when compared to ichthyoplankton (61.1%) or zooplankton (34.6%). The studied open-sea farms significantly aggregated storm-petrels along their entire breeding season. Storm-petrels got a slight profit from aquaculture resources. Nevertheless, some concerns arise regarding the cost/benefit balance of the interaction.

  7. Bacteriocin production by strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus BB18 during continuous prefermentation of yogurt starter culture and subsequent batch coagulation of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova, E D; Beshkova, D M; Angelov, M P; Dimitrov, Zh P

    2008-06-01

    By screening for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria of 1,428 strains isolated from authentic Bulgarian dairy products, Lb. bulgaricus BB18 strain obtained from kefir grain was selected. Out of 11 yogurt starters containing Lb. bulgaricus BB18 and S. thermophilus strains resistant to bacteriocin secreted by Lb. bulgaricus BB18 a yogurt culture (S. thermophilus 11A+Lb. bulgaricus BB18) with high growth and bacteriocinogenic activity in milk was selected. Continuous (pH-stat 5.7) prefermentation processes were carried out in milk at 37 degrees C in a 2l MBR bioreactor (MBR AG, Zurich, Switzerland) with an IMCS controller for agitation speed, temperature, dissolved oxygen, CO2 and pH. Prefermented milk with pH 5.7 coagulated in a thermostat at 37 degrees C until pH 4.8-4.9. S. thermophilus 11A and Lb. bulgaricus BB18 grew independently in a continuous mode at similar and sufficiently high-dilution rates (D=1.83 h(-1)-S. thermophilus 11A; D=1.80 h(-1)-Lb. bulgaricus BB18). The yogurt cultures developed in a stream at a high-dilution rate (D=2.03-2.28 h(-1)). The progress of both processes (growth and bacteriocin production) depended on the initial ratio between the two microorganisms. The continuous prefermentation process promoted conditions for efficient fermentation and bacteriocinogenesis of the starter culture during the batch process: strong reduction of the times for bacteriocin production and coagulation of milk (to 4.5-5.0 h); high cell productivity (lactobacilli-4x10(12) CFU ml(-1), streptococci-6x10(12) CFU ml(-1)); high productivity of bacteriocins (4,500 BU ml(-1))-1.7 times higher than the bacteriocinogenic activity of the batch starter culture.

  8. Automatized sspKa measurements of dihydrogen phosphate and Tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane in acetonitrile/water mixtures from 20 to 60°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, A; Tascon, M; Padró, J M; Gagliardi, L G; Castells, C B

    2014-09-01

    We measured pKa values of Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and dihydrogen phosphate; both are commonly used to prepare buffers for reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), in acetonitrile/water mixtures from 0% to 70% (v/v) (64.6% (w/w)) acetonitrile and at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. The procedure is based on potentiometric measurements of pH of buffer solutions of variable solvent compositions using a glass electrode and a novel automated system. The method consists in the controlled additions of small volumes of a thermostated solution from an automatic buret into another isothermal solution containing exactly the same buffer-component concentrations, but a different solvent composition. The continuous changes in the solvent composition induce changes in the potentials. Thus, only two sequences of additions are needed: increasing the amount of acetonitrile from pure water and decreasing the content of acetonitrile from 70% (v/v) (64.6% (w/w)). In the procedure with homemade apparatus, times for additions, stirring, homogenization, and data acquisition are entirely controlled by software programmed for this specific routine. This rapid, fully automated method was applied to acquire more than 40 potential data covering the whole composition range (at each temperature) in about two hours and allowed a systematic study of the effect of temperature and acetonitrile composition on acid-base equilibria of two widely used substances to control pH close to 7. The experimental pKa results were fitted to empirical functions between pKa and temperature and acetonitrile composition. These equations allowed predictions of pKa to estimate the pH of mixtures at any composition and temperature, which would be very useful, for instance, during chromatographic method development.

  9. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  10. Investigation of an outbreak of human salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica ssp enterica serovar Infantis by use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    1996-01-01

    , also belonged to the EPI-type. This was furthermore, the case for isolates from beef from the same market, indicating that cross-contamination had taken place. All isolates from pork and some, but not all, isolates from beef, collected in butchers shops during the outbreak belonged to the EPI...

  11. Early establishment response of different Pinus nigra ssp. salzmanii seed sources on contrasting environments: Implications for future reforestation programs and assisted population migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïbi, K; del Campo, A D; Aguado, A; Mulet, J M

    2016-04-15

    Forest restoration constitutes an important issue within adaptive environmental management for climate change at global scale. However, effective implementation of these programs can only be achieved by revising current seed transfer guidelines, as they lack inherent spatial and temporal dynamics associated with climate change. In this sense, provenance trials may provide key information on the relative performance of different populations and/or genotypes under changing ecological conditions. This study addresses a methodological approach to evaluate early plantation performance and the consequent phenotypic plasticity and the pattern of the adaptation of different seed sources in contrasting environments. To this end, six seed sources of Salzmann pine were tested at three contrasting trial sites testing a hypothetical assisted population migration. Adaptation at each site was assessed through Joint Regression and Additive Main effect and Multiplication Interaction (AMMI) models. Most of the observed variation was attributed to the environment (above 90% for all traits), even so genotype and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) were significant. Seedlings out-planted under better site conditions did not differ in survival but in height growth. However, on sites with higher constraints, survival differed among seed sources and diameter growth was high. The adaptation analyses (AMMI) indicated that the cold-continental seed source 'Soria' performed as a generalist seed source, whereas 'Cordilleras Béticas', the southernmost seed source, was more adapted to harsh environments (frost and drought) in terms of survival. The results supported partially the hypothesis that assisted migration of seed sources makes sense within limited transfer distances, and this was reinforced by the GxE results. The present study could be valuable to address adaptive transfer of seedings in ecological restoration and to determine the suitable seed sources for reforestation programs and assisted population migration under climatic changes. The reported results are based on 3 years' data and need to be considered in this context.

  12. Paper chromatography of anthocyanins in two species of Aconitum from the Tatry .Mts.: A. variegatum (L.) Rchb., and A. napellus ssp. skerisorae (Gayer) Seitz.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzakowa, M.; R. Zieliński; Szweykowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    The results of studies on phenolic compounds occurence and variation in the two Aconitum species were reported in our previous paper (Szweykowski, Krzakowa, 1977a and b). A modified extraction method allowed us to get additional data on anthocyanin variation in flowers of the same species. In addition one albino plant of A. variegatum was also investigated in this respect.

  13. High-quality reference genes for quantifying the transcriptional responses of Oryza sativa L.(ssp.indica and japonica) to abiotic stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAKSUP Sarunyaporn; SUPAIBULWATANA Kanyaratt; SELVARAJ Gopalan

    2013-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is important to food security and is also an excellent model plant for numerous cereal crops.A functional genomics study in rice includes characterization of the expression dynamics of genes by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis; this is a significant key for developing rice varieties that perform well in the face of adverse climate change.The qPCR analysis requires the use of appropriate reference genes in order to make any quantitative interpretations meaningful.Here,the new potential reference genes were selected from a huge public database of rice microarray experiments.The expression stability of 14 candidates and 4 conventional reference genes was validated by geNormPLUs and NormFinder software.Seven candidates are superior to the conventionally used reference genes in qPCR and three genes can be used reliably for quantitating the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress responses.These high-quality references EP (LOC_Os05g08980),HNR (LOC_Os01g71770),and TBC (LOC_Os09g34040) worked very well in three indica genotypes and one japonica genotype.One of indica genotypes including the Jasmine rice,KDML105 developed in Thailand for which no reference genes have been reported until now.

  14. Paper chromatography of anthocyanins in two species of Aconitum from the Tatry .Mts.: A. variegatum (L. Rchb., and A. napellus ssp. skerisorae (Gayer Seitz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krzakowa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on phenolic compounds occurence and variation in the two Aconitum species were reported in our previous paper (Szweykowski, Krzakowa, 1977a and b. A modified extraction method allowed us to get additional data on anthocyanin variation in flowers of the same species. In addition one albino plant of A. variegatum was also investigated in this respect.

  15. Nitrogen limitation, 15N tracer retention, and growth response in intact and Bromus tectorum-invaded Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witwicki, Dana L.; Doescher, Paul S.; Pyke, David A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2012-01-01

    Annual grass invasion into shrub-dominated ecosystems is associated with changes in nutrient cycling that may alter nitrogen (N) limitation and retention. Carbon (C) applications that reduce plant-available N have been suggested to give native perennial vegetation a competitive advantage over exotic annual grasses, but plant community and N retention responses to C addition remain poorly understood in these ecosystems. The main objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the degree of N limitation of plant biomass in intact versus B. tectorum-invaded sagebrush communities, (2) determine if plant N limitation patterns are reflected in the strength of tracer 15N retention over two growing seasons, and (3) assess if the strength of plant N limitation predicts the efficacy of carbon additions intended to reduce soil N availability and plant growth. Labile C additions reduced biomass of exotic annual species; however, growth of native A. tridentata shrubs also declined. Exotic annual and native perennial plant communities had divergent responses to added N, with B. tectorum displaying greater ability to use added N to rapidly increase aboveground biomass, and native perennials increasing their tissue N concentration but showing little growth response. Few differences in N pools between the annual and native communities were detected. In contrast to expectations, however, more 15N was retained over two growing seasons in the invaded annual grass than in the native shrub community. Our data suggest that N cycling in converted exotic annual grasslands of the northern Intermountain West, USA, may retain N more strongly than previously thought.

  16. Biodiversity of Dominant Cultivable Endophytic Bacteria Inhabiting Tissues of Six Different Cultivars of Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) Cropped under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Katarzyna; Pietr, Stanisław Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria (EnB) play a crucial role in plant development. This study was an attempt to isolate and identify dominant cultivable EnB inhabiting young seedlings germinated in vitro and leaves of six maize cultivars grown under field conditions at temperate climate zone with culture-dependent approach. We isolated bacteria from field cropped maize only. Strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In particular, members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and α- and γ-Proteobacteria were found. Species of two genus Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant among them. Higher diversity of EnB was found in plants collected from Kobierzyce, where we identified 35 species from 16 genera with 22 species uniquely found at this field. On the contrary, from maize leaves collected at Smolice we identified 24 species representing 10 genera with 10 species uniquely isolated from this field. However, none of species was common for all cultivars at both locations. Among isolated EnB six species only, Pseudomonas clemancea, Pseudomonasfluorescens, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus simplex, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, were found in aboveground parts of the same cultivar grown on both tested fields. The fact that the same cultivars, sown from the same lots of seeds, under field conditions on two different locations were colonized with noticeably different associations of cultivable EnB suggest that cultivar genotype is an important factor selecting endophytic bacteria from local agro-environment. To our knowledge this is first report about the significant variation of diversity of cultivable endophytic bacteria inhabiting aboveground parts of the same maize cultivars grown at different locations.

  17. Cloning and Characterization of the Microspore Development-Related Gene BcMF2 in Chinese Cabbage Pak-Choi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qin WANG; Wan-Zhi YE; Jia-Shu CAO; Xiao-Lin YU; Xun XIANG; Gang LU

    2005-01-01

    For the sake of providing some important information relevant to the study of the molecular mechanism of genic male sterility in plants, gene differential expression in flower buds at different developmental stages, as well as in rosette leaves, florescence leaves, and scapes was analyzed using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in the genic male sterile A and fertile B line of Chinese cabbage pak-choi. Following amplification of 125 pairs of primer combinations, 11 differential fragments were obtained, of which eight were from the B line and the other three were from the A line. Of 11 differential fragments, four were verified by Northern hybridization that were expressed preferentially in fertile flower buds. Results of GenBank BLAST showed that one fragment was with unknown function,whereas the other fragments have strong nucleotide sequence similarities with the polygalacturonase (PG)gene, the pectinesterase (PE) gene, and the polygalacturonase inhibitory protein (PGIP4) gene. Only fulllength cDNA from the differential fragment BcMF-A18T16-1 was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and Northern analysis showed that this fragment was expressed only in medium and largesized flower buds of the B line. The full-length cDNA, designated as BcMF2 (Brassica campestris Male Fertile 2), was 1 485 bp long and was composed of a 1 263-bp open reading frame, which had 83% nucleotide similarity to a PG gene from Arabidopsis encoding polygalacturonase. Analysis of the basic structure of the protein revealed that it had one polygalacturonase active site (RVTCGPGHGLSVGS) at 256th site of amino acids and was classified as being a member of family 28 of the glycosyl hydrolases. The role of the BcMF2 gene on microspore development is discussed in the present paper.

  18. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of anethole-rich oil from leaves of selected varieties of fennel [Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ssp. vulgare var. azoricum (Mill.) Thell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Felice; Oliviero, Filomena; Scandolera, Elia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roscigno, Graziana; Zaccardelli, Massimo; De Falco, Enrica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils obtained from the leaves of two different cultivars of Florence fennel cropped under three different fertilization treatments (Control not fertilized; Mineral Fertilization; Compost from Municipal Solid Wastes) have been analyzed. All the oils were characterized by high anethole concentration and some showed also a good percentage of limonene. Thus, the leaves of Florence fennel, which are agricultural wastes, could be used for the recovery of anethole to be used for its flavoring and biomedical properties. The antimicrobial activity expressed by assays on the examined oils indicates an appreciable effect, generally higher on Gram-positive bacteria. The various samples of Florence fennel analyzed did not show any results with FRAP test. The DPPH test showed a weak capacity of the samples to catch the free radicals from the solution, attributable to their content in anethole.

  19. Three wastes (waste gas, waste water and industrial residue) control and disposal in SSP production%过磷酸钙生产三废的治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛玉忠

    2002-01-01

    采用空塔喷淋吸收气体中的氟,吸收效率高,散热好,排放尾气中的氟含量低于GBJ4-73标准.氟硅酸制氟硅酸钠,氟硅胶经压滤后晒干加入磷肥,稀盐酸制矿浆.三废均得到利用,改善了环境,年增加收入36万元.

  20. MANEJO QUÍMICO DE CIPERUS ROTUNDUS E DIGITARIA SSP. EM ÁREAS COMERCIAIS DE PRODUÇÃO DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAS, Ana Carolina Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and Crabgrass (Digitaria spp in the cultivationof sugar cane must be done in an integrated way, mainly in the reform or implantation of the sugar cane plantation.Among the measures that can be adopted for reduction of the potential of Purple nutsedge and Crabgrass infestationis the daily application of pre-emergence herbicides in the plantation of sugar cane. It was aimed with this workto study the effectiveness of the herbicides sulfentrazone and clomazone used in sugar cane areas in the controlof the Cyperus rotundus L species respectively. For this, a survey of the areas with application of these herbicideswas carried through and made a visual evaluation of control from 70 to 90 DAA with regard to the witness of eachplantation spot. The data had been tabulated and analyzed with the use of histograms and polygon of frequency.The results allowed concluding that it was possible to happen areas the herbicide sulfentrazone in high infestationsof the harmful plant Cyperus or when the applied doses are inferior to the recommended for the same one.The control of the herbicide over the capim-colchão allows assuming that it’s an option for the handling of this harmful plant.REsUMO: O controle da tiririca (Cyperus rotundus e o capim-colchão (Digitaria spp. na cultura da canade-açúcar deve ser feito de forma integrada, principalmente na reforma ou implantação do canavial. Dentre asmedidas que podem ser adotadas para redução do potencial de infestação da tiririca e do capim-colchão está aaplicação de herbicidas pré-emergente na cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar aeficácia dos herbicidas sulfentrazone e clomazone utilizados em áreas de cana-de-açúcar no controle das espéciesCyperus rotundus L e Digitaria spp. respectivamente. Para isto foi realizado um levantamento das áreas comaplicação destes herbicidas e realizada avaliação visual de controle dos 70 a 90 DAA com relação à testemunhade cada talhão. Os dados foram tabulados e analisados com a utilização de histogramas e polígono de freqüência.Os resultados permitiram concluir que podem ocorrer áreas problemas para o herbicida sulfentrazone em altasinfestações da planta daninha Cyperus rotundus ou quando as doses aplicadas são inferiores a recomendada para ocontrole da mesma. Os valores encontrados de controle do herbicida clomazone sobre o capim-colchão permitemsupor tratar-se de uma opção para o manejo desta planta daninha.

  1. 三角花品种越冬抗寒性比较研究%Study on cold hardiness of Bougainvillea ssp.during the overwintering in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈香波; 罗玉兰; 田旗

    2004-01-01

    对引进上海的三角花4个品种进行越冬冻害观察结果表明,各品种在相同的小环境条件下(风口露地与背风向阳露地)其冻害加重进程不一致;在不同栽培设施下,各品种间抗寒性差异明显;结合相关生理指标测定表明,光叶类三角花较毛叶类三角花品种抗寒,其品种的抗寒性顺序为亮叶三角梅>艳紫三角梅>红色三角梅>斑叶三角梅.

  2. Desarrollo de un sistema de selección positiva para plantas transgénicas de papa (Solanum tuberosum SSP andígena var diacol capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaya Lancheros Mary Luz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del proceso para la obtención de plantas transgénicas, la selección es una etapa fundamental puesto
    que permite identificar el material potencialmente transformado. Los métodos convencionalmente utilizados
    son efectivos, pero han sido ampliamente cuestionados, principalmente por aspectos relacionados con bioseguridad,
    por lo cual, se han desarrollando nuevas estrategias para su reemplazo. Dentro de estas, el sistema de selección positiva pmi/manosa, ha demostrado alta efectividad en la identificación de plantas transgénicas de distintas especies. Con el objetivo de desarrollar un sistema de selección pmi/manosa para la variedad Diacol Capiro, se establecieron las condiciones necesarias para la transformación de entrenudos con la cepa LBA4404 de Agrobacterium tumefaciens que contiene el vector binario pNOV022, obteniéndose tasas regenerativas del 80-100% y plantas entre la séptima y novena semana. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de manosa sobre la viabilidad y capacidad regenerativa de los explantes, escogiendo la combinación manosa 5g/l y sacarosa 10 g/l para su posterior evaluación en el medio de selección; además se corroboró la utilidad de la manosa como agente selectivo. Los distintos procesos selectivos realizados, generaron frecuencias de selección entre 1 y 20%, con tasas esperadas de escapes entre 0 y 8%. El análisis por PCR determinó amplificación de un fragmento específico pmi en dos plantas provenientes de un mismo explante, correspondiendo a una frecuencia de transformación del 2,8%. La prueba del rojo de clorofenol indicó expresión
    indirecta de la proteína PMI en las dos plantas PCR positivas.

  3. Growth temperature affects sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and sugars in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Hagen, Sidsel F; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Mølmann, Jørgen A B

    2016-04-01

    Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures.

  4. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  5. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  6. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  7. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  8. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic values of durum wheat.

  9. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...

  10. Effect of ionizing radiation on the morphology, physiology and growth of Leishmania ssp; Acao da radiacao ionizante sobre a morfologia, fisiologia e crescimento da Leishmania spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Franco C.; Spencer, Patrick J.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Junior A, Heitor F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Medicina Tropical

    2000-07-01

    The Leishmania spp is a pathogenic protozoan, which cause different diseases in man. The human diseases, in America, caused by this group of protozoa are divided in cutaneous or tegumentar and visceral, known as kala-azar. In this work, our principal study object was the specie that causes tegumentar leishmaniasis, in Brazil. Metabolic studies of cellular respiration and proteins and nucleic acids synthesis were accomplished using radiation as a form of sterilizing the parasites without however affecting their immunogenic capacity The promastigotes forms of irradiated Leishmania spp were totally sterilized with the dose of 1500 Gy, with their reproductive and nucleic acids, as well as protein synthesis capacity blocked. (author)

  11. Fully automatic differential diagnosis system for dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease using FDG-PET and 3D-SSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Ishii, Kazunari; Sofue, Keitaro; Miyamoto, Naokazu [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Himeji Central Hospital, PET Center, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    To evaluate a fully automatic computer-assisted diagnostic system for mild dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), permitting distinction from mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), glucose metabolic images were obtained from mild DLB and mild AD patients. Two groups consisting of 16 mild DLB patients and 21 mild AD patients were recruited for diagnostic evaluation between mild DLB and mild AD. The mean age {+-} SD of the mild DLB group and the mild AD group was 74.3 {+-} 4.9 and 71.7 {+-} 2.1 years, respectively, and the mean scores of the MMSE for the mild DLB and the mild AD group were 21.7 {+-} 1.9 and 23.1 {+-} 2.1, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance, in terms of discrimination between DLB and AD, of conventional axial FDG-PET images inspected visually by experts and beginners with that of our fully automatic diagnosis system using the statistical brain mapping method and Z scores obtained with the DLB template. The diagnostic performance of the automatic system was comparable to that of visual inspection by experts. The area under the ROC curve for the automatic diagnosis system was 0.77. The mean area under the ROC curve for visual inspection by experts and beginners was 0.76 and 0.65, respectively. The fully automatic differential diagnosis system for distinction between mild DLB and AD showed a similar diagnostic accuracy to visual inspection by experts. It would be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish mild DLB from mild AD in clinical practice. (orig.)

  12. Effect of N fertilisation, year and prolamin alleles on gluten quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum) landraces from Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiriano, E.; Ruiz, M.; Fite, R.; Carrillo, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    A subset of durum wheat Spanish land races, previously evaluated for yield at low and high nitrogen (N) levels, was analysed for quality, protein content (P) and sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation (SDSS) test. The evaluation was carried out at the two N rates and in two years. The influence of prolamine alleles at the Glu-1, Glu-3, Glu-B2 and Gli- 1 loci on quality parameters was also studied. The non significant Variety-by-Year or Variety-by-N interactions suggested that year and N affected all the varieties in a similar manner. Year and N effects were larger than variety effect for P, which increased with N. In contrast, variety genotype exhibited a stronger influence on SDSS test, which was not affected by year and fertilizer. Variety effects on P did not reflect the variety differences for SDSS test. A high positive influence of some prolamin alleles on quality parameters was detected, mainly for SDSS values. No correlation between yield and P was detected in the landraces adapted to low N. Based on the results of yield and quality evaluations, four landraces with high yield and high gluten strength were pre-selected for low N production. (Author)

  13. Nucleotide Sequence and Analysis of an orotate transporter-containing plasmid isolated from the Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis biovar diacetylactis strain DB0410

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Defoor, Els Marie Celine; Martinussen, Jan

    determined. Fifteen open reading frames (ORFs) were encountered of which three insertion-sequence (IS) elements identified as two IS946 and one IS982. Two ORFs are incomplete due to the insertion of an IS element in their carboxy terminal end. Homologs for four ORFs were found on the IL1403 sequence: the cop...... and molecular cloning, we identified the open reading frames on pDBORO necessary for the utilization of orotate as the sole pyrimidine source. Surprisingly, homologs are found on the Lactococcus lactis IL1403 and MG1363 chromosomes despite the fact that they are resistant towards fluoroorotate....

  14. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  15. Sub-tropical urban environment affecting content and composition of non-structural carbohydrates of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum cv. Lema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandrin, Carla Zuliani; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cassia Leone; Carvalho, Maria Angela Machado de [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz [Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 11461, 05422-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.br

    2008-12-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between environmental factors, especially air pollution and climatic conditions, and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plants of Lolium multiflorum exposed during 10 consecutive periods of 28 days at a polluted site (Congonhas) and at a reference site in Sao Paulo city (Brazil). After exposure, NSC composition and leaf concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were measured. The seasonal pattern of NSC accumulation was quite similar in both sites, but plants at Congonhas showed higher concentrations of these compounds, especially fructans of low and medium degree of polymerization. Regression analysis showed that NSC in plants growing at the polluted site were explained by variations on temperature and leaf concentration of Fe (positive effect), as well as relative humidity and particulate material (negative effect). NSC in the standardized grass culture, in addition to heavy metal accumulation, may indicate stressing conditions in a sub-tropical polluted environment. - Particulate matter and air temperature increased non-structural carbohydrates in the standardized biomonitor grass in Sao Paulo.

  16. The Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis specific mptD gene is required for maintenance of the metabolic homeostasis necessary for full virulence in mouse infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Thorsten; Eckelt, Elke; Basler, Tina; Meens, Jochen; Heinzmann, Julia; Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Oelemann, Walter M R; Trenkamp, Sandra; Holst, Otto; Weiss, Siegfried; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Furthermore, infections of humans with MAP have been reported and a possible association with Crohn's disease and diabetes type I is currently discussed. MAP owns large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) that were exclusively found in this mycobacteria species. The relevance of these LSPs in the pathobiology of MAP is still unclear. The mptD gene (MAP3733c) of MAP belongs to a small group of functionally uncharacterized genes, which are not present in any other sequenced mycobacteria species. mptD is part of a predicted operon (mptABCDEF), encoding a putative ATP binding cassette-transporter, located on the MAP-specific LSP14. In the present study, we generated an mptD knockout strain (MAPΔmptD) by specialized transduction. In order to investigate the potential role of mptD in the host, we performed infection experiments with macrophages. By this, we observed a significantly reduced cell number of MAPΔmptD early after infection, indicating that the mutant was hampered with respect to adaptation to the early macrophage environment. This important role of mptD was supported in mouse infection experiments where MAPΔmptD was significantly attenuated after peritoneal challenge. Metabolic profiling was performed to determine the cause for the reduced virulence and identified profound metabolic disorders especially in the lipid metabolism of MAPΔmptD. Overall our data revealed the mptD gene to be an important factor for the metabolic adaptation of MAP required for persistence in the host.

  17. Quantitative genetic bases of anthocyanin variation in grape (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) berry: a quantitative trait locus to quantitative trait nucleotide integrated study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Le Cunff, Loïc; Gomez, Camila; Doligez, Agnès; Ageorges, Agnès; Roux, Catherine; Bertrand, Yves; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Véronique; This, Patrice

    2009-11-01

    The combination of QTL mapping studies of synthetic lines and association mapping studies of natural diversity represents an opportunity to throw light on the genetically based variation of quantitative traits. With the positional information provided through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, which often leads to wide intervals encompassing numerous genes, it is now feasible to directly target candidate genes that are likely to be responsible for the observed variation in completely sequenced genomes and to test their effects through association genetics. This approach was performed in grape, a newly sequenced genome, to decipher the genetic architecture of anthocyanin content. Grapes may be either white or colored, ranging from the lightest pink to the darkest purple tones according to the amount of anthocyanin accumulated in the berry skin, which is a crucial trait for both wine quality and human nutrition. Although the determinism of the white phenotype has been fully identified, the genetic bases of the quantitative variation of anthocyanin content in berry skin remain unclear. A single QTL responsible for up to 62% of the variation in the anthocyanin content was mapped on a Syrah x Grenache F(1) pseudo-testcross. Among the 68 unigenes identified in the grape genome within the QTL interval, a cluster of four Myb-type genes was selected on the basis of physiological evidence (VvMybA1, VvMybA2, VvMybA3, and VvMybA4). From a core collection of natural resources (141 individuals), 32 polymorphisms revealed significant association, and extended linkage disequilibrium was observed. Using a multivariate regression method, we demonstrated that five polymorphisms in VvMybA genes except VvMybA4 (one retrotransposon, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and one 2-bp insertion/deletion) accounted for 84% of the observed variation. All these polymorphisms led to either structural changes in the MYB proteins or differences in the VvMybAs promoters. We concluded that the continuous variation in anthocyanin content in grape was explained mainly by a single gene cluster of three VvMybA genes. The use of natural diversity helped to reduce one QTL to a set of five quantitative trait nucleotides and gave a clear picture of how isogenes combined their effects to shape grape color. Such analysis also illustrates how isogenes combine their effect to shape a complex quantitative trait and enables the definition of markers directly targeted for upcoming breeding programs.

  18. Kinetics of Changes in Glucosinolate Concentrations during Long-Term Cooking of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata f. alba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volden, J.; Wicklund, T.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Brassica vegetables are the predominant dietary source of glucosinolates (GLS) that can be degraded in the intestinal tract into isothiocyanates, which have been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties. The effects of pilot-scale long-term boiling on GLS in white cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. s

  19. Concise synthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine starting with bufotenine from Brazilian Anadenanthera ssp..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leandro A; Murta, Maria M; Gatto, Claudia C; Fagg, Christopher W; dos Santos, Maria L

    2015-04-01

    Bufotenine (1, 5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) was isolated from seeds of Anadenanthera spp., a tree widespread in the Brazilian cerrado, using an efficient acid-base shakeout protocol. The conversion of bufotenine into N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4) and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5) was accomplished through an innovative and short approach featuring the use of novel bufotenine-aminoborane complex (7). Furthermore, an easy methodology for conversion of bufotenine into 5-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltryptamine (6) was well-established. This is the first study that highlights bufotenine as a resource for the production of N,N-dimethyltryptamines for either pharmacological and toxicological investigations or for synthetic purposes.

  20. High frequency in vitro plantlet regeneration and antioxidant activity of Enicostema axillare(Lam. Raynal ssp. littoralis (Blume Raynal: An important medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousalya Loganathan

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The present study not only enables reinforcement of wild plant populations using ex situ growth of individuals, but it also helps for high scale production of plantlets. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that flavonoid compounds were a major contributor of antioxidant activity of both plants grown from nature and nodal culture.

  1. Minor iridoids from Scutellaria albida ssp albida. Inhibitory potencies on lipoxygenase, linoleic acid lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of iridoids from Scutellaria sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Matsa, Marina;

    2013-01-01

    A new iridoid glycoside, 6'-O-E-caffeoyl-mussaenosidic acid, in addition to one known aglycon, four known triterpenes and one known flavonoid, were isolated from the aerial parts of Scutellaria albida subsp. albida. Furthermore, 12 iridoids with similar structures isolated from Scutellariasp., we...

  2. An electrophoretic and cytological study of hybridisation between Aconitum napellus ssp. skerisorae (2n= 32 and A. variegatum (2n= 16. I Electrophoretic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Zieliński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of six enzymes in pure and mixed populations of Aconitum napellus and A. variegatum, both from the Tatra Mountains was analysed by means of electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The enzymes differentiating the studied species are: glutamate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, esterases and peroxidases. A group of plants was isolated with phenotypes intermediate between A. napellus and A. variegatum. Among them were most probably both F1 and introgressive hybrids.

  3. An acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera) fruit and seed transcriptome as a resource for the study of fruit traits in Cucurbita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Lindsay E; Strickler, Susan R; Mueller, Lukas A; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acorn squash (Cucurbita pepo) is an iconic fall vegetable in the United States, known for its unique fruit shape and also prized for its culinary properties. Little is known about the metabolism that underlies the development of fruit quality attributes such as color, sweetness, texture and nutritional qualities in acorn squash, or any other winter squash grown worldwide. To provide insight into winter squash fruit and seed development and add to the genomic resources in the Cucurbita genus, RNA sequencing was used to generate an acorn squash fruit and seed transcriptome from the cultivar Sweet REBA at critical points throughout fruit development. 141 838 600 high-quality paired-end Illumina reads were assembled into 55 949 unigenes. 85% of unigenes with predicted open reading frames had homology with previously identified genes and over 62% could be functionally annotated. Comparison with the watermelon and cucumber genomes provided confirmation that the unigenes are full-length and comprehensive, covering an average of 90% of the coding sequence of their homologs and 72% of the cucumber and watermelon exomes. Key candidate genes associated with carotenoid and carbohydrate metabolism were identified toward a resource for winter squash fruit quality trait dissection. This transcriptome represents a major advance in C. pepo genomics, providing significant new sequence information and revealing the repertoire of genes expressed throughout winter squash fruit and seed development. Future studies on the genetic basis of fruit quality and future breeding efforts will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource. PMID:26504561

  4. Identification of SSR markers closely linked to the yellow seed coat color gene in heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanjing; Wu, Junqing; Zhao, Jing; Hao, Lingyu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research on the yellow-seeded variety of heading Chinese cabbage will aid in broadening its germplasm resources and lay a foundation for AA genome research in Brassica crops. Here, an F2 segregating population of 1575 individuals was constructed from two inbred lines (brown-seeded ‘92S105’ and yellow-seeded ‘91-125’). This population was used to identify the linkage molecular markers of the yellow seed coat trait using simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques combined with a bulk segregant analysis (BSA). Of the 144 SSR primer pairs on the A01-A10 chromosomes from the Brassica database (http://brassicadb.org/brad/), two pairs located on the A06 chromosome showed polymorphic bands between the bulk DNA pools of eight brown-seeded and eight yellow-seeded F2 progeny. Based on the genome sequence, 454 SSR markers were designed to A06 to detect these polymorphic bands and were synthesized. Six SSR markers linked to the seed coat color gene were successfully selected for fine linkage genetic map construction, in which the two closest flanking markers, SSR449a and SSR317, mapped the Brsc-ye gene to a 40.2 kb region with distances of 0.07 and 0.06 cM, respectively. The molecular markers obtained in this report will assist in the marker-assisted selection and breeding of yellow-seeded lines in Brassica rapa L. and other close species. PMID:28069590

  5. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N which is not usual in the open field for a N fixing species. In the rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrop, rapeseed was facilitated by squarrosum clover, while squarrosum clover suffered from the competitive effect of rapeseed, which was the dominant species. The resource use efficiency of intercrops as compared to that of one-species crops was lower in the wheat/faba bean couple, not much different in the rapeseed/squarrosum clover one. In both couples, the best performance was observed when the ratio of the dominant species was lower than that of the companion species (number of plants in the ratio 1:3.

  6. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum wheat.

  7. Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) alters the carbohydrate metabolism in root galls to allowing the compatible interaction with grapevine (Vitis ssp.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michaela; Lawo, Nora Caroline; Crespo-Martinez, Sara; Schoedl-Hummel, Katharina; Wieczorek, Krzysztof; Gorecka, Miroslawa; Liebner, Falk; Zweckmair, Thomas; Stralis Pavese, Nancy; Kreil, David; Forneck, Astrid

    2015-05-01

    Gall forming phylloxera may compete for nutrients with meristematic tissues and develop heterotrophic structures that act as carbon sinks. In this work, we studied the underlying starch metabolism, sink-source translocation of soluble sugars towards and within root galls. We demonstrated that nodosities store carbohydrates by starch accumulation and monitored the expression of genes involved in the starch metabolic. Thereby we proved that the nodosity is symplastically connected to the source tissues through its development and that the starch metabolism is significantly affected to synthesize and degrade starch within the gall. Genes required for starch biosynthesis and degradation are up-regulated. Among the carbohydrate transporters the expression of a glucose-6-phosphate translocater, one sucrose transporter and two SWEET proteins were increases, whereas hexose transporters, tonoplast monosaccharide transporter and Erd6-like sugar transporters were decreased. We found general evidence for plant response to osmotic stress in the nodosity as previously suggested for gall induction processes. We conclude that nodosities are heterogenous plant organs that accumulate starch to serve as temporary storage structure that is gradually withdrawn by phylloxera. Phylloxera transcriptionally reprograms gall tissues beyond primary metabolism and included downstream secondary processes, including response to osmotic stress.

  8. Iridoids from Scutellaria goulimyi Rech. f., Lamiaceae. Morphological and chemical relations with Scutellaria albida L. ssp albida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gousiadou, Chrysoula; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal;

    2012-01-01

    . goulimyi Rech. fil., and, in spite of little morphological differentiation from S. albida L. s. str., it is treated as a separate species (Bothmer, 1985). The S. albida group is predominantly white flowering, often with purple spots on the lower corolla lip (nectar guidance). (Bothmer, 1991). Given...

  9. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    33 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) ..................................34 viii p. Federal Police (PF...SIU Sensitive Information Unit SOD Special Operations Division SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica SWB Southwest Border Initiative SWBICP...www.usatoday.com/news/military/2010-04-06-Mexico_N.htm. 34 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) SSP is part of the Federal Civil Service whose aim is

  10. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  11. DIVERSITY OF PTERIDOPHYTES IN THE PROTECTED AREA OF VÂLSAN VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Cristina Soare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Vâlsan Valley there are two categories of regions that have been declared protected areas: The Natural Reserve Vâlsan Valley, code 2125 and The protected natural area of community interest Vâlsan Valley, code ROSCI0268. The aim of the research was to identify the species of pteridophytes in the protected areas, a necessary step for the conservation of their diversity. Within the area researched 26 species of pteridophytes were determined. Specific diversity across the genera identified ranges from 5 to 1, thus: Equisetum (5, Asplenium (4, Dryopteris (4, Polystichum (3 and Huperzia, Lycopodium, Selaginella, Botrychium, Polypodium, Phegopteris, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Gymnocarpium, Matteuccia with only one species. Concerning the abundance of the species identified, the pteridoflora in the area researched is made up of frequent (73% and sporadic species (27%, such as Huperzia selago, Lycopodium annotinum, Botrychium multifidum, Asplenium scolopendrium, Matteuccia struthiopteris, Dryopteris expansa, Polystichum braunii.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08726-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 689RF12.T0 Noemie Pan troglodytes troglody... 52 0.053 1 ( DQ078454 ) Hypothyris canto...brica n. ssp. AW-2005 isolate 02-... 34 0.072 4 ( DQ078458 ) Hypothyris cantobrica n. ssp. AW-2005 isol...ate 02-... 34 0.073 4 ( DQ078457 ) Hypothyris cantobrica n. ssp. AW-2005 isolate 02-... 34 0.073 4 ( DQ078459 ) Hypothyris canto...brica n. ssp. AW-2005 isolate 02-... 34 0.077 4 ( DQ078455 ) Hypothyris cantobrica n. ss...p. AW-2005 isolate 02-... 34 0.077 4 ( DQ078456 ) Hypothyris cantobrica n. ssp. A

  13. Shared Savings Program Accountable Care Organizations PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SSP ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for SSP ACO data, the Centers for Medicare (CM) has created a standard analytical file that CMS can use to...

  14. Clinical trial: multispecies probiotic supplementation alleviates the symptoms of IBS and stabilises intestinal microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajander, K.; Myllyluoma, E.; Rajlic-Stojanovic, M.; Kyronpalo, S.S.; Rasmussen, M.; Jarvenpaa, S.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Vapaatalo, H.; Korpela, R.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of multispecies probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. rhamnosus Lc705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb12) on abdominal symptoms, quality of life, intestinal microbiota and inflammatory m

  15. Resistance to antimicrobials and acid and bile tolerance of Bacillus spp isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, Clarisse S.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Diawara, Brehima

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of selecting starter cultures, thirteen species of Bacillus spp. including six Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, four Bacillus licheniformis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum isolated from traditional Bikalga were investigated. The study included, for all isolates, gen...

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSF416 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available slqgvptfiayrngeeqerfsgankvalenmvkkll*innl*nl*kk- -- ---QNKMYKEPKNESEYEAELKNAPVAVV...*rtrkilwcq*ssp*kygqktxyk* Frame B: qnkmykepkneseyeaelknapvavvyltatwcgpcraiapvftnisnapenskitffkv dvdalkklpvce

  17. The Role of Responsibility Factors of Reducing Inefficiencies in IS Projects on Six Sigma Certification in Service Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Service organizations worldwide are turning to Six Sigma Program (SSP) to remove variability in their processes to attain a competitive marketplace advantage. SSP offers methodology, concepts, and statistical tools to understand and standardize processes by reducing sources of variability. An effective “Belt†certification program, considered a major contributor to successful implementation of SSP as it provides the SSP professionals a clear understanding of what their responsibilities sho...

  18. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CULTURE TECHNICS OFMUSKMELON (Cucumis melo ssp. melo ) IN SOUTHEAST AREAOF YUNNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA%滇东南地区厚皮甜瓜栽培技术研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海荣; 朱林龙; 翁惠良; 张忠振

    2000-01-01

    在云南省东南部针对厚皮甜瓜进行了不同播种期、不同品种筛选、不同整枝方式、不同栽培方式的研究,结果表明,当地最适播种期为7月1日.最适品种为真珠200和古拉巴.网纹甜瓜应采用立架栽培.光皮甜瓜较适于伏地栽培.最适整枝方式为双杆整枝各留1瓜.

  19. The application of high-concentration short-time chlorine dioxide treatment for selected specialty crops including Roma tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum), cantaloupes (Cucumis melo ssp. melo var. cantaloupensis) and strawberries (Fragaria×ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinetta, V; Linton, R H; Morgan, M T

    2013-06-01

    The effects of high-concentration short-time chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas treatment on food-borne pathogens inoculated onto the surface of tomatoes, cantaloupes, and strawberries were studied. Produce were spot-inoculated with a mixture of Salmonella enterica (serotypes Montevideo, Javiana and Baildon), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (serotypes 204 P, EDL 933 and C792) or Listeria monocytogenes (serotypes Scott A, F 5069 and LCDC 81-861), and treated with ClO2 gas at 10 mg/l for 180 s. After ClO2 gas treatment, surviving populations were determined and shelf-life studies were conducted (microbial spoilage population, change in color and overall appearance). Significant microbial reduction (p 0.05). Results obtained suggest the potential use of high-concentration short-time ClO2 gas treatment as an effective online pathogen inactivation technology for specialty crops in large-scale produce packing operations.

  20. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A

    2013-07-14

    A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-α, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model.