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Sample records for annona sclerophylla safford

  1. Cardiac glycosides isolated from the Indian-snuff, Maquira sclerophylla Ducke

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    João Ernesto de Carvalho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of the powdered bark of the Indian-snuff Maquira sclerophylla Ducke was purified by column chromatography in silica-gel and the major cardenolide isolated from preparative TLC was identified by 1H-NMR, 1 2 C-NMR and IR analyses. The spectra showed that the active substance has strophanthidin as aglicone.

  2. Antiparasitic activity of Annona muricata and Annona cherimolia seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bories, C; Loiseau, P; Cortes, D; Myint, S H; Hocquemiller, R; Gayral, P; Cavé, A; Laurens, A

    1991-10-01

    Methanolic extracts of Annona muricata and A. cherimolia (Annonaceae) seeds were tested for antiparasitic activity against E. histolytica, N. brasiliensis, M. dessetae and A. salina. The acetogenins isolated from these extracts are found to be responsible for the important activity on infective larvae of Molinema desetae.

  3. Unlatching the Gate – Helping Adult Students Learn Mathematics by Katherine Safford-Ramus, (2008

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    Armin Hollenstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Safford-Ramus is an associate professor of mathematics at Saint Peter’s College, a Jesuit College in New Jersey, USA. She has been teaching introductory mathematics courses at the tertiary level for 24 years at a community college. This book is based on her doctoral thesis. In Chapter 1, Unlatching the Gate deliberates a rich specra of conditions for, and peculiarities of, mathematics learning by adults in a formal environment. Influential theories and empirical findings in the fields of educational psychology, adult education and mathematics education are surveyed with a focus on adult learners and – of course –teachers and institutions. The text does not discuss empirical research undertaken by the author; it examines her broad personal teaching experience in the light of the above-mentioned body of knowledge and proposes directions for the development of adult mathematics education. In this sense, Unlatching the Gate is a theoretical book reflecting on practical issues. The target audience would be adult educators and students of post secondary mathematics education.

  4. CO/sub 2/-silica geothermometer for low temperature geothermal resource assessment, with application to resources in the Safford Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, J.C.; Stone, C.

    1983-11-01

    This study investigates silica-water reactions in low-temperature geothermal water in areas near Safford, southeastern Arizona, and derives a pCO2 correction for conductive silica geothermometers. Use and limitations of the technique are also discussed. Data collection, interpretation approach, and basic geochemistry, as it applies to this study, are outlined. In addition, the geology, thermal regime, geohydrology, and gross geochemistry of the Safford area are reviewed. Finally, geothermal potential, as indicated by this study and previous studies is discussed.

  5. Quaternary stratigraphy and tectonics, and late prehistoric agriculture of the Safford Basin (Gila and San Simon river valleys), Graham County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Brenda B.; Pearthree, Phillip A.; Homburg, Jeffry A.; Thrasher, Lawrence C.

    2004-01-01

    This guidebook accompanied the 46th annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain Cell of the Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) and the 2002 Fall Field Trip of the Arizona Geological Society. The meeting and field trip were held in the Safford Basin, southeastern Arizona. The Friends of the Pleistocene is an informal gathering of Quaternary geologists, geomorphologists, and pedologists who meet annually for a field conference. The first part of the guidebook consists of road logs with descriptions of stops covering the three days of the field trip. An overview of the geology of the Safford Basin is given in Stop 1-1. The second part of the guidebook consists of four short papers that discuss adjacent areas or that expand upon the road log descriptions of the field trip stops. The first paper by Reid and Buffler is a summary of upper Cenozoic depositional facies in the Duncan Basin, the first basin to the east of the Safford Basin. The next three papers expand upon (1) the soil study of the gridded field agricultural complex (Stop 2-3, Homburg and Sandor), (2) the vertebrate fossils of the San Simon Valley in the southeastern part of the Safford Basin (Stop 3-1, Thrasher), and (3) paleoIndian irrigation systems and settlements in Lefthand Canyon at the foot of the Pinaleno Mountains (Stop 3-2, Neely and Homburg).

  6. Germination ecophysiology of Annona crassiflora Mart. seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Melo, de D.L.B.; Davide, A.C.; Bode, N.; Abreu, G.B.; Faria, J.M.R.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Little is known about environmental factors that break morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the Annonaceae and the mechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphological and physiological components of dormancy of Annona crassiflora, a tree species n

  7. A New Diterpenoid Dimer from Annona glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Anew diterpenoid dimer annonebinide A has been isolated from the stems ofAnnona glabra. Its structure was determined to be ent-16α-hydroxykauran-17-yl ent- 16β-kauran- 17-oate on the basis ofspectroscopic and chemical evidence.

  8. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  9. Biotechnology applied to Annona species: a review

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    Carlos Lopez Encina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceae is an ancient family of plants including approximately 50 genera growing worldwide in a quite restricted area with specific agroclimatic requirements. Only few species of this family has been cultivated and exploited commercially and most of them belonging to the genus Annona such as A. muricata, A. squamosa, the hybrid A. cherimola x A. squamosa and specially Annona cherimola: the cherimoya, commercially cultivated in Spain, Chile, California, Florida, México, Australia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, New Zealand and several countries in South and Central America. The cherimoya shows a high degree of heterozygosis, and to obtain homogeneous and productive orchards it is necessary to avoid the propagation by seeds of this species. Additionally, the traditional methods of vegetative propagation were inefficient and inadequate, due to the low morphogenetic potential of this species, and the low rooting rate. The in vitro tissue culture methods of micropropagation can be applied successfully to cherimoya and other Annona sp to overcome these problems. Most of the protocols of micropropagation and regeneration were developed using the cultivar Fino de Jete, which is the major cultivar in Spain. First it is developed the method to micropropagate the juvenile material of cherimoya (ENCINA et al., 1994, and later it was optimized a protocol to micropropagate adult cherimoya genotypes selected by outstanding agronomical traits (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2004 and further it was improved the process through micrografting (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2011.At the present time we are involved in inducing and obtaining new elite genotypes, as part of a breeding program for the cherimoya and other Annonas, using and optimizing different methodologies in vitro: a Adventitious organogenesis and regeneration from cellular cultures (ENCINA, 2004, b Ploidy manipulation of the cherimoya, to obtain haploid, tetraploid and triploid plants (seedless, c Genetic transformation

  10. Novel cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F R; Wu, Y C

    2001-07-01

    Seven new annonaceous acetogenins, muricins A-G (1-7), as well as five known compounds, a mixture of muricatetrocin A (8) and muricatetrocin B (9), longifolicin (10), corossolin (11), and corossolone (12), were isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. The structures of all isolates were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. These acetogenins showed significantly selective in vitro cytotoxicities toward the human hepatoma cell lines Hep G(2) and 2,2,15.

  11. Murihexol, a linear acetogenin from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing Guang; Gui, Hua Qing; Luo, Xiu Zhen; Sun, Lan

    1998-11-20

    Murihexol (1), a novel acetogenin, and three known ones, donhexocin (2), annonacin A and annonacin, have been isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. Compound 1 is a C(35) acetogenin without any THF rings, with six hydroxyls in the long aliphatic chain. The hydroxyls of 1 and 2 are all located at C-4, C-10, C-15, C-16, C-19 and C-20, but their stereochemistries are different. The vicinal diol at C-15/C-16 in 1 is threo and C-19/C-20 has the erythro configuration; in 2 C-15/C-16 and C-19/C-20 all have the same threo configuration.

  12. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

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    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  13. Cohibins C and D, two important metabolites in the biogenesis of acetogenins from Annona muricata and Annona nutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleye, C; Raynaud, S; Fourneau, C; Laurens, A; Laprévote, O; Serani, L; Fournet, A; Hocquemiller, R

    2000-09-01

    Two new annonaceous acetogenins, cohibins C (1a) and D (1b), have been isolated by extensive chromatography of a hexane extract of Annona muricata seeds and a cyclohexane extract of Annona nutans root bark. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral evidence (NMR, MS) and confirmed by chemical transformation into a pair of monotetrahydrofuran (mono-THF) acetogenins. The role of these compounds in the biogenesis of mono-THF acetogenins is discussed.

  14. Liriodenine, early antimicrobial defence in Annona diversifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Chacón, Iván; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa; Guevara Fefer, Patricia; Jímenez Garcia, Luis Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Annonaceae aporphine alkaloids, of which liriodenine is the most abundant, have not been extensively studied from a biological standpoint. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of liriodenine in antimicrobial defense during early developmental stages in Annona diversifolia. The fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus glaucus, which are responsible for seed deterioration, were isolated during imbibition, and their antifungal activity was determined by diffusion, macrodilution, and metabolic inhibition assays using purified liriodenine and alkaloid extracts obtained from embryos, radicles, and roots at early developmental stages. The presence of liriodenine in extracts was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Purified liriodenine and alkaloidal extracts inhibited both fungi, and there was a positive relationship between extract activity and amount of liriodenine contained therein. The quantity of liriodenine present in extracts suggests its importance in controlling other phytopathogens. PMID:21950162

  15. 桂花林场苦槠林分空间结构规律研究%Study on the Stand Spatial Structure of Castanopsis sclerophylla Forest in Guihua Forest Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣; 宋武刚; 吕勇; 吴斌; 马艳

    2012-01-01

    Abstyact: Stand spatial structure of four Castanopsis sclerophylla mixed forest plots in Guihua forest farm was investigated by using three structure parameters (mingling, neighborhood comparison, and uniform angle index -- neighboring tree distribution pattern). The results showed that Castanopsis sclerophylla was the dominant spe- cies in mixed forest, which exhibited aggregation of single species, and the rest tree species were more or most intensive in mingling. When using neighborhood comparison method to characterize the size differentiation of trees,Liquidambarformosana Hance had an advantage over other species which differentiated seriously both in dominant species and suppressed species. Considering tree distribution pattern using uniform angle index, the stands in this community was found to be a clumped distribution.%利用混交度、大小比数和角尺度3种结构参数,结合树种组成,对湖北桂花林场4块苦槠混交林样地的林分空间结构进行分析。结果表明,苦槠为优势树种,多单种聚集生长,其他树种强度混交、极强度混交的比例大;枫香在大小分化上占有一定的优势,其他树种则分化严重;从林木水平空间格局上来看.该试验地树种分布格局以团状分布为主。

  16. Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, M C; Arango, G J; González, M C; Robledo, S M; Velez, I D

    2000-04-01

    Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona muricata pericarp were tested in vitro against Leishmania braziliensis and L. panamensis promastigotes, and against cell line U-937. The ethyl acetate extract was more active than the other extracts and even of Glucantime used as reference substance. Its fractionation led to the isolation of three acetogenins--annonacin, annonacin A and annomuricin A.

  17. Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.

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    Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  18. [Alkaloids of Annonaceae. XXIX. Alkaloids of Annona muricata].

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    Leboeuf, M; Legueut, C; Cavé, A; Desconclois, J F; Forgacs, P; Jacquemin, H

    1981-05-01

    From leaves, root - and stem - barks of Annona muricata L., seven isoquinoline alkaloids have been isolated: reticuline (main alkaloid), coclaurine, coreximine, atherosperminine, stepharine. Anomurine and anomuricine, two minor alkaloids, are new tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolines, with 5, 6, 7 substituted ring A. The phytochemical significance of these alkaloids is discussed.

  19. Rootstocks and grafting methods for Atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimoya Mill. plantsPortaenxertos e métodos de enxertia na produção de mudas de Atemoieira (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.

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    Grazianny Andrade Leite

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the production of atemoya nursery plants grafted on two rootstocks (Annona squamosa L. and Annona glabra L.. The experimental design was a 2 x 5 factorial being two rootstocks and five methods of grafting, with five randomized blocks and ten plants per plot, totaling 500 plants. The variables evaluated at 60 days after grafting were budding efficiency (%, shooting grafts (% dormant grafts (% and living grafts (%. It was also evaluated the shoot length (cm, stem diameter (mm, root system length (cm, number of leaves (unit /plant, dry root mass (g /plant, shoot dry mass (g /plant, total dry mass (g /plant, length seedling (cm and shoot: root system dry mass ratio. Data regarding diameter of the rootstock and means of graft characteristics were submitted to analysis of variance. For the characteristics of percentage of grafting effectiveness, living grafts, shooting and dormant grafts, data were transformed in for analysis of variance, all means compared by Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. Atemoya ‘Gefner’ can be grafted on rootstocks Annona glabra L. and Annona squamosa L. by cleft grafting method. The grafting whip and double whip can be used to atemoya ‘Gefner’ if grafting onto rootstock Annona squamosa L. Budding grafting method is not efficient for the production of atemoya ‘Gefner’ plants. Este experimento teve por finalidade avaliar a propagação por enxertia de atemoieira sobre dois portaenxertos (Annona squamosa L. e Annona glabra L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois portaenxertos e cinco métodos de enxertia em 5 blocos e 10 plantas por parcela, totalizando 500 plantas. Foram avaliadas aos 60 dias após a enxertia as variáveis pegamento dos enxertos (%, enxertos brotados (%, enxertos dormentes (% e enxertos vivos (%. Também foram avaliados comprimento da parte aérea (cm, diâmetro do colo (mm, comprimento do

  20. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  1. Efikasi Ekstrak Daun Srikaya (Annona Squamosa) terhadap Larva Aedes Aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrawan, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is a country with the most Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) cases in Southeast Asia. DHF is a disease that can lead to death, so preventions have to be done to eradicate the spread of DHF. The common larvicide that used nowadays is synthetic larvicide (Temephos). Synthetic larvicide is beginning to resistant and have dangerous effect to human non-target populations, therefore a plant based alternative is needed. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) leaves contain Acetogenin active substance ...

  2. Muricatenol, a Linear Acetogenin from Annona muricata (Annonaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Muricatenol 1, a new acetogenin, has been isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata L.. Compound 1 is a C37 acetogenin without any THF rings, with four hydroxyls and one double bond in the long aliphatic chain. The hydroxyls of 1 are located at C-4, C-10, C-18 and C-19, respectively. The vicinal diol at C-18/C-19 is threo-configuration, and the double bond at C-14/C-15 is cis-configuration.

  3. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

    2006-03-01

    An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%).

  4. Apolar Annonaceous acetogenins from the fruit pulp of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melot, Alice; Fall, Djibril; Gleye, Christophe; Champy, Pierre

    2009-11-02

    A methylene chloride extract of the pulp of Annona muricata L. was fractionated in search for scarcely functionalized Annonaceous acetogenins (type E). Previously known C-35 and C-37 mono-epoxy unsaturated compounds, epomuricenins-A and -B (1+2) and epomusenins-A and -B (3+4), were obtained. Two new mono-epoxy saturated C-35 representatives, epomurinins-A and -B (5+6) were also isolated.

  5. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Annona muricata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J G; Gui, H Q; Luo, X Z; Sun, L; Zhu, P; Yu, Z L

    1997-06-01

    Annonaceous acetogenin (or polyketide) is a kind of potential antineoplastic agents from Annonaceae plants. Two new acetogenins, Muricatalicin (I) and muricatalin (VI), a mesitoate of a new acetogenin, annonacin-B mesitoate (Vb), and three known acetogenins, annonacin (II), annonacin-A (III) and annonacin-10-one (IV) have been isolated from Annona muricata L. The structures and relative stereochemistry of I, VI and Vb were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and examination of their acetates and/or mesitoate.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P; Chansouria, J P; Khosa, R L

    1999-07-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity in albino rats.

  7. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  8. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated. PMID:9382684

  9. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona glabra cultivated in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-lateff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-assay guided fraction of the methanolic extract of Annona glabra seeds (Annonaceae, cultivated in Egypt, revealed to the isolation of three bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins; squamocin-C (1 , squamocin-D (2 , and annonin I (3 . Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained as stereoisomeric mixture. All isolates were assayed for their cytotoxicity twards brine shrimp and five in vitro cancer cell lines (A549, HT29, MCF 7, RPMI, and U251, and showed significant activity The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their NMR and MS analyses.

  10. An analysis of water conservation functions of mixed plantations between Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla%马尾松-苦槠混交林水源涵养功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许由才

    2016-01-01

    Water conservation capacity of a 10-year-old mixed plantation of Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla and a pure P. massoniana plantation were studied. The results showed that tree growth and stand water conservation capacity of the mixed plantation were slightly lower than those of the pure P. massoniana on the upper slope, but they were higher on the middle and the lower slope. The order of water conservation capacity of different forest components in both of the forest types were soil layer>canopy layer>forest floor>understory. Soil layer was the dominant sector of forest water conservation, and its saturated water capacity made up over 98% of the forest water conservation capacity in both of the forest types.%对10年生马尾松-苦槠混交林和马尾松纯林的水源涵养功能进行比较研究,结果表明:马尾松-苦槠混交林的林分生长量和水源涵养能力在上坡位略低于马尾松纯林,而在中下坡位高于马尾松纯林;两种林分不同层次的持水量均为土壤层>林冠层>枯枝落叶层>林下植被层。土壤层是两种林分类型森林涵养水源功能的主要场所,其饱和持水量占林分总持水量的比例均在98%以上。

  11. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DNA ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Soni Himesh; Singhai A.K.; Sharma Sarvesh

    2011-01-01

    Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. Annona squamosa Linn is a multipurpose tree with edible fruits & is a source one of the medicinal & industrial products. Annona squamosa Linn is used as an antioxidant, antidiabetics, hepatoprotective, cytotoxicactivity, genetoxicity, antitumor activity, antilice agent. It i...

  12. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Annona pickelii and Annona salzmannii (Annonaceae), and their antitumour and trypanocidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; Salvador, Marcos José; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Annona pickelii and Annona salzmannii (Annonaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus, and analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 21 compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. pickelii and 23 in that of A. salzmannii; sesquiterpenes predominated in both essential oils. Bicyclogermacrene (38.0%), (E)-caryophyllene (27.8%), α-copaene (6.9%) and α-humulene (4.0%) were the main components of A. pickelii, while δ-cadinene (22.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (21.4%), α-copaene (13.3%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3%) and germacrene D (6.9%) were the main components of A. salzmannii. The biological activities of the essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms and cytotoxicity against tumour cell lines (antitumour) were investigated. The essential oils showed potent trypanocidal and antitumour activities with values of IC50 lower than 100 µg mL(-1).

  13. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  14. New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jung; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2002-04-01

    Three new monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins, muricin H (1), muricin I (2), and cis-annomontacin (3), along with five known acetogenins, annonacin, annonacinone, annomontacin, murisolin, and xylomaticin, were isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. Additionally, two new monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins, cis-corossolone (4) and annocatalin (5), together with four known ones, annonacin, annonacinone, solamin, and corossolone, were isolated from the leaves of this species. The structures of all new isolates were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. These new acetogenins exhibited significant activity in in vitro cytotoxic assays against two human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G(2) and 2,2,15. Compound 5 showed a high selectivity toward the Hep 2,2,15 cell line.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a lectin from Annona muricata seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, D C S; Freire, M G M; Gomes, V M; Toyama, M H; Marangoni, S; Novello, J C; Macedo, M L R

    2003-11-01

    A lectin with a high affinity for glucose/mannose was isolated from Annona muricata seeds (Annonaceae) by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE SP-5 PW column, and molecular exclusion on a Protein Pak Glass 300 SW column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) yielded two protein bands of approximately 14 kDa and 22 kDa. However, only one band was seen in native PAGE. The Mr of the lectin estimated by fast-performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75 was 22 kDa. The lectin was a glycoprotein with 8% carbohydrate (neutral sugar) and required divalent metal cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+) for full activity. Amino acid analysis revealed a large content of Glx, Gly, Phe, and Lys. The lectin agglutinated dog, chicken, horse, goose, and human erythrocytes and inhibited the growth of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae.

  16. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fara Nantenaina Raharimalala; Beby Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre Herv Ravelonandro; Patrick Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds. Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using micro-reactional and GCP techniques. Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes. Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties. CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids. On adult mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested. The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae. Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona squamosa Linn. on experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohamed Saleem

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for liver toxicity. Our aim was to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic and water extract of Annona squamosa (custard apple hepatotoxic animals with a view to explore its use for the treatment of hepatotoxicity in human. These extracts were used to study the Hepatoprotective effect in isoniazid + rifampicin induced hepatotoxic model. There was a significant decrease in total bilirubin accompanied by significant increase in the level of total protein and also significant decrease in ALP, AST, ALT and γ-GT in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. In the histopathological study the hepatotoxic group showed hepatocytic necrosis and inflammation in the centrilobular region with portal triaditis. The treatment group showed minimal inflammation with moderate portal triaditis and their lobular architecture was normal. It should be concluded that the extracts of Annona squamosa were not able to revert completely hepatic injury induced by isoniazid + rifampicin, but it could limit the effect of these drugs in liver. The effect of extracts compared with standard drug silymarin.   Industrial relevance: A clear definition of herbal product is required at this stage, so as to provide a proper focus and strategy for the development of the industry. The development of herbal products only as medicinal inputs would clearly identify the potential beneficiaries and enable the medical practitioners to recognize the products as such. This would inevitably lead to quicker development in the field and pave the way for providing a scientific and technological explanation and justification for the use of the products in the medicinal sector. Today a substantial number of drugs are developed from plants. The majority of these involve the isolation of active ingredient found in a particular medicinal plant and its subsequent

  18. Characterization and development of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was the physical, chemical, and physiological characterization of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart. during its development. The fruits were harvested 12 Km off Itumirim, Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, at 20-d intervals from anthesis to fruit maturity. The first fruits were harvested within 60 days. The total development of the fruit took 140 days starting from anthesis. At 140 days after anthesis, the fruit reached its maximum size, with mass of 1.380g, transverse diameter of 13.0 cm, and longitudinal diameter of 11.5 cm. During its development, the fruit showed increase in mass and in traverse and longitudinal diameters. The changes during maturation and ripening, such as: pH reduction and starch degradation, pectic solubilization, and increase in total sugars, soluble solids (ºB, respiratory rate (CO2, titratable acidity, vitamin C, and β-caroteno were observed from the 120th day of marolo development. A decrease in ability to sequester free radicals was observed up the 120th day, followed by an increase. The volatile compounds identified at the end of the development included the esters group only.

  19. Mono-THF ring annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, D C; Alali, F Q; Gu, Z M; McLaughlin, J L

    1998-03-01

    Continuing work on the bark of Annona squamosa Rich. (Annonaceae), directed by the brine shrimp lethality test (BST), has resulted in the isolation of three new Annonaceous acetogenins, 4-deoxyannoreticuin, cis-4-deoxyannoreticuin, and (2,4-cis and trans)-squamoxinone. The first two are additional examples of acetogenins isolated from this plant species which contain the unusual feature of an oxygen functionality at the C-9 position. They have a hydroxylated mono-THF ring with respective threo/trans/threo and threo/cis/threo relative stereochemistries. The latter compound is a ketolactone mixture which has the same relative stereochemistry around the THF ring and the same spatial relationship between the THF ring and the hydroxyl group along the aliphatic chain as 4-deoxyannoreticuin, but is two methylene units longer. Additionally, the isolated hydroxyl group is at C-11, while the THF ring starts at C-17, instead of at C-9 and C-15, respectively, as for the first two compounds. All three compounds showed moderate, but significant, cytotoxicities against a panel of six human tumor cell lines with (2,4 cis and trans)-squamoxinone showing promising selectivity against the pancreatic cell line (PACA-2). PMID:9542173

  20. Respiration during Postharvest Development of Soursop Fruit, Annona muricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, J; Paull, R E

    1984-09-01

    Fruit of soursop, Annona muricata L., showed increased CO(2) production 2 days after harvest, preceding the respiratory increase that coincided with autocatalytic ethylene evolution and other ripening phenomena. Experiments to alter gas exchange patterns of postharvest fruit parts and tissue cylinders had little success.The respiratory quotient of tissue discs was near unity throughout development. 2,4-Dinitrophenol uncoupled respiration more effectively than carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; 0.4 millimolar KCN stimulated, 4 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid slightly inhibited, and their combination strongly inhibited respiration, as did 10 millimolar NaN(3). Tricarboxylic acid cycle members and ascorbate were more effective substrates than sugars, but acetate and glutarate strongly inhibited.Disc respiration showed the same early peak as whole fruit respiration; this peak is thus an inherent characteristic of postharvest development and cannot be ascribed to differences between ovaries of the aggregatetype fruit. The capacity of the respiratory apparatus did not change during this preclimacteric peak, but the contents of rate-limiting malate and citrate increased after harvest.It is concluded that the preclimacteric rise in CO(2) evolution reflects increased mitochondrial respiration because of enhanced supply of carboxylates as a substrate, probably induced by detachment from the tree. The second rise corresponds with the respiration during ripening of other climacteric fruits.

  1. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata(Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus(Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lala; Harivelo; Raveloson; Ravaomanarivo; Herisolo; Andrianiaina; Razafindraleva; Fara; Nantenaina; Raharimalala; Beby; Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre; Herv; Ravelonandro; Patrick; Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions.Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds.Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP techniques.Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar.WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes.Results:Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties.CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids.On adult mosquitoes,significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin,an insecticide used as reference.Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested.The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1%to 5%for adults and 0.5%to 1%for larvae.Conclusions:The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly,practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Annona salzmanii D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, M de Q; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Lima, E O; Maia, R F; Barbosa, R de C; Kaplan, M A

    1992-02-01

    Bark of Annona salzmanii D.C. (Annonaceae), used in Brazilian folk medicine, was found to contain four benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, namely reticuline, anonaine, laurelliptine and isoboldine. Only anonaine possesses some antibacterial property while all four alkaloids show some antifungal activity. PMID:1501491

  3. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1922-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells o

  4. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ayu Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  5. Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G S; Zeng, L; Alali, F; Rogers, L L; Wu, F E; Sastrodihardjo, S; McLaughlin, J L

    1998-09-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, muricoreacin (1) and murihexocin C (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities among six human tumor cell lines with selectivities to the prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) and pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) cell lines.

  6. Coronin from roots of Annona muricata, a putative intermediate in acetogenin biosynthesis (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleye, C; Akendengue, B; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R

    2001-08-01

    A novel acetogenin, coronin, was isolated from the roots of Annona muricata L. The structure was elucidated by a combination of chemical and spectral methods including MS and NMR measurements. Coronin is probably an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, and is proposed as a biogenetic precursor of neoannonin-B.

  7. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema a...

  8. Screening of medicinal plants from Suriname for 5-HT(1A) ligands: Bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids from the fruit of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrat, J A; Pieters, L; De Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J

    1997-06-01

    Plants from Suriname (South-America) and several Annona species, including A. muricata, A. ckerimolia, A. montana and A. glabra were screened for 5-HT(1A) receptor binding activity by ligand-binding-studies (LBS). Crude extracts of all Annona species and from Hibiscus bifurcatus, Irlbarchia purpurascens and Scoparia dulcis showed high activity. The isoquinoline alkaloids asimilobine (1), nornuciferine (2), and annonaine (3) were isolated as the active principles from the fruit of Annona muricata. These results may partially explain the use of Hibiscus bifurcatus and Annona muricata in traditional medicine in Suriname.

  9. Temperature sensitivity of CO2 fluxes from rhizosphere soil mineralization and root decomposition in Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests%马尾松和苦槠林根际土壤矿化和根系分解CO2释放的温度敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘煜; 胡小飞; 陈伏生; 袁平成

    2013-01-01

    Rhizospheric and non-rhizospheric soils and the absorption,transition,and storage roots were sampled from the mid-subtropical Pinus massoniana and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests to study the CO2 fluxes from soil mineralization and root decomposition in the forests.The samples were incubated in closed jars at 15 ℃,25 ℃,35 ℃,and 45 ℃,respectively,and alkali absorption method was applied to measure the CO2 fluxes during 53 days incubation.For the two forests,the rhizospheric effect (ratio of rhizospheric to non-rhizospheric soil) on the CO2 flux from soil mineralization across all incubation temperature ranged from 1.12 to 3.09,with a decreasing trend along incubation days.There was no significant difference in the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests at 15 ℃,but the CO2 flux was significantly higher in P.massoniana forest than in C.sclerophylla forest at 25 ℃ and 35 ℃,and in an opposite pattern at 45 ℃.At all incubation temperature,the CO2 release from the absorption root decomposition was higher than that from the transition and storage roots decomposition,and was smaller in P.massoniana than in C.sclerophylla forest for all the root functional types.The Q10 values of the CO2 fluxes from the two forests were higher for soils (1.21-1.83) than for roots (0.96-1.36).No significant differences were observed in the Q10 values of the CO2 flux from soil mineralization between the two forests,but the Q10 value of the CO2 flux from root decomposition was significantly higher in P.massoniana than in C.sclerophylla forest.It was suggested that the increment of CO2 flux from soil mineralization under global wanning was far higher than that from root decomposition,and for P.massoniana than for C.sclerophylla forest.In subtropics of China,the adaptability of zonal climax community to global warming would be stronger than that of pioneer community.%以中亚热带马尾松林和苦槠林为对象,原位收集根际和非根际土壤、树木

  10. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of ‘most-active fraction’ or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids a...

  11. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPLC ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOID FROM METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Himesh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phytochemical screening of therapeutic importance from Annona squamosa leaves, an important medicinal plant. This study involves the preliminary screening, qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of secondary metabolites from leaves of A. squamosa. Further, HPLC Flavonoids profile of the methanolic extract had been studied. The generated data has provided the basis for its wide uses as the therapeutant in the traditional and folk medicines.

  12. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Younoussa Lame; Elias Nchiwan Nukenine; Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre; Charles Okechukwu Esimone

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L) of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean co...

  13. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DNA ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Himesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. Annona squamosa Linn is a multipurpose tree with edible fruits & is a source one of the medicinal & industrial products. Annona squamosa Linn is used as an antioxidant, antidiabetics, hepatoprotective, cytotoxicactivity, genetoxicity, antitumor activity, antilice agent. It is related to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, fixed oils, tannins & phenolic. Genetic variation is essential for long term survival of species and it is a critical feature in conservation. For efficient conservation and management, the genetic composition of the species in different geographic locations needs to be assessed. Plants are attracting more attention among contemporary pharmacy scientists because some human diseases resulting from antibiotic resistance have gained worldwide concern. A number of methods are available and are being developed for the isolation of nucleic acids from plants. The different parts of Annona squamosa were studied for their nucleic acid content by using spectrophotometric analysis. In order to measure DNA content of the Leaves,friuts and stems of Annona squamosa, Spectrophotometry serves various advantages i.e. non-destructive and allows the sample to be recovered for further analysis or manipulation. Spectrophotometry uses the fact that there is a relationship between the absorption of ultraviolet light by DNA/RNA and its concentration in a sample. This article deals with modern approaches to develop a simple, efficient, reliable and cost-effective method for isolation, separation and estimation of total genomic DNA from various parts of the same species.

  14. Mycoflora and production of wine from fruits of soursop (Annona Muricata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael N Okigbo; Omokaro Obire

    2008-01-01

    Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L.) and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Iso...

  15. A New Cytotoxic Acetogenin from the Seeds ofAnnona squamosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new Annonaceous acetogenin, squamostolide (1), was isolated from the seeds ofAnnona squamosa. Its structure was elucidated based on spectroscopic methods and comparisonwith known compounds. It is the first example of Annonaceous acetogenin with each of the twoends of the aliphatic chain bearing a γ-lactone. The new compound exhibited cytotoxic activity invitro against bel-7402 and CNE2 human tumor cell lines.

  16. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P; Pramod, N P; Thyagarajan, S P; Khosa, R L

    1998-05-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and aqueous extract of P. nyctaginiflora was found to be 1 mg/ml.

  17. Annonamine, a new aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, Ayano; Kotake, Yaichiro; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru; Takeda, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Atypical Parkinsonism in the Caribbean Island Guadeloupe is thought to be associated with the consumption of plants of the Annonaceae family, especially Annona muricata (soursop). In this study, a new aporphine alkaloid named annonamine (1) was isolated from the leaves of A. muricata L. together with four known benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (2-5). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the spectroscopic method.

  18. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae

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    Nerea eLarranaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra and A. purpurea and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa. The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  19. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Walter N L Dos; Sauthier, Maria Celeste S; Cavalcante, Dannuza D; Benevides, Clícia M J; Dias, Fábio S; Santos, Daniele C M B

    2016-09-01

    The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  20. Characterization of the chemical composition of the essential oils from Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L.

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    Felipe Girotto Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L. The species were grown in a greenhouse for 18 months, which nutrient solution was applied weekly; the plants were then harvested and the leaves dried to extract the essential oil. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to study its chemical profiles. Eleven substances were found in the essential oil of A. emarginata, primarily (E-caryophyllene (29.29%, (Z-caryophyllene (16.86%, γ-muurolene (7.54%, α-pinene (13.86%, and tricyclene (10.04%. Ten substances were detected in the oil from A. squamosa, primarily (E-caryophyllene (28.71%, (Z-caryophyllene (14.46%, α-humulene (4.41%, camphene (18.10%, α-pinene (7.37%, β-pinene (8.71%, and longifolene (5.64%. Six substances were common to both species: (E-caryophyllene, (Z-caryophyllene, α-humulene, camphene, α-pinene, and β-pinene.

  1. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  2. An Evaluation Of Anti Cancer Potential Of Annona Muricata Linn (Durian Belanda) Tea Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the number of cancer survivors continues to increase due to the improvements in early detection, cancer incidence and deaths still escalating each year. Even though there are major advancement in medicine technology such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, people in developing countries especially in Asian countries are looking towards natural product as an alternative medicine especially in cancer treatment and prevention; primarily because of the general belief that herbal drugs are without any side effects besides being cheap and locally available. One of them is the leaves of Annona Muricata L. from the Annonaceae family is well known for their anti cancer activity by the local people in Malaysia and is commonly known as Soursoup or in local name of Durian Belanda. In the local market the most of the product of Annona Muricata L. is in the form of tea bag. This present study was aimed to evaluate the anti cancer potential of the extract of Annona Muricata L. The tea bag of Annona Muricata L. was obtain from a local market and was physically identified and confirmed by botanist as the leaves of Annona Muricata L. Sequential extraction was done using hexane, chloroform, methanol and hot aqueous. All of these extracts will be screen for alkaloid, saponin, cardiac glucoside and flavonoid. Then quantitative estimation of phenolics adn flavonoid content was conducted. These extract are also being tested on MDPA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HTB-43 (head and neck cancer) by MTT assay. These extract was also evaluated for their reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assay. The parameters obtained from the test was IC50 values, a value that produce inhibitory cancer cells by 50 % and a value that produce radical scavenging at 50 % for both MTT assay and DPPH assay. Results revealed that the IC50 of hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract for MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) was 35.1μg/ml, 26.8 μg/ml, 19.1

  3. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  4. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Camila de Souza Araújo; Ana Paula de Oliveira; Rafaely Nascimento Lima; Péricles Barreto Alves; Tâmara Coimbra Diniz; Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas ch...

  5. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae

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    Germano H. Rosado-Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber between the two epidermal layers.

  6. Study on the spatial structure of annomuricatin A, a cyclohexapeptide from the seeds of Annona muricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Qi-Tai; Tan, Ning-Hua; Li, Chao-Ming; Zhou, Jun

    2007-02-01

    A cyclic hexapeptide, annomuricatin A (the molecular formula: C 27H 38N 6O 7), was isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. The types and sequence of the amino acids were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The stereochemistry of the title cyclopeptide was clarified by X-ray crystallographic study. The backbone contains two β-turns, one is type I β-turn and the other is type II, which are stabilized by two transannular 4 → 1 backbone hydrogen bonds between Ala and Phe. There are intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the cyclopeptide and the solvent molecules which maintained the steady spatial arrangement in crystal.

  7. MALDI-TOF MS Profiling of Annonaceous Acetogenins in Annona muricata Products for Human Consumption

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    Vincent Guérineau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  8. Muricatocins A and B, two new bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Zeng, L; Gu, Z M; Zhao, G X; Zhang, Y; Schwedler, J T; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-06-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded the novel monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, muricatocins A [1] and B [2]. Each compound possesses five hydroxyl groups, with two hydroxyl groups at the C-10 and C-12 positions. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 (except for positions C-10 and C-12) were determined by Mosher ester methodology. The C-10, C-12 acetonides (1c, 2c) suggested relative stereochemistry and significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against the A-549 human lung tumor cell line. Three known monotetrahydrofuran acetogenins, annonacin A, (2,4-trans)-isoannonacin, and (2,4-cis)-isoannonacin, were also found.

  9. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of annonaceous acetogenins in Annona muricata products for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champy, Pierre; Guérineau, Vincent; Laprévote, Olivier

    2009-12-15

    Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  10. Two new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricins A and B, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Gu, Z M; Zeng, L; Zhao, G X; Zhang, Y; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-06-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded eight monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins. Two of them, annomuricins A [1] and B [2], whose chemical structures were deduced by ms, nmr, ir, and uv spectral and chemical methods, are novel and unusual. Compounds 1 and 2 each possess five hydroxyl groups; two hydroxyl groups are vicinal, with the vicinal group of 1 threo and that of 2 erythro. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Six monotetrahydrofuran acetogenins, previously described in the seeds, were found in the leaves; these are gigantetrocin A, annonacin-10-one, muricatetrocins A and B, annonacin, and goniothalamicin.

  11. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. TERHADAP SIKLUS REPRODUKSI PADA MENCIT PUTIH DARA

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    E. T. Margawati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Annona muricata leaves extract on the estrous cycle was studied. Four treatments of this extract were caried out with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations respectively. Vaginal smears were used to determine the estrous cycle by microscopic examination of the epithet cells. The result showed that 10% dosages of A. muricata leaf extract is the most effective in shorting the estrous cycle of mice, namely 3.75 days, whereas the other dosages showed much longer estrous cycles of more than 4 days.

  12. Formulasi Sediaan Krim Dari Sari Buah Srikaya (Annona squamosa L.) Sebagai Pelembab Alami Kulit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Feri Gifari

    2013-01-01

    Sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.) contain carbohydrates those consist of glucose and sucrose. In addition, sugar-apple also contains fat, fiber, protein, amino acid, mineral, vitamin C, B1, B6, B12, and folate. Glucose and sucrose contents in sugar-apple are able to bind water from the air therefore they can reduce skin moisture loss. Moisture levels will be maintained and skin would not be dry. The aimed of this study was to formulate cream using sugar-apple fruit juice as a moisturizing a...

  13. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) in Puerto Rico using commercial lures and food attractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae) and has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit-set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We used Universal moth t...

  14. CONSTITUINTES QUÍMICOS E ATIVIDADE FITOTÓXICA DAS FOLHAS DE Annona nutans

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    Nathália Lucca Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation and evaluation of the phytotoxic effect of the extract and fractions obtained from the leaves of Annona nutans (R. E. Fr. R. E. Fr. were performed. Phytotoxic activity was assessed on radicle and hypocotyl of Allium cepa and Lactuca sativa, where chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions proved active. Phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction was allowed identification of polyketides derivatives: triacontanal, 16-hentriacontane, octacosanol and triacontanol, using the 1H NMR technique associated with data from GC/MS. Using ethyl acetate fraction, with low activity, flavonoids 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-isorhamnetin, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-quercetin and 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2-galactopyranosyl-quercetin were identified, determined by spectrometric techniques one and two-dimensional NMR, combined with mass spectral data. All substances are being reported for the first time in Annona nutans. The phytotoxic activity of chloroform fraction may be related to the presence of triacontanol and similar substances. Triacontanol stimulates growth at very low concentrations, but can have an inhibitory effect at higher concentrations, such as those reported for auxin analogs. The toxicity assay using Artemia salina (BST was also performed, with the chloroform fraction showing a negligible lethal dose, LD50 = 500 mg mL-1, while the other fractions and extracts showed no activity. Thus, the presence of acetogenins was ruled out.

  15. In Vitro Protective Potentials of Annona muricata Leaf Extracts Against Sodium Arsenite-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Vazhappilly Cijo; Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) is a metalloid which is present widely in the environment and its chronic exposure can contribute to the induction of oxidative stress, resulting in disturbances in various metabolic functions including liver cell death. Hence, there is a need to develop drugs from natural sources, which can reduce arsenic toxicity. While there have been reports regarding the antioxidant and protective potentials of Annona muricataleaf extracts, our study is the first ofits kind to extend these findings by specifically evaluating its ability to render protection against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced toxicity (10 μM) in WRL-68 (human hepatic cells) and human erythrocytes by employing XTT and haemolysis inhibition assays respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited higher activity than the aqueous extract in both assays. The results showed a dose-dependent decrease in arsenic toxicity in both WRL-68 cells and erythrocytes, suggesting the protective nature of Annona muricatato mitigate arsenic toxicity. Hence the bioactive extracts can further be scrutinized for the identification and characterization of their principal contributors.

  16. The bagging of Annona crassiflora fruits to control fruit borers=Ensacamento de frutos de Annona crassiflora contra broqueadores de frutos

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    Márcia Michelle Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of plastic bags to protect the fruits of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae against Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. As protection against this fruit-boring insect, 100 fruits were enclosed in plastic bags. Another 100 fruits were not bagged. The fruits were selected from the following five ranges of diameters: 1 = 0.5 – 1.99; 2 = 2.00 – 3.99; 3 = 4.00 – 7.90; 4 = 8.00 – 11.90; and 5 = 12.00 – 16.00 cm. The bagged fruits of various diameters were attacked less frequently by the pest. The bagged fruits with a diameter of less than two cm were not attacked. The percentage of fruits attacked and the number of larvae/fruit increased as the diameter of fruits increased in both treatments. The bagged fruits initially less than two cm in diameter showed the greatest final diameter and height.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae no controle de Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. 100 frutos foram ensacados com saco plástico e 100 não ensacados em cada uma das cinco categorias de diâmetro: 1 = 0,5 – 1,99; 2 = 2,00 – 3,99; 3 = 4,00 – 7,90; 4 = 8,00 – 11,90 e 5 = 12,00 – 16,00 cm. Os frutos ensacados com sacos plásticos, nos diferentes diâmetros, apresentaram-se menos broqueados. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro não foram broqueados. Observou-se aumento na percentagem de frutos broqueados bem como no número de brocas/fruto broqueado com o aumento na categoria do diâmetro de frutos nos diferentes tratamentos. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro apresentaram maiores diâmetros e alturas de frutos.

  17. Evaluation of In-vivo Antitumor Activity of Annona crassiflora Wood Extract

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    L. P. S. Pimenta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora is a native tree from Brazilian savanna area of the state of Minas Gerais. The ethanolic extract of A. crassiflora wood was obtained and purified, and an annonaceous acetogenins-rich fraction was obtained and characterized. The in vivo antitumor activity and toxicity of this fraction were evaluated in Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing Swiss mice. The annonaceous acetogenins showed a pronounced in vivo antitumor effect, with a reduction in the Ehrlich’s tumor growth of 38% and 20% after single intratumoral and intravenous administration, respectively, at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg, as compared to the control group. Concerning toxicological studies, the absence of clinical signs and renal toxicity could be observed, and all animals survive throughout the entire experimental period (14 days. By contrast, mielotoxicity and hepatotoxicity could be detected in mice treated with the A. crassiflora wood extract.

  18. Diversity in the Stem Anatomy and Tissues of Several Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Nigeria

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the stem anatomy of Annona trees was carried out to facilitate identification of taxa when their reproductive parts are not available. Stem specimens of four out of the five species categorized as important under-utilized species were collected and subjected to anatomical studies. Macerated materials followed Schutze�s method of maceration and the transverse sections of the stem were cut using Reichert Sledge Microtome. Intrageneric characters observed are: epidermal layer uniseriate with round, oval to polygonal collenchyma cells. Wood is diffuse-porous, vessel elements are diffuse, vessels are of two types, that is, short/wide with simple pits and long/narrow with bordered pits. Diagnostic characters for the identification of each of the species are also reported.

  19. Kaurenoic acid from pulp of Annona cherimolia in regard to Annonaceae-induced Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillopé, R; Escobar-Khondiker, M; Guérineau, V; Laprévote, O; Höglinger, G U; Champy, P

    2011-12-01

    Guadeloupean Parkinsonism has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Annonaceae fruits. These were proposed to be etiological agents for sporadic atypical Parkinsonism worldwide, because of their content of neurotoxins such as isoquinolinic alkaloids and Annonaceous acetogenins. The pulp of Annona cherimolia Mill. from Spain was screened for these toxic molecules using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation - Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and it was found not to be a source of exposure. However, kaurenoic acid, a diterpene considered to be cytotoxic, was detected in high amounts (66 mg/fresh fruit). Treatment of rat embryonic striatal primary cultures, up to a high concentration (50 µM), did not cause neuronal death nor astrogliosis, suggesting that this molecule is not at risk of implication in human neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. A flavonol triglycoside and investigation of the antioxidant and cell stimulating activities of Annona muricata Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawwar, Mahmoud; Ayoub, Nahla; Hussein, Sahar; Hashim, Amani; El-Sharawy, Reham; Wende, Kristian; Harms, Manuela; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    Chemical investigation on leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of the flavonol triglycoside, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnosyl-(1″″ → 6″)-β-sophoroside, together with twelve known phenolics. The structures of these compounds were established by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry data. The in vitro antioxidant studies of the investigated aqueous ethanol extract and its column fractions were accomplished using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A stimulating effect on HaCaT human keratinocytes by the leaf extract was also assessed. Il-6 production after UV irradiation was not influenced by A. muricata leaf extract.

  1. Five new monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L; Wu, F E; Oberlies, N H; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihadjo, S

    1996-11-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of annopentocins A (1), B (2), and C(3), and cis- and trans-annomuricin-D-ones (4, 5). Compounds 1-3 are the first acetogenins reported bearing a mono-tetrahydrofuran (THF) ring with one flanking hydroxyl, on the hydrocarbon side, and another hydroxyl, on the lactone side, that is one carbon away from the THF ring. Compounds 4 and 5 were obtained in a mixture and are new mono-THF ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyls and an erythro-diol located between the THF and the ketolactone rings. Compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to pancreatic carcinoma cells (PACA-2), and 2 and 3 were selectively cytotoxic to lung carcinoma cells (A-549); the mixture of 4 and 5 was selectively cytotoxic for the lung (A-549), colon (HT-29), and pancreatic (PACA-2) cell lines with potencies equal to or exceeding those of Adriamycin.

  2. Five novel mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the seeds of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, M J; Gu, Z M; Fang, X P; Zeng, L; Wood, K V; McLaughlin, J L

    1996-02-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of five new compounds: cis-annonacin (1), cis-annonacin-10-one (2), cis-goniothalamicin (3), arianacin (4), and javoricin (5). Three of these (1-3) are among the first cis mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins to be reported. NMR analyses of published model synthetic compounds, prepared cyclized formal acetals, and prepared Mosher ester derivatives permitted the determinations of absolute stereochemistries. Bioassays of the pure compounds, in the brine shrimp test, for the inhibition of crown gall tumors, and in a panel of human solid tumor cell lines for cytotoxicity, evaluated relative potencies. Compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) in which it was 10,000 times the potency of adriamycin.

  3. New bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C and muricatocin C, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Zeng, L; Gu, Z M; Zhao, G X; Zhang, Y; Schwedler, J T; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-06-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded two additional monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C [1] and muricatocin C [2]. Compounds 1 and 2 each possess five hydroxyl groups; two hydroxyl groups are at the C-10/C-11 and C-10/C-12 positions in 1 and 2, respectively. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2, except for positions C-10 and C-11 or C-12, were determined by Mosher ester methodology. The C-10/C-11 and C-10/C-12 acetonides (1c, 2c) suggested relative stereochemistry and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicities against the A-549 human lung and the MCF-7 human beast solid tumor cell lines. One known monotetrahydrofuran acetogenin, gigantetronenin, not described previously from this plant, was also found.

  4. Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champy, Pierre; Melot, Alice; Guérineau Eng, Vincent; Gleye, Christophe; Fall, Djibril; Höglinger, Gunter U; Ruberg, Merle; Lannuzel, Annie; Laprévote, Olivier; Laurens, Alain; Hocquemiller, Reynald

    2005-12-01

    Atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe has been associated with the consumption of fruit and infusions or decoctions prepared from leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), which contains annonaceous acetogenins, lipophilic inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We have determined the concentrations of annonacin, the major acetogenin in A. muricata, in extracts of fruit and leaves by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry. An average fruit is estimated to contain about 15 mg of annonacin, a can of commercial nectar 36 mg, and a cup of infusion or decoction 140 microg. As an indication of its potential toxicity, an adult who consumes one fruit or can of nectar a day is estimated to ingest over 1 year the amount of annonacin that induced brain lesions in rats receiving purified annonacin by intravenous infusion.

  5. Anticancer effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong ZHANG; Hai-yan PENG; Guo-hao XIA; Ming-yan WANG; Ying HAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn (Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid) on the proliferation of Human Liver Cancer (HLC) cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism. METHODS: Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The morphological changes of SMMC-7721 cells were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope,transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Flow cytometer (FCM) was used to calculate the cell apoptotic rate, and immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the regulation of gene expression. RESULTS: The proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells was obviously inhibited after being treated with Cunabic acid at the concentration >5 μmol/L and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid >10 μmol/L. The biggest inhibitory effect was 81.05 % when treated with Cunabic acid at the concentration of 25 μmol/L. The effect had a linear relationship with concentration. The result indicated that drug-treated cells exhibit typical morphological changes of apoptosis, including condensed chromatin and a reduction in volume. Sub-G0/G1 peak was found by FCM analysis and the cell cycle was arrested at G0/G1 stage. The apoptotic rates of the cells treated by Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid were 43.31% and 24.95 %, respectively. It was visualized by immunohistochemical staining that the d.rugs down-regulated the gene expression of bcl-2 gene and up-regulated that of bax gene. CONCLUSION: The two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn, Cunabic acid and entkauran-19-al-17-oic acid can obviously inhibit the proliferation of HLC cell line SMMC-7721. The mechanism is correlated with the induction of cell apoptosis by down-regulating the gene expression of bcl-2 gene and upregulating that of bax gene.

  6. Mycoflora and production of wine from fruits of soursop (Annona Muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N Okigbo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L. and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Isolation of fungi and pathogenicity test were carried out with Sabouraud dextrose agar. Mycoflora were more in the rotten fruits than in the fresh fruits. Botryodiplodia theobromae was isolated only from the rotten fruits (skin while Trichoderma viride was isolated only from the fresh fruits. Penicillium sp., was the most dominant in all the fruit part of fresh soursop fruit with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage occurrence (36.39% in the rotten fruit. Most of the isolated fungi indicated occurrence of such common airborne fungi on soursop fruits and the potential to induce rot in fresh healthy fruits of soursop in storage. Soursop juice was fermented for 10 days and wine was obtained. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the alcoholic content of the wines obtained from the indigenous and commercial yeasts. The wine obtained from the pasteurized, ameliorated soursop juice inoculated with propagated indigenous yeast yielded the highest alcoholic content. Based on the level of the nutritional composition of soursop juice, the ability to support yeast growth, the high alcoholic content and palatability of the wine, the Annona muricata is good source for wine production and single-cell protein.Keywords: fermentation, fruit yeast, fungi, incidence, rot

  7. Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the Annona squmosa seed by adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi, T.; Manonmani, S.; SMITH, T

    2010-01-01

    The use of low -cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the Annona squmosa seed for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated a...

  8. 番荔枝属果树栽培研究进展%Research Advances on Cultivation of Annona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高爱平; 陈业渊; 李建国; 李绍鹏; 邓穗生

    2003-01-01

    概述了20世纪80年代以来番荔枝科(Annonaceae)番荔枝属(Annona)果树品种选育、生物学特性、栽培技术、采后处理等方面的研究成果,同时对华南地区发展番荔枝生产的有关技术问题提出了建议.

  9. Three new anti-proliferative Annonaceous acetogenins with mono-tetrahydrofuran ring from graviola fruit (Annona muricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Liu, Jingchun; Kadouh, Hoda; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-06-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit powder of graviola (Annona muricata) yielded three novel compounds: muricins J, K, and L. The compounds are all C35 Annonaceous acetogenins with a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyls. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical modification after isolation via chromatographic techniques and HPLC purification. These three acetogenins demonstrated an antiproliferative against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

  10. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine Uneojo Omoja; Thelma Ebele Ihedioha; Gabriel Ifeanyi Eke; Iheanyi K Peter-Ajuzie; Samuel Ekere Okezie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of...

  11. Physicochemical characterization and thermal behavior of guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica y comportamiento termico del aceite de almendra de guanabana (Annona muricata, L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Amador-Hernandez, C.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    2010-07-01

    In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 degree centigrade and ends at -79.0 degree centigrade with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to -16.9 degree centigrade, with a maximum peak at -15 degree centigrade and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 degree centigrade. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N{sub 2} atmosphere starts at 380 degree centigrade and ends at 442 degree centigrade, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 degree centigrade. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 degree centigrade and concludes at 567 degree centigrade. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils. (Author) 28 refs.

  12. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

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    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  13. Polinização natural, manual e autopolinização no pegamento de frutos de pinheira (Annona squamosa L.) em Alagoas Natural, artificial and self pollination on fruit set of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) in Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau da Silva Campos; Eurico Eduardo Pinto de Lemos; Jaqueline Figueredo de Oliveira; Fernanda Karina Pereira da Fonseca; Antônio Dias Santiago; Pericles Gabriel Barros

    2004-01-01

    A pinheira (Annona squamosa L) é cultivada no Estado do Alagoas há mais de um século, sendo a principal cultura de valor econômico para centenas de pequenos agricultores. Um dos principais entraves para melhorar a produtividade da cultura é o baixo índice de polinização das flores e a conseqüente produção de frutos. Embora sejam morfologicamente perfeitas, as flores da pinheira apresentam dicogamia protogínica, fenômeno no qual a maturação dos carpelos acontece antes da maturação dos estames,...

  14. Effect of extracts from araticum (Annona crassiflora on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

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    Roberta Roesler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethanolic extracts of Annona crassiflora on the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes was examined. Extracts of A. crassiflora seeds and peel were administered orally (50 mg of galic acid equivalents.kg-1 to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days followed by a single oral dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 2 g.kg-1. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of hepatic catalase (CAT, cytochromes P450 (CP450 and b5, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the content of glutathione equivalents (GSH were evaluated. The treatment with CCl4 increased lipid peroxidation, the level of GSH equivalents and the content of cytochrome b5 by 44, 140 and 32%, respectively, with concomitant reductions of 23, 34 and 39% in the activities of CAT, SOD, and CP450, respectively. The treatment with A. crassiflora seeds and peel extracts alone inhibited lipid peroxidation by 27 and 22%, respectively without affecting the CP450 content. The pretreatment with the A. crassiflora extracts prevented the lipid peroxidation, the increase in GSH equivalents and the decrease in CAT activity caused by CCl4, but it had no effect on the CCl4-mediated changes in CP450 and b5 and SOD. These results show that A. crassiflora seeds and peel contain antioxidant activity in vivo that could be of potential therapeutic use.

  15. Antidiabetic activity of Annona squamosa Linn. in alloxan - induced diabetic rats

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    Ranveer Singh Tomar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterised by rise in blood sugar levels resulting from insulin dysfunction or insulin insufficiency. Aim: The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Annona squamosa Linn (A. squamosa Linn in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Materials and Methods: Diabetes is induced by a single-dose intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of alloxan (120 mg/kg to albino rats. Results and Discussion: Treatment with A. squamosa Linn. extract at a dose of 350 mg/kg and 700 mg/kg and glibenclamide at a dose of 5mg/kg for 28 days, after induction of diabetes by alloxan, caused significant reduction in blood serum glucose and serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol and triglycerides but significant increase in body weight and serum high density lipoproteins (HDL level in diabetic rats compared to untreated group. Histological study of the pancreas of diabetic rat treated with A. squamosa extract also showed partial regeneration of beta cells. The antidiabetic activity of this extract is found comparable to glibenclamide. Thus, leaves of A. squamosa Linn. can be used as potential antidiabetic drug .

  16. Termperature And Humidity Identification In A Prototype Dehydrator For Annona Muricata Pulp

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    Paula Andrea Torres Amaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is considered as one of the economic activities with most participation in Colombia, which to continue with its process of production, have faced with problems regarding wastes due to lack of infrastructure and methods of food preservation that does not alter the physical - chemical properties of the product to market. Therefore, there has been a need to develop methodologies oriented to water extraction in fruits, without altering its nutrients and prolong the period of degradation. This paper presents the test results of the analysis of temperature and humidity that are necessary to perform the dehydration process for the Annona Muricata, which has a high water content (83 per 100 grams of fruit. The development of this project was focused on allowing fruit growers, to have the capability of offering rapid degradation tropical fruits to international and national markets. The results can be seen in food preservation for long periods of time, reducing losses, encouraging consumption and economic development of the agricultural producer.

  17. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae

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    Camila de Souza Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annona vepretorum (AV is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO Av collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene linoleate model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%, limonene (20.5%, caryophyllene oxide (8.1% and a pinene (5.5% were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  18. Influence of seasonal variation on the phenology and liriodenine content of Annona lutescens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Moreno, Marisol; Tinoco-Ojangurén, Clara Leonor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2013-07-01

    Annona lutescens Saff. (Annonaceae) grows as a native tree in Chiapas, Mexico in Tropical Dry Forest habitat. Like most Annonaceae, it biosynthesizes benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, mostly liriodenine. To determine the influence of seasonal changes in the accumulation of liriodenine, the monthly variation of liriodenine content in roots, stems and leaves of mature and young trees was observed. These parts of young and mature A. lutescens trees were collected monthly over a 1 year period and the alkaloids were extracted; the liriodenine was quantified by high-resolution liquid chromatography. The phenological stages of the species were also assessed (leaf development, flowering and fruiting) using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. The analysis of both young and mature trees showed a significant increase in the liriodenine concentration occurs within roots during the dry season, which coincides with leaf fall. A significant decrease also occurred at the beginning of the rainy season (the period of leaf growth); the liriodenine content for the next rainy season did not reach the levels of the previous dry season. The climatic variation induced phenological and physiological changes in this species.

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities of the ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaf

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    Roslida Abd Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extract of Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, leaf (AML was used to investigate its antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities and the involvement of the mechanism of ethanolic leaves extract of AML in various animal models. Antinociceptive activity of AML extract was done using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice, formalin test in rats and hot plate test in mice. Furthermore, the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract was studied in ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats, ethanol-induced gastric lesions in L-NAME-pre-treated rats as well as ethanol-induced gastric lesions in NEM-pre-treated rats test model to determine its mechanism. AML exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. It also significantly decreased the ulcerative lesion produced by ethanol in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with N-ethymaleimide, a thiol blocker, including mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, reduced the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract in the same ulcer model, suggesting that AML extract may have active substances such as tannins, flavanoids and triterpenes that increase the mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl group content.

  20. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  1. ent-Kaurane diterpenes from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum (Annonaceae) and cytotoxic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lívia M; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rocha, Suellen L A; Nepel, Angelita; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2014-08-01

    This work describes a novel ent-kaurane diterpene, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al along with five known ent-kaurane diterpenes, ent-3β,19-dihydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-acetoxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, as well as caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor PBMC cell lines were evaluated for ent-kaurane diterpenes. Among them, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al was the most active compound with higher cytotoxic effect over K562 cell line (IC50 of 2.49 μg/mL) and lower over B16-F10 cell line (IC50 of 21.02 μg/mL).

  2. Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-08-01

    Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein.

  3. Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated process crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and development. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Overexpressed Bcl-2 proteins are associated with the development and progression of several human cancers. Annona muricata is a tropical plant that belongs to the Annonaceae family and is well known for its anticancer properties. In this study, molecular docking and simulations were performed to investigate the inhibitory potential of phytochemicals present in A. muricata against antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family including Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-Xl), and Mcl-1. Docking results revealed that the acetogenins, such as annomuricin A, annohexocin, muricatocin A, annomuricin-D-one, and muricatetrocin A/B, exhibited strong binding interactions with Bcl-Xl when compared to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Binding score and interactions of these acetogenins were notably better than those of currently available synthetic and natural inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations of the top-scoring lead molecules established that these molecules could bind strongly and consistently in the active site of Bcl-Xl. These results suggest that acetogenins could be explored as selective natural inhibitors of Bcl-Xl that could assist in promoting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

  4. Dimorphic fungi isolated from spontaneously fermented juice of soursop, Annona Muricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoifo, C O

    1996-01-01

    Two new fungi isolated from fermenting juice of soursop Annona Muricata L., exhibited dimorphism. Aerobic hyphae were coenocytic bearing sporangia while vegetative filaments were septate. Growth in broth was in discrete units. Glucose--yeast extract-peptone broth inoculated with sporangiospores of strain C12 induced arthroconidiospores but it was yeast cells, yeastlike cells, pseudohyphae and pseudomycelia bearing blastospores when strain C13 was inoculated. On the other hand, soursop extract induced arthrospores and yeast cells, yeast like cells and blastospore-bearing pseudomycelia respectively with strain C12 and strain C13 inoculation. Physiological characteristics were distinct. Strain C12 fermented soluble starch and raffinose completely while strain C13 proved weak for both sugars but complete in glucose utilization. The two dimorphic strains along with Saccaharomyces latis were negative in inulin fermentation. The three strains assimilated all carbon and nitrogen sources tested and grew at 37 degrees C. Based on cultural, morphological and biochemical differences, a tentative genus, Dimorphomyces was created for the dimorphic strains. D. diastaticus strain C12 and D. pleomorphis strain C13 were thought to initiate spontaneous fermentation which was brought to completion along with S. latis strain C14.

  5. Estudo in vitro do potencial citotóxico da Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidi Mayara Firmino Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a atividade citotóxica do extrato etanólico da casca do caule (AMC e folha (AMF da Annona muricata Linn. Para a realização desse estudo, inicialmente foi verificada a atividade do extrato etanólico nas concentrações de 1000, 800, 600, 200 e 100 μgmL-1 para AMF e concentrações de 200, 150, 100, 50, 10 μgmL-1 para AMC através do ensaio de Artemia salina Leach que é considerado um bioensaio preliminar no estudo de extratos com forte atividade biológica e permite realizar a avaliação da toxicidade envolvendo apenas um parâmetro: vida ou morte. Posteriormente foi realizado o ensaio de citotoxicidade através do método do MTT (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2yl-2,5-difenil brometo de tetrazolina em linhagens de SF-295 (glioblastoma - humano, OVCAR-8 (ovário HCT-116 (colón e HL-60 (leucemia pormielocítica. Os extratos foram testados na concentração de 50 μg/mL para o teste de citotoxicidade de concentração única para verificar ausência ou presença de atividade. Para a determinação da concentração inibitória (CI50, todas as amostras foram testadas em concentrações seriadas que variaram de 0,09 a 50 μg/mL utilizando 2 como fator de diluição. No presente estudo, as duas amostras utilizadas através do ensaio de Artemia salina Leach apresentaram concentração letal (CL50 superiores a 80 μgmL-1. A folha apresentou CL50 = 324, 07μgmL-1 e a casca do caule apresentou CL50 = 196, 04μgmL-1. Já através do teste do MTT os valores de concentração inibitória (CI50 variaram de 12,81 a 22,65 μg/mL para AMF e de 0,09 a <5 μg/mL para AMC, frente as diferentes linhagens tumorais avaliadas. Diante dos resultados obtidos para a casca e folhas de A. muricata, avaliadas neste trabalho através dos bioensaios de toxicidade com Artemia salina Leach e com as células tumorais SF- 295, OVCAR-8, HCT-116 e HL-60, pode-se verificar o potencial tóxico de ambas as amostras, destacando-se mais as

  6. Antioxidant, DNA protective efficacy and HPLC analysis of Annona muricata (soursop) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Annona muricata is a naturally occurring edible plant with wide array of therapeutic potentials. In India, it has a long history of traditional use in treating various ailments. The present investigation was carried out to characterize the phytochemicals present in the methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of A. muricata, followed by validation of its radical scavenging and DNA protection activities. The extracts were also analyzed for its total phenolic contents and subjected to HPLC analysis to determine its active metabolites. The radical scavenging activities were premeditated by various complementary assays (DRSA, FRAP and HRSA). Further, its DNA protection efficacy against H2O2 induced toxicity was evaluated using pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results revealed that the extracts were highly rich in various phytochemicals including luteolin, homoorientin, tangeretin, quercetin, daidzein, epicatechin gallate, emodin and coumaric acid. Both the extracts showed significant (p < 0.05) radical scavenging activities, while methanolic extract demonstrated improved protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage when compared to aqueous extract. A strong positive correlation was observed for the estimated total phenolic contents and radical scavenging potentials of the extracts. Further HPLC analysis of the phyto-constituents of the extracts provides a sound scientific basis for compound isolation.

  7. Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated process crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and development. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Overexpressed Bcl-2 proteins are associated with the development and progression of several human cancers. Annona muricata is a tropical plant that belongs to the Annonaceae family and is well known for its anticancer properties. In this study, molecular docking and simulations were performed to investigate the inhibitory potential of phytochemicals present in A. muricata against antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family including Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-Xl), and Mcl-1. Docking results revealed that the acetogenins, such as annomuricin A, annohexocin, muricatocin A, annomuricin-D-one, and muricatetrocin A/B, exhibited strong binding interactions with Bcl-Xl when compared to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Binding score and interactions of these acetogenins were notably better than those of currently available synthetic and natural inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations of the top-scoring lead molecules established that these molecules could bind strongly and consistently in the active site of Bcl-Xl. These results suggest that acetogenins could be explored as selective natural inhibitors of Bcl-Xl that could assist in promoting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PMID:27110097

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aporphinoids and other alkaloids from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; da Cruz, Pedro Ernesto Oliveira; de Lourenço, Caroline Caramano; de Souza Moraes, Valéria Regina; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Salvador, Marcos José

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)-FL method and antimicrobial activity using the broth microdilution method of aporphinoids (liriodenine 1, anonaine 2 and asimilobine 3) and other alkaloids (reticuline 4 and cleistopholine 5) isolated from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae) were evaluated. For antioxidant activity, the most active alkaloid was asimilobine with ORAC value of 2.09 relative trolox equivalents. For antimicrobial activity, some alkaloids showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 25-100 µg mL(-1). The most active compounds were the aporphinoids liriodenine, anonaine and asimilobine, some of them more active than the positive control.

  9. Two new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins, annomuricin E and muricapentocin, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G S; Zeng, L; Alali, F; Rogers, L L; Wu, F E; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1998-04-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) has resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricine (1) and muricapentocin (2). Compounds 1 and 2 are monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyl groups; however, each has three additional hydroxyl groups. Compound 1 has an erythro 1,2-diol, and 2 has a 1,5,9-triol moiety. Both 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities against six types of human tumors, with selectivities to the pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines.

  10. In vitro seed germination and seedling development of Annona crassiflora Mart. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento in vitro de plântulas de Annona crassiflora Mart.

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    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora Mart known as 'araticum', 'marolo' or 'field araticum' is a typical fruit from the Cerrado biome of Brazil with socio-economic and medicinal importance. Normally, Annona crassiflora is propagated through seeds. However, due to a deep dormancy that the seeds display at dispersion and the difficulty to obtain uniform plants in a short time period, micropropagation may be a feasible alternative. Concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA and their interactive effects on in vitro seed germination and seedling development of Annona crassiflora were studied. Mature fruits of Annona crassiflora were depulped and the seeds washed in clear water and dried at room temperature. Seed coat was removed and the seeds were placed on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3 and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 30 g L-1 sucrose and 6 g L-1 agar-agar. Seeds were kept under these conditions for 30 days. After this period, seedlings were kept for another 90 days on Wood Plant Medium (WPM with 20 g L-1 sucrose and 5 g L-1 agar-agar supplemented with the same GA3 and NAA concentrations. Cultures were incubated under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2°C temperature, 16: 8 (light: dark photoperiod of 32 µmol m-2 s-1 irradiance provided by cool white fluorescent tubes (Philips. Use of WPM medium supplemented with 25-32 mg L-1 GA3 or MS with 26-30 mg L-1 GA3 and 2 mg L-1 NAA promoted rooting and plant growth.O araticum ou marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. é uma fruta típica de Cerrado com grande importância sócio-econômico e medicinal. Sua propagação pode ser feita através de sementes, porém devido à dormência das sementes e dificuldade de se obterem plantas uniformes e em curto espaço de tempo, a micropropagação poderá ser uma alternativa. Estudaram-se os efeitos do GA3 associado ao ANA sobre a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento in vitro de marolo. Frutos maduros foram

  11. Evaluation of substrates on the emergence of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer Seedlings

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    Daniel Baron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a substrate is the determinant factor for the seedling producer; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of substrates on the emergence of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and the experimental design was in randomized blocks, with three treatments and five replicates of 72 seeds per plot. The treatments consisted of the following substrates: coconut fiber, vermiculite and Plantmax® Citrus. The number of emerged seedlings was weekly counted for 105 days. Data regarding seedling height were obtained, and the emergence velocity index and mean time, besides total emergence percentage and that over time were calculated. Results from total mean emergence percentage, seedling height, emergence velocity index (EVI, and mean emergence time (MET were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey's test at 5% significance. The curves concerning the emergence percentage over time were fit by the logistic growth equation for each treatment and the means of each parameter (A, B, C were compared by the Duncan's test at 5% significance. The substrates vermiculite led to the highest values of emergence percentage differing from the PlantMax® Citrus, but not of the coconut fiber, however the vermiculite promoted seedling height in a shorter time; therefore, this substrate is recommended for the initial development of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings.

  12. Evaluation of the acute and sub acute toxicity ofAnnona senegalensis root bark extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theophine C Okoye; Peter A Akah; Adaobi C Ezike; Maureen O Okoye; Collins A Onyeto; Frankline Ndukwu; Ejike Ohaegbulam; Lovelyn Ikele

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the safety profile ofAnnona senegalensis (A. senegalensis).Methods:Dried powdered root-bark of A. senegalensis was prepared by Sohxlet extraction using methanol-methylene chloride (1:1) solution and concentrated to obtain the methanol-methylene chloride extract (MME).MME was fractionated to obtain then-hexane (HF), ethylacetate (EF) and methanol (MF) fractions. Acute toxicity (LD50) test was performed withMME, HF, EF andMF in mice by oral route. The sub acute toxicity studies were performed in rats after14 days ofMME administration while haematological and biochemical parameters were monitored.Results:Medium lethal (LD50) values of1 296, 3 808, 1 265 and 2 154mg/kg were obtained for theMME, MF, HF andEF, respectively. The sub-acute toxicity studies indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in the body weight of both the treated rats and the control. The haematological tests indicated no change in the packed cell volume values but a significant (P<0.05) increase in the totalWBC count at100and 400 mg/kg doses. The differential analysis showed a decrease in the nutrophils and a non-significant increase in the lymphocyte counts. The liver transaminase enzymes, alanin transaminase and aspartate transaminase showed no significant increase compared to the control. Histopathological examination of the liver sections also indicted no obvious signs of hepatotoxicity except with the400 mg/kg dose that showed degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes.Conclusions:These results indicated that the root bark extracts ofA. Senegalensis are safe at the lower doses tested, and calls for caution in use at higher doses in treatment.

  13. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  14. Histochemical detection of acetogenins and storage molecules in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata Donn Sm. seeds

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    G. Laguna Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetogenins (ACGs are bioactive compounds with cytotoxic properties in different cell lines. They are antitumoural, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial. These secondary metabolites function in plant defence and are found in specific organelles and specific cells, thereby preventing toxicity to the plant itself and permitting site-specific defence. The aim of this work was to histochemically determine the in situ localisation of ACGs in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata seeds using Kedde’s reagent. Additionally, the colocalisation of ACGs with other storage molecules was analysed. The seeds were analysed after 6 and 10 days of imbibition, when 1 or 2 cm of the radicle had emerged and metabolism was fully established. The seeds were then transversally cut in half at the midline and processed using different histological and histochemical techniques. Positive reactions with Kedde’s reagent were only observed in fresh, unfixed sections that were preserved in water, and staining was found only in the large cells (the idioblasts at the periphery of the endosperm. The ACGs’ positive reaction with Sudan III corroborated their lipid nature. Paraffin sections stained with Naphthol Blue Black showed reactions in the endosperm parenchyma cells and stained the proteoplasts blue, indicating that they might correspond to storage sites for albumin-like proteins. Lugol’s iodine, which is similar in chemical composition to Wagner’s reagent, caused a golden brown reaction product in the cytoplasm of the idioblasts, which may indicate the presence of alkaloids. Based on these results, we propose that Kedde’s reagent is an appropriate histochemical stain for detecting ACGs in situ in idioblasts and that idioblasts store ACGs and probably alkaloids. ACGs that are located in idioblasts found in restricted, peripheral areas of the endosperm could serve as a barrier that protects the seeds against

  15. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration

  16. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits.

  17. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

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    Somsak, Voravuth; Polwiang, Natsuda; Chachiyo, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The choice for the treatment is highly limited due to drug resistance. Hence, finding the new compounds to treat malaria is urgently needed. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Annona muricata aqueous leaf extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata was prepared and tested for acute toxicity in mice. For efficacy test in vivo, standard 4-day suppressive test was carried out. ICR mice were inoculated with 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection. The extracts (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) were then given orally by gavage once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia, percentage of inhibition, and packed cell volume were subsequently calculated. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) was given to infected mice as positive control while untreated control was given only distilled water. It was found that A. muricata aqueous leaf extract at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg resulted in dose dependent parasitemia inhibition of 38.03%, 75.25%, and 85.61%, respectively. Survival time was prolonged in infected mice treated with the extract. Moreover, no mortality to mice was observed with this extract up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the A. muricata aqueous leaf extract exerted significant antimalarial activity with no toxicity and prolonged survival time. Therefore, this extract might contain potential lead molecule for the development of a new drug for malaria treatment.

  18. UPLC–QTOF–MS and NMR analyses of graviola (Annona muricata leaves

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    Ingrid Vieira Machado de Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graviola leaves (Annona muricata L., Annonaceae are used by some people to try to treat or even cure cancer, even though over-consumption of the fruit, which contains the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin has caused an atypical form of Parkinson's disease. In previous analyses, the fruits were extracted with methanol under ambient conditions before analyses. In the present study, UPLC–QTOF–MS and NMR were used to analyze freeze-dried graviola leaves that were extracted using dry methanol and ethanol at 100 ºC and 10 MPa (100 atm pressure in a sealed container. Methanol solubilized 33% of the metabolites in the lyophilized leaves. Ethanol solubilized 41% of metabolites in the lyophilized leaves. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 100.3 ± 2.8 and 93.2 ± 2.0 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of sample, for the methanolic and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Moreover, the toxicophore (unsaturated γ-lactone that is present in neurotoxic acetogenins was found in the lipophilic portion of this extract. The concentrations of the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin were found by UPLC–QTOF–MS to be 305.6 ± 28.3 and 17.4 ± 0.89 µg/g-dw, respectively, in the dried leaves. Pressurized methanol solubilized more annonacin and squamocin than ethanol. On the other hand, a hot, aqueous infusion solubilized only 0.213% of the annonacin and too little of the squamocin to be detected. So, graviola leaves contain significant amounts of the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin, as well as some potentially healthy phenolic compounds. Finally, the potential neurotoxicity of whole leaves in dietary supplements could be much higher than that of a tea (hot aqueous infusion that is made from them.

  19. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamizah, Sulaiman; Roslida, A H; Fezah, O; Tan, K L; Tor, Y S; Tan, C I

    2012-01-01

    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the AMLE-treated group. Interestingly, At 100 and 300 mg/ kg, AMLE completely inhibited the tumor development in all stages. Histopathological study revealed that tumor growth from the AMLE-treated groups showed only slight hyperplasia and absence of keratin pearls and rete ridges. The results, thus suggest that the A.muricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

  20. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  1. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aporphinoids and other alkaloids from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; da Cruz, Pedro Ernesto Oliveira; de Lourenço, Caroline Caramano; de Souza Moraes, Valéria Regina; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Salvador, Marcos José

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)-FL method and antimicrobial activity using the broth microdilution method of aporphinoids (liriodenine 1, anonaine 2 and asimilobine 3) and other alkaloids (reticuline 4 and cleistopholine 5) isolated from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae) were evaluated. For antioxidant activity, the most active alkaloid was asimilobine with ORAC value of 2.09 relative trolox equivalents. For antimicrobial activity, some alkaloids showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 25-100 µg mL(-1). The most active compounds were the aporphinoids liriodenine, anonaine and asimilobine, some of them more active than the positive control. PMID:22582985

  2. Renewable Oil Extracted from Indonesian Srikaya’s (Annona squamosa sp. Seed: Another Potent Source for Biodiesel

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    Masruri Masruri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at the wastes derived from Indonesian fruit as prospect for biofuels. This report investigates the chemical composition of Srikaya (Annona squamosal sp. seed, which is disposed as waste products from traditional markets. The seeds were extracted with various extraction methods and the oil obtained was analysed by means of gas chromatography (GC/FID, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS, infra-red spectrometry and ultra-violet-visible spectrometry. It was found 2 h extraction using soxhlet apparatus with diethyl ether as solvent gave the optimum time extraction. Moreover, five major components were isolated from i.e.: ethyl hexadecanoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, ethyl octadecanoate, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl hexadecanoate, octadec-9-enaldehyde, and unknown compound, respectively.

  3. Aporphine alkaloid contents increase with moderate nitrogen supply in Annona diversifolia Saff. (Annonaceae) seedlings during diurnal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Castillo, José Agustín; Cruz-Ortega, Rocío; Martinez-Vázquez, Mariano; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Aporphine alkaloids are secondary metabolites that are obtained in low levels from species of the Annonaceae family. Nitrogen addition may increase the alkaloid content in plants. However, previous studies published did not consider that nitrogen could change the alkaloid content throughout the day. We conducted this short-term study to determine the effects of nitrogen applied throughout the diurnal period on the aporphine alkaloids via measurements conducted on the roots, stems and leaves of Annona diversifolia seedlings. The 60-day-old seedlings were cultured with the addition of three levels of nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 mM), and alkaloid extracts were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest total alkaloid content was measured in the treatment with moderate nitrogen supply. Further, the levels of aporphine alkaloids changed significantly in the first few hours of the diurnal period. We conclude that aporphine alkaloid content increased with moderate nitrogen supply and exhibited diurnal variation.

  4. Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes; Mourão, Jozeanne Alves; Angelo, Angela Maria; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera) and pods of soursop (Annona muricata) in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 microL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment) and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm) against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.

  5. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

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    Valentine Uneojo Omoja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  6. EFEKTIFITAS TEPUNG DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN KUMBANG BUBUK KEDELAI (Callosobruchus analis F. PADA BIJI KEDELAI (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Wahyu Harinta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk : mengetahui pengaruh tepung daun sirsak terhadap pengendalian hama Callosobruchus analis pada biji kedelai. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan secara eksperimen, yang terdiri dari dua tahap, 1.Efektifitas tepung daun sirsak terhadap mortalitas kumbang C. analis dan peletakan telur dan 2. Pengaruh tepung daun sirsak terhadap perkembangan populasi kumbang C. analis. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Lengkap ( RAL/CRD .  Sebagai perlakuan adalah : ( A Tepung daun sirsak , dosis 1 g / 100 g; ( B Tepung daun sirsak, dosis 0,50 g / 100 g. ; C Tepung daun sirsak , dosis 0,25 g / 100 g.  D Kontrol / Tanpa Perlakuan.  Tiap Perlakuan diulang lima kali. Cara kerja penelitian, adalah : perbanyakan Kumbang Bubuk Kedelai ( C. analis, pembuatan  tepung daun sirsak ( Annona muricata dan pengaruh perlakuan tepung daun sirsak terhadap mortalitas kumbang C. analis dan perkembangan kumbang C.analis, persentase kerusakan biji dan penyusutan bobot biji.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa : tepung daun sirsak berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas dan perkembangan C. analis pada biji kedelai ; tepung daun sirsak dapat mengurangi terhadap kerusakan dan penyusutan bobot biji kedelai terhadap serangan C. analis; belum didapat dosis tepung daun sirsak yang efektif untuk mengendalikan kumbang C.analis. Dari hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa : tepung daun sirsak mulai dosis 0,5 g / 100 g biji dapat berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan mortalitas dan penurunan perkembangan kumbang bubuk kedelai (Callosobruchus analis F. pada biji kedelai serta dapat mengurangi kerusakan dan penyusutan bobot biji kedelai akibat serangan kumbang bubuk kedelai (Callosobruchus analis F. di penyimpanan.Kata kunci : tepung daun sirsak (Annona muricata; kumbang bubuk kedelai (Callosobruchus analis F.

  7. Effects of cytokinins on in vitro mineral accumulation and bud development in Annona glabra L. Efeito de citocininas sobre o acúmulo de minerais e desenvolvimento de brotações de Annona glabra L. in vitro

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    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Annona glabra is a tropical species that has significant agronomic potential in terms of furnishing fruits for in natura consumption and for the production of phyto-pharmaceuticals. In vitro cultivation has been considered the most promising form of propagation for this species, although large scale utilization of this technique is currently limited by high rates of leaf abscission, reduced rates of explant multiplication and slow bud growth. The present work evaluated the effects of different cytokinins on mineral accumulation in shoots of A. glabra cultivated in vitro, and their effects on growth and survival of these plants. Buds of A. glabra were cultivated in Wood Plant Medium (WPM in the presence of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ, kinetin (KIN, and zeatin (ZEA. KIN and BAP use resulted in the greatest growth, largest accumulation of dry mass and leaf area development, as well as the greatest survival rate during in vitro cultivation of this species. All cytokinins tested stimulated large accumulations of nitrogen and boron in shoots, but diminished levels of calcium as compared to controls.Annona glabra é uma espécie frutífera tropical que apresenta elevado potencial agronômico pelo fornecimento de frutos para o consumo in natura e pela produção de fitofármacos. O cultivo in vitro tem sido preconizado como a forma mais adequada de propagação para essa espécie, embora sua utilização em larga escala ainda seja limitada pela elevada taxa de abscisão foliar, reduzida taxa de multiplicação dos explantes e crescimento lento das brotações. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de citocininas sobre o acúmulo de minerais nas brotações de A. glabra cultivadas in vitro e seus reflexos sobre o crescimento e sobrevivência das plantas nesse tipo de ambiente. Brotações de A. glabra foram cultivadas em meio Wood Plant Medium (WPM, na presença de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ, cinetina (KIN e

  8. Fertilización en frutales con énfasis en el cultivo de guanábano Annona muricata L. Fruit tree fertilization with enmphasis on soursop Annona muricata L.

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    Zárate Reyes Rubén Darío

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se da la información general sobre la importancia de los frutales y específicamente del guanábano (Annona muricata L.. Se relacionan los elementos nutricionales indispensables para los frutales y sus funciones. Se describe el proceso de absorción de agua y nutrientes. Se plantean los casos de sinergismo y antagonismo y su importancia en la fertilización de las especies frutícolas. Se aclara lo relativo a la distribución del fertilizante y la respuesta de la planta. Se discute sobre el mecanismo de absorción foliar. Se relacionan las dificultades para determinar los requerimientos nutricionales en frutales y aplicar la Ley de Restitución. Se precisa que en guanábano el orden posible de requerimientos nutricionales es K > N > Ca > P > Mg. Se describen los síntomas de deficiencias de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S en plántulas de guanábano en soluciones nutritivas y se comparan los análisis de tejidos de plantas con síntomas y plantas en el campo. Se determinan como etapas importantes para fertilizar guanábano: vivero, transplante, desarrollo en huerto y etapa productiva. Se dan recomendaciones generales para cada una de ellas. Se hacen recomendaciones con base en el diámetro de la copa del árbol y la profundidad de raíces; el contenido de M.O, de P205 y K2O del suelo y la edad de los árboles y la región donde se establezca el cultivo.A general survey of the importance of fruit crops, especially soursop (Annona muricata L. is presented. The roles of essential elements and water absortion are described chemical synergisms and antagonisms are discussed in relation to plant nutrition. The absortion mechanism is discussed, so are the difficulties te determine nutritional requirements’ in fruit trees in order to apply the restitution law. Priority of elernent absortion is probably K > N > Ca > P > Mg. Deficiency sympton as they appear in nutrient solutions and in the field are described for seedlings and mature trees and are related to

  9. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  10. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  11. Efeito de citocininas na senescência e abscisão foliar durante o cultivo in vitro de Annona glabra L. Effect of cytokinins on senescence and foliar abscision during in vitro Annona glabra L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação de anonáceas tem sido limitada pela abscisão foliar precoce nas brotações, o que dificulta a manutenção e o desenvolvimento das plantas in vitro. Esse fato se deve, principalmente, ao acúmulo de etileno nos tubos fechados e à relação etileno/citocinina nas folhas. Assim sendo, avaliaram-se o efeito de fontes de citocinina sobre o retardo da senescência foliar em brotações de Annona glabra L. e suas implicações sobre o seu desenvolvimento. Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em tubo de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio WPM, suplementado com 30g L-1 de sacarose, 500mg L-1 de benomyl e 1g L-1 de carvão ativado. A esse meio adicionaram-se 6-benzilaminopurina, thidiazuron, cinetina e zeatina, todos na concentração de 1mg L-1. Decorridos 45 dias após a inoculação, plantas foram submetidas à senescência em ambiente escuro, por um período de 9 dias, coletando-se folhas a cada três dias para quantificação de clorofila "a", clorofila "b", carotenóides, proteínas e açúcares solúveis totais. No final das fases de multiplicação e enraizamento, quantificaram-se a matéria seca, a área foliar e o número de folhas que sofreram abscisão nas plantas que não foram submetidas à senescência. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, sendo que cada período de senescência constituiu um bloco, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os resultados mostraram que cinetina e zeatina, seguidas de thidiazuron e 6-benzilaminopurina, preservam maior teor de clorofilas "a", "b" e de carotenóides durante todo o período de senescência induzida. 6-benzilaminopurina e cinetina promoveram maior retenção da área foliar durante as fases de multiplicação e enraizamento de Annona glabra L.The micropropagation of Annonaceae has been limited by early foliar abscission in shoots, which makes the maintenance and development of plants in vitro environment difficult. This is mainly due to ethylene accumulation in closed

  12. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

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    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  13. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

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    Heni Prasetyowati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide.

  14. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-β- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  15. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: echevarr@ufrrj.br; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2007-07-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-{beta}- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  16. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and larvicidal activities of the essential oils of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; de Jesus, Hugo César Ramos; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Salvador, Marcos José; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; dos Santos, Roseli La Corte; Prata, Ana Paula do Nacimento

    2011-06-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae) growing in Sergipe, northeastern region of Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. Thirty-four compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. salzmannii and twenty-seven in that of A. pickelii; sesquiterpenes predominated in both essential oils. Bicyclogermacrene (20.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.9%), delta-cadinene (15.3%), alpha-copaene (10.0%), and allo-aromadendrene (5.7%) were the main components of A. salzmannii, and bicyclogermacrene (45.4%), (E)-caryophyllene (14.6%), and alpha-copaene (10.6%) of A. pickelii. The essential oils showed significant antioxidant capacity in the ORAC(FL) and DPPH assays. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils was also evaluated against bacteria and fungi, as well as the larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae.

  17. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations.

  18. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength.

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. leaves in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Jesus R G de Pinho, José; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2010-05-06

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  20. Different susceptibilities of Leishmania spp. promastigotes to the Annona muricata acetogenins annonacinone and corossolone, and the Platymiscium floribundum coumarin scoparone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Nova, Nadja Soares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Falcão, Maria José Cajazeiras; Alcantara, Terezinha Thaize Negreiros; Ferreira, Pablito Augusto Travassos; Cavalcanti, Eveline Solon Barreira; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; Wilson, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that can manifest itself in visceral and cutaneous form. The aim of this study was to search for new leishmanicidal compounds. Preliminarily, Artemia salina assay was applied to compounds from two plants found in Northeastern Brazil, Platymiscium floribundum and Annona muricata. Then these compounds were tested against three Leishmania species (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania major). A screening assay using luciferase-expressing promastigote form were used to measure the viability of promastigote One coumarin, scoparone, isolated from P. floribundum and two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone isolated from A. muricata showed leishmanicidal activity in all species tested. Nevertheless, Leishmania species indicated different susceptibilities in relation to the tested compounds: L. mexicana was more sensitive to scoparone followed by L. major and L. donovani. The three species presented similar inhibition to corossolone and annonacinone. Acetogenin annonacinone (EC(50)=6.72-8.00 μg/mL) indicated high leishmanicidal activity; corossolone (EC(50)=16.14-18.73 μg/mL) and scoparone (EC(50)=9.11-27.51 μg/mL) moderate activity. A. saline larvae were less sensitive to the coumarin scoparone and acetogenin corossolone was the most toxic. In conclusion, the leishmanicidal activity demonstrated by the coumarin and acetogenins indicate these compounds for further studies aiming the development of new leishmanicidal agents.

  1. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annona muricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimawo, I A

    2002-01-01

    Proximate composition and physicochemical analyses were carried out on the seed, pulp and extracted oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). The results showed that the seed contained 8.5% moisture, 2.4% crude protein, 13.6% ash, 8.0% crude fiber, 20.5% fat and 47.0% carbohydrate. The seed also contained 0.2% water soluble ash, 0.79% titratable acidity and 17.0 mg calcium/100 g. The pulp was found to contain 81% moisture, 3.43% titratable acidity and 24.5% non-reducing sugar. Selected physicochemical characteristics included refractive indices of 1.335 for the seed and 1.356 for the pulp, specific gravities of 1.250 for the seed and 1.023 for the pulp, pH values of 8.34 for the seed and 4.56 for the pulp, and soluble solids contents of 1.5 degrees Brix for the seed and 15 degrees Brix for the pulp. The extracted oil (20.5% yield) had a 60.43% unsaponifiable value, 23.54 KOH/g acid value, 100.98 KOH/g saponification value, 1.1 KOH/g peroxide value, 1.464 refractive index, 5.77 pH, 69.5 degrees Brix sosluble solids and 0.2900 specific gravity.

  2. Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on human tumour cell lines: Role of reactive oxygen species and glutathione

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B V V Pardhasaradhi; Madhurima Reddy; A Mubarak Ali; A Leela Kumari; Ashok Khar

    2005-03-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are a new class of compounds that have been reported to have potent pesticidal, parasiticidal, anti-microbial, cell growth inhibitory activities. In this study, organic and aqueous extracts from the defatted seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple) were tested on different human tumour cell lines for antitumoural activity. While organic and aqueous extracts induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells, they failed to do so in COLO-205 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and K-562 cells with organic and aqueous extracts resulted in nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reduced intracellular glutathione levels. In addition downregulation of Bcl-2 and PS externalization by Annexin-V staining suggested induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells by both the extracts through oxidative stress. On the contrary, COLO-205 cells showed only PS externalization but no change in ROS and glutathione levels. These observations suggest that the induction of apoptosis by A. squamosa extracts can be selective for certain types of cancerous cells.

  3. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K.; Santosh, P.; Rakshith, D.; Satish, S.

    2015-02-01

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410 nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it.

  4. Isolation of three new annonaceous acetogenins from Graviola fruit (Annona muricata) and their anti-proliferation on human prostate cancer cell PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Liu, Jingchun; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhu, Wenjun; Dou, Q Ping; Zhou, Kequan

    2016-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit powder of Graviola (Annona muricata) was continued to be conducted and yielded three more novel bioactive compounds: C-35 annonaceous acetogenins, muricins M and N, and C-37 annonaceous acetogenins, muricenin. They all contain a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyl groups. The structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical modification after isolation via open column chromatographic separation and HPLC purification. Especially, murices M and N demonstrated more potent anti-proliferative activities against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

  5. Additional bioactive acetogenins, annomutacin and (2,4-trans and cis)-10R-annonacin-A-ones, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Zhao, G X; Zeng, L; Zhang, Y; Schwedler, J T; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-09-01

    In a continuation of our research on bioactive components from the leaves of Annona muricata, three novel monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, namely, annomutacin [1], (2,4-trans)-10R-annonacin-A-one [2], and (2,4-cis)-10R- annonacin-A-one [3], have been identified. Their structures were deduced by ms, nmr, ir, and uv spectral and chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. A known bioactive amide, N-p-coumaroyl tyramine, was also found. Compound 1 and the mixture of compounds 2 and 3 showed selective cytotoxicities against the human A-549 lung tumor cell line.

  6. Effect of different carbon sources on the in vitro multiplication of Annona sp. Efeito da fonte de carbono na multiplicação in vitro de Annona sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raniere Ferreira de Santana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae family comprises approximately 2.300 species, some with significant commercial value. Although commercial plantations have suffered due to problems related to seedling production. As micropropagation is a viable technique for seedling production, the present work evaluated the effects of different carbon sources on in vitro bud induction in five Annonaceae species. Nodal segments obtained from plants of the Annona glabra, A. cauliflora, A. coriacea, A. bahiensis and Rollinia silvatica species were inoculated into solid WPM culture medium with 8.87 μM BAP, 0.86 mM of benomyl, and 87.64 mM of the following carbon sources: glucose, sucrose, fructose, galactose, sorbitol and maltose. We evaluated the buds number, the length and weight of the largest bud, the number of expanded leaves per bud, the length of the largest leaf and the dry matter of the buds. No significant difference was observed among the different carbon sources used in terms of the number of produced buds; however, the length of the largest bud, the number of expanded leaves, the length of the largest leaf, and dry weight of the buds presented significant difference according to the studied speciesas well as the carbon sources used, with the lowest value being obtained with sorbitol. The results obtained here indicated that, except for sorbitol, any of the carbohydrates tested could be used in the in vitro multiplication protocols for A. bahiensis, A. cauliflora, A. coriacea, A. glabra and R. silvatica.A família Annonaceae compreende, aproximadamente, mais de 2.300 espécies, algumas com ampla aceitação no mercado nacional. No entanto, o plantio comercial tem sido prejudicado, em razão das questões relacionadas à produção de mudas. Considerando que a micropropagação é uma técnica viável nesse contexto, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes de carbono na indução de brotações in vitro em cinco espécies de

  7. Avaliação do potencial alelopático de substâncias isoladas em sementes de araticum (Annona crassiflora Allelophatic potential of substances isolated from Annona crassiflora seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Inoue

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou identificar substâncias biologicamente ativas e o potencial alelopático de esteroides glicosilados, provenientes das sementes de Annona crassiflora. O isolamento dos esteroides glicosilados foi realizado com a separação dos constituintes químicos do extrato bruto de acetato de etila em coluna cromatográfica, sendo a completa elucidação estrutural por meio de espectroscopia de RMN ¹H. Testes de germinação com as espécies Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea grandifolia foram conduzidos em câmaras tipo BOD a 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, monitorados durante 10 dias com avaliação diária, nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 80 e 100 mg L-1 dos materiais isolados. Utilizando as mesmas concentrações, os experimentos de desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo foram mantidos em câmara de germinação a 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 24 horas, com avaliação no décimo dia. Após o extrato de acetato de etila ser submetido ao fracionamento, verificou-se a presença de sinais característicos de fitoesteróis no espectro do RMN ¹H, resultando em uma mistura de estigmasterol glicosilado e sitosterol glicosilado. Os resultados indicam que as substâncias estigmasterol e sitosterol não proporcionaram inibição na germinação e no índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG de E. heterophylla e I. grandifolia. Por outro lado, estigmasterol e sitosterol interferiram no desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo de E. heterophylla.This work aimed to identify substances and the allelopathic potential of steroidal glycosides, isolated from the seeds of Annona crassiflora. Isolation of steroidal glycosides was carried out with the separation of chemical components of ethyl acetate extract in a chromatographic column and identified by 1H NMR. Germination tests with Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea grandifolia were carried out in BOD Germinator at 25ºC and 12 hr photoperiod, monitored for 10 days at concentrations of 0, 20, 40

  8. Some photosynthetic and growth responses of Annona glabra L. seedlings to soil flooding Algumas respostas fotossintéticas e do crescimento de plântulas de Annona glabra L. ao alagamento do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo S. Mielke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the effects of soil flooding and leaf position on net primary productivity and whole plant carbon balance of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae seedlings, a highly flood-tolerant tree, native to the tropical Americas. All seedlings survived a period of 56 days of flooding without symptoms of stress. Flooding induced significant increments in root, stem and whole-plant biomass (P Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do alagamento e da posição das folhas na produtividade primária líquida e no balanço de carbono em plântulas de Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae, uma espécie altamente tolerante ao alagamento e nativa na América tropical. Todas as plântulas sobreviveram ao período de alagamento de 56 dias sem apresentarem sintomas de estresse. O alagamento induziu incrementos significativos (P <0,01 na biomassa de raízes, caules e planta inteira, e na razão raízes/parte aérea. Medições das trocas gasosas foliares foram conduzidas aos quatro, 11, 18 e 56 dias após o alagamento, na primeira (L1, quarta (L4 e sétima (L7 folha completamente expandida a partir do ápice em cada plântula. Os valores médios da condutância estomática ao vapor de água (g s e da taxa fotossintética líquida (A nas plântulas controle foram 0,26 mol m-2s-1 e 8,8 µmol m-2s-1, respectivamente. Reduções significativas (P <0,05 em A foram observadas entre L1 e L7 nas plântulas controle em todos os três dias de medições. As reduções em A com o aumento da idade foliar também ocorreram nas plantas alagadas, apenas nos dias 4 e 18. O alagamento induziu alterações significativas em gs (P <0,05, alcançando 65% em relação ao controle no dia 4 e 152% em relação ao controle no dia 56. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento de plântulas de A. glabra estão diretamente relacionadas com a capacidade de manter

  9. Avaliação de tipos de enxertia e recipientes para produção de mudas de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. Evaluation of grafting types and containers for the production of soursop tree (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Couquiti Kitamura

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Na fruticultura moderna, é importante a busca de métodos de cultivo para a redução do tempo de produção. Nesse sentido, o emprego de técnicas de enxertia é fundamental. No Campo Experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Alagoas-UFAL, sob as condições de viveiro, foi conduzido um experimento com gravioleira (Annona muricata L.. O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos de três métodos de enxertia sobre a porcentagem de pegamento do enxerto. Os métodos de enxertia utilizados foram por borbulhia em escudo, garfagem à inglesa simples e garfagem em fenda cheia, combinado com duas cultivares de gravioleira (Gigante das Alagoas e Crioula e dois recipientes para mudas (sacos de polietileno e tubetes, empregando-se porta-enxertos com idade de 95 dias após a emergência. Foi avaliado o pegamento do enxerto aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia. Verificou-se que a cultivar Gigante das Alagoas foi superior à Crioula quanto ao pegamento do enxerto aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia. O melhor método de enxertia dependeu do tipo de recipiente, pois, quando se utilizaram sacos de polietileno, o método de enxertia por borbulhia em escudo foi superior aos de garfagens nas avaliações realizadas aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia, apresentando a percentagem média de pegamento do enxerto de 100 e 95%, respectivamente. Entretanto, utilizando recipientes de tubetes, todos os três métodos de enxertia testados apresentaram porcentagem média de pegamento do enxerto superior a 75%, porém, não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Por meio desses resultados, verifica-se que é possível reduzir o tamanho do recipiente, sem perder a eficiência e a qualidade das mudas.In modern fruit culture, the search for cropping methods for reduction of production time is important. In this sense, the use of grafting techniques is fundamental. In the Experimental Field of the Center of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Alagoas

  10. Viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira (Annona squamosa em diferentes horários Viability of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa pollen grains at different hours of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No manejo do cultivo da pinha (Annona squamosa, a polinização artificial é uma prática preconizada para, obter maior pegamento dos frutos bem como uniformização do formato dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira em diferentes horários de coleta. O pólen foi obtido a partir de flores no estádio funcionalmente estaminada. Foram avaliados oito horários de coleta de pólen: zero hora, 1 hora, 2 horas, 3 horas, 4 horas, 5 horas, 6 horas e 7 horas da manhã. Foi utilizado meio de cultura padrão para germinação de pólen, com concentração de 10% de sacarose. As flores foram coletadas nos horários estabelecidos e os grãos de pólen foram retirados das anteras com auxílio de um pincel número 2 e em seguida inoculados em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela experimental constituída por duas placas Petri. Foram contados 100 grãos de pólen por placa. Após 6 horas de inoculação, os grãos de pólen foram visualizados sob lupa. Foram considerados germinados os grãos de pólen que possuíam tubo polínico com tamanho igual ou superior ao diâmetro do próprio pólen. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre o horário de coleta dos grãos de pólen. A percentagem média da germinação variou de 46,75% a 53,62% dos grãos de pólen germinados.In the management of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa crop, the artificial pollination is a preconized practice to obtain higher establishment of the fruits as well as their standardization. This study was carried out to evaluate the viability of sugar apple pollen grains at different collecting times. The pollens were obtained from the flowers at the functional staminate stage. The pollen grains were collected every hour, starting from 00:00am and ending at 07:00am, totalizing 8

  11. EFEITO DO ARMAZENAMENTO E DE FITOHORMÔNIOS NA QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE ARATICUM (Annona crassiflora Mart. EFFECT OF STORAGE AND PLANT HORMONES IN GERMINATION OF ARATICUM SEEDS (Annona crassiflora Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Machado Mesquita

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    As sementes de araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart. apresentam germinação lenta e desuniforme, o que afeta negativamente a sua propagação. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia-GO. Foram utilizadas sementes de araticum provenientes de árvores vegetando em estado natural, no nordeste de Goiás. Aleatoriamente, coletou-se um fruto maduro por árvore, de um total de cinqüenta plantas dispersas na região. Uma coleta foi realizada em março de 1999, cujas sementes foram armazenadas por 365 dias, sendo avaliadas após esta estocagem. Em março de 2000, foi realizada nova coleta em outras cinqüenta plantas, avaliando-se imediatamente as sementes recém-colhidas. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência foram: testemunha, água destilada, ácido giberélico à 1.000 ppm, citocinina à 1.000 ppm, GA3 + BAP à 500 ppm. A semeadura foi realizada em sacos de polietileno preto, contendo areia grossa lavada, terriço de mata e terra de subsolo (3:3:4. O armazenamento das sementes por um ano não proporcionou taxa adequada de germinação em nenhum dos tratamentos. O ácido giberélico à 1.000 ppm é eficiente na superação da dormência em sementes recém-colhidas. As sementes dessa espécie devem ser semeadas logo após a sua extração dos frutos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Frutífera do cerrado; germinação; ácido.

    Araticum seeds (Annona crassiflora Mart. have a slow and uneven pattern of germination, negatively affecting its propagation. The experiment was conducted from March/1999 through November/2001, at the Goiás State Federal University, Agronomy and Food Engineering School, using seeds coming from trees growing in natural environment in the Northeast region of Goiás State. At random, one ripe

  12. Purificação da enzima polifenoloxidase (PFO de polpa de pinha (Annona squamosa L. madura Purification of polyphenoloxidase (PPO from ripe custard apple (Annona squamosa L. pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Dorotea Pozzobon de A. LIMA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A PFO (EC 1.10.3.2 extraída de polpa de pinha madura (Annona squamosa L., foi parcialmente purificada por fracionamento em sulfato de amônio a 80% e purificada 411 (Fração I e 118 (Fração II vezes após cromatografia em coluna de troca iônica em DEAE-Toyopearl 650M, e 566 vezes em coluna de Toyopearl HW55F. A enzima da fração mais ativa foi caracterizada bioquimicamente. Quanto aos parâmetros cinéticos, a enzima apresentou valores de Km e Vmax de 7,14mM e 302,0 unidades/min/ml para catecol e 25,0mM e 180,2 unidades/min/ml para L-dopa respectivamente, substratos que demonstraram maior especificidade. O peso molecular foi estimado em 90.700 daltons através de filtração em gel Sephadex G-200. O teor de cobre da enzima purificada encontrado foi de 11ppm/peso da amostra liofilizada. Quanto à composição de aminoácidos, a PFO apresentou maiores teores de ácido aspártico, ácido glutâmico e lisina e menores teores de metionina, arginina e tirosina, com ausência de cisteína.The PPO (EC 1.10.3.2 extract of ripe custard apple (Annona squamosa L. pulps, was partially purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and purified 411 (Fraction I and 118 (Fraction II fold in an ion exchange column of DEAE-Toyopearl 650M, and 566 fold in a gel column of Toyopearl HW 55F. The enzyme of the most active fraction was characterized biochemically. The partially purified and purified enzyme used the o-diphenols as substrates and no activity towards monophenols was detected. With respect to the kinetic parameters, the purified enzyme presented values for Km and Vmax of 7.14 mM and 302.0 units/min/ml for catechol and 25.0 mM and 180.2 units/min/ml for L-dopa respectively, substrates which show greater specificity. The molecular weight was estimated as 90.700 daltons using gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. In the analysis of copper, the purified enzyme gave a value of 11ppm by weight of the liofilized sample. The amino acid composition of the custard

  13. Uso de vermicomposto favorece o crescimento de mudas de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' associadas a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Use of earthworm manure improves growth of soursop seedlings (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Karla Alves da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A gravioleira, cujos frutos apresentam elevado potencial para exportação, é de fácil adaptação ao Semi-Árido nordestino, e a sua produção, economicamente importante, vem sendo estimulada. O uso de adubos orgânicos associados à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA pode ser útil na formação de mudas frutíferas, porém o efeito da adição de adubo na simbiose com gravioleira (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' não é conhecido. Foi investigado o efeito de FMA multiplicado em substrato com resíduo orgânico na formação de mudas de gravioleira mantidas em substratos com fertilizante. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 2×5: 2 substratos (solo sem ou com 10% de vermicomposto e cinco tratamentos de inoculação (Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck e Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith produzidos em substratos com ou sem resíduo orgânico e controle não inoculado, com quatro repetições. Após 102 dias, avaliou-se: massa seca da parte aérea e radicular, altura, diâmetro do caule, taxa de crescimento, produção de esporos de FMA e de glomalina, atividade enzimática do solo, respiração microbiana, colonização micorrízica total, arbuscular e hifálica. Em geral, a inoculação com FMA estimulou o crescimento, mas no tratamento adubado as mudas em simbiose com G. albida não foram beneficiadas pela associação. O uso de vermicomposto estimulou a colonização micorrízica, a respiração microbiana, a atividade enzimática e a produção de glomalina no solo, porém reduziu a esporulação de A. longula. A utilização de FMA e vermicomposto pode constituir alternativa na produção de mudas de gravioleira, pois reduziu à metade o tempo de formação das mudas e pode reduzir em 75% a dose de adubo a ser aplicada. No entanto, a escolha de FMA compatíveis com o hospedeiro é indispensável para garantir respostas positivas. A aplicação conjunta de FMA e adubo orgânico também pode

  14. Viabilidade e conservação de pólen de três anonas comerciais Viability and conservation of pollen from tree commercial annonas

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    José Emilio Bettiol Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O pólen das anonas comerciais, cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill., fruta-do-conde, pinha ou ata (Annona squamosa L. e atemóia (Annona cherimola X Annona squamosa têm período de viabilidade reduzido. Este fato, aliado à ocorrência de dicogamia protogínica nessas plantas, demanda metodologias de conservação que promovam maior longevidade ao pólen. Objetivou-se neste estudo a aplicação de técnicas de conservação do pólen dessas fruteiras. O pólen foi coletado de flores em estádio macho e conservado em nitrogênio líquido (-196 °C e geladeira (4-5 °C. Utilizaram-se amostras de pólen dessecadas e não dessecadas, coletadas em período seco e úmido do ano. Pólen recém-coletado e não submetido à conservação, pólen fresco (PF, foi considerado padrão. O pólen amanhecido (PA foi utilizado após 12 horas da coleta. A viabilidade polínica foi avaliada através de testes de coloração com o corante Alexander, germinação in vitro e polinização em campo. Para a germinação, utilizaram-se dois meios de cultura, o meio A e o BK e a viabilidade foi avaliada pela taxa de emissão de tubo polínico. O PF coletado em período úmido revelou maior viabilidade em relação ao do período seco. Nos testes de germinação in vitro ocorreu emissão de tubos polínicos para as amostras de PF e PA nas primeiras 12 horas. A emissão de tubos polínicos decaiu com o tempo de conservação. Nos testes de germinação in vitro e polinização em campo, o pólen das três fruteiras, conservado em geladeira, proporcionou maior viabilidade que o conservado em nitrogênio. Nas polinizações obtiveram-se frutificações com PF e PA coletados em período úmido e em período seco e ausência de frutificações nas polinizações com pólen conservado além de três dias, tanto em nitrogênio como na geladeira.Pollen of commercial anonas, cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., curstad apple (Annona squamosa L. and atemoya (Annona cherimola X Annona

  15. Isoquinoline derivatives isolated from the fruit of Annona muricata as 5-HTergic 5-HT1A receptor agonists in rats: unexploited antidepressive (lead) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrat, J A; De Bruyne, T; De Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J

    1997-11-01

    The fruit and the leaves of Annona muricata (Annonaceae) are used in traditional medicine for their tranquillizing and sedative properties. Extracts of the plant have been shown to inhibit binding of [3H]rauwolscine to 5-HTergic 5-HT1A receptors in calf hippocampus, and three alkaloids, annonaine (1), nornuciferine (2) and asimilobine (3), isolated from the fruit have been shown to have IC50 values of 3 microM, 9 microM and 5 microM, respectively, although in ligand-binding studies it was not possible to determine whether interaction of these ligands with the receptor was agonistic or antagonistic. This paper presents the results of functional assays of the alkaloids. The inhibition of cAMP accumulation was tested in NIH-3T3 cells stably transfected with the 5-HT1A receptor from man. None of the alkaloids showed antagonistic properties towards the 5-HT1A receptors because in the antagonistic tests no influence on the forskolin-stimulated increase of cAMP level was detected. Full agonistic properties were measured for all three compounds; the inhibition constants (Ki) for 1, 2 and 3 were Annona muricata possesses anti-depressive effects, possibly induced by compounds 1, 2 and 3, and that in the past potent leads for the development of anti-depressive therapeutics have not been used.

  16. Cytogenetic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sun Dried Seeds of Soursop (Annona muricata on The Male Germ Line Cells of The African Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L.

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    Seino RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona muricata on some meiotic parameters in the pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Adult grasshoppers were treated with 28μl of the Ethanol extract of sun dry seeds of Annona muricata and absolute ethanol (control for 48 hours and all the parameters (chiasma frequency, formation of rod and ring shaped bivalents and meiotic anomalies were affected by the extract. Chiasma formation was observed to significantly (P<0.05 increase following treatment and this was correlated by a significant increase in the formation of ring shaped bivalents. The incidences of meiotic anomalies such as laggards and bridges at first and second meiotic Anaphases, second meiotic Metaphase as well as in first and second meiotic Telophases were observed to increase when insects were treated with the ethanol extract. These observations indicated that the Ethanol extract of the seeds of A. muricata contain substances that could induce cytotoxicity. The importance of such property in the formulation of grasshopper pest control measures cannot be overemphasized.

  17. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro antioxidative effect and antimicrobial potential against standard human pathogenic strains

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively with n-butanol, chloroform and acetone solvents. Methanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant screening using DPPH free radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extract and fractions were analyzed on eight different clinical bacterial and fungal strains using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method (MIC and MMC determination. The antioxidant activity showed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed potent inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacterial strains while in case of fungal strains the maximum effect was observed against Candida blanki. The maximum zone of inhibition of n-butanol, chloroform and acetone fractions was observed against B. subtilis, and E. coli respectively while all fractions exhibited potent inhibitory effect against C. blanki. MIC and MBC values were determined for active samples, methanol extract and chloroform fraction against Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which revealed lower MIC and MBC values. The fungal strains Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. blanki were used to calculate MIC and MFC values for methanol extract and acetone fraction which demonstrated lower MIC and MFC values. The results provided evidence that the plant is richly supplied with numerous phytoconstituents that might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant, antimicrobial agents and supplementary food.

  18. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

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    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  19. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

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    Irma Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  20. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with extracts of Annona muricata.

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    Adeyemi, D O; Komolafe, O A; Adewole, O S; Obuotor, E M; Abiodun, A A; Adenowo, T K

    2010-05-01

    Microanatomical changes in the pancreatic islet cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied after treatment with methanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, untreated diabetic group, and A. muricata-treated diabetic group) of ten rats each. Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in groups B and C by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Daily intra peritoneal injections of 100 mg/kg A. muricata were administered to group C rats for two weeks. Post sacrifice the pancreases of the rats were excised and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections of 5 mum thickness were produced and stained with H & E, Gomori aldehyde fuchsin, and chrome alum haematoxylin-phloxine for demonstration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islets. Histomorphological and morphometric examination of the stained pancreatic sections showed a significant increase in the number, diameter, and volume of the beta-cells of pancreatic islets of the A. muricata-treated group (5.67 +/- 0.184 N/1000 mum(2), 5.38 +/- 0.093 mum and 85.12 +/- 4.24 mum(3), respectively) when compared to that of the untreated diabetic group of rats (2.85 +/- 0.361 N/1000 mum(2), 2.85 +/- 0.362 mum and 69.56 +/- 5.216 mum(3), respectively). The results revealed regeneration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islet of rats treated with extract of A. muricata.

  1. Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement.

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    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus.

  2. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF FIRMNESS IN SOURSOP FRUITS (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita DURING POSTHARVEST

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    CARLOS J. MARQUEZ-CARDOZO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv Elita en diferentes etapas de maduración fueron evaluados, determinando sus características físico-químicas: sólidos solubles totales (SST, acidez y pH. La firmeza se encontró mediante la aplicación de pruebas de penetración uniaxial. El modelado y la simulación de la firmeza se llevó a cabo por el software Autodesk Inventor Professional 11.0 (ANSYS® Technology. Los frutos mostraron una tendencia creciente con respecto a los SST y la acidez, alcanzando valores máximos de 12,8°Brix y acidez de 0,74%, y un pH inferior a 3,43, valores que coinciden con la madurez de consumo, tal como se observa para el día 6. La Firmeza mostró una tendencia decreciente durante todo el período de poscosecha, con valores de 79,43 N para el día 0 y 3,62 N para el día 9. La simulación por elementos finitos de la fuerza de firmeza presentó alta correlación (>90 % con respecto a los datos experimentales. La simulación por elementos finitos se convierte en una alternativa no destructiva para la evaluación de la firmeza, útil para el almacenamiento, transporte, consumo en fresco, envasado y procesamiento de éstas frutas.

  3. Produção do porta-enxerto (Annona squamosa L. com o uso de reguladores vegetais Production of (Annona squamosa L. rootstocks with the use of plant growth regulators

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A redução do período de formação do porta-enxerto para qualquer espécie frutífera é desejável sob o ponto de vista da diminuição dos custos de produção para o viveirista. Desta forma, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de reguladores vegetais no crescimento e desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições de 15 plantas. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela pulverização com diferentes concentrações de reguladores vegetais: - Testemunha (sem pulverização; - GA3 (25, 50, 75 mg.L-1; - GA4+7 + fenilmetil-aminopurina (25, 50, 75 mg.L-1. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: - comprimento do caule (Cc; - número de folhas (Nf; - diâmetro do caule a 20 cm da base das plantas; - massa seca da parte aérea e da parte radicular. Os resultados de Cc demonstram que a aplicação de reguladores vegetais afetou positivamente o crescimento do porta-enxerto, pois ocorreu resposta quadrática e linear, para os tratamentos com GA3 e GA4+7 + fenilmetil-aminopurina, respectivamente. Quanto ao diâmetro do caule, observou-se somente resposta quadrática com a aplicação de GA3, o que também foi verificado no parâmetro massa seca da parte aérea.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and N-(phenylmethyl-1H-purine-6-amine + GA4+7, on the development of A. squamosa L. rootstocks. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with 7 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments consisted of control, 25, 50 and 75 mg.L-1 of GA3, as well as 25, 50 and 75 mg.L-1 of N-(phenylmethyl-1H-purine-6-amine + GA4+7. The following parameters were evaluated: stem length; number of leaves; stem diameter; in addition to shoot and root dry weight. The results showed positive effects of growth regulators application on A. squamosa L

  4. Fenologia de Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae em um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto em Rio Verde, Goiás (Nota Científica. Phenology of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae in a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto in Rio Verde, Goiás (Scientific Note.

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    Michellia Pereira SOARES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fenológicos são importantes para a compreensão da dinâmica das comunidades vegetais, para o entendimento da reprodução das espécies, da organização temporal dos recursos e da coevolução entre plantas e animais. Neste estudo, acompanhou-se a fenologia vegetativa e reprodutiva de 22 indivíduos de Annona coriacea Mart., durante 11 meses, em um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto no município de Rio Verde, Goiás, registrando-se os índices de atividade, intensidade e avaliando-se a sincronia das fenofases. A ocorrência da floração e brotamento no início das chuvas, a manutenção da produção de folhas adultas durante todo o período estudado e a maior intensidade de frutificação e senescência foliar durante a estiagem são estratégias características de uma planta adaptada à ocorrência de duas estações bem marcadas. Dessa forma, há indícios de que Annona coriacea responde à sazonalidade climática característica do Domínio Cerrado, já que a delimitação dos padrões fenológicos e da sazonalidade só é possível a partir de pelo menos dois anos de dados. Phenological studies are important for understanding the dynamics of plant communities, the reproduction of the species, the temporal organization of resources and coevolution between plants and animals. This study followed up the vegetative and reproductive phenology of 22 individuals of Annona coriacea Mart., for 11 months, in a fragment of Cerrado in Rio Verde, Goiás, recording activity and intensity index and evaluating the timing of phenophases. The occurrence of flowering and budding at the beginning of the rains, the continued production of mature leaves throughout the study period, and more intense fruiting and leaf senescence during drought are strategies proper of a plant adapted to the occurrence of two well-defined seasons. So, probably Annona coriacea responds to climatic seasonality characteristic of the Cerrado Domain because it is only

  5. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (pavocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (pavocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model fitted to the data obtained in this study and to the growth data available in the literature for other tropical low acid fruits indicated high variability in μ and λ of Salmonella. The results obtained in this study show that whole low acid tropical fruits can harbor Salmonella, and that this foodborne pathogen can not only survive but also grow both on the

  6. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

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    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was

  7. Polinização natural, manual e autopolinização no pegamento de frutos de pinheira (Annona squamosa L. em Alagoas Natural, artificial and self pollination on fruit set of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. in Alagoas

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    Rousseau da Silva Campos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A pinheira (Annona squamosa L é cultivada no Estado do Alagoas há mais de um século, sendo a principal cultura de valor econômico para centenas de pequenos agricultores. Um dos principais entraves para melhorar a produtividade da cultura é o baixo índice de polinização das flores e a conseqüente produção de frutos. Embora sejam morfologicamente perfeitas, as flores da pinheira apresentam dicogamia protogínica, fenômeno no qual a maturação dos carpelos acontece antes da maturação dos estames, inviabilizando a autofecundação. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito da polinização natural, manual e da autopolinização no número de frutos fixados em pinheiras. Foram utilizadas plantas de 4 anos de idade oriundas de pés-francos da variedade local "Crioula". As flores foram selecionadas na porção média das árvores em toda a sua circunferência. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: flores em polinização natural; flores cobertas para induzir a autopolinização; flores polinizadas com pincel usando pólen puro; flores polinizadas com pincel usando 75 % de pólen e 25 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com pincel usando 50 % de pólen e 50 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com pincel usando 25 % de pólen e 75 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com bomba usando pólen puro; flores polinizadas com bomba usando 75 % de pólen e 25 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com bomba usando 50 % de pólen e 50 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com bomba usando 25 % de pólen e 75 % de amido de milho. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o uso da polinização artificial com pincel ou com bomba polinizadora aumentou em até 10 vezes o número de frutos fixados em polinização natural ou em autopolinização. A adição do amido de milho seco como veículo para o pólen não reduziu a percentagem de frutos fixados e pode ser utilizado em até 50% da mistura sem reduzir a eficiência na poliniza

  8. Fases da germinação de sementes de Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer em diferentes temperaturas Germination phases of Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seeds under different temperatures

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    Paula Nepomuceno Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar as fases da germinação de sementes de araticum-de-terra-fria (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer sob diferentes temperaturas. Para tanto, o trabalho foi dividido em dois experimentos: um para a determinação das fases I e II da germinação, e outro para a fase III. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 3 tratamentos e 4 repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, em ambos os experimentos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas temperaturas constantes de 25ºC e 30ºC e temperatura alternada de 20-30ºC (8-16 h, respectivamente, com luz constante. As variáveis analisadas foram a variação do grau de umidade ao longo do tempo (experimento 1, a porcentagem e a velocidade média de germinação (experimento 2. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, as médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade e regressão polinomial. A variação do grau de umidade ao longo do tempo foi estudada através da regressão não linear monomolecular, com os parâmetros das funções comparados conforme os tratamentos, ajustados, submetidos à análise de variância e teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Observou-se que as sementes mantidas a 30ºC apresentaram maiores valores para velocidade de aquisição de água, atingindo 27,85% de grau de umidade na mudança da fase I para a fase II. Quando as sementes foram submetidas a 25ºC, a fase I teve duração de 60 horas, atingindo 28,35% de grau de umidade e, sob 20/30ºC, a fase durou 72 horas, alcançando 28,33% de grau de umidade. Embora 30ºC tenha promovido a maior velocidade de embebição, não refletiu em maior porcentagem de germinação (fase III, que foi observada nas sementes mantidas a 20/30ºC.This study was carried out with the aimed to identify the germination phases of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seeds under different temperatures. Thus, the work

  9. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Published in 2006, City of Safford.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other...

  10. Estudo fitoquímico e atividades leishmanicida, anticolinestarásica e antioxidante de extratos de Annona glabra L. (araticum panã

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    Antonio Adailson de Sousa Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as principais classes de compostos químicos presentes em Annona grabra L. (Araticum panã, e avaliar o seu potencial biológico analisando suas atividades antioxidante, antiacetilcolinesterase e leishmanicida. Para tanto, a entrecasca e sementes foram submetidas à extração em aparelho de soxhlet com os solventes orgânicos hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e metanol, obtendo-se os respectivos extratos. Com os extratos foram realizados testes de prospecção fitoquímica, determinação da atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição do radical livre DPPH e inibição da acetilcolinesterase em ensaio de cromatografia em camada delgada. Os testes de atividade leishmanicida in vitro em formas promastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi foram realizados em placa de 96 poços em aparelho ELISA. Os extratos foram testados a 100 μg/ mL. Os testes fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de esteroides, triterpenos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e saponinas. Todos os extratos apresentaram inibição da acetilcolinesterase e os extratos hexânicos de ambas partes mostraram maior percentual de inibição de L. infantum chagasi. Nestes extratos, compostos apolares como esteroides e triterpenos podem contribuir para a atividade leishmanicida. Os extratos de melhor atividade antioxidante foram o acetato de etila e metanólico da entrecasca e metanólico das sementes que correspondem aos que contem compostos fenólicos. Conclui-se que A. glabra constitui uma fonte potencial de agentes leishmanicida com possível mecanismo de ação pela inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase das membranas da L. infantum chagasi, causador da leishmaniose visceral.Phytochemical study and leishmanicidal, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Annona glabra L. (araticum panã extracts ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the main types of chemical constituents present in Annona grabra L. (araticum pan

  11. Morphological changes in the midgut of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae following exposure to an Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Pinheiro, D O; Serrão, J E; Pereira, M J B

    2012-08-01

    Bioinsecticides are important in the control of disease vectors, but data regarding their physiological effects on target insects are incomplete. This study describes morphological changes that occur in the midgut of third instar Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) following treatment with a methanolic extract of Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae). Dissected midguts were subdivided into anterior and posterior regions and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Insects exposed to the extract displayed intense, destructive cytoplasmic vacuolization in columnar and regenerative midgut cells. The apical surfaces of columnar cells exhibited cytoplasmic protrusions oriented toward the lumen, suggesting that these cells could be involved in apocrine secretory processes and/or apoptosis. We report that A. coriacea extracts induced morphological alterations in the midgut of A. aegypti midgut larvae, supporting the use of plant extracts for control of the dengue vector.

  12. Isolation of Montecristin, a Key Metabolite in Biogenesis of Acetogenins from Annona muricata and Its Structure Elucidation by Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleye, C.; Laurens, A.; Hocquemiller, R.; Cavé, A.; Laprévote, O.; Serani, L.

    1997-02-01

    During the course of our continuing search for acetogenins from Annonaceae, a new metabolite, montecristin, possibly involved in the biogenesis of acetogenins, was isolated from the roots of Annona muricata. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of UV, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and mass spectrometry. The identification of the main stuctural features of montecristin (1) was obtained from the NMR spectra whereas their locations on the alkyl chain were evidenced by using mass spectrometry. The attribution of each carbon and location of substituents on the alkyl chain of this fatty acid gamma-lactone was evidenced by using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and high-energy collisional activation of [M + Li](+) lithium complexes. Finally, the structure determination of montecristin was strengthened by epoxidation and transformation leading to a known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin.

  13. CONTROLE DE Cerconota anonella (SEPP. (LEP.: OECOPHORIDAE E DE Bephratelloides pomorum (FAB. (HYM.: EURYTOMIDAE EM FRUTOS DE GRAVIOLA (Annona muricata L.

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    MICHELETTI SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado em Maceió, Estado de Alagoas, Brasil, para avaliar os controles químico e mecânico de Cerconota anonella (Sepp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae e de Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, as pragas-chave da gravioleira, Annona muricata L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 9 tratamentos e 20 repetições. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis nos frutos: números de orifícios causados pelas pragas, peso, comprimento e diâmetro. Em cada tratamento, observaram-se a percentagem de frutos colhidos e os custos unitários. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o saco plástico comum e com o saco plástico perfurado.

  14. Exigências térmicas e estimativa do número de gerações da broca-do-fruto Annona (Cerconota anonella Thermal requirements and estimate of the Annona fruit borer (Cerconota anonella generations number

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    Mônica Josene Barbosa Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cerconota anonella é a principal praga das Annonaceae em toda região Neotropical. Os prejuízos causados pela lagarta, podem reduzir de 60 a 100% da produção de frutos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia da broca-do-fruto Cerconota anonella em diferentes temperaturas, determinar suas exigências térmicas e estimar o número de gerações para os municípios produtores do estado de São Paulo. Para determinar a duração, viabilidade e exigências térmicas criaram-se insetos em frutos de pinha, em diferentes temperaturas (18, 21, 25, 28, 30 e 32°C, umidade relativa 90,0±5,0 % e fotoperíodo de 14 horas. A duração das fases de desenvolvimento e do ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi afetada pela temperatura, tendo sido maior nas temperaturas mais baixas; a viabilidade foi maior na faixa térmica de 21 a 30°C. O limiar térmico inferior de desenvolvimento (Tb e a constante térmica (K para as fases de ovo, lagarta, pupa e ciclo de vida foram de 10,20°C e 83,33GD; 11,72°C e de 249,71GD; 8,69°C e 161,33GD; 11,05°C e 478,14GD, respectivamente. Com base nas normais climáticas, o número de gerações anuais de C. anonella variou de 9 a 10 e de 7 a 8 se considerar apenas a época de frutificação. Esses resultados demonstram o alto potencial de infestação desta praga no campo.Cerconota anonella is the most important pest of the Annonaceae in the Neotropical region. Larval damage can result in 60 to 100% losses in fruit production. The objectives of this research were to study the biology of the Annona fruit borer C. anonella in different temperatures, to determine their thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations to the cities producers of Sao Paulo state. To determine the duration, viability and thermal requirements insects were reared in sugar apple, at different temperatures (18, 21, 25, 28, 30 and 32°C, relative humidity and 90.0±5.0 photoperiod of 14 hours. The duration of the stages development

  15. Caracterização de plantas e de frutos de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart. nativos no Cerrado Matogrossense

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    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae é uma frutífera nativa do cerrado brasileiro que necessita de estudos visando à geração de dados para subsidiar pesquisas relativas à sua domesticação. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar uma população de araticunzeiro em relação ao diâmetro do caule e altura das plantas, à produção e às características físicas e químicas de frutos. Nas plantas, mensuraram-se diâmetro do caule, altura e produção de frutos. Nos frutos, analisaram-se os diâmetros longitudinal (DL e transversal (DT, a relação DL/DT, as massas do fruto, da casca, da semente e da polpa, e calculou-se o rendimento de polpa. Na polpa, efetuaram-se as determinações de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT, pH e umidade. As árvores possuem diâmetro do caule de 10,4±3,1 cm e altura de 3,7±0,7m com produção média de 6,0±3,6 frutos por planta. Em média, os frutos possuem DL de 14,2±1,4, DT de 15,2±2,2 e relação DL/DT de 0,9±0,1; possuem massa média de 1.565,5±508,5g, tendo as massas da casca, das sementes e da polpa médias de 662,2±198,2g, 179,8±66,2g e 723,5±276,7g, respectivamente, com rendimento médio de polpa igual a 45,9±4,7% do fruto. Na polpa, constataram-se médias de SS de 17,60±1,86 ºBrix, AT de 0,37±0,11% de ácido málico, relação SS/AT de 52,23±17,64, pH de 4,45±0,23 e umidade média igual a 74,3±2,86%. O araticunzeiro possui características físicas e químicas que o tornam uma alternativa para a fruticultura nativa brasileira.

  16. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p<0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p<0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM SEEDLINGS IN SUBSTRATA WITH SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM EM SUBSTRATOS COM CINZA DE BAGAÇO DE CANA

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    Andréia Luiza Salgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of five growing media, in different proportions of subsoil, limestone, and sugar cane bagasse ash, in the height, stem diameter, and fresh and dry weight of the aerial part and roots of araticum seedlings (Annona crassiflora Mart. was analyzed. The five growing media were

  18. Germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' submetidas a tratamentos com ácido Giberélico (GA3 e ethephon Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon

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    Marcos Campos de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3, do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. , cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela. As concentrações de GA3 empregadas foram: 0; 250; 500; 750 e 1.000 mg L-1 i.a.e de ethephon: 0; 25; 50; 75 e 100 mg L-1 i.a.. Os tratamentos com os reguladores vegetais foram aplicados na semente por imersão das mesmas nas soluções de GA3 e ethephon por período de 36 horas. As sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel germitest e levadas à câmara de germinação onde permaneceram no escuro, com temperatura alternada entre 20ºC por 8 horas e 30ºC por 16 horas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentagem, tempo e índice de velocidade de germinação, percentagem de plântulas normais e percentagem de sementes dormentes. Existe interação da ação dos reguladores vegetais estudados no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia, o que permite concluir que a percentagem de germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' é aumentada com o emprego de 778 mg L-1 de GA3, enquanto a associação entre elevadas concentrações de GA3 e 75 a 100 mg L-1 de ethephon incrementam o índice de velocidade de germinação e a percentagem de plântulas normais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon, besides the interaction of both plant growth regulators, on the germinative process of atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill. X A. squamosa L., cultivar 'Gefner'. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5

  19. Uso de ácido giberélico em sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L. visando à produção de mudas em diferentes embalagens Giberellic acid use on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds aiming seedling production in different packs

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    GISELA FERREIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no laboratório de sementes e casa de vegetação da UNIOESTE -- Câmpus de Marechal Cândido Rondon -- PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3 na germinação de sementes e na emergência de plântulas de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L., em diferentes recipientes, visando à produção de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela embebição das sementes em sete concentrações de ácido giberélico (0; 50; 100; 250; 500; 750 e 1000 mg.L-1, por 5 horas, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. No campo, os tratamentos foram constituídos das sete concentrações de GA3 e dois tipos de embalagens (bandejas de isopor e sacolas de polietileno, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. As avaliações do laboratório constaram de porcentagem total de sementes germinadas, dormentes e mortas; porcentagem total de plântulas normais e anormais, e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e do campo, pela porcentagem total de plântulas emergidas; índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas (IVE; altura de plântulas e número de folhas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Verificou-se que o GA3 promoveu o incremento na germinação de sementes de Annona squamosa e que as sacolas de polietileno foram mais adequadas do que as bandejas no desenvolvimento das plântulas na fase inicial.The objetive of this experiment, was to evaluate the effect of giberellic acid (GA3 concentrations, on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds germination and seedlings emergence. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. The treatments were composed of seeds soaking in 7 GA3 concentrations (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1.000 mg.L-1 of GA3, for 5 hours, with 4 replicates of 25 seeds, and kept at

  20. Evaluación de medios de cultivo para la producción in vitro de Annona muricata mediante la técnica de microinjertación seriada Evaluation of culture media for in vitro production of Annona muricata using the serial grafting technique

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    Aleyda Maritza Acosta Rangel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata (guanábana es una planta cultivada por la calidad nutritiva y organoléptica de su fruto. No obstante el carácter recalcitrante de las yemas vegetativas de esta especie ha dificultado la micropropagación de material seleccionado por su alta productividad. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar medios de cultivo combinados con la técnica de microinjertación seriada para promover el desarrollo vegetal in vitro de A. muricata. En medios de cultivo específicos para cada material vegetal, se sembraron semillas y estacas para la formación de microinjertos; luego se aplicaron tres tratamientos de microinjertación (M1, M2, M3 y un control, donde el número indica las veces en las que una estaca es injertada en un portainjerto. M1 es una microinjertación monofásica o estacas microinjertadas en un portainjerto. M2 son estacas microinjertadas dos veces, es decir, permanecen en dos portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. M3 son estacas microinjertadas tres veces, es decir, permanecen en tres portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. Las estacas fueron separadas del portainjerto y sembradas en medio de cultivo para evaluar su revigorización; se realizaron pruebas de Anova y Freedman para los datos paramétricos y no paramétricos, respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la microinjertación monofásica es suficiente para estimular el desarrollo in vitro de material adulto de A. muricata; sin embargo, en los tratamientos no se logró el desarrollo de un sistema radicular adecuado.Annona muricata is grown due to the nutritional and organoleptic quality of the fruit. The recalcitrance of the vegetative buds of this species has hindered the micropropagation of selected material according to its high productivity. This research aimed to evaluate culture medium combined with the technique of serial micrografting to promote in vitro plant growth of Annona muricata. In

  1. 圆滑番荔枝的化学成分研究%Study on the Chemical Constiuents of Annona glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽娟; 韩英; 孟正木; 夏超; 张久红

    2001-01-01

    目的:从番荔枝科植物圆滑番荔枝(AnnonaglabraLinn.)树皮提取分离活性成分。方法:95%乙醇提取、溶剂萃取、硅胶柱层析、重结晶等。结果:分离到6个化合物,其中5个为贝壳杉烷型二萜,1个生物碱。5个二萜Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ分别为(-)-kaur-16-en-19-oicacid、16α-hydro-19-acetoxy-ent-kauran-17-oic acid、(-)-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid、ent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oicacid、19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid,生物碱为oxoglaucine。结论:萜Ⅳent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oicacid、萜Ⅴ19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid和生物碱oxoglaucine为首次从该植物中分得。%AIM:Bio-active constituents were expected to be obtained fromAnnona glabra Linn. METHODS: It is extracted with 95% alcohol, distributed by different solvents, isolated via column chromatography on silica gel and purified by crystallization et al. RESULTS: Six compounds were isolated from Annona glabra Linn. Among them, five compounds were kaurane diterpenoids and one compound was alkaloid. On the basis of the preperties and spectral analysis, their structures were identified as terpeneⅠ(-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid、terpeneⅡ16α-hydro-19-acetoxy-ent-kauran-17-oic acid、terpeneⅢ(-)-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid、terpene Ⅳent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oic acid、terpeneⅤ 19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid and alkaloid oxoglaucine. CONCLUSION: Among them, ent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oic acid、19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid and oxoglaucine were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  2. Fitonematóides associados à gravioleira (Annona muricata no sul da Bahia Phytonematodes associated to soursop tree (Aannona muricata in the south of Bahia

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    Arlete Silveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematóides têm sido reportados, em alguns Estados do Brasil, causando danos à gravioleira (Annona muricata L.. No sul da Bahia, o cultivo da graviola é bastante recente; portanto, há carência de informações sobre os problemas fitossanitários. O presente estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento dos fitonematóides associados a gravioleiras dos municípios de Una e Ilhéus, sul da Bahia (BA. Subamostras de solo e raízes de 10 diferentes plantas foram coletadas, ao acaso, e misturadas para formar uma amostra composta representativa de cada pomar. As análises nematológicas foram realizadas nos Laboratórios de Fitopatologia e Nematologia da Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC, Ilhéus-BA, e Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV, Viçosa-MG. Os nematóides encontrados associados à gravioleira foram: Aphelenchoides sp., Aphelenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Mesocriconema sp., Rotylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus sp. e Tylenchus sp. Futuramente, serão conduzidos estudos para avaliar a patogenicidade desses nematóides à gravioleira.Nematodes have been reported in some States of Brazil causing damage to soursop (Annona muricata L.. In the South of Bahia, the soursop growing is very recent; therefore there is a lack of information regarding its phytosanitary problems. The present study aimed the survey of plant nematodes associated with soursop in the municipal district of Una and Ilhéus, South of Bahia (BA. Soil and root subsamples from 10 distinct soursop plants were randomly collected and mixed to form a representative composite sample of each orchard. The nematodes analyses were carried out in the Laboratories of Plant Pathology and Nematology of the University of Ilhéus, BA (UESC and Viçosa, MG (UFV. The nematodes found associated with soursop were: Aphelenchoides sp., Aphelenchus sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Mesocriconema spp., Rotylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus sp. and Tylenchus sp. Future studies will be conducted to evaluate the

  3. Influência de substratos na formação de porta-enxerto de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. Influence of substrates on soursop rootstock production

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    Jacson Rondinelli da Silva Negreiros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de um substrato para cada tipo de planta é um fato importante que determina condições adequadas para a germinação e bom desenvolvimento das mudas. Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos na formação de porta-enxerto de gravioleira (Annona muricata L., foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. As mudas foram formadas em sacolas de polietileno, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos correspondem aos substratos: Plantmax®; Substrato-A (esterco de curral, solo, areia e vermiculita na proporção de 2:1:1:1 v/v; Substrato-B (Plantmax®; solo, areia e vermiculita - 1:1:1:1 v/v e Substrato-C (Plantmax®, esterco de curral, solo e areia - 1:1:1:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que, nas condições em que foi desenvolvido este trabalho, o substrato A contendo esterco de curral, solo, areia e vermiculita na proporção de 2:1:1:1 v/v e o C contendo Plantmax®, esterco de curral, solo e areia - 1:1:1:1 v/v são adequados para a formação de mudas de gravioleira.The use of adequate substratum is an important factor to proportion appropriate conditions for germination and good development of seedlings. With the objective of evaluating different substrata for soursop rootstock (Annona muricata L. production, an experiment was done in the Department of Phytotecny of the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The substrate were conditioned in polyethylene bags, in which de seeds were sown. A randomized block experimental design entirely with four treatments, five repetitions and five plants for portion were applied. The evaluated substrate were Plantmax; Substratum-A (bovine manure, soil, sand and vermiculite in the proportion of 2:1:1:1 v/v; Substratum-B (Plantmax, soil, sand and vermiculite - 1:1:1:1 v/v and Substratum-C (Plantmax

  4. Antibacterial effect (in vitro of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria Efeito antibacteriano (in vitro de Moringa oleifera (moringa e Annona muricata (graviola frente a bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positiva

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    Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes Viera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera and pods of soursop (Annona muricata in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 µL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.Para avaliação do efeito bactericida frente à Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolada de pescados e ambiente aquático e Salmonella Enteretidis, foram testados extratos aquosos e etanólicos de sementes de moringa (Moringa oleifera e casca de graviola (Annona muricata na concentração de 1:5 e 1:10, nos volumes de 50, 100, 150 e 200 µL. Os resultados mostraram efeito antibacteriano (halo de inibição > 13mm dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos de moringa frente a S. aureus, V. cholerae e E. coli isoladas de camarão cinza Litopenaeus vannmaei. A cepa de E. coli isolada do pescado Oreochromis niloticus apresentou sensibilidade frente ao extrato etanólico de moringa. Os extratos aquosos de graviola apresentaram efeito bactericida frente a S. aureus e V. cholerae, entretanto, os extratos etanólicos dessa planta não mostraram atividade antibacteriana.

  5. Bioactive Guided Fractions of Annona reticulata L. bark: Protection against Liver Toxicity and Inflammation through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27445809

  6. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

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    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  7. 圆滑番荔枝种子化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from the seeds of Annona glabra (annonaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰; 朱久香; 余竞光; 余冬蕾; 李德宇; 周立东

    2003-01-01

    目的研究圆滑番荔枝(Annona glabra)种子的抗肿瘤活性成分.方法利用色谱技术分离纯化, 根据化合物的理化性质和光谱数据鉴定结构.结果从己烷提取物鉴定18个化合物,其中14个为番荔素:glabrencin A (1), bullatencin (2), glabrencin B (3), uvariamicin-I (4), uvariamicin-II (5), uvariamicin-III (6), reticulatain-1 (7), desacetyluvaricin (8), 4-deoxyasimicin (9), asimicin (10), bullatacin (11), squamocin (12), motrilin (13), cherimolin-2 (14);豆甾醇(stigmasterol,15)及脂肪酸酰胺混合物:棕榈酸酰胺(palmitic amide,16),硬脂酸酰胺(stearic amide,17)和花生酸酰胺(arachidic amide,18).结论 glabrencin A (1),glabrencin B (3)为新番荔素;2,4~7,9,11,13,16~18是首次从该植物中分离得到.

  8. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  9. Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Rajkumar, V; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have been the target for cancer therapy for several years but there is still a dearth of information on potent compounds that may protect normal cells and selectively destroy cancerous cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on WRL-68 (normal human hepatic cells), MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte cells) lines by XTT assay. Prior to cytotoxicity testing, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detecting the presence of compounds with therapeutic potential. Their relative antioxidant properties were evaluated using the reducing power and DPPH* radical scavenging assay. Since most of the observed chemo-preventive potential invariably correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the extract, their levels were quantified and identified by HPLC analysis. Correlation studies indicated a strong and significant (PAnnona muricata. Isolation of the active metabolites from the extract is in prospect.

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Anti carcinogenic Properties of Combination Extract of Soursop (Annona Muricata Linn) and Pearl Grass (Hedyotis Corymbosa (L.) Lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soursop (Annona muricata) has numerous traditional medicinal uses in South American and the Caribbean, and it has become a popular nutritional medicinal supplement. In the other hand, pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.) has long been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory. In this study, soursop and pearl grass combined to obtain extracts that have anticancer effects and anti-inflammatory effects, as most patients with cancer, particularly advanced breast cancer often experience inflammation. Two types of combination of extracts made by different solvents ie ethanol extract combination (CSEPE) and water extract combination (CSWPW) have been used. The anti carcinogenic properties of both extracts have been studied by using MTT assay. The anti oxidative activity of the extracts which could contribute to their cytotoxic properties was also studied by using DPPH assay. The results showed that the combination extract of ethanolic extract of soursop and pearl grass (CSEPE) has potential anti carcinogenic properties and the properties was decreased during the increment of incubation time but increased with the increasement of doses. However, the combination extract of water extract of soursop and pearl grass (CSWPW) did not displayed the potential anti carcinogenic properties. The anti carcinogenic properties of CSEPE could be due to their high antioxidant activities. (author)

  11. Nymphicidal effect of vegetal extracts of Annona mucosa and Anonna crassiflora (Magnoliales, Annonaceae against rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the chloroform-methanol nymphicidal action of extracts of Annona mucosa leaves and seeds and of A. crassiflora seeds on second instar nymphs of rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris. For each extract the concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, 8.0%, and two control treatments (water and Tween80® were used. The results show that the seed extracts of A. mucosa and A. crassiflora have insecticidal activity against the T. limbativentris nymphs with statistical significance for all concentrations when compared with controls. The seed extract of A. mucosa showed the higher toxicity with greater than 75% mortality at a concentration of 1.0% in the first 24 h after application. The leaf extract of A. mucosa presented the lowest toxicity with no more than 40% mortality. The seed extract of A. crassiflora showed intermediate toxicity among all the tested extracts, and the nymph's mortality exceeded 80% for the highest concentration after 120 h of application. Considering these results, we were able to observe that the seeds extract of A. mucosa may be an alternative for the control of bed bug nymphs T. limbatriventris, especially for small producers.

  12. Caracterización fisicoquímica y comportamiento térmico del aceite de “almendra” de guanábana (Annona muricata, L)

    OpenAIRE

    Durán-de-Bazúa, M. C.; Hernández-Medel, M. R.; Amador-Hernández, C.; J. A. Solís-Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata) seed “almond” oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic...

  13. Caracterización fisiológica, físico-química, reológica, nutraceútica, estructural y sensorial de la guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita)

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio

    2009-01-01

    Se utilizaron frutas de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita) obtenidas de huertos establecidos en la zona agroindustrial del Valle del Cauca, (Colombia), sector rural del municipio de Pradera, Agrícola Varahonda, Finca la Española, localizada a 1.070 msnm. 23°C de temperatura promedio, 1.225 mm de precipitación promedio anual, radiación solar media de 4,8 W•m-2•día y humedad relativa promedio de 83%. Las frutas fueron colectadas en igual grado de madurez, correspondiente a 16 semanas lueg...

  14. A influência da cobertura morta sobre características físicas e químicas de frutos da pinha (Annona squamosa L. The influence of mulching in relation to physical and chemical characteristics of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available De forma geral a aplicação de resíduos vegetais ao solo tem efeitos benéficos sobre os nutrientes do solo, sob as suas condições físicas, sob a atividade biológica e sobre a performance das culturas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante um ciclo produtivo, o efeito da cobertura de bagaço de cana, casca de café e palha de Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L., quanto ao seu efeito sobre características físicas e químicas do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de cinco repetições, contendo duas plantas por parcela. Foram analisados: massa do fruto, massa da casca, massa das sementes e o número de sementes por fruto, o teor de sólidos solúveis e o pH da polpa. De modo geral, a presença da cobertura morta proporcionou incremento de massa aos frutos, o que promove aumento de receita, uma vez que, quanto maior for o fruto, melhor será seu preço. Não ocorreu aumento do pH da polpa, e o tratamento com casca de café proporcionou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Quanto às demais características, não foram encontradas diferenças.The application of vegetal wastes to soil have a beneficial effects on soil nutrient, physical conditions, biological activities and on the culture performance, the main objective of this study was to evaluate three kinds of vegetable byproducts: sugar cane bagasse, coffee chaff, and Buffel straw, regarding to the effect on the physical and chemical characteristics of custard apple (Annona squamosa L..The experimental design used completely randomid plots with five repplications, and two plants per plot. The total fruit mass, the peel mass, the seed mass per fruit were evaluated. The pulp level of soluble solids was measured, as well as its pH. The presence of this mulching provided an increase in the fruit mass, thereby, increasing the commercial profit, as larger the fruit is, the greater the value per weight

  15. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control. PMID:26623434

  16. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes. PMID:26410042

  17. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  18. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes.

  19. Propagación clonal de guanábana (Annona muricata utilizando el sistema de ventilación forzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Palomino Diana Marcela

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la construcción e implementación de un sistema que ventila mecánicamente los vasos de cultivo in vitro. El sistema forza un flujo de aire a través de filtros que lo descontaminan y luego lo hacen pasar, ya estéril a los vasos de cultivo limpiando la atmósfera del vaso del exceso de gases
    acumulados en ella. Se cultivaron in vitro segmentos nodales de Annona muricata bajo nueve tratamientos diferentes variando las concentraciones y combinaciones de BA y ANA, aunque se logró en todos los casos la inducción de brotes y la elongación de ellos se determinó que el medio más adecuado fue el que contenía BA (2 mg/l y ANA (0,3 mg/l sobre el medio básico de Murashige y Skoog (M&S. La técnica utilizada de cultivo in vitro complementada con el sistema de ventilación forzada ha permitido desarrollar un protocolo con el cual se logra la propagación clonal de A. muricata asegurando la preservación de los genotipos iniciales y una inducción de brotes mas eficiente que proporciona un mayor rendimiento de los explantes y un mejor desarrollo fisiológico de los mismos. El experimento requirió de la implementación del sistema
    de ventilación, de la evaluación de este con respecto al cultivo sellado in vitro de guanábana y del desarrollo de un protocolo que facilita su utilización en experimentos posteriores.

  20. Two cold-induced family 19 glycosyl hydrolases from cherimoya (Annona cherimola) fruit: an antifungal chitinase and a cold-adapted chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Oscar; Sanchez-Ballesta, María T; Merodio, Carmen; Escribano, María I

    2013-11-01

    Two cold-induced chitinases were isolated and purified from the mesocarp cherimoyas (Annona cherimola Mill.) and they were characterised as acidic endochitinases with a Mr of 24.79 and 47.77kDa (AChi24 and AChi48, respectively), both family 19 glycosyl hydrolases. These purified chitinases differed significantly in their biochemical and biophysical properties. While both enzymes had similar optimal acidic pH values, AChi24 was enzymatically active and stable at alkaline pH values, as well as displaying an optimal temperature of 45°C and moderate thermostability. Kinetic studies revealed a great catalytic efficiency of AChi24 for oligomeric and polymeric substrates. Conversely, AChi48 hydrolysis showed positive co-operativity that was associated to a mixture of different functional oligomeric states through weak transient protein interactions. The rise in the AChi48 kcat at increasing enzyme concentrations provided evidence of its oligomerisation. AChi48 chitinase was active and stable in a broad acidic pH range, and while it was relatively labile as temperatures increased, with an optimal temperature of 35°C, it retained about 50% of its maximal activity from 5 to 50°C. Thermodynamic characterisation reflected the high kcat of AChi48 and the remarkably lower ΔH(‡), ΔS(‡) and ΔG(‡) values at 5°C compared to AChi24, indicating that the hydrolytic activity of AChi48 was less thermodependent. In vitro functional studies revealed that AChi24 had a strong antifungal defence potential against Botrytis cinerea, whereas they displayed no cryoprotective or antifreeze activity. Hence, based on biochemical, thermodynamic and functional data, this study demonstrates that two acidic endochitinases are induced at low temperatures in a subtropical fruit, and that one of them acts in an oligomeric cold-adapted manner. PMID:23890591

  1. Actividad citotóxica in Vitro de la mezcla de Annona muricata y Krameria Lappacea sobre células cancerosas de glándula mamaria, pulmón y sistema nervioso central

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    Jorge Arroyo A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la actividad citotóxica de las fracciones procedentes de la combinación 1:1 del extracto etanólico de hojas de Annona muricata L (guanábana y el extracto acuoso atomizado de la raíz de Krameria lappacea (ratania en cultivos de líneas celulares cancerosas de glándula mamaria (MCF-7, pulmón (H-460 y Sistema nervioso central (SF-268. Materiales y métodos: Para el fraccionamiento de la mezcla 1:1 de Annona mas Krameria se preparó una columna cromatográfica de 50 cm de longitud empleando diclorometano, diclorometano: acetato de etilo y CHCl 3:MeOH como sistemas de elusión de polaridad creciente, obteniéndose 186 fracciones. Se evaluaron las fracciones 2 a 83 en cultivo de células cancerosas de glándula mamaria (MCF-7, de pulmón (H-460 y del sistema Nervioso central (SF-268. Todas las fracciones fueron ensayadas en duplicado. Aquellas fracciones que presenta-ron un porcentaje de crecimiento de células cancerosas (%G <50% en alguna de las tres líneas celulares fueron ensayadas nuevamente a cinco concentraciones, para determinar finalmente la concentración a la cual se inhibe el 50% del crecimiento de las células cancerosas (GI 50. Se consideraron activas aquellas fracciones con una GI 50 <10 µg/mL. Resultados: Las fracciones 7 a 17 procedentes de la asociación de los dos productos naturales frente a los cultivos de las líneas celulares tumorales MCF-7, H-460 y SF-268 mostraron una GI 50 de 1,6, 1,4 y 1,4 µg/mL respectivamente. Conclusiones: Las fracciones 7 a 17 procedentes de la asociación de Annona más Krameria mostraron acción citotóxica in vitro frente al cultivo de células cancerosas de glándula mamaria, pulmón y del sistema nervioso central.

  2. Efeito de diferentes meios nutritivos e fitorreguladores visando à otimização da calogênese de Annona mucosa (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.S. Barboza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Annona mucosa é uma árvore frutífera da família Annonaceae, produtora de importantes metabólitos secundários de interesse medicinal, como lignanas, acetogeninas e alcaloides. A cultura in vitro de calos representa um importante recurso para a produção contínua de metabólitos, viabilizando a conservação da biodiversidade química e a obtenção controlada de material para estudos biológicos e fitoquímicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a produção de calos friáveis de A. mucosa, avaliando o efeito de diferentes meios nutritivos e fitorreguladores. Segmentos de folha e de hipocótilo de plântulas germinadas in vivo foram utilizados como explantes e inoculados nos meios de cultura MS, WPM e B5 suplementados com picloram (2 - 20µM isolado ou combinado com as citocininas BAP, KIN ou TDZ (0,2 - 1µM. As culturas foram mantidas a 26±2ºC, no escuro, com subcultivos mensais. A produção de calos foi avaliada por aferição do peso dos calos, após 90 dias. Em todos os tratamentos na presença da auxina picloram, o cultivo de hipocótilos resultou em maior porcentagem de formação de calos, sobretudo no meio de cultura WPM. A associação com TDZ produziu massa calogênica friável altamente proliferativa e ausente de oxidação, alcançando valores superiores àqueles obtidos em trabalhos prévios com a espécie. Os resultados viabilizam o uso do material em suspensões celulares e posterior caracterização fitoquímica para a exploração da produção in vitro de metabólitos da espécie.

  3. Controle de Cerconota anonella (Sepp. (Lep.: Oecophoridae e de Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab. (Hym.: Eurytomidae em frutos de pinha (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letice Souza da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pinha, Annona squamosa L., é uma frutífera tropical da família anonácea, cujo mercado tem-se ampliado a cada ano, sendo cultivada expressivamente na região Nordeste, onde pequenos produtores a têm como principal fonte de renda. Entretanto, problemas causados pelas duas pragas-chave, Cerconota anonella (Sepp.,1830 (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae e Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab.,1808 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, têm limitado a produção e, consequentemente, a comercialização dos frutos. No intuito de minimizar essas perdas, um experimento de campo foi realizado em Maceió, Estado de Alagoas, Brasil, para avaliar diferentes formas de controle para estas pragas. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cada repetição correspondeu a quatro frutos, totalizando dezesseis frutos por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram: frutos sem proteção (testemunha; saco de papel branco impermeável aberto; saco plástico microperfurado; saco de TNT (tecido não tecido branco aberto; saco de TNT vermelho aberto; gaiola de arame revestida com tecido voile; inseticida Profenofós (12g/L-1 + Cipermetrina (1,2 g/L-1 e caulim (10 g/ 100 mL-1. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis nos frutos: números de orifícios causados pelas pragas, peso, comprimento, diâmetro, percentagem de frutos colhidos e o custo do tratamento por unidade. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o saco de TNT vermelho aberto, obtendo-se 87,50% de frutos comercializáveis. O saco plástico microperfurado teve o menor custo, porém sua fragilidade impede a reutilização nas safras seguintes. Assim, indica-se o saco de TNT vermelho aberto como o mais econômico e eficiente.

  4. Biología floral y polinización artificial del guanábano Annona muricata L. en condiciones del Valle del Cauca, Colombia

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    Escobar T. William

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la flor es hermafrodita presenta protoginia y existe un período de 36 a 48 horas durante el cual pueden encontrarse maduros ambos órganos sexuales, la disposición apretada del cuerpo de estambres, aún estando dehiscentes, no permite disponibilidad de polen. Los insectos asociados con las flores no tienen influencia en el proceso de polinización. Se presume que los frutos se forman a partir de autopolinización (autogamia que ocurre al retener los estambres desprendidos algunos pétalos interiores. En razón a que esta forma es esporádica ya que el tiempo desde la polinización de los estigmas hasta su desprendimiento en muchos casos puede no ser suficiente para que ocurra la fecundación, se presenta bajo prendimiento o cuajamiento de las flores. La polinización manual de las flores aumenta la producción. El tamaño y la velocidad del crecimiento de los frutos están en relación directa con el número de pistilos fecundados.A field study was conducted on floral biology and artificial pollination in soursop (Annona muricata L.. Although flowers are apparently adapted to cross pollination despite being anatomically hermaphrodite, the bunched arrangement of stamens does not results in available fertil pollen. There is a period from 36 to 48 hours in which both sexual organs are simultaneusly, however guanabana flowers functions as physiologically protogineous. None insect genera has any influency on poIlination. It is assumed that generally fruits are formed by autogamy after stigmas get in contact with stamens retained by lower petals. Because this way of pollination is rather sporadic and sometimes stigmas shed after pollination but before fertilization, only a low number of fruit setting is observed as many flowers fall out due to the low number that get fertilized. Manual poIlination resulted in an effective way to increase production. The size and growth rate of these fruits are correlated with the number of pistiIs get

  5. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (p<0.05) CAT, GSH, SOD, GSH-Px activities, and HDL levels. AME-treated Groups C and D rats showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in elevated blood glucose, ROS, TBARS, TC, TG and LDL. Furthermore, AME treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) antioxidant enzymes' activities, as well as serum insulin levels. The findings of this laboratory animal study

  6. Caracterización fisicoquímica y comportamiento térmico del aceite de “almendra” de guanábana (Annona muricata, L

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    Durán-de-Bazúa, M. C.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata seed “almond” oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base. The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 °C and ends at -79.0 °C with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to +16.9 °C, with a maximum peak at -15 °C and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 °C. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N2 atmosphere starts at 380 °C and ends at 442 °C, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 °C. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 °C and concludes at 567 °C. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils.En esta investigación se estudiaron las propiedades físicoquímicas y el comportamiento térmico, mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido y termogravimetría, del aceite extraído de las “almendras” de las semillas de guanábana (Annona muricata, L. Los resultados mostraron que las almendras de las semillas de guanábana contienen 2.5% de cenizas, 17.9% de fibra cruda, 15.7% de proteínas, 26.0% de carbohidratos y 37.7% de aceite (base seca. El aceite de las almendras de guanábana mostró una composición con predominio de

  7. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, J; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2012-09-01

    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angiosperms and makes Annona cherimola an interesting model to study the effect of varying environmental conditions on subsequent pollen performance during the final stages of pollen development. In this work, we study the influence of changes in temperature and humidity during the final stages of pollen development on subsequent pollen performance, evaluating pollen germination, presence of carbohydrates, number of nuclei, and water content. At 25 °C, which is the average field temperature during the flowering period of this species, pollen had a viability of 60-70 %, starch hydrolyzed just prior to shedding, and pollen mitosis II was taking place, resulting in a mixture of bi- and tricellular pollen. This activity may be related to the pollen retaining 70 % water content at shedding. Temperatures above 30 °C resulted in a decrease in pollen germination, whereas lower temperatures did not have a clear influence on pollen germination, although they did have a clear effect on starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, slightly higher dehydration accelerated mitosis II, whereas strong dehydration arrested starch hydrolysis and reduced pollen germination. These results show a significant influence of environmental conditions on myriad pollen characteristics during the final stages of pollen development modifying subsequent pollen behavior and contributing to our understanding of the variability observed in pollen tube performance.

  8. Estructura y diversidad genética de Annona squamosa en huertos familiares mayas de la península de Yucatán Genetic structure and diversity of Annona squamosa in Mayan homegardens of Yucatán Peninsula

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    Carmen Salazar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los huertos familiares del sureste de México son sitios donde se ha domesticado y conservado una alta diversidad de especies y variedades, lo cual ha generado cambios en su variabilidad genética. Con el fin de conocer la relación entre la actividad económica en una región y la distribución de la variabilidad genética de Annona squamosa L. —uno de los árboles frutales más representativos en estos sistemas—, se analizaron árboles en huertos de los estados de Yucatán y Quintana Roo mediante el uso de marcadores isoenzimáticos. El estudio se llevo a cabo en 14 poblaciones de 5 regiones que diferían en su principal actividad económica. Los resultados muestran que todos los marcadores fueron polimórficos con 3 o 4 alelos. El número promedio de alelos y de alelos en loci polimórficos fueron altos respecto a otros árboles cultivados, lo que sugiere que los efectos de la deriva génica no han sido importantes. La heterocigosis promedio observada fue de 0.373 ± 0.03 y la esperada de 0.470 ± 0.023. El análisis de la distribución jerárquica de la variación indica que el mayor nivel de variación (85% se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. La variación entre poblaciones de una misma región fue del 12% y menos importante entre regiones, donde fue del 2%, lo que indica que no hay un efecto de las actividades socioeconómicas en la distribución de la variabilidad genética.Many plant and animal species have been domesticated in southeastern Mexican homegardens, resulting in changes in their genetic variability. One of the most representative fruit trees in these systems is Annona squamosa L. We wanted to know if the predominant type of economic activity in a given area affects the distribution of genetic variability in A. squamosa. In order to answer this question, we analyzed 14 populations in 5 different socioeconomic regions in the states of Yucatán and Quintana Roo, using isozyme analysis. All the enzyme markers were

  9. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner submetidas a tratamento lento e rápido com auxinas Rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner cuttings subjected to slow and fast treatment with auxins

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de concentrações de diferentes auxinas no enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner, empregando-se tratamento lento e rápido. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x7 (auxinas x concentrações, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas por parcela, para cada método de aplicação de auxina (lento e rápido. As estacas foram tratadas com os reguladores vegetais, por meio da imersão da base em soluções, contendo IBA, NAA e 2,4-D, durante 24 horas (tratamento lento nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 mg L-1 de cada regulador e 5 segundos (tratamento rápido nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 e 5000 mg L-1 de cada regulador. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas sobreviventes, enraizadas, sobreviventes com calos, comprimento de raiz por estaca, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotação e com folhas remanescentes e brotação. Para o enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira cv. 'Gefner' conclui-se que, o tratamento lento, com 200 mg L-1 de NAA, proporcionou incremento ao processo, da mesma forma que o tratamento rápido com IBA, independente da concentração.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different auxin concentrations in the rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner stacks, employing slow and fast treatments. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in 3x7 factorial arrangement (auxins x concentrations, with 5 replicates of 12 stacks per plot, for each auxin application method (slow and fast. Stacks were treated with plant growth regulators by bottom immersion in a solution containing IBA, NAA and 2,4-D for 24 hours (slow treatment at the following concentrations: 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg L-1 of each growth regulator

  10. Florivory and sex ratio in Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae in the Pantanal at Nhecolândia, southwestern Brazil Florivoria e razão sexual em Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Brazil

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    Hipólito Ferreira Paulino Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona dioica St. Hil. is a species that grows to approximately 2 m tall and is very widespread in the cerrados. Individual plants of this androdioecious species produce numerous hermaphroditic or male flowers, but few fruits. The aim of this study was to determine the sex ratio among the plants and to compare the frequency of herbivory between male and hermaphroditic flowers. The fieldwork was done by studying flowering plants in grasslands used as pasture for cattle at Fazenda Nhumirim. One hundred and forty-seven male plants and 71 hermaphroditic plants were examined and produced a total of 194 and 94 flowers, respectively, during the study period. The male:hermaphrodite sex ratio was 2.07:1, and was similar to the male:hermaphrodite flower ratio of 2.06:1. The frequency of florivory rate in hermaphrodites was significantly higher than in male flowers (33.0%, n = 31, and 25.7%, n = 50, respectively; G = 14.83; d.f. = 1; p Annona dioica é uma espécie arbustiva de até dois metros de altura, amplamente distribuída nos cerrados. Esta espécie é conhecida por oferecer muitas flores, mas produzir poucos frutos. Enquadra-se como androdióica, possuindo indivíduos machos e hermafroditas na população. O objetivo deste estudo foi registrar a razão sexual e comparar a taxa de florivoria entre flores masculinas e hermafroditas. A coleta de dados ocorreu em campos de pastagem da Fazenda Nhumirim, consistindo na observação de arbustos floridos. Foram registrados 147 indivíduos masculinos e 71 hermafroditas, os quais apresentavam um total de 194 e 94 flores durante o período de estudo, respectivamente. A razão sexual observada foi de 2,07 indivíduos masculinos para cada hermafrodita, bem como 2,06 flores masculinas para cada flor hermafrodita. A taxa de florivoria foi significativamente maior em flores hermafroditas que em masculinas, com 33,0% (n = 31 e 25,7% (n = 50, respectivamente (G = 14,83; 1gl; p < 0,001. A média do peso fresco de 50

  11. Physiological and Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Soursop Fruit (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Caracterización Fisiológica y Físico-Química del Fruto de la Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fruit consumption is increasing around the world, just as its population. The World Health Organization recommends a minimum consumption of fruit 120 kg/person - year. Fruits such as soursop provide nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidants which are vital to human health, as well as bioactive substances such as vitamin C, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids, among others. In this research, soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita fruits were collected at physiological maturity in two production seasons for their physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production and physiological loss of weight and physico-chemical characterization (pulp, seeds and skin yield, total soluble solids (TSS, total acidity, pH and firmness. We found that ethylene production peaked at day 6 after-harvest, scoring 133.2 mL kg-1 h-1. This parameter was found to increase during postharvest, with peaks on days 4 and 6, coinciding with the climacteric peaks of biphasic respiration, the largest of which reached a value of 186.9 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1. This is probably the starter for the cascade of events that feature the ripening process, among which changes in TSS, acidity and fruit firmness were outstandingly visible.Resumen. En el mundo, el consumo de frutas es creciente, al igual que la población. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda un consumo mínimo de 120 kg/persona al año. Frutas como la guanábana aportan nutrientes, fitoquímicos y antioxidantes de vital importancia para la salud humana, además de sustancias bioactivas como vitamina C, flavonoides, antocianinas y carotenoides, entre otros. En la presente investigación, frutos de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, fueron recolectados en estado de madurez fisiológica o de cosecha, en dos épocas de producción, para determinar sus características fisiológicas (tasa de respiración, producción de etileno y pérdida fisiológica de peso, y físico-químicas (rendimiento en pulpa

  12. 77 FR 19610 - Marc Knapp, Inmate #-06450-015, FCI Safford, P.O. Box 9000, Safford, AZ 85548; Order Denying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ...: knowingly and willfully attempting to export from the United States to the Islamic Republic of Iran; ] causing the attempted export to the Islamic Republic of Iran; and causing the attempted supply to the Islamic Republic of Iran, of an F- 5B Tiger II fighter jet and other defense articles without...

  13. Determination of Soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Fruit Volatiles during Ripening by Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectroscopy / Determinación de Compuestos Volátiles en Frutos de Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, d

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    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La guanábana (Annona muricata L. es una frutatropical exótica que se cultiva comercialmente en Colombia. Su condición altamente perecedera justifica los estudios de manejo en poscosecha. Por esta razón, la evaluación de la maduración se hizo en primer lugar, por un sistema de medición de compuestos volátiles conocido como nariz electrónica (NE y por otro lado mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas mediante microextracción en fase sólida del espaciode cabeza (CG-EM/MEFS. El estudio del perfil de sustanciasvolátiles en las frutas es uno de los principales indicadores de los atributos sensoriales que tipifica la calidad organoléptica de los vegetales. La NE se constituye en una alternativa rápida, novedosa, económica y relativamente simple para determinar grupos de sustancias volátiles en frutos de interés comercial, bien sea enteros o en fracciones. En contraste, el uso de laCGEM/MEFS puede verse limitado por su alto costo, no obstante ser una técnica altamente selectiva. Con base en la evaluación de la pulpa realizada con NE fue posible clasificar el estado de madurez de las frutas así: inmaduro, madurez intermedia, maduro y sobremaduro, siendo los sensores de mayor impacto el 2 (reactivo con óxidos de nitrógeno, el 6 (sensible al metano y el 8 (sensiblea alcoholes y compuestos parcialmente aromáticos. Por CG-EM/ MEFS, se logró establecer que durante la etapa de poscosecha, la mayor proporción de compuestos volátiles pertenece al grupo de los ésteres, predominando el Hexanoato de metilo. De manera particular en frutas sobremaduras, la presencia de compuestosalcohólicos, coincide con la evaluación hecha con la NE, lacual mostró sensibilidad a alcoholes y compuestos aromáticos de amplio rango para las frutas evaluadas. El estudio realizado aporta a la caracterización en poscosecha de los volátiles, uno de los principales atributos sensoriales en las frutas tropicales. /As an exotic

  14. Efeito anti-helmíntico dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos da Annona squamosa L. (fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide Ascaridia galli Anthelmintic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Annona squamosa L. (sweetsop on the nematode Ascaridia galli

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    M.Z.L.C.M. Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas são fontes importantes de produtos naturais biologicamente ativos. Dentre as plantas usadas na medicina popular a Anonna squamosa conhecida como fruta-do-conde é citada como tendo várias ações medicinais, dentre elas a atividade inseticida e anti-helmíntica. Dentro desta perspectiva, objetivou-se determinar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos aquosos (EA e etanólicos (EE das folhas da fruta-do-conde sobre o nematóide de aves Ascaridia galli, in vitro e in vivo. No primeiro, os nematóides foram colocados em placa de Petri contendo diferentes concentrações dos extratos e no segundo foram utilizadas seis galinhas poedeiras por grupo, as quais foram administrados10 mL Kg-1 dos extratos. No teste in vitro o EA da A. squamosa nas concentrações 2,4 e 9,6 mg mL-1 foi capaz de matar 63,33% e 53,33% dos nematóides, respectivamente. O EE não produziu efeito significativo. No teste in vivo, o percentual de eliminação do EA foi de 39% e do EE de 20%. Estes dados sugerem que neste caso a substância responsável pela mortalidade dos parasitos esteja em maior concentração na fração aquosa. Desta maneira, acredita-se que o EA de A. squamosa apresenta uma atividade anti-helmíntica potencial sobre o A. galli.Plants are important sources of biologically active natural products. Among the plants used in popular medicine, Annona squamosa, known as sweetsop, is reported to have several medicinal actions such as insecticidal and anthelmintic activity. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of aqueous (AE and ethanolic (EE extracts from sweetsop leaves on the chicken roundworm Ascaridia galli, both in vitro and in vivo. In the former, nematodes were placed on a Petri plate containing different concentrations of the extracts; in the in vivo test, six egg-laying chickens per group received 10 mL Kg-1 of the extracts. In vitro results indicated that A. squamosa AE at the concentrations 2.4 and 9.6 mg mL-1

  15. Evaluación de medios de cultivo para la producción in vitro de Annona muricata mediante la técnica de microinjertación seriada

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    Castro Restrepo Dagoberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata (guanábana es una planta cultivada por la calidad nutritiva y organoléptica de sufruto. No obstante el carácter recalcitrante de las yemas vegetativas de esta especie ha dificultado lamicropropagación de material seleccionado por su alta productividad. Esta investigación tuvo comoobjetivo evaluar medios de cultivo combinados con la técnica de microinjertación seriada para promoverel desarrollo vegetal in vitro de A. muricata. En medios de cultivo específicos para cada material vegetal,se sembraron semillas y estacas para la formación de microinjertos; luego se aplicaron tres tratamientosde microinjertación (M1, M2, M3 y un control, donde el número indica las veces en las que una estacaes injertada en un portainjerto. M1 es una microinjertación monofásica o estacas microinjertadas enun portainjerto. M2 son estacas microinjertadas dos veces, es decir, permanecen en dos portainjertosdiferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. M3 son estacas microinjertadas tres veces,es decir, permanecen en tres portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso.Las estacas fueron separadas del portainjerto y sembradas en medio de cultivo para evaluar surevigorización; se realizaron pruebas de Anova y Freedman para los datos paramétricos y no paramétricos,respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la microinjertación monofásica es suficiente paraestimular el desarrollo in vitro de material adulto de A. muricata; sin embargo, en los tratamientos nose logró el desarrollo de un sistema radicular adecuado.

  16. Evaluación de medios de cultivo para la producción in vitro de Annona muricata mediante la técnica de microinjertación seriada

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    Aleyda Maritza Acosta Rangel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata (guanábana es una planta cultivada por la calidad nutritiva y organoléptica de su fruto. No obstante el carácter recalcitrante de las yemas vegetativas de esta especie ha dificultado la micropropagación de material seleccionado por su alta productividad. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar medios de cultivo combinados con la técnica de microinjertación seriada para promover el desarrollo vegetal in vitro de A. muricata. En medios de cultivo específicos para cada material vegetal, se sembraron semillas y estacas para la formación de microinjertos; luego se aplicaron tres tratamientos de microinjertación (M1, M2, M3 y un control, donde el número indica las veces en las que una estaca es injertada en un portainjerto. M1 es una microinjertación monofásica o estacas microinjertadas en un portainjerto. M2 son estacas microinjertadas dos veces, es decir, permanecen en dos portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. M3 son estacas microinjertadas tres veces, es decir, permanecen en tres portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. Las estacas fueron separadas del portainjerto y sembradas en medio de cultivo para evaluar su revigorización; se realizaron pruebas de Anova y Freedman para los datos paramétricos y no paramétricos, respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la microinjertación monofásica es suficiente para estimular el desarrollo in vitro de material adulto de A. muricata; sin embargo, en los tratamientos no se logró el desarrollo de un sistema radicular adecuado.

  17. 山刺番荔枝果实发育进程中挥发性成分的组成分析%Analysis of volatile components in Annona montana fruit at different developmental stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子健; 龙娅丽; 江雪飞; 乔飞; 党志国; 陈业渊

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探讨山刺番荔枝果实发育过程中挥发性物质的组成及变化.[方法]采用顶空固相微萃取技术对山刺番荔枝青果期、转白期和成熟期果实进行挥发性气体的鉴定,并结合气相色谱/质谱法进行测定分析.[结果]山刺番荔枝各个阶段果实中共检测出16种相对含量超过1%的挥发性物质,包括醛类、酯类、醇类和酸类.其中青果期挥发性物质以(E)-2-己烯醛为主,转白期挥发性物质以辛酸甲酯为主,在成熟期中相对含量最高的是梨醇酯.果实发育过程中,酯类挥发性物质逐渐增加.对果实挥发性物质的香韵进行分析,发现青果期果实中包含14种香型,其中青香荷载较大;转白期和成熟期果实中分别包含23种香型和21种香型,果香荷载最大.[结论]在山刺番荔枝果实发育的不同阶段,挥发性物质成分及相对含量有有较大的变化.随着果实成熟,香韵明显增多,由青香型向果香型转变.转白期香型种类最多,香韵特征最明显,是食用或精油提取的最佳阶段.%[Objective]Annona montana is native to central America,the Amazon,and the islands in the Caribbean.It is a medicinal plant and produces edible fruit.It has been used as rootstock for cultivated Annonas since 1980s in southern China,Guangdong province and Hainan Province.The fruit is nearly round and covered with many short fleshy spines.During ripening,the pulp turns from white to yellow,and emits unique aroma.Though the pulp is fibrous and with many seeds,it is with strong tropical fruit aromas and can be used as additive to make tropical flavor food or beverage.However,volatile components in the fruit have not been identified since the wild trees of Annona montana were introduced to China.Therefore,in this study the variation and composition of volatile components in Annona montana fruit were analyzed at different fruit development stages.[Methods] Volatile components were analyzed with HS

  18. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    Full Text Available Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg, EEAML (500 mg/kg and positive control (5-fluorouracil. Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing

  19. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  20. 番荔枝皮化学成分及其抗肿瘤活性的研究%Constituents from the bark of Annona squamosa and their anti-tumor activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽蕊; 朱虹; 甘礼社; 莫建霞; 冯锋; 周长新

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the constituents of the Annona squamosa and evaluate their anti-tumor activity. Method: The compounds were isolated and purified by various column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by spectral data analysis. Their anti-tumor activity was assayed by SRB method. Result: Eleven compounds were obtained from the 95% EtOH extract. The structures were determined as, annosquamosin C(l) ,15, 16-epoxy-17-hydroxy-ent-kau-ran-19-oic acid (2) ,16,17-dihydroxy-ent-kau-ran-19-oic acid(3) ,annosquamosin A(4) ,ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid(5) ,19-nor-ent-kauran-4-ol-17-oic acid (6) ,16-hydroxy ent-kau ran-19-oic acid(7) ,ent-15β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid{8) .annosquamosin B(9) ,ent-16β, 17-dihydroxykauran-19-al ( 10 ) ,16, 17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid me thyl ester (11). Compounds 1,2,3,5,9 showed different inhibitory activities against 95-D lung cancer cells,the effect of compound 5 was strongest with the IC50value 7. 78 μmol · L-1,Compounds 2,5,9 showed inhibitory activities against A2780 ovarian cancer cells,the effects of compounds 2 and 9 were strong with the IC50values being 0. 89,3. 10μmol · L-1 , respectively. Conclusion: Compound 2 was firstly isolated from this family, while compound 8 and 10 were first found from this genus and the title species,respectively. The in vitro anti-tumor test showed compound 5 significantly inhibited 95-D lung cancer cells and compounds 2 and 9 exhibited remarkbale activity against A2780 ovarian cancer cells.%目的:研究番荔枝Annona squamosa的化学成分,并对分离化合物进行活性筛选.方法:综合运用各种色谱方法分离纯化番荔枝中的化学成分;采用NMR等波谱方法鉴定其结构;运用SRB法测定化合物对肿瘤细胞体外增殖能力的抑制作用.结果:从番荔枝皮乙醇提取物中分离得到11个化合物,分别是annosquamosin C(1),15,16-epoxy-17-hydroxy-ent-kau-ran-19-oic acid(2),16,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid(3

  1. Effect of Pruning and Illumination on the Flowering and Gene Expression of Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.)%修剪和光照处理对番荔枝成花及基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫亿伟; 刘锴栋; 宋虎卫; 邓旭; 陈晶晶

    2015-01-01

    番荔枝(Annona squamosa L.)是一种重要的热带水果,具有丰富营养和较高经济价值.为了探讨修剪方式和光照对番荔枝混合花芽成花效果的影响,以成年番荔枝当年抽生的枝条为研究材料,通过不同修剪方式,不同颜色透光塑料薄膜对修剪部位套袋处理,以自然生长的枝条为对照,对诱导成花部位和不同发育时期花蕾成花基因的表达,以及N、P、K和碳水化合物含量进行分析.结果表明,枝条顶端修剪后,只有把叶片和叶柄去掉后才能诱导成花,成花基因LFY(LEAFY)和AP2(APETALA2)的表达显著提高(P<0.05);成花不受薄膜颜色和套袋处理影响,说明成花部位不受光照和光质影响,且在不同季节均能诱导成花;成花部位的枝条N、P、K、淀粉及可溶性总糖含量出现先下降后增加的现象.结果说明,番荔枝叶柄对花芽形成具有明显抑制作用,当枝条顶端及叶柄去除后,就能促进成花基因LFY和AP2的表达,促使混合芽从营养生长转向生殖生长从而导致开花.在成花诱导过程中,修剪处理部位枝条短期内无法进行光合作用,导致主要营养物质含量出现先下降后增加的现象,且成花过程不受光照及光质差异的影响,当成花诱导完成后,需要正常光照产物促进新枝萌发与生长,为开花结果提供营养保障.研究结果从生理与分子水平初步揭示了番荔枝独特的修剪方式促进成花的机理,为番荔枝花期调控及反季节生产提供理论依据与实践指导.

  2. Cloning and Expression Analysis of GA20-Oxidase Gene from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa)%番荔枝GA20氧化酶基因的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锴栋; 袁长春; 黎海利; 刘金祥; 陈燕; 莫亿伟; 李华富

    2015-01-01

    A full-length cDNA sequence of homologousGA20ox gene was cloned by employing homology gene cloning and RACE-PCR from sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.), which was named asAsGA20ox(Gen-Bank accession KR676623). Sequence analysis showed that theAsGA20oxgene has a 1 257 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 418 amino acids. Sequence alignment displayed that it was a similarity of 71% and 70% with GA20ox ofElaeis guineensis andPhoenix dactylifera, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that sugar appleAsGA20ox andDasypyrum villosum GA20ox are closest in molecular evolution distance, followed byMusa acuminatasubsp. Malaccensis GA20ox. It was speculated that AsGA20ox protein is located in the extracellular matrix and peroxisomal. It do not have a signal peptide. The putative protein molecular weight was 47.2 kDa and its theoretical isoelectric point was 6.21. The real-time PCR results suggested thatAsGA20ox gene showed a high transcription level in lfower buds I, immature seeds, young stems of fruiting branches and pistils. The results laid a solid foundation for further research on AsGA20ox protein structure and the relation-ship between the gene and plant lfower development.%本研究利用同源克隆和RACE-PCR的方法获得番荔枝GA20ox基因的全长cDNA序列,命名为AsGA20ox, GenBank登录号为KR676623。序列分析表明,克隆获得的番荔枝AsGA20ox基因编码区长为1257 bp,编码418个氨基酸。序列比对显示与油棕和海枣等GA20ox的相似度分别为71%和70%。构建类似蛋白系统进化树显示,番荔枝AsGA20ox与簇毛麦、香蕉等分子进化距离较近。预测AsGA20ox蛋白定位在细胞外基质和过氧化物酶体中,不具备信号肽。蛋白质分子量为47.2 kDa,等电点为6.21。实时定量RT-PCR结果表明,在不同的组织、不同的器官中,AsGA20ox的表达量存在差异,其中在花蕾期I、未成熟的种子、结果枝的幼嫩茎段和雌蕊中的表达量相对较高。

  3. Effects of Bagging on Main Fruit Quality and Storability of Annona atemoya L. Hort cv. African Pride%套袋对AP番荔枝果实主要品质及耐贮性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟才; 魏永赞; 谢江辉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The study aimed to discuss the effects of the. bagging on the fruit quality and storability of Annona atemoya L. Hort.[ Method] With A. atemoya cv. African Pride (AP) as the tested material, it was treated by 3 kinds of bagging modes of using double layer and double color paper bag, white non-woven bag and single layer and white paper bag and the effects of different bagging materials on the appearance and internal quality of A. atemoya fruits and its related enzymes related with the storage were analyzed. [ Result]The bagging treatments could significantly improve the appearance quality of A. atemoya fruits and make the pericarp clean and beautiful, coloring evenly, rustspot decreased, which could obviously enhance the storability of the fruits. The bagging treatments showed some effects on the fruit shape index and some internal quality of A. atemoya fruits. Compared with CK, the bagging treatments could increase the activities of the oxidase such as POD and CAT in the fruits of A. atemoya, reduce the PPO activity and decrease MDA accumulation,which make the fruits having the better storability Among 3 bagging treatments, the bagging with the non-woven could get better effects, with good fruit appearance and fruit shape index and the even color. [ Conclusion] The study provided the theoretical basis for further optimizing the bagging cultivation technique of A.atemoya.%[目的]探讨套袋对番荔枝果实品质和贮藏特性的影响.[方法]以AP番荔枝为试材,用双层双色纸袋、白色无纺布袋和单层白色纸袋3种套袋方式进行处理,分析不同套袋材质对番荔枝外观和内在品质以及贮藏相关酶活性的影响.[结果]套袋可显著改善番荔枝果实的外观品质,使果皮洁净美观,着色均匀,锈斑减少,明显增强果实的耐贮性.套袋处理对番荔枝果实的果形指数以及部分内在品质产生了一定影响.与对照相比,套袋可使番荔枝果实的POD和CAT等氧化酶活性

  4. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, BA. Seeds were conditioned in paper and plastic and were maintained in the atmosphere and refrigerator. The evaluation times were 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the beginning of the experiment. The following were evaluated: seed water content, germination, and vigor. Among the main results it was proved that the maximum storage time of sugar apple seeds was six months. Paper bags were best for the conservation of seed viability, regardless of the environment. The highest percentages of germination were obtained using paper bags in environmental conditions.

  5. Storage of Annona squamosa L. seeds

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva; Verônica Barbosa Santos; Rosa Honorato de Oliveira; Sirleine Lima de Oliveira; Otoniel Magalhães Morais

    2009-01-01

    The sugar apple is a species of great economic importance. The propagation is through seeds, but experimental studies focused on ascertaining the ideal conditions of seed storage, especially packing and environments, are mostly lacking. The current work thus aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of packing, environments and storage times over the germination and vigor of sugar apple seeds. The work was carried out at the Seed Laboratory of UESB – Campus de Vitória da Conquista, B...

  6. A CO2-Silica Geothermometer for Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment, with Application to Resources in the Safford Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, James C.; Stone, Claudia

    1983-11-01

    Geothermics is the study of the earth's heat energy, it's affect on subsurface temperature distribution, it's physical and chemical sources, and it's role in dynamic geologic processes. The term, geothermometry, is applied to the determination of equilibrium temperatures of natural chemical systems, including rock, mineral, and liquid phases. An assemblage of minerals or a chemical system whose phase composition is a function of temperature and pressure can be used as a geothermometer. Thus a geothermometer is useful to determine the formation temperature of rock or the last equilibrium temperature of a flowing aqueous solution such as ground water and hydrothermal fluids.

  7. Study on the optimum extraction of Bullatacin from seeds ofAnnona squamosa L.by supercritical fluid CO2 extraction%超临界CO2萃取番荔枝种子中布拉他辛的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋艳; 陈彦; 张振海; 章永红; 王璐

    2011-01-01

    目的:筛选超临界CO2流体萃取番荔枝种子中布拉他辛的最佳工艺条件.方法:用HPLC法测定布拉他辛的含量,并采用正交试验优化超临界CO2流体萃取布拉他辛的工艺条件.结果:超临界CO2流体萃取布拉他辛的最佳工艺条件为:萃取压力为30MPa,萃取温度为35°C,萃取时间为2h,夹带剂(无水乙醇)用量为0.3mL/g.结论:超临界CO2流体萃取法可有效提取番荔枝种子中的布拉他辛,该方法切实可行.%Objective: To optimize the technology parameters of bullatacin from seeds of Annona squamosa L. By supercritical fluid extraction and definite the optimal extraction conditions. Methods: The content of bullatacin was detected by HPLC, and optimum extraction conditions were studied by orthogonal tests. Results: The optimal extraction conditions were extraction pressure as 30MPa, extraction temperature at 351, extraction time for 2 hours with 30% ethanol. Conclusion: Supercritical fluid extraction method can extract bullatacin in seeds of Annonaceae plants effectively and it was feasible.

  8. 40 CFR 52.146 - Particulate matter (PM-10) Group II SIP commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted a revision to the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford, Flagstaff... Implementation Plan (SIP) requirements for Casa Grande, Show Low, Safford, Flagstaff and Joseph City as...

  9. ESPECIES DE Colletotrichum EN CHIRIMOYA (Annona cherimola Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Villanueva-Arce; María de J. Yáñez-Morales; Ana M. Hernández-Anguiano

    2008-01-01

    Dado que hay pocos estudios fitosanitarios en el cultivo de chirimoya, el objetivo de este estudio fue generar información sobre las especies de Colletotrichum asociadas con diferentes síntomas de enfermedad en frutos y hojas de chirimoya. En medios de cultivo papa-dextrosa-agar y papa-zanahoria-agar se seleccionaron seis aislamientos de Colletotrichum de frutos y hojas recolectados en el Estado de México y Michoacán. Se identificaron y analizaron molecularmente tres especies de Colletotrichu...

  10. ANNONACEOUS ACETOGENINS OF THE SEEDS FROM ANNONA MURICATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE-YU LI; JING-GUANG YU; JIU-XIANG ZHU; DONG-LEI YU; XIU-ZHEN LUO; LAN SUN; SHI-LIN YANG

    2001-01-01

    Muricatenol (1) is a new C37 non-THF ring acetogenin with four hydroxyls and one isolated double bond in the long aliphatic chain. 2,4-cis-Gigantetrocinone (2) and 2,4-trans gigantetrocinone (3) have been isolated as their acetates by preparative TLC. 2,4-trans Isoannonacin-10-one (4) and 2,4-trans-isoannonacin (5) have been isolated as only 2,4-trans-form for the first time (no cis-form). Also four known acetogenins, gigantetrocin-A (6), gigantetrocin-B (7), annomontacin (8), gigantetronenin (9) and a mixture of N-fatty acyl tryptamines have been isolated (10). Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral analyses. The CHC13 fraction of the seeds showed strong antitumor activities.

  11. Annonaceous acetogenins of the seeds from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D Y; Yu, J G; Zhu, J X; Yu, D L; Luo, X Z; Sun, L; Yang, S L

    2001-01-01

    Muricatenol (1) is a new C37 non-THF ring acetogenin with four hydroxyls and one isolated double bond in the long aliphatic chain. 2,4-cis-Gigantetrocinone (2) and 2,4-trans-gigantetrocinone (3) have been isolated as their acetates by preparative TLC. 2,4-trans-Isoannonacin-10-one (4) and 2,4-trans-isoannonacin (5) have been isolated as only 2,4-trans-form for the first time (no cis-form). Also four known acetogenins, gigantetrocin-A (6), gigantetrocin-B (7), annomontacin (8), gigantetronenin (9) and a mixture of N-fatty acyl tryptamines have been isolated (10). Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral analyses. The CHCl3 fraction of the seeds showed strong antitumor activities.

  12. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Harivelo Raveloson Ravaomanarivo

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  13. An Expeditious Route for the Total Synthesis of Pondaplin Isolated from Annona glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian CHENG; Yan Wen ZHANG; Xiang ZHANG; Takayuki ORITANI

    2003-01-01

    A novel cyclic prenylated phenylpropanoid, pondaplin 1, was first synthesized in 26% overall yields through an expeditious route (7 steps) that employed highly regio- and stereoselective phenyltellurenylation to arylacetylene and palladium (II) chloride-catalyzed carbonylation of hydroxy styryl phenyl telluride as key steps.

  14. Influence of Annona muricata (soursop) on biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Cecilia Maria de Carvalho Xavier [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia Experimental e Ensaios Antiparasitarios; Barbosa, Delianne Azevedo; Demeda, Vanessa Favero; Bandeira, Flora Tamires Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Medeiros, Hilkea Carla Souza de; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Bioquimica; Barbosa, Vanessa Santos de Arruda [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Cirurgia Experimental

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. muricata on biodistribution of two radiopharmaceuticals: sodium phytate and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), both labeled with {sup 99m}technetium. Methods: twenty four Wistar rats were divided into two treated groups and two controls groups. The controls received water and the treated received 25mg/kg/day of A. muricata by gavage for ten days. One hour after the last dose, the first treated group received {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and the second sodium {sup 99m}Tc-phytate (0.66MBq each group), both via orbital plexus. Controls followed the same protocol. Forty min later, all groups were sacrificed and the blood, kidney and bladder were isolated from the first treated group and the blood, spleen and liver isolated from the second treated group. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated using a gamma counter. Results: the statistical analysis showed that there was a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in the uptake of %ATI/g in bladder (0.11±0.01and1.60±0.08), kidney (3.52±0.51and11.84±1.57) and blood (0.15±0.01and 0.54±0.05) between the treated group and control group, respectively. Conclusion: the A. muricata hydroalcoholic extract negatively influenced the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in bladder, kidney and blood of rats (author)

  15. Low temperature storage and in vitro germination of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Jorge; Pérez de Oteyza, María de los Angeles; Fuentetaja, Pilar; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    Due to the protogynous dichogamy of cherimoya and to the absence of proper pollinating vectors, hand-pollination with fresh pollen is a common practice for cherimoya commercial production. In order to optimize the process of hand-pollination, in this work we have studied the conservation of cherimoya pollen at –20, -80 and –196ºC for up to three months. In vitro pollen germination of fresh pollen was 57.1% and it was progressively reduced with conservation time at the three temperatures studi...

  16. Relationship between fruit traits of custard apple trees (Annona squamosa L.

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    Keny Henrique Mariguele

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate simple and partial coefficients of correlation, as well as to divide their effects into direct and indirect using path analysis for custard apple tree traits. Twenty half-sibling progenies were evaluated in a randomized block design with five replicates, and plots consisting of four plants. Six traits were evaluated in the first cropping season (mean number of seeds per fruit and mean weight of the pericarp, pulp, pedicel, seeds per fruit, and the whole fruit, while five traits were evaluated in the first three cropping seasons (mean fruit length and width, total number of fruits ha-1, mean fruit weight (in both types of analyses, and fruit yield in kg ha-1. The results of this work led to the conclusion that doing selection based on simple correlation estimates may not be convenient, since not always a cause and effect relationship can be verified between two traits. Positive correlations were obtained between number of seeds and seed weight, and between number of fruits and yield. The greatest direct effects were those obtained for pulp weight on fruit weight and for mean number and weight of fruits on fruit yield. The most important indirect effects were obtained for number of seeds and pericarp weight, obtained via pulp weight, on fruit weight, and for fruit length and width, obtained via mean fruit weight, on fruit yield.

  17. Relationship between fruit traits of custard apple trees (Annona squamosa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Keny Henrique Mariguele; Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate simple and partial coefficients of correlation, as well as to divide their effects into direct and indirect using path analysis for custard apple tree traits. Twenty half-sibling progenies were evaluated in a randomized block design with five replicates, and plots consisting of four plants. Six traits were evaluated in the first cropping season (mean number of seeds per fruit and mean weight of the pericarp, pulp, pedicel, seeds per fruit, and the w...

  18. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  19. Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Camacho, João F; Cordeiro, Nereida; Gouveia, Manuela; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-11-15

    The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars ('Perry Vidal', 'Mateus I', 'Mateus III' and 'Funchal') from Madeira Island, were studied for the first time. The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes (42.2-59.6%), fatty acids (18.0-35.6%) and sterols (9.6-23.7%). Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between 554 and 1350mgkg(-1) of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavan-3-ols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds. Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)afzelechin-(epi)catechin and procyanidin tetramer. 'Mateus I' and 'Mateus III' cultivars present the highest content of phenolic compounds (6299 and 9603mgkg(-1) of dry weight, respectively). These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders. PMID:27283704

  20. Parasitóides de Cerconota anonella (Sepp., 1830 (Lep.: Oecophoridae em gravioleira (Annona muricata L.

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    Broglio-Micheletti Sônia Maria Forti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantificação de inimigos naturais presentes em uma cultura é importante, porque influi nas decisões a serem tomadas em relação ao Manejo Integrado de Pragas. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivos identificar e quantificar gêneros de parasitóides de Cerconota anonella (Sepp. coletados na cultura de graviola entre março de 1997 e abril de 1998 em Maceió, AL (lat.9°S, long. 35°W. O parasitismo foi determinado pela relação entre o número de formas biológicas dos inimigos naturais e o de formas biológicas da praga e dos parasitóides. Os insetos, por ordem de incidência, foram: Apanteles sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Rhysipolis sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae e Xiphosomella sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae. Apanteles sp. predominou durante o período. Os menores percentuais de parasitismo total foram observados no mês de outubro de 1997 (6,60% e os maiores em janeiro de 1998 ( 80,27%, resultando em um parasitismo médio anual de 38,1%.

  1. Categorización de la germinación y la latencia en semillas de chirimoya (annona cherimola l.) y guanábana (annona muricata l.), como apoyo a programas de conservación de germoplasma

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Mario; Delgado, Óscar; Régulo Cartagena, José; Fernández, Elizabeth; Medina, Clara Inés

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la latencia y germinación de semillas de guanábana y chirimoya con el fin de categorizar la latencia de las simientes y desarrollar un protocolo de rompimiento de ésta; conocimiento básico para el establecimiento y monitoreo de un duplicado de seguridad en las colecciones de campo, por la vía de almacenamiento a largo plazo de las unidades de propagación sexuales. No se detectó latencia exógena, a través de la imbibición obtenida por las semillas. Se encontró, a través de pr...

  2. Produção de porta-enxertos em tubetes e enxertia precoce da pinheira (Annona squamosa L. Production of rootstocks in tubettes and early grafting of sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.

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    Eurico Eduardo Pinto de Lemos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um protocolo para a enxertia precoce de pinheira em porta-enxertos produzidos em tubetes como substituto do tradicional sistema de enxertia que utiliza porta-enxertos de 12 meses produzidos em sacolas plásticas. O trabalho foi conduzido com três métodos de enxertia (borbulhia em escudo, garfagem de topo em fenda cheia e garfagem lateral em fenda cheia e quatro idades dos porta-enxertos (3; 5; 7 e 9 meses. Os porta-enxertos foram avaliados durante nove meses com relação às variáveis: comprimento da planta, diâmetro do caule, número de folhas e área foliar. Cada procedimento de enxertia foi avaliado por 30 dias através da percentagem de pegamento. Os porta-enxertos produzidos nos tubetes maiores apresentaram-se mais desenvolvidos para todas as variáveis, todavia a percentagem de pegamento dos enxertos foi mais influenciada pelo método de enxertia do que pelo tamanho de tubete. A garfagem de topo em fenda cheia mostrou-se como o melhor método para a enxertia precoce, pois já aos três meses de idade dos porta-enxertos apresentou taxa de pegamento de 96,69%. O método de garfagem lateral em fenda cheia apresentou taxas semelhantes a partir dos cinco meses de idade dos porta-enxertos. O método de borbulhia apresentou baixo pegamento inicial (The objective of this work was to establish a protocol for early grafting in sugar apple seedlings developed in small capacity plastic tubettes as a substitute for the traditional grafting system that uses 12 months-old seedlings developed in plastic bags. The work was carried out with three budding/grafting methods (chip budding, split graft and side-stub graft and four rootstocks ages (3, 5, 7 and 9 months. The rootstocks were evaluated for 9 months with regard to the following variables: length of the plant, diameter of stem, leaf number and leaf area. Each budding/grafting procedure was evaluated after 30 days and the percentage of union. The rootstocks produced in bigger tubetes showed to be more developed for all variables during the evaluated period. The success of the union did not vary between the two types of containers. The split graft revealed to be the best method as it presented a 96,69% union success in the early 3 month-old rootstocks. The method side-stub graft presented similar percentage rates from 5 months-old rootstocks. The chip budding method initially presented a low success union rate (<50%, but it increased at each new budding date and reached 80% union success in 7 months-old rootstocks.

  3. Floristic composition and growth of weeds under custard apple (Annona squamosa progenies Composição florística e crescimento de plantas daninhas sob a copa de progênies de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa

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    P.S.L. Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Weeds have a negative influence on several fruit tree characteristics, such as yield, making it difficult to management practices in orchards. Alternative weed management methods, aiming to reduce the use of herbicides, have become attractive since herbicides are costly and cause environmental degradation. The use of cultivars with greater competitive ability against weeds has attracted international attention. The objective of this work was to evaluate the floristic composition and growth of weeds under the canopies of irrigated custard apple tree progenies. Twenty halfsibling progenies around three years of age were evaluated in a random block design with five replicates and four plants per plot. A circle with a 0.5 m² area was established around the trunk of each plant. Floristic composition, fresh matter, and dry matter mass of the above-ground part of the weeds, were evaluated in this area. Root collar and canopy diameters, as well as leaf area of the progenies were also evaluated. Fifty-eight weed species were recorded. The five weed families with the most species were Leguminosae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae and Sterculiaceae, in decreasing order. The number of weed species per plot ranged from 6 to 18, but there was no difference between the mean percentages of different weeds under the canopies of the progenies. The lowest weed fresh and dry matter masses occurred in progenies JG1 and SM8, respectively. There were no differences between progenies with regard to root collar diameter and leaf area; however, one of the lowest weed dry matter yields was observed under the canopy of progeny FE4, which showed the largest canopy diameter.As plantas daninhas (PD afetam várias características das fruteiras, inclusive o rendimento, e podem dificultar a execução de tratos culturais nos pomares. Existe interesse em métodos alternativos de manejo das PD, visando reduzir o uso de herbicidas, que são caros e causam degradação ambiental. Dentre esses métodos, a adoção de cultivares com maior habilidade competitiva com as PD tem despertado atenção internacional. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a composição florística e o crescimento de PD sob a copa de progênies de pinheira irrigadas. Vinte progênies de meias-irmãs, com idade aproximada de três anos, foram avaliadas no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e quatro plantas por parcela. Ao redor do caule de cada planta estabeleceu-se um círculo com área de 0,5 m². Nessa área, foram avaliadas a composição e as massas das matérias fresca e seca da parte aérea das PD. Avaliaram-se também os diâmetros do colo e da copa e a área da folha das progênies. Ocorreram 58 espécies de PD. As famílias com maior número de espécies, em ordem decrescente, foram Leguminosae, Convolvulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae e Sterculiaceae. O número de espécies de PD/parcela variou de 6 a 18, porém não houve diferença entre a porcentagem média de diferentes PD sob a copa das progênies. As menores massas de matérias fresca e seca de PD ocorreram nas progênies JG1 e SM8, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças entre progênies quanto a diâmetro do colo e área foliar, mas sob a copa da progênie FE4, que apresentou o maior diâmetro da copa, observou-se um dos menores rendimentos de matéria seca de PD.

  4. Comportamento respiratório e qualidade pós-colheita de graviola (Annona muricata L. 'morada' sob temperatura ambiente Respiratory behavior and postharvest quality of 'morada' soursop (Annona muricata L. at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar alterações físicas e físico-químicas, relacionando-as às taxas respiratória e de liberação de etileno, durante a maturação da graviola-'Morada'. Frutos colhidos na maturidade fisiológica foram armazenados (23,4 ± 1,1ºC e 81,8 ± 10,6% UR e avaliados aos 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 e 6 dias, quanto a: atividade respiratória (RS, liberação de etileno (ET, perda de matéria fresca, cor da casca e da polpa, firmeza, pH, acidez total titulável (ATT, sólidos solúveis totais (SST e açúcares solúveis totais (AST. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Aos dois dias, iniciou-se rápido aumento na RS, resultando no primeiro pico (197,60mg CO2·kg-1·h-1, que foi seguido por queda e uma fase lag. Ao término desta, iniciou-se o aumento climatérico (pico = 298,82mg CO2·kg-1·h-1. ET só foi detectada por ocasião do primeiro pico respiratório, atingindo o máximo aos quatro dias. A cor da casca tornou-se mais clara, enquanto na polpa se observou apenas redução da luminosidade. Houve coincidência entre o primeiro aumento na RS, o pico de ET e as mudanças mais significativas na firmeza, na ATT e nos teores de SST e AST. Durante o período, a firmeza diminuiu de 60 para 0,9N, e a ATT aumentou de 0,18 para 0,88% de ácido cítrico.It was aimed to evaluate physical and physico-chemical changes during soursop 'Morada' maturation at room temperature and related them to respiration rate and ethylene production. Fruits harvested at physiological maturity were stored (23,4 ± 1,1ºC and 81,8 ± 10,6% RH and evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days, according to: respiration rate (RS, ethylene production (ET, fresh weight lost, skin and pulp color, firmness, pH, total titrable acidity (TTA, total soluble solids (TSS and total soluble sugars (TS. The experimental design was a completely randomized one with four replications. There was a fast increase in RS at two days that resulted in the first peak (197,60mg CO2·kg-1·h-1 that was followed by a decay and a lag phase. When that phase rad finished, it began the climateric raise (climateric peak = 298,82mg CO2·kg-1·h-1. ET was detected only when the first respiratory peak occurred and reached the maximum at the fourth day. The skin color became bright green while it was observed a decrease just on lightness in the pulp. There was a coincidence among the first increase on RS, the peak of ET and the most significant changes on firmness, TAA, TSS content and TS content. During this period, firmness reduced from 60 to 0,9N and TTA increased from 0,18 to 0,88% of citric acid.

  5. Diagnose foliar da gravioleira (Annona muricata L.: efeito da posição de ramos e folhas Part of plant to sample leaves for nutritional status evaluation in soursop (Annona muricata L.

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    Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A carência de informações na literatura sobre a amostragem de folhas da gravioleira, particularmente, a definição da posição da folha na copa das árvores e das folhas nos ramos ainda é um fator limitante para a diagnose foliar dessa cultura. Objetivando determinar a parte da planta indicada para a amostragem de folhas e a avaliação do estado nutricional da gravioleira conduziu-se um experimento no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus (CE, no período de março a abril de 2003. Colheram-se folhas de três posições da copa (terço superior, terço médio e terço inferior e três posições no ramo (folhas da parte apical, mediana e basal e determinaram-se os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn. Os resultados permitem sugerir que os teores de minerais das folhas da parte mediana da copa das árvores e na posição mediana do ramo refletem melhor o estado nutricional da frutífera.The lack of information in literature about leaf sampling soursop plant in particular, the definition of the leaf position at the tree top and leaves on the branches is still a limiting factor for the diagnosis of this cultivation. Aiming to determine which is the suitable part of the plant for leaf sampling and evaluate the nutritional status of the soursop plants, an experiment was developed on the experimental farm Embrapa - CNPAT, at Pacajus-CE, in the period from March to April, 2003. One collected leaves from three positions at the top (upper third, medium third and lower third and three positions on the branches (apical part leaves, basal and medium and one determined the tenor of P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn. The results allow to suggest that the mineral levels of the medium part of leaves at the top of the trees on the medium position of the branch, reflect best nutritional status of the plant.

  6. Uso de cera e 1-metilciclopropeno na conservação refrigerada de graviola (Annona muricata L. The ouse of wax and 1-methylcyclopropene on refrigerated storage of soursop fruit (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Graviolas 'Morada', provenientes de pomar comercial localizado em Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, foram colhidas na maturidade fisiológica com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação pós-colheita de 1-meticiclopropeno (1-MCP e cera na conservação, durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Os frutos foram armazenados por 0; 4; 8; 11; 13 e 15 dias, a 15,4±1,1ºC e 86,0±7,3% UR. Os tratamentos pós-colheita foram os seguintes: controle, 200 nL L-1 de 1-MCP (SmartFresh™, pulverização com a cera Fruit wax® e pulverização com Fruit wax® seguida de aplicação de 200 nL L-1 de 1-MCP. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x6 (tratamentos pós-colheita x tempo de armazenamento, com quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram: cor da casca e da polpa, a partir da luminosidade (L, cromaticidade (C e ângulo de cor (Hº; perda de massa; pH; acidez titulável (AT; sólidos solúveis totais (SST; açúcares solúveis totais (AST e açúcares redutores (AR. Os tratamentos cera e cera+1-MCP mantiveram estáveis os valores de L da casca e da polpa até o 8º e o 4º dia de armazenamento, respectivamente. O aumento em SST foi temporariamente atrasado pelos tratamentos pós-colheita. A AT, pH, AST e AR não foram influenciados pela cera e pelo 1-MCP. O uso da cera diminuiu a perda de massa em 23%, quando comparado ao controle.Fruits of soursop 'Morada' from plants of a commercial area, located in Limoeiro do Norte, Ceara State, Brazil, were harvested at the physiological maturity stage with the objective of evaluating the effect of postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and wax on conservation during refrigerated storage. Fruits were stored for 0, 4, 8, 11, 13 and 15 days under 15.4±1.1ºC and 86.0±7.3% RH. Postharvest treatments were as follow: control, 200 nL L-1 of 1-MCP (SmartFresh™, Fruit wax® sprayed on fruits, and Fruit wax® sprayed on fruits followed by application of 200 nL L-1 of 1-MCP. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a 4x6 (postharvest treatment x storage time factorial and four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: skin and pulp color according to luminosity (L, chromaticity (C and color angle (Hº; mass loss; pH; titratable acidity (TA; total soluble solids (TSS; total soluble sugars (TS and reducing sugars (RS. Wax and wax+1-MCP kept stabilized the L values for skin and pulp, until the 8th and the 4th day of storage, respectively. The increasing in TSS was temporarily delayed by postharvest treatments. The TA, pH, TS and RS were not influenced by wax and 1-MCP. The use of wax reduced the mass loss in 23% compared to the control.

  7. Characterization of fruits from the savanna: Araça (Psidium guinnensis Sw. and Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.

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    Clarissa Damiani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize fruits from the Brazilian savanna by means of physical and chemical analyses. The results obtained for araça peel, araça pulp and marolo pulp, respectively, were: moisture (77.03, 80.41 and 70.56 g.100 g-1, ash (0.65, 0.44 and 0.54 g.100 g-1, protein (1.39, 1.87 and 1.99 g.100 g-1, lipids (0.32, 0.33 and 2.36 g.100 g-1, total carbohydrates (90.88 , 78.25 and 24.55 g.100 g-1, total soluble sugars (8.45, 9.99 and 127.4 g.100 g-1, pH (3.76, 3.99 and 4.49, soluble solids (11° Brix, 8.8 °Brix and 21.4 °Brix and antioxidant potential (16.33, 12.75 and 34.29 discoloration DPPH/100 mL. Calcium was the predominant mineral in araça (490 mg.kg-1 peel and 485 mg.kg-1 pulp while magnesium was in marolo (350 mg.kg-1. Citric acid was the predominant organic acid in araça (3125 μg.g-1 peel and 881.25 μg.g-1 pulp and Malic acid was predominant in marolo (76.68 μg.g-1. Therefore, given their nutrient contents, the consumption of these fruits from the savanna should be encouraged.

  8. Estudio preliminar del potencial bioactivo de la Annona cherimola (anona y Prunus domestica (ciruelo cultivadas en Costa Rica

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    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos

    2014-06-01

    Se ubicaron plantas de ambas especies, recolectándose los frutos que luego de su debido procesamiento fueron analizados en laboratorio en cuanto a su contenido de polifenoles y a su bioactividad. Asimismo se extrajeron estacas de las plantas para reproducción vegetativa tradicional y se sembraron en las comunidades de Cabuyal de San Pedro de Poás, Alajuela (Damas Verdes y Llano Bonito de León Cortés, San José (PROAL donde se trabajó con grupos de mujeres organizadas que elaboran productos artesanales como champú, cremas y aceites, contribuyendo con ellas en el adiestramiento con las buenas prácticas en laboratorio y la importancia del cuido del germoplasma.

  9. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Adefegha, Stephen A.; Sunday I. Oyeleye; Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of...

  10. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and chelated Fe(2+). The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising. PMID:26788368

  11. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L. Fruit Parts In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Adefegha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE]. Radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50 revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL, α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL, and ACE (0.03 mg/mL inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL; α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL; and ACE (0.20 mg/mL]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+, and chelated Fe2+. The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising.

  12. Chemopreventive effect of Annona muricata on DMBA-induced cell proliferation in the breast tissues of female albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    J.B. Minari; U. Okeke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and leading cause of cancer death in women. Breast cancer and cancer related diseases have been treated using surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Despite these therapeutic options, cancer remains associated with high mortality. Traditional medicine which involves the use of herbs has been used to treat various types of cancer and this has been found to be effective with minimal or no side effects....

  13. Characterization of fruits from the savanna: Araça (Psidium guinnensis Sw.) and Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.)

    OpenAIRE

    Clarissa Damiani; Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas; Eduardo Ramirez Asquieri; Moacir Evandro Lage; Rodrigo Almeida de Oliveira; Flavio Alves da Silva; Daniella Moreira Pinto; Luiz José Rodrigues; Edson Pablo da Silva; Nélio Ranieli Ferreira de Paula

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize fruits from the Brazilian savanna by means of physical and chemical analyses. The results obtained for araça peel, araça pulp and marolo pulp, respectively, were: moisture (77.03, 80.41 and 70.56 g.100 g-1), ash (0.65, 0.44 and 0.54 g.100 g-1), protein (1.39, 1.87 and 1.99 g.100 g-1), lipids (0.32, 0.33 and 2.36 g.100 g-1), total carbohydrates (90.88 , 78.25 and 24.55 g.100 g-1), total soluble sugars (8.45, 9.99 and 127.4 g.100 g-1), pH (3.76, 3....

  14. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and chelated Fe(2+). The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising.

  15. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Vieira de Sousa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annonamuricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o. reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 41.41% (400 mg/kg. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: firstphase (23.67% and 45.02% and the secondphase (30.09% and 50.02%, respectively. The extract (p.o. increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04% and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30% after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o. at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33% and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33% after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o., administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74% and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95% significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  16. INTRODUCTION OF SOME RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WESTERN CAUCASUS FLORA TO IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov R. N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There were developed some methods of sterilization and introduction of the following endangered species of Caucasian flora to in vitro culture: Campanula sclerophylla Kolak., Lilium caucasicum Miscz. ex Grossh., Daphne woronowii Kolak., Pancratium maritimum L.. The effect of different plant hormones as well as their combinations and concentrations on the regeneration, growth and development of plants is studied. As a result of clonal propagation, more than 100 plants of Campanula sclerophylla Kolak, about 30 plants of Pancratium maritimum L., and 150 samples of Lilium caucasicum Miscz. Ex Grossh are saved in tissue culture

  17. In Situ Histochemical Localisation of Alkaloids and Acetogenins in the Endosperm and Embryonic Axis of Annona Macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. Seeds During Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechú-Franco, A.E.; Laguna-Hernández, G.; De la Cruz-Chacón, I.; González-Esquinca, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the Annonaceae family is characterised by the production of acetogenins (ACGs), and also by the biosynthesis of alkaloids, primarily benzylisoquinolines derived from tyrosine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in the idioblasts of the endosperm and the embryonic axis of A. macroprophyllata seeds in germination. The Dragendorff, Dittmar, Ellram, and Lugol reagents were used to test for alkaloids, and Kedde’s reagent was used to determine the presence of acetogenins in fresh sections of the endosperm and embryonic axis of seeds after twelve days of germination. A positive reaction was observed for all the reagents, and the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins was confirmed in the idioblasts of the endosperm and those involved in the differentiation of the embryonic axis of the developing seedling. We concluded that the idioblasts store both metabolites, acetogenins and alkaloids. Beginning at differentiation, the idioblasts of the embryonic axis simultaneously biosynthesise acetogenins and alkaloids that are characteristic of the species during the development of the seedling. The method used here can be applied to histochemically confirm the presence of acetogenins and alkaloids in tissues and structures of the plant in different stages of its life cycle. PMID:26972713

  18. Efecto citotóxico selectivo in vitro de muricin H (acetogenina de Annona muricata en cultivos celulares de cáncer de pulmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Quispe M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la actividad citotóxica selectiva de muricin H en la línea celular H460 (cáncer de pulmón de células grandes. Materiales y métodos: Las líneas H460 y 3T3 (fibroblastos normales de ratón, fueron expuestas a seis concentraciones de muricin H (62,5, 15,6, 3,9, 0,98, 0,24, 0,06 µg/mL, e iguales concentraciones de 5-fluorouracilo (5-FU usado como control positivo. Se hallaron los porcentajes de crecimiento en 48 horas, luego se determinó la concentración inhibitoria de crecimiento 50 (CI50 mediante análisis de regresión linear y se obtuvieron los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson. Finalmente se calculó el índice de selectividad de cada muestra. Resultados: Los CI50 en µg/mL de muricin H fueron <0,06 (r = -0,96; p<0,005 para H460; y 6,16 (r = -0,96; p<0,025 para 3T3. Los CI50 de 5-fluorouracilo fueron 0,46 (r = -0,95; p<0,005 para H460 y 0,29 (r = -0,88; p =0,01 para 3T3. Los índices de selectividad para muricin H y 5-FU fueron: 102,6 y 0,63 respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se demostró la acción citotóxica selectiva in vitro del muricin H, porque tuvo mayor efecto citotóxico para la línea H460, y menor para la línea 3T3 en relación con el 5-fluorouracilo.

  19. In situ histochemical localisation of alkaloids and acetogenins in the endosperm and embryonic axis of Annona macroprophyllata Donn. Sm. seeds during germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Brechú-Franco

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Annonaceae family is characterised by the production of acetogenins (ACGs, and also by the biosynthesis of alkaloids, primarily benzylisoquinolines derived from tyrosine. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in the idioblasts of the endosperm and the embryonic axis of A. macroprophyllata seeds in germination. The Dragendorff, Dittmar, Ellram, and Lugol reagents were used to test for alkaloids, and Kedde’s reagent was used to determine the presence of acetogenins in fresh sections of the endosperm and embryonic axis of seeds after twelve days of germination. A positive reaction was observed for all the reagents, and the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins was confirmed in the idioblasts of the endosperm and those involved in the differentiation of the embryonic axis of the developing seedling. We concluded that the idioblasts store both metabolites, acetogenins and alkaloids. Beginning at differentiation, the idioblasts of the embryonic axis simultaneously biosynthesise acetogenins and alkaloids that are characteristic of the species during the development of the seedling. The method used here can be applied to histochemically confirm the presence of acetogenins and alkaloids in tissues and structures of the plant in different stages of its life cycle.

  20. Pilot experiment to control Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mass trapping technique in a custard apple (Annona cherimolia Mill.) orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, as a result of assays coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (and participated by Spain), it was decided that ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine be included in low release polyetilene bag dispensers (Biolure, Consep, Co) as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) females were greatly attracted by them. These synthetic substances are placed in traps at the frequency of one and a half months to two months. If Tephry traps are used, one DDVP wafer (containing Vapona or a similar substance) is enough to kill the flies that enter them. These attractants make it unnecessary to replenish the liquids in the Mcphail traps and remain effective throughout the entire fruit season. The Caja Rural de Granada (a bank of farmers) encourages all techniques that increase crop profits for farmers. It is even more desirable if such crop profitability can be achieved without the application of insecticides which may result in the likely presence of toxic residues. In the light of the results achieved by the attractants with regard to female Medflies, the Caja Rural de Granada, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Research Counselling (Agricultural Department), performed an experiment on mass trapping to confirm whether it is possible to protect a fruit plantation with the application of this biotechnical method. Due to the great risk of this initial experiment, the farmers were free to use insecticides as often as they deemed necessary so that no damages due to any plague could be blamed on the experiment

  1. Effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene and wax emulsions on proximate analysis and some antioxidants of soursop (Annona muricata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Hernández, Cristina L; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; García-Galindo, Hugo S; Mata-Montes De Oca, Miguel; Montalvo-González, Efigenia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25 °C (control), and at 16 °C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20 °C, 12 h), and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16 °C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  2. 一株番荔枝内生真菌的化学成分研究%Chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus from Annona muricata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛瀚麟; 戴均贵

    2010-01-01

    目的:研究一株来源于海南刺果番荔枝、能够抑制肿瘤细胞增殖的内牛真菌F-31(黑团孢霉,Periconia sp.)的化学成分.方法:采用改良PDA培养基,对内生真菌F-31进行放大培养,通过大孔树脂吸附、硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱、高效液相色谱等色谱手段对其发酵液及菌丝中的化学成分进行分离,利用IR,MS,NMR等多种波谱手段鉴定获得的化合物的结构,应用MTT法评价化合物的体外抗肿瘤活性.结果:从内生真菌F-31的菌液乙酸乙酯层提取部分和菌丝部分提取物中分离并鉴定了6个化合物,分别为:5-(3-hydroxybuty1)furan-2(5H)-one(1),chloranthalactone E(2),5,7-二甲氧基-6-羟基香豆素(3),(1'R,2'R,3'S,4'R)-1,2,4-三唑核酸(4),L-亮氨酸(5),L-苯丙氨酸(6).药理活性评价结果表明该6个化合物均无明显的体外抗肿瘤活性.结论:所得的化合物中,化合物1为新化合物.

  3. The Effect of Annona Muricata Leaves Towards Blood Levels of Cxcl9 and Lymphoblast (Study in Cerebral Malaria Phase of Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M.Y. Gadalla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM forms part of the spectrum of severe malaria, with a case fatality rate ranging from 15% in adults in southeast Asia to 8.5% in children in Africa. A.Muricata was used to cure Malaria in traditional medicine. The research will examine the effect of it in the chemokine (C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3 binding chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 4 (CXCL4, CXCL9. The intervented mice group were infected then the it’s spleen were cultured , incubation 72 hours and then analyzed the result. The CXCL9 level of PbA-infected mice treated with A. muricata are lower than group of infected mice without treatment. Lymphoblast level of PbA-infected mice treated with A. Muricata are higher than group of infected mice without treatment. A. Muricata treatment cure in the CM in the mice and may be a potential treatment in human CM.Cerebral malaria (CM adalah keadaan infeksi malaria yang berat dengan tingkat kefatalan dari 15% di Asia tenggara dan 8% di Afrika. A. Muricata secara tradisional dipakai mengobati CM. Riset ini meneliti pengaruh A. Muricata pada ikatan chemokine (C-X-C motif reseptor 3 (CXCR3termasuk chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 4 (CXCL4 dan CXCL9. Kelompok mice intervensi diinfeksi dan limfanya di culture dalam inkubator 72 jam untuk dianalisis. Kadar PbA CXCL9 pada mencit intervensi yang diberi A. Muricata lebih rendah dari pada kontrol. Kadar PbA limfoblast intervensi lebihtinggi dari pada kontrol. A. Muricata memperbaiki CM pada mencit dan berpotensi sebagai pengobat pada CM manusia.

  4. Effect of the Application of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Wax Emulsions on Proximate Analysis and Some Antioxidants of Soursop (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L. Moreno-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and wax emulsions, alone or combined, on composition analysis, vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of soursop was evaluated. Fruits were stored as follows: at 25°C (control, and at 16°C: fruits sprayed with candelilla or flava emulsions, fruits treated with 1500 nL/L of 1-MCP (20°C, 12 h, and fruits treated with 1-MCP and then sprayed with emulsions. Fruits were allowed to ripen and the edible part was used for analysis. Only fruits stored at 16°C without 1-MCP showed visible symptoms of chilling injury. Fruits treated with 1-MCP combined with flava emulsion maintained in greater extent their vitamin C content, dietary fiber, total phenolics content, and antioxidant activity. The combination of 1-MCP and emulsions can be utilized in postharvest handling of soursop because this combination can preserve its nutritional composition and antioxidant activity.

  5. Uso combinado de 1-Meticiclopropeno y emulsiones de cera en la conservación de guanábana (Annona muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efigenia Montalvo González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la combinación del 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP y emulsiones de cera sobre la conservación de guanábana. Las condiciones de almacenamiento fueron: 25 ºC y 16 ºC, frutos con emulsiones a base de cera de candelilla o cera de abeja diluídas con agua (10:90 v/v y 15:85 v/v almacenados a 16 ºC, frutos tratados con 1-MCP (1500 nL L-1, 12 h. En los frutos a 16 ºC con y sin emulsiones se observó daño por frío y no maduraron. En los frutos con la aplicación de 1-MCP solo o combinado con emulsiones, en cualquiera de las dilusiones, no se observaron síntomas daño por frío en la pulpa. La combinación de 1-MCP y emulsión a base de cera de abeja en dilución 15:85 v/v conservaron a los frutos de guanábana por 14-15 días en comparación con los frutos almacenados a 25 ºC (6 días.

  6. Propuesta de un plan de desarrollo integral del guanábano (Annona muricata L. en el estado de Veracruz México

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    Librado Vidal Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Veracruz tiene una superficie de 71' 227 km². Cuenta con una zona potencialmente apta para el cultivo del guanábano de 18' 440 ha, (0.21%, una zona medianamente propicia de 3' 645 324 ha (51.30% y una zona no apropiada de 3' 458 862 ha, (48.44%. Existen 20 municipios productores de guanábano en el estado de Veracruz. Actualmente la demanda por este producto ha permitido su incremento en superficie estimándose en 800 ha, en estos últimos años. Con un rendimiento aproximado de 5.0 ton/ha, por debajo de la media nacional que es de 6.5 ton/ha, esto refleja la poco tecnología empleada en el manejo del cultivo. Lamentablemente el desarrollo de este frutal en Veracruz se ha realizado de una manera desordenada. Todo ello, sin ninguna planeación y sin un estudio sobre un ordenamiento agroecológico a fin de detectar áreas potencialmente aptas para este cultivo. A pesar de toda esta complejidad se ha llegado a considerar como un frutal digno de atención por las posibilidades agroindustriales que representa. En general son tres los principales puntos prioritarios a tomar en cuenta para esta estrategia de desarrollo: Primero las características genéticas del material de propagación. Segundo las condiciones de sanidad de las plantas, principal factor que podría ser limitativo para el desarrollo del guanábano. Tercero la tecnología de producción. Existe desconocimiento en la lámina e intervalo riego, época; dosis y fuente de fertilización; época y tipo de poda. Existe una gran fortaleza en su aprovechamiento integral de este frutal: comercial, industrial, medicinal, farmacéutico, fitotóxico, alimenticio, entre otras propiedades.

  7. [Analysis of the microbiological quality and potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in custard apple (Annona muricata), mango (Mangifera indica) and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) pulps from Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Breymann, Juliana; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine some of the indicators associated to shelf life, hygiene, process and storage conditions for some of custard apple, mango and passion fruit pulps distributed by the main supermarket chains of the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to examine the potential presence of Listeria monocytogenes in them. Sixty fruit pulp samples were analyzed. Tests included pH determination, total aerobic plate count, yeasts and mold count, lactic bacteria count, total and fecal most probable number and the presence/absence of Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g of the product. Fruit pulp's pH ranged between 3,1 and 3,9, and the microbiological counts obtained were relatively low except for one industry. None of the samples analyzed presented total or fecal coliforms. The presence of Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed in three samples, all of them coming from industry C. Low microbiological counts obtained may be due to the addition of preserving substances and to the pasteurization of some of the products; lack of these two elements may allow the presence of dangerous bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes.

  8. Antioxidant Ability of Crude Polysaccharides from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L.) Seeds%番荔枝种子粗多糖抗氧化能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡一鸿; 叶龙; 朱术超; 金文龙; 莫亿伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the antioxidant ability of the polysaccharides of sugar apple seeds, different concentrations of solutions were made with the crude extracts by crushing and homogenating dry seeds, ethanol refluxing, reduced pressure concentration, chloroform extraction and methanol petroleum ether extraction. With the same concentration of vitamin C as the control, the reduction ability, the resistance to peroxidation, and the ability to remove DPPH ? Radicals, superoxide radical (O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of polysaccharides from sugar apple seeds were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides exhibited a strong reduction ability, a good inhibitory effect to lipid peroxidation, and a strong ability to remove DPPH· free radicals, superoxide radical (O2-) and hydroxyl radicals (-OH), and suggested that the polysaccharides of sugar apple seeds had a strong antioxidant ability, and the oxidation resistance was stronger with the increase of concentration. But its antioxidant ability was weaker than vitamin C.%为了探讨番荔枝种子多糖的抗氧化能力,将晒干的种子经粉碎匀浆、乙醇回流、减压浓缩、氯仿萃取和甲醇石油醚抽提后得到粗提物,经干燥后配制成不同浓度的溶液,分别以相同浓度的维生素C作对照,测定了番荔枝种子多糖还原力、抗脂质过氧化能力以及清除DPPH.自由基、超氧阴离子自由基(O-2)和羟基自由基(·OH)的能力.研究结果表明:番荔枝种子多糖具有较强的还原力,对脂质过氧化有良好的抑制作用,同时具有较强的清除DPPH·、O-2和·OH的能力,说明番荔枝种子多糖具有较强的抗氧化能力,抗氧化性随浓度增大而增强,但其抗氧化能力弱于维生素C.

  9. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? A Conference Summary. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 236a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    On October 30, 2006, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Midwest Higher Education Compact held a conference on higher education and economic growth. Speakers included Michael Moskow, Richard Lester, Michael Luger, Sean Safford, Larry Isaak, Stefanie Lenway, Rod Shrader, Brian Fabes, Arthur Rothkopf, Randy Eberts, Gary Fethke, Victor…

  10. Study of the shelf-life of a mixed araça (Psidium guineensis Sw. and marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. jam Estudo da vida útil de geleia mista de araçá (Psidium guineensis Sw. e marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Damiani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to add value to araça and marolo fruits by developing jams and verifying changes in their physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters during storage. The analyses were carried out every 2 months. From the results, it was shown that the levels of moisture (35.89 - 26.34%, lipids (0.43 - 0.27%, sucrose (30.62 - 28.98%, total pectin (0.83 - 0.50%, soluble pectin (0.52 - 0.38%, total phenolic compounds (180.31 - 135.52 mg.GAE 100 g-1, and organic acids (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 citric acid decreased during storage. However, the levels of protein (0.83 - 0.95%, carbohydrate (62.52 - 72.5%, calories (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, fiber (0.72 - 1.4%, total soluble sugar (62.52 - 70.44%, reducing sugar (32.05 - 41.41%, soluble solids (68.4 - 72.18 °Brix, consistency (0.33 - 0.44 N, total antioxidant potential (11.3 - 22.63%, and color (a* 7.56 - 9.49, and b* 8.63 - 10.49 increased during 1-year storage. The quality of the fruit jams studied was in accordance with the microbiological standards established by the Brazilian legislation. It was concluded that the mixed araça and marolo jam can be stored for 1 year without the addition of additives.O objetivo do trabalho foi agregar valor ao araçá e marolo com o desenvolvimento de geleias e verificar as mudanças ocorridas em variáveis físicas, químicas e microbiológicas, durante o seu armazenamento. As análises foram realizadas, a cada 2 meses. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se que os teores de umidade (35,89 - 26,34%, lipídios (0,43 - 0,27%, sacarose (30,62 - 28,98%, pectina total (0,83 - 0,50%, pectina solúvel (0,52 - 0,38%, compostos fenólicos totais (180,31 - 135,52 mg.EAG 100 g-1 e ácidos orgânicos (401.1 - 68.5 µg.g-1 de ácido cítrico reduziram durante o armazenamento. Contudo os teores de proteínas (0,83 - 0,95%, carboidratos (62,52 - 72,5%, valor calórico (257,11 - 295,931 kcal, teores de fibras (0,72 - 1,4%, açúcar solúvel total (62,52 - 70,44%, açúcar redutor (32,05 - 41,41% e sólidos solúveis (68,4 - 72,18 °Brix, bem como a consistência (0,33 - 0,44 N, o potencial antioxidante total (11,3 - 22,63% e os parâmetros de coloração (a* 7,56 - 9,49 e b* 8,63 - 10,49, apresentaram ascensão durante 1 ano de estocagem. As geleias estudadas conservaram-se dentro das normas microbiológicas estabelecidas pela legislação brasileira. A geleia mista de araçá e de marolo, portanto, pode ser armazenada por 1 ano, sem qualquer conservante químico.

  11. Efeitos de citocininas sobre a anatomia foliar e o crescimento de Annona glabra L. durante o cultivo in vitro e ex vitro Effects of cytokinins on the leaf anatomy and growth of Annona glabra L. during in vitro and ex vitro culture

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    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes fontes de citocininas durante o cultivo in vitro de A. glabra sobre características anatômicas de folhas e crescimento das plantas foi avaliado neste trabalho. BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e KIN (cinetina induziram aumento na espessura do mesofilo, enquanto que ZEA (zeatina promoveu aumento na densidade e no índice estomático e no desenvolvimento do sistema vascular de folhas. A utilização de KIN e BAP proporcionou maior desenvolvimento e taxa de sobrevivência das plantas durante as fases de enraizamento e aclimatização.The effect of different sources of cytokinins during the in vitro cultivation of A. glabra on anatomical characteristics of leaves and plant growth was evaluated in this work. BAP (6-benzilaminopurine and KIN (kinetin induced an increase in leaf mesophyll thickness, while the ZEA (zeatin promoted an increase in density and stomatic index and development of leaves vascular system. The utilization of KIN and BAP improved higher plant development and survival rate during the acclimatization and rooting phases.

  12. Caracterização física e química de frutos de três tipos de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. Physical-chemical characterization of fruit of three types of soursop trees (Annona muricata L.

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    Célio Kersul do Sacramento

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de gravioleira dos tipos 'Morada', 'Lisa' e 'Comum', produzidos na região Sul do Estado da Bahia, foram avaliados quanto às características físicas e químicas. Com relação às características físicas, não foram detectadas diferenças de peso entre os tipos Morada (3,21kg, Lisa (2,82kg e Comum (2,39kg. Os frutos do tipo 'Lisa' apresentaram maior rendimento de polpa (85,85% em relação aos frutos dos tipos 'Morada' (83,57% e 'Comum' (83,12%. A menor razão entre o comprimento e o diâmetro, dos frutos tipos 'Morada' e 'Lisa', os caracteriza como cordiformes. Quanto às características químicas, não houve diferença entre os frutos, à exceção do maior valor de açúcares solúveis totais apresentado pelos frutos do tipo Lisa (14,55g/100g. Os valores médios apresentados foram: ºBrix 13,11; acidez 0,94 g/100g; pH 3,46, e vitamina C 37,25mg/100g. Estes valores, com exceção do pH, superaram os valores mínimos estabelecidos no Padrão de Identidade e Qualidade do Ministério da Agricultura, para polpa de graviola.Soursop fruit of types 'Morada', 'Lisa' and 'Comum' produced in the South of the state of Bahia, Brazil, were evaluated as to physical and chemical characteristics. It wasn't detected mean weight differences among the types 'Morada' (3,21kg, 'Lisa' (2,82kg and 'Comum' (2,39kg. Fruits of 'Lisa' presented higher pulp percentage (85,85% in relation to 'Morada' (83,57% and 'Comum' (83,12%. The minor ratio among length and diameter observed on fruits types 'Morada' and 'Lisa', characterize them as cordiforme shape. Except the bigger value of total soluble sugars presented by 'Lisa' fruit (14,55g/100g, it was not significant the difference among soursop fruit types in respect to their chemical characteristics evaluated. which presented the following averages: ºBrix 13,11; acidity 0,94 g/100g, pH 3,46 and vitamin C 37,25mg/100g. These values, except the pH, overcame the minimum values established in the Pattern of Identity and Quality of the Ministry of Agriculture, for soursop pulp.

  13. Comportamento respiratório e amaciamento de graviola (Annona muricata L. Após tratamentos pós-colheita com cera e 1-metilciclopropeno Respiratory behavior and softening of soursop fruit (Annona muricata L. after postharvest treatments with wax and 1-methylcyclopropene

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    Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação pós-colheita de 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP e cera sobre o comportamento respiratório e as mudanças bioquímicas associadas ao amaciamento de graviola 'Morada', durante o armazenamento refrigerado. Os frutos, produzidos em Limoeiro do Norte-Ceará, foram colhidos na maturidade fisiológica. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: controle, 200 nL.L-1 de 1-MCP, pulverização com cera Fruit wax® e pulverização com Fruit wax® seguida da aplicação de 200 nL.L-1 de 1-MCP. Os frutos foram armazenados por 0, 4, 8, 11, 13 e 15 dias, a 15,4±1,1ºC e 86±7% UR. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x6, com quatro repetições. A partir do quarto e até o oitavo dia, observou-se intensa atividade metabólica, acompanhada por rápida degradação de amido e aumento da atividade da -galactosidase. Os tratamentos pós-colheita atrasaram ou reduziram a respiração e a produção de etileno. O amaciamento foi mais lento nos frutos tratados, principalmente entre o quarto e o oitavo dias. O tratamento cera+1-MCP reduziu temporariamente a atividade da poligalacturonase e manteve estável a da amilase. Entretanto, a cera foi o tratamento mais eficiente porque preservou a aparência por até treze dias.The effect of postharvest application of 1-methylcylopropene (1-MCP and wax on respiratory behavior and biochemical changes was evaluated regarding the softening of soursop fruit 'Morada', during refrigerated storage. Fruits produced in Limoeiro do Norte, State of Ceara, Brazil, were harvested at the physiological maturity stage. The treatments were: control, 200 nL.L-1 of 1-MCP, Fruit wax® sprayed on fruits, and Fruit wax® sprayed on fruits followed by application of 200 nL.L-1 of 1-MCP. The fruits were stored during 0, 4, 8, 11, 13 and 15 days, at 15.4±1.1ºC and 86±7% RH. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with a 4x6 factorial and four replications. From the fourth day to the eighth day, an intense metabolic activity was observed, as well as a fast starch breakdown and an increase in -galactosidase activity. Postharvest treatments delayed or reduced respiration and ethylene production. Softening was slower in treated fruits mainly between the fourth and the eighth day. The treatment wax coating+1-MCP temporarily reduced polygalacturonase activity and kept amylase activity stable. However, wax was the most efficient treatment because it maintained the appearance during thirteen days.

  14. Uso de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA na promoção do crescimento de mudas de pinheira (Annona squamosa L., Annonaceae Use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF to promote the growth of sugar apple seedlings (Annona squamosa L. Annonaceae

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    Ieda Ribeiro Coelho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA podem ser usados na formação de mudas frutíferas, porém o seu efeito na pinheira não é conhecido. Foi investigado o papel de dois isolados de FMA (Acaulospora longula e Gigaspora albida na promoção do crescimento de mudas de pinheira. O delineamento experimental foi tipo inteiramente casualizado em seis tratamentos: 1 Controle não inoculado em solo; 2 Controle não inoculado em solo adubado; 3 Inoculado com A. longula em solo; 4 Inoculado com A. longula em solo adubado; 5 Inoculado com G. albida em solo; 6 Inoculado com G. albida em solo adubado, em quatro repetições, totalizando 24 unidades. Plântulas com duas folhas foram inoculadas na região das raízes com solo-inóculo fornecendo 200 esporos de G. albida ou de A. longula. Após 140 dias em casa de vegetação avaliou-se: altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e radicular, colonização micorrízica e produção de esporos de FMA. Em solo não adubado, os benefícios da micorrização foram evidenciados nas mudas formando simbiose com G. albida. Em solo com vermicomposto, a micorrização não incrementou o crescimento da mudas. A micorrização com G. albida pode ser alternativa para produção de mudas de pinheira, dispensando a fertilização.Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can be used to promote seedling growth of fruit trees, but their effect on sugar apple is not known. We investigated the role of two isolates of AMF (Acaulospora longula and Gigaspora albida in promoting the growth of sugar apple seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and four replicates (totaling 24 units: 1 uninoculated control; 2 uninoculated control in fertilized soil; 3 inoculated with A. longula in soil, 4 inoculated with A. longula in fertilized soil, 5 inoculated with G. albida in soil; 6 inoculated with G. albida in fertilized soil. Seedlings with two leaves were inoculated in the region of the roots with soil-inocula with 200 spores of G. albida or A. longula. After 140 days in a greenhouse the height, leaf number, stem diameter, leaf area, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, root colonization and production of spores were evaluated. The seedlings benefited from G. albida mycorrhiza when grown in unfertilized soil. Mycorrhizal inoculation did not increase the growth of seedlings in soil with vermicompost. The use G. albida is an alternative in the production of sugar apple seedlings, instead of fertilizers.

  15. OBTENÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DA ENZIMA POLIFENOLOXIDASE EXTRAÍDA DE POLPA DE PINHA (Annona squamosa L. MADURA NO MELHORAMENTO DO SABOR DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. OBTAINING AND USE OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE ENZYME EXTRACTED FROM RIPE CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L. PULP ON THE COCOA (Theobroma cacao L. NIBS IN TASTE IMPROVEMENT

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    ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE LIMA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a obtenção e a utilização da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO extraída de polpa de pinha madura na redução do teor de compostos polifenólicos com a finalidade de diminuir a adstringência e o amargor das amêndoas de cacau processadas na forma de "nibs". A PPO foi extraída com tampão fosfato de potássio 0,025M (pH 7,5, adicionando sulfato de amônio para a precipitação da enzima. O material em pó obtido foi denominado de enzima parcialmente purificada, sendo que a análise de atividade enzimática foi realizada, utilizando-se de catecol como substrato. As características bioquímicas apresentadas foram pH de estabilidade de 6,0 a 6,5 e temperatura de estabilidade de 10 a 30°C. Os "nibs" foram autoclavados (121°C por 15 minutos e não autoclavados de amêndoas cruas insuficientemente fermentadas e secas, da mesma origem, sendo embebidas em 25 mL de uma solução da enzima contendo 200 unidades/min/mL, durante 30; 60; 90; 210 e 360 minutos, a 23°C e pH 6,0. Os "nibs" foram homogeneizados com a solução de enzima a cada 15 minutos, secos, moídos e desengordurados. Após o tratamento enzimático durante 210 minutos realizado nos "nibs" de cacau desengordurado não autoclavados foi possível observar diminuição de 15% nas concentrações de fenóis totais, 15% de taninos, 10% de flavan-3-ois e 18% de antocianidinas. Os "nibs" de cacau desengordurado autoclavados apresentaram diminuição de 25% nas concentrações de fenóis totais, 26% de taninos, 23% de flavan-3-ois e 51% de antocianidinas.The present work had as aim to study the obtaining and the uses of polyphenoloxidase enzyme (PPO extracted from ripe custard apple pulp on the reduction of polyphenolic compounds with decrease adstringency and bitterness of cocoa nuts processed at nibs form. The PPO was extracted with 0.025M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5, adding ammonium sulfate to the enzyme precipitation. The powdered material obtained was called partially purified enzyme, being the analyses of activity carried out with catechol as substract, showing biochemical characteristics of 5.0 to 6.5 stability pH and 10 to 30°C stability temperature the nibs were autoclaved (121°C for 15 minutes and non-autoclaved from the same origin, raw nuts insuficiently fermented and dried were soaked in a solution of the enzyme containing 200 units/min/mL, for 30, 60, 90, 210 and 360 minutes, at 23°C and pH 6.0 . The nibs were homogeneized with the enzyme solution each 15 minutes, dried, ground and became unfatted. After enzymatic treatment over 210 minutes carried out on the non-autoclaved unfatted cocoa nibs, it was possible to observe diminishing of 15% in the total phenol, 15% tannin content, 10% of flavan-3-ois and 18% of anthocyanidins concentrations. The nibs of autoclaved unfatted cacao showed diminishing of 25% in the total phenol, 26% of tannins 23% of flavan-3-ois, and 51% of anthocyanidins concentrations.

  16. Análise de extratos de plantas por CCD: uma metodologia aplicada à disciplina "química orgânica" Analysis of extracts of plants by tlc: a methodology applied in the "organic chemistry" discipline

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    Mariana H. Chaves

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available extracts of the regional plants Annona squamosa and Annona muricata were analysed by silica gel thin-layer chromatography using adequate systems of solvents and spray reagents. Carbohydrates, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were detected in both species. These data agree with those on the literature about phytochemistry of the Annonaceae.

  17. AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR A FRUTOS DE ATA ATRAVÉS DO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE NÉCTAR MISTO DE MARACUJÁ (PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS E ATA (ANNONA SQUAMOSA L.

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    MARESSA CALDEIRA MORZELLE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente, observa-se uma nova tendência no consumo alimentar, com uma demanda cada vez maior por alimentos com elevadas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais. Pelo crescente interesse em produtos saudáveis, houve uma expansão na agroindústria de frutas, principalmente aquelas com características sensoriais exóticas. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral desenvolver um néctar misto, à base dos frutos de ata e maracujá, que atendesse ao requerimento de aceitação pelo público; considerando assim essa mistura de frutas uma saída para um melhor aproveitamento tecnológico dessas matérias-primas com agregação de valor. Avaliou-se as características sensoriais, microbiológicas e físico-químicas: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis. Foram estudadas duas formulações de néctar variando o teor de polpa (50% polpa de ata e 50% polpa de maracujá e 30% polpa de maracujá com 70% polpa de ata de cada fruta, as quais foram avaliadas por 100 consumidores utilizando a escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos para a aceitabilidade e escala estruturada de cinco pontos de intenção de compra. Os resultados de aceitação global não diferiram signifi cativamente (p< 0,05, sendo que as duas formulações foram bem aceitas com média de aceitação 8, equivalente ao termo “gostei muito”, o que sugere alto potencial para mercado.

  18. HPLC法测定番荔枝种子中泡番荔枝辛的含量%Determination of Bullatacin in the Seeds of Annona squamosa by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄家悦; 毕志明; 李萍; 章永红

    2010-01-01

    目的:采用HPLC法测定番荔枝种子中泡番荔枝辛的含量.方法:采用HPLC法测定.色谱柱:Hedera ODS-3(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm),流动相为甲醇-水(90∶10),流速为1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长为220 nm,柱温25 ℃.结果:进样量在2.01~20.1 μg范围内时,其质量与色谱峰面积的线性关系良好(r=0.999 8).泡番荔枝辛平均回收率为99.7%,RSD为2.2% (n=6).测得2008年和2009年采收的番荔枝种子中泡番荔枝辛的含量分别为1.09%和1.42%.结论:本法简便,灵敏,分离度良好,可用于番荔枝种子中泡番荔枝辛的含量测定.

  19. Efecto bioinsecticida del extracto etanólico de las semillas de Annona cherimolia Miller “chirimoya” Y A. muricata Linneaus “guanábana” sobre larvas del IV estadio de Anopheles sp.

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    Miguel Bobadilla Álvarez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En vista del incremento de la resistencia a los insecticidas químicos frente al control de mosquitos vectores de enfermedades metaxénicas, es que se viene realizando la búsqueda de métodos alternativos, utilizando extractos de plantas con actividad larvicida debido a su capacidad de biodegradación generando menor daño ambiental. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la mortalidad de larvas del IV estadio de Anopheles sp. mediante el extracto etanólico de las semillas de A. cherimolia (E1 y A. muricata (E2. Los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad, corregidos por la fórmula de Abbott, fueron de 100% a las 24 horas de exposición a la concentración de 0,8 y 0,12 ml/100 mL en E1 y E2, respectivamente, observándose un mayor efecto tóxico larvario a favor de E2 sobre E1 en 4,58% de mortalidad. El análisis probit mostró un patrón de respuesta heterogéneo de las larvas a las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y al 90% (CL90 a lo largo de todos los tiempos de evaluación y una mayor homogeneidad a los tiempos letales al 50% (TL50 y al 90% (TL90 a medida que aumentaban las concentraciones de los extractos. Asimismo, la forma de las rectas de regresión muestran individuos larvarios con diferentes susceptibilidades a los extractos, lo que establece diferentes poblaciones o genotipos intervinientes. El trabajo permitió demostrar el efecto larvicida de ambas semillas y subraya la necesidad de realizar mayores ensayos in vitro como alternativa al control de insectos de importancia en salud pública.

  20. 番荔枝子去蛋白多糖制备及其体外降糖作用研究%Preparation of Protein-free Polysaccharide from Annonae Squamosae Semen and Its In Vitro Hypoglycemic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱海龙; 汤彬; 王玉; 李祥; 白刚刚; 陈建伟

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed to research the influence of glucose consumption of HepG2 cell and insulin-resistance of HepG2 cell administrated with protein -free polysaccharide from A nnonae Squamosae Semen ( ASS ) . Crude polysaccharide from ASS was prepared by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method . Its protein was removed by sevag method . The content of its total sugar was measured by phenol-sulfuric acid method . Besides , the influences of glucose consumption of HepG2 cell and insulin-resistance of HepG2 cell administrated with different concentrations of protein-free polysaccharide were determined . The result showed that protein-free polysaccharide from ASS can slightly improve the glucose consumption of HepG2 cell , which was related to its concentration . The protein-free polysaccharide from ASS can obviously promote insulin-resis-tance of HepG2 cell . When the drug concentration was 0 . 08 mg•mL-1 , the effect is the best ( P < 0 . 01 ) . Be-sides , the protein-free polysaccharide from ASS had certain synergistic effect as physiological insulin . It was concluded that the protein-free polysaccharide from ASS had good in v itro hypoglycemic effect .%目的:研究番荔枝子去蛋白多糖对HepG2细胞糖消耗及胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞糖消耗的影响。方法:水提醇沉法制备番荔枝子粗多糖,经过Sevag法除蛋白得番荔枝子去蛋白多糖,用苯酚-硫酸法检测其总糖含量。取对数生长期的HepG2细胞,分别给予不同浓度的番荔枝子去蛋白多糖,检测其对HepG2细胞葡萄糖消耗的影响;建立高胰岛素抵抗模型,同法测定其对细胞液中葡萄糖消耗的影响。结果:番荔枝子去蛋白多糖能轻度促进HepG2细胞的葡萄糖消耗,其作用与剂量呈正相关;番荔枝子去蛋白多糖能明显促进胰岛素抵抗HepG2细胞葡萄糖消耗作用,在浓度为0.08 mg·mL-1时,效果最佳(P <0.01)。同时,番荔枝子去蛋白多糖与生理胰岛素具有一定的协同作用。结论:番荔枝子去蛋白多糖具有较好的体外降糖作用。

  1. Efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras (Annona muricata

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    Batista Magnalda Maria Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da omissão de macronutrientes no crescimento, nos sintomas de deficiências nutricionais e na composição mineral em gravioleiras, conduziu-se experimento em casa de vegetação, mediante a técnica do elemento faltante. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e sete tratamentos, sendo completo (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e micronutrientes e com omissão individual de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. As omissões dos macronutrientes afetaram o crescimento em altura, diâmetro das plantas e produção de matéria seca, quando comparados ao tratamento completo. Com base nos teores em g/kg dos macronutrientes nas folhas, encontraram-se os seguintes valores adequados nos tratamento completo e com omissão: N = 14,70 e 8,82; P = 0,92 e 0,47; K = 12,35 e 2,62; Ca = 14,11 e 3,44; Mg = 3,59 e 1,09; S = 5,32 e 2,30.

  2. AGREGAÇÃO DE VALOR A FRUTOS DE ATA ATRAVÉS DO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE NÉCTAR MISTO DE MARACUJà (PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS ) E ATA (ANNONA SQUAMOSA L.)

    OpenAIRE

    MARESSA CALDEIRA MORZELLE; ELLEN CRISTINA DE SOUZA; CAROLINA FAGUNDES ASSUMPÇ�O; JúLIO CEZAR JOHNER FLORES; KEILY ALVES DE MOURA OLIVEIRA

    2010-01-01

    Atualmente, observa-se uma nova tendência no consumo alimentar, com uma demanda cada vez maior por alimentos com elevadas propriedades nutricionais e funcionais. Pelo crescente interesse em produtos saudáveis, houve uma expansão na agroindústria de frutas, principalmente aquelas com características sensoriais exóticas. Sendo assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo geral desenvolver um néctar misto, à base dos frutos de ata e maracujá, que atendesse ao r...

  3. Effects of Warming and Nitrogen Application on the Growth Status of Castanopsis Fargesii and Castanopsis sclerophyll Seedlings under Artificial Control Conditions%人工控制增温和施氮对丝栗栲和苦槠幼苗生长状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻志强; 赵广东; 王兵; 邓宗富; 杨清培; 贺小云

    2013-01-01

    以中亚热带典型常绿阔叶林的主要优势树种丝栗栲(Castanopsis fargesii)和苦槠(Castanopsis sclerophylla)幼苗为研究对象,通过MSR-2420红外辐射增温装置和人工施氮(对照、质量分数为0.125%和0.25%NH4NO3溶液),设置出不同的增温和施氮梯度,研究增温和施氮对丝栗栲和苦槠幼苗生长状况的影响.结果表明:MSR-2420红外辐射增温装置处理引起了小气候环境的明显改变.随着在设定环境下生长时间的增加,丝栗栲和苦槠幼苗单株的地径和苗高均显著增加(P<0.01).同一测量时间、同一处理条件下,苦槠幼苗的地径和苗高均显著高于丝栗栲(P<0.01).与对照相比,增温和施氮均明显提高了丝栗栲和苦槠幼苗的生物量,但其地上生物量与地下生物量的比值未发生显著变化.%Taking Castanopsis fargesii and Castanopsis sclerophylla seedings as the study target, the dominant species of typical evergreen broad - leaved forest in the mid-subtropical zone, through MSR -2420 infrared radiation warming devices and artificial nitrogen fertilizer (control,0.125% NH4NO3 solution and 0. 25% NH4NO3 solution) , a sequential interaction of air temperature wanning and soil nitrogen application was set up. The effects of air temperature warming and soil nitrogen application to the growth of Castanopsis fargesii and Castanopsis sclerophylla seedings are illustrated in this paper. The results showed that; MSR - 2420 infrared radiation warming device treatment caused a significant change of microclimate environment. With the increase of growth time under the artificial control conditions, the seeding height and ground diameter of Castanopsis fargesii and Castanopsis sclerophylla increased significantly (P<0. 01). Under the same measurement time and other conditions, the seedling height and ground diameter of Castanopsis sclerophylla were significantly higher than that of Castanopsis fargesii (P <0. 01). Compared with the control

  4. New species and host plants of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) primarily from Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrbom, Allen L; Rodriguez, Erick J; Steck, Gary J; Sutton, Bruce A; Nolazco, Norma

    2015-11-16

    Twenty-eight new species of Anastrepha are described and illustrated: A. acca (Bolivia, Peru), A. adami (Peru), A. amplidentata (Bolivia, Peru), A. annonae (Peru), A. breviapex (Peru), A. caballeroi (Peru), A. camba (Bolivia, Peru), A. cicra (Bolivia, Peru), A. disjuncta (Peru), A. durantae (Peru), A. echaratiensis (Peru), A. eminens (Peru), A. ericki (Peru), A. gonzalezi (Bolivia, Peru), A. guevarai (Peru), A. gusi (Peru), A. kimi (Colombia, Peru), A. korytkowskii (Bolivia, Peru), A. latilanceola (Bolivia, Peru), A. melanoptera (Peru), A. mollyae (Bolivia, Peru), A. perezi (Peru), A. psidivora (Peru), A. robynae (Peru), A. rondoniensis (Brazil, Peru), A. tunariensis (Bolivia, Peru), A. villosa (Bolivia), and A. zacharyi (Peru). The following host plant records are reported: A. amplidentata from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae); A. caballeroi from Quararibea malacocalyx A. Robyns & S. Nilsson (Malvaceae); A. annonae from Annona mucosa Jacq. and Annona sp. (Annonaceae); A. durantae from Duranta peruviana Moldenke (Verbenaceae); and A. psidivora from Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae).

  5. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hikmah Harun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Citrus aurantifolia, Alpinia galangal, O. aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  6. 9种壳斗科树种坚果3种矿质元素及Vc含量分析%Analysis of 3 Mineral Elements and Vc Contents in Nuts of 9 Fagaceae Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马冬雪; 刘仁林

    2011-01-01

    @@ 壳斗科(Fagaceae)主要分布在亚洲东南部,全球约900种.我国大多数地区通常把壳斗科植物的坚果都称为"橡实",有些省区仅将栎属(QucercusL.)树种的坚果称之为"橡实",而李世华等[1]认为"橡实又叫橡子";显然,"橡实或橡子"均指壳斗科植物的坚果.%In order to obtain more and detailed information, the chemical experiment methods were used to analyze the main nutritional components of mineral Ca, Mg, Fe and Vt, acid value in the nuts of 9 Fagaceae species. Some conclusions are as follows: ( 1 ) Among the 9 species, the Castanea seguinii nut has the greatest content of Ca, followed by Castanea henryi and Lithocarpus litseifolius, that in the Cyclobalanopsis gracilis nuts is the least; meanwhile, the Castanea seguinii nuts contain the most Mg, followed by Castanopsis sclerophylla and Castanopsis tibetana, but the Castanea henryi nut has the least mineral Mg. In addition, the Castanopsis sclerophylla nuts contain the greatest content of Fe, but the nuts of some species such as Castanea seguinii, Castanopsis eyrei, and Castanea henryicontain also more mineral Fe. (2) the nuts of Castanea seguinii contain rich content of Vc, followed by Castanea henryi. (3) Among these 9 species, Cyclobalanopsis gracilis nuts contain the highest acid value, followed by Cyclobalanopsis glauca, the fruits of Castanea seguinii, Castanea henryi and Castanopsis sclerophylla nuts have the moderate acidity value, which taste better and have a higher development value. In a word, the nuts of these 9 species contain rich mineral nutritional ingredients and Vc. It is considered that these species could meet the need of food industry in great scale.

  7. Contribution à l'étude du lien entre Annonaceae et parkinsonisme : identification et quantification d'acétogénines par déréplication; métabolisation de phase I et approche de la distribution de l'annonacine

    OpenAIRE

    Le Ven, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In the French West Indies, an unusually high proportion of atypical sporadic parkinsonisms - tauopathies - is observed. A link between these atypical parkinsonisms and the consumption of plants of the Annonacea family, Annona muricata L. (soursop) was demonstrated. The Annonaceous acetogenins are potent inhibitors of complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain and are considered to be in vitro toxins candidate. The major acetogenin in Annona muricata, annonacin, is neurotoxic in in vitro and...

  8. Photosynthesis traits of the dominant plant species seedlings in the secondary forest in Qiandao Lake and its significance in the succession of forest community%千岛湖次生林优势种幼苗光合特性及其对群落演替的指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金则新; 熊能

    2011-01-01

    利用LCA-4型便携式全自动光合测定仪,于2009年8月下旬晴朗天气,对千岛湖次生林优势种马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、苦槠(Castanopsis sclerophylla)、石栎(Lithocarpus glabra)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)幼苗在林窗、林下2种生境中的光合生理生态特性进行了研究.结果表明:(1)在林窗中马尾松光合日进程为“单峰”曲线,其他3种均为“双峰”曲线,有明显光合“午休”现象.在林下这4种幼苗的光合日进程均为“单峰”曲线,但曲线平缓,峰值不明显.在林窗中青冈的日均Pn显著低于其他3物种,而在林下马尾松的日均Pn显著低于其余3物种.4个优势种的日均Pn在2种生境中均差异显著.(2) LCP、LSP、Amax、Rd均是马尾松最高,苦槠次之,青冈、石栎较低;青冈、石栎的AQY显著高于马尾松和苦槠,苦槠的AQY也显著高于马尾松.(3)在林窗中,青冈Fm最高,与其他3种均差异显著;Fv/Fm为马尾松最高,显著高于其他3物种.这说明马尾松属强阳性树种,苦槠为阳性树种,青冈和石栎具有较强的耐荫性,随着进展演替,群落郁闭度的增大,马尾松、苦槠将逐渐退出群落,而青冈和石栎将成为群落演替顶极阶段的优势种.%The photosynthesis traits of the seedlings of the dominant plant species Pinus massoniana, Castanopsis sclerophylla , Lithocarpus glabra and Cyclobalanopsis glauca in the forest gap and understory habitats were studied by using a LCA4 Portable Photosynthesis System in sunny in August, 2009. In the forest gap habitat, the diurnal variation of Pinus massoniana seedling appears as a single peak curve and those of the other plant species seedlings as a typical two-peak curve with obvious "midday depression". In the understory habitat, all the diurnal variation of the four dominant plant species seedlings stably appears as a single peak curve. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of C. Glauca seedling was significantly lower than those of

  9. Anatomia e aspectos filogeneticos do xilema secundario de 10 especies de Annonaceae do Estado de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Botosso, Paulo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho engloba o estudo anatômico e os aspectos de importância filogenética do xilema secundário de 10 espécies de Annonaceae, com ocorrência natural no Estado de Santa Catarina. Foram estudadas as seguintes espécies: Annona cacans (Warm.) var. glabriuscula R. E. Fries, Annona glabra L., Duguetia lanceolata St. Hil., Guatteria australis St. Hil., Porcelia macrocarpa (Warm.) R. E. Fries, Rollinia emarginata Schlecht., Rollinia exalbida (Vell.) Mart., Rollinia sericea R. E. Fries, ...

  10. Crecimiento y topología de la ramificación de la guanábana y el manirote Growth and topological branching of the soursop and manirote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Parés-Martínez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar el crecimiento y el sistema de ramificación de la parte aérea de la guanábana (Annona muricata y el manirote (Annona montana a pie franco y Annona muricata injertada sobre Annona montana. Se evaluó la longitud, el número de nudos y el número de brotes producidos por ramas de primer y segundo orden, después de haberlas sometido a poda. También se realizó un análisis topológico de la ramificación, a los cuatro meses después de la primera y segunda poda, mediante la determinación de las características altitud, magnitud y total de ramificaciones externas, para establecer la configuración de la copa. Las ramas de los materiales evaluados presentaron tendencias similares en cuanto a la longitud total y la formación de nudos, además de ritmicidad en el alargamiento. La formación de brotes aumentó gradualmente con el tiempo y la producción de ramas potencialmente productivas de la A. muricata a pie franco fue mayor que en las plantas injertadas. El material vegetal evaluado mostró un patrón de ramificación dicotómico y numéricamente escaso. Las características topológicas utilizadas definieron satisfactoriamente el tipo de ramificación que tomaron las plantas, durante la primera y segunda poda.The objective of this work was to characterize growth and branching system of the soursop (Annona muricata and manirote (Annona montana rootstock plants, and grafted plants of Annona muricata on Annona montana. Length and number of branchs and node number produced by branches of first and second order, after each of two sequential pruning, were determined. A topologycal analysis of branching was performed after the first and second pruning, in which altitude, magnitude and total number of external branching were measured. Branches of the three evaluated materials presented similar tendency related to the length, node formation and lengthening. The formation of node increased gradually in

  11. Construction of Near-natural Forests as Ecological Restoration of Urban Ecosystem in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DALiangjun

    2004-01-01

    A model stand of near-natural forest with an area of 3 000 m2 was established as a case study in Pudong New District, Shanghai City in 2000. Eleven species were planted in model stand. As the dominant species of community, 4 evergreen broad-leaved tree species, namely: Machilus thunbergii, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, C.mylsinafolia and Castanopsis sclerophylla were chosen, accompanying with evergreen broadleaved shrub species like Pittosporum tobira, Ligustrum quihoui and Dis~'lium racemosum, etc. as well as deciduous tree species, Liquidambarformosana, etc. After three-year growth, the community physiognomy had changed to be a shrub stage, and the highest tree reached to 4.6 m. A forest physiognomy would be formed in about 10 years estimated. The method of construction of near-natural forest that had been worldwidely applied would also play a key role in the construction of urban forest in China.

  12. [Estimation for vegetation carbon storage in Tiantong National Forest Park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-Zi; Wu, Yang-Yang; Ni, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Based on the field investigation and the data combination from literature, vegetation carbon storage, carbon density, and their spatial distribution were examined across six forest community types (Schima superba--Castanopsis fargesii community, S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community, S. superba--C. fargesii with Distylium myricoides community, Illicium lanceolatum--Choerospondias axillaris community, Liquidambar formosana--Pinus massoniana community and Hedyotis auricularia--Phylostachys pubescens community) in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, by using the allometric biomass models for trees and shrubs. Results showed that: Among the six communities investigated, carbon storage and carbon density were highest in the S. superba--C. fargesii with C. sclerophylla community (storage: 12113.92 Mg C; density: 165.03 Mg C · hm(-2)), but lowest in the I. lanceolatum--C. axillaris community (storage: 680.95 Mg C; density: 101.26 Mg C · hm(-2)). Carbon storage was significantly higher in evergreen trees than in deciduous trees across six communities. Carbon density ranged from 76.08 to 144.95 Mg C · hm(-2), and from 0. 16 to 20. 62 Mg C · hm(-2) for evergreen trees and deciduous trees, respectively. Carbon storage was highest in stems among tree tissues in the tree layer throughout communities. Among vegetation types, evergreen broad-leaved forest had the highest carbon storage (23092.39 Mg C), accounting for 81.7% of the total carbon storage in all forest types, with a car- bon density of 126.17 Mg C · hm(-2). Total carbon storage for all vegetation types in Tiantong National Forest Park was 28254.22 Mg C, and the carbon density was 96.73 Mg C · hm(-2). PMID:25898604

  13. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  14. Yield and fruit quality traits of atemoya hybrids grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...

  15. New species of Annonaceae from the Neotropics and miscellaneaous notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.I.T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper six new Neotropical species in four genera are described, viz. Annona oxapampae, Duguetia vaupesana, Guatteria castilloi, G. pachyphylla, G. sanctae-crucis and Pseudoxandra xylopiifolia. Furthermore additional data on four poorly known species of Guatteria (G. denudata, G. glauca, G. m

  16. Acaricidal activity of Annonaceae fractions against Tetranychus tumidus and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae and the metabolite profile of Duguetia lanceolata (Annonaceae using GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejane Santos Alves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Tetranychus genus feed on plant tissues, which reduces the rate of photosynthesis and can lead to the death of plant tissues. As a result, considerable production losses are caused by these arthropods. Thus, in order to aid in the development of new products for the control of Tetranychus tumidus Banks and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae, the initial objective of this study was to select Annonaceae derived fractions that were soluble in dichloromethane and have acaricidal activity. Then, an exploratory analysis of the metabolite profile of the most successful fraction was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the dichloromethane soluble fractions derived from Annona cacans Warm., Annona coriacea Mart., Annona neolaurifolia H. Rainer, Annona sylvatica A.St.-Hil., Duguetia lanceolata A.St.-Hil., Guatteria australis A.St.-Hil., Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng., Xylopia emarginata Mart. and Xylopia sericea A.St.-Hil., only the fraction from D. lanceolata stem bark reduced the survival of T. tumidus females. However, ovicidal activity was not detected when D. lanceolata stem bark was evaluated against T. tumidus eggs. Further, we studied the effect of dichloromethane soluble fractions from D. lanceolata leaves, berry fruits and stem bark on T. urticae, and the stem bark was found to be the most active fraction against T. urticae. The metabolite profile analysis of D. lanceolata stem bark by GC-MS, suggested that the main constituents were 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene and trans-asarone.

  17. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: A synergetic approach using multiple nitidulid lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya, a cross between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae), has the potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to production throughout the world is low fruit-set due to inadequate visits by pollinators, typically beetles in the family Nitidulid...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Major Nutrition Ingredients of Fruits of 10 Species Belonging to Fagaceae%10种壳斗科植物果实主要营养成分比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁林; 王娟; 廖为明

    2009-01-01

    The fruits of 10 species of Fagaceae were picked on 30th Oct,and experiments on contents of total fat,protein, reducing sugar, starch, pectin of seeds and content of water of fruits were conducted. The results are as follows: (1)Starch content(% ) and reducing sugar congtent ( % ) of seeds of the 10 species of Fagaceae show a similar pattern, that is Castanopsis eyrei > Castanea seguinii > Castanopsis sclerophylla > Castanea henryi > Castanopsis tibetana > Lithocarpus litseifolius > Luhocarpus fenestratus > Cyclobalanopsis glauca > Fagus longipetiolata > Cyclobalanopsis gracilis. In addition, higher percentages of protein have been found in the seeds of the nuts of 4 species,!:e Castanopsis eyrei,Castanea seguinii,Castanopsis sclerophylla and Castanea henryi. These facts convince us that it is very valuable to develop starch resource of nuts of these 4 species. ( 2 ) Contents of fat of the seeds do not show any law, but one point is very clear that the seeds of Cyclobalanopsis glauca have the highest percentage of fat and Lithocarpus litseifolius has the lowest. Although the pectin contents of the seeds do not show any law, the seeds of Castanopsis sclerophylla have the highest percentage of pectin and Castanea henryi has the lowest. (3)The highest percentages of water are found in the fruits of 2 species , I:e Castanea seguinii and Castanea henryi, because of this, the fruits of this two species have nice taste texture.%于10月30日采摘10种壳斗科植物的果实,并测定其果实的含水率和种子(种仁)中总脂肪、蛋白质、还原糖、淀粉、果胶的含量,结果表明:(1)这10种壳斗科植物果实中种子淀粉含量与还原性糖的含量具有相似的规律,即甜槠>茅栗>苦槠>锥栗>红钩栲>多穗柯>华南石栎>青冈>长柄水>细叶青冈;而且甜槠、茅栗、苦槠、锥栗的果实中蛋白质含量都比较高,因此这4个树种的果实作为木本淀粉类资源具有较大的开发价值.(2)脂肪的含量没有

  19. Experiment on Ecological Firebreak of Broadleaved-oriented Transformation of Coniferous Forest%针叶林阔叶化改造的森林生态防火效果初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高福

    2009-01-01

    结合森林生态防火,引入木荷、苦槠、青冈、石栎、枫香等耐火目的树种对马尾松和杉木林退化系统进行阀叶化改造.在千岛湖区进行杉木间伐补植木荷、枫香,杉木萌芽林补植苦槠、青冈,马尾松林下补植枫香、青冈或苦槠、石栎四种不同阔叶化改造试验,3年后的调查测定结果表明:通过改造,优化了林分结构,马尾松阔叶化改造促进生态恢复的速度更为迅速.改造林分内枯落物比针叶林少,而枯落物含水率高;土壤含水率则因立地条件而异.阔叶化改造后具有明显提高生物多样性和防火效果及一定的涵养水源、保持水土作用.通过针叶林阔叶化改造,调整树种的组成结构、可燃物的空间分布,改善林地环境,以森林的片状控制代替林带控制,全方位有效控制森林火灾,在当前可持续发展和生态环境改善日益重视的社会背景与发展趋势下,具有推广应用前景.%Experiment on transformation of degraded pine and Chinese fir forest was conducted by planting fire-resistant tree species such as Schima superba, Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Lithocarpus glaber, Liquidambar formosana. Four experiment plots were selected for filling-up of S. superba and L. formasana after intermediate cutting of Cunninghamia lanceolata in Qiandaohu, Zhejiang province, for filling-up of C. sclerophylla and C. glauca under sprout of C. lanceolata, for filling-up of L. formosana and C. glauca or C. sclerophylla and L. glaber under Pinus massoniana forest. Investigation in three years later resulted that transformation of pine forest had faster ecological recovery. Transformed forest had less litter with higher moisture content than coniferous forest. Moisture content in soil of each plot varied in accordance of site conditions. Broadleaved-oriented transformation could evidently increase biodiversity and firebreak effect, as well as water and soil conservation.

  20. Endogenous recipes for controlling arthropod ectoparasites of domestic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifou, Sahidou; Offoumon, Oyéniran Thierry La Fronde; Gouissi, Fadéby Modeste; Pangui, Louis-Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants and other methods used in controlling external parasitic diseases of backyard poultry in the localities of Djougou and Ouaké (department of Donga, Benin). It consists of a survey undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011 through visits and interviews with 210 poultry famers. The results indicate that 13 species of medicinal plants are used in controlling ectoparasites. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa are believed to treat external parasitic diseases in the area of this study. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently cited plant (18%, p < 0.05) used in remedies against external parasites in poultry. Other traditional recipes such as palm oil and ash have been reported. PMID:24252957

  1. 圆滑番荔枝的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张笑松; 常世忠; 方薇

    2001-01-01

    番荔枝科(Annonaceae)是热带植物区系的主要科,全世界约100余属。番荔枝属(Annona)为该科模式属,约120种。产于美洲热带地区,少数产于热带非洲,亚洲热带地区有引种栽培。我国栽培有5种,分别为圆滑番荔枝(Annona glabra linn)、刺果番荔枝(A.muricata linn.)、毛叶番荔枝(A.cherimolia mill.)和牛心番荔枝(A.retieulata linn.)。此外,我国引种栽培的还有山番荔枝(A.montana macf.),但数量较少。

  2. Controle de Cerconota anonella em pomar de gravioleira Control of Cerconota anonella in a soursop orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Testaram-se métodos químico e cultural para o controle de Cerconota anonella (Sepp., 1830 (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae, principal praga da gravioleira (Annona muricata L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 9 tratamentos e 20 repetições. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com saco plástico microperfurado e papel kraft tratado com clorpirifós.This research is related to the control of Cerconota anonella (Sepp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae, the most important pest of soursop, Annona muricata L. Nine treatments were tested with twenty replications in a completely randomized design. The best results were obtained using microperforated plastic bags and clorphiriphos treated kraft paper bags.

  3. Endogenous recipes for controlling arthropod ectoparasites of domestic poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifou, Sahidou; Offoumon, Oyéniran Thierry La Fronde; Gouissi, Fadéby Modeste; Pangui, Louis-Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants and other methods used in controlling external parasitic diseases of backyard poultry in the localities of Djougou and Ouaké (department of Donga, Benin). It consists of a survey undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011 through visits and interviews with 210 poultry famers. The results indicate that 13 species of medicinal plants are used in controlling ectoparasites. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa are believed to treat external parasitic diseases in the area of this study. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently cited plant (18%, p < 0.05) used in remedies against external parasites in poultry. Other traditional recipes such as palm oil and ash have been reported.

  4. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz) (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Rodríguez Navas; Fabio A. Blanco

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50%...

  5. Tolerance to water deficit in young trees of jackfruit and sugar apple Tolerância ao déficit hídrico em plantas jovens de jaqueira e pinheira

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Monteiro Rodrigues; Bruna Dias Souza; Rejane Mansur Nogueira; Mauro Guida Santos

    2010-01-01

    The predawn leaf water potential (Ψl), stomatal conductance (g s), CO2 assimilation (A), transpiration (E), chlorophyll a fluorescence and leaf metabolite contents (soluble sugars, proteins and free amino acids) of two tropical fruit species grown in a greenhouse were evaluated to determine the effect of induced water stress on young plants. Six month-old jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) and sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) plants were evaluated in 10.0 L pots after eight days o...

  6. Persistance of the insecticidal activity of five essential oils on the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamo Tinkeu, L S; Goudoum, A; Ngassoum, M B; Mapongmetsem, P M; Kouninki, H; Hance, T

    2004-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic plants are popularise as protectant with low persistance. The evaluation of this duration of activity was carried out for five aromatic plants: Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae), Eucalyptus citriodora et Ecalyptus saligna (Myrtaceae), Lippia rugosa (Verbenaceae) and Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). They have significant insecticidal activity on S. Zeamais, on the first day of application, this activity decreases after 2 or 4 days. After 8 more than 50% of the efficacy is lossed for all the plants excepted A. senegalensis. PMID:15759405

  7. A new Bephratelloides (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) from seeds of Cymbopetalum (Annonaceae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissell, E.E.; Foster, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Bephratelloides ablusus Grissell and Foster, new species, is described and illustrated based upon specimens that emerged from seeds of Cymbopetalum mayanum (Annonaceae) in southern Mexico. This is the first species of Bephratelloides that is associated with a host other than Annona. Bephratelloides ablusus is compared with its congeners from which it differs in minor character states. No external morphological characteristics suggest a specialized association with Cymbopetalum.

  8. Avaliação in vitro da atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas e óleo de eucalipto sobre Trichophyton mentagrophytes In vitro evaluation of the antifungal activity of plant extracts and eucalyptus oil on Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.R. Frias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ação antifúngica de extratos de plantas medicinais e óleo de eucalipto frente ao dermatófito Trichophyton mentagropytes, visando a utilização da fitoterapia no controle. As plantas utilizadas na obtenção dos extratos foram arruda (Ruta graveolens, citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, cravo de defunto (Tagetes minuta, eucalipto (Eucalyptus spp, graviola (Annona muricata, fruta do conde (Annona spp, manga (Mangifera indica, romã (Punica granatum, flores e folhas de primavera (Bougainvillea spectabilis. Verificou-se que uso de 0,5% óleo de eucalipto no combate ao T. mentagropytes foi eficaz, já os extratos de citronela (4% eucalipto (5% e romã (8% atuaram como fungistáticos e os restantes não devem ser usados contra este dermatófito porque não causaram nenhum efeito.The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal action of medicinal plant extracts and eucalyptus oil against the dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes in order to employ phytotherapy for its control. The plants used for extract production were common rue (Ruta graveolens, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, wild marigold (Tagetes minuta, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp, sweetsop (Annona muricata, custard apple (Annona spp, mango (Mangifera indica, pomegranate (Punica granatum, besides flowers and leaves of bougainvillea (Bougainvillea spectabilis. The use of 0.5% eucalyptus oil was effective in controlling Trichophyton mentagrophytes; however, citronella (4%, eucalyptus (5% and pomegranate (8% extracts acted as fungistatic, and the remaining extracts should not be used against this dermatophyte since they did not have any effect.

  9. Endogenous recipes for controlling arthropod ectoparasites of domestic poultry Receitas caseiras para o controle do ectoparasita artrópode nas aves domésticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidou Salifou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants and other methods used in controlling external parasitic diseases of backyard poultry in the localities of Djougou and Ouaké (department of Donga, Benin. It consists of a survey undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011 through visits and interviews with 210 poultry famers. The results indicate that 13 species of medicinal plants are used in controlling ectoparasites. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa are believed to treat external parasitic diseases in the area of this study. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently cited plant (18%, p Este estudo é uma contribuição ao inventário de plantas curativas e outros métodos endógenos usados no combate aos ectoparasitos de pássaros de currais nas aldeias de Djougou e Ouaké (departamento do Donga, em Benin. A pesquisa foi conduzida entre dezembro de 2010 e março de 2011, durante visitas e entrevistas com 210 criadores de aves. Os resultados indicam que 13 espécies de plantas curativas são utilizadas no combate aos ectoparasitos. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica e Parkia biglobosa, são usadas para tratar uma doença parasitária externa na área de estudo. Annona senegalensis foi a planta mais frequentemente usada (18%, p < 0.05 como medicação contra os parasitas externos das aves. Outras receitas tradicionais como o óleo de palma e a cinza tem sido comunicadas.

  10. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Dian Riana Ningsih; Zusfahair Zusfahair; Dwi Kartika

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.). This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-h...

  11. Karakterisasi Simplisia Dan Skrining Fitokimia Serta Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Jus Buah Sirsak Dan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Sirsak

    OpenAIRE

    Rianes, Rina

    2013-01-01

    Soursop (Annona muricata L.) of the family Annonaceae much found in Indonesia, many people use this fruit for juice, that leaves discussed the public as a cure for cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of simplicia and phytochemical screening and the activity of soursop juice and ethanol extracts of leaves the soursop as an antioxidant with DPPH radical scavenging method of capture (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Simplex soursop leaf was extracted with ...

  12. Comparison between Seed Traits of Edged-and Within-Forest Populations of 3 Plant Species of Fagaceae%3种壳斗科植物林缘与林内种群种子性状比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛民轩; 王良衍; 应震

    2014-01-01

    对浙江天童山常绿阔叶林米槠、栲树和苦槠的林缘与林内种群的种子性状进行比较研究。结果表明:米槠林缘种群的种子长度、宽度、长宽比和质量都显著大于林中种群( P<0.001);栲树林缘种群的种子长度、宽度、长宽比和质量也显著大于林中种群(P<0.001);苦槠林缘种群的种子长度、宽度和质量显著大于林中种群,但长宽比无显著差异(P=0.924)。总体来说,森林的边缘效应是导致林缘种群种子性状优于林内种群的主要生态学机制。%The seed traits of edge-and within-forest populations of Castanopsis carlesii, C.fargesii and C.sclerophylla were com-pared and studied in Tiantong Mountain, Zhejiang Province.The results showed that: the seed length, width, ratio of length to width, and quality were significantly larger than within-forest population of Castanopsis carlesii ( P<0.001);for Castanopsis farge-sii, seed length, width, the ratio of length to width, and weight were also statistically greater in edge than in within-forest population ( P<0.001 ); and Castanopsis sclerophylla seed length, width and weight were evidently higher than within-forest population, whereas there was no significant difference of ratio of length to width between two populations.In conclusion, edge effect of forest was the main ecological mechanism leading to better seed traits in edged-forest population than in within-forest population.

  13. [Biology of Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on three species of Annonaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Josilene M; Gondim, Manoel G C; Lofego, Antônio C

    2010-01-01

    The mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) is considered a pest of a variety of plant species in the Americas. Although this mite apparently causes economic damage to Annonaceae, little is known about its biology. Here we studied the biology of T. mexicanus on soursop (Annona muricata), sweetsop (Annona squamosa) and araticum (Annona coriaceae). The first two species are the most important economical Annonaceae species in northeast Brazil; araticum is commonly found in the region, but not commercially explored. The mites were collected in the field from leaves of A. muricata and maintained in the laboratory for six months on detached leaves of A. muricata, A. squamosa and A. coriaceae, respectively, before observations started. Tetranychus mexicanus developed more slowly on A. squamosa than on the two other hosts, but oviposition was considerably lower on A. coriaceae. As indicated by the calculated life table parameters, biotic potential was higher on A. muricata than on the other hosts. Despite the observed differences in the T. mexicanus biology on the different evaluated hosts, development and reproduction were satisfactory in all of the hosts used.

  14. The olfactory component of floral display in Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Katherine R; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Floral scent is a key component of floral display, and probably one of the first floral attractants linking insect pollinators to the radiation of Angiosperms. In this article, we investigate floral scent in two extra-tropical genera of Annonaceae. We discuss floral scent in the context of differing pollination strategies in these genera, and compare their scent to that of a close tropical relative. Floral volatiles were collected for Annona glabra, Asimina and Deeringothamnus whole flowers and dissected floral organs, using a standardized static-headspace solid phase microextraction method. Scents were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and identified using known standards. The floral scents of these species are highly dynamic, varying between floral organs, sexual stages and species. Maroon-flowered species of Asimina produce 'yeasty' odors, dominated by fermentation volatiles and occasionally containing sulfurous or nitrogenous compounds. White-flowered species of Asimina and Deeringothamnus produce pleasant odors characterized by lilac compounds, benzenoids and hydrocarbons. Annona glabra produces a strong, fruity-acetonic scent dominated by 3-pentanyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. The fermented/decaying scents of maroon-flowered species of Asimina suggest mimicry-based pollination strategies similar to aroids and stapeliads, whereas the pleasant scents of white-flowered species of Asimina suggest honest, reward-based pollination strategies. The scent of Annona glabra is typical of specialized beetle pollination systems common to tropical Annonaceae.

  15. Antitumor and Antiviral Activity of Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Betancur-Galvis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine species of plants traditionally used in Colombia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential antitumor (cytotoxicity and antiherpetic activity. MTT (Tetrazolium blue and Neutral Red colorimetric assays were used to evaluate the reduction of viability of cell cultures in presence and absence of the extracts. MTT was also used to evaluate the effects of the extracts on the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 and the 50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect (EC50 for each extract were calculated by linear regression analysis. Extracts from Annona muricata, A. cherimolia and Rollinia membranacea, known for their cytotoxicity were used as positive controls. Likewise, acyclovir and heparin were used as positive controls of antiherpetic activity. Methanolic extract from Annona sp. on HEp-2 cells presented a CC50 value at 72 hr of 49.6x103mg/ml. Neither of the other extracts examined showed a significant cytotoxicity. The aqueous extract from Beta vulgaris, the ethanol extract from Callisia grasilis and the methanol extract Annona sp. showed some antiherpetic activity with acceptable therapeutic indexes (the ratio of CC50 to EC50. These species are good candidates for further activity-monitored fractionation to identify active principles.

  16. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  17. Changes in Soil Carbon Pools Induced by Substitution of Plantation for Native Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU QIUFANG; XU JIANMING

    2003-01-01

    Changes in soil carbon pools under Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and bamboo (Phyllostachyspubescens) plantations substituted for a native forest ( Quereus acutissima, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Cas-tanopsis sclerophylla, Platycarya strobilacea, Lithocarpus glaber) were studied on the hills with acid parentrock and soils classified as red soils (Ferrisols) in Huzhou, Zhejiang Province of east China. It was foundthat total soil organic carbon (TSOC), easily oxidisable carbon (EOC) and water-soluble organic carbon(WSOC) under bamboo plantation were increased, but microbial biomass carbon (MBC) was decreased. Onthe contrary, Chinese fir induced declines of all fractions of C including TSOC, EOC, WSOC and MBC.The percentages of the active fractions of soil C (EOC and WSOC) were increased in the plantations ascompared to the native broad-leaved forest, but proportions of soil organic C as MBC were decreased. Itcould be concluded that bamboo plantation had a great ability of not only fixing C but also accelerating soilC pool cycle, improving nutrient and microorganism activity; therefore, it is a good ecosystem and could berecommended for wide development. Chinese fir would shrink the soil C pool and deteriorate soil biologicalfertility, so it did not benefit CO2 fixing and land sustainable utilization.

  18. Robert G. Aitken and His ADS: Double Star Oberver, Cataloguer, Statistician, and Observatory Director

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    2000-05-01

    Robert G. Aitken was a dynamical astronomer of the old school, a long-time visual double star observer. He was born in 1864 in Jackson, California, a small town in the Gold Country midway between Yosemite and Sacramento. His education at Williams College under Truman Safford; his early teaching career at Livermore College and the University of the Pacific; his simultaneous graduate reading course in mathematics; and his becoming a professional astronomer under the tutelage of Edward S. Holden and Edward E. Barnard at Lick Observatory will be described. Aitken made a systematic survey of the entire sky north of -30 degrees for double stars, joined by William J. Hussey for a time. It produced important new information on binary and multiple stars and their orbits. His book The Binary Stars and his New General Catalogue of Double Stars (ADS) were his monuments. Aitken was associate director of Lick Observatory from 1923 until 1930, while W. W. Campbell was simultaneously director and president of the University of California. Then Aitken was director himself from 1930 until he retired in 1935 and moved to Berkeley, where he continued writing until his death in 1951. Aitken was editor of the PASP for 51 years. He hoped that Gerard P. Kuiper would succeed him as the double star observer at Lick Observatory, but that was not to be. Aitken at various times held every office in the ASP, and was vice president, then president, of the AAS.

  19. Observing Conditions at Mt.Graham: VATT UBVR Sky Surface Brightness and Seeing Measurements from 1999 through 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, V; Windhorst, R A; Taylor, Violet; Jansen, Rolf; Windhorst, Rogier

    2004-01-01

    We present measurements of sky surface brightness and seeing on Mt.Graham obtained at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) during 16 observing runs between April 1999 and December 2003. We show that the sky surface brightness is significantly darker during photometric conditions, and can be highly variable over the course of a single observing run as well as from one run to the next, regardless of photometricity. In our photometric observations we find an average low-airmass (sec z < 1.2) sky surface brightness of 22.00, 22.53, 21.49, and 20.88 mag arcsec^-2 in U, B, V, and R, respectively. The darkest run (02/00 in U and 02/01 in BVR) had an average sky surface brightness of 22.38, 22.86, 21.72, and 21.19 mag arcsec^-2 in U, B, V, and R, respectively. With these results we show that under the best conditions, Mt. Graham can compete with the darkest sites in Hawaii and Chile, thanks in part to the strict dark-sky ordinances in place in Tucson and Safford. We expect the sky over Mt. Graham to be...

  20. The Galileoscope project: community-based technology education in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Fine, Leonard W.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.; Dugan, Charles L.; Dokter, Erin F. C.

    2014-07-01

    A program model has been developed and implemented over the last three years to provide a robust optical technologybased science education program to students aged 9-11 years (5th grade), a formative time in the development of a student's interest in science and engineering. We have created well-tested and evaluated teaching kits for the classroom to teach about the basics of image formation and telescopes. In addition we provide professional development to the teachers of these students on principles of optics and on using the teaching kits. The program model is to reach every teacher and every student in a number of mid-sized rural communities across the state of Arizona. The Galileoscope telescope kit is a key part of this program to explore optics and the nature of science. The program grew out of Module 3 of the NSF-Supported Hands-On Optics project (SPIE, OSA, and NOAO) and from the Science Foundation Arizona-supported Hands-On Optics Arizona program. NOAO has conducted this program in Flagstaff, Yuma, Globe, and Safford, Arizona and is being expanded to sites across the entire state of Arizona (295,254 square kilometers). We describe the educational goals, evaluations, and logistical issues connected to the program. In particular, we proposed that this model can be adapted for any rural or urban locations in order to encourage interest in science, astronomy and optics.-

  1. The Arizona Galileoscope Project: A 5th Grade Rural Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Robert T.; Pompea, Stephen M.; Walker, Constance E.

    2015-01-01

    The Galileoscope is a low cost, high quality telescope kit developed for the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). Over 200,000 Galileoscopes have been sold and used by the public and education programs around the world.The National Optical Astronomy Observatory has been a leader in Galileoscope education programs. In 2009 we started the Arizona Galileoscope Star Party Program. We have partnered with rural school districts around the state including Flagstaff, Safford, Yuma, Globe and Payson to bring Galilesocope educational program to the students and teachers. The program begins with a professional development workshop where teachers learn about the optics of telescopes and how to assemble the Galileoscope and use it on a tripod. The teachers receive a Teaching With Telescopes (TWT) kit that contains a variety of lenses, lasers and lights to do all the activities in the workshop and a classroom supply of Galileoscopes and tripods to take back to their classroom. Their students learn about telescope optics and how to use a Galileoscope. Several weeks after the professional development workshop, a district wide star party is held for the parents, teachers and students.In the coming years, we are expanding the program in cooperation with Science Foundation Arizona. We are currently in the process of recruiting new cities to join the program in addition to supporting our previous communities. We will describe our past efforts, the evaluation of the program and our future expansion.

  2. Las plantas americanas en la obra de Charles de l'Écluse: primeras citas en las cartas de Juan de Castañeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón-Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Flemish botanist Charles de l'Écluse's works contain abundant references to American plants, for example the avocado (Persea americana Mill., the sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and the tobáceo (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Although some of these plants were observed by L'Écluse himself during his expedition to the Iberian Península between 1564 and 1565, the majority of the American plants quoted in his works are related with shipments received from several agents around Europe. In the case of Spain, L'Écluse obtained seeds from Seville thanks to the help of Simón de Tovar and Juan de Castañeda. The latter offers in his letters important innovations: Annona cherimola Mill., Indigofera añil LJI. tinctoria L., Annona muricata L., Mammea americana L.. Annona reticulata L., Dioscorea sp., Aloysia citrodora Palau or Manihot spj M. esculenta Crantz. In most of the cases the mention of these plants represente the first record of cultivation in the Old World. A percentage of this material was used by L'Écluse in his Exoticorum libri decem, published in Antwerp in l605.Las obras del botánico flamenco Charles de l'Écluse contienen infinidad de referencias a plantas americanas, destacando entre ellas el aguacate (Persea americana Mill., las batatas [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], las patatas (Solanum tuberosum L. o el tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. . Algunas de ellas fueron observadas por L'Écluse durante la expedición llevada a cabo por la Península Ibérica entre 1564 y 1565. La mayor parte de plantas americanas citadas en sus obras están relacionadas sin embargo con envíos realizados por diversos corresponsales repartidos por Europa. En el caso de España, L'Écluse recibió semillas desde Sevilla gracias a Simón de Tovar y Juan de Castañeda. Este último ofrece en sus cartas importantes novedades, como el "anón" (Annona cherimola Mill., el "añil" (Indigofera añil L./I. tinctoria L., la "guan

  3. Colecta y establecimiento de anonáceas en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El Centro Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria y Forestal (CENTA, a través de la Unidad de Recursos Fitogenéticos, inició en 1998 un diagnóstico geográfico de especies de anonáceas, con el objetivo de explorar, recolectar, caracterizar y establecer colecciones de campo en las Estaciones Experimentales. Las características evaluadas para frutos fueron: peso, largo y diámetro, número de semillas, textura de cáscara y pulpa; forma de fruto y cárpelos, daño por plagas y enfermedades y un análisis bromatológico. Como resultado de este trabajo se estableció la colección de anonáceas con las siguientes especies: squamosa, cherimola, reticulata, muricata, purpurea, diversifolia, holosericea y glabra. En la caracterización morfológica preliminar Annona muricata obtuvo un promedio de 175 semillas/fruto y 1,319 g en peso del fruto. A. cherimola con pulpa muy arenosa y carpelos no prominentes. A. squamosa con pulpa dulce, blanca y cárpelos muy prominentes. De la caracterización bromatológica se determinó que Annona muricata dio contenidos de humedad superiores a 82,8%; fibra cruda de 1,84% y fósforo con 367 ppm. En Annona diversifolia con menor grasa 0,01%. La mayor incidencia por plagas en frutos y semillas fue causado por el perforador Bephrateloides sp. La antracnosis (Colletotrichum sp. en frutos y follaje fue la enfermedad más observada

  4. Atividade antioxidante de frutas do cerrado Antioxidant activity of cerrado fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Roesler; Luciana Gomes Malta; Luciana Cristina Carrasco; Roseane Barata Holanda; Clélia Alves Socorro Sousa; Glaucia Maria Pastore

    2007-01-01

    Annona crassiflora (araticum), Solanum lycocarpum (lobeira), Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita), Caryocar brasilense (pequi) e Swartzia langsdorfii (banha de galinha) são frutas do bioma cerrado, conhecidas e consumidas principalmente por populações nativas dessa região. Nesse estudo, as diferentes frações dos frutos acima descritos (polpa, semente e casca) foram avaliadas por meio de extratos aquosos e etanólicos. Alguns extratos mostraram altíssimos conteúdos de compostos fenólicos e foram escol...

  5. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio; Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales; César Fernandes Aquino; Eriksen Patric Souza Soares; Lucas Franklin Souza Aquino; Hugo César Rodrigues Moreira Catão

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the followi...

  6. Chemotaxonomy of three genera of the Annonaceae family using self-organizing maps and {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Luciana; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Falcao, Emanuela Viana; Silva, Luana de Morais e; Soares, Gabriela Cristina da Silva; Scotti, Marcus Tullius, E-mail: mtscotti@ccae.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Meio Ambiente

    2012-07-01

    The Annonaceae family is distributed throughout Neotropical regions of the world. In Brazil, it covers nearly all natural formations particularly Annona, Xylopia and Polyalthia and is characterized chemically by the production of sources of terpenoids (mainly diterpenes), alkaloids, steroids, polyphenols and, flavonoids. Studies from {sup 13}C NMR data of diterpenes related with their botanical occurrence were used to generate self-organizing maps. Results corroborate those in the literature obtained from morphological and molecular data for three genera and the model can be used to project other diterpenes. Therefore, the model produced can predict which genera are likely to contain a compound. (author)

  7. Polinização artificial da atemóia com diversas fontes de pólen comparada com a natural Natural and artificial pollination of Atemoya in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Rosa Melo; Celso Valdevino Pommer; Ryosuke Kavati

    2002-01-01

    Para estudar a polinização da atemóia (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola) e determinar a técnica de polinização que produz frutos em maior quantidade e melhor qualidade, montou-se um experimento de polinização. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar Gefner, no período de novembro de 2000 a março de 2001, em pomar comercial, localizado em Lins (SP), a 424 metros de altitude. As plantas apresentavam 13 anos de idade. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e sei...

  8. Estudio comparativo de tres sistemas de secado para la producción de un polvo deshidratado de fruta

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos Peñaloza, Adela María

    2008-01-01

    Es de gran importancia para el desarrollo de la industria nacional, realizar trabajos de investigación que permitan entender mejor el comportamiento de materias primas autóctonas de nuestro país, como es el caso de la guanábana (Annona muricata L.) y así abrir nuevas posibilidades de comercialización diferentes al mercado en fresco. La presente investigación tuvo como propósito conocer la influencia de algunas de las variables de operación del secado por liofilización, aspersión y vacío sobre...

  9. Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia Estudio etnobotánico y del potencial de uso de la familia Annonaceae en la Amazonía colombiana con énfasis en la región de Araracuara y el municipio de Leticia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Pablo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae family, characterized by 206 species in Colombia and 17 in its Amazon region, is worldwide known by its fruits, some species have anticancerous and insecticide properties, others are characterized by their strong fibers and others like Rollinia mucosa or Amazon anon by its exquisite fruit. By the etnobotanic approximation laying emphasis on the Amazon regin the Uitoto community knew how to use the natural resourses, using the anonaceas; moreover, we
    report the species and genus to Colombia and Amazonia each with a monografic profile. As conclusion we found that out of 137 amazon species 72 (52.5% are of potential use on its
    outstanding categories we mention: Fiber 21.2%, medicinal 18.2%, construction 16.8% and nutritional 11.7%. The more recognized species for their use and potential are Rollinia mucosa, Fusaea longifolia, Unonopsis veneficiorum, Annona dolichophylla y Annona muricata.La familia Annonaceaerepresentada con 206 especies en Colombia y 137 en su regiónAmazónica es mundialmente conocida por los frutos de guanábana, chirimoya y anón y poseeciertas especies con propiedades anticancerígenas e insecticidas novedosas; otras se ca-racterizan por sus fibras resistentes y algunas como Rollinia mucosao anón amazónico por susexquisitos frutos. Por medio de la aproximación etnobotánica en las comunidades Uitoto conénfasis en la región amazónica (Araracuara y Leticia se conoció la forma de aprovechamien-to de los recursos, entre ellos las anonáceas. Además se reportan los géneros y las especiespara Colombia y Amazonas cada una con un perfil monográfico, concluyendo que de 137especies para Amazonas, 72 (52.5% tienen algún potencial de uso, siendo las categorías másimportantes: Fibras 21.2 %, medicinal 18.2%, construcción 16.8% y alimenticia 11.7%. Lasespecies más reconocidas por su potencial fueron Rollinia mucosa, Fusaea longifolia, Unonopsisveneficiorum, Annona dolichophyllay Annona muricata.

  10. A Third Species of Hemilecanium Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) from the New World, with Keys to Species in the Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, T; Hodgson, C

    2013-10-01

    A new species of Hemilecanium Newstead, Hemilecanium guanabana Kondo & Hodgson n. sp., is described and illustrated based on the adult female, adult male and first instar. The specimens were collected in the municipality of Palmira, state of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, on soursop, Annona muricata (Annonaceae). Updated identification keys are provided for the adult females of all 28 species of the genus Hemilecanium, and for known adult males and first instars. An updated list of the 23 species of soft scales (Coccidae) known from soursop worldwide is included.

  11. Co-ordination among leaf water relations and xylem vulnerability to embolism of Eucalyptus trees growing along a depth-to-groundwater gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghar, Sepideh; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2015-07-01

    The importance of groundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas for plant survival is well documented. However, there have been few studies examining the importance and impacts of groundwater availability in mesic environments. The aim of this study was to determine how depth-to-groundwater (DGW) impacts on leaf water relations, leaf structure and branch xylem vulnerability to embolism in a mesic environment. We hypothesize that increasing DGW results in increased resistance to drought stress and that this will be manifested across leaf and branch attributes pertaining to water relations. We further investigate whether there is co-ordination across leaf and branch-scale level responses to increased DGW. Four species were used in this study: Eucalyptus globoidea Blakely, E. piperita Sm., E. sclerophylla (Blakely) L.A.S.Johnson & Blaxell and E. sieberi L.A.S.Johnson. Six sites were chosen along an 11 km transect to span a range of average DGW: 2.4, 4.3, 9.8, 13, 16.3 and 37.5 m. Leaf water relations of trees showed less sensitivity to drought stress as DGW increased. This was reflected in significantly lower leaf turgor loss point and maximum osmotic potential, increased maximum turgor and a reduced leaf relative water content as DGW increased. At shallow DGW sites, minimum diurnal leaf water potentials were generally more negative than leaf water potential at zero turgor, but the reverse was observed at deep sites, indicating a larger growth potential safety margin at deep sites compared with shallow sites. Leaf cell wall elasticity varied independently of DGW. Xylem vulnerability to embolism was quantified as the water potential associated with 50% loss of conductance (P 50). In both summer and winter P 50 was significantly and negatively correlated with DGW. Co-ordination between leaf- and branch-level responses to increase in DGW was apparent, which strongly supports the conclusion that groundwater supply influenced woodland structure and functional behaviour.

  12. A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Smet, P A

    1985-03-01

    Part one of the paper discusses ethnobotanical, chemical and general pharmacological aspects of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Four categories of ritual snuff ingredients arise from this multidisciplinary approach: It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles and the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable: Anadenanthera, Erythroxylum, Nicotiana, Virola; It is well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles, but the Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded or even unlikely: Banisteriopsis, Cannabis, Datura, Ilex guayusa; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is confirmed or quite probable, but it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Justicia pectoralis, Pagamea macrophylla, Tanaecium nocturnum; The Indian use of the plant as a ritual snuff ingredient is not well recorded, and it is not well established that the plant contains one or more psychoactive principles: Acorus calamus, Capsicum, Macquira sclerophylla, Piper interitum. Part two of the paper discusses the nasal pharmacokinetics and efficacy of possible ritual snuff constituents. The literature yields convincing clinical evidence that atropine, cocaine, nicotine and scopolamine are effective following nasal application, but experimental confirmation of the efficacy of nasal tryptamine alkaloids is still awaited. In self-experiments, 6.4 mg/kg of caffeine produced substantial plasma levels via the nasal route, but 0.5 mg/kg of harmine did not produce measurable plasma levels, when taken as a nasal powder. Without additional experiments, it is difficult to give a definite explanation for this negative result. PMID:3887041

  13. Flora of Bokaro, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddique E. N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study on floristic survey of Angiospermic trees of Bokaro District (Jharkhand, India with special reference to their uses. Jharkhand area is under dense forest cover with high biodiversity, it attracted a number of people from different part of the world for study of flora. In which Bokaro district is also known as steel plant is one of the twenty- four districts of Jharkhand state, India. The vegetation of Bokaro District comes under the tropical moist deciduous forest having various type of plant having economic importance, but due to rapid industrialization Bokaro Steel Limited (BSL and urbanization its flora has been affected and most of the trees has been lost .In this regard BSL has attempted to restore the atmospheric climatic condition and in this way they have planted many exotic species. Various type of exotic species are found in Bokaro district as follows Annona reticulate , Annona squamosa , Azadirachta indica , Adansonia digitata , Swietenia mahagoni , Litchi chinensis , Caesalpinia pulcherima , Delonix regia , Acacia auriculaeformis etc, is covering the vast land rapidly. Shorearobusta is the dominant tree found in large scale in petarwar. Shorea robusta Garetn. (Sal, Sakhua is a tree from which human society gets lots of benefits. The seed of the tree are used for fat extraction. The timber of the tree is of great importance mainly used in railway sleepers, pillars, used in making boats,ships,etc.

  14. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: a synergistic approach using multiple nitidulid lures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, David A; Cline, Andrew R; Irish, Brian; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Atemoya, a hybrid between Annona squamosa (L.) and A. cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to fruit production throughout the world is low fruit-set because of inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We identified beetle visitors to atemoya flowers in an orchard in Puerto Rico and used Universal moth traps to monitor the attractiveness of two commercially available Nitidulidae lures. The most common visitors to atemoya flowers were an unidentified Europs species (Coleoptera: Monotomidae), followed by Loberus testaceus (Coleoptera: Erotylidae), neither of which have been previously reported as visitors to Annona flowers. The commercial lures attracted few or no beetles when used separately, but attracted a large number of beetles, especially Carpophilus dimidiatus (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Europs, when used in combination. This attraction is synergistic and increases with dose at the doses assayed (0-4 lures), and decreases over time with >50% of trap captures occurring in the first week and no beetles collected after 5 wk. This is the first report of aggregation pheromone lures in nitidulids acting synergistically to attract other species, including beetles not in the Nitidulidae. The results are discussed as they pertain to increasing fruit set, as well as the potential for altering fruit size and shape in atemoya.

  15. Desarrollo hacia afuera y guerras civiles en Colombia, 1850-1910: desarrollo económico y actividad empresarial desde una perspectiva institucionalista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fischer

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se examinan y se complementan las tesis de José Antonio Ocampo y Frank Safford sobre el desarrollo económico de Colombia durante el siglo XIX. Tomando el enfoque institucionalista desarrollado por Ronald H. Coase y Douglass C. North se plantea que las consecuencias de los obstáculos geográficos, así como los precios del mercado mundial, constituían sólo una parte de la explicación sobre la difícil posición de la economía de exportación colombiana en el mercado competitivo internacional. A nivel nacional, cabe señalar que las élites no llegaron a perfeccionar el Estado (bien sea federal o centralista para que éste causara condiciones favorables a los empresarios nacionales o extranjeros tanto en el campo de la producción como del transporte; además el Estado no promovió significativamente el uso de tecnología moderna en la producción y la comercialización. A nivel local, salta a la vista que la mayor parte de las élites no logró, quizá por falta de espíritu empresarial y -a menudo- por sus preferencias políticas, establecer empresas modernas a gran escala. La carencia de aptitud de las oligarquías para coordinar sus intereses y así crear condiciones favorables para inversiones productivas, se manifestó sobre todo en los frecuentes conflictos internos que afectaron al país. La fuerza destructiva de los conflictos internos para el desarrollo de la economía colombiana de 1850 a 1910 tuvo una magnitud que se trata de demostrar a través del artículo.

  16. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  17. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha. PMID:19226752

  18. Eficiencia de extractos vegetales como insecticida sobre Sitophilus zeamais en granos de maíz almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Cardoso Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sitophilus zeamais es considerado la plaga más importante del maíz ( Zea mays L., almacenado en regiones tropicales y subtropicales. Con el objetivo minimizar los efectos indeseables de los insecticidas químicos sintéticos, el control de esa plaga con extractos vegetales viene convirtiéndose en una opción promisoria de bajo costo y segura para los aplicadores y consumidores. Fueron evaluadas en laboratorio la repelencia, atractividad y mortalidad del Sitophilus zeamais en granos de maíz tratados con polvos y extractos hidro alcohólico de Piper nigrum L. y Annona squamosa L. Para el estudio del polvo de los extractos de las plantas referidas anteriormente sobre la atractivi - dad y la repelencia de los insectos adultos, fue utilizada una arena con cinco cajas dispuestas diagonalmente, siendo la central conectada a las demás. En dos de los recipientes fueron colocadas muestras de maíz tratadas con el extracto en polvo y, en los dos otros recipientes el maíz no tratado y, en el recipiente central de la arena, 30 insectos no sexuados. Los extractos hidroalcohólico fueron obtenidos a partir del polvo de las semillas de esas especies, en percolador, con solvente alcohol etílico (70% v/v, los cuales fueron llevados a los insectos en la forma de vapor. El delineamiento experimental usado fue el completamente aleatorio con los tratamientos dispuesto en esquema factorial, en que los factores cuantitativos fueron revelados por la regresión en el análisis de la varianza. El porcentaje de repelencia fue del 86,75% con el polvo del extracto de Annona squamosa y del 79,25% con el Piper nigrum . Mortalidad del 100% fue lograda con el extracto de Annona squamosa y dosis de 5 mL y, 98% con el extracto de Piper nigrum en la dosis de 14 mL, indicando la influencia de la dosis y del extracto sobre la mor - talidad del Sitophilus zeamais adulto.

  19. Effect of different plant extracts on prevention of oviposition in Plutella xylostella (L.) adults%10种植物提取物对小菜蛾产卵忌避作用研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎柳锋; 曾涛; 韦德卫; 陈海珊

    2011-01-01

    [目的]寻找新的小菜蛾生物防治方法,为植物源农药的研究和开发提供科学依据.[方法]以10种产于广西的楝科、番荔枝科、无患子科和报春花科植物提取物对小菜蛾成虫进行室内产卵忌避作用试验.[结果]以地黄连(Melia sinica)、香椿(叶)(Toona sinensis)、番荔枝(Annona squamosa)、四瓣米仔兰(A.terapetala)、灵香草(Lysimachia foenum-gmecum)等植物提取物处理后48 h对小菜蛾成虫的产卵忌避率分别为86.21%、94.69%、97.92%、98.91%和100.00%.[结论]地黄连、香椿(叶)、番荔枝、四瓣米仔兰、灵香草等5种植物对小菜蛾成虫有强烈的产卵忌避作用,在蔬菜害虫生态控制中均具有广阔的应用前景和开发潜力.%[Objective] The objective of the current study was to explore some biological control methods against Plutella xylostella (L.). [Method] The efficiency of extracts taken from 10 different plants (belonging to families meliaceae, annonaceae, sapindaceae and primulaceae) in preventing the oviposition in Plutella xylostella (L.) adults have been observed under laboratory conditions. [Result] The average oviposition deterrent rates of Plutella xylostella (L.). adults treated for 48 hour with extracts of Melia sinica, Toona sinensis (leaf) ,Annona squamosa, A. terapetala and Lysimachia foenum-graecum were 86.21, 94.69, 97.92, 98.91 and 100.00%, respectively. [Conclusion] Five plants, viz, Melia sinica, Toona sinensis (leaf) ,Annona squamosa, A. terapetala and Lysimachia foenum-graeeum were found to have the best control effects on oviposition of Plutella xylostella ( L ) adults, and they have broad application prospects and exploration potential as biological control agents against vegetable pests.

  20. COMPARAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DA ATEMÓIA COM A PINHA E A GRAVIOLA PRODUZIDAS E COMERCIALIZADAS NO ESTADO DE SERGIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO SERGIO MARCELLINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A atemóia, híbrido resultante do cruzamento da Cherimóia (Annona cherimola mill com a Fruta-do-conde, a Pinha (Annona squamosa L. e a Graviola (Annona muricata L. pertencem a família das Anonáceas, originária dos Andes. Pelas características semelhantes essas frutas competem por uma mesma faixa de mercado, principalmente na região Nordeste, onde se concentra 50 % da produção de atemóia. O objetivo do trabalho foi a comparação físico-química e sensorial da atemóia com a pinha e a graviola, comercializadas em Sergipe. As frutas analisadas continham o mesmo tempo de vida de prateleira. Os testes físico-químicos realizados foram: teor de umidade, pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais. Foi realizado teste de aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos dos parâmetros: aparência, aroma, sabor, textura e impressão global. A atemóia apresentou um alto potencial de aceitação entre os consumidores. Trata-se, de acordo com os resultados obtidos, de uma fruta saborosa, aromática e de aparência agradável, com avaliação sensorial sempre superior às suas concorrentes diretas. Portanto, devido também às outras vantagens de cultivo descritas na literatura, tornase viável um investimento maior nesse cultivo no sentido de minimizar sua única desvantagem atual, o alto preço. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Atemóia; análise sensorial; análise físico-química

  1. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  2. Induced mutation in tropical fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers

  3. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

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    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  4. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira ‘Gefner’ tratadas com auxinas Rooting of atemoya ‘Gefner’ cuttings treated with auxins

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação da atemóia deve ser feita assexuadamente e, nesse contexto, a estaquia surge como alternativa. Dessa forma, objetivou-se determinar a parte do ramo de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' mais apropriada para estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (reguladores x tipos de estaca, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas. Os reguladores utilizados foram AIB 0,5% e ANA 0,5%, aplicados na forma de talco na base das estacas, além da testemunha. Os diferentes tipos de estacas foram retirados de 3 regiões do caule (apical, mediana e basal. As estacas tratadas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de poliestireno contendo substrato comercial Plantmax® e levadas para câmara de nebulização intermitente, onde permaneceram durante 136 dias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas vivas, porcentagem de estacas vivas com enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotações e com folhas remanescentes + brotações, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas sem folhas, número, comprimento médio e massa da matéria seca de raízes por estaca enraizada, área foliar e massa da matéria seca de folhas remanescentes e brotações. A atemoieira apresenta maior potencial para formação de mudas por estaquia empregando-se estacas apicais sem tratamento e medianas tratadas com ANA (0,5%.Atemoya propagation must be done asexually; in this context, cutting represents an alternative. This work aimed to verify the most appropriate branch part of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' for cutting. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (plant growth regulators x cutting types, with 5 replicates of 12 cuttings. The plant growth regulators IBA 0.5% and NAA 0.5% were applied as talc in the base of cuttings, besides the control. The different cutting types were

  5. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

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    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  6. Polinização e formação de frutos em araticum Pollination and fruit development in araticum

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Robson Melo Cavalcante; Ronaldo Veloso Naves; Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli; Ricardo Pereira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    O araticum, Annona crassiflora Mart., é fruta típica do Cerrado brasileiro, com potencial econômico e alimentar, entretanto, há baixa produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema reprodutivo do araticum e identificar seus possíveis polinizadores. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Estado de Goiás, Brasil, nos municípios de Goiânia, a 6° 35' 56,0" S 49° 16' 44,4" O; 727 m e Vila Propício, a 15°15' 37,0" S 48(0) 42' 30,9" O; 696 m, em 2004 e 2005. O delineamento foi em blocos ao aca...

  7. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-03-01

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1 mM AgNO₃ to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450 nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC₅₀) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (pnanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05).

  9. 光叶番荔枝叶子化学成分的研究(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟长斌; 李祥

    2007-01-01

    目的 从光叶番荔枝(Annona glbra Linn)叶子中提取分离活性物质.方法 95%乙醇提取,溶剂划分极性部分,层析(柱层析、制备薄层层析),重结晶等分离,根据IR,MS,NMR,熔点等光谱技术和理化常数鉴定化合物的结构.结果 现已分离得到2个化合物,分别鉴定为ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid(K1)、Machigline(P1).结论 Machigline为首次从该植物叶子中分离鉴定.

  10. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  11. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

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    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  12. Acanthoic acid and other constituents from the stem of Annoma amazonica (Annonaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B.; Xavier, Clahildek M.; Souza, Afonso D.L. de; Rabelo, Diego de Moura [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: lbelem@ufam.edu.br; Batista, Cristiane L.; Batista, Regiane L.; Costa, Emmanuel V.; Campos, Francinete R.; Barison, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica; Valdez, Rodrigo H.; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Nakamura, Celso V. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas], e-mail: lbelem@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    The present work reports the isolation of acanthoic acid, a promising pimaradiene-type diterpene with several important biological activities described in the literature, from the stems of Annona amazonica. We found that acanthoic acid has significant trypanocidal activity against the epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. This diterpene is the major constituent of the plant, comprising at least 65% of the hexane extract, demonstrating that A. amazonica is a new renewable natural source for this compound. The chemical investigation also resulted in the isolation of the alkaloids liriodenine and cassythicine, and other compounds including terpenes, sterols, and fatty acids. Additionally, the complete and unequivocal {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift assignments for cassythicine are provided. (author)

  13. Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities in vitro of Colombian Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Edison; Arango, Gabriel Jaime; Jiménez, Nora; Alzate, Fernando; Ruiz, Grace; Gutiérrez, David; Paco, Marco Antonio; Giménez, Alberto; Robledo, Sara

    2007-05-22

    Ethnobotanical and chemotaxonomical studies for antiparasitic activity of Colombian Annonaceae were carried out. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of 36 extracts obtained from six different species was determined against promastigotes of three Leishmania species, epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and both chloroquine sensitive (F32) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated in U-937 cells. Active extracts were selected according their selectivity index (SI). Extracts from Annona muricata, Rollinia exsucca, Rollinia pittieri and Xylopia aromatica were active against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi showing IC50 values lower than 25 microg/ml. Hexane extract from Rollinia pittieri leaves was the most selective against Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. (IS=10 and 16, respectively). The extracts from Desmopsis panamensis, Pseudomalmea boyacana, Rollinia exsucca and Rollinia pittieri showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC50 Annonaceae extracts. Results presented here also demonstrate which plants and/or plant parts could be useful in the treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease and malaria.

  14. Alkaloids of the Annonaceae: occurrence and a compilation of their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Da-Cunha, Emídio Vasconcelos Leitão; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa Filho, Jos Maria

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the chemistry and pharmacology of the alkaloids found in species of the Annonaceae family. The occurrence of alkaloids from Annonaceae species, as well as their chemical structures and pharmacological activities are summarized in informative and easy-to-understand tables. Within the Annonaceae family, the genera Annona, Duguetia, and Guatteria have led to many important publications. Valuable and comprehensive information about the structure of these alkaloids is provided. The alkaloids of the aporphine type represent the predominant group in this family. Many of the isolated alkaloids exhibit unique structures. In addition to the chemical structures, the pharmacological activities of some alkaloids are also presented in this chapter. Thus, the leishmanicidal, antimicrobial, antitumor, cytotoxic, and antimalarial activities observed for these alkaloids are highlighted. The chapter is presented as a contribution for the scientific community, mainly to enable the search for alkaloids in species belonging to the Annonaceae family.

  15. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

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    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  16. Nematodes associated with five fruit trees in the state of Amapá, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Souza Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to conduct a survey on nematodes associated with five cultivated fruit trees growing in the Agroforestry System (AFS of the municipality of Oiapoque, Amapá, Brazil. Rhizosphere samples were collected from three points at the base of murici ( Byrsonima sp., soursop ( Annona muricata , cupuaçu ( Theobroma grandiflorum , passion fruit ( Passiflora sp. and peach palm ( Bactris gasipaes trees. Four species of phytonematodes were identified, namely Pratylenchus brachyurus, Helicotylenchus dihystera, Mesocriconema xenoplax and Rotylenchulus reniformis . The most prevalent and abundant species was R. reniformis , which was found in the rhizospheres of passion fruit, cupuaçu, soursop, and peach palm. The first record in Brazil of the nematode P. brachyurus , found in the roots of murici is reported here, and all of the nematode species identified here are the first records for fruit trees in the state of Amapá.

  17. The antioxidant activity of soursop decreases the expression of a member of the NADPH oxidase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio-Cuevas, Y; Díaz-Sobac, R; Vázquez-Luna, A; Landa-Solís, C; Cruz-Ramos, M; Santamaría-Olmedo, M; Martínez-Flores, K; Fuentes-Gómez, A J; López-Reyes, A

    2014-02-01

    Cellular oxidative stress produced by an increase in free radicals is one of the factors that promote the development of chronic degenerative diseases; therefore, consuming natural antioxidants helps minimize their negative effects. This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of the soursop extract (Annona muricata), its cytoprotective capacity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide, the inhibitory potential of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the molecular mechanism of its antioxidant action, and its capacity to repair cellular damage in the fibroblast cell line. The soursop extract proved not to be cytotoxic in fibroblast cultures and showed cytoprotective capacity against hydrogen peroxide-induced stress; in cell culture it reduced the generation of ROS significantly by inhibiting a sub-unit of the NADPH oxidase enzyme (p47phox). The soursop extract can prevent damage caused by cellular oxidants.

  18. Euphorbia latex: a possible source of hydrocarbons and rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.; Teisseire, D.

    1975-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions are given of 36 plants of potential economic value in underdeveloped tropical countries, classified by use. The plants are either wild or cultivated on a fairly local scale. Accounts of limitations and special requirements and lists of references, research contacts and sources of germ plasm are included for each species. The following tree and shrub species are included: Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, C. chayamansa and hearts of several edible palm species including Euterpe edulis (vegetables); Durio species, Garcinia mangostana, Solanum quitoense, Bactris gaspiaes, Citrus grandis, Annona muricata and Pourouma cecropiaefolia (fruits); Orbignya martiana, Caryocar species, Jessenia polycarpa and Simmondsia chinensis (oil seeds); Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum, Cassia sturtii, Atriplex species and Prosopis tamarungo (forage (browse)); Mauritia flexuosa (fruit, wood, etc.); Euphorbia antisyphilitica (wax); and Parthenium argentatum (rubber).

  19. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT AND CALCIUM ON POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF ATEMOYA FRUITS*

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    LIZ MARIA ABI RACHED TORRES

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of postharvest warm dipping with calcium chloride (CaCl2 on atemoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. storage. Fruits were immersed in 6% CaCl2 solution at 20 and 40°C for 20 min followed by storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed in terms of its impact on peel and fl esh appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, pH, ascorbic acid content, total phenolics, and enzyme activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. Treatment at 40°C preserved eatable conditions up to 6 days, although calcium affected the appearance of the peel as soon as 4 days. Flesh browning was detected only on the 8th day in untreated fruits, after an increase in PPO and POD activities and total phenolics, and a decrease in ascorbic acid content. The weight loss was continuous throughout the storage period, with no signifi cant difference between treatments. TTA and TSS contents increased and pH decreased during the experiment. Results suggest that CaCl2 dipping had a positive effect on fl esh browning, which was reduced, while heat treatment showed a synergic effect, which could be related broadly with a fall in PPO activity. The variations in ascorbic acid content during storage suggest that the warm dipping combined with CaCl2, contributed to the antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  20. La situación de las annonaceae en México: principales plagas, enfermedades y su control

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    Librado Vidal Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia económica de las especies de la familia Annonaceae en México es diversa y no se restringe a las especies comestibles, pues además incluye especies con propiedades aromáticas para la extracción de aceites esenciales, medicinales, insecticidas y tóxicos a peces. En general esta familia no se ha formalizado agronómica ni económicamente, sin embargo, presenta grandes perspectivas dentro de programas de mejoramiento genético, en el uso como portainjertos o bien como cultivos alternativos. Las principales plagas asociadas al género Annona son: Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead, Cerconota anonella Sepp., Corythuca gossypii Fab., Planococcus citri, Chrysobotris sp., Talponia batesi Heinrich., Acantocephala femorata Fab.. Las principales enfermedades de las anonáceas reportadas son: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, Rhizopusstolonifer Ehr., Phyllosticta sp., Pestalotia sp., Macrophoma sp., Fusarium sp y Phytopthora sp.. Siendo la primera la principal enfermedad de mayor importancia en el cultivo del guanábano dado que disminuye el rendimiento y calidad de los frutos. En chirimoyo y guanábano es muy poca la información bibliográfica existente sobre plagas y enfermedades, y en las demás especies de Annona es nula. No se han realizado evaluaciones de las pérdidas que ocasionan las plagas y enfermedades en las Anonáceas, ocasionando un desconocimiento pleno sobre los daños ocasionados por este factor biótico.

  1. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria

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    Joachim K. Dzotam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%, 11/19 (57.9%, 10/19 (52.6% and 10/19 (52.6% tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  2. Biochemical characterization of selected plant species from Brazilian Savannas

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    Samantha Salomão Caramori

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze and quantify the presence of antinutritional compounds such as lectins and trypsin-like inhibitors, polyphenols and tannins, and enzymatic activity of peroxidases and proteases in the seeds of Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora Mart G. Don. (bacupari, and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro. The results suggested that these plants could be used as new source of food.O Cerrado é constituído por inúmeras espécies vegetais com potencial econômico, as quais são utilizadas para os mais variados fins, como medicinal e nutricional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e quantificar a presença de atividade enzimática de peroxidases e proteases e fatores antinutricionais, como lectinas e inibidores de proteases, além de polifenóis e taninos em algumas espécies nativas do Cerrado. O material vegetal utilizado foram sementes de Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, Hymenaea courbaril L. var. courbaril (jatobá, Plathymenia reticulata Benth. (vinhático, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (maminha de porca, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl. (pau jangada, Salacia crassiflora (Mart. G. Don. (bacupari e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vog. (carvoeiro, coletadas na cidade de Goiânia e municípios de Jataí e Caldas Novas, estado de Goiás. O uso potencial destas plantas e suas enzimas na indústria de alimentos, poderia resultar em aplicações ao aparecimento de novos produtos a partir das matérias-primas tradicionais, além do uso de novas fontes de alimentos.

  3. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzotam, Joachim K; Touani, Francesco K; Kuete, Victor

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%), 11/19 (57.9%), 10/19 (52.6%) and 10/19 (52.6%) tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes. PMID:27579004

  4. Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss Flora Paraibana: Annonaceae Juss

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    Aline Fernandes Pontes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte integrante do Projeto Flora Paraibana e teve como objetivo realizar o tratamento taxonômico da família Annonaceae para o Estado. Para sua elaboração foram realizadas coletas em diversos municípios do Estado, além do levantamento das exsicatas depositadas nos herbários JPB, EAN e IPA. A identificação do material foi feita com o auxílio de chaves analíticas, bibliografia especializada e fototipos. As descrições e as ilustrações foram elaboradas com base nas observações de material herborizado e/ou plantas vivas. Foram registrados para a Paraíba seis gêneros, compreendendo 15 espécies: Anaxagorea (1, Annona (6, Duguetia (2, Guatteria (2, Rollinia (2 e Xylopia (2, sendo 11 delas novas referências para o Estado.The objective of this study is to carry out a taxonomic treatment of the family Annonaceae for the Flora of Paraíba Project. Collections were made throughout Paraiba. In addition, specimens were studied from the following herbaria: JPB, EAN and IPA. The material available was identified using analytical keys, botanical literature, and photographs of type specimens. The descriptions and illustrations are based on living material or herbarium specimens. Six genera of Annonaceae, comprising a total of 15 species were found in Paraíba: Anaxagorea (1, Annona (6, Duguetia (2, Guatteria (2, Rollinia (2 and Xylopia (2, with 11 new records for the state.

  5. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Canarium schweinfurthii and four other Cameroonian dietary plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzotam, Joachim K; Touani, Francesco K; Kuete, Victor

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial infections are among the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of five Cameroonian edible plants namely Colocasia esculenta, Triumfetta pentandra, Hibiscus esculentus, Canarium schweinfurthii and Annona muricata against a panel of 19 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The liquid broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the standard phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols, triterpenes and steroids, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. Canarium schweinfurthii extract showed the best activity with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL against 89.5% of the 19 tested bacteria strains. MIC values below or equal to 1024 μg/mL were also recorded with Triumfetta pentandra, Annona muricata, Colocasia esculenta and Hibiscus esculentus extracts respectively against 15/19 (78.9%), 11/19 (57.9%), 10/19 (52.6%) and 10/19 (52.6%) tested bacteria. Extract from C. schweinfurthii displayed the lowest MIC value (64 μg/mL) against Escherichia coli AG100ATet. Finally, the results of this work provide baseline information for the use of C. esculenta, T. pentandra, H. esculentus, C. schweinfurthii and A. muricata in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  7. Sorption Thermodynamics of Soursop Powders Obtained by Different Dehydration Technologies / Termodinámica de Sorción de Polvos de Guanabana Obtenidos por Diferentes Tecnologías de Deshidratación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Ceballos Peñaloza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The soursop (Annona muricata L. is a perishabletropical fruit with high nutritional value. The aim of this workwas to evaluate the sorption thermodynamics of soursop powderswith maltodextrin (MD, obtained by different drying technologies,thus allowing understanding the mechanisms that govern thisprocess. Adsorption isotherms of freeze dried (FD, spray drying(SD and vacuum drying (VD powders were determined at 20, 30,40 and 50 °C by using the static gravimetric method. The resultsshowed that the better fits the adsorption experimental data isthe GAB model (R2>0.9893. The influence of the drying system inthe model parameters was also shown. The monolayer moisturevalues between 5.28 and 9.30% (kg water/kg d.s were within thereported range for dehydrated food. /La guanábana (Annona muricata L. es una frutatropical perecedera y de gran valor nutricional. El objetivo deéste trabajo fue evaluar la termodinámica de sorción de polvosguanábana con maltodextrina (MD obtenidos por diferentestecnologías de secado, lo que permite la comprensión de losmecanismos que regulan este proceso. Se determinaron lasisotermas de adsorción por método gravimétrico estático a 20, 30,40 y 50 °C, para polvos secados por liofilización (FD, aspersión(SD y vacío (VD. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo de GABse ajustó a los datos experimentales de adsorción (R2>0,9893.Se mostró la influencia del sistema de secado en los parámetrosdel modelo. Los valores de humedad de la monocapa, entre 5,28y 9,30% (kg de agua/kg s.s, se encuentran dentro de los rangosreportados para alimentos deshidratados.

  8. Leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of compounds from two Annonacea species cultivated in Northeastern Brazil

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    Nadja Soares Vila-Nova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries, with a total of 12 million people infected and 350 million at risk. In the search for new leishmanicidal agents, alkaloids and acetogenins isolated from leaves of Annona squamosa and seeds of Annona muricata were tested against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. METHODS: Methanol-water (80:20 extracts of A. squamosa leaves and A. muricata seeds were extracted with 10% phosphoric acid and organic solvents to obtain the alkaloid and acetogenin-rich extracts. These extracts were chromatographed on a silica gel column and eluted with a mixture of several solvents in crescent order of polarity. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested against Leishmania chagasi, which is responsible for American visceral leishmaniasis, using the MTT test assay. The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated for all isolated compounds, and for this assay, RAW 264.7 cells were used. RESULTS: O-methylarmepavine, a benzylisoquinolinic alkaloid, and a C37 trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin were isolated from A. squamosa, while two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone, were isolated from A. muricata. Against promastigotes, the alkaloid showed an IC50 of 23.3 µg/mL, and the acetogenins showed an IC50 ranging from 25.9 to 37.6 µg/mL; in the amastigote assay, the IC50 values ranged from 13.5 to 28.7 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity assay showed results ranging from 43.5 to 79.9 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These results characterize A. squamosa and A. muricata as potential sources of leishmanicidal agents. Plants from Annonaceae are rich sources of natural compounds and an important tool in the search for new leishmanicidal therapies.

  9. Screening of herbal extracts influencing hematopoiesis and their chemical genetic effects in embryonic zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajaretinam Rajesh Kannan; Samuel Gnana Prakash Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the herbal extracts influencing the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in zebrafish embryos and their chemical genetic effects. Methods: The herbals used in this study had been widely applicable in Siddha medicines in South India. Herbal extracts were treated in zebrafish embryos at 4 d post fertilization and the extracts inducing the HSC were enumerated in hemocytometer. The biocompatibility and the organogenesis of the screened extracts were assessed in the zebrafish embryos for their chemical genetic effects. The LC50 values were calculated with their parallel control. The blood cells were enumerated. Results: The level of RBC was found increased in the Bergera koenigii (B. koenigii) at 15 μg/mL (P<0.05), Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) at 20 μg/mL (P<0.05) and Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum) at 25 μg/mL (P<0.05) and decreased RBC level was found in Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) at 30 μg/mL (P<0.05). The WBC count was found increased in S. trilobatum at 20 μg/mL (P<0.05) and Annona muricata (Annona muricata) at 15 μg/mL (P<0.05) and the Vitis quadrangularis (V. quadrangularis) at 20 μg/mL (P<0.05) decreased the WBC level. There were no notable effects in heart beats and the chemical genetic effects were observed at higher concentration of the extract resulting in Pericardial bulging, trunk tail flexure with heart edema, fin fold deformities etc. Conclusions: This in vivo based screening of Hematopoiesis is an inexpensive assay to screen herbal compounds and found that S. trilobatum extract influenced embryonic HSC in zebrafish, which could be a therapeutic for blood related disorders.

  10. Temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais Freezing points of various tropical fruits

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    Paulo Cesar Sentelhas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer melhor o efeito das baixas temperaturas sobre as frutíferas de clima tropical e possibilitar o desenvolvimento de novas variedades, mais tolerantes, simularam-se geadas em câmaras frigoríficas para a determinação da temperatura letal de diferentes plantas frutíferas tropicais. Os resultados permitiram classificar as espécies em três grupos: Grupo I - moderada tolerância (-4°C: condessa (Annona reticulata; goiaba (Psidium guajava; acerola (Malpighia glabra e abacate (Persea americana var. Geada; Grupo II - média tolerância (-5°C: conde (A. squamosa; araticum-mirim (Rollinea spp.; anona-do-brejo (A. glabra; falsa-gravioleira (A. montana; araticum-de-folha-miúda (R. ermaginata e maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Grupo III - acentuada tolerância (-6°C: cherimóia (A. cherimola.The effect of low temperature on tropical fruits was studied in order to guide future developments of frost resistant varieties. Simulations of frost were done in a freezing chamber to determine the freezing points of various fruit plants. On the basis of the results the studied species can be classified into three groups according to their tolerance to low temperatures: Group I - little tolerance (-4°C: Annona reticulata; Psidium guajava; Malpighia glabra and Persea americana (var. Geada; Group II - medium tolerance (-5°C: A. squamosa; Rollinea spp.; A. glabra; A. montana; R. ermaginata and Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa; Group III - high tolerance (-6°C: A. cherimola.

  11. 生态景观林树种选择定量研究%Tree species selection for an ecological landscape forest at Qingshan Lake, Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊; 韦新良; 尤建林; 徐小军

    2008-01-01

    树种选择是生态景观林营建中重要的技术要素.以浙江省青山湖国家森林公园为研究对象,针对当地的自然环境条件、生态建设与旅游发展的要求,制订了树种选择标准.根据专家建议,以树种的生物学特性、观赏特性和生态功能作为生态景观林树种选择的主要依据,确定了形态习性、生长速度、土壤适应性和抗病虫性等12个树种评价指标,采用5级评分制对每一项指标进行量化分级,并运用层次分析法确定了各个指标的权重,为研究区生态景现林树种选择提出了一个完整的评价指标体系和数量化评价模型.应用树种评价模型对研究区41个绿化树种进行了综合评价.结果表明:合欢Albizzia julibrissin,枫香 Liquidamba formosana,乌桕Sapium sebiferum,黄连木 Pistacia chinensis,臭椿Ailanthus altissima.银杏 Ginkgo biloba等落叶树种综合性状良好;苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,樟树Cinnamomum camphora,深山含笑Michelia maudiae和木荷Schima superba等常绿树种综合性状较好.但因合欢分枝较低,不宜做大面积绿化树种,建议选择枫香、乌桕、苦槠和樟树作为青山湖国家森林公园生态景观林建设的基调树种.表2参64

  12. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Dominant Evergreen Broadleaf Trees in Tiantong Mountain and Its Role of Ecological Significance in Community Succession%天童山常绿阔叶林优势树种光合生理特性在其群落演替中的生态意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昊民; 李宁云; 喻庆国; 杨宇明

    2011-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of 4 dominant trees, Castanopsis fargesii, Schima superb, Lithocarpus glaber, and Castanopsis sclerophylla, which consisted of sub climax succession in evergreen broadleaf forestry in Tiantong Mount in Zhejiang, were studied.We analyzed the photosynthetic response curve, light compensation point and light saturation point, CO2 compensation point, daily photosynthesis change, transpiration and water utilization rate in the seedlings, saplings and adult trees of aforementioned four types of trees.By analysis and comparison of these indices, we asserted the photosynthetic characteristics of these dominant evergreen broadleaf trees might reflect the important roles these trees played in the succession of community.We found that the tree of Castanopsis fargesii was mostly adopted to the climax community structure among the four types of trees by having lowest C02 compensation point, excellent water utilization ability and perfect self-conservation in light inhibition condition, thus it had become dominant species in the community of evergreen broadleaf forestry in Tiantong Mount.%对浙江天童山常绿阔叶林组成亚顶级群落的4个优势树种:栲树、木荷、石栎、苦槠的光合生理特性进行了研究.对此4个优势树种幼苗、幼树、成年树等生长阶段的光合响应曲线及其光补偿点和光饱和点、CO2补偿点、光合作用日变化曲线、蒸腾作用和水分利用率等进行了测定,对比分析了优势树种光合生理生态特性及其在天童山常绿阔叶林群落演替过程中的重要作用.结果发现栲树具有最低的光和CO2补偿点、优良的水分利用性能,完善的光抑制自我保护机制,幼苗适应弱光环境且代谢旺盛而利于更新,在4个优势树种中最适应于顶级群落的特殊生境,因此成为了天童山常绿阔叶林自然演替顶级群落中重要值最大的优势种.

  13. Insect herbivory patterns on leaves of 11 plant species in the evergreen broad-leaved forests of Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang%浙江天童常绿阔叶林中11种常绿乔灌木叶片虫食状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 蔡永立; 李恺; 江红; 田玉鹏

    2006-01-01

    为探讨昆虫对植物叶片的取食行为和伤害方式,作者选择浙江天童常绿阔叶林内的11种常绿乔灌木为对象,对叶片虫食状类型和格局进行分析.结果如下:(1)共发现16种虫食状类型,每种植物叶片虫食状类型数在10-13种之间,每种虫食状出现频率在0.5-28.7%之间.缘食状出现频率最高(28.7%),虫瘿和泡状出现频率最低(0.5%).(2)叶片虫食状分布格局可分为3种类型,即一种虫食状占绝对优势的单优格局,如马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)和檵木(Loropetalum chinense);两种虫食状(缘食状和顶食状)共占优势的双优格局,仅有木荷(Schima superba);3种及3种以上虫食状占优势的多优格局(其余8种植物).(3)叶片虫食状多样性指数变化在1.57-2.23之间,最高为苦槠(Castanopsis sclerophylla),最低为马银花;乔木的多样性指数(2.040)高于灌木(1.882),优势种多样性指数高于伴生种,但差异均不显著;多样性指数反映了虫食状类型和出现频率的综合差异.(4)16种虫食状类型中有8对显著正相关,4对显著负相关,可能反映出不同类型昆虫取食植物的趋同和差异.

  14. A Survey of Mucilaginous Testa in Chamaesyce

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    Jordan, M. S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Chamaesyce were studied for presence of mucilaginous testa. Samples were selected to represent all major systematic sections within the genus. Observations were made with a dissecting microscope following brief hydration of seeds; additional SEM observations of both intact and fractured dry seeds were made for selected species. With few exceptions, most of Boissier's subsections test positively fo r seed mucilage; however, mucilage is generally absent in subsections Gymnadeniae and "Sclerophyllae", for wich absence of mucilage is regarded as secondary loss from mucilagionus ancestors. Although mucilage production is associated with a well-defined subepidermal layer of macroesclereids, it is the surface layer of cells that actually secrete mucilage. Mucilage secreting cells and macroesclereids of mature testa are interpreted to develop from the epidermal layers of outer and inner integuments, respectively. Seed mucilages may play a role in seed hydration and/or seed dispersal.

    Han estat estudiades les granes de Chamaesyce segons la presència o no de testa mucilaginosa. Les mostres van ésser seleccionades per tal de representar tot es les principals seccions del gènere. Les observacions han estat fetes al microscopi de disseció desprès d'hidratar breument les llavors; addicionalment s'han fet observacions en el MER de llavors seques, senceres i fracturades , de les espècies seleccionades. Amb poques excepcions, la major part de les subseccions de Boissier presenten els tests de presència de mucílags a les granes positius; no obstant, els mucilags generalment no es presenten en les subseccions Gymnadeniae i "Scterophyltae", per a les quals l'absència de mucilags es considerada comuna pèrdua secundària a partir d'avantpassats mucilaginosos. Encara que la producció de mucilags s'associa amb les capes subepidèrmiques ben definides de les macroesclereides, en realitat es la capa de

  15. 浙江主要生态经济造林树种轻基质育苗的容器筛选%Seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冬明; 林磊; 严春风; 周志春

    2011-01-01

    选用木荷Schima superba,湿地松Pinus elliottii,苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,青冈Cyclobalanopsis goauca,杨梅Myrica rubra,樟树Cinnamomun camphora,无患子Sapindus mukorossi和红叶石楠Photinia serrulata等浙江省主要生态经济造林树种,开展容器类型和规格对其l~2年生容器苗生长影响的系统研究.结果表明,不同树种容器苗对不同容器类型和规格的生长反应差异很大.对于1年生容器苗培育,以无纺布网袋容器作为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长表现最优,在林木穴盘、塑料薄膜容器和软质塑料杯等3种育苗容器中各树种容器苗生长均属正常,而硬质锥形塑料管和纸杯容器其容器苗生长表现较差;对于2年生容器大苗培育,以可拆式塑料容器作为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长表现皆显著优于其他类型容器,以无纺布网袋容器为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长均较好,以软质塑料杯和纸杯容器为育苗容器的容器苗生长较差.相关分析发现,各树种1年生容器苗的苗高、地径、干物质积累量和根体积等生长性状与育苗容器直径和高度相关性不显著,而各树种2年生容器苗的主要生长性状与容器规格皆呈显著的正相关,意味着为培育2年生的容器大苗,选择规格较大的容器是关键的技术措施之一.表4参17%To aid in seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species (Schima superba, Pinus elliottii, Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Myrica rubra,Cinnamomum camphora, Sapindus mukorossi, and Photinia serrulata) in Zhejiang Province, effect of container types (non-woven fabric containers, tree plugs, plastic film containers, soft plastic cups, hard conical plastic tubes, paper cup containers and demountable plastic containers) and sizes (container diameter and height) on the annual and biennial seedling growth of the afforestation species mentioned above were determined

  16. A Study on Combination of Multi-plant-extract with Activity Resisting Magnaporthe oryzae%抗稻瘟病菌活性多植物提取物组方研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍光华; 严伟; 符金华; 陈明辉; 叶亚建

    2012-01-01

      To strengthen the activity resisting the rice blast of natural products from plants and lessen their use doses, inhibition of the mycelium growth and pore Germination were determined and a prescription pharmacodynamic model was adopted for the combination of fractions from the multi-plant-extract with the activity. Results showed the ethanol extracts of Schima superba leaves, Sapindus mukorossi mesocarp, Magnolia grandiflora leaves, Camellia oleifera leaves, Castanopsis sclerophylla leaves, and Cedrus deodara leaves were of strong activities resisting Magnaporthe oryza. 50% effective concentration (EC 50) / minimum inhibitting concentration (MIC) of inhibitting mycelium growth were 0.08/0.60, 0.08/0.80, 0.17/1.00, 0.22/0.60, 0.35/1.50, and 0.16/1.00 ㎎/mL respectively. MIC of the inhibiting spore germination were 1.6, 1.7, 2.9, 3.1, 2.9, and 4.6㎎/mL respectively. Antifungal effects of 70% ethanol extract combination showed there were strong synergic effects of the combination between Sapindus mukorossi and Magnolia grandiflora, antagonistic effects of the combination between Schima superba and Cedrus deodara, but the maximum inhibiting effect of higher doses combination was among Schima superba, Sapindus mukorossi and Magnolia grandiflora on Mycelial growth inhibition. Any combination of two plant materials could strengthen the inhibition effects on the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae, and the multiple combination of Schima superba, Sapindus mukorossi, Magnolia grandiflora, Camellia oleifera, Castanopsis sclerophylla could get the best effects. The prescription pharmacodynamic model selected was of good correlation between measured values and forecast values, with strong predictable features, which was suitable for screening the multi-component groups in the development of botanical fungicides.%  为了强化植物天然产物抗稻瘟活性和减少使用剂量,进行了菌丝生长和孢子萌发抑制活性测定、配伍药效模型多植

  17. Cardioprotective medication use and risk factor control among US adults with unrecognized myocardial infarction: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study

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    Levitan EB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily B Levitan,1 Christopher Gamboa,1 Monika M Safford,2 Dana V Rizk,3 Todd M Brown,4 Elsayed Z Soliman,5 Paul Muntner11Department of Epidemiology, 2Division of Preventive Medicine, 3Division of Nephrology, 4Division of Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 5Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USABackground: Individuals with unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI have similar risks for cardiovascular events and mortality as those with recognized myocardial infarction (RMI. The prevalence of cardioprotective medication use and blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control among individuals with UMI is unknown.Methods: Participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study who were recruited between May 2004 and October 2007 received baseline twelve-lead electrocardiograms (n = 21,036. Myocardial infarction (MI status was characterized as no MI, UMI (electrocardiogram abnormalities consistent with MI without self-reported history; n = 949; 4.5%, and RMI (self-reported history of MI; n = 1574; 7.5%.Results: For participants with no MI, UMI, and RMI, prevalence of use was 38.4%, 44.4%, and 75.7% for aspirin; 18.0%, 25.8%, and 57.2% for beta blockers; 31.7%, 38.7%, and 55.0% for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers; and 28.1%, 33.9%, and 64.1% for statins, respectively. Participants with RMI were 35% more likely to have low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dL than participants with UMI (prevalence ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.19–1.52. Blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg was similar between RMI and UMI groups (prevalence ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.13.Conclusion: Although participants with UMI were somewhat more likely to use cardioprotective medications than those with no MI, they were less likely to use

  18. Nova metodologia para interpretação de dados de análise sensorial de alimentos New methodology for data interpretationof food sensorial analysis

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    Francisco de A. S. e Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos atualmente utilizados para realização de análise sensorial têm deixado muito a desejar por não traduzir satisfatoriamente os resultados. Diante deste problema, analisou-se a possibilidade de introdução de um fator que medisse o índice de concordância dos provadores sobre determinado aspecto analisado. Para validação deste coeficiente, foi avaliada a concordância entre julgadores na análise sensorial para três diferentes amostras de suco de pinha (Annona squamosa L.: uma constituída apenas do suco de pinha sem leite e duas com diferentes concentrações pinha/leite. Utilizou-se a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP e também a nova metodologia proposta pelos autores, com base na definição do desvio-padrão, aplicada às frequências absolutas das notas dos julgadores, para cada propriedade sensorial estudada. Com esta metodologia, definiu-se uma relação para o cálculo de uma medida de concordância entre os julgadores, denominada de coeficiente de concordância, a qual pode assumir valores de 0 a 100% e também permite comparações que não são possíveis, utilizando-se da ACP. Por fim, concluiu-se que tal metodologia é mais indicada que a ACP, na avaliação da concordância entre os julgadores na análise sensorial.The methods now used, for accomplishment of sensorial analysis, do not translate the results satisfactorily. Because of this problem, it was analyzed the possibility of introducing a factor that measures the agreement index of the tasters on a particular aspect analyzed. To validate this coefficient, the agreement coefficient among the sensory analysis tasters had been evaluated using three different annona samples; one consisting only of the annona juice (without milk and the other with different concentrations of juice / milk (mass percentage. This evaluation was accomplished by the Analysis of Main Components (ACP and by the new methodology also proposed by the authors, with base in the

  19. Produção integrada de Anonáceas no Brasil

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    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Os conceitos técnicos e operacionais contidos na Produção Integrada (PI vêm atender de forma direta às exigências dos órgãos nacionais e internacionais que fiscalizam o comércio de "commodities", dando ênfase à segurança e a qualidade dos alimentos produzidos e consumidos pela população. A garantia da produção de um alimento seguro e rastreável é alcançada mediante o esforço harmônico de todos os integrantes da cadeia produtiva. Esse sistema pressupõe o cumprimento das Normas Técnicas Específicas (NTE para cada produto, permitindo o controle efetivo do sistema produtivo agropecuário por meio do monitoramento de todas as etapas na cadeia produtiva. Esse conceito teve início com o Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP e, posteriormente, expandiu-se para uma visão holística, estruturada em quatro pilares de sustentação: organização da base produtiva; sustentabilidade do sistema; monitoramento dos processos; e formação de um banco de dados. Dentro desta visão, insere-se a Produção Integrada de Anonáceas, projeto iniciado em 2010, com apoio do CNPq/MAPA/EMBRAPA e instituições parceiras. As anonáceas representam um nome genérico para designar as plantas da família Annonaceae constituída por cerca de 120 gêneros e em torno de 2.300 espécies. No Brasil, estão registrados 29 gêneros, dentro dos quais cerca de 260 espécies. Entre as espécies de maior importância comercial, destacam-se a graviola (Annona muricata L., pinha (Annona squamosa L., cherimólia (Annona cherimólia, Mill. e a atemoia, hibrido de A. cherimólia e A. squamosa. Essas frutas têm alta aceitação pelo seu sabor e possibilidade de uso para consumo in natura, sucos e geleias. As áreas comercialmente cultivadas são concentradas nos Estados do Nordeste do Brasil. Os Estados de maior concentração: Bahia para graviola e pinha, Alagoas para pinha e São Paulo para atemoia. Os resultados de pesquisa envolvendo toda a cadeia produtiva dessas

  20. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

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    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  1. Evolutionary steps in the reproductive biology of Annonaceae

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    Gerhard Gottsberger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of Annonaceae are characterized by fleshy petals, many stamens with hard connective shields and numerous carpels with sessile stigmas often covered by sticky secretions. The petals of many representatives during anthesis form a closed pollination chamber. Protogynous dichogamy with strong scent emissions especially during the pistillate stage is a character of nearly all species. Scent emissions can be enhanced by thermogenesis. The prevailing reproductive system in the family seems to be self-compatibility. The basal genus Anaxagorea besides exhibiting several ancestral morphological characters has also many characters which reappear in other genera. Strong fruit-like scents consisting of fruit-esters and alcohols mainly attract small fruit-beetles (genus Colopterus, Nitidulidae as pollinators, as well as several other beetles (Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae and fruit-flies (Drosophilidae, which themselves gnaw on the thick petals or their larvae are petal or ovule predators. The flowers and the thick petals are thus a floral brood substrate for the visitors and the thick petals of Anaxagorea have to be interpreted as an antipredator structure. Another function of the closed thick petals is the production of heat by accumulated starch, which enhances scent emission and provides a warm shelter for the attracted beetles. Insight into floral characters and floral ecology of Anaxagorea, the sister group of the rest of the Annonaceae, is particularly important for understanding functional evolution and diversification of the family as a whole. As beetle pollination (cantharophily is plesiomorphic in Anaxagorea and in Annonaceae, characters associated with beetle pollination appear imprinted in members of the whole family. Pollination by beetles (cantharophily is the predominant mode of the majority of species worldwide. Examples are given of diurnal representatives (e.g., Guatteria, Duguetia, Annona which function on the basis of fruit

  2. 番荔枝科两种植物花器官形态发生%Floral Morphogenesis of Two Annonaceae Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 徐凤霞

    2011-01-01

    The floral morphogenesis of Saccopetalum prolificum and Annona muricata was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The perianth of the two species consisted of three alternating whorls,and the inner perianth whorls of A. muricata were variable (numbering 3, 5 or 7). The floral primordium of S. prolificum was initially conic. The outer perianth whorl initiated rapidly and then the middle and inner perianth whorls initiated successively. The floral primordium became hexagonal after the inner perianth whorl formed. The stamen primodia were nearly round and originated along the sides of hexagonal floral primordium spirally and centripetally,but arranged in whorls in amture buds. The initiation of carpels could not be distinguished from stamens in early stages,while it appeared chaotic towards the top of the floral apex. In the mature flower buds, both of carpels and stamens were covered by hairs which may have the function of retaining a pollination drop.%用扫描电镜观察了囊瓣木(Saccopetalum prolificum)和刺果番荔枝(Annona muricata)花器官的形态发生过程.刺果番荔枝和囊瓣木花被片均为3轮,其中刺果番荔枝内轮花被片数目为3枚、5枚或7枚.囊瓣木花原基最初为圆锥形,最外轮3枚花被片很快发生,之后中、内轮花被片原基连续发生,3轮花被片互生.此时花原基为六边形.花被片分化完成时,圆球形雄蕊原基沿六边形花原基的6个边螺旋向心发生,最终近轮状排列于花原基上.刺果番荔枝的雄蕊较多(约1000枚),首先在中轮花被片所对的花原基边缘发生,之后大量雄蕊螺旋状发生.心皮分化的早期阶段,与雄蕊原基很相似,当心皮数目逐渐增多时,不能分辩出发生的顺序.成熟花中,心皮和雄蕊全都被毛覆盖,毛具有粘住传粉滴的作用.

  3. Extratos de plantas no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae em laboratório Plant extracts in control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae in laboratory

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    Sônia Maria Forti Broglio-Micheletti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos vegetais foram estudados com o objetivo de avaliar suas eficiências no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 em laboratório. Fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato foram coletadas de bovinos e mantidas em placas de Petri. Foram utilizados extratos orgânicos alcoólicos 2% (peso/volume de sementes de Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (graviola; flores de Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (jambo; folhas de Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (capim-santo; folhas de Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (nim; e extrato hexânico na mesma concentração de A. indica (sementes. Os grupos-controle foram compostos por fêmeas sem tratamento e fêmeas tratadas com água destilada e esterilizada e dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO a uma concentração de 1%. O extrato de A. muricata apresentou o maior poder acaricida, com eficácia de 100%, seguido dos extratos de S. malaccensis (75 e 59,24% e A. indica (65 e 38,49%. Houve 100% de redução na eclosão das larvas quando se utilizou o extrato de sementes de A. muricata.Plant extracts were studied to evaluate its efficiency in the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 in laboratory. Engorged female ticks were collected from the cattle, kept in Petri dishes. Organic alcoholic extracts 2% (weight/volume were used: seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae (soursop; flowers of Syzygium malaccensis (L. (Myrtaceae (iamb, leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf (Poaceae (holy grass, leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae (neem and hexane extract 2% (weight/volume of A. indica (seeds. The control groups consisted of untreated females and females treated with distilled water and sterile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO a concentration of 1%. The extract of A. muricata (seed had the highest mortality with acaricide activity and 100% efficacy followed by extracts of S. malaccensis (75 and 59.24% and A. indica (65 and 38.49%. The seed extract of A. muricata

  4. Fenólicos totais e capacidade antioxidante in vitro de resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais Total phenolics and in vitro antioxidant capacity of tropical fruit pulp wastes

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    Mariana Séfora Bezerra Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração dos compostos fenólicos dos resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais acerola (Malpighia glabra L., goiaba (Psidium Guayaba L., abacaxi (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacuri (Platonia insignis e graviola (Annona muricata L., bem como avaliar a sua capacidade antioxidante in vitro, pelos métodos de captura de radicais DPPH• e ABTS+. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram elevados teores de fenólicos totais para o resíduo da polpa de acerola, com 247,62 ± 2,08 mg.100 g-1 de fenólicos totais para o extrato aquoso e 279,99 ± 3,5 mg.100 g-1 para o extrato hidroalcoólico (p The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compound contents and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the following extracts from tropical fruit pulp wastes: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., guava (Psidium Guayaba L., pineapple (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacury (Platonia insignis, and cherimoya (Annona muricata L. using the DPPH and ABTS+ radical capture methodologies. The results showed high levels of phenolic compounds in the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the acerola pulp wastes, of 247.62 ± 2.08 mg.100 g-1 and 279.99 ± 3.5 mg.100 g-1, respectively (p < 0.05. The antioxidant activity, when measured by the DPPH method, showed that the hydroalcoholic extract of the guava wastes presented the highest values with an EC50 of 142.89 μg.mL-1, followed by the hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of the acerola wastes, with EC50 values of 308.07 and 386.46 μg.mL-1, respectively. When the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the ABTS method, the acerola pulp wastes showed the highest antioxidant capacity, with TEAC values of 0.518 ± 0.103 and 0.743 ± 0.127 mM.g-1 of residue for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts, respectively (p < 0.05. Thus, the fruit pulp wastes studied in this work, especially acerola and guava, represented

  5. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus

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    Lans Cheryl A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. Methods A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. Results The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Conclusion Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol

  6. 不同龄组杉木生态公益林多功能研究%Study of Multi-functions in Different Age Groups of Non-commercial Cunninghamia lanceolata Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李际平; 邓超; 曹小玉; 费皓柏

    2015-01-01

    Ecological public-welfare Cunninghamia lanceolata forest of 3 age groups in Hunan Fushou State Forest Farm was taken as the research object.A total of 16 indicators in four aspects as soil and water con-servation,conservation of headwaters,biodiversity,carbon sequestration and productivity.The analysis of multifunctional efficiency difference for 4 kinds of forest types was conducted.The results showed that in different age groups of ecological public-welfare Cunninghamia lanceolata forest,the diversity function of young forest species was minimum,there was no significant difference between middle-aged forest and near mature forest,and no significant difference between young forest and middle-aged forest in soil and water conservation and water conservation function,the near mature forest was highest,carbon sequestration func-tion and the function of productivity were increased with increasing of the stand age,and there was signifi-cant difference.The main reasons of the low multifunctional efficiency of ecological public-welfare Cun-ninghamia lanceolata forest were the low species richness,single stand structure and low biomass.As the guide of the nature forest sustainable management,stand structure should be optimized improvement thinning carried out on the stand regularly,Castanopsis sclerophylla,Michelia maudiae and other local indigenous broadleaf tree species replanted to achieve the goal of multifunctional management of ecological public-welfare Cunninghamia lanceolata forest.%以湖南福寿国有林场3个龄组杉木生态公益林为研究对象,构建了多功能的水土保持与水源涵养、物种多样性、固碳、生产力4个方面功能共16个指标,对4种林分类型进行多功能效益差异性分析,结果表明:不同龄组的杉木生态公益林中,幼龄林物种多样性功能最低,中龄林与近熟林无显著性差异,幼龄林与中龄林的水土保持与水源涵养功能无显著性差异,近

  7. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. PMID:22648665

  8. Antibacterial activity of three medicinal Thai plants against Campylobacter jejuni and other foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholvitayakhun, Achara; Cushnie, T P Tim; Trachoo, Nathanon

    2012-01-01

    Leaves of Adenanthera pavonina, Moringa oleifera and Annona squamosa are used in traditional Thai medicine to treat dysentery and other diseases. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of these plants against six species of foodborne pathogen. Methods and solvents employed to extract active constituents were optimised using the disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical analysis of the optimised extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by broth microdilution. A. pavonina contained flavonoids, terpines and tannins, and was the most active extract against Campylobacter jejuni, inhibiting growth at 62.5-125 µg mL(-1). The A. squamosa extract contained flavonoids, terpines, tannins and alkaloids, and had the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activity, inhibiting Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and C. jejuni between 62.5 and 500 µg mL(-1). MBCs were 2- to 4-fold higher than MICs against C. jejuni and B. cereus, suggesting the extracts are bactericidal against these species. Negligible activity was detected from M. oleifera. The data presented here show that A. pavonina and A. squamosa could potentially be used in modern applications aimed at the treatment or prevention of foodborne diseases. PMID:21878033

  9. Health and physiological quality of sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extracts and essential oils

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    Nicoletta Stefânia Dias da Silva Flávio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts and essential oils on seed quality of sorghum cultivar BR 310. Two experiments were conducted, one using sorghum seeds treated with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Mentha spicata and another using essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Annona crassiflora. For the experiment with extracts concentrations were 0, 10, 20 and 30% and for the oils were 0, 5, 10 and 15 ?L/mL. We evaluated the following characteristics: seed health (Blotter test, germination, first count of germination and germination speed index. The design was a DIC in 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, two oils or two extracts with four concentrations, independent testing. Several fungal species were associated with the seed, and the genus Curvularia the most prevalent. The aqueous extract of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and clove essential oil of basil (Ocimum gratissimum have shown promise for the treatment of seeds, reducing fungal infestation, especially Curvularia, however have phytotoxic effect reducing the viability and vigor of sorghum seeds.

  10. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. PMID:24547813

  11. La agricultura de las Antillas: un aporte substancial al mundo

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    Mois\\u00E9s Blanco

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del 12 de octubre de 1492, el mundo ya no fue el mismo. El almirante Cristóbal Colón tocaba tierras de un nuevo continente, al que posteriormente llamarían América. Cuando descubrió Las Antillas, encontró que estas islas estaban habitadas por diversas tribus donde la agricultura era el epicentro de sus vidas y de sus costumbres. De ella se han heredado muchas, las cuales se encuentran vigentes en el uso cotidiano. El presente trabajo hace descripción de algunas de estas vigencias y se citan ejemplos de su variada influencia como los nombres de: maní (Arachis hypogea L., maíz (Zea mays L., guanábana (Annona muricata L., pitahaya (Hylocerus undatus B & G y tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L., en usos particulares en el caso del mamey (Mammea americana L., icaco (Chysobalanus icaco L. y yuca (Manihot esculenta C., con propósito alimenticio el quequisque (Xanthosoma sagittifolium Sh, batata (Ipomoea batatas L. y topee tambo (Callathea allonia y de origen autóctono como la piña (Ananas comosus L., nancite (Byrsonima crassifolia H. B. K., guayaba (Psidium guajava L., coco (Cocos nucí- fera L., caimito (Chysophylum cainito L., guayacán (Guayacum sanctum L. y la caoba (Swietenia microphyla L..

  12. Larvicidal and IGR activity of extract of Tanzanian plants against malaria vector mosquitoes

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    Erich Kleinpeter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This paper reports the larvicidal activity of seventeen Tanzanian plantspecies against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles larvae. Some of the plants are usedtraditionally as sources of insecticidal materials.Methods: The crude extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the investigated plants wereobtained by solvent extraction and then bio-assayed following WHO protocols showed LC50 values10 to 400 ppm after 24 h exposure. The structures were determined on interpretation of spectroscopicdata.Results: The most active extracts were those from the stem and root barks of Annona squamosa,Uvaria faulknerae, U. kirkii and Uvariodendron pycnophyllum, all of which had LC50 values between10 and 100 ppm. Long-term exposure beyond 24 h also showed more susceptibility of the larvae tothe extracts. Larvae deformities by forming tail-like structures were observed for the methanolextracts of Tessmannia martiniana var pauloi.Interpretation & conclusion: The results suggest that the investigated plant extracts are promisingas larvicides against An. gambiae s.s. Giles mosquitoes and could be useful leads in the search fornew and biodegradable plant derived larvicide products.

  13. Examination of some morphologically unusual cultures of Phytophthora species using a mitochondrial DNA miniprep technique and a standardised sporangium caducity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G S

    Using the mitochondrial DNA miniprep technique, the identity of sixteen morphologically unusual cultures allocated to Phytophthora nicotianae, Phytophthora mexicana or Phytophthora porri was determined by comparison with a library of mtDNA band patterns obtained from reference cultures. Seven cultures were identified as Phytophthora nicotianae (including those assigned to Phytophthora mexicana and Phytophthora porri), six as strains of Phytophthora palmivora with small, ovoid, weakly caducous sporangia, and one as Phytophthora citrophthora. Some cultures of P. nicotianae had a low percentage of caducous sporangia. Percentage sporangium caducity, but not sporangium L:B ratio, is considered a useful taxonomic criterion for separating species morphologically similar to Phytophthora nicotianae. One culture from tobacco in New Zealand had a highly unusual morphology and a unique DNA band pattern, but was not identifiable. One culture from Acacia mearnsii in South Africa had a unique DNA band pattern which was identical to that of an isolate from Annona squamosa from Australia previously identified as Phytophthora palmivora, the precise identity of which is still unclear. The identity of most isolates from diseased durian was found to be Phytophthora palmivora, confirming its role as the main pathogen, but P. nicotianae was also identified from this host.

  14. Toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis

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    Bruce Veronez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a toxicidade de compostos sintéticos e naturais sobre Tetranychus urticae e o predador Phytoseiulus macropilis. A mortalidade e a taxa de crescimento de T. urticae e seu predador foram avaliadas após a aplicação de: abamectina, clofentezina, fenpropatrina, fenpiroximato, propargito, enxofre e espiromesifeno, nas concentrações recomendadas; óleos de nim (Natuneem e Sempre Verde Killer Neem a 1%; e extratos aquosos a 10% de Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Annona squamosa, Ruta graveolens, Agave angustifolia, Melia azedarach, Sonchus oleraceus, Mentha spicata x M. suaveolens, Allium cepa, Laurus nobilis e Eucalyptus saligna. A toxicidade aguda e a influência dos compostos sobre a taxa de crescimento instantâneo dos ácaros foram avaliadas em laboratório. Extratos de A. cepa, A. angustifolia, produtos à base de óleo de nim, espiromesifeno, propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina e fenpropatrina causaram mortalidade superior a 83% em T. urticae. Extrato de A. angustifolia, Natuneem e clofentezina não causaram mortalidade significativa em P. macropilis. Agave angustifolia e Natuneem não afetaram significativamente a taxa de crescimento deste predador. Propargito, fenpiroximato, abamectina, fenpropatrina, espiromesifeno e extrato de L. nobilis afetaram severamente a população de P. macropilis.

  15. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

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    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  16. Control of silverleaf whitefly, cotton aphid and kanzawa spider mite with oil and extracts from seeds of sugar apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yih; Wu, Der-Chung; Yu, Jih-Zu; Chen, Bing-Huei; Wang, Chin-Ling; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    Development of alternative methods for pest management is needed with the increased concern for adverse effects of pesticides for human health and the environment. The main goal of our study was to test the oil from seeds of sugar apple (Annona squamosa), an edible tropical fruit for pest control. The oil pressed out of seeds was as effective in controlling the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting leaves of tomato plants in greenhouse conditions as the recommended insecticide, with the advantage of not being phytotoxic. When observed with a scanning electron microscope, the seed oil caused whitefly nymphs to shrink and detach from the leaf surface. Sugar apple seed oil was also very effective in controlling the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae), on melon leaves and the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), on soybean leaves. The study revealed the possibility of developing the oil from sugar apple seeds, an agricultural waste, into a broad spectrum product friendly to the environment and human health for crop pest management.

  17. [Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fuentes, Luis M; Urias-López, Mario A; Bautista-Martínez, Nestor

    2010-01-01

    The soursop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with soursop was conducted to study the life cycle under field conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00h and 13:00h (35ºC, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days.

  18. The association between chromaticity, phenolics, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity of frozen fruit pulp in Brazil: an application of chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Ávila, Suelen; Ito, Vivian; Nogueira, Alessandro; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Haminiuk, Charles Windson Isidoro

    2014-04-01

    A total of 19 Brazilian frozen pulps from the following fruits: açai (Euterpe oleracea), blackberry (Rubus sp.), cajá (Spondias mombin), cashew (Anacardium occidentale), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), coconut (Cocos nucifera), grape (Vitis sp.), graviola (Annona muricata), guava (Psidium guajava), papaya (Carica papaya), peach (Prunus persica), pineapple (Ananas comosus), pineapple and mint (A. comosus and Mentha spicata), red fruits (Rubus sp. and Fragaria sp.), seriguela (Spondias purpurea), strawberry (Fragaria sp.), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), umbu (Spondias tuberosa), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) were analyzed in terms of chromaticity, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, which showed significant (P < 0.01) correlation with total phenolic compounds (r = 0.88 and 0.70, respectively), total flavonoids (r = 0.63 and 0.81, respectively), and total monomeric anthocyanins (r = 0.59 and 0.73, respectively). PCA explained 74.82% of total variance of data, and the separation into 3 groups in a scatter plot was verified. Three clusters also suggested by HCA, corroborated with PCA, in which cluster 3 was formed by strawberry, red fruits, blackberry, açaí, and grape pulps. This cluster showed the highest contents of total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity.

  19. The anti-senescence effect of resveratrol reduces postharvest softening rate in cherimoya fruit

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    Aaran Aquilino Morales Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its climateric behavior, the cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill. is a very perishable commodity. Present research aimed to observe the anti-senescence effect of resveratrol (RVS; this plant bioregulator was applied at 1.6, 0.16, 0.016 and 0 mM at 0, 8 and 15 days before harvest (DBH. At 1, 7 and 15 days of postharvest life, several physical and biochemical determinations were performed on the cherimoya fruit. After 15 days under room temperature conditions, in relation to control fruit, those fruit with 1.6 mM RVS applied 15 DBH reduced skin softening rate 78% and 54% for ‘Fino de Jete’ and ‘Bronceada’, respectively. Similarly, after 15 days of storage, a non-trained group of tasters preferred those fruit treated with 1.6 mM RVS 15 DBH; they qualified the fruit as better than the control fruit in presentation, aroma and taste.

  20. Wood Anatomy in Several Genera of Nigerian Annonaceae

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    Olatunji Olusanya OLATUNJI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristic of the wood of Annona muricata, A. senegalensis, Xylopia aethiopica, A. glauca, A. squamosa, Cleistopholis patens, Monodora tenuifolia and Greenwayodendron suaviolis were investigated in search of their stable taxonomic attribute. Thirty-two wood samples were collected from eight species of Annonnaceae (four specimens each. Fixation of the most healthy and fresh wood of each species was done using 500 ml of FAA (Formalin Acetic Acid and dehydrated in a series of ethanol while infiltration was done using tertiary-butyl-alcohol prepared in accordance with Johansen’s method. The sectioning was carried out with a rotary microtome and the slide containing the wood samples were examined using power shots s70 camera attached to computer. The results revealed several interesting wood anatomical features such as the presence of numerous fibre, ray cells, vessels, absence of axial parenchyma in some species, growth ring ranges from distinct to indistinct. Rays are composed of upright cells in A. muricata, fibre tracheid are also uncommon in A. muricata but common in G. suaviolis. Axial parenchyma are common in A. glauca and A. squamosa but absent in other species. The wood structure of A. glauca and A. squamosa are similar to that of C. patens, but the absence of axial parenchyma distinguished it from them. The results are important in understanding the relationships between and within the species.

  1. ‘吉夫纳’番荔枝引种表现及栽培技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友接; 陈清淇; 黄雄峰

    2012-01-01

    ‘吉夫纳’(Gefner)番荔枝[Annona squamosa L.]是番荔枝科(Annonaceae)番荔枝属(An.nona)果树,为热带亚热带半落叶性灌木或小乔木口’,原产以色列,2004年福建省农业科学院果树研究所从广东引进。经栽培观察,表现适应性强、果大、质优、早结、丰产、稳产、经济效益高、无大小年等优点。嫁接苗3月定植后第2年开始挂果,株产1.5kg,第3年株产5kg,第4年株产7.5kg,第5年株产15kg,第6年进入盛果期,株产约25kg。

  2. A new species of Heilipus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) associated with commercial species of Annonaceae in Brazil, and comments on other species of the genus causing damage to avocado trees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela De Cassia

    2015-01-14

    Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, state of São Paulo, Angatuba) is described from 73 specimens. The holotype and three paratypes from the same locality were reared from larvae collected in the basis region, near the ground, of an atemoya tree (a hybrid of the sugar-apple, "pinha" or fruta-do-conde"-Annona squamosa L., and the cherymoya, A. cherimoya (Mill.), Annonaceae). Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. can cause severe injury to commercial Annonaceae, and has been misidentified in the collections and the literature as Heilipus catagraphus Germar, 1834. The new species and H. catagraphus have a very similar color pattern, but can be easily distinguished by the rostrum shape in lateral view, being humped in H. gibbus sp. nov. but evenly arcuate in H. catagraphus. Illustrations of habitus and of male and female genitalia are provided to the new species and for avocado stem boring species of Heilipus which occur in Brazil (H. catagraphus and H. rufipes). Comments are made for H. elegans Guérin, 1844, which record to Brazil is probably based on a misidentification. 

  3. Neurotoxicity of Dietary Supplements from Annonaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Berjas, Magda; Luo, Rensheng; Tran, Kevin; Richards, Kristy M; Sabaa-Srur, Armando U; Maia, José Guilherme S; Moraes, Maria Rosa de; Godoy, Helena T; Höglinger, Günter U; Smith, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements containing plant materials of Annonaceae species (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L., A. mucosa JACQ., A. squamosa × cherimola Mabb.) were extracted by hot, pressurized ethyl acetate and analyzed for their effect in vitro on Lund human mesencephalic neurons. Cell viability was measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and cell death was determined by lactate dehydrogenase levels. Three supplements strongly decreased the cell viability at extract concentrations of 1 µg/mL, of which 1 decreased cell viability at 0.1 µg/µL. Also, strong neuronal toxicities of these supplements were found. Cell death was observed at concentrations of 10 µg/mL. The degree of toxicity was comparable to the ones found in Annonaceous fruit extracts. Two fruit pulps of Annonaceae (A. muricata and A. squamosa) showed a reduction in cell viability at lower concentrations. The fruit pulp extract of A. muricata revealed the strongest neurotoxic effect, with 67% cell death at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. A high reduction in cell viability coupled with pronounced cell death was found at 0.1 µg/mL for an Annonaceous seed extract. These results demonstrate that the intake of dietary supplements containing plant material from Annonaceae may be hazardous to health in terms of neurotoxicity.

  4. The key role of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in the attraction of scarab beetle pollinators: a unique olfactory floral signal shared by Annonaceae and Araceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Artur Campos Dália; Dötterl, Stefan; Kaiser, Roman; Silberbauer-Gottsberger, Ilse; Teichert, Holger; Gibernau, Marc; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Schlindwein, Clemens; Gottsberger, Gerhard

    2012-09-01

    Cyclocephaline scarabs are specialised scent-driven pollinators, implicated with the reproductive success of several Neotropical plant taxa. Night-blooming flowers pollinated by these beetles are thermogenic and release intense fragrances synchronized to pollinator activity. However, data on floral scent composition within such mutualistic interactions are scarce, and the identity of behaviorally active compounds involved is largely unknown. We performed GC-MS analyses of floral scents of four species of Annona (magnoliids, Annonaceae) and Caladium bicolor (monocots, Araceae), and demonstrated the chemical basis for the attraction of their effective pollinators. 4-Methyl-5-vinylthiazole, a nitrogen and sulphur-containing heterocyclic compound previously unreported in flowers, was found as a prominent constituent in all studied species. Field biotests confirmed that it is highly attractive to both male and female beetles of three species of the genus Cyclocephala, pollinators of the studied plant taxa. The origin of 4-methyl-5-vinylthiazole in plants might be associated with the metabolism of thiamine (vitamin B1), and we hypothesize that the presence of this compound in unrelated lineages of angiosperms is either linked to selective expression of a plesiomorphic biosynthetic pathway or to parallel evolution.

  5. Detection and determination of reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in the Annonaceae family using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yaichiro; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Kamizono, Machiko; Matsumoto, Naoki; Tanahashi, Takao; Hara, Hiroshi; Caparros-Lefebvre, Dominique; Ohta, Shigeru

    2004-06-25

    In Guadeloupe, the French West Indies, there is a high incidence of atypical parkinsonism or progressive supranuclear palsy, and all of the investigated patients had taken herbal tea or tropical fruits of the Annonaceae family. Local inhabitants consume the fruits, and also drink tea made from the leaves. In the present study, we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to detect low-molecular-weight neurotoxic benzylisoquinoline derivatives in the Annonaceae family. We detected reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine in every Annona muricata sample examined, except for pulp and seed. They were not detected in sweetsop fruits. Norreticuline was not detected in any sample. These three compounds were toxic to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and inhibited mitochondrial respiratory complex I. It is possible that uptake of the benzylisoquinoline derivatives reticuline and N-methylcoculaurine and their accumulation in the brain may be related to the pathogenesis of the local endemic disease.

  6. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied.

  7. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

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    Matthew Arhewoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM and Andrographis paniculata (AP as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK and Hunteria umbellata (HU were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected to validation studies following international guidelines at the respective wavelengths obtained.Results: The results showed linearity at peak wavelengths of maximum absorbance of 292, 280, 274 and 230 nm for GK, HU, AM and AP, respectively. The calibration curves for the different concentrations of the extract gave R2 values ranging from 0.9831 for AM to 0.9996 for AP the inter-day and intra-day precision study showed that the relative standard deviation (% was ≤ 10% for all the extracts.Conclusion: The aqueous extracts and isolates of these plants can be assayed and monitored using these wavelengths.

  8. Propagação da gravioleira por miniestaquia

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    Geórgia Roberta Gomes de Figueirêdo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o enraizamento de miniestacas de gravioleira (Annona muricata L., utilizando-se de estacas apicais e subapicais herbáceas coletadas em plantas cultivadas no campo e em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo 4 tipos de miniestacas (apical herbácea do campo e viveiro, subapical herbácea do campo e de viveiro e 2 níveis de reguladores de crescimento (0 e 6.000 mg kg-1, totalizando 8 tratamentos e 3 repetições, com 12 estacas por parcela. As miniestacas foram padronizadas com sete centímetros de comprimento e tratadas ou não com ácido indolbutírico, colocadas em tubetes contendo substrato comercial e mantidas em câmara de nebulização. Aos 80 dias após o estaqueamento, foi observado que as miniestacas subapicais e apicais de casa de vegetação e subapicais do campo apresentaram percentual de enraizamento de 97,3%, 88% e 88% respectivamente. Não foi detectado efeito da aplicação de AIB no enraizamento das miniestacas.

  9. QUINTAIS AGROFLORESTAIS: ESTRUTURA, COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA E ASPECTOS SOCIOAMBIENTAIS EM ÁREA DE ASSENTAMENTO RURAL NA AMAZÔNIA BRASILEIRA

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    Larissa Santos de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, floristic and environmental aspects survey of home gardens was performed in the community of Santo Antonio, municipality of Santarém, Pará state, Brazil. The area studied comprises 6 home gardens, where each yard handler and 2 more former residents were heard. A total of 522 plants were sampled comprising 90 species distributed in 53 families. The family with the greatest number of species was Asteraceae. The species for food (32% dominated the area and the most frequent ones were Persea americana, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya and Allium fistulosum. Most of species were imported plants (78%, predominantly subshrubs (40% and trees (22%. The management of the gardens is done by a woman who is also responsible for the introduction of new species and its diversification tends to evolve over time. The Analysis of the Species Importance Coefficient indicates how these potentially commercial Euterpe oleracea, Annona muricata, Carica papaya, Psidium guajava and Carapa guianensis, which management should be favored in the agroforestry for example, optimizing the use of land, food security and aggregating income families through the sale of surplus.

  10. Influência do Cultivo Agrícola Convencional nas Características Químicas e Macrofauna Edáfica

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    Lécio Resende Pereira Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing population, the exploitation of natural resources, increasingly, has intensified. However, research which highlight the relationship between the production system and environmental sustainability are still incipient. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of conventional cultivation, chemical characteristics and edafic macrofauna. The research was performed in the cities of Areia and Remigio, PB, from August to September/2009. Five sites were selected, cultivated Psidium guajava, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Citrus latifolia, the consortium Annona muricata x Citrus latifolia and a forest area. It was installed a total of 25 traps Provid and the soil sampled. Later the traps were collected and identified the macrofauna taxonomic level of Order. The experimental design was completely randomized. It was found 370.0 individuals captured in eight different Orders, with a predominance of the Orders Hymenoptera, Coleoptera and Araneae. There was a decrease in organic matter content, CTC and an increase in the levels of soil nutrients. It was concluded that the organic and mineral fertilization, combined with the reduced management of the soil result in reduced impacts on the diversity of soil organisms and the human disturbance of areas used for agriculture impairs negatively the edaphic ecosystem dynamics

  11. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  12. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz (ING

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    Hernán Rodríguez Navas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50% of the individuals had been killed in every petri dish, which allowed all extracts to pass on to the second stage. The second stage consisted of two experiments. The first one was done in spring at a greenhouse day temperature of 10°C,  using only the first three substances, each of them diluted 1:100. The second one was conducted in Summer at about 25°C with the four substances. Distilled water acted as a control in both experiments. Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum infested with M. persicae were sprayed with the solutions and survivors counted 24 and 72 hours later. In the first experiment Q amara  and M. charantia had 78% and 77% effectiveness respectively, which were statiscally (P< 0.05 higher than that of N. lobata  (63%. In the second experiment, because of the warmer weather, they improved their performance, specially N. lobata (98%. This and A. muricata were found statistically (P< 0.05 higher than the others.

  13. Biology and behavior of the seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae); Biologia y habitos del barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fuentes, Luis M.; Urias-Lopez, Mario A., E-mail: hernandez.luismartin@inifap.gob.m, E-mail: urias.marioalfonso@inifap.gob.m [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestal000, Agricolas y Pecuarias, Santiago, Nayarit (Mexico). Campo Experimental Santiago Ixcuintla; Bautista-Martinez, Nestor, E-mail: nestor@colpos.m [Instituto de Fitosanidad, Montecillo, Texcoco (Mexico). Colegio de Postgraduados

    2010-07-15

    The sour sop Annona muricata is an important fruit for national market, and for exportation, but the crop is affected by pests and diseases. The seed borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead is the pest that produces the highest damage to the crop in Mexico. Sixty percent of damaged fruits and 5-50 seeds per fruit have been registered, with 25% reduction in yield. In Nayarit, Mexico, 100% of damaged fruits were recorded. In this State, an experiment with sour sop was conducted to study the life cycle under fi eld conditions and to determine diurnal behavior of the female of B. cubensis. The highest activity of the wasp was observed between 12:00 h and 13:00 h (35 degree C, 54% RH and 409.34 luxes). Females oviposited in fruits with a diameter of 3.1-7.6 cm. Larvae of B. cubensis developed five instars, adults survived no longer than 22 days, and female survived longer than males; they lived 22 and 15 days, respectively. Life cycle of B. cubensis varied from 69 to 122 days. (author)

  14. The combined action of phytolarvicides for the control of dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti

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    Adelia Grzybowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Amongst other botanical sources, Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, seeds and Piper nigrum L., Piperaceae, fruits are particularly enriched with acetogenins and piperine-related amides, respectively. These crude ethanolic extracts are potent Aedes aegypti bioactives that can kill Aedes aegypti larvae (dengue fever mosquito. A. muricata displayed a 93.48 µg/mL LC50 and P. nigrum an 1.84 µg/mL LC50. An uncommon pharmacognostical/toxicological approach was used, namely different combinations of both extracts to achieve an improved lethal effect on the larvae. The independence test (χ² was utilized to evaluate the combination of the two crude extracts. All of the tested combinations behaved synergistically and these novel results were attributed to the completely different biochemical mechanisms of the differentiated chemical substances that were present in the two botanical sources. Besides the two above selected plants, Melia azedarach L., Meliaceae, Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae, and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, in order of decreasing toxicity, may also be sought as potential extracts for the sake of synergic combinations.

  15. REGISTRO DA COCHONILHA-ROSADA-DO-HIBISCO INFESTANDO FRUTÍFERAS EM MACEIÓ, ALAGOAS, BRASIL

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    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported for the first time the occurrence of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil attacking the following fruit species: soursop (Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, guava (Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, mango (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, acerola (Malpighia glaba L. (Malpighiaceae, cajazeiro (Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma gran-diflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (Malvaceae. The percentages of injured plants were recorded for each plant species in the field. Damaged plants showed short internodes, wrinkled leaves, fruit deformation, and sooty mold developed on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs. Infested plant structures were taken to the Laboratory of Entomology of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Alagoas, where the mealybug species was identified through morphological characteristics. The following injury percentages were recorded on the plants: soursop (100%, guava (10%, mango (10%, carambola (100%, acerola (100%, cajá (50% and cupuaçu (100%. The mealybug collected in Maceió, AL; Brazil was identified as Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. It was the first record of this species in the state of Alagoas and infestation by pink hibiscus mealybug on the host plants mango, acerola and cajazeiro in Brazil.

  16. EFEITOS DA FERTIRRIGAÇÃO DE N E K2O NA DISTRIBUIÇÃO DO SISTEMA RADICULAR DA GRAVIOLEIRA

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    Waleska Martins Eloi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen and potassium applied through the irrigation water by micro-sprinkler in the space distribution of the root system of the soursop (Annona muricata L., through digital images. The study was conducted at the experimental field of Embrapa - North, in Teresina - PI (05th 05 ' S and 42 and 48 ' W. The treatments consisted of the combination of five doses of nitrogen (20, 120, 200, 280 and 380 kg ha-1 year-1 with five potassium doses (30, 180, 300, 420 and 570 kg ha-1 year-1, besides the witness, applied every fifteen days. The evaluation of the length of roots was accomplished being used the software SIARCS and the results were analyzed through graphs of contour and columns. The largest concentrations of roots in relation to horizontal distance happened inside of the projection of the cup. The treatment whose doses of N and K2O were 380 kg ha-1 year-1 of N and 420 kg ha-1 year-1 of K2O it presented the best vertical profile of root distribution and it was also verified that dose high of potassium they inhibit the root development.

  17. Multiple Modes of Action of the Squamocin in the Midgut Cells of Aedes aegypti Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are botanical compounds with good potential for use as insecticides. In the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), squamocin (acetogenin) has been reported to be a larvicide and cytotoxic, but the modes of action of this molecule are still poorly understood. This study evaluated the changes in the cell morphology, and in the expression of genes, for autophagy (Atg1 and Atg8), for membrane ion transporter V-ATPase, and for water channel aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the midgut of A. aegypti larvae exposed to squamocin from Annona mucosa Jacq. (Annonaceae). Squamocin showed cytotoxic action with changes in the midgut epithelium and digestive cells of A. aegypti larvae, increase in the expression for autophagy gene Atg1 and Atg8, decrease in the expression of V-ATPase, decrease in the expression of Aqp4 gene in LC20 and inhibition of Apq4 genes in the midgut of this vector in LC50. These multiple modes of action for squamocin are described for the first time in insects, and they are important because different sites of action of squamocin from A. mucosa may reduce the possibility of resistance of A. aegypti to this molecule. PMID:27532504

  18. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. Famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae

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    Silva José Augusto Coelho da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq. grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

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    Thiago José de Souza Barboza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

  20. Caracterização cultural, morfológica e patogênica de Lasiodiplodia theobromae associado a frutíferas tropicais

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    Joilson Silva Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lasiodiplodia theobromae é um fungo cosmopolita, polífago e oportunista, com reduzida especialização patogênica, capaz de infectar espécies de plantas em regiões tropicais e temperadas, causando os mais variados sintomas. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar isolados de L. theobromae associados a frutíferas tropicais na região nordeste, considerando os aspectos cultural, morfológico e patogênico. Foram avaliados o crescimento micelial, coloração da colônia, dimensões dos conídios e patogenicidade dos isolados em mudas de cajazeira (Spondia mombin L., cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., gravioleira (Annona muricata L. e umbuzeiro (Spondias tuberosa Arruda. Os dados de caracterização morfológica e cultural revelaram diversidade na população do patógeno. Alta variabilidade patogênica foi também detectada, embora não tenha sido possível observar especificidade patogênica em cajueiro. O umbuzeiro apresentou maior resistência relativa ao fungo. Os dados demonstraram também uma interação entre as características morfo-culturais e a patogenicidade dos isolados de L. theobromae.

  1. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment. PMID:24705601

  2. Multiple Modes of Action of the Squamocin in the Midgut Cells of Aedes aegypti Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Costa, Marilza; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are botanical compounds with good potential for use as insecticides. In the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), squamocin (acetogenin) has been reported to be a larvicide and cytotoxic, but the modes of action of this molecule are still poorly understood. This study evaluated the changes in the cell morphology, and in the expression of genes, for autophagy (Atg1 and Atg8), for membrane ion transporter V-ATPase, and for water channel aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) in the midgut of A. aegypti larvae exposed to squamocin from Annona mucosa Jacq. (Annonaceae). Squamocin showed cytotoxic action with changes in the midgut epithelium and digestive cells of A. aegypti larvae, increase in the expression for autophagy gene Atg1 and Atg8, decrease in the expression of V-ATPase, decrease in the expression of Aqp4 gene in LC20 and inhibition of Apq4 genes in the midgut of this vector in LC50. These multiple modes of action for squamocin are described for the first time in insects, and they are important because different sites of action of squamocin from A. mucosa may reduce the possibility of resistance of A. aegypti to this molecule. PMID:27532504

  3. A new species of Heilipus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae) associated with commercial species of Annonaceae in Brazil, and comments on other species of the genus causing damage to avocado trees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela De Cassia

    2015-01-01

    Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, state of São Paulo, Angatuba) is described from 73 specimens. The holotype and three paratypes from the same locality were reared from larvae collected in the basis region, near the ground, of an atemoya tree (a hybrid of the sugar-apple, "pinha" or fruta-do-conde"-Annona squamosa L., and the cherymoya, A. cherimoya (Mill.), Annonaceae). Heilipus gibbus sp. nov. can cause severe injury to commercial Annonaceae, and has been misidentified in the collections and the literature as Heilipus catagraphus Germar, 1834. The new species and H. catagraphus have a very similar color pattern, but can be easily distinguished by the rostrum shape in lateral view, being humped in H. gibbus sp. nov. but evenly arcuate in H. catagraphus. Illustrations of habitus and of male and female genitalia are provided to the new species and for avocado stem boring species of Heilipus which occur in Brazil (H. catagraphus and H. rufipes). Comments are made for H. elegans Guérin, 1844, which record to Brazil is probably based on a misidentification.  PMID:25661230

  4. Computer-assisted design of therapeutic personalized footwear for diabetic foot:a preliminary study%计算机辅助糖尿病足个性化鞋具设计的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 王成焘; 陶凯; Christopher James; Anita Williams; Anmin Liu; 马昕; 马利杰; 陈立; 张超; 黄加张; 顾湘杰; 姜建元; 王冬梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨应用计算机进行糖尿病足病患者个性化鞋具设计的步骤与初步结果,并进行修正以适应参与研究患者的情况.方法 筛选糖尿病足病患者58例,依据英国Safford大学的方法,测定足部10组相关数据.将此数据进行计算机分析,依据英方已有的公式与计算方法,获得患者各自鞋具不同部位的尺寸,进而整合成个性化鞋具.患者试穿鞋具13个月,以特定足部健康评分表随访患者对于个性化鞋具的评价.结果 共58例糖尿病足病受试者,试穿1个月后共随访到有效样本32例,试穿2个月后为25例,试穿3个月后为25例,试穿13个月后为42例.使用糖尿病鞋具前足部健康评分为(67.94±15.14)分,1个月后为(76.55±12.46)分,2个月后为(77.66±13.45)分,3个月后为(77.14±12.56)分,13个月后为(78.13±1.44)分.受试者在使用鞋具后足部健康评分改善,且差异有统计学意义.结论 作为预防糖尿病足病溃疡发生、改善患者生活状态的一种方式,个体化鞋具有一定的价值.英方的计算方式与模型数据转化公式在应用于受试的中国患者时须进行一定的修正.%Objective To explore the outcomes of computer-assisted design of therapeutic personalized footwear for diabetic foot.Methods Fifty-eight cases of diabetic foot were included in the study.Ten items of data from theses patients were measured with methods provided by Salford University.All characteristics of the footwear were calculated with computer.Shoes were specially designed with the formula and computational method provided by Safford university.All patients had worn the shoes for 13 months.Special questionnaires were used to measure the outcomes.Results Thirty-two cases had been followed up for one month,25 cases for 2 months,25 cases for 3 months and 42 cases for 13 months.The score had improved from 67.94±15.14 before wearing the shoes to 78.13±1.44 thirteen months after wearing.The health score of the

  5. Atividade antioxidante de frutas do cerrado Antioxidant activity of cerrado fruits

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    Roberta Roesler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora (araticum, Solanum lycocarpum (lobeira, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Caryocar brasilense (pequi e Swartzia langsdorfii (banha de galinha são frutas do bioma cerrado, conhecidas e consumidas principalmente por populações nativas dessa região. Nesse estudo, as diferentes frações dos frutos acima descritos (polpa, semente e casca foram avaliadas por meio de extratos aquosos e etanólicos. Alguns extratos mostraram altíssimos conteúdos de compostos fenólicos e foram escolhidos para avaliação do potencial em seqüestrar radicais livres por meio do modelo 2,2 difenil-1-picril hidrazil (DPPH. Os melhores resultados foram: extrato aquoso e etanólico de casca de pequi (IC50 igual a 9,44 e 17,98 µg.mL-1 respectivamente, extrato etanólico de sementes de cagaita (IC50 igual a 14,15 µg.mL-1, extrato etanólico de sementes e casca de araticum (IC50 igual a 30,97 e 49,18 µg.mL-1, respectivamente. Este é o primeiro estudo que avalia o potencial em seqüestrar radicais livres de frações de frutas do cerrado. Os resultados indicam que os extratos possuem grande potencial antioxidante e estudos adicionais são necessários para avaliar essa propriedade dos extratos como uma aplicação sustentável dos recursos do cerrado nos setores farmacêuticos, cosméticos e nutricionais.Annona crassiflora (araticum, Solanum lycocarpum (lobeira, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Caryocar brasilense (pequi and Swartzia langsdorfii (banha de galinha are tropical fruits consumed mainly by native people in the Brazilian Cerrado (second biggest biome of Brazil. In this study, pulp, seed and peel of the fruits were extracted using ethanol and water. Some of the extracts showed a high content of total phenols and were screened for their potential as antioxidants using the in vitro model 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH. The best results were found for aqueous and ethanolic extracts of pequi peel (IC50 of 9,44 and 17,98 µg.mL-1 respectively

  6. Caracterização nutricional e compostos antioxidantes em resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais Nutritional characterization and antioxidant compounds in pulp residues of tropical fruits

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    Mariana Séfora Bezerra Sousa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é um dos países que mais produz resíduos agroindustriais, como os resíduos de frutas pelas indústrias de polpas, o que tem contribuído para o aumento da produção do lixo orgânico, provocando graves problemas ambientais. Nesse contexto, estudos têm sido conduzidos com o intuito de investigar o valor nutricional desses resíduos, valorizando-os e sugerindo novas alternativas de utilização. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se realizar a caracterização nutricional e determinar os compostos antioxidantes dos resíduos de polpas de frutas tropicais: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., goiaba (Psidium Guayaba L., abacaxi (Ananas comosus L., cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, bacuri (Platonia insignis e graviola (Annona muricata L.. Os resultados encontrados mostraram que os resíduos analisados apresentaram quantidades significativas de macronutrientes (carboidratos, proteínas e lipídios. Todos os resíduos avaliados, com exceção do cupuaçu, apresentaram valores elevados de vitamina C. Quanto aos carotenóides, destacou-se o resíduo de acerola com 881,56 ± 9,01 µg/100 g e o resíduo de goiaba, com 644,9 ± 10,02 µg/100 g. Os resíduos analisados apresentaram baixas concentrações de antocianinas e flavonóides. Com relação aos teores de fenólicos totais se destacou o resíduo da polpa de acerola com 247,62 ± 2,08 mg/100 g. Portanto, pode-se concluir que os resíduos de polpas de frutas empregados neste estudo são fontes potenciais de macronutrientes e compostos bioativos, destacando-se os resíduos de acerola e goiaba como mais ricos em compostos antioxidantes.Brazil is one of the largest agro-industrial residues producers, such as waste fruit pulp industries, which has contributed to the increased production of organic waste, causing serious environmental problems. In this context, studies have been conducted in order to investigate the nutritional value of these wastes, valuing them and suggesting new alternatives for

  7. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.Influência de diferentes frutos tropicais em aspectos biológicos e comportamentais da mosca-das-frutas Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Estudos em Ceratitis capitata, uma praga agrícola, pode auxiliar

  8. Tolerance to water deficit in young trees of jackfruit and sugar apple Tolerância ao déficit hídrico em plantas jovens de jaqueira e pinheira

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    Bruno Monteiro Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The predawn leaf water potential (Ψl, stomatal conductance (g s, CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration (E, chlorophyll a fluorescence and leaf metabolite contents (soluble sugars, proteins and free amino acids of two tropical fruit species grown in a greenhouse were evaluated to determine the effect of induced water stress on young plants. Six month-old jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. and sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. plants were evaluated in 10.0 L pots after eight days of water withholding, imposed by suspension of irrigation. Jackfruit water status was better than sugar apple. Sugar apple plants showed different daily stomatal behavior when well hydrated, compared to jackfruit plants under the same conditions. The gas exchange of both species showed sensibility to high vapor pressure deficit (VPD. However, under water deficit, photochemical efficiency dropped at midday in both treatments (control and water deficit and both species showed low tolerance to high VPD and light intensity under greenhouse conditions. In contrast, some chlorophyll fluorescence variables showed good photosystem II stability at highest VPD hour (14:00 h. The present results involving carbohydrate metabolic changes revealed an accumulation of soluble sugars; moreover, protein and free amino acid contents in water stressed leaves also increased. These findings suggest an absence of damage to photosynthetic machinery for water deficit period. Jackfruit revealed greater tolerance to water deficit than sugar apple an important feature for commercial crops in northeastern Brazil.A condutância estomática (g s, a assimilação de CO2 (A, a transpiração (E, a fluorescência da clorofila e o conteúdo foliar de (açúcares solúveis, proteínas e aminoácidos livres de duas espécies frutíferas tropicais foram avaliados para determinar o efeito do déficit hídrico induzido sobre as plantas da jaqueira (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. e da pinheira (Annona squamosa

  9. Estado nutricional de pinheira sob adubação orgânica do solo Nutritional status of the sugar apple under organic fertilizing of the soil

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    Lourival Ferreira Cavalcante

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No período de agosto de 2009 a julho de 2010 foi desenvolvido um experimento em um pomar de pinheira (Annona squamosa L., no município de Remígio, PB com o objetivo de avaliar os teores de macro e micronutrientes no tecido foliar das plantas em solo com esterco bovino e cama de frango. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas no tempo, com três repetições e duas plantas por parcela, em esquema fatorial 2 × 5 × 2, referente a duas fontes de matéria orgânica de origem animal (esterco de bovino e cama de frango, cinco doses de matéria orgânica em volume (0,0; 3,5; 5,3; 7,1 e 8,9% e duas épocas de avaliação das plantas aos 36 e 48 meses após o transplantio. As doses de matéria orgânica foram definidas com base no teor de matéria orgânica de cada fonte. Com exceção de magnésio e zinco, as fontes de matéria orgânica não diferiram estatisticamente sobre os teores dos demais nutrientes na matéria seca foliar das plantas. A maior acumulação de nutrientes na matéria seca das folhas da pinheira ocorreu na amplitude das doses entre 6,01 e 8,65% de matéria orgânica.From August 2009 to July 2010, an experiment was conducted in a sugar-apple orchard (Annona squamosa L. in the town of Remigius PB, in order to evaluate the levels of macro and micronutrients and the leaf tissue of the plants in a soil treated with cattle manure and poultry litter. The treatments were distributed into randomized blocks, with plots split with time, three replications and two plants per plot, in a 2 × 5 × 2 factorial arrangement, corresponding to two sources of organic matter of animal origin (cattle manure and poultry litter, five doses of organic material by volume (0.0, 3.5, 5.3, 7.1 and 8.9%, and two periods of plant evaluation, 36 and 48 months after transplanting. The doses of organic material were set based on the organic-matter content of each source. With the exception of magnesium and zinc, the

  10. Conservação refrigerada de cherimóia embalada em filme plástico com zeolite Cold storage of cherimoya packed with zeolit film

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    Marcelo Rosa Melo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da embalagem plástica "zeolite" no retardamento da maturação de cherimóias, mantidas sob armazenamento refrigerado, colheram-se frutos de cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill., cv. Fino de Jete, de pomar comercial de Conceição dos Ouros (MG, no início de março de 2000. Selecionaram-se frutos de boa qualidade, os quais foram submetidos a dois tratamentos: a embalados com filme de polietileno coextrusado com incorporação de mineral tipo zeólito (zeolite e b controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram colocados em caixas de papelão e submetidos ao armazenamento refrigerado (12 ± 1 ºC; 90% a 95% de umidade relativa - UR no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas (SP. Avaliaram-se nos frutos: a perda de massa, a coloração externa, a aparência e a firmeza. Determinaram-se na polpa, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, o pH, o teor de acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SST/ATT, ao longo de quatro semanas. Observou-se que os frutos do controle começaram a apresentar alterações físicas e químicas a partir do intervalo entre a segunda e a terceira semana de avaliação, apresentando-se consideravelmente depreciados na terceira semana, enquanto o tratamento com "zeolite" proporcionou melhor conservação dos frutos, até a quarta e última avaliação, tanto no aspecto estético, quanto nos atributos internos. Concluiu-se que os frutos não embalados podem ser conservados até por duas semanas em câmara a 12 ºC e 90% a 95% de UR e os embalados em "zeolite", mantidos sob essa temperatura até por quatro semanas.Fruits of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. cv. Fino of Jete were harvested from an orchard situated in Conceição dos Ouros - MG, Brazil, in March 2000. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the post harvest conservation of fruits packed with zeolite films. Fruits with better quality were selected and divided into two treatments: a packed with polyethylene coextrused

  11. Diferentes ambientes e substratos na formação de mudas de araticum Different environments and substrata in araticum seedlings formation

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    Tadeu Robson Melo Cavalcante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A baixa sobrevivência de mudas de araticum e a escassez de informações na literatura científica sobre substratos adequados à produção de mudas de araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart. são os fatores motivadores da pesquisa em pauta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes ambientes e substratos na formação de mudas provenientes de sementes de araticum. As sementes foram tratadas com ácido giberélico (GA3 [250 mgL-1], sendo colocada uma semente por tubete de polipropileno de 280 cm³ a uma profundidade de 2 cm. Os substratos utilizados foram: areia de textura média (S1, substrato comercial composto de cascas processadas e enriquecidas, vermiculita expandida e turfa processada e enriquecida (Plantmax HA (S2, substrato comercial de fibra de coco granulada (Golden mix (S3, areia de textura média + substrato comercial Plantmax HA(1:1; v/v (S4 e areia de textura média + substrato comercial Golden mix (1:1; v/v (S5. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos e seis repetições. Os experimentos foram montados em dois ambientes: estufa e a pleno sol. A coleta de dados ocorreu durante 215 dias após a semeadura. A taxa de mortalidade foi estatisticamente significativa, sendo que em S1 essa taxa foi, em média, 18% menor em relação aos demais substratos. Porém, a área foliar estimada foi, em média, 0,78 cm².planta, menor. Na estufa, a emergência em S1 não difere dos demais tratamentos, contudo a altura de planta foi, em média, 0,84 cm menor em relação aos demais tratamentos. No quesito sobrevivência, S1 foi o melhor tratamento.Low survival rate of araticum seedlings and scarcity of information in scientific literature on proper substrata to araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart. seedlings production have all been motivating factors to this study. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of different environments and substrata in the formation of seedlings germinated

  12. 四种番荔枝科植物花粉形态%Pollen Morphology of Four Selected Species in the Annonaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 徐凤霞

    2012-01-01

    Pollen grains of four species representing four genera of Annonaceae were examined by scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and transmission electron microscopy ( TEM). The pollen grains are tetrads in Annona muricata and Pseuduvaria trimera under SEM. The type of tetrad is various, being tetragonal, rhomboidal, T-shaped, decussate and tetrahedral. The sculpture of pollen in A. Muricata is psilate and foveolate, but rugulate in P. Trimera. The pollen grains are monad in Oncodostigma hainanense and Uvaria macclurei. In the former species, the ornamentation is rugulate, and in the latter it is coarsely folded. Under TEM, the tectum is thick and continuous in O. Hainanense and U. Macclurei. The materials from infratectal layer are less accumulated. There is an intermediate infratectal layer in O. Hainanense, for some irregular columellae and sparse granules are both observed, but there is a granular infratectal layer in U. Macclurei. Basal layer consists of an outer layer and a foliated inner layer. The outer layer is thick, and flat or fluctuant. The inner layer is composed of two to four foliations. The morphological differences are great among different genera or different species in the same genus, indicating a high diversity of pollen morphology in Annonaceae. There are both primitive and derived characters in O. Hainanense or P. Trimera. Such as in P. Trimera, small size pollen grain and imperforate tectum are primitive characters, but tetrad and columellar infratecal layer are derived.%利用扫描和透射电子显微镜,观察了番荔枝科(Annonaceae)4属4种植物的花粉形态与结构.刺果番荔枝(Annona muricata)和金钩花(Pseuduvaria trimera)为四合花粉,有四角形、偏菱形、T-型、十字形和四面体形.前者花粉表面具小穿孔,后者为皱波状纹饰.蕉木(Oncodostigma hainanense)和那大紫玉盘(Uvaria macclurei)为单花粉,前者表面为皱波状纹饰,后者为粗褶皱状纹饰.透射电子显微镜下,蕉木和那大

  13. Mudanças relacionadas ao amaciamento da graviola durante a maturação pós-colheita Changes related to softening of soursop during postharvest maturation

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    Maria Auxiliadora Coêlho de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar mudanças físicas, químicas e bioquímicas relacionadas ao amaciamento de graviola (Annona muricata L. Crioula durante a maturação. Os frutos foram colhidos no estádio de maturidade fisiológica, em plantas cultivadas na Estação Experimental da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, em Pacajus, Ceará, armazenados a 26,3±0,6 ºC e 88±12% de umidade relativa, durante 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 dias. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As variáveis analisadas foram: perda de massa, amido, pectina total e solúvel, e atividades das enzimas amilase, pectinametilesterase, poligalacturonase, alfa-galactosidases e beta-galactosidases. Não houve variação significativa no conteúdo de pectina solúvel. Após cinco dias, a perda de massa atingiu 5%, mas não promoveu murcha dos frutos. As reduções nos conteúdos de amido e de pectina total coincidiram com período de expressiva atividade, respectivamente, das enzimas amilase e da poligalacturonase e beta-galactosidase de parede celular. As modificações mais acentuadas no conteúdo de amido, de pectina total, na solubilização de pectinas e na atividade das enzimas amilase, pectinametilesterase, poligalacturonase e beta-galactosidase de parede celular ocorreram no período do segundo ao quarto dia após a colheita.This work aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical and biochemical changes related to softening during maturation of Crioula soursop fruit (Annona muricata L.. Fruits were harvested at the physiological maturity stage from plants grown at Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical Experimental Station, in Pacajus, CE, Brazil, and were stored at 26.3±0.6 ºC and 88±12% relative humidity, during 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. A completely randomized design was used with four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: weight loss; starch content; total and soluble pectin content and enzymatic activity of amylase

  14. Efeito de extratos naturais de folhas vegetais em Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Möller Singer, (Agaricales: Agaricaceae / Effect of natural extracts of vegetable leaves in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (Möller Singer, (Agaricales: Agaricaceae

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    Marcelo Dias Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos extratos naturais, à base de folhas de diferentes espécies vegetais, em Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, fungo simbionte de formigas cortadeiras. O experimento foi realizado no Laboratório de Proteção Florestal, da Faculdade de Engenharia Florestal, da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, sob temperatura média 26 ± 2ºC, e umidade relativa de 70 ± 10%. Os tratamentos avaliados foram os extratos aquosos a 10% (peso/volume de dez diferentes espécies vegetais. Foram realizados onze tratamentos, sendo que para cada um foi utilizado um recipiente de 1,5 l de volume, colocado na parte central contendo fungo e formigas, no qual era interligado com mais dois recipientes, de igual volume, interligados entre si por um tubo plástico, propiciando condições necessárias para que as formigas desenvolvessem suas atividades normais. O fungo e as formigas cortadeiras, após coletados, foram transferidos para os recipientes em laboratório. Assim que os formigueiros artificiais apresentavam atividades normais, os extratos foram adicionados diretamente sobre o fungo, com exceção da testemunha. Os tratamentos que tiveram efeito deletério sobre o fungo, em ordem decrescente foram os à base de Tabebuia vellosoi (ipê-amarelo-liso, Azadirachta indica (Nim, Magonia pubescens (Timbó, Annona reticulata (Pinha e Amburana acreana (cerejeira.AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural extracts of leaves of different plant species, in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Forest Protection, Federal University from Mato Grosso, on average temperature 26 ± 2º C and relative humidity of 70 ± 10%. The treatments evaluated were the aqueous extracts of 10% (weight/volume of ten different plant species. It was carried out 11 treatments, and for each one a container of 1.5 l volume was used, placed in the

  15. Polinização e formação de frutos em araticum Pollination and fruit development in araticum

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    Tadeu Robson Melo Cavalcante

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O araticum, Annona crassiflora Mart., é fruta típica do Cerrado brasileiro, com potencial econômico e alimentar, entretanto, há baixa produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema reprodutivo do araticum e identificar seus possíveis polinizadores. O experimento foi desenvolvido no Estado de Goiás, Brasil, nos municípios de Goiânia, a 6° 35' 56,0" S 49° 16' 44,4" O; 727 m e Vila Propício, a 15°15' 37,0" S 48(0 42' 30,9" O; 696 m, em 2004 e 2005. O delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso com quatro tratamentos: polinização cruzada manual (T1; polinização natural (T2; autopolinização espontânea (T3 e autopolinização manual (T4. A viabilidade do pólen foi checada usando carmim acético a 1%. Em 2004, as porcentagens de frutos formados em Goiânia foram de 39,46%; 0% e 0% em T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente. Em Vila Propício foram: 31,11%; 4,65% e 0% em T1, T2 e T3 respectivamente. Em 2005, as porcentagens de frutos formados em Goiânia foram de 64,24%; 4,72%, 0% e 34,38%, em T1, T2, T3 e T4 respectivamente. Em Vila Propício, três espécies de besouros foram coletados nas flores de araticum e identificados como: Cyclocephala atricapilla Mannerheim, Cyclocephala latericia Hohne e Cyclocephala octopunctata Burmeister. Em Goiânia, somente Cyclocephala octopunctata foi coletado. A polinização cruzada manual resultou em alta frutificação. O araticum é espécie autocompatível, mas principalmente alogâmica.Typical fruit of brazilian Savannah, the araticum, Annona crassilfora Mart., presents economical and feed potential. However, presents low production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the reproductive system of araticum and to identify its possible pollinators. The experiment was conducted in the surroundings of Goiânia city, State of Goiás, Brazil (16°35'56,0" S 49°16'44,4" W; 727 m and Vila Propício (15°15'37,0" S 48°42'30,9" W; 696 m, during the seasons of 2004 and 2005. The outlining was in random

  16. Conservación y uso de los recursos genéticos de Annonaceae en México

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    Jorge Andrés Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis sobre la conservación y el uso de los recursos genéticos de especies frutales de la familia Annonaceae en México. El diagnóstico realizado en 2010 por la Red de Anonáceas (REMA del Sistema Nacional de Recursos Fitogenéticos (SINAREFI sirvió para tal fin y fue complementado por estudios recientes. Partimos de una revisión de registros de herbarios de la Red Mundial de Información sobre Biodiversidad (REMIB además de recoger información con productores de comunidades rurales y recorridos de campo en estados del país donde las anonáceas se distribuyen. En México se encuentran 14 géneros y 63 especies de Annonaceae distribuidas principalmente en regiones tropicales del Sureste de México. La conservación in situ es esporádica, se está dando en huertos de traspatio para la guanábana (Annona muricata, chirimoya (A. cherimola, chincuya (A. purpurea y saramuyo (A. squamosa principalmente. La anona (A. reticulata, ilama (A. diversifolia y chincuya (A. purpurea son fomentadas pero no multiplicadas. La conservación ex situ se mantiene en bancos de germoplasma in vivo o colecciones de trabajo para guanábana (30 colectas, chirimoya (70 colectas e ilama (100 colectas solamente. Las semillas de estas especies no son ortodoxas y su conservación a mediano y largo plazo no está resuelta en México. El potencial de cultivo para este grupo de frutales es alto pero problemas de falta de variedades, fitosanidad, falta de tecnología y mercados reducidos limitan el cultivo comercial.

  17. Comparative toxicity of an acetogenin-based extract and commercial pesticides against citrus red mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Vendramim, José Djair; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenins, a class of natural compounds produced by some Annonaceae species, are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport systems. Although the cellular respiration processes are an important biochemical site for the acaricidal action of compounds, few studies have been performed to assess the bioactivity of acetogenin-based biopesticides on spider mites, mainly against species that occur in orchards. Using residual contact bioassays, this study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of an ethanolic extract from Annona mucosa seeds (ESAM) (Annonaceae) against the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), an important pest of the Brazilian citriculture. ESAM is a homemade biopesticide which was previously characterized by its high concentration of acetogenins. It caused both high mortality of P. citri females (LC50 = 7,295, 4,662, 3,463, and 2,608 mg l(-1), after 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of exposure, respectively) and significant oviposition deterrence (EC50 = 3.194,80 mg l(-1)). However, there was no effect on P. citri female fertility (hatching rate). In addition, the ESAM efficacy (in terms of its LC90) was compared with commercial acaricides/insecticides (at its recommended rate) of both natural [Anosom(®) 1 EC (annonin), Derisom(®) 2 EC (karanjin), and Azamax(®) 1.2 EC (azadirachtin + 3-tigloylazadirachtol)] and synthetic origin [Envidor(®) 24 SC (spirodiclofen)]. Based on all of the analyzed variables, the ESAM exhibited levels of activity superior to other botanical commercial acaricides and similar to spirodiclofen. Thus, our results indicate that ESAM may constitute a biorational acaricide for citrus red mite integrated pest management in Brazilian citrus orchards, particularly for local use. PMID:24696362

  18. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  19. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

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    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  20. Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae

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    Anne M. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Influence of different tropical fruits on biological and behavioral aspects of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera, Tephritidae. Studies on Ceratitis capitata, a world fruit pest, can aid the implementation of control programs by determining the plants with higher vulnerability to attacks and plants able to sustain their population in areas of fly distribution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of eight tropical fruits on the following biological and behavioral parameters of C. capitata: emergence percentage, life cycle duration, adult size, egg production, longevity, fecundity, egg viability, and oviposition acceptance. The fruits tested were: acerola (Malpighia glabra L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L., guava (Psidium guajava L., soursop (Annona muricata L., yellow mombin (Spondias mombin L., Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense L., and umbu (Spondias tuberosa L.. The biological parameters were obtained by rearing the recently hatched larvae on each of the fruit kinds. Acceptance of fruits for oviposition experiment was assessed using no-choice tests, as couples were exposed to two pieces of the same fruit. The best performances were obtained with guava, soursop, and star fruit. Larvae reared on cashew and acerola fruits had regular performances. No adults emerged from yellow mombin, Malay apple, or umbu. Fruit species did not affect adult longevity, female fecundity, or egg viability. Guava, soursop, and acerola were preferred for oviposition, followed by star fruit, Malay apple, cashew, and yellow mombin. Oviposition did not occur on umbu. In general, fruits with better larval development were also more accepted for oviposition.

  1. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  2. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density. PMID:26025573

  3. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.N. Formagio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50 values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%. Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  4. Beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria - Potential implications for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipat, Robbert; Toelsie, Jerry R; Magali, Indira; Soekhoe, Rubaina; Stender, Karin; Wangsawirana, Angelique; Oedairadjsingh, Krishan; Pawirodihardjo, Jennifer; Mans, Dennis R A

    2016-08-01

    Context Ischemic-reperfusion injury is accompanied by a decreased contractility of the myocardium. Positive-inotropic agents have proven useful for treating this condition but may exert serious side-effects. Objective In this study, aqueous preparations from Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Malvaceae), Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), Cecropia peltata L. (Moraceae), Erythrina fusca Lour. (Fabaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) were evaluated for their ability to improve the decreased contractility of isolated guinea pig atria after hypoxic stress. Materials and methods Guinea pig atria isolated in Ringer-Locke buffer gassed with 100% O2 at 30 °C were exposed for 5 min to hypoxia, then allowed to recover in oxygenated buffer alone or containing a single plant extract (0.001-1 mg/mL). The contractility (g/s) and beating frequency (beats/min), as well as troponin C contents of the bathing solution (ng/mL), were determined and expressed as means ± SDs. Results The extracts of A. muricata, B. orellana, C. peltata and T. catappa caused an increase in the contractility compared to untreated atria of 340 ± 102%, 151 ± 13%, 141 ± 14% and 238 ± 44%, respectively. However, the latter two preparations increased the troponin C contents of the bathing solution to 36 ± 11 and 69 ± 33, compared to the value of 11 ± 3 ng/mL found with untreated atria. Conclusions Preparations from A. muricata and B. orellana may possess positive-inotropic properties which may improve the contractility of the post-hypoxic myocardium. Studies to assess their usefulness in ischemic-reperfusion injury are warranted. PMID:26730936

  5. IMPORTÂNCIA E A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE VON MARTIUS PARA O CONHECIMENTO DA FLORA ARBÓREA DO CERRADO

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    Ramon Cleomar de Jesus Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os naturalistas viajantes podem ser definidos como pessoas que durante os séculos XVIII e XIX dedicavam seu tempo ao estudo da história natural. Partindo deste pressuposto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições do naturalista alemão Carl Friederich Philipp von Martius para a flora arbórea do Cerrado. Martius veio ao Brasil no ano de 1817 acompanhado do zoólogo Johann Baptiste von Spix. Os dois cientistas passaram três anos viajando pelo Brasil e percorreram territórios dos futuros estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pernambuco, Piauí, Maranhão, Pará e Amazonas. Nesse contexto, Martius teve contato com várias fisionomias naturais presentes nos diversos ecossistemas brasileiros, percorreu e estudou territórios do Cerrado e suas contribuições foram importantes para a flora deste Bioma. O trabalho de Martius é diverso e de acordo com a APG III 161 espécies arbóreas foram descritas por ele ou contou com a sua colaboração, distribuídas em 39 famílias e 92 gêneros. Martius, ao longo de sua viagem, descreveu várias espécies arbóreas típicas do cerrado, a saber: Araticum (Annona crassiflora, Guatambu (Aspidosperma macrocarpon, A. tomentosum, Ingá (Inga edulis e Pau Terra (Qualea grandiflora, Q. multiflora, Q. parviflora, além de tantas outras ainda pouco conhecidas pela população, mas que do ponto de vista ecológico são extremamente importantes para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas.

  6. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

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    Michele BARNABÉ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective: Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods: Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results: Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry.

  7. Screening of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in Mysore

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    Thirumalapura Krishnaiah Mohankumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anoph­eles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts.Methods: Susceptibility tests on Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were conducted using standard WHO methods. The larvae of two mosquito species were exposed to methanolic extracts and mortality counts were made after 24 hours of exposure as per WHO method. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were more susceptible than that of An. stephensi.Results: Among the nine plant species tested, Annona reticulata leaf extract was more effective against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.24 and 262.64 ppm respectively and against An. stephensi larvae 262.71 and 636.94 ppm respectively. The least efficacy was in Cosmos bipinnatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 442.6 and 1225.93 ppm against Ae. aegypti and LC50 and LC90 values of 840.69 and 1334.01 ppm of Thespesia populnea against An. stephensi.Conclusion: The crude methanolic extract of the An. reticulata with good larvicidal efficacy could be considered for further characterization to control mosquito vectors instead of chemical insecticides. High efficacy found in An. re­ticulata extract will be considered for further studies to isolate the bioactive compound.

  8. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagio, A S N; Vieira, M C; Volobuff, C R F; Silva, M S; Matos, A I; Cardoso, C A L; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI50) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI50 values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  9. 四种番荔枝科植物花粉形态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永; 徐凤霞

    2012-01-01

    利用扫描和透射电子显微镜,观察了番荔枝科(Annonaceae)4属4种植物的花粉形态与结构。刺果番荔枝(Annona muricata)和金钩花(Pseuduvaria trimera)为四合花粉,有四角形、偏菱形、T-型、十字形和四面体形。前者花粉表面具小穿孔,后者为皱波状纹饰。蕉木(Oncodostigma hainanense)和那大紫玉盘(Uvariamacclurei)为单花粉,前者表面为皱波状纹饰,后者为粗褶皱状纹饰。透射电子显微镜下,蕉木和那大紫玉盘覆盖层较厚、连续。蕉木覆盖下层较薄,偶尔可见颗粒状物质或不规则小柱,为过渡型覆盖下层;那大紫玉盘覆盖下层颗粒状。基层分为内外两层,外层较厚,平或呈波浪状,内层具有2—4片层结构。在不同属或同属不同种之间,花粉特征差异较大,多样性非常丰富。金钩花具有四合花粉、覆盖下层小柱状等进化特征,同时又具有花粉粒小、覆盖层无穿孔等较原始特征。

  10. In vitro biological screening of the anticholinesterase and antiproliferative activities of medicinal plants belonging to Annonaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formagio, A.S.N.; Vieira, M.C. [Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Volobuff, C.R.F.; Silva, M.S. [Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Matos, A.I. [Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Cardoso, C.A.L. [Curso de Química, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Carvalho, J.E. [Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The aim of this research was to investigate the antiproliferative and anticholinesterase activities of 11 extracts from 5 Annonaceae species in vitro. Antiproliferative activity was assessed using 10 human cancer cell lines. Thin-layer chromatography and a microplate assay were used to screen the extracts for acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitors using Ellman's reagent. The chemical compositions of the active extracts were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography. Eleven extracts obtained from five Annonaceae plant species were active and were particularly effective against the UA251, NCI-470 lung, HT-29, NCI/ADR, and K-562 cell lines with growth inhibition (GI{sub 50}) values of 0.04-0.06, 0.02-0.50, 0.01-0.12, 0.10-0.27, and 0.02-0.04 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the Annona crassiflora and A. coriacea seed extracts were the most active among the tested extracts and the most effective against the tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values below 8.90 µg/mL. The A. cacans extract displayed the lowest activity. Based on the microplate assay, the percent AchE inhibition of the extracts ranged from 12 to 52%, and the A. coriacea seed extract resulted in the greatest inhibition (52%). Caffeic acid, sinapic acid, and rutin were present at higher concentrations in the A. crassiflora seed samples. The A. coriacea seeds contained ferulic and sinapic acid. Overall, the results indicated that A. crassiflora and A. coriacea extracts have antiproliferative and anticholinesterase properties, which opens up new possibilities for alternative pharmacotherapy drugs.

  11. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  12. Effects of supplementation of threshed sorghum top with selected browse plant foliage on haematology and serum biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Oyekunle, Mufutau Atanda; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami; Makinde, Olayinka John

    2016-06-01

    The haematological and biochemical parameters of 24 growing Red Sokoto bucks (9.00 ± 0.25 kg body weight) fed threshed sorghum top (TST) with or without five different browse plant foliage Afzelia africana (AA), Daniellia oliveri (DO), Piliostigma thonningii (PT), Pterocarpus erinaceus (PE) and Annona senegalensis (AS) supplements were studied using a completely randomized design. All haematological parameters were (P < 0.05) lower in TST-fed goats compared with TST-supplemented goats, except for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes and monocytes which did not follow a particular pattern. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin and monocytes were higher for AA-supplemented goats while MCHC was reduced relative to other supplements (P < 0.05). White blood cell counts were increased in DO lambs compared to other supplements (P < 0.05). Serum proteins, creatinine, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate were reduced in TST compared with the supplements (P < 0.05). Cholesterol was higher for PT and AA than other diets (P < 0.05). Aspartate transaminase was reduced in TST goats relative to the supplements (P < 0.05). Except for potassium which was reduced in AS (P < 0.05), all serum major minerals were similar among diets. Results indicate that the entire browse fodder are good supplements to low-quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better supplementary effect on haematological and biochemical parameters of the goats. PMID:27010715

  13. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

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    Dian Riana Ningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using the diffusion method. Extract with the highest activity determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations grow (MIC and tested the content of secondary metabolites with phytochemical test, subsequently identified using IR spectrophotometer. Soursop leaves with extraction solvent n-hexane, chloroform and methanol to produce n-hexane extract (E1, the chloroform extract (E2, and the methanol extract (E3 with a yield respectively 0.82%; 5.21%; 8.2% and produce antibacterial activity with consecutive inhibition zone of 3.52 mm; 8.34 mm; 3.00 mm. MIC of soursop leaf chloroform extract of the E. coli bacteria that is at a concentration of 1 ppm with inhibition zone of 3.23 mm. Based on the test results phytochemical soursop leaf chloroform extract showed the presence of compounds alkaloids, steroids, saponins and tannins. IR spectrophotometer identification results showed that the chloroform extract of the leaves of the soursop has functional groups OH, aliphatic C-H, C = O, C = C aromatic, CH3, C-O ether and C-H outside the field.

  14. DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL DA GRAVIOLEIRA SOB FONTES E NÍVEIS DE SALINIDADE DA ÁGUA

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    CAVALCANTE LOURIVAL FERREIRA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No período de fevereiro a julho de 1999, estudaram-se os efeitos de fontes salinas através da irrigação com água de barragem, rica em cloreto de sódio e em cloreto de magnésio, com níveis de condutividade elétrica de 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 6,0 e 9,0 dSm-1 sobre o crescimento inicial da gravioleira, Annona muricata L., cultivar Morada. Os resultados nos primeiros 150 dias, independentemente das fontes, indicam que área foliar e sua fitomassa cresceram com o aumento da salinidade das águas de 0,5 para 2,0 e até 3,0 dSm-1. No mesmo período, o índice de salinidade do substrato foi elevado para até fortemente salino, revelando que a gravioleira comportou-se como planta moderadamente tolerante aos sais durante o crescimento inicial. Apesar de a água rica em cloreto de magnésio ser a fonte que menos elevou a condutividade elétrica do substrato, foi a que mais contribuiu para a redução das variáveis estudadas, indicando que as plantas foram mais sensíveis a sua toxidade em relação à água de barragem e rica em cloreto de sódio.

  15. 番荔枝科两种植物花器官形态发生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 徐凤霞

    2011-01-01

    用扫描电镜观察了囊瓣木(Saccopetalum prolificum)和刺果番荔枝(Annona muricata)花器官的形态发生过程。刺果番荔枝和囊瓣木花被片均为3轮,其中刺果番荔枝内轮花被片数目为3枚、5枚或7枚。囊瓣木花原基最初为圆锥形,最外轮3枚花被片很快发生,之后中、内轮花被片原基连续发生,3轮花被片互生。此时花原基为六边形。花被片分化完成时,圆球形雄蕊原基沿六边形花原基的6个边螺旋向心发生,最终近轮状排列于花原基上。刺果番荔枝的雄蕊较多(约1000枚),首先在中轮花被片所对的花原基边缘发生,之后大量雄蕊螺旋状发生。心皮分化的早期阶段,与雄蕊原基很相似,当心皮数目逐渐增多时,不能分辩出发生的顺序。成熟花中,心皮和雄蕊全都被毛覆盖,毛具有粘住传粉滴的作用。

  16. Efeitos da inoculação micorrízica em mudas de gravioleira em solo fumigado e não fumigado

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    Chu Elizabeth Ying

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação para avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs sobre o crescimento e nutrição de mudas de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. em Latossolo Amarelo álico, fumigado e não fumigado. A inoculação foi feita durante o transplante; após cinco meses foram avaliados o crescimento e a absorção de nutrientes das mudas. A inoculação aumentou significativamente o crescimento da gravioleira no solo fumigado;o maior incremento foi observado nos tratamentos com Scutellospora heterogama e Gigaspora margarita. A eficiência da inoculação no solo fumigado variou de 594% a 1.348%. Embora o efeito da inoculação tenha sido reduzido no solo não fumigado, G. margarita, Entrophospora colombiana e Gigaspora sp. aumentaram significativamente o crescimento das mudas, e a eficiência da inoculação de 61% foi obtida com G. margarita; S. heterogama não se mostrou eficiente. No solo fumigado, G. margarita e Gigaspora sp. promoveram maior porcentagem de colonização radicular; no entanto, a colonização radicular não diferiu entre tratamentos com inoculação no solo não fumigado. Os teores e conteúdos de nutrientes variaram entre os tratamentos. A gravioleira é uma planta responsiva a FMAs, e a inoculação da espécie G. margarita beneficia o desenvolvimento das mudas de gravioleira nos solos fumigado e não fumigado.

  17. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in fruit pulp processing byproducts and potential probiotic properties of selected Lactobacillus strains

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    Estefânia Garcia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L. and Fragaria vesca L. pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86% and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49 and L. fermentum 111 were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30 and 1.00% did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  18. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F; Luciano, Winnie A; Xavier, Danilo E; da Costa, Whyara C A; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A; Lucena, Brígida T L; Picão, Renata C; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains.

  19. Beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria - Potential implications for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury.

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    Bipat, Robbert; Toelsie, Jerry R; Magali, Indira; Soekhoe, Rubaina; Stender, Karin; Wangsawirana, Angelique; Oedairadjsingh, Krishan; Pawirodihardjo, Jennifer; Mans, Dennis R A

    2016-08-01

    Context Ischemic-reperfusion injury is accompanied by a decreased contractility of the myocardium. Positive-inotropic agents have proven useful for treating this condition but may exert serious side-effects. Objective In this study, aqueous preparations from Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Malvaceae), Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), Cecropia peltata L. (Moraceae), Erythrina fusca Lour. (Fabaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) and Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) were evaluated for their ability to improve the decreased contractility of isolated guinea pig atria after hypoxic stress. Materials and methods Guinea pig atria isolated in Ringer-Locke buffer gassed with 100% O2 at 30 °C were exposed for 5 min to hypoxia, then allowed to recover in oxygenated buffer alone or containing a single plant extract (0.001-1 mg/mL). The contractility (g/s) and beating frequency (beats/min), as well as troponin C contents of the bathing solution (ng/mL), were determined and expressed as means ± SDs. Results The extracts of A. muricata, B. orellana, C. peltata and T. catappa caused an increase in the contractility compared to untreated atria of 340 ± 102%, 151 ± 13%, 141 ± 14% and 238 ± 44%, respectively. However, the latter two preparations increased the troponin C contents of the bathing solution to 36 ± 11 and 69 ± 33, compared to the value of 11 ± 3 ng/mL found with untreated atria. Conclusions Preparations from A. muricata and B. orellana may possess positive-inotropic properties which may improve the contractility of the post-hypoxic myocardium. Studies to assess their usefulness in ischemic-reperfusion injury are warranted.

  20. Method development for quantification of the environmental neurotoxin annonacin in Rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and application to a pharmacokinetic study.

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    Bonneau, Natacha; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Annonacin is an environmental neurotoxin identified in the pulp of several fruits of the Annonaceae family (for example in Annona muricata, Asimina triloba), whose consumption was linked with the occurrence of sporadic atypical Parkinsonism with dementia. Pharmacokinetic parameters of this molecule are unknown. A method for its quantification in Rat plasma was developed, using its analogue annonacinone as an internal standard. Extraction from plasma was performed using ethylacetate with a good recovery. Quantification was performed by UPLC-MS/MS in SRM mode, based on the loss of the γ-methyl-γ-lactone (-112amu) from the sodium-cationized species [M+Na](+) of both annonacin and internal standard. The limit of quantification was 0.25ng/mL. Despite strong matrix effects, a good linearity was obtained over two distinct ranges 0.25-10ng/mL and 10-100ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were lower than 10%, while accuracy was within ±10%. This method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in the Rat. After oral administration of 10mg/kg annonacin, a Cmax of 7.9±1.5ng/mL was reached at Tmax 0.25h; T1/2 was 4.8±0.7h and apparent distribution volume was 387.9±64.6L. The bioavailability of annonacin was estimated to be 3.2±0.3% of the ingested dose.

  1. Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fruit Pulp Processing Byproducts and Potential Probiotic Properties of Selected Lactobacillus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Estefânia F.; Luciano, Winnie A.; Xavier, Danilo E.; da Costa, Whyara C. A.; de Sousa Oliveira, Kleber; Franco, Octávio L.; de Morais Júnior, Marcos A.; Lucena, Brígida T. L.; Picão, Renata C.; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in byproducts of fruit (Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera indica L., Annona muricata L., and Fragaria vesca L.) pulp processing. Fifty strains of LAB were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequence (16S rRNA) analysis. Species belonging to Lactobacillus genus were the predominant LAB in all fruit pulp processing byproducts. The average congruency between the MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA in LAB species identification reached 86%. Isolates of L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. pentosus, L. lactis and L. mesenteroides were identified with 100% congruency. MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis presented 86 and 100% efficiency of LAB species identification, respectively. Further, five selected Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis 59, L. pentosus 129, L. paracasei 108, L. plantarum 49, and L. fermentum 111) were evaluated for desirable probiotic-related properties and growth behavior on two different cultivation media. The exposure to pH 2.0 sharply decreased the counts of the different Lactobacillus strains after a 1 or 2 h incubation, while varied decreases were noted after 3 h of exposure to pH 3.0. Overall, the exposure to pH 5.0 and to bile salts (0.15, 0.30, and 1.00%) did not decrease the counts of the Lactobacillus strains. All tested Lactobacillus strains presented inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and presented variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. The selected Lactobacillus strains presented satisfactory and reproducible growth behavior. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA analysis revealed high efficiency and congruency for LAB species identification, and the selected Lactobacillus strains may be candidates for further investigation of novel probiotic strains. PMID:27625647

  2. Native and introduced host plants of Anastrepha fraterculus and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovruski, Sergio; Schliserman, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2003-08-01

    Wild or commercially grown, native and exotic fruit were collected in 30 localities in the Tucumán province (NW Argentina) from January 1990 to December 1995 to determine their status as hosts of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and/or Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the only two fruit fly species of economic and quarantine importance in Argentina. A total of 84,094 fruit (3,466.1 kg) representing 33 species (7 native and 26 exotic) in 15 plant families were sampled. We determined the following 17 host plant associations: Annona cherimola Miller (Annonaceae), Citrus paradisi Macfadyn (Rutaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Eugenia uniflora L., Psidium guajava L., Myrcianthes pungens (Berg) Legrand (Myrtaceae), Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), Juglans australis Grisebach (Juglandaceae), Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Prunus armeniaca L., P. domestica L., and P. persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae) were infested by both A. fraterculus and C. capitata. Citrus aurantium L., Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae), and Passiflora caerulea L. (Passifloraceae) were only infested by Ceratitis capitata. Out of a total of 99,627 adults that emerged from pupae, 69,180 (approximately 69.5%) were Anastrepha fraterculus, 30,138 (approximately 30.2%) were C. capitata, and 309 (approximately 0.3%) were an unidentified Anastrepha species. Anastrepha fraterculus predominated in native plant species while C. capitata did so in introduced species. Infestation rates (number of larvae/kg of fruit) varied sharply from year to year and between host plant species (overall there was a significant negative correlation between fruit size and infestation level). We provide information on fruiting phenology of all the reported hosts and discuss our findings in light of their practical (e.g., management of A. fraterculus and C. capitata in citrus groves) implications.

  3. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  4. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma cell-25 cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and determination of percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle by flow cytometry: An in vitro study

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    Visveswaraiah Paranjyothi Magadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignancies constitute a wide variety of disorders having high mortality and morbidity rates. Current protocols for management include surgical intervention, chemotherapy, and radiation which possess numerous adverse effects. Many phytochemicals are available with anticancer properties similar to anticancer drugs. Major benefit of these compounds is apparent lack of toxicity to normal tissues. Graviola (botanical name: Annona Muricata contain bioactive compound “annonaceous acetogenins” known for anticancer activity on cancer cell lines. Aims: To determine cytotoxicity of Graviola and percentage cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle. Settings and Design: The cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-25 cell lines at various concentrations evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The percentage of SCC-25 cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle determined using flow cytometry. Methods: Graviola Leaves, American Type Culture Collection SCC-25 cell lines were procured from Skanda Laboratories, Bengaluru. The cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola on SCC-25 cells at various concentrations evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage of SCC-25 cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle determined using flow cytometry. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA. Results: MTT assay showed statistically significant (P < 0.001 dose-dependent inhibition of SCC-25 cell lines by Graviola with IC50 value of 12.42 μg/ml. Flow cytometry revealed that Graviola at 25 and 50 g/ml arrested 53.39% and 52.09% cells in G2M phase of cell cycle respectively, which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Graviola showed significant cytotoxic activity and percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase cell cycle against SCC-25 cell lines.

  5. Antiproliferative Activity, Antioxidant Capacity and Tannin Content in Plants of Semi-Arid Northeastern Brazil  

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    Silene Carneiro do Nascimento

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate antiproliferative activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants from semi-arid northeastern Brazil (Caatinga. For this study, we selected 14 species and we assayed the methanol extracts for antiproliferative activity against the HEp-2 (laryngeal cancer and NCI-H292 (lung cancer cell lines using the (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazole (MTT method. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated with the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, and the tannin content was determined by the radial diffusion method. Plants with better antioxidant activity (expressed in a dose able to decrease the initial DPPH concentration by 50%, or IC50 and with higher levels of tannins were: Poincianella pyramidalis (42.95 ± 1.77 µg/mL IC50 and 8.17 ± 0.64 tannin content, Jatropha mollissima (54.09 ± 4.36µg/mL IC50 and 2.35 ± 0.08 tannin content and Anadenanthera colubrina (73.24 ± 1.47 µg/mL IC50 and 4.41 ± 0.47 tannin content. Plants with enhanced antiproliferative activity (% living cells were Annona muricata (24.94 ± 0.74 in NCI-H292, Lantana camara (25.8 ± 0.19 in NCI-H292, Handroanthus impetiginosus (41.8 ± 0.47 in NCI-H292 and Mentzelia aspera (45.61 ± 1.94 in HEp-2. For species with better antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, we suggest future in vitro and in vivo comparative studies with other pharmacological models, and to start a process of purification and identification of the possible molecule(s responsible for the observed pharmacological activity. We believe that the flora of Brazilian semi-arid areas can be a valuable source of plants rich in tannins, cytotoxic compounds and antioxidant agents.

  6. Extração de DNA genômico de tecidos foliares maduros de espécies nativas do cerrado

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    Márcia Nara da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grandes quantidades de contaminantes na amostra de DNA dificultam a obtenção de DNA genômico de qualidade durante a extração. A presença de polissacarídeos, fenóis e outros compostos secundários representa o principal problema com o procedimento de isolamento do DNA e sua aplicação subsequente, por inibir a atividade das enzimas Taq DNA polimera-se e enzimas de restrição. Neste estudo, descreveu-se um procedimento modificado baseado no hexadecyltrimethylammonium (CTAB, rendendo DNA genômico satisfatório para técnicas de manipulação subsequente, como reações de PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição. Nesse protocolo foram utilizadas diferentes concentrações de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração (0,0; 0,2; 10; 15; 25; e 50 uL de β-mercaptoetanol/mL do tampão de extração: 100 mM de Tris-HCl, pH 8; 20 mM de EDTA; 1,4 mM de NaCl; 2% de CTAB; 1% de PVP, cujo procedimento foi aplicado no caso de folhas maduras e testado em Annona crassiflora (arati-cum, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Anacardium humilis (caju-do-campo, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Caryocar brasiliense (pequi. O protocolo foi eficiente no isolamento de DNA livre de polissacarídeos e polifenóis, com rendimento do DNA com alto peso molecu-lar, utilizando-se concentrações a partir de 1% de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração. O DNA isolado por esse método mostrou alta pureza, de acordo com as análises de digestão por restrição e amplificação por PCR.

  7. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Mohanta, Yugal Kishore; Padhi, Laxmipriya; Park, Young-Hwan; Mohanta, Tapan Kumar; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts) from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera) were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative) species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial activity. The species

  8. Changes in organic compounds during leaf litter leaching: laboratory experiment on eight plant species of the Sudano-guinea Savannas of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

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    Halima M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was carried out on the leaf litter of 8 agroforestry plant species of the Sudano-guinea Savannas of Ngaoundere in order to compare patterns of their water absorption and dynamics of four important energetic organic compounds (soluble sugars, cellulose, phenol and lignin among these plant species during the leaching phase and to determine the influence of initial litter properties on these processes. To this end, 168 samples of leaf litter (5.00 +/- 0.01 g of Annona senegalensis, Lophira lanceolata, Syzygium guineense var. guineense, Syzygium guineense var. macrocarpum, Vitellaria paradoxa, Vitex doniana, Vitex madiensis and Ximenia americana were immersed for 15 days in distilled water at a temperature of 23 °C and relative humidity of 65 +/- 1%. Three samples of each plant species were taken at 1, 6, 24, 72, 168, 240 and 360 hours. Depending on the species, water absorption capacity after 360 h of leaching varied from 162.77 (S. g. var. macrocarpum to 264.00% (V. madiensis of dry litter mass. The release of water-soluble substances varied between 9.61 (L. lanceolata and 34.12% (X. americana. Water absorption and release of water-soluble substances rate constants were the highest in V. madiensis (0.32 h-1 and 0.25 h-1 and the lowest one respectively in S. g. guineense (0.03 h-1 and S. g. var. macrocarpum (0.006 h-1. Organic compound of original litter also varied significantly among species and decreased with leaching time for water-soluble sugars and phenols, while increased for cellulose and lignin. Water absorption by litter was significantly correlated with initial water-soluble sugars and phenol content, leaf litter area and thickness. The release of water-soluble substances by litters was also correlated with initial water-soluble sugars, water content and leaf litter area. The leaching rate constant was correlated with that of water absorption. These preliminary results lead to a better understanding of the litter

  9. Changes in organic compounds during leaf litter leaching: laboratory experiment on eight plant species of the Sudano-guinea Savannas of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

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    Biyanzi P

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was carried out on the leaf litter of 8 agroforestry plant species of the Sudano-guinea Savannas of Ngaoundere in order to compare patterns of their water absorption and dynamics of four important energetic organic compounds (soluble sugars, cellulose, phenol and lignin among these plant species during the leaching phase and to determine the influence of initial litter properties on these processes. To this end, 168 samples of leaf litter (5.00 ± 0.01 g of Annona senegalensis, Lophira lanceolata, Syzygium guineense var. guineense, Syzygium guineense var. macrocarpum, Vitellaria paradoxa, Vitex doniana, Vitex madiensis and Ximenia americana were immersed for 15 days in distilled water at a temperature of 23 °C and relative humidity of 65 ± 1%. Three samples of each plant species were taken at 1, 6, 24, 72, 168, 240 and 360 hours. Depending on the species, water absorption capacity after 360 h of leaching varied from 162.77 (S. g. var. macrocarpum to 264.00% (V. madiensis of dry litter mass. The release of water-soluble substances varied between 9.61 (L. lanceolata and 34.12% (X. americana. Water absorption and release of water-soluble substances rate constants were the highest in V. madiensis (0.32 h-1 and 0.25 h-1 and the lowest one respectively in S. g. guineense (0.03 h-1 and S. g. var. macrocarpum (0.006 h-1. Organic compound of original litter also varied significantly among species and decreased with leaching time for water-soluble sugars and phenols, while increased for cellulose and lignin. Water absorption by litter was significantly correlated with initial water-soluble sugars and phenol content, leaf litter area and thickness. The release of water-soluble substances by litters was also correlated with initial water-soluble sugars, water content and leaf litter area. The leaching rate constant was correlated with that of water absorption. These preliminary results lead to a better understanding of the litter

  10. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

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    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  11. Anatomia de lesões foliares causadas pelo vírus da Mancha Clorótica do Clerodendrum, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis em diferentes espécies

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    Renata Takassugui Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero botânico Clerodendrum pertence à família Lamiaceae e compreende várias espécies ornamentais, Manchas cloróticas e necróticas em folhas de coração-sangrento foram observadas pela primeira vez em um jardim de Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação com Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae. Exames de secções de tecidos das lesões foliares ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos do tipo nuclear e concluiu-se que os sintomas eram causados por um vírus transmitido por Brevipalpus (VTB, o qual foi designado de mancha clorótica de Clerodendrum (Clerodendrum Chlorotic Spot Virus- ClCSV. O ClCSV é transmitido mecanicamente de coração-sangrento para coração-sangrento. Em ensaios preliminares foi transmitido por B. phoenicis e mecanicamente para várias outras plantas, além da ocorrência de sua disseminação natural por este ácaro para outras espécies. Visando complementar a caracterização do ClCSV foram feitos estudos sobre alterações anatômicas em folhas de plantas infectadas pelo ClCSV. Foram examinadas secções histológicas de folhas sadias e infectadas pelo ClCSV de C. x speciosum e de outras hospedeiras como Hibiscus schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Malvaviscus arboreus e Annona muricata. Constatou-se que o ClCSV causa alterações celulares semelhantes nas diferentes hospedeiras e os sintomas causados por este vírus são similares aos causados por outros vírus transmitidos por Brevipalpus como o vírus da leprose dos citros citoplasmático (Citrus Lepros Virus Cytoplasmic- CiLV-C e nuclear (Citrus Leprosis Virus Nuclear- CiLV-N, mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee Ringspot Virus- CoRSV, mancha anular de Solanum violaefolium (Solanum violaefolium Ringspot Virus- SvRSV e "Orchid Fleck Vírus" (OFV, representadas por hipertrofia e hiperplasia frequentemente acompanhadas de necrose nos tecidos do parênquima paliçádico e lacunoso.

  12. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  13. ESTUDO DA PASTEURIZAÇÃO DA POLPA DE GRAVIOLA

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    C. K. B. TEIXEIRA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se a pasteurização da polpa de graviola (Annona muricata L., visando estabelecer condições simples e eficientes para sua conservação. Foram realizadas avaliações microbiológica, enzimática e de cor da polpa, para identificar parâmetros a serem utilizados no acompanhamento da pasteurização. O produto foi submetido a tratamento térmico, em copos de inox, em diferentes tempos (1 a 300 seg e temperaturas (70°C a 90°C, para identificar o efeito destas variáveis sobre parâmetros de qualidade do produto. Constatou-se que os tratamentos não provocaram variação na atividade da peroxidase, contagem de bactérias, bolores e leveduras e cor da polpa. Em seguida foram realizadas pasteurizações, em escala piloto, a 80°C e 90°C; sendo os produtos estocados a 25°C e avaliados durante 120 dias. A redução da atividade da peroxidase e da concentração de bactérias, bolores e leveduras, a níveis aceitáveis, e a manutenção da cor, demonstraram a eficiência dos processos térmicos. A manutenção destes parâmetros, nos níveis aceitáveis, durante a estocagem, confirmou a aplicabilidade dos processos, sem a necessidade da adição de conservante na polpa. A pasteurização da polpa de graviola a 80°C ou 90°C, mostrou ser um tratamento térmico adequado para a conservação do produto, proporcionando 120 dias de vidade- prateleira à temperatura ambiente ( 25°C.

  14. Germinação e formação de mudas enxertadas de gravioleira sob estresse salino

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    Nobre Reginaldo Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da fruticultura no Nordeste brasileiro pode sofrer limitações, já que algumas áreas com elevado potencial de cultivo são abastecidas por água de qualidade insatisfatória. Considerando a potencialidade de cultivo da gravioleira (Annona muricata L. na região e o fato de não existir dados sobre a produção de mudas enxertadas dessa espécie, sob estresse salino, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre o tipo 'Crioula' tendo 'Morada' como porta-enxerto. A água de irrigação de condutividade elétrica entre 0,5 e 5,5 dS m-1 foi preparada mantendo-se proporção equivalente a 7:2:1, entre Na:Ca:Mg, respectivamente; o delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, 54 plantas por parcela. Foram avaliados: germinação, formação do porta-enxerto (número de folhas, altura de plantas, diâmetro do caule, matéria seca de parte aérea e de raiz, área foliar e número de plantas aptas à enxertia e número de enxertos vivos. A porcentagem de germinação da gravioleira não foi afetada pelo estresse salino, porém a velocidade de emergência e o acúmulo de fitomassa foram reduzidos com aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. Pode-se usar água com até 1,5 dS m-1 de condutividade elétrica na formação de mudas de graviola.

  15. Energy value as a factor of agroforestry wood species selectivity in Akinyele and Ido local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erakhrumen, A.A. [Department of Forest Resources Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2009-10-15

    Wood usage for cooking and heating is still very relevant in most developing countries especially those of sub-Saharan Africa and many parts of Asia. Therefore, sustainable means of generating it for this and other purposes are necessary bearing in mind the influence of indigenous knowledge/users' perspective on any production method regarding success and sustenance. In conformity with this view, questionnaires were administered on 240 respondents in 8 rural communities of Akinyele and Ido Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Oyo State, Nigeria, to elicit information on species that can be used as fuelwood, preferred by the respondents for incorporation into and/or retention in agroforestry plots, out of which 179 (i.e. 75% of the total number of questionnaires administered) were successfully retrieved for statistical analyses. Twelve woody species namely: Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Bridelia ferruginea, Daniellia oliveri, Detarium microcarpum, Gardenia ternifolia, Hymenocardia acida, Lophira lanceolata, Parkia biglobosa, Terminalia avicennioides, Triplochiton scleroxylon and Vitellaria paradoxa were prioritized on the basis of respondents' preference using a ranking pattern. Friedman chi-square analysis showed that there was no significant difference (p < 0.05) in the ranking pattern of the respondents from the two LGAs. The mean net calorific values (NCV) of the 12 species were found to be 17.71, 18.63, 18.04, 16.03, 17.67, 18.46, 19.00, 21.68, 19.63, 18.25, 14.65, and 19.47 MJ kg{sup -1} respectively. The result of a two-way analysis of variance indicated a significant variation (p < 0.05) in NCV data for all the species pooled together but not for each species except for D. oliveri with a follow-up test using Fisher's Least Significant Difference. The Pearson's moment correlation analysis gave positive coefficient values (r = 0.868 and 0.874, p < 0.05) between NCV and the cumulative ranking values in Akinyele and Ido LGAs

  16. Large Scale Screening of Ethnomedicinal Plants for Identification of Potential Antibacterial Compounds

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    Sujogya Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of bacterial infections is very high and has been exacerbated by increasing resistance to multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatment of infections, which can ultimately lead to death. To overcome antibiotic resistance, it is necessary to identify new antibacterial agents. In this study, a total of 662 plant extracts (diverse parts from 222 plant species (82 families, 177 genera were screened for antibacterial activity using the agar cup plate method. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were prepared from diverse plant parts and screened against eight bacterial (two Gram-positive and six Gram-negative species, most of which are involved in common infections with multiple antibiotic resistance. The methanolic extracts of several plants were shown to have zones of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration was calculated only with methanolic extracts of selected plants, those showed zone of inhibition ≥ 12 mm against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Several extracts had minimum inhibitory concentration ≤ 1 mg/mL. Specifically Adhatoda vasica, Ageratum conyzoides, Alangium salvifolium, Alpinia galanga, Andrographis paniculata, Anogeissus latifolia, Annona squamosa, A. reticulate, Azadirachta indica, Buchanania lanzan, Cassia fistula, Celastrus paniculatus, Centella asiatica, Clausena excavate, Cleome viscosa, Cleistanthus collinus, Clerodendrum indicum, Croton roxburghii, Diospyros melanoxylon, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erycibe paniculata, Eryngium foetidum, Garcinia cowa, Helicteres isora, Hemidesmus indicus, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Lannea coromandelica, Millettia extensa, Mimusops elengi, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Oroxylum indicum, Paederia foetida, Pterospermum acerifolium, Punica granatum, Semecarpus anacardium, Spondias pinnata, Terminalia alata and Vitex negundo were shown to have significant antimicrobial

  17. 村落文化林与非文化林多尺度物种多样性加性分配%Additive partition of species diversity across multiple spatial scales in community culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高虹; 陈圣宾; 欧阳志云

    2012-01-01

    Culturally protected forests, which are preserved and managed by local people on the basis of traditional cultural practices and beliefs, have certain social and ecological functions, and also show significant role in biodiversity conservation. The research worldwide nowadays mainly focuses on qualitative description of culturally protected forests and therefore lack quantitative comparison of biodiversity and difference in species composition between culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests, particularly diversity from different spatial scales. The tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and vine layer of three culturally protected forests and non-culturally protected forests were investigated, using additive partition measured by species abundance to analyze diversity of multi-scale in subtropical region of China. Partitioning of total species diversity can be described as Alpha diversity ( within grid diversity) + Beta diversity = Gamma diversity (total diversity at landscape) , among which Beta diversity could be divided into diversity between grids, diversity between plots, diversity between forest types. The results were: (1) Total 296 species belonging to 66 families and 163 genera were found in culturally protected forests, dominated by Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cinnamomum camphora and Castanopsis carlesii, while 189 species belonging to 67 families and 135 genera were found in non-culturally protected forests, dominated by Cunninghamia lanceolata, Pinus massoniana and Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens. Culturally protected forests had more species in tree layer and shrub layer although the differences of species composition were complex in herb and vine layer depending on human disturbance and locations, and most of species diversity was higher in culturally protected forests. (2) This model implied that Beta diversity was increasing at larger spatial scale, and which showed uniform results in different layers in both culturally

  18. Polinização artificial da atemóia com diversas fontes de pólen comparada com a natural Natural and artificial pollination of Atemoya in Brazil

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    Marcelo Rosa Melo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar a polinização da atemóia (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola e determinar a técnica de polinização que produz frutos em maior quantidade e melhor qualidade, montou-se um experimento de polinização. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar Gefner, no período de novembro de 2000 a março de 2001, em pomar comercial, localizado em Lins (SP, a 424 metros de altitude. As plantas apresentavam 13 anos de idade. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: 1 polinização manual (pólen de A. squamosa L.; 2 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar Gefner; 3 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar African Pride; 4 polinização manual (pólen da atemóia cultivar PR-3; 5 polinização natural ou aberta. A avaliação do vingamento dos frutos ocorreu dez dias após a polinização e da quantidade dos frutos com conformação perfeita ou defeituosa, aos 40 dias. Os frutos foram colhidos 120 dias após a polinização e pesados individualmente. Amostraram-se, também, três frutos para as seguintes determinações: massa de sementes e da polpa, número de sementes por 100 gramas de polpa, teor de sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total e relação sólidos solúveis/acidez. Para a atemóia, a polinização com pólen de A. squamosa L. foi mais efetiva, aumentando o vingamento de frutos (80,5%, comparado com outros quatro tratamentos, que foi menos de 22%, a produção e a porcentagem de frutos perfeitos.An experiment was carried out to study atemoya pollination and to determine the pollination method that produces fruits in larger amount and quality. The experiment was accomplished with cultivar Gefner, in the period of November 2000 to March 2001, in a commercial orchard located in the county of Lins - SP, at an altitude of 424 meters. The plants were 13 years old. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with 5 treatments and

  19. Caracterização de dois estratos da vegetação em uma área de cerrado no município de Brotas, SP, Brasil

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    Durigan Giselda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizaram-se dois estratos da vegetação de uma área de cerca de 300 ha de cerrado stricto sensu, localizada no município de Brotas, SP, quanto à sua estrutura e diversidade, pelo método de parcelas. Para amostragem do estrato arbóreo (diâmetro mínimo de 5 cm, medido a 50 cm acima do nível do solo, foi amostrada área total de 5000 m² (250 x 20 m, divididos em 50 parcelas contíguas de 10 x 10 m (100 m². Para o estrato inferior (altura < 50 cm e diâmetro do caule inferior a 5 cm, a área total de amostragem foi de 500 m², distribuídos em 50 sub-parcelas de 10 x 1 m (10 m², demarcadas dentro de cada uma das parcelas maiores. Determinou-se a cobertura do estrato arbóreo pelo método de interceptação de linhas e o índice de agregação das espécies e da comunidade, segundo Payandeh. Foram identificadas, no total, 78 espécies (36 famílias. O estrato arbóreo apresentou densidade de 1150 ind/ha, 7,2 m²/ha de área basal e 19,6 % de cobertura. Foram amostradas, neste estrato, 44 espécies (27 famílias, com H=3,02 e os indivíduos da comunidade como um todo apresentaram-se agregados (P=4,26. As espécies de maior valor de importância no estrato superior, em ordem decrescente, foram: Acosmium subelegans, Aspidosperma tomentosum, Eriotheca gracilipes, Styrax ferrugineus e Tabebuia ochracea. No estrato inferior, com densidade de 10.220 ind/ha, foram amostradas 61 espécies (32 famílias, destacando-se, em ordem decrescente de densidade relativa: Campomanesia adamantium, Bromelia balansae, Attalea geraensis, Xylopia aromatica e Ocotea pulchella. A comunidade apresentou-se também agregada no estrato inferior (P=3,89 e obteve-se índice de diversidade (H' de 3,32. Algumas espécies abundantes no estrato arbóreo, como Styrax ferrugineus, Eriotheca gracilipes, Piptocarpha rotundifolia e Annona crassiflora, não foram amostradas no estrato inferior, sugerindo a existência de restrições aos processos naturais de reprodução e

  20. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae); Avaliacao de produtos naturais irradiados para o controle de Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) e Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  1. Evaluation of irradiated essential oils to control of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Blatella germanica (L.) (Dictyopera: Blattellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus sp., Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon nardus, Cupressus sempervirens, Cymbopogons citratus and Juniperus communis and aqueous, hexanic and ethanolic irradiated extracts of Solanum paniculatum, Dahlia pinnata, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nephrolepis pectinata, Ruta graveolens, Ficus elastica, Lavandula angustifolia, Rhododendron simsii, Agave angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Allamanda cathartica, Dieffenbachia brasiliensis, Pennisetum purpureum, Annona squamosa, Coffea arabica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in order to identify new substances to integrated pest management (IPM) and to observe possible effects of gamma radiation about extracts and essential oils efficiency such as increase, reduction, activation and inactivation of the same to the pest control. It evaluated the effect of contact on Sitophilus zeamais and by ingestion in Blattella germanica. To irradiation was used an experimental irradiator of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell 220. The essential oils were submitted increasing doses of gamma radiation: 2.5; 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 kGy. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 e 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0%, respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation used promoted changes in essential oils of E. citriodora e E. globulus that they began to show efficiency on B. germanica nymphs besides a significant reduction of repellency. Essential oils of Pinus sp., A. indica, C. sempervirens and J. communis did not display efficiency. The essential oils of C. nardus, and C. citratus had low efficiency. The gamma radiation increased the efficiency of ethanolic extract of D. Pinnata with dose of 7.5 kGy, showing 48.0% of efficiency on B. germanica nymphs. The gamma radiation showed adverse effect on the aqueous extract of R. Graveolens

  2. Carbon and nitrogen stocks of an Arenosol under irrigated fruit orchards in semiarid Brazil Estoques de carbono e nitrogênio de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas na região do semi-árido do Brasil

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    Alberto Carlos de Campos Bernardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter accumulation provides benefits to soil productivity and reduces atmospheric carbon concentration. However, little is known about the accumulation of C and N by sandy soils under perennial irrigated crops in semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigated fruit orchard cultivation on the stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC and total nitrogen (N of an Arenosol/Quartzpsament from Paraipaba-CE, Semiarid Brazil. Soil samples were taken from irrigated orchards of banana (Musa ssp., cashew (Anacardium ocidentale, guava (Psidium guajava, bullock's heart (Annona reticulata, mango (Mangifera indica, and sapote (Manilkara zapota in the wetted-bulb and non-irrigated area between the plant rows. Additional samples were collected from adjacent areas under secondary Caatinga forest, and under a 2-year-old deforested area. Sampling depths were: 0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, and 0.2-0.4 m. The highest contents of SOC and N were found in the surface layer. The soil bulk density did not change in depth. The stocks of SOC and total N under secondary forest at 0-0.40 m layer were 27.6 and 2.4 Mg ha-1, respectively. Caatinga Forest conversion into fruit orchard cultivation led to a decrease of 5 to 23% and 4 to 21% on SOC and N stocks, respectively. Compared to other soil uses, sapote and bullock's heart contributed for a lower decrease of SOC and N stocks after deforestation. Guava, bullock's heart, mango and sapote contributed for improving the SOC stratification index.O acúmulo de matéria orgânica beneficia a produtividade do solo e reduz a concentração do carbono atmosférico. Entretanto, pouco é sabido a respeito do acúmulo de C e N em solos arenosos cultivados com culturas perenes irrigadas em regiões semi-áridas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas nos estoques de C e N de um Neossolo Quartzarênico em Paraipaba, CE. Foram coletadas amostras na linha e na

  3. Desempenho de mudas de gravioleira inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em solo não-esterilizado, com diferentes doses de fósforo = Performance of soursop seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in non-sterilized soil, with different phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Silva Samarão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de gravioleira (Anonna muricata L. inoculadas com FMAs e cultivadas com diferentes doses de fósforo (P, em solo não-esterilizado. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, com delineamentoexperimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 (inoculação x doses de P sendo: plantas não-inoculadas (controle, inoculadas com Glomus clarum, inoculadas com Gigaspora margarita e inoculadas com inóculo nativo (Glomus macrocarpum, G. etunicatum eEntrosphopora colombiana e quatro doses de P (0, 25, 50, 100 mg kg-1 com três repetições. As mudas foram cultivadas em sacos de plástico de 2 dm3 em mistura de solo e areia (2:1 v v-1 nãoesterilizada. Aos 90 dias após o plantio, observou-se que a inoculação com os FMAs promoveu maior altura e diâmetro de caule das mudas, maior produção de matéria seca e conteúdo de P nas raízes e parte aérea e maior conteúdo de K nas raízes das mudas, comparativamente ao controle não-inoculado. As plantas não-inoculadas, não responderam à adubação fosfatada, concluindo-seque a inoculação com os FMAs, aliada à adubação fosfatada, ncrementam o crescimento e o estado nutricional de mudas de gravioleira mesmo quando cultivadas em substrato não-estéril.The objective of this work was to evaluate the development of soursop (Annona muricata L. seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs cultivated with different doses of phosphorus (P. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a completely randomized factorial design (4 x 4, with non inoculated plants (controls, three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora margarita and native AMFs (Glomus macrocarpum, G.etunicatum and Entrosphopora colombiana and four doses of P (0, 25, 50, 100 mg kg-1 with three replications. The seedlings were cultivated in plastic bags of 2 dm3 in a mix composed of nonsterilized soil and sand

  4. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

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    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-06-01

    obtainedwere subjected to log probit regression analysisto obtain LC50 and LC90 values with 95% confidencelimit12.The results showed that the larvicidal activity ofmethanol and ethanol extracts of five aromatic plantspecies against Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatuslarvae varied according to plant species (Tables 1& 2. Methanol extract of Aristolochia saccata rootswas found to be the most effective against Ae. albopictuslarvae followed by ethanol extracts of A. saccata,Annona squamosa leaf and methanol extract ofA. squamosa leaf respectively. LC90 values of methanolextract of fruit/pericarp of Gymnopetelumcochinchinensis, bark of Caesalpinea species andethanol extract of stem of Piper species were obtainedat 302 ppm againstCx. quinquefasciatus larvae (Table 2.Long before the advent of synthetic insecticides,plants and their derivatives were used to kill pest ofagriculture, veterinary and public health. Sosan et al13reported larvicidal activities of essential oils of Ocimumgratissium, Cymbopogon citrus and Ageratumconyzoides against Ae. aegypti and achieved 100%mortality at 120, 200 and 300 ppm concentrationsrespectively. Similarly, it was reported that the essentialoil of Ipomoea cairica Linn. possesses remark-Table 1. Larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts against Ae. albopictus larvaeName of plant Part used Solvent used LC50 LC90 Regression equationAristolochia saccata Root Methanol 14.52 42.68 Y = 2.5683 *X+2.0164-do- Root Ethanol 17.30 58.51 Y = 2.3633 *X+2.0721Annona squamosa Leaf Methanol 20.26 86.59 Y = 1.9392 *X+2.4637-do- Leaf Ethanol 20.70 76.73 Y = 2.1991 *X+2.1020Gymnopetelum cochinchinensis Fruit/Pericarp Methanol 50.67 155.12 Y = 2.5821 *X+0.5927-do- Seed Methanol 100.42 312.45 Y = 2.3014 *X+0.3481Caesalpinea species Bark Methanol 53.66 169.41 Y = 2.3429*X+0.8638Piper species Stem Methanol 144.22 357.32 Y = 3.1826 *X–1.9688-do- Stem Ethanol 76.35 180.42 Y = 3.2525 *X–1.1333DAS et al : HERBAL MOSQUITO LARVICIDES 147able larvicidal properties as it could

  5. The impact of breeding on fruit production in warm climates of Brazil O impacto do melhoramento genético na produção de frutas em climas quentes do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Valdevino Pommer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a very large country with a diverse climate. This fact allows a diversity of plants to grow ranging from tropical rainforest in the Amazon, passing through Atlantic Forest along the coast, the cerrados (Brazilian savannah in the Central West region, and semi-arid area in the Northeast. Latitude ranges from 5º N to 33º S, with most of this territory in the tropical region. There are enough reasons to plant breeders devoting great amount of their effort to improve plants suitable for warm climates, though. Among fruit crops, results of breeder's work have been noticed in several species, especially on peaches, grapes, citrus, apples, persimmons, figs, pears and others not so common, such as acerola, guava, annonas (sour sop, sugar apple, atemoya, cherimoya and passion fruit. Peach tree introduced at low latitude (22 ± 2ºS requires climatic adaptation to subtropical conditions of low chilling. In Brazil, the first peach breeding program aiming adaptation of cultivars to different habitats was developed by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC beginning in the end of the 40's. Apple low chill requirement cultivars obtained in a South state, Paraná, are now been planted at low latitudes. Banana and pineapple breeding programs from Embrapa units along the country are successfully facing new sanitary problems. Petrolina/Juazeiro, in the Northeastern region (9ºS, is the main grape exporting region with more than 6,000 ha. Grape growing in the region is based in the so called "tropical" rootstocks released by IAC, namely: IAC 313 'Tropical', IAC 572 'Jales'. Recently, Embrapa Grape and Wine released tropical grape seedless cultivars that are changing table grape scenario in the country.O Brasil, com suas dimensões continentais, apresenta grande diversidade de climas. Este fato permite o crescimento de grande diversidade de plantas desde a floresta tropical úmida do Amazonas, passando pela Mata Atlântica ao longo da costa, os cerrados

  6. Antimalarial activity of selected Sudanese medicinal plants with emphasis to Maytenus senegalensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to identify and characterize the antimalrial agents from traitional Sudanese medicinal plants. 49 plants parts representing 26 species from 15 families were extracted and screened for their in vitro antimalrial activity using P. falciparum strain 3D7 which is chloroquine sensitive and Dd2 strain which is chloroquine resistant and pyrimethamine sensitive.The plant species investigated exhibited diverse botanical families. They includes Annonaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Asteraceae, Balantiaceae, Caesalpiniceae, Celasteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Graminae, Meliaceae, Myrtaceae, Polygonaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, and simaroubaceae. The evaluation of these plants for their antimalarial activity and their effect on lymphocyte proliferation was carried out. 57 extracts were tested on the chloroquine sensitive strain (3D7). Where 34 extracts (59%) exhibited significant activity against 3D7 with IC50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml. While 21 extracts (57%) showed antimalrial activities with IC50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml on Dd2. 13 extracts (22%) and ten extracts (18%) only showed an activity with IC50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml on 3 D7 and Dd2, respectively. The activities of some plant extracts, which affected 3D7 strain, were measured using the radiolabelled (3H) hypoxanthine method and microscopical count. 15 plant extracts (48%) from 32 showed IC50 values ≤ 50 μ g/ml against 3D7 strain using the radiolabelled hypoxanthine methods and only 5 extracts (16%) showed IC50 values ≤ 5 μ g/ml against 3D7. Most of the extracts screened had a low effect on lymphocyte proliferation (IC50 values >100 μ g/ml), where as Sonochous cornatus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Tamarindus indica, Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Eucalyptus globulus and Cassia tora enhanced lymphocyte proliferation. liquid-liquid partition of methanolic preparation of Acacia nilotica seeds and husk showed that the ethylacetate phase possessed the highest activity against both 3D7 and Dd2 strains

  7. Obituary: E. Dorrit Hoffleit, 1907-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2007-12-01

    American Association of Variable Star Observers, where MMO papers still turn up, though perhaps not so many as in Dorrit's day. She would also continue education and public outreach activities in the local community that her predecessor, Margaret Harwood, had established. Summer research experience for undergraduate opportunities have become common, but they were rare in 1957, especially for women students, and the ones who came to MMO (more than one hundred over her term) were undoubtedly very strongly motivated. They left even more so, with the striking result that about 25 of the Hoffleit students became professional astronomers. A few of the earliest are now retired; many remain in stellar astronomy, but others have spread across the Solar System and the galaxies. According to a list compiled by Dorrit, with minor additions, these are, in chronological order: Margo Friedel Aller, Andrea Knudsen Dupree, Barbara Welther, Gretchen Luft Hagen Harris, Nancy Houk, Martha Safford Hanner, Diane Reeve Moorhead, Nancy Remage Evans, Catherine Doremus Garmany, Jane Turner, Jean Warren Goad, Karen Alper Castle, Marcia Keyes Rieke, Judy Karpen, Karen Kwitter, Esther Hu, Bonnie Buratti, Harriet Dinerstein, Melissa McGrath, Constance Phillips Walker, John Briggs, Deborah Crocker, Edward Morgan, and Karen Meech. The program went co-ed shortly before Dorrit handed it over to Emilia Belaserne). A special paragraph must go to Janet Akyüz Mattei. She came to MMO in the summer of 1969 upon the recommendation of Paris Pismis, an Armenian-Turkish-Mexican astronomer who had known Janet in Turkey and was a very old friend of Dorrit's (and of mine). Janet's own obituary sadly appeared in these pages (BAAS, 36, pp. 1681-82, 2004), the last 30 of her only 61 years having been spent as the director of AAVSO. Among the many important things Janet did in that directorial capacity was to persuade Dorrit Hoffleit to write up the story of her life for publication by AAVSO in 2002, from which much of