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Sample records for annona cherimola mill

  1. Mineral composition, nutritional properties, total phenolics and flavonoids compounds of the atemoya fruit (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.) and evaluation using multivariate analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Walter N L Dos; Sauthier, Maria Celeste S; Cavalcante, Dannuza D; Benevides, Clícia M J; Dias, Fábio S; Santos, Daniele C M B

    2016-09-01

    The atemoya is a hybrid fruit obtained by crossing of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) with sweet sop (Annona squamosa L.). The information about chemical composition of atemoya is scarce. The mineral composition was evaluated employing Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES) and the centesimal composition and the physico-chemical parameters were assessed employing procedures described in the AOAC methods. The total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoids (TF) were determined using spectroanalytical methods. Considering the Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the concentrations of K, Cu and Vitamin C found in atemoya were the highest, representing about 32, 23 and 37% of the RDI, respectively. The total carbohydrates were 32 g 100g-1 and the soluble solids was equivalent to (32.50 ± 0.03) °Brix. The result for TPC was 540.47 ± 2.32 mgGAE 100 g-1 and the TF was 11.56 ± 1.36 mgQE 100 g-1. The exploratory evaluation of 42 atemoya samples was performed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which discriminated green and ripe fruits according to their mineral composition. The elements that contributed most for the variability between green and ripe fruits were: Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg and P.

  2. Atividade antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L.

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    Suzana Vieira Rabêlo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de fenóis e flavonoides totais, bem como avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de extratos obtidos dos talos e folhas de atemoia (A. cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L., que pertence à família Annonaceae. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada pelos métodos de sequestro dos radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH e 2,2'-azinobis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS, bem como pelo método da cooxidação do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi analisada contra 10 cepas de bactérias. Os resultados da atividade antioxidante dos extratos mostraram que o extrato etanólico dos talos (EEt foi o antioxidante mais efetivo (IC50 = 10,44 ± 1,25 µg/mL no método do sequestro do DPPH, bem como no sequestro do radical ABTS (24,81 ± 0,49%. O extrato hexânico das folhas apresentou o melhor percentual de atividade antioxidante no ensaio do β-caroteno/ácido linoleico (41,12 ± 4,35%. Os extratos etanólico dos talos e metanólico das folhas mostraram-se ativos contra cepas de Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis.

  3. Germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' submetidas a tratamentos com ácido Giberélico (GA3 e ethephon Germination of atemoya seeds (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' subjected to treatments with Gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon

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    Marcos Campos de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do ácido giberélico (GA3, do ethephon e da interação de ambos os reguladores vegetais no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. , cultivar 'Gefner'. Empregou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5², com os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação de cinco concentrações de GA3 (ácido giberélico e cinco concentrações de ethephon, resultando em 25 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela. As concentrações de GA3 empregadas foram: 0; 250; 500; 750 e 1.000 mg L-1 i.a.e de ethephon: 0; 25; 50; 75 e 100 mg L-1 i.a.. Os tratamentos com os reguladores vegetais foram aplicados na semente por imersão das mesmas nas soluções de GA3 e ethephon por período de 36 horas. As sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel germitest e levadas à câmara de germinação onde permaneceram no escuro, com temperatura alternada entre 20ºC por 8 horas e 30ºC por 16 horas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentagem, tempo e índice de velocidade de germinação, percentagem de plântulas normais e percentagem de sementes dormentes. Existe interação da ação dos reguladores vegetais estudados no processo germinativo de sementes de atemoia, o que permite concluir que a percentagem de germinação de sementes de atemoia (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv 'Gefner' é aumentada com o emprego de 778 mg L-1 de GA3, enquanto a associação entre elevadas concentrações de GA3 e 75 a 100 mg L-1 de ethephon incrementam o índice de velocidade de germinação e a percentagem de plântulas normais.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and ethephon, besides the interaction of both plant growth regulators, on the germinative process of atemoya seeds (Annona cherimola Mill. X A. squamosa L., cultivar 'Gefner'. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5

  4. Rootstocks and grafting methods for Atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimoya Mill. plantsPortaenxertos e métodos de enxertia na produção de mudas de Atemoieira (Annona squamosa L. x Annona cherimola Mill.

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    Grazianny Andrade Leite

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the production of atemoya nursery plants grafted on two rootstocks (Annona squamosa L. and Annona glabra L.. The experimental design was a 2 x 5 factorial being two rootstocks and five methods of grafting, with five randomized blocks and ten plants per plot, totaling 500 plants. The variables evaluated at 60 days after grafting were budding efficiency (%, shooting grafts (% dormant grafts (% and living grafts (%. It was also evaluated the shoot length (cm, stem diameter (mm, root system length (cm, number of leaves (unit /plant, dry root mass (g /plant, shoot dry mass (g /plant, total dry mass (g /plant, length seedling (cm and shoot: root system dry mass ratio. Data regarding diameter of the rootstock and means of graft characteristics were submitted to analysis of variance. For the characteristics of percentage of grafting effectiveness, living grafts, shooting and dormant grafts, data were transformed in for analysis of variance, all means compared by Scott-Knott test, at 5% probability. Atemoya ‘Gefner’ can be grafted on rootstocks Annona glabra L. and Annona squamosa L. by cleft grafting method. The grafting whip and double whip can be used to atemoya ‘Gefner’ if grafting onto rootstock Annona squamosa L. Budding grafting method is not efficient for the production of atemoya ‘Gefner’ plants. Este experimento teve por finalidade avaliar a propagação por enxertia de atemoieira sobre dois portaenxertos (Annona squamosa L. e Annona glabra L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois portaenxertos e cinco métodos de enxertia em 5 blocos e 10 plantas por parcela, totalizando 500 plantas. Foram avaliadas aos 60 dias após a enxertia as variáveis pegamento dos enxertos (%, enxertos brotados (%, enxertos dormentes (% e enxertos vivos (%. Também foram avaliados comprimento da parte aérea (cm, diâmetro do colo (mm, comprimento do

  5. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona Cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner submetidas a tratamento lento e rápido com auxinas Rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner cuttings subjected to slow and fast treatment with auxins

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    Gisela Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de concentrações de diferentes auxinas no enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner, empregando-se tratamento lento e rápido. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x7 (auxinas x concentrações, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas por parcela, para cada método de aplicação de auxina (lento e rápido. As estacas foram tratadas com os reguladores vegetais, por meio da imersão da base em soluções, contendo IBA, NAA e 2,4-D, durante 24 horas (tratamento lento nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 mg L-1 de cada regulador e 5 segundos (tratamento rápido nas concentrações 0 (testemunha, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 e 5000 mg L-1 de cada regulador. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas sobreviventes, enraizadas, sobreviventes com calos, comprimento de raiz por estaca, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotação e com folhas remanescentes e brotação. Para o enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira cv. 'Gefner' conclui-se que, o tratamento lento, com 200 mg L-1 de NAA, proporcionou incremento ao processo, da mesma forma que o tratamento rápido com IBA, independente da concentração.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different auxin concentrations in the rooting of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x A. squamosa L. cv. Gefner stacks, employing slow and fast treatments. The experimental design used was completely randomized, in 3x7 factorial arrangement (auxins x concentrations, with 5 replicates of 12 stacks per plot, for each auxin application method (slow and fast. Stacks were treated with plant growth regulators by bottom immersion in a solution containing IBA, NAA and 2,4-D for 24 hours (slow treatment at the following concentrations: 0 (control, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg L-1 of each growth regulator

  6. Pollen performance, cell number, and physiological state in the early-divergent angiosperm Annona cherimola Mill. (Annonaceae) are related to environmental conditions during the final stages of pollen development.

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    Lora, J; Herrero, M; Hormaza, J I

    2012-09-01

    Pollen performance is an important determinant for fertilization success, but high variability in pollen behavior both between and within species occurs in different years and under varying environmental conditions. Annona cherimola, an early-divergent angiosperm, is a species that releases a variable ratio of bicellular and tricellular hydrated pollen at anther dehiscence depending on temperature. The presence of both bi- and tricellular types of pollen is an uncommon characteristic in angiosperms and makes Annona cherimola an interesting model to study the effect of varying environmental conditions on subsequent pollen performance during the final stages of pollen development. In this work, we study the influence of changes in temperature and humidity during the final stages of pollen development on subsequent pollen performance, evaluating pollen germination, presence of carbohydrates, number of nuclei, and water content. At 25 °C, which is the average field temperature during the flowering period of this species, pollen had a viability of 60-70 %, starch hydrolyzed just prior to shedding, and pollen mitosis II was taking place, resulting in a mixture of bi- and tricellular pollen. This activity may be related to the pollen retaining 70 % water content at shedding. Temperatures above 30 °C resulted in a decrease in pollen germination, whereas lower temperatures did not have a clear influence on pollen germination, although they did have a clear effect on starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, slightly higher dehydration accelerated mitosis II, whereas strong dehydration arrested starch hydrolysis and reduced pollen germination. These results show a significant influence of environmental conditions on myriad pollen characteristics during the final stages of pollen development modifying subsequent pollen behavior and contributing to our understanding of the variability observed in pollen tube performance.

  7. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) in Puerto Rico using commercial lures and food attractants

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    Atemoya is a hybrid between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae) and has potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major impediment to fruit production is low fruit-set due to inadequate pollinator visits, typically Nitidulidae beetles. We used Universal moth t...

  8. ESPECIES DE Colletotrichum EN CHIRIMOYA (Annona cherimola Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Villanueva-Arce; María de J. Yáñez-Morales; Ana M. Hernández-Anguiano

    2008-01-01

    Dado que hay pocos estudios fitosanitarios en el cultivo de chirimoya, el objetivo de este estudio fue generar información sobre las especies de Colletotrichum asociadas con diferentes síntomas de enfermedad en frutos y hojas de chirimoya. En medios de cultivo papa-dextrosa-agar y papa-zanahoria-agar se seleccionaron seis aislamientos de Colletotrichum de frutos y hojas recolectados en el Estado de México y Michoacán. Se identificaron y analizaron molecularmente tres especies de Colletotrichu...

  9. Two cold-induced family 19 glycosyl hydrolases from cherimoya (Annona cherimola) fruit: an antifungal chitinase and a cold-adapted chitinase.

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    Goñi, Oscar; Sanchez-Ballesta, María T; Merodio, Carmen; Escribano, María I

    2013-11-01

    Two cold-induced chitinases were isolated and purified from the mesocarp cherimoyas (Annona cherimola Mill.) and they were characterised as acidic endochitinases with a Mr of 24.79 and 47.77kDa (AChi24 and AChi48, respectively), both family 19 glycosyl hydrolases. These purified chitinases differed significantly in their biochemical and biophysical properties. While both enzymes had similar optimal acidic pH values, AChi24 was enzymatically active and stable at alkaline pH values, as well as displaying an optimal temperature of 45°C and moderate thermostability. Kinetic studies revealed a great catalytic efficiency of AChi24 for oligomeric and polymeric substrates. Conversely, AChi48 hydrolysis showed positive co-operativity that was associated to a mixture of different functional oligomeric states through weak transient protein interactions. The rise in the AChi48 kcat at increasing enzyme concentrations provided evidence of its oligomerisation. AChi48 chitinase was active and stable in a broad acidic pH range, and while it was relatively labile as temperatures increased, with an optimal temperature of 35°C, it retained about 50% of its maximal activity from 5 to 50°C. Thermodynamic characterisation reflected the high kcat of AChi48 and the remarkably lower ΔH(‡), ΔS(‡) and ΔG(‡) values at 5°C compared to AChi24, indicating that the hydrolytic activity of AChi48 was less thermodependent. In vitro functional studies revealed that AChi24 had a strong antifungal defence potential against Botrytis cinerea, whereas they displayed no cryoprotective or antifreeze activity. Hence, based on biochemical, thermodynamic and functional data, this study demonstrates that two acidic endochitinases are induced at low temperatures in a subtropical fruit, and that one of them acts in an oligomeric cold-adapted manner. PMID:23890591

  10. Low temperature storage and in vitro germination of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Lora, Jorge; Pérez de Oteyza, María de los Angeles; Fuentetaja, Pilar; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    Due to the protogynous dichogamy of cherimoya and to the absence of proper pollinating vectors, hand-pollination with fresh pollen is a common practice for cherimoya commercial production. In order to optimize the process of hand-pollination, in this work we have studied the conservation of cherimoya pollen at –20, -80 and –196ºC for up to three months. In vitro pollen germination of fresh pollen was 57.1% and it was progressively reduced with conservation time at the three temperatures studi...

  11. Profiling of lipophilic and phenolic phytochemicals of four cultivars from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.).

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    Santos, Sónia A O; Vilela, Carla; Camacho, João F; Cordeiro, Nereida; Gouveia, Manuela; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2016-11-15

    The lipophilic and phenolic extractives of the ripe mesocarp of four cherimoya cultivars ('Perry Vidal', 'Mateus I', 'Mateus III' and 'Funchal') from Madeira Island, were studied for the first time. The predominant lipophilic compounds are kaurene diterpenes (42.2-59.6%), fatty acids (18.0-35.6%) and sterols (9.6-23.7%). Kaur-16-en-19-oic acid is the major lipophilic component of all cultivars accounting between 554 and 1350mgkg(-1) of dry material. The studied fruits also contain a high variety of flavan-3-ols, including galloylated and non-galloylated compounds. Five phenolic compounds were identified for the first time: catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)afzelechin-(epi)catechin and procyanidin tetramer. 'Mateus I' and 'Mateus III' cultivars present the highest content of phenolic compounds (6299 and 9603mgkg(-1) of dry weight, respectively). These results support the use of this fruit as a rich source of health-promoting components, with the capacity to prevent or delay the progress of oxidative-stress related disorders. PMID:27283704

  12. Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae associated with new host plants belonging to Annona (Annonaceae

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    Germano H. Rosado-Neto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontopus brevirostris (Hustache, 1936 feeding on Annona squamosa L., A. cherimola Mill., A. glabra L., and A. muricata L. was observed. The last three host plants are recorded for the first time. The endophitic oviposition occurs in the veins of the ventral surface of the young leaves. The larvae, leaf miners, eat the parenchyma and the adults make small holes in the leaves. The pupation occurs in spherical cocoons protected by a sort of nest (pupation chamber between the two epidermal layers.

  13. Biotechnology applied to Annona species: a review

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    Carlos Lopez Encina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceae is an ancient family of plants including approximately 50 genera growing worldwide in a quite restricted area with specific agroclimatic requirements. Only few species of this family has been cultivated and exploited commercially and most of them belonging to the genus Annona such as A. muricata, A. squamosa, the hybrid A. cherimola x A. squamosa and specially Annona cherimola: the cherimoya, commercially cultivated in Spain, Chile, California, Florida, México, Australia, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, New Zealand and several countries in South and Central America. The cherimoya shows a high degree of heterozygosis, and to obtain homogeneous and productive orchards it is necessary to avoid the propagation by seeds of this species. Additionally, the traditional methods of vegetative propagation were inefficient and inadequate, due to the low morphogenetic potential of this species, and the low rooting rate. The in vitro tissue culture methods of micropropagation can be applied successfully to cherimoya and other Annona sp to overcome these problems. Most of the protocols of micropropagation and regeneration were developed using the cultivar Fino de Jete, which is the major cultivar in Spain. First it is developed the method to micropropagate the juvenile material of cherimoya (ENCINA et al., 1994, and later it was optimized a protocol to micropropagate adult cherimoya genotypes selected by outstanding agronomical traits (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2004 and further it was improved the process through micrografting (PADILLA and ENCINA, 2011.At the present time we are involved in inducing and obtaining new elite genotypes, as part of a breeding program for the cherimoya and other Annonas, using and optimizing different methodologies in vitro: a Adventitious organogenesis and regeneration from cellular cultures (ENCINA, 2004, b Ploidy manipulation of the cherimoya, to obtain haploid, tetraploid and triploid plants (seedless, c Genetic transformation

  14. Viabilidade e conservação de pólen de três anonas comerciais Viability and conservation of pollen from tree commercial annonas

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    José Emilio Bettiol Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O pólen das anonas comerciais, cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill., fruta-do-conde, pinha ou ata (Annona squamosa L. e atemóia (Annona cherimola X Annona squamosa têm período de viabilidade reduzido. Este fato, aliado à ocorrência de dicogamia protogínica nessas plantas, demanda metodologias de conservação que promovam maior longevidade ao pólen. Objetivou-se neste estudo a aplicação de técnicas de conservação do pólen dessas fruteiras. O pólen foi coletado de flores em estádio macho e conservado em nitrogênio líquido (-196 °C e geladeira (4-5 °C. Utilizaram-se amostras de pólen dessecadas e não dessecadas, coletadas em período seco e úmido do ano. Pólen recém-coletado e não submetido à conservação, pólen fresco (PF, foi considerado padrão. O pólen amanhecido (PA foi utilizado após 12 horas da coleta. A viabilidade polínica foi avaliada através de testes de coloração com o corante Alexander, germinação in vitro e polinização em campo. Para a germinação, utilizaram-se dois meios de cultura, o meio A e o BK e a viabilidade foi avaliada pela taxa de emissão de tubo polínico. O PF coletado em período úmido revelou maior viabilidade em relação ao do período seco. Nos testes de germinação in vitro ocorreu emissão de tubos polínicos para as amostras de PF e PA nas primeiras 12 horas. A emissão de tubos polínicos decaiu com o tempo de conservação. Nos testes de germinação in vitro e polinização em campo, o pólen das três fruteiras, conservado em geladeira, proporcionou maior viabilidade que o conservado em nitrogênio. Nas polinizações obtiveram-se frutificações com PF e PA coletados em período úmido e em período seco e ausência de frutificações nas polinizações com pólen conservado além de três dias, tanto em nitrogênio como na geladeira.Pollen of commercial anonas, cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., curstad apple (Annona squamosa L. and atemoya (Annona cherimola X Annona

  15. DNA barcoding of perennial fruit tree species of agronomic interest in the genus Annona (Annonaceae

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    Nerea eLarranaga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The DNA barcode initiative aims to establish a universal protocol using short genetic sequences to discriminate among animal and plant species. Although many markers have been proposed to become the barcode of plants, the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL Plant Working Group recommended using as a core the combination of two portions of plastid coding region, rbcL and matK. In this paper, specific markers based on matK sequences were developed for 7 closely related Annona species of agronomic interest (Annona cherimola, A. reticulata, A. squamosa, A. muricata, A. macroprophyllata, A. glabra and A. purpurea and the discrimination power of both rbcL and matK was tested using also sequences of the genus Annona available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD data systems. The specific sequences developed allowed the discrimination among all those species tested. Moreover, the primers generated were validated in six additional species of the genus (A. liebmanniana, A. longiflora, A. montana, A. senegalensis, A. emarginata and A. neosalicifolia and in an interspecific hybrid (A. cherimola x A. squamosa. The development of a fast, reliable and economic approach for species identification in these underutilized subtropical fruit crops in a very initial state of domestication is of great importance in order to optimize genetic resource management.

  16. Estudio preliminar del potencial bioactivo de la Annona cherimola (anona y Prunus domestica (ciruelo cultivadas en Costa Rica

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    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos

    2014-06-01

    Se ubicaron plantas de ambas especies, recolectándose los frutos que luego de su debido procesamiento fueron analizados en laboratorio en cuanto a su contenido de polifenoles y a su bioactividad. Asimismo se extrajeron estacas de las plantas para reproducción vegetativa tradicional y se sembraron en las comunidades de Cabuyal de San Pedro de Poás, Alajuela (Damas Verdes y Llano Bonito de León Cortés, San José (PROAL donde se trabajó con grupos de mujeres organizadas que elaboran productos artesanales como champú, cremas y aceites, contribuyendo con ellas en el adiestramiento con las buenas prácticas en laboratorio y la importancia del cuido del germoplasma.

  17. Antiparasitic activity of Annona muricata and Annona cherimolia seeds.

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    Bories, C; Loiseau, P; Cortes, D; Myint, S H; Hocquemiller, R; Gayral, P; Cavé, A; Laurens, A

    1991-10-01

    Methanolic extracts of Annona muricata and A. cherimolia (Annonaceae) seeds were tested for antiparasitic activity against E. histolytica, N. brasiliensis, M. dessetae and A. salina. The acetogenins isolated from these extracts are found to be responsible for the important activity on infective larvae of Molinema desetae.

  18. Germination ecophysiology of Annona crassiflora Mart. seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.; Melo, de D.L.B.; Davide, A.C.; Bode, N.; Abreu, G.B.; Faria, J.M.R.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Little is known about environmental factors that break morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the Annonaceae and the mechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphological and physiological components of dormancy of Annona crassiflora, a tree species n

  19. A New Diterpenoid Dimer from Annona glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Anew diterpenoid dimer annonebinide A has been isolated from the stems ofAnnona glabra. Its structure was determined to be ent-16α-hydroxykauran-17-yl ent- 16β-kauran- 17-oate on the basis ofspectroscopic and chemical evidence.

  20. Study on the volatile oil contents of Annona glabra L., Annona squamosa L., Annona muricata L. and Annona reticulata L., from Vietnam.

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    Thang, T D; Dai, D N; Hoi, T M; Ogunwande, I A

    2013-01-01

    The volatile compounds identified from four species of Annona from Vietnam are being reported. The oils were obtained from aliquots of plant samples by steam distillation and subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis. The main compounds of Annona glabra L., were β-caryophyllene (21.5%) germacrene D (17.7%), α-cadinol (5.4%) and β-elemene (5.2%). Annona squamosa L., comprised mainly of α-pinene (1.0-11.9%), limonene (0.8-11.7%), β-cubebene (0.5-13.0%), β-caryophyllene (11.6-24.5%), spathulenol (0.8-9.0%), caryophyllene oxide (1.0-10.6%) and α-cadinol (3.3-7.8%). The significant constituents of Annona muricata L., were α-pinene (9.4%), β-pinene (20.6%), ρ-mentha-2,4(8)-diene (9.8%), β-elemene (9.1%) and germacrene D (18.1%). However, camphene (0.2-6.6%), α-copaene (2.0-7.3%), β-elemene (5.9-16.6%), β-caryophyllene (8.3-14.9%), β-bisabolene (0.4-10.2%), δ-cadinene (1.7-4.8%) and germacrene D (9.3-22.8%) were the main compounds common to samples of Annona reticulata L. There were significant amounts of sabinene (11.2% and 2.7%; leaf and stem bark) and bicycloelemene (9.6% and 6.1%; stem and bark).

  1. Novel cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

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    Chang, F R; Wu, Y C

    2001-07-01

    Seven new annonaceous acetogenins, muricins A-G (1-7), as well as five known compounds, a mixture of muricatetrocin A (8) and muricatetrocin B (9), longifolicin (10), corossolin (11), and corossolone (12), were isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. The structures of all isolates were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. These acetogenins showed significantly selective in vitro cytotoxicities toward the human hepatoma cell lines Hep G(2) and 2,2,15.

  2. Categorización de la germinación y la latencia en semillas de chirimoya (annona cherimola l.) y guanábana (annona muricata l.), como apoyo a programas de conservación de germoplasma

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Mario; Delgado, Óscar; Régulo Cartagena, José; Fernández, Elizabeth; Medina, Clara Inés

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la latencia y germinación de semillas de guanábana y chirimoya con el fin de categorizar la latencia de las simientes y desarrollar un protocolo de rompimiento de ésta; conocimiento básico para el establecimiento y monitoreo de un duplicado de seguridad en las colecciones de campo, por la vía de almacenamiento a largo plazo de las unidades de propagación sexuales. No se detectó latencia exógena, a través de la imbibición obtenida por las semillas. Se encontró, a través de pr...

  3. Murihexol, a linear acetogenin from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing Guang; Gui, Hua Qing; Luo, Xiu Zhen; Sun, Lan

    1998-11-20

    Murihexol (1), a novel acetogenin, and three known ones, donhexocin (2), annonacin A and annonacin, have been isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. Compound 1 is a C(35) acetogenin without any THF rings, with six hydroxyls in the long aliphatic chain. The hydroxyls of 1 and 2 are all located at C-4, C-10, C-15, C-16, C-19 and C-20, but their stereochemistries are different. The vicinal diol at C-15/C-16 in 1 is threo and C-19/C-20 has the erythro configuration; in 2 C-15/C-16 and C-19/C-20 all have the same threo configuration.

  4. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  5. Kaurenoic acid from pulp of Annona cherimolia in regard to Annonaceae-induced Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillopé, R; Escobar-Khondiker, M; Guérineau, V; Laprévote, O; Höglinger, G U; Champy, P

    2011-12-01

    Guadeloupean Parkinsonism has been linked epidemiologically to the consumption of Annonaceae fruits. These were proposed to be etiological agents for sporadic atypical Parkinsonism worldwide, because of their content of neurotoxins such as isoquinolinic alkaloids and Annonaceous acetogenins. The pulp of Annona cherimolia Mill. from Spain was screened for these toxic molecules using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation - Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and it was found not to be a source of exposure. However, kaurenoic acid, a diterpene considered to be cytotoxic, was detected in high amounts (66 mg/fresh fruit). Treatment of rat embryonic striatal primary cultures, up to a high concentration (50 µM), did not cause neuronal death nor astrogliosis, suggesting that this molecule is not at risk of implication in human neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Cohibins C and D, two important metabolites in the biogenesis of acetogenins from Annona muricata and Annona nutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleye, C; Raynaud, S; Fourneau, C; Laurens, A; Laprévote, O; Serani, L; Fournet, A; Hocquemiller, R

    2000-09-01

    Two new annonaceous acetogenins, cohibins C (1a) and D (1b), have been isolated by extensive chromatography of a hexane extract of Annona muricata seeds and a cyclohexane extract of Annona nutans root bark. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral evidence (NMR, MS) and confirmed by chemical transformation into a pair of monotetrahydrofuran (mono-THF) acetogenins. The role of these compounds in the biogenesis of mono-THF acetogenins is discussed.

  7. Liriodenine, early antimicrobial defence in Annona diversifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Chacón, Iván; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa; Guevara Fefer, Patricia; Jímenez Garcia, Luis Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Annonaceae aporphine alkaloids, of which liriodenine is the most abundant, have not been extensively studied from a biological standpoint. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of liriodenine in antimicrobial defense during early developmental stages in Annona diversifolia. The fungi Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus glaucus, which are responsible for seed deterioration, were isolated during imbibition, and their antifungal activity was determined by diffusion, macrodilution, and metabolic inhibition assays using purified liriodenine and alkaloid extracts obtained from embryos, radicles, and roots at early developmental stages. The presence of liriodenine in extracts was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Purified liriodenine and alkaloidal extracts inhibited both fungi, and there was a positive relationship between extract activity and amount of liriodenine contained therein. The quantity of liriodenine present in extracts suggests its importance in controlling other phytopathogens. PMID:21950162

  8. Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, M C; Arango, G J; González, M C; Robledo, S M; Velez, I D

    2000-04-01

    Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona muricata pericarp were tested in vitro against Leishmania braziliensis and L. panamensis promastigotes, and against cell line U-937. The ethyl acetate extract was more active than the other extracts and even of Glucantime used as reference substance. Its fractionation led to the isolation of three acetogenins--annonacin, annonacin A and annomuricin A.

  9. Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  10. [Alkaloids of Annonaceae. XXIX. Alkaloids of Annona muricata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboeuf, M; Legueut, C; Cavé, A; Desconclois, J F; Forgacs, P; Jacquemin, H

    1981-05-01

    From leaves, root - and stem - barks of Annona muricata L., seven isoquinoline alkaloids have been isolated: reticuline (main alkaloid), coclaurine, coreximine, atherosperminine, stepharine. Anomurine and anomuricine, two minor alkaloids, are new tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolines, with 5, 6, 7 substituted ring A. The phytochemical significance of these alkaloids is discussed.

  11. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  12. Efikasi Ekstrak Daun Srikaya (Annona Squamosa) terhadap Larva Aedes Aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrawan, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is a country with the most Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) cases in Southeast Asia. DHF is a disease that can lead to death, so preventions have to be done to eradicate the spread of DHF. The common larvicide that used nowadays is synthetic larvicide (Temephos). Synthetic larvicide is beginning to resistant and have dangerous effect to human non-target populations, therefore a plant based alternative is needed. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa) leaves contain Acetogenin active substance ...

  13. Muricatenol, a Linear Acetogenin from Annona muricata (Annonaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Muricatenol 1, a new acetogenin, has been isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata L.. Compound 1 is a C37 acetogenin without any THF rings, with four hydroxyls and one double bond in the long aliphatic chain. The hydroxyls of 1 are located at C-4, C-10, C-18 and C-19, respectively. The vicinal diol at C-18/C-19 is threo-configuration, and the double bond at C-14/C-15 is cis-configuration.

  14. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

    2006-03-01

    An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%).

  15. Apolar Annonaceous acetogenins from the fruit pulp of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melot, Alice; Fall, Djibril; Gleye, Christophe; Champy, Pierre

    2009-11-02

    A methylene chloride extract of the pulp of Annona muricata L. was fractionated in search for scarcely functionalized Annonaceous acetogenins (type E). Previously known C-35 and C-37 mono-epoxy unsaturated compounds, epomuricenins-A and -B (1+2) and epomusenins-A and -B (3+4), were obtained. Two new mono-epoxy saturated C-35 representatives, epomurinins-A and -B (5+6) were also isolated.

  16. [Studies on the chemical constituents of Annona muricata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J G; Gui, H Q; Luo, X Z; Sun, L; Zhu, P; Yu, Z L

    1997-06-01

    Annonaceous acetogenin (or polyketide) is a kind of potential antineoplastic agents from Annonaceae plants. Two new acetogenins, Muricatalicin (I) and muricatalin (VI), a mesitoate of a new acetogenin, annonacin-B mesitoate (Vb), and three known acetogenins, annonacin (II), annonacin-A (III) and annonacin-10-one (IV) have been isolated from Annona muricata L. The structures and relative stereochemistry of I, VI and Vb were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and examination of their acetates and/or mesitoate.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona muricata Linn. and Polyalthia cerasoides bedd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P; Chansouria, J P; Khosa, R L

    1999-07-01

    The hepatoprotective effect of Annona muricata and Polyalthia cerasoides (Annonaceae) were monitored by estimating the serum transaminases (SGOT and SGPT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), liver and brain lipid peroxidation (LOP) and their total protein content. Both drugs at a dose of 100 μg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum transaminases, SALP, liver and brain LOP and decrease in liver and brain total protein content following carbontetrachloride (CCl) induced hepatoxicity in albino rats.

  18. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  19. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated. PMID:9382684

  20. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona glabra cultivated in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-lateff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bio-assay guided fraction of the methanolic extract of Annona glabra seeds (Annonaceae, cultivated in Egypt, revealed to the isolation of three bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins; squamocin-C (1 , squamocin-D (2 , and annonin I (3 . Compounds 1 and 2 were obtained as stereoisomeric mixture. All isolates were assayed for their cytotoxicity twards brine shrimp and five in vitro cancer cell lines (A549, HT29, MCF 7, RPMI, and U251, and showed significant activity The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their NMR and MS analyses.

  1. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DNA ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

    OpenAIRE

    Soni Himesh; Singhai A.K.; Sharma Sarvesh

    2011-01-01

    Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. Annona squamosa Linn is a multipurpose tree with edible fruits & is a source one of the medicinal & industrial products. Annona squamosa Linn is used as an antioxidant, antidiabetics, hepatoprotective, cytotoxicactivity, genetoxicity, antitumor activity, antilice agent. It i...

  2. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Annona pickelii and Annona salzmannii (Annonaceae), and their antitumour and trypanocidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; Salvador, Marcos José; Ribeiro, Luis Henrique Gonzaga; Gadelha, Fernanda Ramos; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Annona pickelii and Annona salzmannii (Annonaceae) were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus, and analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A total of 21 compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. pickelii and 23 in that of A. salzmannii; sesquiterpenes predominated in both essential oils. Bicyclogermacrene (38.0%), (E)-caryophyllene (27.8%), α-copaene (6.9%) and α-humulene (4.0%) were the main components of A. pickelii, while δ-cadinene (22.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (21.4%), α-copaene (13.3%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3%) and germacrene D (6.9%) were the main components of A. salzmannii. The biological activities of the essential oils against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms and cytotoxicity against tumour cell lines (antitumour) were investigated. The essential oils showed potent trypanocidal and antitumour activities with values of IC50 lower than 100 µg mL(-1).

  3. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  4. New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jung; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2002-04-01

    Three new monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins, muricin H (1), muricin I (2), and cis-annomontacin (3), along with five known acetogenins, annonacin, annonacinone, annomontacin, murisolin, and xylomaticin, were isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. Additionally, two new monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins, cis-corossolone (4) and annocatalin (5), together with four known ones, annonacin, annonacinone, solamin, and corossolone, were isolated from the leaves of this species. The structures of all new isolates were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. These new acetogenins exhibited significant activity in in vitro cytotoxic assays against two human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G(2) and 2,2,15. Compound 5 showed a high selectivity toward the Hep 2,2,15 cell line.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a lectin from Annona muricata seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, D C S; Freire, M G M; Gomes, V M; Toyama, M H; Marangoni, S; Novello, J C; Macedo, M L R

    2003-11-01

    A lectin with a high affinity for glucose/mannose was isolated from Annona muricata seeds (Annonaceae) by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200, ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE SP-5 PW column, and molecular exclusion on a Protein Pak Glass 300 SW column. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) yielded two protein bands of approximately 14 kDa and 22 kDa. However, only one band was seen in native PAGE. The Mr of the lectin estimated by fast-performance liquid chromatography-gel filtration on Superdex 75 was 22 kDa. The lectin was a glycoprotein with 8% carbohydrate (neutral sugar) and required divalent metal cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+) for full activity. Amino acid analysis revealed a large content of Glx, Gly, Phe, and Lys. The lectin agglutinated dog, chicken, horse, goose, and human erythrocytes and inhibited the growth of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Colletotrichum musae.

  6. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fara Nantenaina Raharimalala; Beby Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre Herv Ravelonandro; Patrick Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds. Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using micro-reactional and GCP techniques. Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes. Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties. CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids. On adult mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested. The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae. Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Annona squamosa Linn. on experimental animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohamed Saleem

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for liver toxicity. Our aim was to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic and water extract of Annona squamosa (custard apple hepatotoxic animals with a view to explore its use for the treatment of hepatotoxicity in human. These extracts were used to study the Hepatoprotective effect in isoniazid + rifampicin induced hepatotoxic model. There was a significant decrease in total bilirubin accompanied by significant increase in the level of total protein and also significant decrease in ALP, AST, ALT and γ-GT in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. In the histopathological study the hepatotoxic group showed hepatocytic necrosis and inflammation in the centrilobular region with portal triaditis. The treatment group showed minimal inflammation with moderate portal triaditis and their lobular architecture was normal. It should be concluded that the extracts of Annona squamosa were not able to revert completely hepatic injury induced by isoniazid + rifampicin, but it could limit the effect of these drugs in liver. The effect of extracts compared with standard drug silymarin.   Industrial relevance: A clear definition of herbal product is required at this stage, so as to provide a proper focus and strategy for the development of the industry. The development of herbal products only as medicinal inputs would clearly identify the potential beneficiaries and enable the medical practitioners to recognize the products as such. This would inevitably lead to quicker development in the field and pave the way for providing a scientific and technological explanation and justification for the use of the products in the medicinal sector. Today a substantial number of drugs are developed from plants. The majority of these involve the isolation of active ingredient found in a particular medicinal plant and its subsequent

  8. Characterization and development of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was the physical, chemical, and physiological characterization of marolo (Annona crassiflora, Mart. during its development. The fruits were harvested 12 Km off Itumirim, Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil, at 20-d intervals from anthesis to fruit maturity. The first fruits were harvested within 60 days. The total development of the fruit took 140 days starting from anthesis. At 140 days after anthesis, the fruit reached its maximum size, with mass of 1.380g, transverse diameter of 13.0 cm, and longitudinal diameter of 11.5 cm. During its development, the fruit showed increase in mass and in traverse and longitudinal diameters. The changes during maturation and ripening, such as: pH reduction and starch degradation, pectic solubilization, and increase in total sugars, soluble solids (ºB, respiratory rate (CO2, titratable acidity, vitamin C, and β-caroteno were observed from the 120th day of marolo development. A decrease in ability to sequester free radicals was observed up the 120th day, followed by an increase. The volatile compounds identified at the end of the development included the esters group only.

  9. Mono-THF ring annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, D C; Alali, F Q; Gu, Z M; McLaughlin, J L

    1998-03-01

    Continuing work on the bark of Annona squamosa Rich. (Annonaceae), directed by the brine shrimp lethality test (BST), has resulted in the isolation of three new Annonaceous acetogenins, 4-deoxyannoreticuin, cis-4-deoxyannoreticuin, and (2,4-cis and trans)-squamoxinone. The first two are additional examples of acetogenins isolated from this plant species which contain the unusual feature of an oxygen functionality at the C-9 position. They have a hydroxylated mono-THF ring with respective threo/trans/threo and threo/cis/threo relative stereochemistries. The latter compound is a ketolactone mixture which has the same relative stereochemistry around the THF ring and the same spatial relationship between the THF ring and the hydroxyl group along the aliphatic chain as 4-deoxyannoreticuin, but is two methylene units longer. Additionally, the isolated hydroxyl group is at C-11, while the THF ring starts at C-17, instead of at C-9 and C-15, respectively, as for the first two compounds. All three compounds showed moderate, but significant, cytotoxicities against a panel of six human tumor cell lines with (2,4 cis and trans)-squamoxinone showing promising selectivity against the pancreatic cell line (PACA-2). PMID:9542173

  10. Respiration during Postharvest Development of Soursop Fruit, Annona muricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, J; Paull, R E

    1984-09-01

    Fruit of soursop, Annona muricata L., showed increased CO(2) production 2 days after harvest, preceding the respiratory increase that coincided with autocatalytic ethylene evolution and other ripening phenomena. Experiments to alter gas exchange patterns of postharvest fruit parts and tissue cylinders had little success.The respiratory quotient of tissue discs was near unity throughout development. 2,4-Dinitrophenol uncoupled respiration more effectively than carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; 0.4 millimolar KCN stimulated, 4 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid slightly inhibited, and their combination strongly inhibited respiration, as did 10 millimolar NaN(3). Tricarboxylic acid cycle members and ascorbate were more effective substrates than sugars, but acetate and glutarate strongly inhibited.Disc respiration showed the same early peak as whole fruit respiration; this peak is thus an inherent characteristic of postharvest development and cannot be ascribed to differences between ovaries of the aggregatetype fruit. The capacity of the respiratory apparatus did not change during this preclimacteric peak, but the contents of rate-limiting malate and citrate increased after harvest.It is concluded that the preclimacteric rise in CO(2) evolution reflects increased mitochondrial respiration because of enhanced supply of carboxylates as a substrate, probably induced by detachment from the tree. The second rise corresponds with the respiration during ripening of other climacteric fruits.

  11. Efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata(Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus(Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lala; Harivelo; Raveloson; Ravaomanarivo; Herisolo; Andrianiaina; Razafindraleva; Fara; Nantenaina; Raharimalala; Beby; Rasoahantaveloniaina; Pierre; Herv; Ravelonandro; Patrick; Mavingui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions.Methods:Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried seeds.Preliminary identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP techniques.Larvae and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected from the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar.WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to determine mortality and LC50 of mosquitoes.Results:Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal proprieties.CPG analysis showed also the presence of various fatty acids.On adult mosquitoes,significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin,an insecticide used as reference.Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations tested.The LC50 of seed extracts ranged from 1%to 5%for adults and 0.5%to 1%for larvae.Conclusions:The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly,practical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Annona salzmanii D.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, M de Q; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Lima, E O; Maia, R F; Barbosa, R de C; Kaplan, M A

    1992-02-01

    Bark of Annona salzmanii D.C. (Annonaceae), used in Brazilian folk medicine, was found to contain four benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, namely reticuline, anonaine, laurelliptine and isoboldine. Only anonaine possesses some antibacterial property while all four alkaloids show some antifungal activity. PMID:1501491

  13. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1922-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells o

  14. Flowering and Fruiting Times on Four Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Purwodadi Botanic Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Ayu Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annona is a genus belongs to Annonaceae family, consisting of numerous species that produce edible fruit. Four species namely A. glabra, A. montana, A. muricata and A. squamosa collections of Purwodadi Botanic Garden were recorded for its flowering and fruiting times, since November 2010 to April 2013. The data were scored and complemented with climate data (temperature, rainfall intensity, humidity then analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis. The result showed that humidity was the most affected climate factors on the flowering and fruiting times of those species. Specifically, rainfall intensity (0-550 mm affected to Annona muricata, temperature (25,56-28,33°C and humidity (66,83-85,02% to Annona squamosa, and humidity to A. glabra (71,62-85,02% and A. montana (71,62 to 82,94 % as well. Flowering time of A. glabra occurs three times a year in wet and dry, and fruiting occurs twice a year in the same month. Annona muricata is flowering throughout the year and fruiting twice a year in wet. A. montana and A. squamosa recorded one a year during the wet month.

  15. Muricoreacin and murihexocin C, mono-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G S; Zeng, L; Alali, F; Rogers, L L; Wu, F E; Sastrodihardjo, S; McLaughlin, J L

    1998-09-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, muricoreacin (1) and murihexocin C (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities among six human tumor cell lines with selectivities to the prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) and pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) cell lines.

  16. Coronin from roots of Annona muricata, a putative intermediate in acetogenin biosynthesis (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleye, C; Akendengue, B; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R

    2001-08-01

    A novel acetogenin, coronin, was isolated from the roots of Annona muricata L. The structure was elucidated by a combination of chemical and spectral methods including MS and NMR measurements. Coronin is probably an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, and is proposed as a biogenetic precursor of neoannonin-B.

  17. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema a...

  18. Screening of medicinal plants from Suriname for 5-HT(1A) ligands: Bioactive isoquinoline alkaloids from the fruit of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrat, J A; Pieters, L; De Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J

    1997-06-01

    Plants from Suriname (South-America) and several Annona species, including A. muricata, A. ckerimolia, A. montana and A. glabra were screened for 5-HT(1A) receptor binding activity by ligand-binding-studies (LBS). Crude extracts of all Annona species and from Hibiscus bifurcatus, Irlbarchia purpurascens and Scoparia dulcis showed high activity. The isoquinoline alkaloids asimilobine (1), nornuciferine (2), and annonaine (3) were isolated as the active principles from the fruit of Annona muricata. These results may partially explain the use of Hibiscus bifurcatus and Annona muricata in traditional medicine in Suriname.

  19. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of ‘most-active fraction’ or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids a...

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPLC ANALYSIS OF FLAVONOID FROM METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Himesh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the phytochemical screening of therapeutic importance from Annona squamosa leaves, an important medicinal plant. This study involves the preliminary screening, qualitative thin layer chromatographic separation of secondary metabolites from leaves of A. squamosa. Further, HPLC Flavonoids profile of the methanolic extract had been studied. The generated data has provided the basis for its wide uses as the therapeutant in the traditional and folk medicines.

  1. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Younoussa Lame; Elias Nchiwan Nukenine; Danga Yinyang Simon Pierre; Charles Okechukwu Esimone

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L) of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean co...

  2. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF DNA ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS PARTS OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Himesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. There is a growing demand for plant based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. Annona squamosa Linn is a multipurpose tree with edible fruits & is a source one of the medicinal & industrial products. Annona squamosa Linn is used as an antioxidant, antidiabetics, hepatoprotective, cytotoxicactivity, genetoxicity, antitumor activity, antilice agent. It is related to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, fixed oils, tannins & phenolic. Genetic variation is essential for long term survival of species and it is a critical feature in conservation. For efficient conservation and management, the genetic composition of the species in different geographic locations needs to be assessed. Plants are attracting more attention among contemporary pharmacy scientists because some human diseases resulting from antibiotic resistance have gained worldwide concern. A number of methods are available and are being developed for the isolation of nucleic acids from plants. The different parts of Annona squamosa were studied for their nucleic acid content by using spectrophotometric analysis. In order to measure DNA content of the Leaves,friuts and stems of Annona squamosa, Spectrophotometry serves various advantages i.e. non-destructive and allows the sample to be recovered for further analysis or manipulation. Spectrophotometry uses the fact that there is a relationship between the absorption of ultraviolet light by DNA/RNA and its concentration in a sample. This article deals with modern approaches to develop a simple, efficient, reliable and cost-effective method for isolation, separation and estimation of total genomic DNA from various parts of the same species.

  3. Mycoflora and production of wine from fruits of soursop (Annona Muricata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael N Okigbo; Omokaro Obire

    2008-01-01

    Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L.) and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Iso...

  4. A New Cytotoxic Acetogenin from the Seeds ofAnnona squamosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new Annonaceous acetogenin, squamostolide (1), was isolated from the seeds ofAnnona squamosa. Its structure was elucidated based on spectroscopic methods and comparisonwith known compounds. It is the first example of Annonaceous acetogenin with each of the twoends of the aliphatic chain bearing a γ-lactone. The new compound exhibited cytotoxic activity invitro against bel-7402 and CNE2 human tumor cell lines.

  5. Effect of the extract of Annona muricata and Petunia nyctaginiflora on Herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, P; Pramod, N P; Thyagarajan, S P; Khosa, R L

    1998-05-01

    Annona muricata (Annonaceae) and Petunia nyctaginiflora (Solanaceae) were screened for their activity against Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and clinical isolate (obtained from the human keratitis lesion). We have looked at the ability of extract(s) to inhibit the cytopathic effect of HSV-1 on vero cells as indicative of anti-HSV-1 potential. The minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanolic extract of A. muricata and aqueous extract of P. nyctaginiflora was found to be 1 mg/ml.

  6. Annonamine, a new aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, Ayano; Kotake, Yaichiro; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru; Takeda, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Atypical Parkinsonism in the Caribbean Island Guadeloupe is thought to be associated with the consumption of plants of the Annonaceae family, especially Annona muricata (soursop). In this study, a new aporphine alkaloid named annonamine (1) was isolated from the leaves of A. muricata L. together with four known benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (2-5). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the spectroscopic method.

  7. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  8. Characterization of the chemical composition of the essential oils from Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Girotto Campos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer 'terra-fria' and Annona squamosa L. The species were grown in a greenhouse for 18 months, which nutrient solution was applied weekly; the plants were then harvested and the leaves dried to extract the essential oil. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to study its chemical profiles. Eleven substances were found in the essential oil of A. emarginata, primarily (E-caryophyllene (29.29%, (Z-caryophyllene (16.86%, γ-muurolene (7.54%, α-pinene (13.86%, and tricyclene (10.04%. Ten substances were detected in the oil from A. squamosa, primarily (E-caryophyllene (28.71%, (Z-caryophyllene (14.46%, α-humulene (4.41%, camphene (18.10%, α-pinene (7.37%, β-pinene (8.71%, and longifolene (5.64%. Six substances were common to both species: (E-caryophyllene, (Z-caryophyllene, α-humulene, camphene, α-pinene, and β-pinene.

  9. Thermal Processing Alters the Chemical Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Sweetsop (Annona squamosa L.) and Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Pulp and Nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Revathy; Ravi, Ramasamy; Rajarathnam, Somasundaram

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of thermal processing on the chemical quality and sensory characteristics of Annona squamosa L. and Annona muricata L. fruit pulps and nectar. The fruit pulps were pasteurized at 85 °C for 20 min and nectar prepared as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) specifications. The chemical composition of fresh and heated pulps of A. squamosa and A. muricata showed that compared to fresh, the chemical profile and sensory profile changed in heated samples and nectar. The free and bound phenolics of A. squamosa increased in heated pulp (127.61 to 217.22 mg/100 g and 150.34 to 239.74 mg/100 g, respectively), while in A. muricata, free phenolics increased very marginally from 31.73 to 33.74 mg/100 g and bound phenolics decreased from 111.11 to 86.91 mg/100 g. This increase in phenolic content may be attributed to the perception of bitterness and astringency in A. squamosa pulp on heating. In electronic tongue studies, principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed that the fresh and heated pulps had different scores, as indicated by sensory analysis using qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA). E-tongue analysis of samples discriminated the volatile compounds released from the heated A. squamosa and A. muricata fruit pulps and nectar in their respective PCA plots by forming different clusters.

  10. An Evaluation Of Anti Cancer Potential Of Annona Muricata Linn (Durian Belanda) Tea Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the number of cancer survivors continues to increase due to the improvements in early detection, cancer incidence and deaths still escalating each year. Even though there are major advancement in medicine technology such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, people in developing countries especially in Asian countries are looking towards natural product as an alternative medicine especially in cancer treatment and prevention; primarily because of the general belief that herbal drugs are without any side effects besides being cheap and locally available. One of them is the leaves of Annona Muricata L. from the Annonaceae family is well known for their anti cancer activity by the local people in Malaysia and is commonly known as Soursoup or in local name of Durian Belanda. In the local market the most of the product of Annona Muricata L. is in the form of tea bag. This present study was aimed to evaluate the anti cancer potential of the extract of Annona Muricata L. The tea bag of Annona Muricata L. was obtain from a local market and was physically identified and confirmed by botanist as the leaves of Annona Muricata L. Sequential extraction was done using hexane, chloroform, methanol and hot aqueous. All of these extracts will be screen for alkaloid, saponin, cardiac glucoside and flavonoid. Then quantitative estimation of phenolics adn flavonoid content was conducted. These extract are also being tested on MDPA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HTB-43 (head and neck cancer) by MTT assay. These extract was also evaluated for their reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging assay. The parameters obtained from the test was IC50 values, a value that produce inhibitory cancer cells by 50 % and a value that produce radical scavenging at 50 % for both MTT assay and DPPH assay. Results revealed that the IC50 of hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extract for MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) was 35.1μg/ml, 26.8 μg/ml, 19.1

  11. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  12. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  13. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Camila de Souza Araújo; Ana Paula de Oliveira; Rafaely Nascimento Lima; Péricles Barreto Alves; Tâmara Coimbra Diniz; Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Background: Annona vepretorum (AV) is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil) popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA) of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO-Av) collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger-type apparatus. Gas ch...

  14. Study on the spatial structure of annomuricatin A, a cyclohexapeptide from the seeds of Annona muricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Qi-Tai; Tan, Ning-Hua; Li, Chao-Ming; Zhou, Jun

    2007-02-01

    A cyclic hexapeptide, annomuricatin A (the molecular formula: C 27H 38N 6O 7), was isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. The types and sequence of the amino acids were confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The stereochemistry of the title cyclopeptide was clarified by X-ray crystallographic study. The backbone contains two β-turns, one is type I β-turn and the other is type II, which are stabilized by two transannular 4 → 1 backbone hydrogen bonds between Ala and Phe. There are intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the cyclopeptide and the solvent molecules which maintained the steady spatial arrangement in crystal.

  15. MALDI-TOF MS Profiling of Annonaceous Acetogenins in Annona muricata Products for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Guérineau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  16. Muricatocins A and B, two new bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Zeng, L; Gu, Z M; Zhao, G X; Zhang, Y; Schwedler, J T; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-06-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded the novel monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, muricatocins A [1] and B [2]. Each compound possesses five hydroxyl groups, with two hydroxyl groups at the C-10 and C-12 positions. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 (except for positions C-10 and C-12) were determined by Mosher ester methodology. The C-10, C-12 acetonides (1c, 2c) suggested relative stereochemistry and significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against the A-549 human lung tumor cell line. Three known monotetrahydrofuran acetogenins, annonacin A, (2,4-trans)-isoannonacin, and (2,4-cis)-isoannonacin, were also found.

  17. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of annonaceous acetogenins in Annona muricata products for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champy, Pierre; Guérineau, Vincent; Laprévote, Olivier

    2009-12-15

    Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  18. Two new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricins A and B, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Gu, Z M; Zeng, L; Zhao, G X; Zhang, Y; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-06-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded eight monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins. Two of them, annomuricins A [1] and B [2], whose chemical structures were deduced by ms, nmr, ir, and uv spectral and chemical methods, are novel and unusual. Compounds 1 and 2 each possess five hydroxyl groups; two hydroxyl groups are vicinal, with the vicinal group of 1 threo and that of 2 erythro. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by Mosher ester methodology. Six monotetrahydrofuran acetogenins, previously described in the seeds, were found in the leaves; these are gigantetrocin A, annonacin-10-one, muricatetrocins A and B, annonacin, and goniothalamicin.

  19. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata L. TERHADAP SIKLUS REPRODUKSI PADA MENCIT PUTIH DARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Margawati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Annona muricata leaves extract on the estrous cycle was studied. Four treatments of this extract were caried out with 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% concentrations respectively. Vaginal smears were used to determine the estrous cycle by microscopic examination of the epithet cells. The result showed that 10% dosages of A. muricata leaf extract is the most effective in shorting the estrous cycle of mice, namely 3.75 days, whereas the other dosages showed much longer estrous cycles of more than 4 days.

  20. Formulasi Sediaan Krim Dari Sari Buah Srikaya (Annona squamosa L.) Sebagai Pelembab Alami Kulit

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Feri Gifari

    2013-01-01

    Sugar-apple (Annona squamosa L.) contain carbohydrates those consist of glucose and sucrose. In addition, sugar-apple also contains fat, fiber, protein, amino acid, mineral, vitamin C, B1, B6, B12, and folate. Glucose and sucrose contents in sugar-apple are able to bind water from the air therefore they can reduce skin moisture loss. Moisture levels will be maintained and skin would not be dry. The aimed of this study was to formulate cream using sugar-apple fruit juice as a moisturizing a...

  1. Compound taper milling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  2. CONSTITUINTES QUÍMICOS E ATIVIDADE FITOTÓXICA DAS FOLHAS DE Annona nutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Lucca Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation and evaluation of the phytotoxic effect of the extract and fractions obtained from the leaves of Annona nutans (R. E. Fr. R. E. Fr. were performed. Phytotoxic activity was assessed on radicle and hypocotyl of Allium cepa and Lactuca sativa, where chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions proved active. Phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction was allowed identification of polyketides derivatives: triacontanal, 16-hentriacontane, octacosanol and triacontanol, using the 1H NMR technique associated with data from GC/MS. Using ethyl acetate fraction, with low activity, flavonoids 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-isorhamnetin, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-quercetin and 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2-galactopyranosyl-quercetin were identified, determined by spectrometric techniques one and two-dimensional NMR, combined with mass spectral data. All substances are being reported for the first time in Annona nutans. The phytotoxic activity of chloroform fraction may be related to the presence of triacontanol and similar substances. Triacontanol stimulates growth at very low concentrations, but can have an inhibitory effect at higher concentrations, such as those reported for auxin analogs. The toxicity assay using Artemia salina (BST was also performed, with the chloroform fraction showing a negligible lethal dose, LD50 = 500 mg mL-1, while the other fractions and extracts showed no activity. Thus, the presence of acetogenins was ruled out.

  3. In Vitro Protective Potentials of Annona muricata Leaf Extracts Against Sodium Arsenite-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Vazhappilly Cijo; Kumar, Devanga Ragupathi Naveen; Suresh, Palamadai Krishnan; Kumar, Rangasamy Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) is a metalloid which is present widely in the environment and its chronic exposure can contribute to the induction of oxidative stress, resulting in disturbances in various metabolic functions including liver cell death. Hence, there is a need to develop drugs from natural sources, which can reduce arsenic toxicity. While there have been reports regarding the antioxidant and protective potentials of Annona muricataleaf extracts, our study is the first ofits kind to extend these findings by specifically evaluating its ability to render protection against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced toxicity (10 μM) in WRL-68 (human hepatic cells) and human erythrocytes by employing XTT and haemolysis inhibition assays respectively. The methanolic extract exhibited higher activity than the aqueous extract in both assays. The results showed a dose-dependent decrease in arsenic toxicity in both WRL-68 cells and erythrocytes, suggesting the protective nature of Annona muricatato mitigate arsenic toxicity. Hence the bioactive extracts can further be scrutinized for the identification and characterization of their principal contributors.

  4. The bagging of Annona crassiflora fruits to control fruit borers=Ensacamento de frutos de Annona crassiflora contra broqueadores de frutos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Michelle Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of plastic bags to protect the fruits of Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae against Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. As protection against this fruit-boring insect, 100 fruits were enclosed in plastic bags. Another 100 fruits were not bagged. The fruits were selected from the following five ranges of diameters: 1 = 0.5 – 1.99; 2 = 2.00 – 3.99; 3 = 4.00 – 7.90; 4 = 8.00 – 11.90; and 5 = 12.00 – 16.00 cm. The bagged fruits of various diameters were attacked less frequently by the pest. The bagged fruits with a diameter of less than two cm were not attacked. The percentage of fruits attacked and the number of larvae/fruit increased as the diameter of fruits increased in both treatments. The bagged fruits initially less than two cm in diameter showed the greatest final diameter and height.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ensacamento dos frutos de Annona crassiflora (Annonaceae no controle de Cerconota sp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae. 100 frutos foram ensacados com saco plástico e 100 não ensacados em cada uma das cinco categorias de diâmetro: 1 = 0,5 – 1,99; 2 = 2,00 – 3,99; 3 = 4,00 – 7,90; 4 = 8,00 – 11,90 e 5 = 12,00 – 16,00 cm. Os frutos ensacados com sacos plásticos, nos diferentes diâmetros, apresentaram-se menos broqueados. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro não foram broqueados. Observou-se aumento na percentagem de frutos broqueados bem como no número de brocas/fruto broqueado com o aumento na categoria do diâmetro de frutos nos diferentes tratamentos. Os frutos ensacados com menos de dois cm de diâmetro apresentaram maiores diâmetros e alturas de frutos.

  5. Extreme mill make over

    OpenAIRE

    Ruberg, Toomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the operation and performance of a lumber mill. Generating positive cash flow and remaining profitable at coincident low points of the economic and seasonal cycle are major challenges. Mill metrics were benchmarked using industry data which revealed performance gaps in costs, production rate, quality and lumber recovery. Economies of scale were investigated for lumber manufacturing. Capacity utilization for the site empirically determined that the unit was operating at clo...

  6. Evaluation of In-vivo Antitumor Activity of Annona crassiflora Wood Extract

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    L. P. S. Pimenta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora is a native tree from Brazilian savanna area of the state of Minas Gerais. The ethanolic extract of A. crassiflora wood was obtained and purified, and an annonaceous acetogenins-rich fraction was obtained and characterized. The in vivo antitumor activity and toxicity of this fraction were evaluated in Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing Swiss mice. The annonaceous acetogenins showed a pronounced in vivo antitumor effect, with a reduction in the Ehrlich’s tumor growth of 38% and 20% after single intratumoral and intravenous administration, respectively, at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg, as compared to the control group. Concerning toxicological studies, the absence of clinical signs and renal toxicity could be observed, and all animals survive throughout the entire experimental period (14 days. By contrast, mielotoxicity and hepatotoxicity could be detected in mice treated with the A. crassiflora wood extract.

  7. Diversity in the Stem Anatomy and Tissues of Several Species of Annona (Annonaceae in Nigeria

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    Abayomi Ezekiel FOLORUNSO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative study of the stem anatomy of Annona trees was carried out to facilitate identification of taxa when their reproductive parts are not available. Stem specimens of four out of the five species categorized as important under-utilized species were collected and subjected to anatomical studies. Macerated materials followed Schutze�s method of maceration and the transverse sections of the stem were cut using Reichert Sledge Microtome. Intrageneric characters observed are: epidermal layer uniseriate with round, oval to polygonal collenchyma cells. Wood is diffuse-porous, vessel elements are diffuse, vessels are of two types, that is, short/wide with simple pits and long/narrow with bordered pits. Diagnostic characters for the identification of each of the species are also reported.

  8. A flavonol triglycoside and investigation of the antioxidant and cell stimulating activities of Annona muricata Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawwar, Mahmoud; Ayoub, Nahla; Hussein, Sahar; Hashim, Amani; El-Sharawy, Reham; Wende, Kristian; Harms, Manuela; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    Chemical investigation on leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of the flavonol triglycoside, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnosyl-(1″″ → 6″)-β-sophoroside, together with twelve known phenolics. The structures of these compounds were established by 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry data. The in vitro antioxidant studies of the investigated aqueous ethanol extract and its column fractions were accomplished using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A stimulating effect on HaCaT human keratinocytes by the leaf extract was also assessed. Il-6 production after UV irradiation was not influenced by A. muricata leaf extract.

  9. Five new monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L; Wu, F E; Oberlies, N H; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihadjo, S

    1996-11-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaves of Annona muricata resulted in the isolation of annopentocins A (1), B (2), and C(3), and cis- and trans-annomuricin-D-ones (4, 5). Compounds 1-3 are the first acetogenins reported bearing a mono-tetrahydrofuran (THF) ring with one flanking hydroxyl, on the hydrocarbon side, and another hydroxyl, on the lactone side, that is one carbon away from the THF ring. Compounds 4 and 5 were obtained in a mixture and are new mono-THF ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyls and an erythro-diol located between the THF and the ketolactone rings. Compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to pancreatic carcinoma cells (PACA-2), and 2 and 3 were selectively cytotoxic to lung carcinoma cells (A-549); the mixture of 4 and 5 was selectively cytotoxic for the lung (A-549), colon (HT-29), and pancreatic (PACA-2) cell lines with potencies equal to or exceeding those of Adriamycin.

  10. Five novel mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins from the seeds of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, M J; Gu, Z M; Fang, X P; Zeng, L; Wood, K V; McLaughlin, J L

    1996-02-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the seeds of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) resulted in the isolation of five new compounds: cis-annonacin (1), cis-annonacin-10-one (2), cis-goniothalamicin (3), arianacin (4), and javoricin (5). Three of these (1-3) are among the first cis mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins to be reported. NMR analyses of published model synthetic compounds, prepared cyclized formal acetals, and prepared Mosher ester derivatives permitted the determinations of absolute stereochemistries. Bioassays of the pure compounds, in the brine shrimp test, for the inhibition of crown gall tumors, and in a panel of human solid tumor cell lines for cytotoxicity, evaluated relative potencies. Compound 1 was selectively cytotoxic to colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) in which it was 10,000 times the potency of adriamycin.

  11. New bioactive monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C and muricatocin C, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Zeng, L; Gu, Z M; Zhao, G X; Zhang, Y; Schwedler, J T; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-06-01

    The leaves of Annona muricata have yielded two additional monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricin C [1] and muricatocin C [2]. Compounds 1 and 2 each possess five hydroxyl groups; two hydroxyl groups are at the C-10/C-11 and C-10/C-12 positions in 1 and 2, respectively. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2, except for positions C-10 and C-11 or C-12, were determined by Mosher ester methodology. The C-10/C-11 and C-10/C-12 acetonides (1c, 2c) suggested relative stereochemistry and significantly enhanced the cytotoxicities against the A-549 human lung and the MCF-7 human beast solid tumor cell lines. One known monotetrahydrofuran acetogenin, gigantetronenin, not described previously from this plant, was also found.

  12. Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champy, Pierre; Melot, Alice; Guérineau Eng, Vincent; Gleye, Christophe; Fall, Djibril; Höglinger, Gunter U; Ruberg, Merle; Lannuzel, Annie; Laprévote, Olivier; Laurens, Alain; Hocquemiller, Reynald

    2005-12-01

    Atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe has been associated with the consumption of fruit and infusions or decoctions prepared from leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), which contains annonaceous acetogenins, lipophilic inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We have determined the concentrations of annonacin, the major acetogenin in A. muricata, in extracts of fruit and leaves by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry. An average fruit is estimated to contain about 15 mg of annonacin, a can of commercial nectar 36 mg, and a cup of infusion or decoction 140 microg. As an indication of its potential toxicity, an adult who consumes one fruit or can of nectar a day is estimated to ingest over 1 year the amount of annonacin that induced brain lesions in rats receiving purified annonacin by intravenous infusion.

  13. Anticancer effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong ZHANG; Hai-yan PENG; Guo-hao XIA; Ming-yan WANG; Ying HAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn (Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid) on the proliferation of Human Liver Cancer (HLC) cell line SMMC-7721 and its mechanism. METHODS: Inhibition of cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The morphological changes of SMMC-7721 cells were observed under inverted phase-contrast microscope, fluorescent microscope,transmission electron microscope (TEM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Flow cytometer (FCM) was used to calculate the cell apoptotic rate, and immunohistochemical staining was used to observe the regulation of gene expression. RESULTS: The proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells was obviously inhibited after being treated with Cunabic acid at the concentration >5 μmol/L and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid >10 μmol/L. The biggest inhibitory effect was 81.05 % when treated with Cunabic acid at the concentration of 25 μmol/L. The effect had a linear relationship with concentration. The result indicated that drug-treated cells exhibit typical morphological changes of apoptosis, including condensed chromatin and a reduction in volume. Sub-G0/G1 peak was found by FCM analysis and the cell cycle was arrested at G0/G1 stage. The apoptotic rates of the cells treated by Cunabic acid and ent-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid were 43.31% and 24.95 %, respectively. It was visualized by immunohistochemical staining that the d.rugs down-regulated the gene expression of bcl-2 gene and up-regulated that of bax gene. CONCLUSION: The two diterpenoid compounds isolated from Annona glabra Linn, Cunabic acid and entkauran-19-al-17-oic acid can obviously inhibit the proliferation of HLC cell line SMMC-7721. The mechanism is correlated with the induction of cell apoptosis by down-regulating the gene expression of bcl-2 gene and upregulating that of bax gene.

  14. Mycoflora and production of wine from fruits of soursop (Annona Muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael N Okigbo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Raphael N Okigbo1, Omokaro Obire21Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; 2Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: An investigation was conducted on the mycoflora associated with the different parts of fresh and rotten fruits of soursop (Annona muricata L. and the potential of using both indigenous yeast flora and commercial yeast extract for wine production. Isolation of fungi and pathogenicity test were carried out with Sabouraud dextrose agar. Mycoflora were more in the rotten fruits than in the fresh fruits. Botryodiplodia theobromae was isolated only from the rotten fruits (skin while Trichoderma viride was isolated only from the fresh fruits. Penicillium sp., was the most dominant in all the fruit part of fresh soursop fruit with Rhizopus stolonifer having the highest percentage occurrence (36.39% in the rotten fruit. Most of the isolated fungi indicated occurrence of such common airborne fungi on soursop fruits and the potential to induce rot in fresh healthy fruits of soursop in storage. Soursop juice was fermented for 10 days and wine was obtained. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05 in the alcoholic content of the wines obtained from the indigenous and commercial yeasts. The wine obtained from the pasteurized, ameliorated soursop juice inoculated with propagated indigenous yeast yielded the highest alcoholic content. Based on the level of the nutritional composition of soursop juice, the ability to support yeast growth, the high alcoholic content and palatability of the wine, the Annona muricata is good source for wine production and single-cell protein.Keywords: fermentation, fruit yeast, fungi, incidence, rot

  15. Removal of malachite green from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from the Annona squmosa seed by adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi, T.; Manonmani, S.; SMITH, T

    2010-01-01

    The use of low -cost, locally available, highly efficient and eco-friendly adsorbents has been investigated as an ideal alternative to the current expensive methods of removing dyes from wastewater. This study investigates the potential use of activated carbon prepared from the Annona squmosa seed for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye from simulated wastewater. The effects of different system variables, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, pH and contact time were investigated a...

  16. 番荔枝属果树栽培研究进展%Research Advances on Cultivation of Annona

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高爱平; 陈业渊; 李建国; 李绍鹏; 邓穗生

    2003-01-01

    概述了20世纪80年代以来番荔枝科(Annonaceae)番荔枝属(Annona)果树品种选育、生物学特性、栽培技术、采后处理等方面的研究成果,同时对华南地区发展番荔枝生产的有关技术问题提出了建议.

  17. Three new anti-proliferative Annonaceous acetogenins with mono-tetrahydrofuran ring from graviola fruit (Annona muricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Liu, Jingchun; Kadouh, Hoda; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-06-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit powder of graviola (Annona muricata) yielded three novel compounds: muricins J, K, and L. The compounds are all C35 Annonaceous acetogenins with a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyls. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical modification after isolation via chromatographic techniques and HPLC purification. These three acetogenins demonstrated an antiproliferative against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

  18. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine Uneojo Omoja; Thelma Ebele Ihedioha; Gabriel Ifeanyi Eke; Iheanyi K Peter-Ajuzie; Samuel Ekere Okezie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of...

  19. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

  20. Physicochemical characterization and thermal behavior of guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica y comportamiento termico del aceite de almendra de guanabana (Annona muricata, L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Amador-Hernandez, C.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    2010-07-01

    In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 degree centigrade and ends at -79.0 degree centigrade with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to -16.9 degree centigrade, with a maximum peak at -15 degree centigrade and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 degree centigrade. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N{sub 2} atmosphere starts at 380 degree centigrade and ends at 442 degree centigrade, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 degree centigrade. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 degree centigrade and concludes at 567 degree centigrade. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils. (Author) 28 refs.

  1. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  2. Polinização natural, manual e autopolinização no pegamento de frutos de pinheira (Annona squamosa L.) em Alagoas Natural, artificial and self pollination on fruit set of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) in Alagoas

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau da Silva Campos; Eurico Eduardo Pinto de Lemos; Jaqueline Figueredo de Oliveira; Fernanda Karina Pereira da Fonseca; Antônio Dias Santiago; Pericles Gabriel Barros

    2004-01-01

    A pinheira (Annona squamosa L) é cultivada no Estado do Alagoas há mais de um século, sendo a principal cultura de valor econômico para centenas de pequenos agricultores. Um dos principais entraves para melhorar a produtividade da cultura é o baixo índice de polinização das flores e a conseqüente produção de frutos. Embora sejam morfologicamente perfeitas, as flores da pinheira apresentam dicogamia protogínica, fenômeno no qual a maturação dos carpelos acontece antes da maturação dos estames,...

  3. Effect of extracts from araticum (Annona crassiflora on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats

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    Roberta Roesler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethanolic extracts of Annona crassiflora on the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes was examined. Extracts of A. crassiflora seeds and peel were administered orally (50 mg of galic acid equivalents.kg-1 to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days followed by a single oral dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 2 g.kg-1. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of hepatic catalase (CAT, cytochromes P450 (CP450 and b5, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GRed, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the content of glutathione equivalents (GSH were evaluated. The treatment with CCl4 increased lipid peroxidation, the level of GSH equivalents and the content of cytochrome b5 by 44, 140 and 32%, respectively, with concomitant reductions of 23, 34 and 39% in the activities of CAT, SOD, and CP450, respectively. The treatment with A. crassiflora seeds and peel extracts alone inhibited lipid peroxidation by 27 and 22%, respectively without affecting the CP450 content. The pretreatment with the A. crassiflora extracts prevented the lipid peroxidation, the increase in GSH equivalents and the decrease in CAT activity caused by CCl4, but it had no effect on the CCl4-mediated changes in CP450 and b5 and SOD. These results show that A. crassiflora seeds and peel contain antioxidant activity in vivo that could be of potential therapeutic use.

  4. Antidiabetic activity of Annona squamosa Linn. in alloxan - induced diabetic rats

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    Ranveer Singh Tomar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterised by rise in blood sugar levels resulting from insulin dysfunction or insulin insufficiency. Aim: The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Annona squamosa Linn (A. squamosa Linn in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Materials and Methods: Diabetes is induced by a single-dose intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of alloxan (120 mg/kg to albino rats. Results and Discussion: Treatment with A. squamosa Linn. extract at a dose of 350 mg/kg and 700 mg/kg and glibenclamide at a dose of 5mg/kg for 28 days, after induction of diabetes by alloxan, caused significant reduction in blood serum glucose and serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol and triglycerides but significant increase in body weight and serum high density lipoproteins (HDL level in diabetic rats compared to untreated group. Histological study of the pancreas of diabetic rat treated with A. squamosa extract also showed partial regeneration of beta cells. The antidiabetic activity of this extract is found comparable to glibenclamide. Thus, leaves of A. squamosa Linn. can be used as potential antidiabetic drug .

  5. Termperature And Humidity Identification In A Prototype Dehydrator For Annona Muricata Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andrea Torres Amaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is considered as one of the economic activities with most participation in Colombia, which to continue with its process of production, have faced with problems regarding wastes due to lack of infrastructure and methods of food preservation that does not alter the physical - chemical properties of the product to market. Therefore, there has been a need to develop methodologies oriented to water extraction in fruits, without altering its nutrients and prolong the period of degradation. This paper presents the test results of the analysis of temperature and humidity that are necessary to perform the dehydration process for the Annona Muricata, which has a high water content (83 per 100 grams of fruit. The development of this project was focused on allowing fruit growers, to have the capability of offering rapid degradation tropical fruits to international and national markets. The results can be seen in food preservation for long periods of time, reducing losses, encouraging consumption and economic development of the agricultural producer.

  6. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from leaves of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Souza Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annona vepretorum (AV is a native tree from Caatinga biome (semiarid region of Brazil popularly known as “araticum” and “pinha da Caatinga.” Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical constituents and antioxidant activity (AA of the essential oil from the leaves from AV (EO Av collected in Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Fresh leaves of AV were cut into pieces, and subjected to distillation for 2 h in a clevenger type apparatus. Gas chromatograph (GC analyses were performed using a mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector. The identification of the constituents was assigned on the basis of comparison of their relative retention indices. The antioxidant ability of the EO was investigated through two in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity using 2,2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl method and β-carotene linoleate model system. The positive controls (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene were those using the standard solutions. Assays were carried out in triplicate. Results: The oil showed a total of 21 components, and 17 were identified, representing 93.9% of the crude EO. Spathulenol (43.7%, limonene (20.5%, caryophyllene oxide (8.1% and a pinene (5.5% were found to be the major individual constituents. Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide could be considered chemotaxonomic markers of these genera. The EO demonstrated weak AA.

  7. Influence of seasonal variation on the phenology and liriodenine content of Annona lutescens (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Moreno, Marisol; Tinoco-Ojangurén, Clara Leonor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2013-07-01

    Annona lutescens Saff. (Annonaceae) grows as a native tree in Chiapas, Mexico in Tropical Dry Forest habitat. Like most Annonaceae, it biosynthesizes benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, mostly liriodenine. To determine the influence of seasonal changes in the accumulation of liriodenine, the monthly variation of liriodenine content in roots, stems and leaves of mature and young trees was observed. These parts of young and mature A. lutescens trees were collected monthly over a 1 year period and the alkaloids were extracted; the liriodenine was quantified by high-resolution liquid chromatography. The phenological stages of the species were also assessed (leaf development, flowering and fruiting) using the Biologische Bundesanstalt, Bundessortenamt und Chemische Industrie (BBCH) scale. The analysis of both young and mature trees showed a significant increase in the liriodenine concentration occurs within roots during the dry season, which coincides with leaf fall. A significant decrease also occurred at the beginning of the rainy season (the period of leaf growth); the liriodenine content for the next rainy season did not reach the levels of the previous dry season. The climatic variation induced phenological and physiological changes in this species.

  8. Antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities of the ethanolic extract of Annona muricata leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslida Abd Hamid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extract of Annona muricata L., Annonaceae, leaf (AML was used to investigate its antinociceptive and anti-ulcerogenic activities and the involvement of the mechanism of ethanolic leaves extract of AML in various animal models. Antinociceptive activity of AML extract was done using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice, formalin test in rats and hot plate test in mice. Furthermore, the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract was studied in ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats, ethanol-induced gastric lesions in L-NAME-pre-treated rats as well as ethanol-induced gastric lesions in NEM-pre-treated rats test model to determine its mechanism. AML exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. It also significantly decreased the ulcerative lesion produced by ethanol in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with N-ethymaleimide, a thiol blocker, including mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, reduced the anti-ulcerogenic effect of AML extract in the same ulcer model, suggesting that AML extract may have active substances such as tannins, flavanoids and triterpenes that increase the mucosal nonprotein sulfhydryl group content.

  9. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  10. ent-Kaurane diterpenes from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum (Annonaceae) and cytotoxic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lívia M; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rocha, Suellen L A; Nepel, Angelita; Soares, Milena B P; Barison, Andersson; Costa, Emmanoel V; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2014-08-01

    This work describes a novel ent-kaurane diterpene, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al along with five known ent-kaurane diterpenes, ent-3β,19-dihydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-acetoxy-kaur-16-eno, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaurenoic acid and kaurenoic acid, as well as caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol from the stem bark of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae). Cytotoxic activities towards tumor B16-F10, HepG2, K562 and HL60 and non-tumor PBMC cell lines were evaluated for ent-kaurane diterpenes. Among them, ent-3β-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-al was the most active compound with higher cytotoxic effect over K562 cell line (IC50 of 2.49 μg/mL) and lower over B16-F10 cell line (IC50 of 21.02 μg/mL).

  11. Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-08-01

    Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein.

  12. Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated process crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and development. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Overexpressed Bcl-2 proteins are associated with the development and progression of several human cancers. Annona muricata is a tropical plant that belongs to the Annonaceae family and is well known for its anticancer properties. In this study, molecular docking and simulations were performed to investigate the inhibitory potential of phytochemicals present in A. muricata against antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family including Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-Xl), and Mcl-1. Docking results revealed that the acetogenins, such as annomuricin A, annohexocin, muricatocin A, annomuricin-D-one, and muricatetrocin A/B, exhibited strong binding interactions with Bcl-Xl when compared to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Binding score and interactions of these acetogenins were notably better than those of currently available synthetic and natural inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations of the top-scoring lead molecules established that these molecules could bind strongly and consistently in the active site of Bcl-Xl. These results suggest that acetogenins could be explored as selective natural inhibitors of Bcl-Xl that could assist in promoting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

  13. Dimorphic fungi isolated from spontaneously fermented juice of soursop, Annona Muricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoifo, C O

    1996-01-01

    Two new fungi isolated from fermenting juice of soursop Annona Muricata L., exhibited dimorphism. Aerobic hyphae were coenocytic bearing sporangia while vegetative filaments were septate. Growth in broth was in discrete units. Glucose--yeast extract-peptone broth inoculated with sporangiospores of strain C12 induced arthroconidiospores but it was yeast cells, yeastlike cells, pseudohyphae and pseudomycelia bearing blastospores when strain C13 was inoculated. On the other hand, soursop extract induced arthrospores and yeast cells, yeast like cells and blastospore-bearing pseudomycelia respectively with strain C12 and strain C13 inoculation. Physiological characteristics were distinct. Strain C12 fermented soluble starch and raffinose completely while strain C13 proved weak for both sugars but complete in glucose utilization. The two dimorphic strains along with Saccaharomyces latis were negative in inulin fermentation. The three strains assimilated all carbon and nitrogen sources tested and grew at 37 degrees C. Based on cultural, morphological and biochemical differences, a tentative genus, Dimorphomyces was created for the dimorphic strains. D. diastaticus strain C12 and D. pleomorphis strain C13 were thought to initiate spontaneous fermentation which was brought to completion along with S. latis strain C14.

  14. Estudo in vitro do potencial citotóxico da Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidi Mayara Firmino Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a atividade citotóxica do extrato etanólico da casca do caule (AMC e folha (AMF da Annona muricata Linn. Para a realização desse estudo, inicialmente foi verificada a atividade do extrato etanólico nas concentrações de 1000, 800, 600, 200 e 100 μgmL-1 para AMF e concentrações de 200, 150, 100, 50, 10 μgmL-1 para AMC através do ensaio de Artemia salina Leach que é considerado um bioensaio preliminar no estudo de extratos com forte atividade biológica e permite realizar a avaliação da toxicidade envolvendo apenas um parâmetro: vida ou morte. Posteriormente foi realizado o ensaio de citotoxicidade através do método do MTT (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2yl-2,5-difenil brometo de tetrazolina em linhagens de SF-295 (glioblastoma - humano, OVCAR-8 (ovário HCT-116 (colón e HL-60 (leucemia pormielocítica. Os extratos foram testados na concentração de 50 μg/mL para o teste de citotoxicidade de concentração única para verificar ausência ou presença de atividade. Para a determinação da concentração inibitória (CI50, todas as amostras foram testadas em concentrações seriadas que variaram de 0,09 a 50 μg/mL utilizando 2 como fator de diluição. No presente estudo, as duas amostras utilizadas através do ensaio de Artemia salina Leach apresentaram concentração letal (CL50 superiores a 80 μgmL-1. A folha apresentou CL50 = 324, 07μgmL-1 e a casca do caule apresentou CL50 = 196, 04μgmL-1. Já através do teste do MTT os valores de concentração inibitória (CI50 variaram de 12,81 a 22,65 μg/mL para AMF e de 0,09 a <5 μg/mL para AMC, frente as diferentes linhagens tumorais avaliadas. Diante dos resultados obtidos para a casca e folhas de A. muricata, avaliadas neste trabalho através dos bioensaios de toxicidade com Artemia salina Leach e com as células tumorais SF- 295, OVCAR-8, HCT-116 e HL-60, pode-se verificar o potencial tóxico de ambas as amostras, destacando-se mais as

  15. Antioxidant, DNA protective efficacy and HPLC analysis of Annona muricata (soursop) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Annona muricata is a naturally occurring edible plant with wide array of therapeutic potentials. In India, it has a long history of traditional use in treating various ailments. The present investigation was carried out to characterize the phytochemicals present in the methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of A. muricata, followed by validation of its radical scavenging and DNA protection activities. The extracts were also analyzed for its total phenolic contents and subjected to HPLC analysis to determine its active metabolites. The radical scavenging activities were premeditated by various complementary assays (DRSA, FRAP and HRSA). Further, its DNA protection efficacy against H2O2 induced toxicity was evaluated using pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results revealed that the extracts were highly rich in various phytochemicals including luteolin, homoorientin, tangeretin, quercetin, daidzein, epicatechin gallate, emodin and coumaric acid. Both the extracts showed significant (p < 0.05) radical scavenging activities, while methanolic extract demonstrated improved protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage when compared to aqueous extract. A strong positive correlation was observed for the estimated total phenolic contents and radical scavenging potentials of the extracts. Further HPLC analysis of the phyto-constituents of the extracts provides a sound scientific basis for compound isolation.

  16. Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated process crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and development. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Overexpressed Bcl-2 proteins are associated with the development and progression of several human cancers. Annona muricata is a tropical plant that belongs to the Annonaceae family and is well known for its anticancer properties. In this study, molecular docking and simulations were performed to investigate the inhibitory potential of phytochemicals present in A. muricata against antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family including Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-Xl), and Mcl-1. Docking results revealed that the acetogenins, such as annomuricin A, annohexocin, muricatocin A, annomuricin-D-one, and muricatetrocin A/B, exhibited strong binding interactions with Bcl-Xl when compared to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Binding score and interactions of these acetogenins were notably better than those of currently available synthetic and natural inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations of the top-scoring lead molecules established that these molecules could bind strongly and consistently in the active site of Bcl-Xl. These results suggest that acetogenins could be explored as selective natural inhibitors of Bcl-Xl that could assist in promoting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PMID:27110097

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aporphinoids and other alkaloids from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; da Cruz, Pedro Ernesto Oliveira; de Lourenço, Caroline Caramano; de Souza Moraes, Valéria Regina; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Salvador, Marcos José

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)-FL method and antimicrobial activity using the broth microdilution method of aporphinoids (liriodenine 1, anonaine 2 and asimilobine 3) and other alkaloids (reticuline 4 and cleistopholine 5) isolated from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae) were evaluated. For antioxidant activity, the most active alkaloid was asimilobine with ORAC value of 2.09 relative trolox equivalents. For antimicrobial activity, some alkaloids showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 25-100 µg mL(-1). The most active compounds were the aporphinoids liriodenine, anonaine and asimilobine, some of them more active than the positive control.

  18. Two new mono-tetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins, annomuricin E and muricapentocin, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G S; Zeng, L; Alali, F; Rogers, L L; Wu, F E; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1998-04-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) has resulted in the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annomuricine (1) and muricapentocin (2). Compounds 1 and 2 are monotetrahydrofuran ring acetogenins bearing two flanking hydroxyl groups; however, each has three additional hydroxyl groups. Compound 1 has an erythro 1,2-diol, and 2 has a 1,5,9-triol moiety. Both 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxicities against six types of human tumors, with selectivities to the pancreatic carcinoma (PACA-2) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines.

  19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  20. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  1. Yang-Mills and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Marateck, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills invented the non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria but didn't explain how it could be derived. In the penultimate section we show how the Yang-Mills field strength derives from Yang's gauge transformation. The preceding sections place Yang-Mills theory in historical perspective and cover material relating to the field strength. The final section shows how Yang-Mills theory was combined with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone theorem and subsequent work to contribute to the Standard Model of particle physics.

  2. In vitro seed germination and seedling development of Annona crassiflora Mart. Germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento in vitro de plântulas de Annona crassiflora Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora Mart known as 'araticum', 'marolo' or 'field araticum' is a typical fruit from the Cerrado biome of Brazil with socio-economic and medicinal importance. Normally, Annona crassiflora is propagated through seeds. However, due to a deep dormancy that the seeds display at dispersion and the difficulty to obtain uniform plants in a short time period, micropropagation may be a feasible alternative. Concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA and their interactive effects on in vitro seed germination and seedling development of Annona crassiflora were studied. Mature fruits of Annona crassiflora were depulped and the seeds washed in clear water and dried at room temperature. Seed coat was removed and the seeds were placed on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3 and naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 30 g L-1 sucrose and 6 g L-1 agar-agar. Seeds were kept under these conditions for 30 days. After this period, seedlings were kept for another 90 days on Wood Plant Medium (WPM with 20 g L-1 sucrose and 5 g L-1 agar-agar supplemented with the same GA3 and NAA concentrations. Cultures were incubated under controlled conditions at 25 ± 2°C temperature, 16: 8 (light: dark photoperiod of 32 µmol m-2 s-1 irradiance provided by cool white fluorescent tubes (Philips. Use of WPM medium supplemented with 25-32 mg L-1 GA3 or MS with 26-30 mg L-1 GA3 and 2 mg L-1 NAA promoted rooting and plant growth.O araticum ou marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. é uma fruta típica de Cerrado com grande importância sócio-econômico e medicinal. Sua propagação pode ser feita através de sementes, porém devido à dormência das sementes e dificuldade de se obterem plantas uniformes e em curto espaço de tempo, a micropropagação poderá ser uma alternativa. Estudaram-se os efeitos do GA3 associado ao ANA sobre a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento in vitro de marolo. Frutos maduros foram

  3. Evaluation of substrates on the emergence of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a substrate is the determinant factor for the seedling producer; thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of substrates on the emergence of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse and the experimental design was in randomized blocks, with three treatments and five replicates of 72 seeds per plot. The treatments consisted of the following substrates: coconut fiber, vermiculite and Plantmax® Citrus. The number of emerged seedlings was weekly counted for 105 days. Data regarding seedling height were obtained, and the emergence velocity index and mean time, besides total emergence percentage and that over time were calculated. Results from total mean emergence percentage, seedling height, emergence velocity index (EVI, and mean emergence time (MET were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey's test at 5% significance. The curves concerning the emergence percentage over time were fit by the logistic growth equation for each treatment and the means of each parameter (A, B, C were compared by the Duncan's test at 5% significance. The substrates vermiculite led to the highest values of emergence percentage differing from the PlantMax® Citrus, but not of the coconut fiber, however the vermiculite promoted seedling height in a shorter time; therefore, this substrate is recommended for the initial development of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings.

  4. Evaluation of the acute and sub acute toxicity ofAnnona senegalensis root bark extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theophine C Okoye; Peter A Akah; Adaobi C Ezike; Maureen O Okoye; Collins A Onyeto; Frankline Ndukwu; Ejike Ohaegbulam; Lovelyn Ikele

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the safety profile ofAnnona senegalensis (A. senegalensis).Methods:Dried powdered root-bark of A. senegalensis was prepared by Sohxlet extraction using methanol-methylene chloride (1:1) solution and concentrated to obtain the methanol-methylene chloride extract (MME).MME was fractionated to obtain then-hexane (HF), ethylacetate (EF) and methanol (MF) fractions. Acute toxicity (LD50) test was performed withMME, HF, EF andMF in mice by oral route. The sub acute toxicity studies were performed in rats after14 days ofMME administration while haematological and biochemical parameters were monitored.Results:Medium lethal (LD50) values of1 296, 3 808, 1 265 and 2 154mg/kg were obtained for theMME, MF, HF andEF, respectively. The sub-acute toxicity studies indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in the body weight of both the treated rats and the control. The haematological tests indicated no change in the packed cell volume values but a significant (P<0.05) increase in the totalWBC count at100and 400 mg/kg doses. The differential analysis showed a decrease in the nutrophils and a non-significant increase in the lymphocyte counts. The liver transaminase enzymes, alanin transaminase and aspartate transaminase showed no significant increase compared to the control. Histopathological examination of the liver sections also indicted no obvious signs of hepatotoxicity except with the400 mg/kg dose that showed degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes.Conclusions:These results indicated that the root bark extracts ofA. Senegalensis are safe at the lower doses tested, and calls for caution in use at higher doses in treatment.

  5. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  6. Histochemical detection of acetogenins and storage molecules in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata Donn Sm. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Laguna Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetogenins (ACGs are bioactive compounds with cytotoxic properties in different cell lines. They are antitumoural, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial. These secondary metabolites function in plant defence and are found in specific organelles and specific cells, thereby preventing toxicity to the plant itself and permitting site-specific defence. The aim of this work was to histochemically determine the in situ localisation of ACGs in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata seeds using Kedde’s reagent. Additionally, the colocalisation of ACGs with other storage molecules was analysed. The seeds were analysed after 6 and 10 days of imbibition, when 1 or 2 cm of the radicle had emerged and metabolism was fully established. The seeds were then transversally cut in half at the midline and processed using different histological and histochemical techniques. Positive reactions with Kedde’s reagent were only observed in fresh, unfixed sections that were preserved in water, and staining was found only in the large cells (the idioblasts at the periphery of the endosperm. The ACGs’ positive reaction with Sudan III corroborated their lipid nature. Paraffin sections stained with Naphthol Blue Black showed reactions in the endosperm parenchyma cells and stained the proteoplasts blue, indicating that they might correspond to storage sites for albumin-like proteins. Lugol’s iodine, which is similar in chemical composition to Wagner’s reagent, caused a golden brown reaction product in the cytoplasm of the idioblasts, which may indicate the presence of alkaloids. Based on these results, we propose that Kedde’s reagent is an appropriate histochemical stain for detecting ACGs in situ in idioblasts and that idioblasts store ACGs and probably alkaloids. ACGs that are located in idioblasts found in restricted, peripheral areas of the endosperm could serve as a barrier that protects the seeds against

  7. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector; MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration

  8. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits.

  9. In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsak, Voravuth; Polwiang, Natsuda; Chachiyo, Sukanya

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. The choice for the treatment is highly limited due to drug resistance. Hence, finding the new compounds to treat malaria is urgently needed. The present study was attempted to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the Annona muricata aqueous leaf extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata was prepared and tested for acute toxicity in mice. For efficacy test in vivo, standard 4-day suppressive test was carried out. ICR mice were inoculated with 10(7) parasitized erythrocytes of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection. The extracts (100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) were then given orally by gavage once a day for 4 consecutive days. Parasitemia, percentage of inhibition, and packed cell volume were subsequently calculated. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg) was given to infected mice as positive control while untreated control was given only distilled water. It was found that A. muricata aqueous leaf extract at doses of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg resulted in dose dependent parasitemia inhibition of 38.03%, 75.25%, and 85.61%, respectively. Survival time was prolonged in infected mice treated with the extract. Moreover, no mortality to mice was observed with this extract up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg. In conclusion, the A. muricata aqueous leaf extract exerted significant antimalarial activity with no toxicity and prolonged survival time. Therefore, this extract might contain potential lead molecule for the development of a new drug for malaria treatment.

  10. UPLC–QTOF–MS and NMR analyses of graviola (Annona muricata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Vieira Machado de Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Graviola leaves (Annona muricata L., Annonaceae are used by some people to try to treat or even cure cancer, even though over-consumption of the fruit, which contains the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin has caused an atypical form of Parkinson's disease. In previous analyses, the fruits were extracted with methanol under ambient conditions before analyses. In the present study, UPLC–QTOF–MS and NMR were used to analyze freeze-dried graviola leaves that were extracted using dry methanol and ethanol at 100 ºC and 10 MPa (100 atm pressure in a sealed container. Methanol solubilized 33% of the metabolites in the lyophilized leaves. Ethanol solubilized 41% of metabolites in the lyophilized leaves. The concentrations of total phenolic compounds were 100.3 ± 2.8 and 93.2 ± 2.0 mg gallic acid equivalents per g of sample, for the methanolic and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Moreover, the toxicophore (unsaturated γ-lactone that is present in neurotoxic acetogenins was found in the lipophilic portion of this extract. The concentrations of the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin were found by UPLC–QTOF–MS to be 305.6 ± 28.3 and 17.4 ± 0.89 µg/g-dw, respectively, in the dried leaves. Pressurized methanol solubilized more annonacin and squamocin than ethanol. On the other hand, a hot, aqueous infusion solubilized only 0.213% of the annonacin and too little of the squamocin to be detected. So, graviola leaves contain significant amounts of the neurotoxins annonacin and squamocin, as well as some potentially healthy phenolic compounds. Finally, the potential neurotoxicity of whole leaves in dietary supplements could be much higher than that of a tea (hot aqueous infusion that is made from them.

  11. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamizah, Sulaiman; Roslida, A H; Fezah, O; Tan, K L; Tor, Y S; Tan, C I

    2012-01-01

    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the AMLE-treated group. Interestingly, At 100 and 300 mg/ kg, AMLE completely inhibited the tumor development in all stages. Histopathological study revealed that tumor growth from the AMLE-treated groups showed only slight hyperplasia and absence of keratin pearls and rete ridges. The results, thus suggest that the A.muricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  13. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  14. Las plantas americanas en la obra de Charles de l'Écluse: primeras citas en las cartas de Juan de Castañeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón-Laca Menéndez de Luarca, Luis

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Flemish botanist Charles de l'Écluse's works contain abundant references to American plants, for example the avocado (Persea americana Mill., the sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], the potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and the tobáceo (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Although some of these plants were observed by L'Écluse himself during his expedition to the Iberian Península between 1564 and 1565, the majority of the American plants quoted in his works are related with shipments received from several agents around Europe. In the case of Spain, L'Écluse obtained seeds from Seville thanks to the help of Simón de Tovar and Juan de Castañeda. The latter offers in his letters important innovations: Annona cherimola Mill., Indigofera añil LJI. tinctoria L., Annona muricata L., Mammea americana L.. Annona reticulata L., Dioscorea sp., Aloysia citrodora Palau or Manihot spj M. esculenta Crantz. In most of the cases the mention of these plants represente the first record of cultivation in the Old World. A percentage of this material was used by L'Écluse in his Exoticorum libri decem, published in Antwerp in l605.Las obras del botánico flamenco Charles de l'Écluse contienen infinidad de referencias a plantas americanas, destacando entre ellas el aguacate (Persea americana Mill., las batatas [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.], las patatas (Solanum tuberosum L. o el tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. . Algunas de ellas fueron observadas por L'Écluse durante la expedición llevada a cabo por la Península Ibérica entre 1564 y 1565. La mayor parte de plantas americanas citadas en sus obras están relacionadas sin embargo con envíos realizados por diversos corresponsales repartidos por Europa. En el caso de España, L'Écluse recibió semillas desde Sevilla gracias a Simón de Tovar y Juan de Castañeda. Este último ofrece en sus cartas importantes novedades, como el "anón" (Annona cherimola Mill., el "añil" (Indigofera añil L./I. tinctoria L., la "guan

  15. Yield and Fruit Quality Traits of Atemoya Cultivars Grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The demand for tropical fruits has increased more than 33% during the last decade as consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) cultivars. Six a...

  16. Yield and fruit quality traits of atemoya hybrids grown in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    As consumers seek healthy and more diverse food products the demand for tropical fruits has increased significantly during the past 15 years. There is a lack of formal experimentation to determine yield performance and fruit quality traits of atemoya (Annona squamosa x A. cherimola) hybrids. Six a...

  17. Attraction of pollinators to atemoya (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) in Puerto Rico: A synergetic approach using multiple nitidulid lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atemoya, a cross between Annona squamosa and A. cherimola (Annonaceae), has the potential to be a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical areas. A major setback to production throughout the world is low fruit-set due to inadequate visits by pollinators, typically beetles in the family Nitidulid...

  18. INVESTIGATION ON HARDENED STEEL MILLING WITH MICRO-END MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYing-ning; WANGCheng-yong; WUXue-qi; QINZhe; ZENGBao-ping

    2004-01-01

    Tool wear and breakage of the micro-milling tool is an important problem for high speed machining of hardened steel die and mould. Dry milling of S136 hardened steel is carried out using TiA1N coated carbide micro-end mill (Ф2 mm). The effect of cutting speed, feed per tooth and radial depth of cut on cutting force is analyzed. Cutting parameters adapting to dry machining and strategy optimized for higher rate of material removal with lower cutting force are attained. Results of SEM observation show that the main failure patterns of micro-end mill are breakage of tool tip, wear and drop-off of surface coating, micro-chipping, and breakage of flank.

  19. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  20. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chattopadhyay; N Ravishankar; T A Abinandanan; Viji Varghese

    2003-10-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on materials has been studied using simple model systems. The results show that milling leads to enhancement in both thermodynamic driving force and transport kinetics. A study of some characteristic physical properties of the milled samples in comparison to the bulk shows how milling affects the properties.

  1. Abstract Milling with Turn Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Fellows, M; Knauer, C; Paul, C; Rosamond, F; Whitesides, S; Yu, N

    2009-01-01

    The Abstract Milling problem is a natural and quite general graph-theoretic model for geometric milling problems. Given a graph, one asks for a walk that covers all its vertices with a minimum number of turns, as specified in the graph model by a 0/1 turncost function fx at each vertex x giving, for each ordered pair of edges (e,f) incident at x, the turn cost at x of a walk that enters the vertex on edge e and departs on edge f. We describe an initial study of the parameterized complexity of the problem. Our main positive result shows that Abstract Milling, parameterized by: number of turns, treewidth and maximum degree, is fixed-parameter tractable, We also show that Abstract Milling parameterized by (only) the number of turns and the pathwidth, is hard for W[1] -- one of the few parameterized intractability results for bounded pathwidth.

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of aporphinoids and other alkaloids from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; da Cruz, Pedro Ernesto Oliveira; de Lourenço, Caroline Caramano; de Souza Moraes, Valéria Regina; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Salvador, Marcos José

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)-FL method and antimicrobial activity using the broth microdilution method of aporphinoids (liriodenine 1, anonaine 2 and asimilobine 3) and other alkaloids (reticuline 4 and cleistopholine 5) isolated from the bark of Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae) were evaluated. For antioxidant activity, the most active alkaloid was asimilobine with ORAC value of 2.09 relative trolox equivalents. For antimicrobial activity, some alkaloids showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 25-100 µg mL(-1). The most active compounds were the aporphinoids liriodenine, anonaine and asimilobine, some of them more active than the positive control. PMID:22582985

  3. Renewable Oil Extracted from Indonesian Srikaya’s (Annona squamosa sp. Seed: Another Potent Source for Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masruri Masruri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at the wastes derived from Indonesian fruit as prospect for biofuels. This report investigates the chemical composition of Srikaya (Annona squamosal sp. seed, which is disposed as waste products from traditional markets. The seeds were extracted with various extraction methods and the oil obtained was analysed by means of gas chromatography (GC/FID, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS, infra-red spectrometry and ultra-violet-visible spectrometry. It was found 2 h extraction using soxhlet apparatus with diethyl ether as solvent gave the optimum time extraction. Moreover, five major components were isolated from i.e.: ethyl hexadecanoate, ethyl hexadec-9-enoate, ethyl octadecanoate, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl hexadecanoate, octadec-9-enaldehyde, and unknown compound, respectively.

  4. Aporphine alkaloid contents increase with moderate nitrogen supply in Annona diversifolia Saff. (Annonaceae) seedlings during diurnal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Castillo, José Agustín; Cruz-Ortega, Rocío; Martinez-Vázquez, Mariano; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Aporphine alkaloids are secondary metabolites that are obtained in low levels from species of the Annonaceae family. Nitrogen addition may increase the alkaloid content in plants. However, previous studies published did not consider that nitrogen could change the alkaloid content throughout the day. We conducted this short-term study to determine the effects of nitrogen applied throughout the diurnal period on the aporphine alkaloids via measurements conducted on the roots, stems and leaves of Annona diversifolia seedlings. The 60-day-old seedlings were cultured with the addition of three levels of nitrogen (0, 30 and 60 mM), and alkaloid extracts were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest total alkaloid content was measured in the treatment with moderate nitrogen supply. Further, the levels of aporphine alkaloids changed significantly in the first few hours of the diurnal period. We conclude that aporphine alkaloid content increased with moderate nitrogen supply and exhibited diurnal variation.

  5. Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes; Mourão, Jozeanne Alves; Angelo, Angela Maria; Costa, Renata Albuquerque; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera) and pods of soursop (Annona muricata) in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 microL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment) and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm) against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.

  6. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Uneojo Omoja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  7. EFEKTIFITAS TEPUNG DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN KUMBANG BUBUK KEDELAI (Callosobruchus analis F. PADA BIJI KEDELAI (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Wahyu Harinta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk : mengetahui pengaruh tepung daun sirsak terhadap pengendalian hama Callosobruchus analis pada biji kedelai. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan secara eksperimen, yang terdiri dari dua tahap, 1.Efektifitas tepung daun sirsak terhadap mortalitas kumbang C. analis dan peletakan telur dan 2. Pengaruh tepung daun sirsak terhadap perkembangan populasi kumbang C. analis. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Lengkap ( RAL/CRD .  Sebagai perlakuan adalah : ( A Tepung daun sirsak , dosis 1 g / 100 g; ( B Tepung daun sirsak, dosis 0,50 g / 100 g. ; C Tepung daun sirsak , dosis 0,25 g / 100 g.  D Kontrol / Tanpa Perlakuan.  Tiap Perlakuan diulang lima kali. Cara kerja penelitian, adalah : perbanyakan Kumbang Bubuk Kedelai ( C. analis, pembuatan  tepung daun sirsak ( Annona muricata dan pengaruh perlakuan tepung daun sirsak terhadap mortalitas kumbang C. analis dan perkembangan kumbang C.analis, persentase kerusakan biji dan penyusutan bobot biji.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa : tepung daun sirsak berpengaruh terhadap mortalitas dan perkembangan C. analis pada biji kedelai ; tepung daun sirsak dapat mengurangi terhadap kerusakan dan penyusutan bobot biji kedelai terhadap serangan C. analis; belum didapat dosis tepung daun sirsak yang efektif untuk mengendalikan kumbang C.analis. Dari hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa : tepung daun sirsak mulai dosis 0,5 g / 100 g biji dapat berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan mortalitas dan penurunan perkembangan kumbang bubuk kedelai (Callosobruchus analis F. pada biji kedelai serta dapat mengurangi kerusakan dan penyusutan bobot biji kedelai akibat serangan kumbang bubuk kedelai (Callosobruchus analis F. di penyimpanan.Kata kunci : tepung daun sirsak (Annona muricata; kumbang bubuk kedelai (Callosobruchus analis F.

  8. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  9. YANG-MILLS FIELD CAPACITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the capacitor in the Yang-Mills theory. Model capacitor represents the equipotential surfaces separated by a space. To describe the mechanism of condensation chromodynamics field used numerical models developed based on an average of the Yang-Mills theory. In the present study, we used eight-scalar component model that in the linear case is divided into two groups containing three or five fields respectively. In contrast to classical electrodynamics, a static model of the Yang-Mills is not divided into independent equations because of the nonlinearity of the model itself. However, in the case of a linear theory separation is possible. It is shown that in this particular case, the Yang-Mills theory is reduced to Poisson theory, which describes the electrostatic and magnetostatic phenomena. In the present work it is shown that in a certain region of the parameters of the capacitor of the Yang-Mills theory on the functional properties of the charge accumulation and retention of the field is similar to the capacitor of the electrostatic field or a magnet in magnetostatics. This means that in nature there are two types of charges, which are sources of macroscopic Yang-Mills field, which are similar to the properties of electric and magnetic charges in the Poisson theory. It is shown that in Yang-Mills only one type of charge may be associated with the distribution density of the substance, while another type of charge depends on the charge distribution of the first type. This allows us to provide an explanation for the lack of symmetry between electric and magnetic charges

  10. Pilot experiment to control Medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) using mass trapping technique in a custard apple (Annona cherimolia Mill.) orchard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, as a result of assays coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (and participated by Spain), it was decided that ammonium acetate, putrescine and trimethylamine be included in low release polyetilene bag dispensers (Biolure, Consep, Co) as the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) females were greatly attracted by them. These synthetic substances are placed in traps at the frequency of one and a half months to two months. If Tephry traps are used, one DDVP wafer (containing Vapona or a similar substance) is enough to kill the flies that enter them. These attractants make it unnecessary to replenish the liquids in the Mcphail traps and remain effective throughout the entire fruit season. The Caja Rural de Granada (a bank of farmers) encourages all techniques that increase crop profits for farmers. It is even more desirable if such crop profitability can be achieved without the application of insecticides which may result in the likely presence of toxic residues. In the light of the results achieved by the attractants with regard to female Medflies, the Caja Rural de Granada, together with the National Institute of Agricultural Research Counselling (Agricultural Department), performed an experiment on mass trapping to confirm whether it is possible to protect a fruit plantation with the application of this biotechnical method. Due to the great risk of this initial experiment, the farmers were free to use insecticides as often as they deemed necessary so that no damages due to any plague could be blamed on the experiment

  11. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator′s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of

  12. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Schlotterer, Oliver; Wen, Congkao

    2016-01-01

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  13. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  14. YANG-MILLS FIELD AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear

  15. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  16. Effects of cytokinins on in vitro mineral accumulation and bud development in Annona glabra L. Efeito de citocininas sobre o acúmulo de minerais e desenvolvimento de brotações de Annona glabra L. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Annona glabra is a tropical species that has significant agronomic potential in terms of furnishing fruits for in natura consumption and for the production of phyto-pharmaceuticals. In vitro cultivation has been considered the most promising form of propagation for this species, although large scale utilization of this technique is currently limited by high rates of leaf abscission, reduced rates of explant multiplication and slow bud growth. The present work evaluated the effects of different cytokinins on mineral accumulation in shoots of A. glabra cultivated in vitro, and their effects on growth and survival of these plants. Buds of A. glabra were cultivated in Wood Plant Medium (WPM in the presence of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ, kinetin (KIN, and zeatin (ZEA. KIN and BAP use resulted in the greatest growth, largest accumulation of dry mass and leaf area development, as well as the greatest survival rate during in vitro cultivation of this species. All cytokinins tested stimulated large accumulations of nitrogen and boron in shoots, but diminished levels of calcium as compared to controls.Annona glabra é uma espécie frutífera tropical que apresenta elevado potencial agronômico pelo fornecimento de frutos para o consumo in natura e pela produção de fitofármacos. O cultivo in vitro tem sido preconizado como a forma mais adequada de propagação para essa espécie, embora sua utilização em larga escala ainda seja limitada pela elevada taxa de abscisão foliar, reduzida taxa de multiplicação dos explantes e crescimento lento das brotações. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o efeito de citocininas sobre o acúmulo de minerais nas brotações de A. glabra cultivadas in vitro e seus reflexos sobre o crescimento e sobrevivência das plantas nesse tipo de ambiente. Brotações de A. glabra foram cultivadas em meio Wood Plant Medium (WPM, na presença de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP, thidiazuron (TDZ, cinetina (KIN e

  17. Fertilización en frutales con énfasis en el cultivo de guanábano Annona muricata L. Fruit tree fertilization with enmphasis on soursop Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zárate Reyes Rubén Darío

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Se da la información general sobre la importancia de los frutales y específicamente del guanábano (Annona muricata L.. Se relacionan los elementos nutricionales indispensables para los frutales y sus funciones. Se describe el proceso de absorción de agua y nutrientes. Se plantean los casos de sinergismo y antagonismo y su importancia en la fertilización de las especies frutícolas. Se aclara lo relativo a la distribución del fertilizante y la respuesta de la planta. Se discute sobre el mecanismo de absorción foliar. Se relacionan las dificultades para determinar los requerimientos nutricionales en frutales y aplicar la Ley de Restitución. Se precisa que en guanábano el orden posible de requerimientos nutricionales es K > N > Ca > P > Mg. Se describen los síntomas de deficiencias de N, P, K, Ca, Mg y S en plántulas de guanábano en soluciones nutritivas y se comparan los análisis de tejidos de plantas con síntomas y plantas en el campo. Se determinan como etapas importantes para fertilizar guanábano: vivero, transplante, desarrollo en huerto y etapa productiva. Se dan recomendaciones generales para cada una de ellas. Se hacen recomendaciones con base en el diámetro de la copa del árbol y la profundidad de raíces; el contenido de M.O, de P205 y K2O del suelo y la edad de los árboles y la región donde se establezca el cultivo.A general survey of the importance of fruit crops, especially soursop (Annona muricata L. is presented. The roles of essential elements and water absortion are described chemical synergisms and antagonisms are discussed in relation to plant nutrition. The absortion mechanism is discussed, so are the difficulties te determine nutritional requirements’ in fruit trees in order to apply the restitution law. Priority of elernent absortion is probably K > N > Ca > P > Mg. Deficiency sympton as they appear in nutrient solutions and in the field are described for seedlings and mature trees and are related to

  18. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy t...

  19. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  20. Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Charles H.

    This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

  1. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  2. J. S. Mill on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  3. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  4. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation.

  5. Efeito de citocininas na senescência e abscisão foliar durante o cultivo in vitro de Annona glabra L. Effect of cytokinins on senescence and foliar abscision during in vitro Annona glabra L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaldo Muniz de Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagação de anonáceas tem sido limitada pela abscisão foliar precoce nas brotações, o que dificulta a manutenção e o desenvolvimento das plantas in vitro. Esse fato se deve, principalmente, ao acúmulo de etileno nos tubos fechados e à relação etileno/citocinina nas folhas. Assim sendo, avaliaram-se o efeito de fontes de citocinina sobre o retardo da senescência foliar em brotações de Annona glabra L. e suas implicações sobre o seu desenvolvimento. Segmentos nodais foram cultivados em tubo de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio WPM, suplementado com 30g L-1 de sacarose, 500mg L-1 de benomyl e 1g L-1 de carvão ativado. A esse meio adicionaram-se 6-benzilaminopurina, thidiazuron, cinetina e zeatina, todos na concentração de 1mg L-1. Decorridos 45 dias após a inoculação, plantas foram submetidas à senescência em ambiente escuro, por um período de 9 dias, coletando-se folhas a cada três dias para quantificação de clorofila "a", clorofila "b", carotenóides, proteínas e açúcares solúveis totais. No final das fases de multiplicação e enraizamento, quantificaram-se a matéria seca, a área foliar e o número de folhas que sofreram abscisão nas plantas que não foram submetidas à senescência. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, sendo que cada período de senescência constituiu um bloco, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os resultados mostraram que cinetina e zeatina, seguidas de thidiazuron e 6-benzilaminopurina, preservam maior teor de clorofilas "a", "b" e de carotenóides durante todo o período de senescência induzida. 6-benzilaminopurina e cinetina promoveram maior retenção da área foliar durante as fases de multiplicação e enraizamento de Annona glabra L.The micropropagation of Annonaceae has been limited by early foliar abscission in shoots, which makes the maintenance and development of plants in vitro environment difficult. This is mainly due to ethylene accumulation in closed

  6. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1985-04-01

    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  7. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from Sugar Apple (Annona squamosa L. Peel Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Fang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. is a popular tropical fruit and its peel is a municipal waste. An ultrasound-assisted extraction method was developed for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. Central composite design was used to optimize solvent concentration (13.2%–46.8%, ultrasonic time (33.2–66.8 min, and temperature (43.2–76.8 °C for the recovery of natural antioxidants from sugar apple peel. The second-order polynomial models demonstrated a good fit of the quadratic models with the experimental results in respect to total phenolic content (TPC, R2 = 0.9524, p < 0.0001, FRAP (R2 = 0.9743, p < 0.0001, and TEAC (R2 = 0.9610, p < 0.0001 values. The optimal extraction conditions were 20:1 (mL/g of solvent-to-solid ratio, 32.68% acetone, and 67.23 °C for 42.54 min under ultrasonic irradiation. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of total phenolic content was 26.81 (mg GA/g FW. The experimental results obtained under optimal conditions agreed well with the predicted results. The application of ultrasound markedly decreased extraction time and improved the extraction efficiency, compared with the conventional methods.

  8. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Prasetyowati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a randomized controlled trial group design approach. The test material was an extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been kept for 0, 1, 2, and 3 week with LC50 (0,47 ppm was used. Each treatment used 25 C. quinquefasciatus larvae from third instar larvae stage and replicated five times. After exposed for 24 hours, dead larvae counted. The result confirmed that the extract of sugar apple’s seeds which has been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week did not showed any significant different on larvae mortality. Extract of sugar apple’s seeds which have been stored in 0, 1, 2, and 3 week have an equal activity as Culex quinquefasciatus larvicide.

  9. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-β- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-β-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  10. Flavonoids from Annona dioica leaves and their effects in Ehrlich carcinoma cells, DNA-topoisomerase I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Maria R.G.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: echevarr@ufrrj.br; Vieira, Ivo J.C.; Mathias, Leda; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Quimicas

    2007-07-01

    Chemical investigation of methanol extract leaves from Annona dioica (Annonaceae) resulted in the identification of flavonoids kaempferol (1), 3-O-[3'',6''-di-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl]-{beta}- galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (2), 6''-O-p-hydroxycinnamoyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (3) and 3-O-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-kaempferol (4). The structures were unequivocally characterized by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic analyses using 1D and 2D experiments. The cytotoxic effects of the flavonoids and flavonoid fraction (FF) were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay against Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The results indicated that 1, 2, 3 and FF exhibit significant antiproliferative action when compared to quercetin. The inhibitory action on DNA-topoisomerase I and II of all the flavonoids was evaluated by relaxation assays on pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results indicated the inhibitory and non-selective effects of the flavonoids on DNA-topoisomerase I and II. (author)

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and larvicidal activities of the essential oils of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaça; Dutra, Lívia Macedo; de Jesus, Hugo César Ramos; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Moraes, Valéria Regina de Souza; Salvador, Marcos José; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; dos Santos, Roseli La Corte; Prata, Ana Paula do Nacimento

    2011-06-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of Annona salzmannii and A. pickelii (Annonaceae) growing in Sergipe, northeastern region of Brazil, were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. Thirty-four compounds were identified in the essential oil of A. salzmannii and twenty-seven in that of A. pickelii; sesquiterpenes predominated in both essential oils. Bicyclogermacrene (20.3%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.9%), delta-cadinene (15.3%), alpha-copaene (10.0%), and allo-aromadendrene (5.7%) were the main components of A. salzmannii, and bicyclogermacrene (45.4%), (E)-caryophyllene (14.6%), and alpha-copaene (10.6%) of A. pickelii. The essential oils showed significant antioxidant capacity in the ORAC(FL) and DPPH assays. The antimicrobial activity of these essential oils was also evaluated against bacteria and fungi, as well as the larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae.

  12. In vitro anthelmintic activity of aqueous leaf extract of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) against Haemonchus contortus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L E; Castro, P M N; Chagas, A C S; França, S C; Beleboni, R O

    2013-07-01

    Despite the overall progress of sheep farming in Brazil, infections with the gastrointestinal parasite Haemonchus contortus represent one the most important problems in sheep production, aggravated by the increasing resistance of nematodes to traditional anthelmintic drugs caused by inadequate sheep flock management by breeders. Ethnopharmacological data indicate Annona muricata as a promising alternative for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes because of its general anthelmintic properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of A. muricata aqueous leaf extract against eggs, infective larvae and adult forms of parasitic nematode H. contortus. At higher doses, A. muricata extract showed 84.91% and 89.08% of efficacy in egg hatch test (EHT) and larval motility test (LMT), respectively. In the adult worm motility test, worms were completely immobilized within the first 6-8h of nematode exposition to different dilutions of extract. Phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of phenolic compounds in A. muricata aqueous leaf extract that may be responsible for the anthelmintic effects observed. Moreover those results validate the traditional use of A. muricata as a natural anthelmintic and then the pharmacological potential of its compounds for future in vivo investigations.

  13. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength.

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. leaves in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Jesus R G de Pinho, José; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2010-05-06

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  15. Different susceptibilities of Leishmania spp. promastigotes to the Annona muricata acetogenins annonacinone and corossolone, and the Platymiscium floribundum coumarin scoparone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Nova, Nadja Soares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Falcão, Maria José Cajazeiras; Alcantara, Terezinha Thaize Negreiros; Ferreira, Pablito Augusto Travassos; Cavalcanti, Eveline Solon Barreira; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; Wilson, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that can manifest itself in visceral and cutaneous form. The aim of this study was to search for new leishmanicidal compounds. Preliminarily, Artemia salina assay was applied to compounds from two plants found in Northeastern Brazil, Platymiscium floribundum and Annona muricata. Then these compounds were tested against three Leishmania species (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania major). A screening assay using luciferase-expressing promastigote form were used to measure the viability of promastigote One coumarin, scoparone, isolated from P. floribundum and two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone isolated from A. muricata showed leishmanicidal activity in all species tested. Nevertheless, Leishmania species indicated different susceptibilities in relation to the tested compounds: L. mexicana was more sensitive to scoparone followed by L. major and L. donovani. The three species presented similar inhibition to corossolone and annonacinone. Acetogenin annonacinone (EC(50)=6.72-8.00 μg/mL) indicated high leishmanicidal activity; corossolone (EC(50)=16.14-18.73 μg/mL) and scoparone (EC(50)=9.11-27.51 μg/mL) moderate activity. A. saline larvae were less sensitive to the coumarin scoparone and acetogenin corossolone was the most toxic. In conclusion, the leishmanicidal activity demonstrated by the coumarin and acetogenins indicate these compounds for further studies aiming the development of new leishmanicidal agents.

  16. Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annona muricata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimawo, I A

    2002-01-01

    Proximate composition and physicochemical analyses were carried out on the seed, pulp and extracted oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). The results showed that the seed contained 8.5% moisture, 2.4% crude protein, 13.6% ash, 8.0% crude fiber, 20.5% fat and 47.0% carbohydrate. The seed also contained 0.2% water soluble ash, 0.79% titratable acidity and 17.0 mg calcium/100 g. The pulp was found to contain 81% moisture, 3.43% titratable acidity and 24.5% non-reducing sugar. Selected physicochemical characteristics included refractive indices of 1.335 for the seed and 1.356 for the pulp, specific gravities of 1.250 for the seed and 1.023 for the pulp, pH values of 8.34 for the seed and 4.56 for the pulp, and soluble solids contents of 1.5 degrees Brix for the seed and 15 degrees Brix for the pulp. The extracted oil (20.5% yield) had a 60.43% unsaponifiable value, 23.54 KOH/g acid value, 100.98 KOH/g saponification value, 1.1 KOH/g peroxide value, 1.464 refractive index, 5.77 pH, 69.5 degrees Brix sosluble solids and 0.2900 specific gravity.

  17. Differential cytotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extracts on human tumour cell lines: Role of reactive oxygen species and glutathione

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B V V Pardhasaradhi; Madhurima Reddy; A Mubarak Ali; A Leela Kumari; Ashok Khar

    2005-03-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins are a new class of compounds that have been reported to have potent pesticidal, parasiticidal, anti-microbial, cell growth inhibitory activities. In this study, organic and aqueous extracts from the defatted seeds of Annona squamosa (custard apple) were tested on different human tumour cell lines for antitumoural activity. While organic and aqueous extracts induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells, they failed to do so in COLO-205 cells. Treatment of MCF-7 and K-562 cells with organic and aqueous extracts resulted in nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and reduced intracellular glutathione levels. In addition downregulation of Bcl-2 and PS externalization by Annexin-V staining suggested induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and K-562 cells by both the extracts through oxidative stress. On the contrary, COLO-205 cells showed only PS externalization but no change in ROS and glutathione levels. These observations suggest that the induction of apoptosis by A. squamosa extracts can be selective for certain types of cancerous cells.

  18. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K.; Santosh, P.; Rakshith, D.; Satish, S.

    2015-02-01

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410 nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it.

  19. Isolation of three new annonaceous acetogenins from Graviola fruit (Annona muricata) and their anti-proliferation on human prostate cancer cell PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Liu, Jingchun; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhu, Wenjun; Dou, Q Ping; Zhou, Kequan

    2016-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit powder of Graviola (Annona muricata) was continued to be conducted and yielded three more novel bioactive compounds: C-35 annonaceous acetogenins, muricins M and N, and C-37 annonaceous acetogenins, muricenin. They all contain a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyl groups. The structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical modification after isolation via open column chromatographic separation and HPLC purification. Especially, murices M and N demonstrated more potent anti-proliferative activities against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

  20. Additional bioactive acetogenins, annomutacin and (2,4-trans and cis)-10R-annonacin-A-ones, from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F E; Zhao, G X; Zeng, L; Zhang, Y; Schwedler, J T; McLaughlin, J L; Sastrodihardjo, S

    1995-09-01

    In a continuation of our research on bioactive components from the leaves of Annona muricata, three novel monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, namely, annomutacin [1], (2,4-trans)-10R-annonacin-A-one [2], and (2,4-cis)-10R- annonacin-A-one [3], have been identified. Their structures were deduced by ms, nmr, ir, and uv spectral and chemical methods, and the absolute configurations were determined by Mosher ester methodology. A known bioactive amide, N-p-coumaroyl tyramine, was also found. Compound 1 and the mixture of compounds 2 and 3 showed selective cytotoxicities against the human A-549 lung tumor cell line.

  1. ROLLING MILL SYSTEM DYNAMIC DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is studied how the aluminum foil chatter mark is produced and controlledThe stableness of hydraulic AGC system,fluid vibration of capsule system,and electromechanical coupling of AC/AC VVVF system and dec oupling are also studiedIt is shown that rolling mill design should go to syst em dynamic design from traditional designThe framed drawing of system dynamic design program is presented

  2. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  3. Effect of different carbon sources on the in vitro multiplication of Annona sp. Efeito da fonte de carbono na multiplicação in vitro de Annona sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raniere Ferreira de Santana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae family comprises approximately 2.300 species, some with significant commercial value. Although commercial plantations have suffered due to problems related to seedling production. As micropropagation is a viable technique for seedling production, the present work evaluated the effects of different carbon sources on in vitro bud induction in five Annonaceae species. Nodal segments obtained from plants of the Annona glabra, A. cauliflora, A. coriacea, A. bahiensis and Rollinia silvatica species were inoculated into solid WPM culture medium with 8.87 μM BAP, 0.86 mM of benomyl, and 87.64 mM of the following carbon sources: glucose, sucrose, fructose, galactose, sorbitol and maltose. We evaluated the buds number, the length and weight of the largest bud, the number of expanded leaves per bud, the length of the largest leaf and the dry matter of the buds. No significant difference was observed among the different carbon sources used in terms of the number of produced buds; however, the length of the largest bud, the number of expanded leaves, the length of the largest leaf, and dry weight of the buds presented significant difference according to the studied speciesas well as the carbon sources used, with the lowest value being obtained with sorbitol. The results obtained here indicated that, except for sorbitol, any of the carbohydrates tested could be used in the in vitro multiplication protocols for A. bahiensis, A. cauliflora, A. coriacea, A. glabra and R. silvatica.A família Annonaceae compreende, aproximadamente, mais de 2.300 espécies, algumas com ampla aceitação no mercado nacional. No entanto, o plantio comercial tem sido prejudicado, em razão das questões relacionadas à produção de mudas. Considerando que a micropropagação é uma técnica viável nesse contexto, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes de carbono na indução de brotações in vitro em cinco espécies de

  4. Avaliação do potencial alelopático de substâncias isoladas em sementes de araticum (Annona crassiflora Allelophatic potential of substances isolated from Annona crassiflora seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Inoue

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou identificar substâncias biologicamente ativas e o potencial alelopático de esteroides glicosilados, provenientes das sementes de Annona crassiflora. O isolamento dos esteroides glicosilados foi realizado com a separação dos constituintes químicos do extrato bruto de acetato de etila em coluna cromatográfica, sendo a completa elucidação estrutural por meio de espectroscopia de RMN ¹H. Testes de germinação com as espécies Euphorbia heterophylla e Ipomoea grandifolia foram conduzidos em câmaras tipo BOD a 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, monitorados durante 10 dias com avaliação diária, nas concentrações de 0, 20, 40, 80 e 100 mg L-1 dos materiais isolados. Utilizando as mesmas concentrações, os experimentos de desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo foram mantidos em câmara de germinação a 25ºC e fotoperíodo de 24 horas, com avaliação no décimo dia. Após o extrato de acetato de etila ser submetido ao fracionamento, verificou-se a presença de sinais característicos de fitoesteróis no espectro do RMN ¹H, resultando em uma mistura de estigmasterol glicosilado e sitosterol glicosilado. Os resultados indicam que as substâncias estigmasterol e sitosterol não proporcionaram inibição na germinação e no índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG de E. heterophylla e I. grandifolia. Por outro lado, estigmasterol e sitosterol interferiram no desenvolvimento de radícula e hipocótilo de E. heterophylla.This work aimed to identify substances and the allelopathic potential of steroidal glycosides, isolated from the seeds of Annona crassiflora. Isolation of steroidal glycosides was carried out with the separation of chemical components of ethyl acetate extract in a chromatographic column and identified by 1H NMR. Germination tests with Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea grandifolia were carried out in BOD Germinator at 25ºC and 12 hr photoperiod, monitored for 10 days at concentrations of 0, 20, 40

  5. Some photosynthetic and growth responses of Annona glabra L. seedlings to soil flooding Algumas respostas fotossintéticas e do crescimento de plântulas de Annona glabra L. ao alagamento do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo S. Mielke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the effects of soil flooding and leaf position on net primary productivity and whole plant carbon balance of Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae seedlings, a highly flood-tolerant tree, native to the tropical Americas. All seedlings survived a period of 56 days of flooding without symptoms of stress. Flooding induced significant increments in root, stem and whole-plant biomass (P Um experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de analisar os efeitos do alagamento e da posição das folhas na produtividade primária líquida e no balanço de carbono em plântulas de Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae, uma espécie altamente tolerante ao alagamento e nativa na América tropical. Todas as plântulas sobreviveram ao período de alagamento de 56 dias sem apresentarem sintomas de estresse. O alagamento induziu incrementos significativos (P <0,01 na biomassa de raízes, caules e planta inteira, e na razão raízes/parte aérea. Medições das trocas gasosas foliares foram conduzidas aos quatro, 11, 18 e 56 dias após o alagamento, na primeira (L1, quarta (L4 e sétima (L7 folha completamente expandida a partir do ápice em cada plântula. Os valores médios da condutância estomática ao vapor de água (g s e da taxa fotossintética líquida (A nas plântulas controle foram 0,26 mol m-2s-1 e 8,8 µmol m-2s-1, respectivamente. Reduções significativas (P <0,05 em A foram observadas entre L1 e L7 nas plântulas controle em todos os três dias de medições. As reduções em A com o aumento da idade foliar também ocorreram nas plantas alagadas, apenas nos dias 4 e 18. O alagamento induziu alterações significativas em gs (P <0,05, alcançando 65% em relação ao controle no dia 4 e 152% em relação ao controle no dia 56. Com base nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência e de crescimento de plântulas de A. glabra estão diretamente relacionadas com a capacidade de manter

  6. Avaliação de tipos de enxertia e recipientes para produção de mudas de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. Evaluation of grafting types and containers for the production of soursop tree (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Couquiti Kitamura

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Na fruticultura moderna, é importante a busca de métodos de cultivo para a redução do tempo de produção. Nesse sentido, o emprego de técnicas de enxertia é fundamental. No Campo Experimental do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Alagoas-UFAL, sob as condições de viveiro, foi conduzido um experimento com gravioleira (Annona muricata L.. O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos de três métodos de enxertia sobre a porcentagem de pegamento do enxerto. Os métodos de enxertia utilizados foram por borbulhia em escudo, garfagem à inglesa simples e garfagem em fenda cheia, combinado com duas cultivares de gravioleira (Gigante das Alagoas e Crioula e dois recipientes para mudas (sacos de polietileno e tubetes, empregando-se porta-enxertos com idade de 95 dias após a emergência. Foi avaliado o pegamento do enxerto aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia. Verificou-se que a cultivar Gigante das Alagoas foi superior à Crioula quanto ao pegamento do enxerto aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia. O melhor método de enxertia dependeu do tipo de recipiente, pois, quando se utilizaram sacos de polietileno, o método de enxertia por borbulhia em escudo foi superior aos de garfagens nas avaliações realizadas aos 60 e 90 dias após a enxertia, apresentando a percentagem média de pegamento do enxerto de 100 e 95%, respectivamente. Entretanto, utilizando recipientes de tubetes, todos os três métodos de enxertia testados apresentaram porcentagem média de pegamento do enxerto superior a 75%, porém, não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Por meio desses resultados, verifica-se que é possível reduzir o tamanho do recipiente, sem perder a eficiência e a qualidade das mudas.In modern fruit culture, the search for cropping methods for reduction of production time is important. In this sense, the use of grafting techniques is fundamental. In the Experimental Field of the Center of Agricultural Sciences of the Federal University of Alagoas

  7. Viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira (Annona squamosa em diferentes horários Viability of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa pollen grains at different hours of the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nietsche

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No manejo do cultivo da pinha (Annona squamosa, a polinização artificial é uma prática preconizada para, obter maior pegamento dos frutos bem como uniformização do formato dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade dos grãos de pólen de flores de pinheira em diferentes horários de coleta. O pólen foi obtido a partir de flores no estádio funcionalmente estaminada. Foram avaliados oito horários de coleta de pólen: zero hora, 1 hora, 2 horas, 3 horas, 4 horas, 5 horas, 6 horas e 7 horas da manhã. Foi utilizado meio de cultura padrão para germinação de pólen, com concentração de 10% de sacarose. As flores foram coletadas nos horários estabelecidos e os grãos de pólen foram retirados das anteras com auxílio de um pincel número 2 e em seguida inoculados em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela experimental constituída por duas placas Petri. Foram contados 100 grãos de pólen por placa. Após 6 horas de inoculação, os grãos de pólen foram visualizados sob lupa. Foram considerados germinados os grãos de pólen que possuíam tubo polínico com tamanho igual ou superior ao diâmetro do próprio pólen. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre o horário de coleta dos grãos de pólen. A percentagem média da germinação variou de 46,75% a 53,62% dos grãos de pólen germinados.In the management of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa crop, the artificial pollination is a preconized practice to obtain higher establishment of the fruits as well as their standardization. This study was carried out to evaluate the viability of sugar apple pollen grains at different collecting times. The pollens were obtained from the flowers at the functional staminate stage. The pollen grains were collected every hour, starting from 00:00am and ending at 07:00am, totalizing 8

  8. EFEITO DO ARMAZENAMENTO E DE FITOHORMÔNIOS NA QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE ARATICUM (Annona crassiflora Mart. EFFECT OF STORAGE AND PLANT HORMONES IN GERMINATION OF ARATICUM SEEDS (Annona crassiflora Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Machado Mesquita

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    As sementes de araticum (Annona crassiflora Mart. apresentam germinação lenta e desuniforme, o que afeta negativamente a sua propagação. O experimento foi conduzido na Escola de Agronomia e Engenharia de Alimentos da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia-GO. Foram utilizadas sementes de araticum provenientes de árvores vegetando em estado natural, no nordeste de Goiás. Aleatoriamente, coletou-se um fruto maduro por árvore, de um total de cinqüenta plantas dispersas na região. Uma coleta foi realizada em março de 1999, cujas sementes foram armazenadas por 365 dias, sendo avaliadas após esta estocagem. Em março de 2000, foi realizada nova coleta em outras cinqüenta plantas, avaliando-se imediatamente as sementes recém-colhidas. Os tratamentos de superação de dormência foram: testemunha, água destilada, ácido giberélico à 1.000 ppm, citocinina à 1.000 ppm, GA3 + BAP à 500 ppm. A semeadura foi realizada em sacos de polietileno preto, contendo areia grossa lavada, terriço de mata e terra de subsolo (3:3:4. O armazenamento das sementes por um ano não proporcionou taxa adequada de germinação em nenhum dos tratamentos. O ácido giberélico à 1.000 ppm é eficiente na superação da dormência em sementes recém-colhidas. As sementes dessa espécie devem ser semeadas logo após a sua extração dos frutos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Frutífera do cerrado; germinação; ácido.

    Araticum seeds (Annona crassiflora Mart. have a slow and uneven pattern of germination, negatively affecting its propagation. The experiment was conducted from March/1999 through November/2001, at the Goiás State Federal University, Agronomy and Food Engineering School, using seeds coming from trees growing in natural environment in the Northeast region of Goiás State. At random, one ripe

  9. Purificação da enzima polifenoloxidase (PFO de polpa de pinha (Annona squamosa L. madura Purification of polyphenoloxidase (PPO from ripe custard apple (Annona squamosa L. pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Dorotea Pozzobon de A. LIMA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A PFO (EC 1.10.3.2 extraída de polpa de pinha madura (Annona squamosa L., foi parcialmente purificada por fracionamento em sulfato de amônio a 80% e purificada 411 (Fração I e 118 (Fração II vezes após cromatografia em coluna de troca iônica em DEAE-Toyopearl 650M, e 566 vezes em coluna de Toyopearl HW55F. A enzima da fração mais ativa foi caracterizada bioquimicamente. Quanto aos parâmetros cinéticos, a enzima apresentou valores de Km e Vmax de 7,14mM e 302,0 unidades/min/ml para catecol e 25,0mM e 180,2 unidades/min/ml para L-dopa respectivamente, substratos que demonstraram maior especificidade. O peso molecular foi estimado em 90.700 daltons através de filtração em gel Sephadex G-200. O teor de cobre da enzima purificada encontrado foi de 11ppm/peso da amostra liofilizada. Quanto à composição de aminoácidos, a PFO apresentou maiores teores de ácido aspártico, ácido glutâmico e lisina e menores teores de metionina, arginina e tirosina, com ausência de cisteína.The PPO (EC 1.10.3.2 extract of ripe custard apple (Annona squamosa L. pulps, was partially purified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and purified 411 (Fraction I and 118 (Fraction II fold in an ion exchange column of DEAE-Toyopearl 650M, and 566 fold in a gel column of Toyopearl HW 55F. The enzyme of the most active fraction was characterized biochemically. The partially purified and purified enzyme used the o-diphenols as substrates and no activity towards monophenols was detected. With respect to the kinetic parameters, the purified enzyme presented values for Km and Vmax of 7.14 mM and 302.0 units/min/ml for catechol and 25.0 mM and 180.2 units/min/ml for L-dopa respectively, substrates which show greater specificity. The molecular weight was estimated as 90.700 daltons using gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. In the analysis of copper, the purified enzyme gave a value of 11ppm by weight of the liofilized sample. The amino acid composition of the custard

  10. Formation of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成国; 齐宝森; 王瑞华

    2002-01-01

    The formation regularity of surface coating on milling balls during milling of Cr powders was investigated, revealing that the plastic deformation of the balls surface plays an important role in the formation of coating and that the stronger affinity between the powders and the balls is a necessary pre-condition for the coating. The size of Cr powders, the coating thickness and the microhardness vary consistently with milling time during milling. At initial milling stage, the powder size decreases, while the coating thickness and the microhardness increase, however, after milling for 24h, they all change slightly with prolonged milling, indicating a dynamic equilibrium between the powders cold welding and crashing, i.e. an almost equal rate for the powders attaching to and breaking off the milling balls.

  11. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano;

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization of...... a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  12. High-speed milling of light metals

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cus; U. Zuperl; V. Gecevska

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operati...

  13. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridon Ntougias; Kostas Bourtzis; George Tsiamis

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill wast...

  14. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan; Siti Baizura Mahat; Md. Fadjil Md. Din; A. Yuzir; Othman, N.

    2012-01-01

    In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether ...

  15. Uso de vermicomposto favorece o crescimento de mudas de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' associadas a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Use of earthworm manure improves growth of soursop seedlings (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Karla Alves da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A gravioleira, cujos frutos apresentam elevado potencial para exportação, é de fácil adaptação ao Semi-Árido nordestino, e a sua produção, economicamente importante, vem sendo estimulada. O uso de adubos orgânicos associados à inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA pode ser útil na formação de mudas frutíferas, porém o efeito da adição de adubo na simbiose com gravioleira (Annona muricata L. 'Morada' não é conhecido. Foi investigado o efeito de FMA multiplicado em substrato com resíduo orgânico na formação de mudas de gravioleira mantidas em substratos com fertilizante. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial de 2×5: 2 substratos (solo sem ou com 10% de vermicomposto e cinco tratamentos de inoculação (Acaulospora longula Spain & Schenck e Gigaspora albida Schenck & Smith produzidos em substratos com ou sem resíduo orgânico e controle não inoculado, com quatro repetições. Após 102 dias, avaliou-se: massa seca da parte aérea e radicular, altura, diâmetro do caule, taxa de crescimento, produção de esporos de FMA e de glomalina, atividade enzimática do solo, respiração microbiana, colonização micorrízica total, arbuscular e hifálica. Em geral, a inoculação com FMA estimulou o crescimento, mas no tratamento adubado as mudas em simbiose com G. albida não foram beneficiadas pela associação. O uso de vermicomposto estimulou a colonização micorrízica, a respiração microbiana, a atividade enzimática e a produção de glomalina no solo, porém reduziu a esporulação de A. longula. A utilização de FMA e vermicomposto pode constituir alternativa na produção de mudas de gravioleira, pois reduziu à metade o tempo de formação das mudas e pode reduzir em 75% a dose de adubo a ser aplicada. No entanto, a escolha de FMA compatíveis com o hospedeiro é indispensável para garantir respostas positivas. A aplicação conjunta de FMA e adubo orgânico também pode

  16. Cutting Characteristics of Force Controllable Milling Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirakashi; Takahiro; Shibuya; Wataru

    2002-01-01

    In order to control cutting force and its direction i n milling operation, a new milling head was developed. The head has two milling cutters, which are connected by a pair of gears and rotate in opposite direction respectively. Both up-cut and down-cut can be carried out simultaneously by t hese milling cutters. The each depth of cut, the ratio of up/down cutting depth , by these cutters can be also selected. The cutting force characteristics were experimentally discussed by changing the ratio. The cut...

  17. Robotic milling for rapid ceramic pototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Guang-chao; ZHANG Hai-ou; WANG Gui-lan

    2005-01-01

    Robotic milling is a developing method for rapidly producing prototypes and parts, but the application is limited for materials such as wax, wood, plastic and light metal, etc. The reason for this is because of the robotic weak rigidity. In this paper, a method of robotic milling for ceramic prototyping is developed, one that has been successfully applied in a new rapid hard tooling technology-Direct Prototype Spray Tooling[1]. At first, the appropriate ceramic materials mixed with metal powder are confirmed for the robotic milling and the following plasma spraying process. Then the 6 - DOF robotic milling paths are extracted from the NC code and transformed into the robotic JBI type file, the NC code generated through the general CAD/CAM software such as UG -NX.Finally, the robotic milling characteristics such as moving path accuracy and milling force are tested to find the best milling parameters and to ensure the executable, accurate and efficient ceramic prototype milling technology.The development of this method not only broadens the robotic milling material range but also extends the rapid prototyping fields. It can also be used for producing ceramic parts that are difficult to machine.

  18. Isoquinoline derivatives isolated from the fruit of Annona muricata as 5-HTergic 5-HT1A receptor agonists in rats: unexploited antidepressive (lead) products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrat, J A; De Bruyne, T; De Backer, J P; Vauquelin, G; Vlietinck, A J

    1997-11-01

    The fruit and the leaves of Annona muricata (Annonaceae) are used in traditional medicine for their tranquillizing and sedative properties. Extracts of the plant have been shown to inhibit binding of [3H]rauwolscine to 5-HTergic 5-HT1A receptors in calf hippocampus, and three alkaloids, annonaine (1), nornuciferine (2) and asimilobine (3), isolated from the fruit have been shown to have IC50 values of 3 microM, 9 microM and 5 microM, respectively, although in ligand-binding studies it was not possible to determine whether interaction of these ligands with the receptor was agonistic or antagonistic. This paper presents the results of functional assays of the alkaloids. The inhibition of cAMP accumulation was tested in NIH-3T3 cells stably transfected with the 5-HT1A receptor from man. None of the alkaloids showed antagonistic properties towards the 5-HT1A receptors because in the antagonistic tests no influence on the forskolin-stimulated increase of cAMP level was detected. Full agonistic properties were measured for all three compounds; the inhibition constants (Ki) for 1, 2 and 3 were Annona muricata possesses anti-depressive effects, possibly induced by compounds 1, 2 and 3, and that in the past potent leads for the development of anti-depressive therapeutics have not been used.

  19. Cytogenetic Effects of Ethanol Extract of Sun Dried Seeds of Soursop (Annona muricata on The Male Germ Line Cells of The African Pest Grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seino RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona muricata on some meiotic parameters in the pest grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. Adult grasshoppers were treated with 28μl of the Ethanol extract of sun dry seeds of Annona muricata and absolute ethanol (control for 48 hours and all the parameters (chiasma frequency, formation of rod and ring shaped bivalents and meiotic anomalies were affected by the extract. Chiasma formation was observed to significantly (P<0.05 increase following treatment and this was correlated by a significant increase in the formation of ring shaped bivalents. The incidences of meiotic anomalies such as laggards and bridges at first and second meiotic Anaphases, second meiotic Metaphase as well as in first and second meiotic Telophases were observed to increase when insects were treated with the ethanol extract. These observations indicated that the Ethanol extract of the seeds of A. muricata contain substances that could induce cytotoxicity. The importance of such property in the formulation of grasshopper pest control measures cannot be overemphasized.

  20. Assessment of Annona reticulata Linn. leaves fractions for invitro antioxidative effect and antimicrobial potential against standard human pathogenic strains

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since from long time the plant, Annona reticulata Linn. is known for its beneficial effects. Leaves of A. reticulata were screened for phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The shade dried leaves were extracted with methanol and aqueous methanolic extract was partitioned successively with n-butanol, chloroform and acetone solvents. Methanolic extract was subjected to antioxidant screening using DPPH free radical scavenging activity and H2O2 scavenging activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of extract and fractions were analyzed on eight different clinical bacterial and fungal strains using agar well diffusion method and broth dilution method (MIC and MMC determination. The antioxidant activity showed that the extracts exhibited scavenging effect in concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed potent inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacterial strains while in case of fungal strains the maximum effect was observed against Candida blanki. The maximum zone of inhibition of n-butanol, chloroform and acetone fractions was observed against B. subtilis, and E. coli respectively while all fractions exhibited potent inhibitory effect against C. blanki. MIC and MBC values were determined for active samples, methanol extract and chloroform fraction against Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which revealed lower MIC and MBC values. The fungal strains Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and C. blanki were used to calculate MIC and MFC values for methanol extract and acetone fraction which demonstrated lower MIC and MFC values. The results provided evidence that the plant is richly supplied with numerous phytoconstituents that might indeed be potential sources of natural antioxidant, antimicrobial agents and supplementary food.

  1. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

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    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  2. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  3. Histomorphological and morphometric studies of the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic rats treated with extracts of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, D O; Komolafe, O A; Adewole, O S; Obuotor, E M; Abiodun, A A; Adenowo, T K

    2010-05-01

    Microanatomical changes in the pancreatic islet cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were studied after treatment with methanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (control, untreated diabetic group, and A. muricata-treated diabetic group) of ten rats each. Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in groups B and C by a single intra-peritoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control rats were intraperitoneally injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. Daily intra peritoneal injections of 100 mg/kg A. muricata were administered to group C rats for two weeks. Post sacrifice the pancreases of the rats were excised and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The tissues were processed for paraffin embedding and sections of 5 mum thickness were produced and stained with H & E, Gomori aldehyde fuchsin, and chrome alum haematoxylin-phloxine for demonstration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islets. Histomorphological and morphometric examination of the stained pancreatic sections showed a significant increase in the number, diameter, and volume of the beta-cells of pancreatic islets of the A. muricata-treated group (5.67 +/- 0.184 N/1000 mum(2), 5.38 +/- 0.093 mum and 85.12 +/- 4.24 mum(3), respectively) when compared to that of the untreated diabetic group of rats (2.85 +/- 0.361 N/1000 mum(2), 2.85 +/- 0.362 mum and 69.56 +/- 5.216 mum(3), respectively). The results revealed regeneration of the beta-cells of islets of pancreatic islet of rats treated with extract of A. muricata.

  4. Gastroprotective activity of Annona muricata leaves against ethanol-induced gastric injury in rats via Hsp70/Bax involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The popular fruit tree of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), known as soursop and graviola, is a widely distributed plant in Central and South America and tropical countries. Leaves of A. muricata have been reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the gastroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAM) were investigated against ethanol-induced gastric injury models in rats. The acute toxicity test of EEAM in rats, carried out in two doses of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg, showed the safety of this plant, even at the highest dose of 2 g/kg. The antiulcer study in rats (five groups, n=6) was performed with two doses of EEAM (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and with omeprazole (20 mg/kg), as a standard antiulcer drug. Gross and histological features showed the antiulcerogenic characterizations of EEAM. There was significant suppression on the ulcer lesion index of rats pretreated with EEAM, which was comparable to the omeprazole effect in the omeprazole control group. Oral administration of EEAM to rats caused a significant increase in the level of nitric oxide and antioxidant activities, including catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase associated with attenuation in gastric acidity, and compensatory effect on the loss of gastric wall mucus. In addition, pretreatment of rats with EEAM caused significant reduction in the level of malondialdehyde, as a marker for oxidative stress, associated with an increase in prostaglandin E2 activity. Immunohistochemical staining also demonstrated that EEAM induced the downregulation of Bax and upregulation of Hsp70 proteins after pretreatment. Collectively, the present results suggest that EEAM has a promising antiulcer potential, which could be attributed to its suppressive effect against oxidative damage and preservative effect toward gastric wall mucus.

  5. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION OF FIRMNESS IN SOURSOP FRUITS (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita DURING POSTHARVEST

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    CARLOS J. MARQUEZ-CARDOZO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Frutos de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv Elita en diferentes etapas de maduración fueron evaluados, determinando sus características físico-químicas: sólidos solubles totales (SST, acidez y pH. La firmeza se encontró mediante la aplicación de pruebas de penetración uniaxial. El modelado y la simulación de la firmeza se llevó a cabo por el software Autodesk Inventor Professional 11.0 (ANSYS® Technology. Los frutos mostraron una tendencia creciente con respecto a los SST y la acidez, alcanzando valores máximos de 12,8°Brix y acidez de 0,74%, y un pH inferior a 3,43, valores que coinciden con la madurez de consumo, tal como se observa para el día 6. La Firmeza mostró una tendencia decreciente durante todo el período de poscosecha, con valores de 79,43 N para el día 0 y 3,62 N para el día 9. La simulación por elementos finitos de la fuerza de firmeza presentó alta correlación (>90 % con respecto a los datos experimentales. La simulación por elementos finitos se convierte en una alternativa no destructiva para la evaluación de la firmeza, útil para el almacenamiento, transporte, consumo en fresco, envasado y procesamiento de éstas frutas.

  6. Control for Cold Rolling Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Morad, Antoni; Travancic, Faruk

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the details in a final research thesis work done rolling mill technology. The work is carried out at Heat Transfer located at Finspång. The main objective of this work is to evaluate thickness and flatness data from the profile to give an optimal start value for the pressure and force applied on the machine and the speed as well, so that the profiles produced, have the right thickness and best possible flatness. Thickness, start value for power, the degree of bending the ...

  7. John Stuart Mill and romanticism

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an examination of the philosophy of John Stuart Mill and its relation to the romantic movement. The Introduction outlines reasons to believe that such an inquiry is sensible: Mill’s readings of the British and German romantics are outlined. I proceed to offer an argument for the application of an historical term such as ‘romanticism’ in philosophy and suggest that the space opened up by the revisionist view of romanticism as an extension, rather than a denial, of the Enlighte...

  8. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  9. Technological improvements in wire rod mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestani, M.

    1996-07-01

    The paper deals with the latest rolling technologies and hi-tech equipment developed by Danieli-mogardshammar to ensure top performance of modern wire rod mills. In particular, a high reduction sizing mill, a twin module fast finishing block and a high speed cropping shear are presented. (authors)

  10. Jiangsu Mills Attempt to Adjust Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The profit squeeze on China’s textile mills continues. In Jiangsu Province, a very important market, mills are reacting in a variety of ways to this situation. Spinners and weavers of man-made fiber appear to be the most adversely affected,

  11. Laser displacement meter application for milling diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Oleg; Mori, Kazuo; Kasashima, Nagayoshi

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents the application of a laser displacement meter for direct multi-purpose sensing of milling tool conditions. Using a laser displacement meter, a laser beam is projected onto the cutting tool and subsequently reflected. The intensity as well as the angle of the reflected beam are measured. The signals are interpreted for identification of tool geometry, tool whirling, or vibration. Signal processing and analysis depend on the application. A prototype system has been developed to demonstrate the feasibility of various applications, namely (1) tool setting evaluation, (2) in-process measurement of milling cutter geometry and detection of tool failure, (3) continuous monitoring of milling cutter deterioration, (4) detection and measurement of chatter in milling, (5) measurement of milling tool bending and (6) thermal expansion.

  12. Produção do porta-enxerto (Annona squamosa L. com o uso de reguladores vegetais Production of (Annona squamosa L. rootstocks with the use of plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A redução do período de formação do porta-enxerto para qualquer espécie frutífera é desejável sob o ponto de vista da diminuição dos custos de produção para o viveirista. Desta forma, realizou-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de reguladores vegetais no crescimento e desenvolvimento do porta-enxerto Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos e cinco repetições de 15 plantas. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela pulverização com diferentes concentrações de reguladores vegetais: - Testemunha (sem pulverização; - GA3 (25, 50, 75 mg.L-1; - GA4+7 + fenilmetil-aminopurina (25, 50, 75 mg.L-1. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: - comprimento do caule (Cc; - número de folhas (Nf; - diâmetro do caule a 20 cm da base das plantas; - massa seca da parte aérea e da parte radicular. Os resultados de Cc demonstram que a aplicação de reguladores vegetais afetou positivamente o crescimento do porta-enxerto, pois ocorreu resposta quadrática e linear, para os tratamentos com GA3 e GA4+7 + fenilmetil-aminopurina, respectivamente. Quanto ao diâmetro do caule, observou-se somente resposta quadrática com a aplicação de GA3, o que também foi verificado no parâmetro massa seca da parte aérea.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3 and N-(phenylmethyl-1H-purine-6-amine + GA4+7, on the development of A. squamosa L. rootstocks. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with 7 treatments and 5 replicates. The treatments consisted of control, 25, 50 and 75 mg.L-1 of GA3, as well as 25, 50 and 75 mg.L-1 of N-(phenylmethyl-1H-purine-6-amine + GA4+7. The following parameters were evaluated: stem length; number of leaves; stem diameter; in addition to shoot and root dry weight. The results showed positive effects of growth regulators application on A. squamosa L

  13. Fenologia de Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae em um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto em Rio Verde, Goiás (Nota Científica. Phenology of Annona coriacea Mart. (Annonaceae in a fragment of Cerrado sensu stricto in Rio Verde, Goiás (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michellia Pereira SOARES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fenológicos são importantes para a compreensão da dinâmica das comunidades vegetais, para o entendimento da reprodução das espécies, da organização temporal dos recursos e da coevolução entre plantas e animais. Neste estudo, acompanhou-se a fenologia vegetativa e reprodutiva de 22 indivíduos de Annona coriacea Mart., durante 11 meses, em um fragmento de Cerrado sensu stricto no município de Rio Verde, Goiás, registrando-se os índices de atividade, intensidade e avaliando-se a sincronia das fenofases. A ocorrência da floração e brotamento no início das chuvas, a manutenção da produção de folhas adultas durante todo o período estudado e a maior intensidade de frutificação e senescência foliar durante a estiagem são estratégias características de uma planta adaptada à ocorrência de duas estações bem marcadas. Dessa forma, há indícios de que Annona coriacea responde à sazonalidade climática característica do Domínio Cerrado, já que a delimitação dos padrões fenológicos e da sazonalidade só é possível a partir de pelo menos dois anos de dados. Phenological studies are important for understanding the dynamics of plant communities, the reproduction of the species, the temporal organization of resources and coevolution between plants and animals. This study followed up the vegetative and reproductive phenology of 22 individuals of Annona coriacea Mart., for 11 months, in a fragment of Cerrado in Rio Verde, Goiás, recording activity and intensity index and evaluating the timing of phenophases. The occurrence of flowering and budding at the beginning of the rains, the continued production of mature leaves throughout the study period, and more intense fruiting and leaf senescence during drought are strategies proper of a plant adapted to the occurrence of two well-defined seasons. So, probably Annona coriacea responds to climatic seasonality characteristic of the Cerrado Domain because it is only

  14. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author)

  15. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (pavocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (pavocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model fitted to the data obtained in this study and to the growth data available in the literature for other tropical low acid fruits indicated high variability in μ and λ of Salmonella. The results obtained in this study show that whole low acid tropical fruits can harbor Salmonella, and that this foodborne pathogen can not only survive but also grow both on the

  16. Annona muricata leaf extract-mediated silver nanoparticles synthesis and its larvicidal potential against dengue, malaria and filariasis vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, S B; Yuvarajan, R; Natarajan, D

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit several diseases which cause millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes caused diverse effects to the environment, mammals, and high manufacturing cost. The present study was aimed to test the larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Annona muricata plant leaf extract against third instar larvae of three medically important mosquitoes, i.e., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The different concentrations of green synthesized Ag Nanoparticles (AgNPs; 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous crude leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, 150 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae for 24 h. Significant larval mortality was observed after the treatment of A. muricata for all mosquitoes with lowest LC50 and LC90 values, viz., A. aegypti (LC50 and LC90 values of 12.58 and 26.46 μg mL(-1)), A. stephensi (LC50 and LC90 values of 15.28 and 31.91 μg mL(-1)) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 and LC90 values of 18.77 and 35.72 μg mL(-1)), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs from A. muricata were highly toxic than aqueous crude extract. The nanoparticle characterization was done using spectral and microscopic analysis, namely UV-visible spectroscopy which showed a sharp peak at 420 nm of aqueous medium containing AgNPs, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed the average crystalline size of synthesized AgNPs (approximately 45 nm), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study exhibited prominent peaks 3381.28, 2921.03, 1640.17, 1384.58, 1075.83, and 610.77 cm(-1). Particle size analysis (PSA) showed the size and distribution of AgNPs (103 nm); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis showed a spherical shape, size range from 20 to 53 nm; and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) reflects the chemical composition of synthesized AgNPs. Heat stability of the AgNPs was

  17. Polinização natural, manual e autopolinização no pegamento de frutos de pinheira (Annona squamosa L. em Alagoas Natural, artificial and self pollination on fruit set of sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. in Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau da Silva Campos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A pinheira (Annona squamosa L é cultivada no Estado do Alagoas há mais de um século, sendo a principal cultura de valor econômico para centenas de pequenos agricultores. Um dos principais entraves para melhorar a produtividade da cultura é o baixo índice de polinização das flores e a conseqüente produção de frutos. Embora sejam morfologicamente perfeitas, as flores da pinheira apresentam dicogamia protogínica, fenômeno no qual a maturação dos carpelos acontece antes da maturação dos estames, inviabilizando a autofecundação. O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito da polinização natural, manual e da autopolinização no número de frutos fixados em pinheiras. Foram utilizadas plantas de 4 anos de idade oriundas de pés-francos da variedade local "Crioula". As flores foram selecionadas na porção média das árvores em toda a sua circunferência. Foram utilizados os seguintes tratamentos: flores em polinização natural; flores cobertas para induzir a autopolinização; flores polinizadas com pincel usando pólen puro; flores polinizadas com pincel usando 75 % de pólen e 25 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com pincel usando 50 % de pólen e 50 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com pincel usando 25 % de pólen e 75 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com bomba usando pólen puro; flores polinizadas com bomba usando 75 % de pólen e 25 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com bomba usando 50 % de pólen e 50 % de amido de milho; flores polinizadas com bomba usando 25 % de pólen e 75 % de amido de milho. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o uso da polinização artificial com pincel ou com bomba polinizadora aumentou em até 10 vezes o número de frutos fixados em polinização natural ou em autopolinização. A adição do amido de milho seco como veículo para o pólen não reduziu a percentagem de frutos fixados e pode ser utilizado em até 50% da mistura sem reduzir a eficiência na poliniza

  18. Fases da germinação de sementes de Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer em diferentes temperaturas Germination phases of Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seeds under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nepomuceno Costa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar as fases da germinação de sementes de araticum-de-terra-fria (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer sob diferentes temperaturas. Para tanto, o trabalho foi dividido em dois experimentos: um para a determinação das fases I e II da germinação, e outro para a fase III. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 3 tratamentos e 4 repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, em ambos os experimentos. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelas temperaturas constantes de 25ºC e 30ºC e temperatura alternada de 20-30ºC (8-16 h, respectivamente, com luz constante. As variáveis analisadas foram a variação do grau de umidade ao longo do tempo (experimento 1, a porcentagem e a velocidade média de germinação (experimento 2. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, as médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade e regressão polinomial. A variação do grau de umidade ao longo do tempo foi estudada através da regressão não linear monomolecular, com os parâmetros das funções comparados conforme os tratamentos, ajustados, submetidos à análise de variância e teste Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Observou-se que as sementes mantidas a 30ºC apresentaram maiores valores para velocidade de aquisição de água, atingindo 27,85% de grau de umidade na mudança da fase I para a fase II. Quando as sementes foram submetidas a 25ºC, a fase I teve duração de 60 horas, atingindo 28,35% de grau de umidade e, sob 20/30ºC, a fase durou 72 horas, alcançando 28,33% de grau de umidade. Embora 30ºC tenha promovido a maior velocidade de embebição, não refletiu em maior porcentagem de germinação (fase III, que foi observada nas sementes mantidas a 20/30ºC.This study was carried out with the aimed to identify the germination phases of "araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seeds under different temperatures. Thus, the work

  19. Yang-Mills origin of gravitational symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, A; Duff, M J; Hughes, L J; Nagy, S

    2014-01-01

    By regarding gravity as the convolution of left and right Yang-Mills theories, we derive in linearised approximation the gravitational symmetries of general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance and local supersymmetry from the flat space Yang-Mills symmetries of local gauge invariance and global super-Poincar\\'e. As a concrete example we focus on the new-minimal (12+12) off-shell version of simple four-dimensional supergravity obtained by tensoring the off-shell Yang-Mills multiplets (4 + 4, N_L = 1) and (3 + 0, N_R = 0).

  20. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the...... plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  1. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time is...... in NEMS development can accomplish....

  2. Synthesis and characterization of silicon carbide by reaction milling in a dual-drive planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of silicon carbide from elemental silicon and graphite powder by reaction milling in a specially designed dual-drive planetary mill is reported. The phase evolutions, particle size distribution, and morphology of particles during milling are studied during a 40-h grinding period. X-ray diffraction study indicates complete conversion of silicon and graphite to silicon carbide. The crystallite size varies from 150 nm from the start to 10 nm after 40 h of milling. The lattice strain increases with milling up to about 20 h when SiC forms and subsequently with the formation of SiC it is reduced. Al-SiC composites are prepared by mixing Al with 40 h milled final SiC powder and sintered in an inert atmosphere. The composites show excellent compatibility between Al and SiC particles, no voids or cracks are present

  3. Estudo fitoquímico e atividades leishmanicida, anticolinestarásica e antioxidante de extratos de Annona glabra L. (araticum panã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Adailson de Sousa Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as principais classes de compostos químicos presentes em Annona grabra L. (Araticum panã, e avaliar o seu potencial biológico analisando suas atividades antioxidante, antiacetilcolinesterase e leishmanicida. Para tanto, a entrecasca e sementes foram submetidas à extração em aparelho de soxhlet com os solventes orgânicos hexano, clorofórmio, acetato de etila e metanol, obtendo-se os respectivos extratos. Com os extratos foram realizados testes de prospecção fitoquímica, determinação da atividade antioxidante pelo método de inibição do radical livre DPPH e inibição da acetilcolinesterase em ensaio de cromatografia em camada delgada. Os testes de atividade leishmanicida in vitro em formas promastigotas de Leishmania infantum chagasi foram realizados em placa de 96 poços em aparelho ELISA. Os extratos foram testados a 100 μg/ mL. Os testes fitoquímicos revelaram a presença de esteroides, triterpenos, alcaloides, compostos fenólicos e saponinas. Todos os extratos apresentaram inibição da acetilcolinesterase e os extratos hexânicos de ambas partes mostraram maior percentual de inibição de L. infantum chagasi. Nestes extratos, compostos apolares como esteroides e triterpenos podem contribuir para a atividade leishmanicida. Os extratos de melhor atividade antioxidante foram o acetato de etila e metanólico da entrecasca e metanólico das sementes que correspondem aos que contem compostos fenólicos. Conclui-se que A. glabra constitui uma fonte potencial de agentes leishmanicida com possível mecanismo de ação pela inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase das membranas da L. infantum chagasi, causador da leishmaniose visceral.Phytochemical study and leishmanicidal, anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Annona glabra L. (araticum panã extracts ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the main types of chemical constituents present in Annona grabra L. (araticum pan

  4. Morphological changes in the midgut of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae following exposure to an Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M S; Pinheiro, D O; Serrão, J E; Pereira, M J B

    2012-08-01

    Bioinsecticides are important in the control of disease vectors, but data regarding their physiological effects on target insects are incomplete. This study describes morphological changes that occur in the midgut of third instar Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) following treatment with a methanolic extract of Annona coriacea (Magnoliales: Annonaceae). Dissected midguts were subdivided into anterior and posterior regions and analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy. Insects exposed to the extract displayed intense, destructive cytoplasmic vacuolization in columnar and regenerative midgut cells. The apical surfaces of columnar cells exhibited cytoplasmic protrusions oriented toward the lumen, suggesting that these cells could be involved in apocrine secretory processes and/or apoptosis. We report that A. coriacea extracts induced morphological alterations in the midgut of A. aegypti midgut larvae, supporting the use of plant extracts for control of the dengue vector.

  5. Isolation of Montecristin, a Key Metabolite in Biogenesis of Acetogenins from Annona muricata and Its Structure Elucidation by Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleye, C.; Laurens, A.; Hocquemiller, R.; Cavé, A.; Laprévote, O.; Serani, L.

    1997-02-01

    During the course of our continuing search for acetogenins from Annonaceae, a new metabolite, montecristin, possibly involved in the biogenesis of acetogenins, was isolated from the roots of Annona muricata. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of UV, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and mass spectrometry. The identification of the main stuctural features of montecristin (1) was obtained from the NMR spectra whereas their locations on the alkyl chain were evidenced by using mass spectrometry. The attribution of each carbon and location of substituents on the alkyl chain of this fatty acid gamma-lactone was evidenced by using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and high-energy collisional activation of [M + Li](+) lithium complexes. Finally, the structure determination of montecristin was strengthened by epoxidation and transformation leading to a known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin.

  6. CONTROLE DE Cerconota anonella (SEPP. (LEP.: OECOPHORIDAE E DE Bephratelloides pomorum (FAB. (HYM.: EURYTOMIDAE EM FRUTOS DE GRAVIOLA (Annona muricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELETTI SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de campo foi realizado em Maceió, Estado de Alagoas, Brasil, para avaliar os controles químico e mecânico de Cerconota anonella (Sepp. (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae e de Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, as pragas-chave da gravioleira, Annona muricata L. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 9 tratamentos e 20 repetições. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis nos frutos: números de orifícios causados pelas pragas, peso, comprimento e diâmetro. Em cada tratamento, observaram-se a percentagem de frutos colhidos e os custos unitários. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o saco plástico comum e com o saco plástico perfurado.

  7. GENERALIZED SIMULATION MODEL FOR MILLED SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY-APPLICATION TO PERIPHERAL MILLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analyzing various factors influencing milled surface topography, firstly, a generalized model for milled surface topography is proposed. Secondly, using the principles of transformation matrix and vector operation, the trajectory equation of cutting edge relative to workpiece is derived. Then, a three-dimensional topography simulation algorithm is constructed through dividing the workpiece into regular grids. Finally, taking the peripheral milling process as an example, the generalized model is simplified, and the corresponding simulation examples are given. The results indicate that it is very efficient for the generalized model to be used to analyze and simulate the peripherally milled surface topography.

  8. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants...... carbides the error motion during the grinding wheels do not allow using identical paths for tools having differences in diameter of more than one order of magnitude. Thus grinding paths for micro and mills are simplified in comparison to those for larger tools of similar shape. [1] The aim of the present....../lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...

  9. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  10. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  11. Enraizamento de estacas de atemoieira ‘Gefner’ tratadas com auxinas Rooting of atemoya ‘Gefner’ cuttings treated with auxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A propagação da atemóia deve ser feita assexuadamente e, nesse contexto, a estaquia surge como alternativa. Dessa forma, objetivou-se determinar a parte do ramo de atemoieira (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' mais apropriada para estaquia. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3x3 (reguladores x tipos de estaca, com 5 repetições de 12 estacas. Os reguladores utilizados foram AIB 0,5% e ANA 0,5%, aplicados na forma de talco na base das estacas, além da testemunha. Os diferentes tipos de estacas foram retirados de 3 regiões do caule (apical, mediana e basal. As estacas tratadas foram colocadas para enraizar em bandejas de poliestireno contendo substrato comercial Plantmax® e levadas para câmara de nebulização intermitente, onde permaneceram durante 136 dias. As variáveis avaliadas foram: porcentagem de estacas vivas, porcentagem de estacas vivas com enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas com folhas remanescentes, com brotações e com folhas remanescentes + brotações, porcentagem de estacas enraizadas sem folhas, número, comprimento médio e massa da matéria seca de raízes por estaca enraizada, área foliar e massa da matéria seca de folhas remanescentes e brotações. A atemoieira apresenta maior potencial para formação de mudas por estaquia empregando-se estacas apicais sem tratamento e medianas tratadas com ANA (0,5%.Atemoya propagation must be done asexually; in this context, cutting represents an alternative. This work aimed to verify the most appropriate branch part of atemoya (Annona cherimola Mill. x Annona squamosa L. cv. 'Gefner' for cutting. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (plant growth regulators x cutting types, with 5 replicates of 12 cuttings. The plant growth regulators IBA 0.5% and NAA 0.5% were applied as talc in the base of cuttings, besides the control. The different cutting types were

  12. Dynamic estimation of electrical demand in hot rolling mills

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Orcajo, Gonzalo Arturo; Rodríguez, Josué; Ardura García, Pablo; Cano Rodríguez, José Manuel; González Norniella, Joaquín; Llera Traviesa, Rocío; Cifrián, Diego

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method capable of reproducing the particular operating conditions of a hot strip mill and predicting the evolution of the main electrical variables from both the characteristics of the steel to be milled and the specific features of the rolling mill. The method analyzes the load torque and the motor speed evolution in the stands of the roughing and finishing mill drives, according to the steel to be milled. In this study three types of carbon alloy steel are considered, ...

  13. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded ...

  14. INTERFIBER COMPETITION IN TEXTILE MILLS OVER TIME

    OpenAIRE

    zhang, ping; Fletcher, Stanley M.; Ethridge, Don E.

    1994-01-01

    Cotton and synthetic fiber competition in textile mills between 1961-1990 was examined using a time-varying parameter regression model. Results indicate that the structure of demand for cotton is not stable and cotton's share responses to changes in the prices of cotton and synthetic fiber vary over time. Cotton and synthetic fiber competition in textile mill use is essentially between cotton and noncellulosic fiber. Cellulosic fiver is not a cotton competitor.

  15. Holography and Noncommutative Yang-Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Maozhen; Li, Miao; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2000-01-01

    In this note a lately proposed gravity dual of noncommutative Yang-Mills theory is derived from the relations, recently suggested by Seiberg and Witten, between closed string moduli and open string moduli. The only new input one needs is a simple form of the running string tension as a function of energy. This derivation provides convincing evidence that string theory integrates with the holographical principle, and demonstrates a direct link between noncommutative Yang-Mills theory and holography.

  16. The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2014-03-01

    The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory. The mass gap is filled from finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbation tensor containing vacuum excitations. This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a ``steroidal'' minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to source currents through an infinite recursive nesting. Based on combining classical Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons. Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with viewing Dirac's gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime. Finally, with aid from the ``steroidal'' view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration. This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

  17. Olive Mill wastewater bioremediation towards detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão, Susana M.; Ribeiro, Belina; Sàágua, M. C.; Baeta-Hall, Lina; Correia, Anabela; Duarte, José Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Olive oil production is a traditional agricultural industry in Mediterranean countries and Portugal is one of the ten major producers. This industry generates an effluent, olive mill wastewater (OMW), which does not undergo any treatment and, usually, is stored in evaporation lagoons or spread on the land. Disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters is a serious environmental problem due to its high organic loading, presence of polyphenols and tannins, high content in suspended solids and acidity,...

  18. Predictive Function Control for Milling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuan Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive constant control for the cutting process is an effective way to improve the productivity of the Computer Numerical Control (CNC milling machine. This control is achieved through adjusting the feed rate online, and many scholars has been concentrated in the field. However, in of the existing adaptive constant control algorithms, the controller parameters are tuned only depends on the dynamic behavior of the controlled system, without giving effect to control the input and system output prospects. Therefore, milling force mutated because of the mutation of the depth or width of cut usually resulting in the overshooting of control system or overflow of control input. In this paper, we present a new solution to the problem, in which a mathematical model of milling process is established based on the characteristics of the CNC milling process. Then the predictive functional control law is introduced on the milling process and the controller parameters can be tuned online. The Simulation results show that the proposed method has the advantages of strong robustness to different interferences, good practicability for the milling process, and good real-time control responsibility.  

  19. Exigências térmicas e estimativa do número de gerações da broca-do-fruto Annona (Cerconota anonella Thermal requirements and estimate of the Annona fruit borer (Cerconota anonella generations number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Josene Barbosa Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cerconota anonella é a principal praga das Annonaceae em toda região Neotropical. Os prejuízos causados pela lagarta, podem reduzir de 60 a 100% da produção de frutos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar a biologia da broca-do-fruto Cerconota anonella em diferentes temperaturas, determinar suas exigências térmicas e estimar o número de gerações para os municípios produtores do estado de São Paulo. Para determinar a duração, viabilidade e exigências térmicas criaram-se insetos em frutos de pinha, em diferentes temperaturas (18, 21, 25, 28, 30 e 32°C, umidade relativa 90,0±5,0 % e fotoperíodo de 14 horas. A duração das fases de desenvolvimento e do ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foi afetada pela temperatura, tendo sido maior nas temperaturas mais baixas; a viabilidade foi maior na faixa térmica de 21 a 30°C. O limiar térmico inferior de desenvolvimento (Tb e a constante térmica (K para as fases de ovo, lagarta, pupa e ciclo de vida foram de 10,20°C e 83,33GD; 11,72°C e de 249,71GD; 8,69°C e 161,33GD; 11,05°C e 478,14GD, respectivamente. Com base nas normais climáticas, o número de gerações anuais de C. anonella variou de 9 a 10 e de 7 a 8 se considerar apenas a época de frutificação. Esses resultados demonstram o alto potencial de infestação desta praga no campo.Cerconota anonella is the most important pest of the Annonaceae in the Neotropical region. Larval damage can result in 60 to 100% losses in fruit production. The objectives of this research were to study the biology of the Annona fruit borer C. anonella in different temperatures, to determine their thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations to the cities producers of Sao Paulo state. To determine the duration, viability and thermal requirements insects were reared in sugar apple, at different temperatures (18, 21, 25, 28, 30 and 32°C, relative humidity and 90.0±5.0 photoperiod of 14 hours. The duration of the stages development

  20. The anti-senescence effect of resveratrol reduces postharvest softening rate in cherimoya fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaran Aquilino Morales Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its climateric behavior, the cherimoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill. is a very perishable commodity. Present research aimed to observe the anti-senescence effect of resveratrol (RVS; this plant bioregulator was applied at 1.6, 0.16, 0.016 and 0 mM at 0, 8 and 15 days before harvest (DBH. At 1, 7 and 15 days of postharvest life, several physical and biochemical determinations were performed on the cherimoya fruit. After 15 days under room temperature conditions, in relation to control fruit, those fruit with 1.6 mM RVS applied 15 DBH reduced skin softening rate 78% and 54% for ‘Fino de Jete’ and ‘Bronceada’, respectively. Similarly, after 15 days of storage, a non-trained group of tasters preferred those fruit treated with 1.6 mM RVS 15 DBH; they qualified the fruit as better than the control fruit in presentation, aroma and taste.

  1. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT AND CALCIUM ON POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF ATEMOYA FRUITS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIZ MARIA ABI RACHED TORRES

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of postharvest warm dipping with calcium chloride (CaCl2 on atemoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. storage. Fruits were immersed in 6% CaCl2 solution at 20 and 40°C for 20 min followed by storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed in terms of its impact on peel and fl esh appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, pH, ascorbic acid content, total phenolics, and enzyme activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. Treatment at 40°C preserved eatable conditions up to 6 days, although calcium affected the appearance of the peel as soon as 4 days. Flesh browning was detected only on the 8th day in untreated fruits, after an increase in PPO and POD activities and total phenolics, and a decrease in ascorbic acid content. The weight loss was continuous throughout the storage period, with no signifi cant difference between treatments. TTA and TSS contents increased and pH decreased during the experiment. Results suggest that CaCl2 dipping had a positive effect on fl esh browning, which was reduced, while heat treatment showed a synergic effect, which could be related broadly with a fall in PPO activity. The variations in ascorbic acid content during storage suggest that the warm dipping combined with CaCl2, contributed to the antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  2. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  3. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  4. Caracterização de plantas e de frutos de araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart. nativos no Cerrado Matogrossense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caetano Pimenta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O araticunzeiro (Annona crassiflora Mart - Annonaceae é uma frutífera nativa do cerrado brasileiro que necessita de estudos visando à geração de dados para subsidiar pesquisas relativas à sua domesticação. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar uma população de araticunzeiro em relação ao diâmetro do caule e altura das plantas, à produção e às características físicas e químicas de frutos. Nas plantas, mensuraram-se diâmetro do caule, altura e produção de frutos. Nos frutos, analisaram-se os diâmetros longitudinal (DL e transversal (DT, a relação DL/DT, as massas do fruto, da casca, da semente e da polpa, e calculou-se o rendimento de polpa. Na polpa, efetuaram-se as determinações de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT, relação SS/AT, pH e umidade. As árvores possuem diâmetro do caule de 10,4±3,1 cm e altura de 3,7±0,7m com produção média de 6,0±3,6 frutos por planta. Em média, os frutos possuem DL de 14,2±1,4, DT de 15,2±2,2 e relação DL/DT de 0,9±0,1; possuem massa média de 1.565,5±508,5g, tendo as massas da casca, das sementes e da polpa médias de 662,2±198,2g, 179,8±66,2g e 723,5±276,7g, respectivamente, com rendimento médio de polpa igual a 45,9±4,7% do fruto. Na polpa, constataram-se médias de SS de 17,60±1,86 ºBrix, AT de 0,37±0,11% de ácido málico, relação SS/AT de 52,23±17,64, pH de 4,45±0,23 e umidade média igual a 74,3±2,86%. O araticunzeiro possui características físicas e químicas que o tornam uma alternativa para a fruticultura nativa brasileira.

  5. Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Ana Carolina B; Crucello, Juliana; Moreira, Rafael C; Silva, Beatriz S; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2016-10-17

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Perseaamericana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10-30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n=200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p>0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p<0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p<0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p<0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model

  6. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  7. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  8. Biorefinery pulp mill - BiSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielonen, K. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland)], email: katriina.mielonen@lut.fi

    2012-07-01

    A need to utilize woody material in a more efficient way to produce pulp, biofuels and energy was seen as a key factor in the development of new pulp mill biorefineries. There are many alternatives to execute the biorefinery concept. In the Biorefinery Pulp Mill-project approached prehydrolysis of wood chips and acid hydrolysis of logging residue for the production of bioethanol, as well as the separation of lignin for the production of biodiesel were studied. The main goal of the project was to examine these new biofuel production methods and processes for the improvement of the competitiveness, energy effectiveness and economic profitability of domestic pulp mills, while keeping in mind the main product, chemical pulp.

  9. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  10. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  11. CNC Milling Machine Simulation in Engineering Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lo Valvo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an effective simulator for a CNC milling machine is presented. It has been developed in EMC2, a free Opens Source NC software running in Linux environment, developed by an international community. It can be installed on a common PC and is able to: control a CNC machine; read part programs; display the tool path; send instructions to the CNC machine for the cutting process. In this work a new feature has been implemented, which can both display a 3D model of the machine and simulate all the motions of the movable parts of a real 3 axis end milling machine. This simulator lets the users not only verify the toolpath but also detect any possible collision by using the very computer which controls the milling machine. This system is very efficient and easy to use as powerful tool in Engineering education.

  12. Transportation of the MOAB Uranium Mill Tailings to White Mesa Mill by Slurry Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstein, R. F.; Warner, R.; Wetz, T. V.

    2003-02-26

    The Moab uranium mill tailings pile, located at the former Atlas Minerals Corporation site approximately three miles north of Moab, Utah, is now under the control of the US Department of Energy (''DOE''). The location of the tailings pile adjacent to the Colorado River, and the ongoing contamination of groundwater and seepage of pollutants into the river, have lead to the investigation, as part of the final site remediation program, of alternatives to relocate the tailings to a qualified permanent disposal site. This paper will describe the approach being taken by the team formed between International Uranium (USA) Corporation (''IUC'') and Washington Group International (''WGINT'') to develop an innovative technical proposal to relocate the Moab tailings to IUC's White Mesa Mill south of Blanding, Utah. The proposed approach for relocating the tailings involves using a slurry pipeline to transport the tailings to the White Mesa Mill. The White Mesa Mill is a fully licensed, active uranium mill site that is uniquely suited for permanent disposal of the Moab tailings. The tailings slurry would be dewatered at the White Mesa Mill, the slurry water would be recycled to the Moab site for reuse in slurry makeup, and the ''dry'' tailings would be permanently disposed of in an approved below grade cell at the mill site.

  13. High-speed milling of light metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cus

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longer service life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/min require modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in the automobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also the achievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficient machining have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling can be compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and more frequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some cases when machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum and magnesium alloying materials are machined.

  14. Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, Jose A R

    2015-01-01

    Different black hole solutions of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations are well known from long time. They have attracted much attention from mathematicians and physicists from their discovery. In this work, we analyze black holes associated with the gauge Lorentz group. In particular, we study solutions which identify the gauge connection with the spin connection. This ansatz allows to find exact solutions to the complete system of equations. By using this procedure, we show the equivalence between the Yang-Mills-Lorentz model in curved space-time and a particular set of extended gravitational theories.

  15. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Olive Mill Wastewater Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) is the solid residue that remains in the evaporation ponds after evaporation of the majority of water in the olive mill wastewater (OMW). OMWS is a major environmental pollutant in the olive oil producing regions. Approximately 41.16 wt. % of the OMWS was soluble in hexanes (HSF). The fatty acids in this fraction consist mainly of oleic and palmitic acid. Catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 has been demonstrated to be an effective techno...

  16. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  17. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM SEEDLINGS IN SUBSTRATA WITH SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM EM SUBSTRATOS COM CINZA DE BAGAÇO DE CANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Luiza Salgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of five growing media, in different proportions of subsoil, limestone, and sugar cane bagasse ash, in the height, stem diameter, and fresh and dry weight of the aerial part and roots of araticum seedlings (Annona crassiflora Mart. was analyzed. The five growing media were

  19. Complete Mill Simulation of the Rolling Process of 1660 mm Hot Strip Continuous Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingrui WANG; Zhenshan CUI; Yingjie WANG; Hongmin LIU

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional plastic deformations of strip are analyzed using the stream surface strip element method, the elastic deformations of rolls are analyzed using the influence coefficient method, the analyzing and computing model of shape and crown of 4-high mill was established by combining them, and the rolling process of 1660 mm hot strip continuous mills was simulated. The simulated results tally well with the experimental results. The model and the method for simulation of shape analysis and control of hot strip mills were provided.

  20. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model. PMID:27403874

  1. Uso de ácido giberélico em sementes de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L. visando à produção de mudas em diferentes embalagens Giberellic acid use on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds aiming seedling production in different packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELA FERREIRA

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no laboratório de sementes e casa de vegetação da UNIOESTE -- Câmpus de Marechal Cândido Rondon -- PR, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3 na germinação de sementes e na emergência de plântulas de fruta-do-conde (Annona squamosa L., em diferentes recipientes, visando à produção de mudas. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela embebição das sementes em sete concentrações de ácido giberélico (0; 50; 100; 250; 500; 750 e 1000 mg.L-1, por 5 horas, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. No campo, os tratamentos foram constituídos das sete concentrações de GA3 e dois tipos de embalagens (bandejas de isopor e sacolas de polietileno, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. As avaliações do laboratório constaram de porcentagem total de sementes germinadas, dormentes e mortas; porcentagem total de plântulas normais e anormais, e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e do campo, pela porcentagem total de plântulas emergidas; índice de velocidade de emergência de plântulas (IVE; altura de plântulas e número de folhas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade. Verificou-se que o GA3 promoveu o incremento na germinação de sementes de Annona squamosa e que as sacolas de polietileno foram mais adequadas do que as bandejas no desenvolvimento das plântulas na fase inicial.The objetive of this experiment, was to evaluate the effect of giberellic acid (GA3 concentrations, on sugar apple (Annona squamosa L. seeds germination and seedlings emergence. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. The treatments were composed of seeds soaking in 7 GA3 concentrations (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1.000 mg.L-1 of GA3, for 5 hours, with 4 replicates of 25 seeds, and kept at

  2. Evaluación de medios de cultivo para la producción in vitro de Annona muricata mediante la técnica de microinjertación seriada Evaluation of culture media for in vitro production of Annona muricata using the serial grafting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleyda Maritza Acosta Rangel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata (guanábana es una planta cultivada por la calidad nutritiva y organoléptica de su fruto. No obstante el carácter recalcitrante de las yemas vegetativas de esta especie ha dificultado la micropropagación de material seleccionado por su alta productividad. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar medios de cultivo combinados con la técnica de microinjertación seriada para promover el desarrollo vegetal in vitro de A. muricata. En medios de cultivo específicos para cada material vegetal, se sembraron semillas y estacas para la formación de microinjertos; luego se aplicaron tres tratamientos de microinjertación (M1, M2, M3 y un control, donde el número indica las veces en las que una estaca es injertada en un portainjerto. M1 es una microinjertación monofásica o estacas microinjertadas en un portainjerto. M2 son estacas microinjertadas dos veces, es decir, permanecen en dos portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. M3 son estacas microinjertadas tres veces, es decir, permanecen en tres portainjertos diferentes con un lapso de un mes entre cada traspaso. Las estacas fueron separadas del portainjerto y sembradas en medio de cultivo para evaluar su revigorización; se realizaron pruebas de Anova y Freedman para los datos paramétricos y no paramétricos, respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la microinjertación monofásica es suficiente para estimular el desarrollo in vitro de material adulto de A. muricata; sin embargo, en los tratamientos no se logró el desarrollo de un sistema radicular adecuado.Annona muricata is grown due to the nutritional and organoleptic quality of the fruit. The recalcitrance of the vegetative buds of this species has hindered the micropropagation of selected material according to its high productivity. This research aimed to evaluate culture medium combined with the technique of serial micrografting to promote in vitro plant growth of Annona muricata. In

  3. 圆滑番荔枝的化学成分研究%Study on the Chemical Constiuents of Annona glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽娟; 韩英; 孟正木; 夏超; 张久红

    2001-01-01

    目的:从番荔枝科植物圆滑番荔枝(AnnonaglabraLinn.)树皮提取分离活性成分。方法:95%乙醇提取、溶剂萃取、硅胶柱层析、重结晶等。结果:分离到6个化合物,其中5个为贝壳杉烷型二萜,1个生物碱。5个二萜Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ分别为(-)-kaur-16-en-19-oicacid、16α-hydro-19-acetoxy-ent-kauran-17-oic acid、(-)-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid、ent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oicacid、19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid,生物碱为oxoglaucine。结论:萜Ⅳent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oicacid、萜Ⅴ19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid和生物碱oxoglaucine为首次从该植物中分得。%AIM:Bio-active constituents were expected to be obtained fromAnnona glabra Linn. METHODS: It is extracted with 95% alcohol, distributed by different solvents, isolated via column chromatography on silica gel and purified by crystallization et al. RESULTS: Six compounds were isolated from Annona glabra Linn. Among them, five compounds were kaurane diterpenoids and one compound was alkaloid. On the basis of the preperties and spectral analysis, their structures were identified as terpeneⅠ(-)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid、terpeneⅡ16α-hydro-19-acetoxy-ent-kauran-17-oic acid、terpeneⅢ(-)-kauran-19-al-17-oic acid、terpene Ⅳent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oic acid、terpeneⅤ 19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid and alkaloid oxoglaucine. CONCLUSION: Among them, ent-19-carbomethoxykauran-17-oic acid、19-hydroxy-16α-(-)-kauran-17-oic acid and oxoglaucine were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  4. Fitonematóides associados à gravioleira (Annona muricata no sul da Bahia Phytonematodes associated to soursop tree (Aannona muricata in the south of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Silveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematóides têm sido reportados, em alguns Estados do Brasil, causando danos à gravioleira (Annona muricata L.. No sul da Bahia, o cultivo da graviola é bastante recente; portanto, há carência de informações sobre os problemas fitossanitários. O presente estudo teve como objetivo o levantamento dos fitonematóides associados a gravioleiras dos municípios de Una e Ilhéus, sul da Bahia (BA. Subamostras de solo e raízes de 10 diferentes plantas foram coletadas, ao acaso, e misturadas para formar uma amostra composta representativa de cada pomar. As análises nematológicas foram realizadas nos Laboratórios de Fitopatologia e Nematologia da Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC, Ilhéus-BA, e Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV, Viçosa-MG. Os nematóides encontrados associados à gravioleira foram: Aphelenchoides sp., Aphelenchus sp., Helicotylenchus sp., Mesocriconema sp., Rotylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus sp. e Tylenchus sp. Futuramente, serão conduzidos estudos para avaliar a patogenicidade desses nematóides à gravioleira.Nematodes have been reported in some States of Brazil causing damage to soursop (Annona muricata L.. In the South of Bahia, the soursop growing is very recent; therefore there is a lack of information regarding its phytosanitary problems. The present study aimed the survey of plant nematodes associated with soursop in the municipal district of Una and Ilhéus, South of Bahia (BA. Soil and root subsamples from 10 distinct soursop plants were randomly collected and mixed to form a representative composite sample of each orchard. The nematodes analyses were carried out in the Laboratories of Plant Pathology and Nematology of the University of Ilhéus, BA (UESC and Viçosa, MG (UFV. The nematodes found associated with soursop were: Aphelenchoides sp., Aphelenchus sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Mesocriconema spp., Rotylenchus sp., Rotylenchulus sp. and Tylenchus sp. Future studies will be conducted to evaluate the

  5. Influência de substratos na formação de porta-enxerto de gravioleira (Annona muricata L. Influence of substrates on soursop rootstock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Rondinelli da Silva Negreiros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de um substrato para cada tipo de planta é um fato importante que determina condições adequadas para a germinação e bom desenvolvimento das mudas. Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes substratos na formação de porta-enxerto de gravioleira (Annona muricata L., foi conduzido um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. As mudas foram formadas em sacolas de polietileno, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos correspondem aos substratos: Plantmax®; Substrato-A (esterco de curral, solo, areia e vermiculita na proporção de 2:1:1:1 v/v; Substrato-B (Plantmax®; solo, areia e vermiculita - 1:1:1:1 v/v e Substrato-C (Plantmax®, esterco de curral, solo e areia - 1:1:1:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que, nas condições em que foi desenvolvido este trabalho, o substrato A contendo esterco de curral, solo, areia e vermiculita na proporção de 2:1:1:1 v/v e o C contendo Plantmax®, esterco de curral, solo e areia - 1:1:1:1 v/v são adequados para a formação de mudas de gravioleira.The use of adequate substratum is an important factor to proportion appropriate conditions for germination and good development of seedlings. With the objective of evaluating different substrata for soursop rootstock (Annona muricata L. production, an experiment was done in the Department of Phytotecny of the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The substrate were conditioned in polyethylene bags, in which de seeds were sown. A randomized block experimental design entirely with four treatments, five repetitions and five plants for portion were applied. The evaluated substrate were Plantmax; Substratum-A (bovine manure, soil, sand and vermiculite in the proportion of 2:1:1:1 v/v; Substratum-B (Plantmax, soil, sand and vermiculite - 1:1:1:1 v/v and Substratum-C (Plantmax

  6. Milling Process of Petroleum Coke for Sintered Steel Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, F.; S. Guzmán; Rabanal, M. E.; Jiménez-Mateos, J. M.; Echeberria, J.; Ayerbe, E.; Calero, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of milling on different properties of a petroleum coke has been evaluated. The material was subjected to planetary milling at two different rates (400 and 600 rev min-1) for different times up to 48 h. The milled material was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, sieve analysis, thermal analysis, chemical analysis, specific surface area and compressibility has been undertaken. The results show that the milling produces a very quick loss of the crystal st...

  7. Antibacterial effect (in vitro of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria Efeito antibacteriano (in vitro de Moringa oleifera (moringa e Annona muricata (graviola frente a bactérias Gram-negativas e Gram-positiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hitzschky Fernandes Viera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of seeds of moringa (Moringa oleifera and pods of soursop (Annona muricata in the concentration of 1:5 and 1:10 in volumes 50, 100, 150 and 200 µL were examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolated from the organism and the aquatic environment and Salmonella Enteritidis. Antibacterial activity (inhibition halo > 13 mm against S. aureus, V. cholerae and E. coli isolated from the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannmaei, was detected in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of moringa. E. coli isolated from tilapiafish, Oreochromis niloticus, was sensitive to the ethanolic extract of moringa. The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated.Para avaliação do efeito bactericida frente à Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli (isolada de pescados e ambiente aquático e Salmonella Enteretidis, foram testados extratos aquosos e etanólicos de sementes de moringa (Moringa oleifera e casca de graviola (Annona muricata na concentração de 1:5 e 1:10, nos volumes de 50, 100, 150 e 200 µL. Os resultados mostraram efeito antibacteriano (halo de inibição > 13mm dos extratos aquosos e etanólicos de moringa frente a S. aureus, V. cholerae e E. coli isoladas de camarão cinza Litopenaeus vannmaei. A cepa de E. coli isolada do pescado Oreochromis niloticus apresentou sensibilidade frente ao extrato etanólico de moringa. Os extratos aquosos de graviola apresentaram efeito bactericida frente a S. aureus e V. cholerae, entretanto, os extratos etanólicos dessa planta não mostraram atividade antibacteriana.

  8. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  9. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  10. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Gemert, J.C. van; Gevers, T.; Huurnink, B.; Koelma, D.C.; Liempt, M. van; Rooij, O. de; Sande, K.E.A. van de; Seinstra, F.J.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Thean, A.H.C.; Veenman, C.J.; Worring, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only, te

  11. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall...

  12. Preparation of iron sulphides by high energy ball milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, R.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Larsen, R.K.;

    1998-01-01

    The reaction of a powder mixture consisting of 50 a.% Fe and 50 a.% S during high energy ball milling has been studied by x-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. After around 19 h of milling FeS2 and FeS havebeen formed. By further milling the FeS compound becomes dominating and only Fe...

  13. Strip shape control capability of hot wide strip rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzhong Wang; Quan Yang; Anrui He; Jian Shao; Haitao Bian

    2008-01-01

    The elasticity deformation of rolls was analyzed by means of two-dimensional f'mite element method (FEM) with vari-able thickness. Three typical mills were used as objects for analysis. A thorough study was done on the control capabilities of these mills on the strip shape. Then the strip shape control capabilities of the three mills was compared synthetically.

  14. The MediaMill TRECVID 2006 Semantic Video Search Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G.M. Snoek; J.C. van Gemert; Th. Gevers; B. Huurnink; D.C. Koelma; M. van Liempt; O. de Rooij; K.E.A. van de Sande; F.J. Seinstra; A.W.M. Smeulders; A. Thean; C.J. Veenman; M. Worring

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2006 experiments. The MediaMill team participated in two tasks: concept detection and search. For concept detection we use the MediaMill Challenge as experimental platform. The MediaMill Challenge divides the generic video indexing problem into a visual-only, te

  15. Comparative analysis of milling results on the tail-end reduction passages of the wheat flour milling process: Conventional vs. eight-roller milling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fišteš Aleksandar Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of the eight-roller mill into the wheat flour milling process significantly reduces the investment costs and overall energy requirements compared to the conventional milling system. However, the conditions for controlled milling are less favorable and could result in deterioration of flour yield and quality. Paper compares milling results obtained using a conventional process and process with an eight-roller mill employed on the tail-end passages of the reduction system. At the same roll gap and under the same sieving conditions, the flour release was lower in the process with the eight-roller mill compared to the conventional milling system. By decreasing the roll gap and increasing the upper size limit (granulation of flour in the process with the eight-roller mill it is possible to increase flour yield and decrease milling energy consumption per unit mass of flour produced. This can be achieved without deterioration of flour quality as determined by ash content. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 031014

  16. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method

  17. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motozuka, S.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu National College of Technology, 2236-2 Kamimakuwa, Motosu, Gifu 501-0495 (Japan); Tagaya, M. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Morinaga, M. [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method.

  18. Union Spinning Mills - Cleaner Production option report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Schneider, Zsig

    In October and November 2002 meetings were held between Union Spinning Mills and external consultants from the South African – Danish Cleaner Textile Production Project. Project participants from USM were: • From USM: Operations Director Johan Ferreira, Finishing Manager Anrico (Andrej) Kritzinger...

  19. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  20. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  1. Rotationally Vibrating Electric-Field Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A proposed instrument for measuring a static electric field would be based partly on a conventional rotating-split-cylinder or rotating-split-sphere electric-field mill. However, the design of the proposed instrument would overcome the difficulty, encountered in conventional rotational field mills, of transferring measurement signals and power via either electrical or fiber-optic rotary couplings that must be aligned and installed in conjunction with rotary bearings. Instead of being made to rotate in one direction at a steady speed as in a conventional rotational field mill, a split-cylinder or split-sphere electrode assembly in the proposed instrument would be set into rotational vibration like that of a metronome. The rotational vibration, synchronized with appropriate rapid electronic switching of electrical connections between electric-current-measuring circuitry and the split-cylinder or split-sphere electrodes, would result in an electrical measurement effect equivalent to that of a conventional rotational field mill. A version of the proposed instrument is described.

  2. QUANTUM GRAVITY AND YANG-MILLS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider Einstein's theory of gravitation in connection with Yang-Mills theory. The model of the metric satisfying the basic requirements of quantum theory is proposed. The mechanism of generation of baryonic matter of dark energy is discussed

  3. Analysis of machining accuracy during free form surface milling simulation for different milling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matras, A.; Kowalczyk, R.

    2014-11-01

    The analysis results of machining accuracy after the free form surface milling simulations (based on machining EN AW- 7075 alloys) for different machining strategies (Level Z, Radial, Square, Circular) are presented in the work. Particular milling simulations were performed using CAD/CAM Esprit software. The accuracy of obtained allowance is defined as a difference between the theoretical surface of work piece element (the surface designed in CAD software) and the machined surface after a milling simulation. The difference between two surfaces describes a value of roughness, which is as the result of tool shape mapping on the machined surface. Accuracy of the left allowance notifies in direct way a surface quality after the finish machining. Described methodology of usage CAD/CAM software can to let improve a time design of machining process for a free form surface milling by a 5-axis CNC milling machine with omitting to perform the item on a milling machine in order to measure the machining accuracy for the selected strategies and cutting data.

  4. Bioactive Guided Fractions of Annona reticulata L. bark: Protection against Liver Toxicity and Inflammation through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27445809

  5. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  6. 圆滑番荔枝种子化学成分研究%Chemical constituents from the seeds of Annona glabra (annonaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙兰; 朱久香; 余竞光; 余冬蕾; 李德宇; 周立东

    2003-01-01

    目的研究圆滑番荔枝(Annona glabra)种子的抗肿瘤活性成分.方法利用色谱技术分离纯化, 根据化合物的理化性质和光谱数据鉴定结构.结果从己烷提取物鉴定18个化合物,其中14个为番荔素:glabrencin A (1), bullatencin (2), glabrencin B (3), uvariamicin-I (4), uvariamicin-II (5), uvariamicin-III (6), reticulatain-1 (7), desacetyluvaricin (8), 4-deoxyasimicin (9), asimicin (10), bullatacin (11), squamocin (12), motrilin (13), cherimolin-2 (14);豆甾醇(stigmasterol,15)及脂肪酸酰胺混合物:棕榈酸酰胺(palmitic amide,16),硬脂酸酰胺(stearic amide,17)和花生酸酰胺(arachidic amide,18).结论 glabrencin A (1),glabrencin B (3)为新番荔素;2,4~7,9,11,13,16~18是首次从该植物中分离得到.

  7. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  8. Quantitative assessment of the relative antineoplastic potential of the n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata Linn. in normal and immortalized human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Rajkumar, V; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have been the target for cancer therapy for several years but there is still a dearth of information on potent compounds that may protect normal cells and selectively destroy cancerous cells. The present study was aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of n-butanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata L. on WRL-68 (normal human hepatic cells), MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma cells) and HaCaT (human immortalized keratinocyte cells) lines by XTT assay. Prior to cytotoxicity testing, the extract was subjected to phytochemical screening for detecting the presence of compounds with therapeutic potential. Their relative antioxidant properties were evaluated using the reducing power and DPPH* radical scavenging assay. Since most of the observed chemo-preventive potential invariably correlated with the amount of total phenolics present in the extract, their levels were quantified and identified by HPLC analysis. Correlation studies indicated a strong and significant (PAnnona muricata. Isolation of the active metabolites from the extract is in prospect.

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Anti carcinogenic Properties of Combination Extract of Soursop (Annona Muricata Linn) and Pearl Grass (Hedyotis Corymbosa (L.) Lam.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soursop (Annona muricata) has numerous traditional medicinal uses in South American and the Caribbean, and it has become a popular nutritional medicinal supplement. In the other hand, pearl grass (Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.) has long been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory. In this study, soursop and pearl grass combined to obtain extracts that have anticancer effects and anti-inflammatory effects, as most patients with cancer, particularly advanced breast cancer often experience inflammation. Two types of combination of extracts made by different solvents ie ethanol extract combination (CSEPE) and water extract combination (CSWPW) have been used. The anti carcinogenic properties of both extracts have been studied by using MTT assay. The anti oxidative activity of the extracts which could contribute to their cytotoxic properties was also studied by using DPPH assay. The results showed that the combination extract of ethanolic extract of soursop and pearl grass (CSEPE) has potential anti carcinogenic properties and the properties was decreased during the increment of incubation time but increased with the increasement of doses. However, the combination extract of water extract of soursop and pearl grass (CSWPW) did not displayed the potential anti carcinogenic properties. The anti carcinogenic properties of CSEPE could be due to their high antioxidant activities. (author)

  10. Nymphicidal effect of vegetal extracts of Annona mucosa and Anonna crassiflora (Magnoliales, Annonaceae against rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the chloroform-methanol nymphicidal action of extracts of Annona mucosa leaves and seeds and of A. crassiflora seeds on second instar nymphs of rice stalk stink bug, Tibraca limbativentris. For each extract the concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, 8.0%, and two control treatments (water and Tween80® were used. The results show that the seed extracts of A. mucosa and A. crassiflora have insecticidal activity against the T. limbativentris nymphs with statistical significance for all concentrations when compared with controls. The seed extract of A. mucosa showed the higher toxicity with greater than 75% mortality at a concentration of 1.0% in the first 24 h after application. The leaf extract of A. mucosa presented the lowest toxicity with no more than 40% mortality. The seed extract of A. crassiflora showed intermediate toxicity among all the tested extracts, and the nymph's mortality exceeded 80% for the highest concentration after 120 h of application. Considering these results, we were able to observe that the seeds extract of A. mucosa may be an alternative for the control of bed bug nymphs T. limbatriventris, especially for small producers.

  11. Vibrations in High Speed Milling of Thin-walled Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tongyue; HE Ning; LI Liang

    2006-01-01

    Thin-walled structures have been widely used in the aerospace industry. The dynamic interaction between the milling cutter and thin-walled workpiece can easily lead to vibration. This paper investigates the vibration caused during milling the thin-walled workpiece on the NC machining center, presents a theoretical milling vibration model of thin-walled beam. The model was verified by using milling experiments and numerical simulations. Some valuable conclusions are derived, this will be references to scientific research and guides to the vibration-free milling of thin-walled structures at different cutting speeds.

  12. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  13. Caracterización fisicoquímica y comportamiento térmico del aceite de “almendra” de guanábana (Annona muricata, L)

    OpenAIRE

    Durán-de-Bazúa, M. C.; Hernández-Medel, M. R.; Amador-Hernández, C.; J. A. Solís-Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata) seed “almond” oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic...

  14. Caracterización fisiológica, físico-química, reológica, nutraceútica, estructural y sensorial de la guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita)

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Cardozo, Carlos Julio

    2009-01-01

    Se utilizaron frutas de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita) obtenidas de huertos establecidos en la zona agroindustrial del Valle del Cauca, (Colombia), sector rural del municipio de Pradera, Agrícola Varahonda, Finca la Española, localizada a 1.070 msnm. 23°C de temperatura promedio, 1.225 mm de precipitación promedio anual, radiación solar media de 4,8 W•m-2•día y humedad relativa promedio de 83%. Las frutas fueron colectadas en igual grado de madurez, correspondiente a 16 semanas lueg...

  15. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  16. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration. PMID:27027102

  17. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  18. Analytic Representations of Yang-Mills Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Damgaard, Poul H; Feng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space---fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Mobius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  19. Nonperturbative Results for Yang-Mills Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Schechter, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Some non perturbative aspects of the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory are investigated assuming a specific form of the beta function, based on a recent modification by Ryttov and Sannino of the known one for supersymmetric gauge theories. The characteristic feature is a pole at a particular value...... of the coupling constant, g. First it is noted, using dimensional analysis, that physical quantities behave smoothly as one travels from one side of the pole to the other. Then it is argued that the form of the integrated beta function g(μ), where μ is the mass scale, determines the mass gap of the theory....... Assuming the usual QCD value one finds it to be 1.67 GeV, which is in surprisingly good agreement with a quenched lattice calculation. A similar calculation is made for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory where the corresponding beta function is considered to be exact....

  20. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  1. Investigation for parametric vibration of rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华平; 丁睿; 吴运新; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    The vibration unsteady condition of rolling mill caused by flexural vibration of strip has been investigated. The parametric flexural vibration equation of rolled strip has been established. The parametric flexural vibration stability of rolled strip has been studied and the regions of stability and unstability have been determined based on Floquet theory and perturbation method. The flexural-vibration of strip is unstable when the frequency of variable tension is two times as the natural frequency of flexural-vibration strip. The characteristic of current in a temp driving motor's main loop has been studied and tested, it has been proved that there are 6 harmonic component and 12 harmonic component in main loop of driving motor electricity. The vertical vibration of working roller has been tested, the test result approves that the running unsteady is caused by parametric vibration. It attaches importance to the parametric vibration of rolling mill.

  2. LIBERALIZATION OF THE TAIWAN WHEAT MILLING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Stiegert, Kyle W.; Peng, Hsing Ming

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan, in just the past two years, lifted quoto restrictions on wheat imports and lowered tariff barriers. These changes along with the antitrust movement and severe overcapacity will be the catalysts for tremendous structural changes in the way wheat millers compete for domestic market share and contracts for flour. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of liberalization on the Taiwan milling industry.

  3. Multifractal properties of ball milling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budroni, M. A., E-mail: mabudroni@uniss.it; Pilosu, V.; Rustici, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, Sassari 07100 (Italy); Delogu, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica, e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, Cagliari 09123 (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    This work focuses on the dynamics of a ball inside the reactor of a ball mill. We show that the distribution of collisions at the reactor walls exhibits multifractal properties in a wide region of the parameter space defining the geometrical characteristics of the reactor and the collision elasticity. This feature points to the presence of restricted self-organized zones of the reactor walls where the ball preferentially collides and the mechanical energy is mainly dissipated.

  4. Higher derivative super Yang-Mills theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Rakowski, M.; Sezgin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The most general higher derivative Yang-Mills actions of the type (F^2 + α^2F^4) which are globally supersymmetric up to order α^2 in six- and ten-dimensional spacetimes are given. The F^4-terms turn out to occur in the combination α^2[tr F^4 - ¼(tr F^2)^2], where the trace is over the Lorentz i

  5. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsudin Syamsudin; Herri Susanto; Subagjo Subagjo

    2014-01-01

    Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis), this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been ...

  6. Mineralization of olive mill wastewater over DSA

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, M. R.; Correia, J P; Marques, Isabel Paula Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy recovery from olive mill wastewater (OMW) has been effectively accomplished by anaerobic digestion [1]. Nevertheless, a post treatment is required to attain the discharge limit values. After the anaerobic treatment of OMW, the main issues are related to the remaining organic matter (COD), recalcitrant phenolic compounds (40-50%) and effluent dark-brown colour. The electrochemical treatment is proposed in this work as a final step to mineralise the OMW non-biodegradable fraction. The...

  7. Biotechnological valorization of olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Química e Engenharia Biológica Mediterranean countries are known to have favorable conditions for olive oil production. The three-phase extraction technology demands the addition of hot water to the process, and olive oil, olive cake and olive mill wastewater (OMW) are produced. An approach for using this waste as a renewable resource is of greater interest. Accordingly, the present investigation aims the OMW valorization, by producing high-value compounds (lipas...

  8. Polymeric biophenols in olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Falcão, Soraia; Peres, António M.; Olívia R. Pereira; Domingues, M. R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW), the effluents generated in the olive oil extraction industry operating in three-phases mode, are phytotoxic mainly due to its high phenolic content [1]. On the other hand, attending to the potential healthbenefits of some of their phenolic compounds, OMW are now regarded as a potent source of biophenols for food and pharmaceutical industries. An important portion of the OMW biophenols include the secoiridoids found in olive pulp and their derivat...

  9. New biophenols in olive mill wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Susana M.; Falcão, Soraia; Peres, António M.; Domingues, M. R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have been attracting the attention of food and pharmaceutical industries, as it is a potential source of biophenols with a wide range of biological activities. This effluent produced in the olive oil industry contains approximately half of the total phenolic compounds of the olive fruit and it is currently exploited for industrial extraction of hydroxytyrosol [1]. Still, the phenolic composition of OMW is extremely complex, and many compounds are yet unidentified....

  10. The Convergence of Yang-Mills Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Austing, P; Austing, Peter; Wheater, John F.

    2001-01-01

    We prove that SU(N) bosonic Yang-Mills matrix integrals are convergent for dimension (number of matrices) $D\\ge D_c$. It is already known that $D_c=5$ for N=2; we prove that $D_c=4$ for N=3 and that $D_c=3$ for $N\\ge 4$. These results are consistent with the numerical evaluations of the integrals by Krauth and Staudacher.

  11. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.

  12. Geothermal Mill Redevelopment Project in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vale, A.Q.

    2009-03-17

    Anwelt Heritage Apartments, LLC redeveloped a 120-year old mill complex into a mixed-use development in a lower-income neighborhood in Fitchburg, Massachusetts. Construction included 84 residential apartments rented as affordable housing to persons aged 62 and older. The Department of Energy (“DOE”) award was used as an essential component of financing the project to include the design and installation of a 200 ton geothermal system for space heating and cooling.

  13. Cutting force prediction for circular end milling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Baohai; Yan Xue; Luo Ming; Gao Ge

    2013-01-01

    A deduced cutting force prediction model for circular end milling process is presented in this paper.Traditional researches on cutting force model usually focus on linear milling process which does not meet other cutting conditions,especially for circular milling process.This paper presents an improved cutting force model for circular end milling process based on the typical linear milling force model.The curvature effects of tool path on chip thickness as well as entry and exit angles are analyzed,and the cutting force model of linear milling process is then corrected to fit circular end milling processes.Instantaneous cutting forces during circular end milling process are predicted according to the proposed model.The deduced cutting force model can be used for both linear and circular end milling processes.Finally,circular end milling experiments with constant and variable radial depth were carried out to verify the availability of the proposed method.Experiment results show that measured results and simulated results corresponds well with each other.

  14. EQUIVALENT NORMAL CURVATURE APPROACH MILLING MODEL OF MACHINING FREEFORM SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xianzhong; MA Weiguo; QI Haiying; YAN Zesheng; GAO Deli

    2008-01-01

    A new milling methodology with the equivalent normal curvature milling model machining freeform surfaces is proposed based on the normal curvature theorems on differential geometry. Moreover, a specialized whirlwind milling tool and a 5-axis CNC horizontal milling machine are introduced. This new milling model can efficiently enlarge the material removal volume at the tip of the whirlwind milling tool and improve the producing capacity. The machining strategy of this model is to regulate the orientation of the whirlwind milling tool relatively to the principal directions of the workpiece surface at the point of contact, so as to create a full match with collision avoidance between the workpiece surface and the symmetric rotational surface of the milling tool. The practical results show that this new milling model is an effective method in machining complex three- dimensional surfaces. This model has a good improvement on finishing machining time and scallop height in machining the freeform surfaces over other milling processes. Some actual examples for manufacturing the freeform surfaces with this new model are given.

  15. Superstring limit of Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    It was pointed out by Shifman and Yung that the critical superstring on $X^{10}={\\mathbb R}^4\\times Y^6$, where $Y^6$ is the resolved conifold, appears as an effective theory for a U(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs system with four fundamental Higgs scalars defined on $\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$, where $\\Sigma_2$ is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold. Their Yang-Mills model supports semilocal vortices on ${\\mathbb R}^2\\subset\\Sigma_2\\times{\\mathbb R}^2$ with a moduli space $X^{10}$. When the moduli of slowly moving thin vortices depend on the coordinates of $\\Sigma_2$, the vortex strings can be identified with critical fundamental strings. We show that similar results can be obtained for the low-energy limit of pure Yang-Mills theory on $\\Sigma_2\\times T^2_p$, where $T^2_p$ is a two-dimensional torus with a puncture $p$. The solitonic vortices of Shifman and Yung then get replaced by flat connections. Various ten-dimensional superstring target spaces can be obtained as moduli spaces of flat connections on $T^2_p$, d...

  16. John Stuart Mill on socialism and accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Sales Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2010v9n1p17Este artigo mostra que o tipo de socialismo proposto por John Stuart Mill é marcado por uma forte preocupação com a controlabilidade do poder econômico e político. Ele rejeitou enfaticamente os modelos centralistas de socialismo por entender que eles levam a uma grande concentração de poder que compromete a liberdade. Para J. S. Mill, o socialismo deve ser implantado lentamente a partir de reformas amplamente discutidas que favoreçam a cidadania econômica dos trabalhadores, promovam a participação deles nas decisões referentes ao processo produtivo e em associações voluntárias. J. S. Mill acreditava que a competição econômica é essencial para o adequado funcionamento de uma economia socialista. Ele não esperava que tal economia se tornasse uma realidade em um futuro próximo.

  17. Twin Supergravities from Yang-Mills Squared

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, A; Duff, M J; Hughes, M J; Marrani, A; Nagy, S; Zoccali, M

    2016-01-01

    We consider `twin supergravities' - pairs of supergravities with $\\mathcal{N}_+$ and $\\mathcal{N}_-$ supersymmetries, $\\mathcal{N}_+>\\mathcal{N}_-$, with identical bosonic sectors - in the context of tensoring super Yang-Mills multiplets. It is demonstrated that the pairs of twin supergravity theories are related through their left and right super Yang-Mills factors. This procedure generates new theories from old. In particular, the matter coupled $\\mathcal{N}_-$ twins in $D=3,5,6$ and the $\\mathcal{N}_-=1$ twins in $D=4$ have not, as far as we are aware, been obtained previously using the double-copy construction, adding to the growing list of double-copy constructible theories. The use of fundamental matter multiplets in the double-copy construction leads us to introduce a bi-fundamental scalar that couples to the well-known bi-adjoint scalar field. It is also shown that certain matter coupled supergravities admit more than one factorisation into left and right super Yang-Mills-matter theories.

  18. Folate in oats and its milling fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Nyström, Laura; Piironen, Vieno

    2012-12-01

    Total folate content in oat varieties from three harvesting years (2006-2008), and in oats milling fractions, was determined using microbiological assay. Furthermore, folate vitamer distribution in milling fractions were examined with the UPLC method, which was taken in use and validated. The total folate content of the cultivars varied moderately within each year. The average content in the 2008 samples was 685ng/gdm. The UPLC method proved fast and sensitive for determining seven folate monoglutamates in cereal samples. Folate content in fractions, which are normally discarded, such as flour from oat cutting and flaking, were 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than in native grain. The main folate vitamers found in the oat fractions were 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate, 5-HCO-H(4)folate, and 5,10-CH(+)-H(4)folate. The UPLC results more closely matched the microbiological results compared to those that are usually achieved with HPLC methods. This study illustrates that oats and, especially, by-products of milling are good sources of folate.

  19. COMPARAÇÃO FÍSICO-QUÍMICA E SENSORIAL DA ATEMÓIA COM A PINHA E A GRAVIOLA PRODUZIDAS E COMERCIALIZADAS NO ESTADO DE SERGIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO SERGIO MARCELLINI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A atemóia, híbrido resultante do cruzamento da Cherimóia (Annona cherimola mill com a Fruta-do-conde, a Pinha (Annona squamosa L. e a Graviola (Annona muricata L. pertencem a família das Anonáceas, originária dos Andes. Pelas características semelhantes essas frutas competem por uma mesma faixa de mercado, principalmente na região Nordeste, onde se concentra 50 % da produção de atemóia. O objetivo do trabalho foi a comparação físico-química e sensorial da atemóia com a pinha e a graviola, comercializadas em Sergipe. As frutas analisadas continham o mesmo tempo de vida de prateleira. Os testes físico-químicos realizados foram: teor de umidade, pH, acidez titulável e sólidos solúveis totais. Foi realizado teste de aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos dos parâmetros: aparência, aroma, sabor, textura e impressão global. A atemóia apresentou um alto potencial de aceitação entre os consumidores. Trata-se, de acordo com os resultados obtidos, de uma fruta saborosa, aromática e de aparência agradável, com avaliação sensorial sempre superior às suas concorrentes diretas. Portanto, devido também às outras vantagens de cultivo descritas na literatura, tornase viável um investimento maior nesse cultivo no sentido de minimizar sua única desvantagem atual, o alto preço. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Atemóia; análise sensorial; análise físico-química

  20. Influence of milling time on fineness of Centella Asiatica particle size produced using planetary ball mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, M. Z.; Ahmad, R.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2012-11-01

    Centella Asiatica (C. Asiatica)contains asiaticoside as bioactive constituent which can be potentially used in skin healing process. Unfortunately, the normal powders are difficult to be absorbed by the body effectively. In order to improve the value of use, nano C. Asiatica powder was prepared. The influence of milling time was carried out at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, 8 hours and 10 hours. The effect of ball milling at different times was characterized using particles size analysis and FTIR Spectroscopy. The fineness of ground product was evaluated by recording the z-Average (nm), undersize distribution and polydispersity index (PdI). The results show that the smallest size particles by mean is 233 nm while FTIR spectra shows that there is no changing in the major component in the C. Asiatica powders with milling time.

  1. John Stuart Mill: utilitarismo e liberalismo = John Stuart Mill: utilitarianism and liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Mauro Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meu objetivo, neste trabalho, é investigar a compatibilidade das teses utilitaristas e liberais de John Stuart Mill. Apresentarei, inicialmente, os principais críticos da filosofia moral e política de Mill, para os quais o discípulo de Bentham teria abandonado o utilitarismo ou, ainda, não esclarecido suficientemente seu princípio da liberdade, o que o tornaria um pensador assistemático e inconsistente. Minha tese é contrária a tais interpretações, uma vez que sustenta ser Mill consistente. Em seguida, defenderei uma interpretação do princípio da liberdade e da individualidade, procurando demonstrar que seu utilitarismo é compatível com seu liberalismo

  2. Analysis of crystallite size and microdeformation crystal lattice the tungsten carbide milling in mill high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tungsten carbide (WC) has wide application due to its properties like high melting point, high hardness, wear resistance, oxidation resistance and good electrical conductivity. The microstructural characteristics of the starting powders influences the final properties of the carbide. In this context, the use of nanoparticle powders is an efficient way to improve the final properties of the WC. The high energy milling stands out from other processes to obtain nanometric powders due to constant microstructural changes caused by this process. Therefore, the objective is to undertake an analysis of microstructural characteristics on the crystallite size and microdeformations of the crystal lattice using the technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Rietveld refinement. The results show an efficiency of the milling process to reduce the crystallite size, leading to a significant deformation in the crystal lattice of WC from 5h milling. (author)

  3. Design and Manufacturing of Ultra-Hard Micro-Milling Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战忠波; 李亮; 何宁; 卞荣; 赵孟

    2014-01-01

    Based on the study of existing typical micro-milling tools and the actual demand for micro-milling tools, the P3 design principle and design flow for ultra-hard micro-milling tool were introduced to give basic guidance for the optimization of micro-milling tools. Then, according to the P3 design flow, the manufacturing process of polycrystal-line diamond (PCD) micro-milling tool was proposed, and the PCD micro-milling tool with diameter of 0.5 mm was developed. Finally, the micro-milling test on the slot was carried out to study the milling performance of PCD micro-milling tool.

  4. Fractal and Chaos Characteristics in Rock Milled Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxu LUO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the mechanism and to reveal the natural characteristics in rock milled process, the milling load was deemed to be a component of the deterministic nonlinear dissipation system. The characteristic factor model of milling load was built on the basis of time delay method, and the phase-space of milling load was rebuilt. the dimensional phase-type of broken attractor was described. The results indicated that the broken attractor was a fractal set ,which acquired through the scale conversion of phase-space developed by each dimension. The relevant dimension of broken attractor can be as the identification to reflect the change of rock broken mechanism. And the Lyapunov exponential spectrum and the maximum Lyapunov exponent were acquired by confirming the system reconstruction dimension. The chaos phenomenon was existed in the rock milled process, which provides the basis for building the deterministic model of rock milled process.

  5. Analytical Prediction of Three Dimensional Chatter Stability in Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Yusuf

    The chip regeneration mechanism during chatter is influenced by vibrations in three directions when milling cutters with ball end, bull nose, or inclined cutting edges are used. A three dimensional chatter stability is modeled analytically in this article. The dynamic milling system is formulated as a function of cutter geometry, the frequency response of the machine tool structure at the cutting zone in three Cartesian directions, cutter engagement conditions and material property. The dynamic milling system with nonlinearities and periodic delayed differential equations is reduced to a three dimensional linear stability problem by approximations based on the physics of milling. The chatter stability lobes are predicted in the frequency domain using the proposed analytical solution, and verified experimentally in milling a Titanium alloy with a face milling cutter having circular inserts.

  6. A influência da cobertura morta sobre características físicas e químicas de frutos da pinha (Annona squamosa L. The influence of mulching in relation to physical and chemical characteristics of the sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlson Gusmão da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available De forma geral a aplicação de resíduos vegetais ao solo tem efeitos benéficos sobre os nutrientes do solo, sob as suas condições físicas, sob a atividade biológica e sobre a performance das culturas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante um ciclo produtivo, o efeito da cobertura de bagaço de cana, casca de café e palha de Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris, L., quanto ao seu efeito sobre características físicas e químicas do fruto da pinheira (Annona squamosa L.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, constando de cinco repetições, contendo duas plantas por parcela. Foram analisados: massa do fruto, massa da casca, massa das sementes e o número de sementes por fruto, o teor de sólidos solúveis e o pH da polpa. De modo geral, a presença da cobertura morta proporcionou incremento de massa aos frutos, o que promove aumento de receita, uma vez que, quanto maior for o fruto, melhor será seu preço. Não ocorreu aumento do pH da polpa, e o tratamento com casca de café proporcionou o maior teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Quanto às demais características, não foram encontradas diferenças.The application of vegetal wastes to soil have a beneficial effects on soil nutrient, physical conditions, biological activities and on the culture performance, the main objective of this study was to evaluate three kinds of vegetable byproducts: sugar cane bagasse, coffee chaff, and Buffel straw, regarding to the effect on the physical and chemical characteristics of custard apple (Annona squamosa L..The experimental design used completely randomid plots with five repplications, and two plants per plot. The total fruit mass, the peel mass, the seed mass per fruit were evaluated. The pulp level of soluble solids was measured, as well as its pH. The presence of this mulching provided an increase in the fruit mass, thereby, increasing the commercial profit, as larger the fruit is, the greater the value per weight

  7. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control. PMID:26623434

  8. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes. PMID:26410042

  9. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  10. Spectral and HRTEM analyses of Annona muricata leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles and its Larvicidal efficacy against three mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Natarajan, Devarajan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes transmit various diseases which mainly affect the human beings and every year cause millions of deaths globally. Currently available chemical and synthetic mosquitocidal agents pose severe side effects, pollute the environment vigorously, and become resistance. There is an urgent need to identify and develop the cost effective, compatible and eco-friendly product for mosquito control. The present study was aimed to find out the larvicidal potential of aqueous crude extract and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Annona muricata leaves were tested against fourth instar larvae of three important mosquitoes i.e. Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti using different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm) and the aqueous leaf extract (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) for 24 and 48 h. The maximum mortality was noticed in AgNPs than aqueous leaf extract of A. muricata against tested mosquitoes with least LC50 values of 37.70, 31.29, and 20.65 ppm (24h) and 546.7, 516.2, and 618.4 ppm (48 h), respectively. All tested concentrations of AgNps exhibited 100% mortality in A. aegypti larvae at 48 hour observation. In addition, the plant mediated AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyser, X-ray diffraction, high resonance transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis for confirmation of nanoparticle synthesis. Based on the findings of the study suggests that the use of A. muricata plant mediated AgNPs can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes.

  11. Propagación clonal de guanábana (Annona muricata utilizando el sistema de ventilación forzada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Palomino Diana Marcela

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la construcción e implementación de un sistema que ventila mecánicamente los vasos de cultivo in vitro. El sistema forza un flujo de aire a través de filtros que lo descontaminan y luego lo hacen pasar, ya estéril a los vasos de cultivo limpiando la atmósfera del vaso del exceso de gases
    acumulados en ella. Se cultivaron in vitro segmentos nodales de Annona muricata bajo nueve tratamientos diferentes variando las concentraciones y combinaciones de BA y ANA, aunque se logró en todos los casos la inducción de brotes y la elongación de ellos se determinó que el medio más adecuado fue el que contenía BA (2 mg/l y ANA (0,3 mg/l sobre el medio básico de Murashige y Skoog (M&S. La técnica utilizada de cultivo in vitro complementada con el sistema de ventilación forzada ha permitido desarrollar un protocolo con el cual se logra la propagación clonal de A. muricata asegurando la preservación de los genotipos iniciales y una inducción de brotes mas eficiente que proporciona un mayor rendimiento de los explantes y un mejor desarrollo fisiológico de los mismos. El experimento requirió de la implementación del sistema
    de ventilación, de la evaluación de este con respecto al cultivo sellado in vitro de guanábana y del desarrollo de un protocolo que facilita su utilización en experimentos posteriores.

  12. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  13. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  14. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Wang; Taiyong Wang; Zhiqiang Yu; Yue Zhang; Yulong Wang; Hengli Liu

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the pred...

  15. Research on Frequency Response Characteristics of Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiZhengguo; ZhangKenan

    2005-01-01

    The measurement method of frequency response characteristics for rolling mill is established by imposing different signal excitation on PID input of rolling mill under the different rolling conditions. The analysis results declare that sweep sine signal was relative efficient to evaluation for the frequency response character of hydraulic system. The practical application shows that the corresponding relationship between the parameters and the frequency response range of the rolling mill is helpful for parameters verification of process control and condition monitoring of hydraulic system.

  16. GeneMill: A 21st century platform for innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James R.; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Thain, Simon C.; Craig, Thomas; McCue, Hannah V.; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Hall, Neil; Hall, Anthony J.W.

    2016-01-01

    GeneMill officially launched on 4th February 2016 and is an open access academic facility located at The University of Liverpool that has been established for the high-throughput construction and testing of synthetic DNA constructs. GeneMill provides end-to-end design, construction and phenotypic characterization of small to large gene constructs or genetic circuits/pathways for academic and industrial applications. Thus, GeneMill is equipping the scientific community with easy access to the ...

  17. Advances in Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dahake, Prajakta H.; Sahakar, Nikita R.; Gadge, P.A

    2015-01-01

    The development of unmanned machining systems has been a recent focus of manufacturing research. The conventional milling machine removes metal with a revolving cutting tool called a milling cutter. For this, CNC machines are in use. CNC machine operates on part program. This program includes several G-codes and M- codes. This program is generated by skilled operators. This may cause error in geometry. Also increases labor cost. Thus new technology of milling operation is conceptualized to re...

  18. HEAT FLOW FOR YANG-MILLS-HIGGS FIELDS, PART I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Yang-Mills-Higgs field generalizes the Yang-Mills field. The authors establish the local existence and uniqueness of the weak solution to the heat flow for the Yang-Mills-Higgs field in a vector bundle over a compact Riemannian 4-manifold, and show that the weak solution is gauge-equivalent to a smooth solution and there are at most finite singularities at the maximum existing time.

  19. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

  20. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Grand Junction site has been reevaluated in order to revise the October 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented herein range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from about $10,200,000 for stabilization in-place to about $39,500,000 for disposal in the DeBeque area, at a distance of about 35 mi, using transportation by rail. If transportation to DeBeque were by truck, the cost estimated to be about $41,900,000. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Grand Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive.

  1. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge; Yang-Mills-theorie in Coulombeichung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuchter, C.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.)

  2. Yang-Mills instantons over Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exact solutions to the self-dual Yang-Mills equations over Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus are constructed. They are characterized by the conformal class of the Riemann surface. They correspond to U(1) instantonic solutions for an Abelian-Higgs system. A functional action of a genus g Riemann surface is constructed, with minimal points being the two-dimensional self-dual connections. The exact solutions may be interpreted as connecting initial and final nontrivial vacuum states of a conformal theory, in the sense of Segal, with a Feynman functor constructed from the functional integral of the action. (orig.)

  3. YANG-MILLS FIELDS AND THE LATTICE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-05-18

    The Yang-Mills theory lies at the heart of our understanding of elementary particle interactions. For the strong nuclear forces, we must understand this theory in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. I discuss some of the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.

  4. Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

    2007-07-01

    Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

  5. Design and Fabrication of Savonious Wind Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The project deals with the design and fabrication of Savonius wind mill. Pw – Wind power (watt, and Power produced by the turbine Pt has been calculated using m – Mass flow rate (kg/s, Swept area of the windfall ,V- Velocity of the wind, Θ- Angular position of turbine, T- Torque obtained by wind, Pt- Shaft power , Cp- Power coffecient ,Ct- Torque co-efficient , μ – Tip speed ratio , r – Radius of rotor , d- Diameter of rotor ,w- Angular speed of rotor. Various operations involved in fabrication process and characteristics & specifications of wind turbine has been mentioned

  6. Design and Fabrication of Savonious Wind Mill

    OpenAIRE

    P. L. N. V. Aashrith; Ch.Vikranth

    2014-01-01

    The project deals with the design and fabrication of Savonius wind mill. Pw – Wind power (watt), and Power produced by the turbine Pt has been calculated using m – Mass flow rate (kg/s), Swept area of the windfall ,V- Velocity of the wind, Θ- Angular position of turbine, T- Torque obtained by wind, Pt- Shaft power , Cp- Power coffecient ,Ct- Torque co-efficient , μ – Tip speed ratio , r – Radius of rotor , d- Diameter of rotor ,w- Angular speed of rotor. Various operations involved in fabrica...

  7. Chapter 2: uranium mines and mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    This chapter will be included in a larger ASCE Committee Report. Uranium mining production is split between underground and open pit mines. Mills are sized to produce yellowcake concentrate from hundreds to thousands of tons of ore per day. Miner's health and safety, and environmental protection are key concerns in design. Standards are set by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration, the EPA, NRC, DOT, the states, and national standards organizations. International guidance and standards are extensive and based on mining experience in many nations.

  8. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration to provide the Secretary of Energy with basic data and analyses for ninth annual determination of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. A viability determination is required annually, for the years 1983 through 1992, by Section 170B of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Authorization Act of 1983, Public Law 97-415, which amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. Topics include: evolution of the U.S. uranium industry; nuclear power requirements and uranium industry projections; and attributes of industry viability

  9. Landau gauge Yang-Mills correlation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrol, Anton K.; Fister, Leonard; Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2016-09-01

    We investigate Landau gauge S U (3 ) Yang-Mills theory in a systematic vertex expansion scheme for the effective action with the functional renormalization group. Particular focus is put on the dynamical creation of the gluon mass gap at nonperturbative momenta and the consistent treatment of quadratic divergences. The nonperturbative ghost and transverse gluon propagators as well as the momentum-dependent ghost-gluon, three-gluon and four-gluon vertices are calculated self-consistently with the classical action as the only input. The apparent convergence of the expansion scheme is discussed and within the errors, our numerical results are in quantitative agreement with available lattice results.

  10. Children's Rights, "die Antipadagogen," and the Paternalism of John Stuart Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenbo, Sven Erik

    1989-01-01

    Examines how John Stuart Mill would have viewed present-day educational liberalists' claims that children should be included in Mill's principle of individual liberty. Concludes that educational liberalists cannot rightly claim Mill as spokesman for their views. (KO)

  11. Contamination introduced during rock sample powdering. Effects from different mill materials on trace element contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined blanks during powdering processes for thirty-three trace elements using ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Quartz sand was used as target of powdering with grinding mills of several kinds: an agate hand mill, agate ball mill, Fe hand mill, alumina ceramic hand mill and artificial crystalline quartz hand mill. The results show that the artificial crystalline quartz hand mill is the purest grinder among the analyzed ones. This grinder is suitable for soft rock samples such as limestone. The alumina ceramic hand mill can reduce contamination, except for Cs, W and Pb. The agate hand mill and the agate ball mill introduce contamination whose level is depending on the individual device due to heterogeneity of the natural agate. The Fe hand mill introduces contamination of some si-derophile elements such as Mo and W. The results of this study emphasize careful choice of a grinding mill for sample pulverizing. (author)

  12. Effect of milling time on the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles by wet milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Musa Mutlu [SNTG Laboratory, Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Ozcan, Sadan, E-mail: sadan@hacettepe.edu.tr [SNTG Laboratory, Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800, Ankara (Turkey); Ceylan, Abdullah; Firat, Tezer [SNTG Laboratory, Physics Engineering Department, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, nanosize magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles have been prepared directly from metallic iron (Fe) powder within distilled water (H{sub 2}O) by using a planetary ball mill, and the effect of milling time has been investigated. According to Rietveld refinement result obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, the amount of Fe decreases from 98.2% to 0.0%, and it is transformed into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, from 1.8% to 100.0%, with the increasing milling time from 1 to 48 h. Due to similar crystal structure of the magnetite and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), FTIR and Raman spectroscopies as well as a chemical analysis method was used to verify the magnetite structure. FTIR spectra have clearly revealed absorption peaks around 628, 581 and 443 cm{sup -1}, which are in good agreement with the characteristic absorption peaks of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. In addition Raman analysis verified the formation of magnetite phase with a clear main band peak at 671 cm{sup -1}. Chemical analyses have shown that the total amount of Fe in the milled sample for 48 h is 73.04%, which contains 24.10% Fe{sup 2+} and 49.34% Fe{sup 3+}. These results are consistent with the theoretically estimated values of the magnetite. It has been observed that the saturation magnetization decreased from 146.02 to 63.68 emu/g with increasing milling time due to the formation of the ferrimagnetic magnetite phase.

  13. Morphological and physiological features of the species Asimina triloba (L. dunal, introduced as an ornamental plant in Baia Mare (Maramureş county, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice SZILAGYI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species Asimina triloba (L. Dunal, is native to North America. In the area of origin is cultivated, both as food species because the edible fruit, and as ornamental species. Ornamental value derives both from decorative flowers, that open in early spring, and because habitus species. The species is demanding from slightly acidic soils (pH 5.5 to 7.0 and well drained. Seedlings are susceptible to heatstroke and need areas of the sun, but since the second year, vegetate well in bright light conditions [27]. Optimum climate is temperate to subtropical one. The species exhibits unique quality traits for a temperate fruit that are similar to other fruit in the Annonaceae family, including cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill., sugar apple or sweetsop, (A. squamosa L., soursop (A. muricata L., custard apple (A. reticulata L., and atemoya (A. squamosa X A. cherimola, all of which are tropical [2].This study follows the behavior of the species, in particular conditions of the Baia Mare and its surroundings. In this area a fewindividuals were introduced, in order to diversigy the range of species of ornamental plants. In Baia Mare, topoclimate is specifically depression, sheltered by mountains, more atenuated as temperature and winds, than in surrounding areas. As a result ofclimatic conditions, chestnut Castanea sativa, grows in good conditions in Baia Mare. Instead, the area is heavily polluted,especially at ground level. Pollution by heavy metals is a historical being generated by the mining industry.The introduction and use of a new plant species into a new area involves: 1. easy to obtain seed; 2.- maintaining the crown shape habitus and and leaf shape and size, respectively; 3 – determination of optimal physiological parameters. Therefore have been performed, the following experimental determinations: 1. - germination of seed obtained in the particular conditions of the Baia Mare; 2. - some morphomtric characteristics of leaves, in the juveniles

  14. Quantum Yang--Mills Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I discuss basic qualitative characteristics of quantum non-Abelian gauge dynamics in the non-stationary background of the expanding Universe in the framework of the standard Einstein--Yang--Mills formulation. A brief outlook of existing studies of cosmological Yang--Mills fields and their properties will be given. Quantum effects have a profound impact on the gauge field-driven cosmological evolution. In particular, a dynamical formation of the spatially-homogeneous and isotropic gauge field condensate may be responsible for both early and late-time acceleration, as well as for dynamical compensation of non-perturbative quantum vacua contributions to the ground state of the Universe. The main properties of such a condensate in the effective QCD theory at the flat Friedmann--Lema\\'itre--Robertson--Walker (FLRW) background will be discussed within and beyond perturbation theory. Finally, a phenomenologically consistent dark energy can be induced dynamically as a remnant of the QCD vacua co...

  15. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10-3 cm/s to values approaching 10-7 cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10-8 cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table

  16. Structural investigation of an extended milled ferrite powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisin, A.M.; Macrin, M. (Institutul de Cercetari Electronice, Bucharest (Romania))

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the structural modifications introduced by the extended milling and annealing processes in the barium ferrite powder during its preparation is presented. X-ray diffraction measuements on a barium ferrite powder in various milling and annealing conditions have been carried out and the results concerning the phase compositions, lattice constants and crystallite sizes are discussed.

  17. John Stuart Mill on Freedom, Education, and Social Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Peter F.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the social philosophy of John Stuart Mill, emphasizing his views on freedom, education, and social reform. Considers Mill's individualism and reformism, the conflict between freedom and control that characterizes his work, and the importance of freedom and education. Suggests caution in drawing educational implications from his work. (DAB)

  18. Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A discrete phase approach based on individual wheat kernel characteristics is needed to overcome the limitations of previous statistical models and accurately predict the milling behavior of wheat. As a first step to develop a discrete element method (DEM) model for the wheat milling process, this s...

  19. Dynamic Model of Gap Loop for HCW Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-ming; YANG Qiu-xia; CHE Hai-jun; CHANG Ling-fang

    2004-01-01

    The hydraulic automatic gauge control system using gap loop for cold mill was designed. The stiffness of HCW cold mill was defined for gap loop, and the dynamic model of gauge control system for gap loop was built with mechanism analysis. The stiffness for gap loop and the cylinder displacement loop were measured.

  20. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...

  1. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project surface project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Project Management Plan describes the planning, systems, and organization that shall be used to manage the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA). US DOE is authorized to stabilize and control surface tailings and ground water contamination at 24 inactive uranium processing sites and associated vicinity properties containing uranium mill tailings and related residual radioactive materials

  2. Yang-Mills connections valued on the octonionic algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, A.; Veiro, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We consider a formulation of Yang-Mills theory where the gauge field is valued on an octonionic algebra and the gauge transformation is the group of automorphisms of it. We show, under mild assumptions, that the only possible gauge formulations are the usual su(2) or u(1) Yang-Mills theories.

  3. The MediaMill TRECVID 2010 semantic video search engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G.M. Snoek; K.E.A. van de Sande; O. de Rooij; B. Huurnink; E. Gavves; D. Odijk; M. de Rijke; T. Gevers; M. Worring; D.C. Koelma; A.W.M. Smeulders

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2010 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in three tasks: semantic indexing, known-item search, and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill concept detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID 2009

  4. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  5. Mill, Bentham, and the Art and Science of Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Engelmann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons of Bentham and J.S. Mill tend to privilege Mill. If we compare these two not as normative philosophers but as theorists of the art and science of government, however, a different perspective emerges. This essay compares the definitions of art and science provided in Mill's and Bentham's treatments of logic, and considers the consequences for the art of government of Mill's embrace of the project of a social science. One important consequence is the emergence of a technopolitical understanding of government that sees this art as a practice that either tries to shape or conform to a natural characterological substrate, and that ideally mediates between these polar alternatives. Through this new framework Mill and many post-Millians misread Bentham as a clumsily deductive artificer. The essay concludes its exploration of this misreading with a preliminary examination of the problems--ontological, epistemological, ethical, and political--that a focus on character produces.

  6. Design of the Soymilk Mill based on TRIZ Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The soymilk mill is an important food machine, but its volume is too large to be suitable for house using. This study first analyzes some problems in the soymilk mill miniaturization. For these problems, the thinking tools, evolutionary tools and contradiction solving tool of TRIZ theory are used to resolve the conflict in the integration of grinding and boiling and in the keep grinding effect, to tackle the optimization problem in the grinding stria structure and mill plate speed, then the Dwarfs method and substance-field analysis model is used in solving the interference and the conditions water supply problems which are encountered in the design of the global structure and a micro soymilk mill is designed. Finally, the mechanical analysis model about soy granules, soymilk particles in the grinding zone and the computational model of motor starting torque are obtained; they provide the reference data for application of soymilk mill.

  7. Crystallization degree change of expanded graphite by milling and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Qunwei [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Wu Jihuai [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)], E-mail: jhwu@hqu.edu.cn; Sun Hui; Fang Shijun [Key Laboratory for Functional Materials of Fujian Higher Education, Institute of Material Physical Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Expanded graphite was ball milled with a planetary mill in air atmosphere, and subsequently thermal annealed. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in the milling initial stage (less than 12 h), the crystallization degree of the expanded graphite declined gradually, but after milling more than 16 h, a recrystallization of the expanded graphite toke place, and ordered nanoscale expanded graphite was formed gradually. In the annealing initial stage, the non-crystallization of the graphite occurred, but, beyond an annealing time, recrystallizations of the graphite arise. Higher annealing temperature supported the recrystallization. The milled and annealed expanded graphite still preserved the crystalline structure as raw material and hold high thermal stability.

  8. Actividad citotóxica in Vitro de la mezcla de Annona muricata y Krameria Lappacea sobre células cancerosas de glándula mamaria, pulmón y sistema nervioso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arroyo A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la actividad citotóxica de las fracciones procedentes de la combinación 1:1 del extracto etanólico de hojas de Annona muricata L (guanábana y el extracto acuoso atomizado de la raíz de Krameria lappacea (ratania en cultivos de líneas celulares cancerosas de glándula mamaria (MCF-7, pulmón (H-460 y Sistema nervioso central (SF-268. Materiales y métodos: Para el fraccionamiento de la mezcla 1:1 de Annona mas Krameria se preparó una columna cromatográfica de 50 cm de longitud empleando diclorometano, diclorometano: acetato de etilo y CHCl 3:MeOH como sistemas de elusión de polaridad creciente, obteniéndose 186 fracciones. Se evaluaron las fracciones 2 a 83 en cultivo de células cancerosas de glándula mamaria (MCF-7, de pulmón (H-460 y del sistema Nervioso central (SF-268. Todas las fracciones fueron ensayadas en duplicado. Aquellas fracciones que presenta-ron un porcentaje de crecimiento de células cancerosas (%G <50% en alguna de las tres líneas celulares fueron ensayadas nuevamente a cinco concentraciones, para determinar finalmente la concentración a la cual se inhibe el 50% del crecimiento de las células cancerosas (GI 50. Se consideraron activas aquellas fracciones con una GI 50 <10 µg/mL. Resultados: Las fracciones 7 a 17 procedentes de la asociación de los dos productos naturales frente a los cultivos de las líneas celulares tumorales MCF-7, H-460 y SF-268 mostraron una GI 50 de 1,6, 1,4 y 1,4 µg/mL respectivamente. Conclusiones: Las fracciones 7 a 17 procedentes de la asociación de Annona más Krameria mostraron acción citotóxica in vitro frente al cultivo de células cancerosas de glándula mamaria, pulmón y del sistema nervioso central.

  9. Milling of organic solids in a jet mill. Part 1 : Determination of the selection function and related mechanical material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vegt, O; Vromans, H; Faassen, F; Maarschalk, KV

    2005-01-01

    The particle size distribution of pharmaceutically active materials and other fine chemicals determines the performance of the final product to a large extent. Often milling of these particles is necessary. It is not possible to determine the milling conditions solely on the basis of the particle si

  10. Effect of kernel size and mill type on protein, milling yield, and baking quality of hard red spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optimization of flour yield and quality is important in the milling industry. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of kernel size and mill type on flour yield and end-use quality. A hard red spring wheat composite sample was segregated, based on kernel size, into large, medium, ...

  11. Efeito de diferentes meios nutritivos e fitorreguladores visando à otimização da calogênese de Annona mucosa (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.J.S. Barboza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Annona mucosa é uma árvore frutífera da família Annonaceae, produtora de importantes metabólitos secundários de interesse medicinal, como lignanas, acetogeninas e alcaloides. A cultura in vitro de calos representa um importante recurso para a produção contínua de metabólitos, viabilizando a conservação da biodiversidade química e a obtenção controlada de material para estudos biológicos e fitoquímicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar a produção de calos friáveis de A. mucosa, avaliando o efeito de diferentes meios nutritivos e fitorreguladores. Segmentos de folha e de hipocótilo de plântulas germinadas in vivo foram utilizados como explantes e inoculados nos meios de cultura MS, WPM e B5 suplementados com picloram (2 - 20µM isolado ou combinado com as citocininas BAP, KIN ou TDZ (0,2 - 1µM. As culturas foram mantidas a 26±2ºC, no escuro, com subcultivos mensais. A produção de calos foi avaliada por aferição do peso dos calos, após 90 dias. Em todos os tratamentos na presença da auxina picloram, o cultivo de hipocótilos resultou em maior porcentagem de formação de calos, sobretudo no meio de cultura WPM. A associação com TDZ produziu massa calogênica friável altamente proliferativa e ausente de oxidação, alcançando valores superiores àqueles obtidos em trabalhos prévios com a espécie. Os resultados viabilizam o uso do material em suspensões celulares e posterior caracterização fitoquímica para a exploração da produção in vitro de metabólitos da espécie.

  12. Controle de Cerconota anonella (Sepp. (Lep.: Oecophoridae e de Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab. (Hym.: Eurytomidae em frutos de pinha (Annona squamosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letice Souza da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pinha, Annona squamosa L., é uma frutífera tropical da família anonácea, cujo mercado tem-se ampliado a cada ano, sendo cultivada expressivamente na região Nordeste, onde pequenos produtores a têm como principal fonte de renda. Entretanto, problemas causados pelas duas pragas-chave, Cerconota anonella (Sepp.,1830 (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae e Bephratelloides pomorum (Fab.,1808 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, têm limitado a produção e, consequentemente, a comercialização dos frutos. No intuito de minimizar essas perdas, um experimento de campo foi realizado em Maceió, Estado de Alagoas, Brasil, para avaliar diferentes formas de controle para estas pragas. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Cada repetição correspondeu a quatro frutos, totalizando dezesseis frutos por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram: frutos sem proteção (testemunha; saco de papel branco impermeável aberto; saco plástico microperfurado; saco de TNT (tecido não tecido branco aberto; saco de TNT vermelho aberto; gaiola de arame revestida com tecido voile; inseticida Profenofós (12g/L-1 + Cipermetrina (1,2 g/L-1 e caulim (10 g/ 100 mL-1. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis nos frutos: números de orifícios causados pelas pragas, peso, comprimento, diâmetro, percentagem de frutos colhidos e o custo do tratamento por unidade. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o saco de TNT vermelho aberto, obtendo-se 87,50% de frutos comercializáveis. O saco plástico microperfurado teve o menor custo, porém sua fragilidade impede a reutilização nas safras seguintes. Assim, indica-se o saco de TNT vermelho aberto como o mais econômico e eficiente.

  13. Biología floral y polinización artificial del guanábano Annona muricata L. en condiciones del Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar T. William

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la flor es hermafrodita presenta protoginia y existe un período de 36 a 48 horas durante el cual pueden encontrarse maduros ambos órganos sexuales, la disposición apretada del cuerpo de estambres, aún estando dehiscentes, no permite disponibilidad de polen. Los insectos asociados con las flores no tienen influencia en el proceso de polinización. Se presume que los frutos se forman a partir de autopolinización (autogamia que ocurre al retener los estambres desprendidos algunos pétalos interiores. En razón a que esta forma es esporádica ya que el tiempo desde la polinización de los estigmas hasta su desprendimiento en muchos casos puede no ser suficiente para que ocurra la fecundación, se presenta bajo prendimiento o cuajamiento de las flores. La polinización manual de las flores aumenta la producción. El tamaño y la velocidad del crecimiento de los frutos están en relación directa con el número de pistilos fecundados.A field study was conducted on floral biology and artificial pollination in soursop (Annona muricata L.. Although flowers are apparently adapted to cross pollination despite being anatomically hermaphrodite, the bunched arrangement of stamens does not results in available fertil pollen. There is a period from 36 to 48 hours in which both sexual organs are simultaneusly, however guanabana flowers functions as physiologically protogineous. None insect genera has any influency on poIlination. It is assumed that generally fruits are formed by autogamy after stigmas get in contact with stamens retained by lower petals. Because this way of pollination is rather sporadic and sometimes stigmas shed after pollination but before fertilization, only a low number of fruit setting is observed as many flowers fall out due to the low number that get fertilized. Manual poIlination resulted in an effective way to increase production. The size and growth rate of these fruits are correlated with the number of pistiIs get

  14. Protective effects of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) leaf aqueous extract on serum lipid profiles and oxidative stress in hepatocytes of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Stephen O; Ojewole, John A O

    2008-10-25

    Extracts from various morphological parts of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) are widely used medicinally in many parts of the world for the management, control and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of A. muricata leaf aqueous extract (AME) in rat experimental paradigms of DM. The animals used were broadly divided into four (A, B, C and D) experimental groups. Group A rats served as 'control' animals and received distilled water in quantities equivalent to the administered volumes of AME and reference drugs' solutions intraperitoneally. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Groups B and C rats by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg kg(-1)). Group C rats were additionally treated with AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1), p.o.) as from day 3 post STZ injection, for four consecutive weeks. Group D rats received AME (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1) p.o.) only for four weeks. Post-euthanization, hepatic tissues were excised and processed biochemically for antioxidant enzymes and lipid profiles, such as catalase (CAT), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), respectively. Treatment of Groups B and C rats with STZ (70 mg kg(-1) i. p.) resulted in hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinaemia, and increased TBARS, ROS, TC, TG and LDL levels. STZ treatment also significantly decreased (p<0.05) CAT, GSH, SOD, GSH-Px activities, and HDL levels. AME-treated Groups C and D rats showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in elevated blood glucose, ROS, TBARS, TC, TG and LDL. Furthermore, AME treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) antioxidant enzymes' activities, as well as serum insulin levels. The findings of this laboratory animal study

  15. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  16. Nonperturbative aspects of Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleifenbaum, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    The subject of this thesis is the theory of strong interactions of quarks and gluons, with particular emphasis on nonperturbative aspects of the gluon sector. Continuum methods are used to investigate in particular the confinement phenomenon. Confinement which states that the elementary quarks and gluons cannot be detected as free particles requires an understanding of large-scale correlations. In perturbation theory, only short-range correlations can be reliably described. A nonperturbative approach is given by the set of integral Dyson Schwinger equations involving all Green functions of the theory. A solution for the gluon propagator is obtained in the infrared and ultraviolet asymptotic limits. In chapter 1, redundant degrees of freedom of the Yang Mills gauge theory are removed by fixing the Weyl and Coulomb gauge prior to quantization. The constrained quantization in the Dirac bracket formalism is then performed explicitly to produce the quantized Yang Mills Hamiltonian. The asymptotic infrared limits of Coulomb gauge correlation functions are studied analytically in chapter 2 in the framework of the Gribov Zwanziger confinement scenario. The Coulomb potential between heavy quarks as part of the Yang Mills Hamiltonian is calculated in this limit. A connection between the infrared limits of Coulomb and Landau gauge is established. The Hamiltonian derived paves the way in chapter 3 for finding the Coulomb gauge vacuum wave functional by means of the variational principle. Numerical solutions for the propagators in this vacuum state are discussed and seen to reproduce the anticipated infrared limit. The discussion is extended to the vertex functions. The effect of the approximations on the results is examined. Chapter 4 is mainly devoted to the ultraviolet behavior of the propagators. The discussion is issued in both Coulomb and Landau gauge. A nonperturbative running coupling is defined and calculated. The ultraviolet tails of the variational solutions from

  17. High energy mechanical milling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polyethylene with a very long chain, which provides excellent features, but makes the processing difficult due to high melt viscosity. Many studies intend to found out means to make its processing easier. Recently, the high energy mechanical milling has been used for polymeric materials and it was detected that physical and chemical changes occur during milling. In such case, powder of UHMWPE was milled in three types of mills: SPEX, attritor e planetary, in different times of milling. The milling temperatures were measured during processing. The polymer was characterized by SEM, DSC and XRD, and the deconvolution of x-ray diffractograms was made. Thus, it was observed that the material processed in attritor mill showed larger phase transformation from orthorhombic to monoclinic. This is most likely due to the smaller milling temperature of attritor mill when compared with the other two mills and the high shear force generated during milling. (author)

  18. 淬硬钢的铣削加工%Milling with Queochhardening Steel Milling Cutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左建华; 张志英; 李殿超; 张祥永; 安玉平

    2001-01-01

    Tool material and coating technology which are adapted for quenchhardening stell milling are introduced. Aimed at willing of quenchhardening stell, by cutting experiment,the cutting performance of carbide vertical milling carbide cutter which is coated with different coating material is compared.The high speed process method which is adapted adapts to high hardness metal is explored.%介绍适合于淬硬钢铣削加工的刀具材料与刀具涂层技术。针对淬硬钢的铣削加工,通过切削实验,比较硬质合金立铣刀不同涂层材料的切削性能,探索适合高硬度金属材料的高速加工方法。

  19. Enzymatic corn wet milling: engineering process and cost model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAloon Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic corn wet milling (E-milling is a process derived from conventional wet milling for the recovery and purification of starch and co-products using proteases to eliminate the need for sulfites and decrease the steeping time. In 2006, the total starch production in USA by conventional wet milling equaled 23 billion kilograms, including modified starches and starches used for sweeteners and ethanol production 1. Process engineering and cost models for an E-milling process have been developed for a processing plant with a capacity of 2.54 million kg of corn per day (100,000 bu/day. These models are based on the previously published models for a traditional wet milling plant with the same capacity. The E-milling process includes grain cleaning, pretreatment, enzymatic treatment, germ separation and recovery, fiber separation and recovery, gluten separation and recovery and starch separation. Information for the development of the conventional models was obtained from a variety of technical sources including commercial wet milling companies, industry experts and equipment suppliers. Additional information for the present models was obtained from our own experience with the development of the E-milling process and trials in the laboratory and at the pilot plant scale. The models were developed using process and cost simulation software (SuperPro Designer® and include processing information such as composition and flow rates of the various process streams, descriptions of the various unit operations and detailed breakdowns of the operating and capital cost of the facility. Results Based on the information from the model, we can estimate the cost of production per kilogram of starch using the input prices for corn, enzyme and other wet milling co-products. The work presented here describes the E-milling process and compares the process, the operation and costs with the conventional process. Conclusion The E-milling process

  20. Effect of ball milling materials and methods on powder processing of Bi2223 superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, M.; Maeda, H.; Vance, L.; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.

    1998-10-01

    Various milling systems consisting of agate and polypropylene grinding containers, agate and YSZ balls, and dry and wet milling were used in planetary ball-milling and YSZ balls and YSZ container were used in wet and dry attrition milling. The differently milled powders were then evaluated by measurements of particle size, surface area, porosity, size distribution and chemical analysis of the Si, Zr and C contents. The results show that dry milling is much more efficient for particle size reduction in planetary milling than wet milling, whereas wet milling and dry milling gave quite similar results in attrition milling. Meanwhile 0953-2048/11/10/056/img6 contamination was found in powder milled with an agate container with agate balls. Some C contamination from the polypropylene container was detected after milling, but negligible Zr from YSZ balls and C from the grinding carrier (hexane). It was found that after 1 h milling in the planetary mill fracture mechanisms transform from the elastic to the plastic region. Therefore, further milling is not very effective. It was also shown that the Bi2212 phase decomposes into several non-superconducting oxides such as 0953-2048/11/10/056/img7, CuO and a main amorphous phase after extensive dry milling.

  1. Structural debris experiments at operation MILL RACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural debris patterns as determined by the mechanisms of building collapse under airblast loading have been studied experimentally at MILL RACE, White Sands, NM. Three near full-size buildings were instrumented to observe deflections, accelerations and air pressures and exposed to two different regimes of incident blast pressure produced by HE simulating 1 kt, viz., 10 and 3 psi; after the shot enough wall debris was located and identified to provide estimates of debris movement. Two of the test buildings were unreinforced, load-bearing masonry, one located at each of the two incident overpressures. The third building was made of reinforced concrete panels and was exposed to approximately 25 psi. Preliminary estimates of the effect of arching on debris energy and distribution are presented

  2. Convergent Yang-Mills Matrix Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Austing, P; Austing, Peter; Wheater, John F.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the partition function and correlation functions in the bosonic and supersymmetric Yang-Mills matrix models with compact semi-simple gauge group. In the supersymmetric case, we show that the partition function converges when $D=4,6$ and 10, and that correlation functions of degree $k< k_c=2(D-3)$ are convergent independently of the group. In the bosonic case we show that the partition function is convergent when $D \\geq D_c$, and that correlation functions of degree $k < k_c$ are convergent, and calculate $D_c$ and $k_c$ for each group, thus extending our previous results for SU(N). As a special case these results establish that the partition function and a set of correlation functions in the IKKT IIB string matrix model are convergent.

  3. Steel mill products analysis using qualities methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the subject matter of steel mill product analysis using quality tools. The subject of quality control were bolts and a ball bushing. The Pareto chart and fault mode and effect analysis (FMEA were used to assess faultiness of the products. The faultiness analysis in case of the bolt enabled us to detect the following defects: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper roughness, lack of pre-machining, non-compatibility of the electroplating and faults on the surface. Analysis of the ball bushing has also revealed defects such as: failure to keep the dimensional tolerance, dents and imprints, improper surface roughness, lack of surface premachining as well as sharp edges and splitting of the material.

  4. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  5. Dry face milling of titanium alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Hassan; Zhenqiang Yao

    2004-01-01

    In machining titanium alloys, cutting tools generally wear out very rapidly because of the high cutting temperature resulted from the low thermal conductivity and density of the work material. In order to increase the tool life, it is necessary to suppress the cutting heat as much as possible by applying an abundant amount of coolant, but this will entail serious techno-environmental and biological problems. To study the performance and avoid these limitations, a PVD-coated insert was used to the dry face mill of (α +β) titanium alloys. As a result it was found that the inserts exhibit an excellent cutting performance at low cutting speeds and feed rates, and there is no significant difference in the dominant insert failure mode between the wet and dry cutting in discontinuous cutting.

  6. Contribution to the physics of high energy ball milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have characterized the parameters which control the stability of amorphous phases under ball milling on the model alloys (NixZry). We have improved a vibrating frame grinder to perform experiments at several controlled temperatures under static vacuum. Based on analyzing the movement of the milling ball, we have evaluated the frequency of impact (f) and the relative velocity of the ball at the time impact (Vmax) for different vibration amplitudes of the frame. The kinetic of amorphization by ball milling, studied by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, shows that: - a fully amorphous phase is obtained provided that the 'specific milling intensity' is larger than a threshold value. The specific milling intensity is defined as the impact momentum times the impact frequency divided by the mass of powder (MbVmaxf/Mp): Mp, Mb are the mass of the ball and the powder). The threshold is composition and temperature dependent; - below the amorphization threshold, a two-phase microstructure (crystalline phase imbedded in an amorphous cement) is stabilized. The alloy achieves a steady state fraction of amorphous phase, which increases with the milling intensity and decreases with increasing the milling temperature. A study of the mechanical alloying of NbTiAl2 starting from elemental powders is also presented. (Author). refs., figs., tabs

  7. High coercivity induced by mechanical milling in cobalt ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we report a study of the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic oxide CoFe2O4 treated by mechanical milling with different grinding balls. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared using a simple hydrothermal method and annealed at 500 °C. The non-milled sample presented coercivity of about 1.9 kOe, saturation magnetization of 69.5 emu/g, and a remanence ratio of 0.42. After milling, two samples attained coercivity of 4.2 and 4.1 kOe, and saturation magnetization of 67.0 and 71.4 emu/g respectively. The remanence ratio MR/MS for these samples increase to 0.49 and 0.51, respectively. To investigate the influence of the microstructure on the magnetic behavior of these samples, we used X-ray powder diffraction (XPD), transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The XPD analysis by the Williamson–Hall plot was used to estimate the average crystallite size and strain induced by mechanical milling in the samples. - Highlights: • Magnetic behavior of milled CoFe2O4 is studied. • The coercivity is increase of about 150%. • The remanence ratio are increase to all milled samples. • The strain and pinning effects are observed in milled samples

  8. Caracterización fisicoquímica y comportamiento térmico del aceite de “almendra” de guanábana (Annona muricata, L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán-de-Bazúa, M. C.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata seed “almond” oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base. The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 °C and ends at -79.0 °C with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to +16.9 °C, with a maximum peak at -15 °C and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 °C. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N2 atmosphere starts at 380 °C and ends at 442 °C, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 °C. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 °C and concludes at 567 °C. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils.En esta investigación se estudiaron las propiedades físicoquímicas y el comportamiento térmico, mediante calorimetría diferencial de barrido y termogravimetría, del aceite extraído de las “almendras” de las semillas de guanábana (Annona muricata, L. Los resultados mostraron que las almendras de las semillas de guanábana contienen 2.5% de cenizas, 17.9% de fibra cruda, 15.7% de proteínas, 26.0% de carbohidratos y 37.7% de aceite (base seca. El aceite de las almendras de guanábana mostró una composición con predominio de

  9. Barium ferrite powders prepared by milling and annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The milling process was carried out in a vibratory mill, which generated vibrations of the balls and milled material inside the container during which their collisions occur. After milling process the powders were annealed in electric chamber furnace. The X-ray diffraction methods were used for qualitative phase analysis of studied powder samples. The distribution of powder particles was determined by a laser particle analyzer. The magnetic hysteresis loops of examined powder material were measured by resonance vibrating sample magnetometer (R-VSM.Findings: The milling process of iron oxide and barium carbonate mixture causes decrease of the crystallite size of involved phases. The X-ray investigations of tested mixture milled for 30 hours and annealed at 950 °C enabled the identification of hard magnetic BaFe12O19 phase and also the presence of Fe2O3 phase in examined material. The Fe2O3 phase is a rest of BaCO3 dissociation in the presence of Fe2O3, which forms a compound of BaFe12O19. The best coercive force (HC for mixture of powders annealed at 950 °C for 10, 20 and 30 hours is 349 kA/m, 366 kA/m and 364 kA/m, respectively. The arithmetic mean of diameter of Fe2O3 and BaCO3 mixture powders after 30 hours of milling is about 6.0 μm.Practical implications: The barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and annealing can be suitable components to produce sintered and elastic magnets with polymer matrix.Originality/value: The results of tested barium ferrite investigations by different methods confirm their utility in the microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of powder materials.

  10. Estructura y diversidad genética de Annona squamosa en huertos familiares mayas de la península de Yucatán Genetic structure and diversity of Annona squamosa in Mayan homegardens of Yucatán Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Salazar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los huertos familiares del sureste de México son sitios donde se ha domesticado y conservado una alta diversidad de especies y variedades, lo cual ha generado cambios en su variabilidad genética. Con el fin de conocer la relación entre la actividad económica en una región y la distribución de la variabilidad genética de Annona squamosa L. —uno de los árboles frutales más representativos en estos sistemas—, se analizaron árboles en huertos de los estados de Yucatán y Quintana Roo mediante el uso de marcadores isoenzimáticos. El estudio se llevo a cabo en 14 poblaciones de 5 regiones que diferían en su principal actividad económica. Los resultados muestran que todos los marcadores fueron polimórficos con 3 o 4 alelos. El número promedio de alelos y de alelos en loci polimórficos fueron altos respecto a otros árboles cultivados, lo que sugiere que los efectos de la deriva génica no han sido importantes. La heterocigosis promedio observada fue de 0.373 ± 0.03 y la esperada de 0.470 ± 0.023. El análisis de la distribución jerárquica de la variación indica que el mayor nivel de variación (85% se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones. La variación entre poblaciones de una misma región fue del 12% y menos importante entre regiones, donde fue del 2%, lo que indica que no hay un efecto de las actividades socioeconómicas en la distribución de la variabilidad genética.Many plant and animal species have been domesticated in southeastern Mexican homegardens, resulting in changes in their genetic variability. One of the most representative fruit trees in these systems is Annona squamosa L. We wanted to know if the predominant type of economic activity in a given area affects the distribution of genetic variability in A. squamosa. In order to answer this question, we analyzed 14 populations in 5 different socioeconomic regions in the states of Yucatán and Quintana Roo, using isozyme analysis. All the enzyme markers were

  11. Florivory and sex ratio in Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae in the Pantanal at Nhecolândia, southwestern Brazil Florivoria e razão sexual em Annona dioica St. Hil. (Annonaceae no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Ferreira Paulino Neto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona dioica St. Hil. is a species that grows to approximately 2 m tall and is very widespread in the cerrados. Individual plants of this androdioecious species produce numerous hermaphroditic or male flowers, but few fruits. The aim of this study was to determine the sex ratio among the plants and to compare the frequency of herbivory between male and hermaphroditic flowers. The fieldwork was done by studying flowering plants in grasslands used as pasture for cattle at Fazenda Nhumirim. One hundred and forty-seven male plants and 71 hermaphroditic plants were examined and produced a total of 194 and 94 flowers, respectively, during the study period. The male:hermaphrodite sex ratio was 2.07:1, and was similar to the male:hermaphrodite flower ratio of 2.06:1. The frequency of florivory rate in hermaphrodites was significantly higher than in male flowers (33.0%, n = 31, and 25.7%, n = 50, respectively; G = 14.83; d.f. = 1; p Annona dioica é uma espécie arbustiva de até dois metros de altura, amplamente distribuída nos cerrados. Esta espécie é conhecida por oferecer muitas flores, mas produzir poucos frutos. Enquadra-se como androdióica, possuindo indivíduos machos e hermafroditas na população. O objetivo deste estudo foi registrar a razão sexual e comparar a taxa de florivoria entre flores masculinas e hermafroditas. A coleta de dados ocorreu em campos de pastagem da Fazenda Nhumirim, consistindo na observação de arbustos floridos. Foram registrados 147 indivíduos masculinos e 71 hermafroditas, os quais apresentavam um total de 194 e 94 flores durante o período de estudo, respectivamente. A razão sexual observada foi de 2,07 indivíduos masculinos para cada hermafrodita, bem como 2,06 flores masculinas para cada flor hermafrodita. A taxa de florivoria foi significativamente maior em flores hermafroditas que em masculinas, com 33,0% (n = 31 e 25,7% (n = 50, respectivamente (G = 14,83; 1gl; p < 0,001. A média do peso fresco de 50

  12. Physiological and Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Soursop Fruit (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Caracterización Fisiológica y Físico-Química del Fruto de la Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Fruit consumption is increasing around the world, just as its population. The World Health Organization recommends a minimum consumption of fruit 120 kg/person - year. Fruits such as soursop provide nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidants which are vital to human health, as well as bioactive substances such as vitamin C, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids, among others. In this research, soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita fruits were collected at physiological maturity in two production seasons for their physiological (respiration rate, ethylene production and physiological loss of weight and physico-chemical characterization (pulp, seeds and skin yield, total soluble solids (TSS, total acidity, pH and firmness. We found that ethylene production peaked at day 6 after-harvest, scoring 133.2 mL kg-1 h-1. This parameter was found to increase during postharvest, with peaks on days 4 and 6, coinciding with the climacteric peaks of biphasic respiration, the largest of which reached a value of 186.9 mg CO2 kg-1 h-1. This is probably the starter for the cascade of events that feature the ripening process, among which changes in TSS, acidity and fruit firmness were outstandingly visible.Resumen. En el mundo, el consumo de frutas es creciente, al igual que la población. La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda un consumo mínimo de 120 kg/persona al año. Frutas como la guanábana aportan nutrientes, fitoquímicos y antioxidantes de vital importancia para la salud humana, además de sustancias bioactivas como vitamina C, flavonoides, antocianinas y carotenoides, entre otros. En la presente investigación, frutos de guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, fueron recolectados en estado de madurez fisiológica o de cosecha, en dos épocas de producción, para determinar sus características fisiológicas (tasa de respiración, producción de etileno y pérdida fisiológica de peso, y físico-químicas (rendimiento en pulpa

  13. Formation of ball-milled Fe-Mo nanostructured powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moumeni, H. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba-Algerie (Algeria) and Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et de l' Ingenierie, Universite de Guelma, B.P. 401, 24000 Guelma-Algerie (Algeria)]. E-mail: hmoumeni@yahoo.fr; Alleg, S. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme et de Spectroscopie des Solides, LM2S, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Annaba, B.P. 12, 23000 Annaba-Algerie (Algeria); Greneche, J.M. [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, Faculte des Sciences, F-72085, Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2006-08-10

    Nanostructured Fe-6 wt.%Mo powders were prepared by mechanical alloying in a high-energy planetary ball-mill. The structural changes and the kinetics of Mo dissolution were studied by using X-ray diffraction. The crystallite size reduction down to about 11 nm is accompanied by the introduction of internal strains up to 1.1% (root-mean square strain, rms). After 24 h of milling, a bcc Fe(Mo) solid solution is formed. The kinetics of Mo dissolution into the Fe matrix during the milling process can be described by two regimes characterized by small values of Avrami parameter which do not exceed unit.

  14. The Parisi-Sourlas Mechanism in Yang-Mills Theory?

    CERN Document Server

    Magpantay, J A

    2000-01-01

    The Parisi-Sourlas mechanism is exhibited in pure Yang-Mills theory. Using the new scalar degrees of freedom derived from the non-linear gauge condition, we show that the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory is equivalent to a 4D O(1,3) sigma model in a random field. We then show that the leading term of this equivalent theory is invariant under supersymmetry transformations where (x^{2}+\\thetabar\\theta) is unchanged. This leads to dimensional reduction proving the equivalence of the non-perturbative sector of Yang-Mills theory to a 2D O(1,3) sigma model.

  15. Ultrafine milling for the processing of gold-bearing sulphides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ultrafine milling technology is used to treat gold-bearing sulphides and to investigate the effects of minerals size, milling time, liquid/solid ratio, NaCN consumption and leaching aid on leaching rate of gold. The results indicate that shorter treating time, decrease of NaCN consumption of 60% and increase of gold leaching rate of 15% can be obtained by the ultrafine milling technology compared with traditional cyanide leaching. Potential exists for the new process to form the basis for an economically viable, high-efficiency process for treatment of gold-bearing sulphides.

  16. Yang-Mills Instanton Sheaves with Arbitrary Topological Charges

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Lai, I-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    We use a set of ADHM 3-instanton data to systematically construct a class of SU(2) Yang-Mills instanton solutions with arbitrary topological charges. Moreover, by using the biquaternion calculation with biconjugation operation developed recently, these new ADHM data are used to construct a class of SL(2,C) Yang-Mills instanton sheaves on CP^3 with arbitrary topological charges k greater than 3. This result extends the previous construction of Yang-Mills 2-instanton sheaves to arbitrary higher k-instanton sheaves.

  17. Prototype Development of Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM

    OpenAIRE

    Saharkar, Nikita R.; Dhote, Girish M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of unmanned machining systems has been a recent focus of manufacturing research. The conventional milling machine removes metal with a revolving cutting tool called a milling cutter. For this, CNC machines are in use. CNC machine operates on part program. This program includes several G-codes and M-codes. This program is generated by skilled operators. This may cause error in geometry. Also increases labor cost. Thus new technology of milling operation is concep...

  18. GeneMill: A 21st century platform for innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Thain, Simon C; Craig, Thomas; McCue, Hannah V; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Hall, Neil; Hall, Anthony J W

    2016-06-15

    GeneMill officially launched on 4th February 2016 and is an open access academic facility located at The University of Liverpool that has been established for the high-throughput construction and testing of synthetic DNA constructs. GeneMill provides end-to-end design, construction and phenotypic characterization of small to large gene constructs or genetic circuits/pathways for academic and industrial applications. Thus, GeneMill is equipping the scientific community with easy access to the validated tools required to explore the possibilities of Synthetic Biology. PMID:27284025

  19. Frequency Modulation of High-Speed Mill Chatter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mill chatter is a common phenomenon in the metal strip rolling process. Product defects caused by mill vibration were reported worldwide during last two decades, which is usually classified as torque vibration of the driving system with low frequencies and vertical vibration of the mill stand with comparative higher frequencies. The frequency range of the vertical vibration is wide (in general from more than 100 Hz to more than 1 000 Hz), and the vibration phenomena are very complex, even it is very diffic...

  20. High coercivity induced by mechanical milling in cobalt ferrite powders

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, A. S.; E. F. Chagas; Prado, R. J.; Fernandes, C. H. M.; Terezo, A. J.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report a study of the magnetic behavior of ferrimagnetic oxide CoFe2O4 treated by mechanical milling with different grinding balls. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were prepared using a simple hydrothermal method and annealed at 500oC. The non-milled sample presented coercivity of about 1.9 kOe, saturation magnetization of 69.5 emu/g, and a remanence ratio of 0.42. After milling, two samples attained coercivity of 4.2 and 4.1 kOe, and saturation magnetization of 67.0 and 71.4...

  1. Simulation of type selection for 6-high cold tandem mill based on shape control ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yan; LIU Hong-min; WANG Dong-cheng

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical method for selecting strip rolling mill type that considered shape control ability was established using the figure alteration range that was worked by the alteration track of vector expressing strip's cross section (crown) to express the shape control ability of rolling mill. With the mathematical models and simulation software that were developed by the authors' own models, four types of mills were aimed, including HCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC (high crown) -mill), HCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill), UCM (6-high middle rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender) and UCMW (6-high middle rolls and work rolls shift type HC-mill with middle roll bender), and the shape and crown control ability of every mill type was analyzed and compared. An appropriate arrangement mode of tandem mill was brought forward. The results show that UCMW mill is a perfect choice for controlling shape and crown, and the area of control characteristics curve of UCMW (or UCM) is twice than that of HCM, but UCM mill is also a good choice for its simple frame. In other word, the shape and crown controlling ability of UCMW mill is better than that of UCM mill, but the frame of UCM mill is simpler than that of UCMW mill. As for the final type of mill, should be synthetically decided by thinking over fund and equipment technology.

  2. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application... an estimated average annual generation of 10,000 megawatt-hours. Main Mill Street Investments:...

  3. Jet milling from a particle perspective : predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a giv

  4. 40 CFR 63.1347 - Standards for raw and finish mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards for raw and finish mills. 63... and Operating Limits § 63.1347 Standards for raw and finish mills. The owner or operator of each new or existing raw mill or finish mill at a facility which is a major source subject to the...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.216 - Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in accordance with this section and Subpart S of this part. (4) Mill roll heights. All new mill...) Mill safety controls—(1) Safety trip control. A safety trip control shall be provided in front and in back of each mill. It shall be accessible and shall operate readily on contact. The safety trip...

  6. Conservação refrigerada de cherimóia embalada em filme plástico com zeolite Cold storage of cherimoya packed with zeolit film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa Melo

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da embalagem plástica "zeolite" no retardamento da maturação de cherimóias, mantidas sob armazenamento refrigerado, colheram-se frutos de cherimóia (Annona cherimola Mill., cv. Fino de Jete, de pomar comercial de Conceição dos Ouros (MG, no início de março de 2000. Selecionaram-se frutos de boa qualidade, os quais foram submetidos a dois tratamentos: a embalados com filme de polietileno coextrusado com incorporação de mineral tipo zeólito (zeolite e b controle (sem filme plástico. Os frutos foram colocados em caixas de papelão e submetidos ao armazenamento refrigerado (12 ± 1 ºC; 90% a 95% de umidade relativa - UR no Instituto Agronômico, em Campinas (SP. Avaliaram-se nos frutos: a perda de massa, a coloração externa, a aparência e a firmeza. Determinaram-se na polpa, o teor de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, o pH, o teor de acidez total titulável (ATT e a relação SST/ATT, ao longo de quatro semanas. Observou-se que os frutos do controle começaram a apresentar alterações físicas e químicas a partir do intervalo entre a segunda e a terceira semana de avaliação, apresentando-se consideravelmente depreciados na terceira semana, enquanto o tratamento com "zeolite" proporcionou melhor conservação dos frutos, até a quarta e última avaliação, tanto no aspecto estético, quanto nos atributos internos. Concluiu-se que os frutos não embalados podem ser conservados até por duas semanas em câmara a 12 ºC e 90% a 95% de UR e os embalados em "zeolite", mantidos sob essa temperatura até por quatro semanas.Fruits of cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill. cv. Fino of Jete were harvested from an orchard situated in Conceição dos Ouros - MG, Brazil, in March 2000. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the post harvest conservation of fruits packed with zeolite films. Fruits with better quality were selected and divided into two treatments: a packed with polyethylene coextrused

  7. Roll Gap Crown Adjustment Characteristics of 1700 mm Cold Rolling Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-bin

    2014-01-01

    The 4-hi cold mill is one of the key wide strip tandem cold rolling mills and has many advantages and characteristics. The mill type is the most important, fundamental and long-term effective factor for the strip shape control. Many advanced mill types such as CVC-4, HCW and PC-4, etc are created based on the conventional four-roll mill. The factors of mill type which affect the deformation of roll system, such as strip width, rolling force, bending force, work roll diameter, backup diameter and so on, are studied how to affect roll gap crown. It provides a good foundation for improving the shape performance of mill.

  8. Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranalli, A.

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

    Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpech

  9. Flatness and Profile Integration Control Model for Tandem Cold Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using the effective matrix methods of flatness and profile control synthetically, the flatness and profile in- tegration control scheme for tandem cold mills is built in order to increase flatness and profile control precision of tan- dem cold mills. Corresponding control strategies are adopted for various control objectives of different stands and the coordination control strategies of various stands are given, which makes the on-line flatness control cooperate with on-line profile control and implements the parallel control of different stands. According to the measured flatness and profile data of some 1550 mm tandem cold mills, the control scheme is verified and the result indicates that the scheme has high flatness and profile control precision with steady and reliable control process. A new way and method is supplied for researching shade control of tandem cold mills.

  10. Stabilizing the tailing dam at Hengyang Uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering measures combined with vegetation for stabilizing tailing dam at Hengyang unanium mill is described briefly. Improvements on dam safety, environment management and dam life time that have been achieved over the last 5 years are presented

  11. Research on product size and grinding dynamics of vibration mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhong-jun; HAN Tian; CHEN Bing; ZHANG Wen-zhong

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve vibration mills grinding effect and increase productive efficiency, prime factors of vibration mills were gained much attention. The purpose of this study is to reveal product size distribution and grinding dynamics of vibration mills by orthogonal experi-ments. The metallurgical refractory materials were used as research object. In order to explore the relationships between grinding effect and primary factors, lots of milling experiments were carried out. Based on the results, the conclusions can be summarized: as time runs, the size distri-bution shows exponential trend, and range becomes more and more narrow. Also the quantitative analysis result between grinding effect and primary factors was obtained by non-linear regres-sion: high frequency, high amplitude and low fill ratio can increase grinding speed.

  12. Nanocrystalline Al Composites from Powder Milled under Ammonia Gas Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cintas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of high hardness and thermally stable nanocrystalline aluminium composites is described. Al powder was milled at room temperature in an ammonia flow for a period of less than 5 h. NH3 dissociation during milling provokes the absorption, at a high rate, of nitrogen into aluminium, hardening it by forming a solid solution. Controlled amounts of AlN and Al5O6N are formed during the subsequent sintering of milled powders for consolidation. The pinning action of these abundant dispersoids highly restrains aluminium grain growth during heating. The mean size of the Al grains remains below 45 nm and even after the milled powder is sintered at 650°C for 1 h.

  13. Accelerated aging tests of liners for uranium mill tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the results of accelerated aging tests to determine the long-term effectiveness of selected impoundment liner materials in a uranium mill tailings environment. The study was sponsored by the US Department of Energy under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. The study was designed to evaluate the need for, and the performance of, several candidate liners for isolating mill tailings leachate in conformance with proposed Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. The liners were subjected to conditions known to accelerate the degradation mechanisms of the various liners. Also, a test environment was maintained that modeled the expected conditions at a mill tailings impoundment, including ground subsidence and the weight loading of tailings on the liners. A comparison of installation costs was also performed for the candidate liners. The laboratory testing and cost information prompted the selection of a catalytic airblown asphalt membrane and a sodium bentonite-amended soil for fiscal year 1981 field testing

  14. John Stuart Mill, labour issue and the problem of socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurković Miša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the analysis of Mill's attitude to socialism The author starts from the contemporary libertarian dogma about Mill as the spoiler of liberalism who supposedly turned this ideology towards socialist trends. The detailed and taxonomic analysis based on Mill's Principles of Political Economy and Chapters on Socialism shows that this theory in not correct; that the opposite is true - Mill actually, as the first serious critic of socialism, set all the relevant arguments which the liberal theory would later use to challenge this rival ideology. The emphasis is placed on the problems of redistribution and extension of the right to vote, but the author also tackles the issues of corporations, protectionism and tax policy.

  15. Genetic Evolutionary Approach for Cutting Forces Prediction in Hard Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan, Fatih; Kayacan, Cengiz

    2011-11-01

    Hard milling is a very common used machining procedure in the last years. Therefore the prediction of cutting forces is important. The paper deals with this prediction using genetic evolutionary programming (GEP) approach to set mathematical expression for out cutting forces. In this study, face milling was performed using DIN1.2842 (90MnCrV8) cold work tool steel, with a hardness of 61 HRC. Experimental parameters were selected using stability measurements and simulations. In the hard milling experiments, cutting force data in a total of three axes were collected. Feed direction (Fx) and tangential direction (Fy) cutting forces generated using genetic evolutionary programming were modelled. Cutting speed and feed rate values were treated as inputs in the models, and average cutting force values as output. Mathematical expressions were created to predict average Fxand Fy forces that can be generated in hard material milling.

  16. Raske retk, mille auhinnaks on veelgi raskem retk / Mihkel Loide

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Loide, Mihkel

    2004-01-01

    Ülevaade Valgamaal 14.-15. mail 2004 toimunud Kaitseliidu-sisesest Eel-Erna patrullvõistlusest, mille tulemusena selgusid Erna retkest osavõtjad. Tabel: Kaitseliidu patrullvõistluse Eel-Erna 2004 lõpuprotokoll

  17. Cylindrically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs gauge configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaini, R. P.

    1985-02-01

    Two solutions are obtained for coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs fields with cylindrical symmetry and rigid rotation. The Higgs fields are responsible for the creation of singularities and infinite energy densities at the cylinder's axis.

  18. Uranium mill tailings cleanup: Federal leadership at last

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has proposed legislation that would allow it to enter into cooperative agreements with various States to clean up residual radioactive materials--commonly called uranium mill tailings--at 22 inactive uranium mills. About 25 million tons of mill tailings have accumulated at these sites since the 1940s. GAO analyzed the need for, and adequacy of, the proposed legislation and recommends that the cleanup program be endorsed. While the Federal Government has no apparent legal responsibility for such a cleanup, it does have a moral responsibility since the mills primarily produced uranium for Federal programs. Further, it is the only organization able to undertake such a cleanup program on a comprehensive basis. GAO also suggests several areas where the proposed legislation could be strengthened

  19. Probabilistic calculation of dose commitment from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses in a general way considerations of uncertainty in relation to probabilistic modelling. An example of a probabilistic calculation applied to the behaviour of uranium mill tailings is given

  20. Gravity as the square of Yang-Mills?

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L

    2016-01-01

    In these lectures we review how the symmetries of gravitational theories may be regarded as originating from those of "Yang-Mills squared". We begin by motivating the idea that certain aspects of gravitational theories can be captured by the product, in some sense, of two distinct Yang-Mills theories, particularly in the context of scattering amplitudes. We then introduce a concrete dictionary for the covariant fields of (super)gravity in terms of the product of two (super) Yang-Mills theories. The dictionary implies that the symmetries of each (super) Yang-Mills factor generate the symmetries of the corresponding (super)gravity theory: general covariance, $p$-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance, local supersymmetry, R-symmetry and U-duality.

  1. Investigation of tool geometry effect and penetration strategies on cutting forces during thread milling

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Vishal; Fromentin, Guillaume; Poulachon, Gérard; BRENDLEN, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The application of thread milling is increasing in industry because of its inherent advantages over other thread cutting techniques. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of milling cutter tool geometry on cutting forces during thread milling. The proposed method can compare the performance of milling cutters in spite of the different number of tooth. The best thread milling cutter among the studied tools was determined from the cutting forces point of view. Furthermore, th...

  2. Jet milling from a particle perspective: predicting particle fracture based on mechanical material properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vegt, Onno Martinus

    2007-01-01

    Milling is a very old discipline originated in milling agricultural products to flour. Despite the enormous literature on size reduction, milling is a unit operation which has no sound underlying theory comparable to those existing for other unit operations. The design of milling equipment for a given application is based on accumulated experiences of the manufactures. It is not for lack of either interest or investigation that a quantitative theory of milling does not exist. In contrast, the...

  3. A 3-dimensional accuracy analysis of chairside CAD/CAM milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch, Gabriel; Ender, Andreas; Mehl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Milling is a central and important aspect of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. High milling accuracy reduces the time needed to adapt the workpiece and provides restorations with better longevity and esthetic appeal. The influence of different milling processes on the accuracy of milled restorations has not yet been reviewed. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different milling processes on t...

  4. Massive Yang-Mills Fields in Interaction with Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Grigore, D. R.; Scharf, G.

    2008-01-01

    We determine the most general form of the interaction between the gravitational field and an arbitrary Yang-Mills system of fields (massless and massive). We work in the perturbative quantum framework of the causal approach (of Epstein and Glaser) and use a cohomological definition of gauge invariance for both gauge fields. We also consider the case of massive gravity. We discuss the question whether gravity couples to the unphysical degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills fields.

  5. Distribution of Fusarium mycotoxins in UK wheat mill fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Simon G; Scudamore, Keith; MacDonald, Susan; Patel, Sue; Hazel, Clare; Buttler, Dereck; Dickin, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The EU has set maximum limits for the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON). The maximum permitted level decreases from unprocessed wheat, through intermediary products e.g. flour, to finished products such as bakery goods and breakfast cereals. It is therefore important to understand the effects of processing on the mycotoxin distribution in mill fractions. Between 2004 and 2007, samples were taken at commercial flour mills at various points in ...

  6. The MediaMill TRECVID 2012 semantic video search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Sande, van de, B.; Habibian, A.; Kordumova, S.; Z. Li; Mazloom, M.; Pintea, S.L.; Tao, R.; Koelma, D.C.; Smeulders, A. W. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe our TRECVID 2012 video retrieval experiments. The MediaMill team participated in four tasks: semantic indexing, multimedia event detection, multimedia event recounting and instance search. The starting point for the MediaMill detection approach is our top-performing bag-of-words system of TRECVID 2008-2011, which uses multiple color SIFT descriptors, averaged and difference coded into codebooks with spatial pyramids, and kernel-based machine learning. This year our c...

  7. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond the mill's needs fueled by bagasse during the sugar cane crushing season ,and by fuelwood from eucalyptus plantations during the sugar cane off season. The surplus power in both seasons will be sold ...

  8. Impact of Modal Parameters on Milling Process Chatter Stability Lobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqun; LIU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Modals of the machine/tool and machine/part system are the principal factors affecting the stability of a milling process. Based on the modeling of chatter stability of milling process, the influence of modal parameters on chatter stability lobes independently or jointly has been analyzed by simulation. Peak-to-valley specific value, lobe coefficient and the corresponding calculation formula have been put forward. General laws and steps of modal simplification for multimodality system have been summarized.

  9. Evaluation of Flatness Gauge for Hot Rolling Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    In the steel industry, laser triangulation based measurement systems can be utilizedfor evaluating the flatness of the steel products. Shapeline is a company in Linköpingthat manufactures such measurement systems. This thesis work will present a series ofexperiments on a Shapeline measurement system in a relatively untested environment, thehot rolling mill at SSAB in Borlänge.The purpose of this work is to evaluate how the conditions at a hot rolling mill affectsthe measurement performance. I...

  10. A QCD Model Using Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shan; KOU Li-Na

    2007-01-01

    Generalized Yang-Mills theory has a covariant derivative,which contains both vector and scalar gauge bosons.Based on this theory,we construct a strong interaction model by using the group U(4).By using this U(4)generalized Yang-Mills model,we also obtain a gauge potential solution,which can be used to explain the asymptotic behavior and color confinement.

  11. SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR COLOR OSCILLATIONS IN YANG-MILLS THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the simulation of non-linear spatial-temporal color oscillations in Yang-Mills theory in the case of SU (2) and SU (3) symmetry. We examined three systems of equations derived from the Yang-Mills theory, which describes the transition to chaotic behaviour. These transitions are caused by nonlinear vibrations of colour, depending on the model parameters - the coupling constants and the initial wave amplitude. Such transitions to chaotic behaviour by increasing the paramete...

  12. Environmental Development Plan: uranium mining, milling, and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Development Plan (EDP) identifies the planning and management requirements and schedules needed to evaluate and assess the environmental, health, and safety (EH and S) aspects of the uranium mining, milling, and conversion technologies. The plan represents the collective perceptions of EH and S concerns and requirements and knowledge of ongoing research programs of most of the Federal agencies involved in significant EH and S R and D program management, standards setting, or regulatory activities associated with uranium mining, milling, and conversion

  13. Compliance error compensation in robotic-based milling

    OpenAIRE

    Klimchik, Alexandr; Bondarenko, Dmitry; Pashkevich, Anatol; Briot, Sébastien; Furet, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of compliance errors compensation in robotic-based milling. Contrary to previous works that assume that the forces/torques generated by the manufacturing process are constant, the interaction between the milling tool and the workpiece is modeled in details. It takes into account the tool geometry, the number of teeth, the feed rate, the spindle rotation speed and the properties of the material to be processed. Due to high level of the disturbing forces/torques...

  14. Modeling for driving systems of four-high rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建军; 喻寿益; 钟掘

    2002-01-01

    A modeling method for driving systems of four-high rolling mill was put forward in order to analyze the origin of rolling mill's chatter that brings about light and shade streaks on the surface of steel strip from aspect of electromechanical coupling. The process and steps of modeling method was introduced by means of an example. The correctness of the model and the feasibility of the modeling method were verified in simulation experiment.

  15. IMPACT OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS ON SOIL AND VEGETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan Singh Mandloi; Shatrughan Prasad Singh; Deepak Davar

    2015-01-01

    Environmental pollution poses a great health hazard to human beings, animals and plants. Pollution has also adverse effects on the land, water and its living and nonliving components. Industrial effluents, containing organic and inorganic compounds have strong influence on the development of growth of crop plants. The treated effluent was collected from OPM paper mill from its outlet. Thephysicochemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found...

  16. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar Rivera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  17. A study on rheological characteristics of roller milled fenugreek fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Prabhasankar, P

    2016-01-01

    Fenugreek seeds were fractionated by roller milling to get various fractions. The roller milled fractions and whole fenugreek flour (WFF) were evaluated for the flow behavior and time-dependent flow properties using a rotational viscometer at the temperatures of 10-60 (0)C. The samples subjected to a programmed shear rate increase linearly from 0 to 300 s(-1) in 3 min and successive decrease linearly shear rate from 300 s(-1) to 0 in 3 min. The roller milled fractions and WFF paste exhibited non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Difference in hysteresis loop area was observed among the roller milled fractions and WFF, being more noticeable at lower temperatures. Power law and Casson models were used to predict flow properties of samples. The power law model described well the flow behavior of the roller milled fractions and WFF at temperatures tested. Except flour (FL) fraction, consistency coefficient, m, increased with the temperature both in the forward and backward measurements. The roller milled fractions and WFF exhibited rheopectic behavior that increased viscosity with increasing the shear speed and the temperature. For all the sample tested, initial shear stress increased with increase in shear rate and temperature. PMID:26787961

  18. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  19. Replacing chemicals in recycle mills with mechanical alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2002-07-01

    A high-intensity spark fired underwater decomposes a small amount of the water into hydroxyl radicals, which are strong oxidants. These are able to oxidize contaminants such as glue and wood pitch that enter paper recycling mills as a part of the incoming furnish and cost the industry several hundred million dollars. The sparking technique is safe, inexpensive, and is capable of treating large volumes of water, which makes it attractive for mill applications. Several mill trials were run. Sparking caused a decrease in the tack of the deposits in one case. Lower bleach use occurred in two other mills; sparking reduced the degree of ink reattachment to fiber. The payback for either application is attractive. Sparking induced deposition of contaminants in another mill, which is a positive development--if it can be controlled. The technique is also able to degas water and to oxidize odor-causing sulfur compounds. Although one unit has been purchased by a mill, second-order effects caused by the technology needs to be defined further before the technology can be broadly applied.

  20. Influence of grinding method and grinding intensity of corn on mill energy consumption and pellet quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukmirović Đuro M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there is an emerging trend of coarse grinding of cereals in production of poultry feed due to positive influence of coarse particles on poultry digestive system. Influence of grinding method (hammer mill vs. roller mill and grinding intensity of corn (coarseness of grinding on mill specific energy consumption and pellet quality was investigated. By decreasing grinding intensity of corn (coarser grinding, specific energy consumption of both hammer mill and roller mill was significantly decreased (p < 0.05. When comparing similar grinding intensities on hammer mill and roller mill (similar geometric mean diameter or similar particle size distribution, specific energy consumption was higher for the hammer mill. Pellet quality decreased with coarser grinding on hammer mill but, however, this effect was not observed for the roller mill. Generally, pellet quality was better when roller mill was used. It can be concluded that significant energy savings could be achieved by coarser grinding of corn before pelleting and by using roller mill instead of hammer mill. From the aspect of pellet quality, if coarser grinding is applied it is better to use roller mill, concerning that more uniform particle size distribution of corn ground on roller mill probably results in more uniform particle size distribution in pellets and this provides better pellet quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  1. Transport in rotary drums and ball mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains investigations into the influence exerted by operating conditions, material properties and geometry of the apparatus and of the discharge plate on the transport behaviour of narrow quartz sand fractions in a model apparatus. The transport coefficients are determined in residence time experiments with Na-24-labelling. The dependence obtained between the transport coefficients and the experimental parameters permits a coherent interpretation if the assumption is made that the two types of transport occur in different phases of radial motion: Convection takes place during ascend while axial dispersion is generated in the falling and ranging process. Furthermore, a model has been developed for evaluating the throughput of rotary drums and ball mills, respectively; it is based on the assumption that the throughput is governed by the material flux through the discharge plate. The efflux takes place only in the ascending zone as a result of gravity and centrifugal forces acting parallel to the discharge plate. A deduced relationship describing the material flow through the discharge apertures in connection with the calculable zone of ascend leads to an expression allowing to determine the mass flow rate as a function of material properties, operating conditions and geometry of the discharge plate. A comparison between experimental and calculated data shows good agreement. (orig.)

  2. Lubrication control of motors in paper mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, Yasuo

    1987-12-01

    This review is focused lubrication control of motors in paper mills. Smaller motors use deep groove ball bearings and lubricating grease. They need no make-up grease. Medium-size motors incorporate both sealed and open bearings or only open bearings and the grade, make-up intervals and make-up volume of the lubricating grease to be used are specified. Methods for automatic grease supply include the use of an automatic grease cup with improved injection mechanism, use of an injection pump for automatic supply to each motor, and group-control for parallel supply to several motors through distribution valves. For large-size motors, oil-bath lubricating is usually adopted in combination with a circulating oil supply device, etc. Improved techniques are currently available for automatization of the main systems and for automatization and reduction in cost of electric instrumentation. However, grease up of bearings, especially for medium-size motors, is performed by hand. Effective lubrication control and increased productivity are expected to be achieved by the combined use of automatic oil supply and monitoring devices. (14 figs, 4 tabs)

  3. Measurements of uranium mill tailings consolidation characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, M J

    1985-02-01

    A series of experiments were conducted on uranium mill tailings from the tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado, to determine their consolidation characteristics. Three materials (sand, sand/slimes mix, slimes) were loaded under saturated conditions to determine their saturated consolidated behavior. During a separate experiment, samples of the slimes material were kept under a constant load while the pore pressure was increased to determine the partially saturated consolidation behavior. Results of the saturated tests compared well with published data. Sand consolidated the least, while slimes consolidated the most. As each material consolidated, the measured hydraulic conductivity decreased in a linear fashion with respect to the void ratio. Partially saturated experiments with the slimes indicated that there was little consolidation as the pore pressure was increased progressively above 7 kPa. The small amount of consolidation that did occur was only a fraction of the amount of saturated consolidation. Preliminary measurements between pore pressures of 0 and 7 kPa indicated that measurable consolidation could occur in this range of pore pressure, but only if there was no load. 13 references, 13 figures.

  4. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  5. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  6. On maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Movshev, M

    2004-01-01

    We consider ten-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (10D SUSY YM theory) and its dimensional reductions, in particular, BFSS and IKKT models. We formulate these theories using algebraic techniques based on application of differential graded Lie algebras and associative algebras as well as of more general objects, L_{\\infty}- and A_{\\infty}- algebras. We show that using pure spinor formulation of 10D SUSY YM theory equations of motion and isotwistor formalism one can interpret these equations as Maurer-Cartan equations for some differential Lie algebra. This statement can be used to write BV action functional of 10D SUSY YM theory in Chern-Simons form. The differential Lie algebra we constructed is closely related to differential associative algebra Omega of (0, k)-forms on some supermanifold; the Lie algebra is tensor product of Omega and matrix algebra . We construct several other algebras that are quasiisomorphic to Omega and, therefore, also can be used to give BV formulation of 10D SUSY YM theory...

  7. [Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) biomass refinery engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Wang, Ning; Li, Tan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill) is an abundant and widely distributed Chinese native plant. Sumac fruit contains low content of vegetable oil, as an atypical oil plants hardly being processed through traditional vegetable oil production technologies. Based on our own studies on the characteristics of sumac fruit and branches, we established a novel model of sumac biomass refinery, and constructed the sumac biomass refinery technology system and eco-industrial chain integration. Steam explosion was the key technology, and several components fractionation technologies were integrated in the sumac biomass refinery system. The fractionated components were converted into different products depending on their functional features. Eight products including sumac fruit oil, biodiesel, protein feed, flavonoids, unbleached facial tissue, phenolic resin, biomass briquette and biogas were produced in the refinery. The extracted sumac fruit oil by steam explosion pretreatment was applied for the new food resource of Ministry of Health, and the permit was approved. This research provides a new model for the development of atypical wild plant resources.

  8. Curving Yang-Mills-Higgs Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kotov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Established fundamental physics can be described by fields, which are maps. The source of such a map is space-time, which can be curved due to gravity. The map itself needs to be curved in its gauge field part so as to describe interaction forces like those mediated by photons and gluons. In the present article, we permit non-zero curvature also on the internal space, the target of the field map. The action functional and the symmetries are constructed in such a way that they reduce to those of standard Yang-Mills-Higgs (YMH) gauge theories precisely when the curvature on the target of the fields is turned off. For curved targets one obtains a new theory, a curved YMH gauge theory. It realizes in a mathematically consistent manner an old wish in the community: replacing structures constants by functions depending on the scalars of the theory. In addition, we provide a simple 4d toy model, where the gauge symmetry is abelian, but turning off the gauge fields, no rigid symmetry remains---another possible manife...

  9. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; Wang, Henry

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  10. Domestic uranium mining and milling industry 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 170B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended by Public Law 97-415, requires that the Secretary of Energy submit to Congress an annual assessment of the viability of the domestic uranium mining and milling industry. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) was assigned the responsibility to develop the criteria for use in estimating the viability of the industry. These criteria include four major attributes of industry viability - resource capability, supply response capability, financial capability, and import commitment dependency. Having established these criteria, the Secretary of Energy is required to monitor the industry and make an annual assessment of its viability for 1983 through 1992. The first six assessments were issued in the years 1984 through 1989 based on information available for 1983 through 1988, respectively. The current report provides the data and analyses, based on the information available through the end of the calendar year 1989, supporting the seventh annual assessment of the uranium industry's viability. It presents information on the four major attributes. Data on past and present industry behavior, as well as projections of the future status of the industry (assuming current market conditions), were used to examine the industry's ability to respond, over a 10-year period, to two hypothetical supply disruption scenarios. 20 figs., 23 tabs

  11. Intelligent cutting tool condition monitoring in milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Balic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to present a tool condition monitoring (TCM system that can detect tool breakage in real time by using a combination of neural decision system, ANFIS tool wear estimator and machining error compensation module.Design/methodology/approach: The principal presumption was that the force signals contain the most useful information for determining the tool condition. Therefore, ANFIS method is used to extract the features of tool states from cutting force signals. The trained ANFIS model of tool wear is then merged with a neural network for identifying tool wear condition (fresh, worn.Findings: The overall machining error is predicted with very high accuracy by using the deflection module and a large percentage of it is eliminated through the proposed error compensation process.Research limitations/implications: This study also briefly presents a compensation method in milling in order to take into account tool deflection during cutting condition optimization or tool-path generation. The results indicate that surface errors due to tool deflections can be reduced by 65-78%.Practical implications: The fundamental limitation of research was to develop a single-sensor monitoring system, reliable as commercially available system, but much cheaper than multi-sensor approach.Originality/value: A neural network is used in TCM as a decision making system to discriminate different malfunction states from measured signals.

  12. Yang-Mills-Vlasov system in the temporal gauge. Systeme de Yang-Mills-Vlasov en jauge temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y.; Noutchegueme, N. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (FR))

    1991-01-01

    We prove a local in time existence theorem of a solution of the Cauchy problem for the Yang-Mills-Vlasov integrodifferential system. Such equations govern the evolution of plasmas, for instance of quarks and gluons (quagmas), where non abelian gauge fields and Yang-Mills charges replace the usual electromagnetic field and electric charge. We work with the temporal gauge and use functional spaces with appropriate weight on the momenta, but no fall off is required in the space direction.

  13. Direct measures of mechanical energy for knife mill size reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Miu, P.I [University of Tennessee; Yang, Y.T. [University of Tennessee; Smith, D.R. [University of Tennessee; Chevanan, Nehru [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    Lengthy straw/stalk of biomass may not be directly fed into grinders such as hammer mills and disc refiners. Hence, biomass needs to be preprocessed using coarse grinders like a knife mill to allow for efficient feeding in refiner mills without bridging and choking. Size reduction mechanical energy was directly measured for switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum L.), and corn stover (Zea mays L.) in an instrumented knife mill. Direct power inputs were determined for different knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. Overall accuracy of power measurement was calculated to be 0.003 kW. Total specific energy (kWh/Mg) was defined as size reduction energy to operate mill with biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy that can be assumed to reach the biomass. The difference is parasitic or no-load energy of mill. Total specific energy for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chopping increased with knife mill speed, whereas, effective specific energy decreased marginally for switchgrass and increased for wheat straw and corn stover. Total and effective specific energy decreased with an increase in screen size for all the crops studied. Total specific energy decreased with increase in mass feed rate, but effective specific energy increased for switchgrass and wheat straw, and decreased for corn stover at increased feed rate. For knife mill screen size of 25.4 mm and optimum speed of 250 rpm, optimum feed rates were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively, and the corresponding total specific energies were 7.57, 10.53, and 8.87 kWh/Mg and effective specific energies were 1.27, 1.50, and 0.24 kWh/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Energy utilization ratios were calculated as 16.8%, 14.3%, and 2.8% for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These

  14. Inoculation of paperboard mill sludge versus mixed culture bacteria for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Danial, Amal

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of paperboard mill sludge (PMS) versus mixed culture bacteria (MCB) as inoculum for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater (PMW) was investigated. The experiments were conducted at different initial cultivation pHs, inoculums to substrate ratios (ISRs gVS/gCOD), and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The peak hydrogen yield (HY) of 5.29 ± 0.16 and 1.22 ± 0.11 mmol/gCODinitial was occurred at pH = 5 for MCB and PMS, respectively. At pH of 5, the HY and COD removal achieved the highest values of 2.26 ± 0.14 mmol/gCODinitial and 86 ± 1.6% at ISR = 6 for MCB, and 2.38 ± 0.25 mmol/gCODinitial and 60.4 ± 2.5% at ISRs = 3 for PMS. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 93.75 ± 8.9 mmol/day at HRT = 9.6 h from continuous upflow anaerobic reactor inoculated with MCB. Meanwhile, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments indicated a dominance of a novel hydrogen-producing bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for PMS microbial community. On the other hand, Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter hormaechei were the predominant species for MCB.

  15. Inoculation of paperboard mill sludge versus mixed culture bacteria for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed; Danial, Amal

    2016-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of paperboard mill sludge (PMS) versus mixed culture bacteria (MCB) as inoculum for hydrogen production from paperboard mill wastewater (PMW) was investigated. The experiments were conducted at different initial cultivation pHs, inoculums to substrate ratios (ISRs gVS/gCOD), and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The peak hydrogen yield (HY) of 5.29 ± 0.16 and 1.22 ± 0.11 mmol/gCODinitial was occurred at pH = 5 for MCB and PMS, respectively. At pH of 5, the HY and COD removal achieved the highest values of 2.26 ± 0.14 mmol/gCODinitial and 86 ± 1.6% at ISR = 6 for MCB, and 2.38 ± 0.25 mmol/gCODinitial and 60.4 ± 2.5% at ISRs = 3 for PMS. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 93.75 ± 8.9 mmol/day at HRT = 9.6 h from continuous upflow anaerobic reactor inoculated with MCB. Meanwhile, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments indicated a dominance of a novel hydrogen-producing bacterium of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for PMS microbial community. On the other hand, Escherichia fergusonii and Enterobacter hormaechei were the predominant species for MCB. PMID:26498965

  16. Polinização artificial da atemóia com diversas fontes de pólen comparada com a natural Natural and artificial pollination of Atemoya in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Rosa Melo; Celso Valdevino Pommer; Ryosuke Kavati

    2002-01-01

    Para estudar a polinização da atemóia (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola) e determinar a técnica de polinização que produz frutos em maior quantidade e melhor qualidade, montou-se um experimento de polinização. O experimento foi realizado com a cultivar Gefner, no período de novembro de 2000 a março de 2001, em pomar comercial, localizado em Lins (SP), a 424 metros de altitude. As plantas apresentavam 13 anos de idade. Empregou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e sei...

  17. EFFECT OF PAN-MILLING ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Huang

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pan-milling on the rheological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied. An innovative milling apparatus, viz. an inlaid pan-mill, was used. Melt indexer, capillary rheometer, Haake Rheocord 90 singlescrew extruder and Brabender rheometer were used to evaluate the rheological properties ofHDPE. HDPE with higher initial molecular weight and larger particle size was easier to degrade under pan-milling stress, as indicated by the melt index.Pressure oscillation in capillary flow occurred at significantly higher shear stress and shear rate for milled HDPE than for unmilled HDPE. The apparent shear viscosity of HDPE decreased with increasing times of milling. After milling, the flow activation energy decreased and thus the sensitivity of viscosity to temperature was reduced. Die pressure and torque during single screw extrusion were reduced significantly after milling. Plasticizing time as measured in a Brabander mixer decreased markedly with increasing milling times.

  18. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  19. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource

  20. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  1. EFFECT OF PAN-MILLING STRESS ON CRYSTAL STRUCTURES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Huang

    2000-01-01

    A detailed study was performed on the crystal structures of pan-milled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallinity of HDPE first decreased slightly, followed by a gradual increase with increasing milling times. Monoclinic crystals appeared after 4 cycles of milling. With increasing times of milling, the proportion of monoclinic crystals increased significantly while the proportion of orthorhombic crystals decreased gradually. With increasing times of milling, the crystallite size of orthorhombic form decreased greatly, while the size of monoclinic crystallites kept almost constant during milling.

  2. Rolling mill optimization using an accurate and rapid new model for mill deflection and strip thickness profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Arif Sultan

    This work presents improved technology for attaining high-quality rolled metal strip. The new technology is based on an innovative method to model both the static and dynamic characteristics of rolling mill deflection, and it applies equally to both cluster-type and non cluster-type rolling mill configurations. By effectively combining numerical Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with analytical solid mechanics, the devised approach delivers a rapid, accurate, flexible, high-fidelity model useful for optimizing many important rolling parameters. The associated static deflection model enables computation of the thickness profile and corresponding flatness of the rolled strip. Accurate methods of predicting the strip thickness profile and strip flatness are important in rolling mill design, rolling schedule set-up, control of mill flatness actuators, and optimization of ground roll profiles. The corresponding dynamic deflection model enables solution of the standard eigenvalue problem to determine natural frequencies and modes of vibration. The presented method for solving the roll-stack deflection problem offers several important advantages over traditional methods. In particular, it includes continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using pre-determined elastic foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, the ability to calculate dynamic characteristics, and a comparatively faster solution time. Consistent with the most advanced existing methods, the presented method accommodates loading conditions that represent roll crowning, roll bending, roll shifting, and roll crossing mechanisms. Validation of the static model is provided by comparing results and solution time with large-scale, commercial finite element simulations. In addition to examples with the common 4-high vertical stand rolling mill, application of the presented method to the most complex of rolling mill configurations is demonstrated

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF WOOD MILLING SCHEDULE – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia-Adela SALCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study applied to the milling process of solid wood specimens made of black alder wood (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn. with a view to find the optimal cutting schedule when two main criteria, such as the minimum power consumption and the best surface quality are fulfilled.The experimental work was performed with black alder wood originating from mature trees from the Buzau Valley region in Romania. All samples were processed on their longitudinal edges by straight milling with a milling cutter having glued straight plates on the vertical milling machine under different cutting schedules. An electronic device connected to the machine engine and an acquisition board were used to record and compute the power consumption during milling. Roughness measurements of the samples were performed by employing an optical profilometer. All data were processed using the regression method and variance analysis. The study revealed that best results are to be obtained in terms of cutting power and surface quality when processing with low feed speeds and light cutting depths.

  4. Current practices and options for confinement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, which took place in Stockholm from 4 to 6 June 1972, national governments were asked to explore, with the International Atomic Energy Agency and other appropriate international organizations, international co-operation on radioactive waste matters including those of mining and tailings disposal. Since that time the IAEA has been active in the field of uranium and thorium mill tailings management. As part of this activity, the present report describes current practices and options for confinement of uranium mill tailings. It is addressed to technical and administrative personnel who are involved in planning and implementing national and industrial programmes on the management of such tailings. In 1974 and 1975 the IAEA convened meetings of experts to review matters of interest and importance in the management of uranium and thorium mine and mill tailings. These activities led to the publication in 1976 of Management of Wastes from the Mining and Milling of Uranium and Thorium Ores, a Code of Practice and Guide to the Code, IAEA Safety Series No. 44. As a continuation of this activity, the IAEA is here dealing more specifically with the design and siting considerations for the management of uranium mill tailings

  5. Effect of milling on DSC thermogram of excipient adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Kiong; Kwek, Jin Wang; Yuen, Aaron; Tan, Chin Lee; Tan, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate why and how mechanical milling results in an unexpected shift in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measured fusion enthalpy (Delta(fus)H) and melting point (T(m)) of adipic acid, a pharmaceutical excipient. Hyper differential scanning calorimetry (hyper-DSC) was used to characterize adipic acid before and after ball-milling. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate previous postulations such as electrostatic charging using the Faraday cage method, crystallinity loss using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal annealing using DSC, impurities removal using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Karl Fischer titration. DSC thermograms showed that after milling, the values of Delta(fus)H and T(m) were increased by approximately 9% and 5 K, respectively. Previous suggestions of increased electrostatic attraction, change in particle size distribution, and thermal annealing during measurements did not explain the differences. Instead, theoretical analysis and experimental findings suggested that the residual solvent (water) plays a key role. Water entrapped as inclusions inside adipic acid during solution crystallization was partially evaporated by localized heating at the cleaved surfaces during milling. The correlation between the removal of water and melting properties measured was shown via drying and crystallization experiments. These findings show that milling can reduce residual solvent content and causes a shift in DSC results.

  6. Analyzing the performance of diamond-coated micro end mills.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, C. D.; Heaney, P. J.; Sumant, A. V.; Hamilton, M. A.; Carpick, R. W.; Pfefferkorn, F. E.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Univ. of Pennsylvania

    2009-06-01

    A method is presented to improve the tool life and cutting performance of 300 {micro}m diameter tungsten carbide (WC) micro end mills by applying thin (<300 nm) fine-grained diamond (FGD) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings using the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) process. The performance of the diamond-coated tools has been evaluated by comparing their performance in dry slot milling of 6061-T6 aluminum against uncoated WC micro end mills. Tool wear, coating integrity, and chip morphology were characterized using SEM and white light interferometry. The initial test results show a dramatic improvement in the tool integrity (i.e., corners not breaking off), a lower wear rate, no observable adhesion of aluminum to the diamond-coated tool, and a significant reduction in the cutting forces (>50%). Reduction of the cutting forces is attributed to the low friction and adhesion of the diamond coating. However, approximately 80% of the tools coated with the larger FGD coatings failed during testing due to delamination. Additional machining benefits were attained for the NCD films, which was obtained by using a higher nucleation density seeding process for diamond growth. This process allowed for thinner, smaller grained diamond coatings to be deposited on the micro end mills, and enabled continued operation of the tool even after the integrity of the diamond coating had been compromised. As opposed to the FGD-coated end mills, only 40% of the NCD-tools experienced delamination issues.

  7. HA/Ti composite for biomedical application by mechanical milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘咏; 刘芳; 周科朝; 黄伯云

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of HA and the low bioactivity of Ti, HA/Ti com-posites with various compositions were prepared by mechanical milling. The effects of milling condition and the com-position on the microstructure, the density and the hardness of the composites were studied. The results show thatduring the ball milling process, Ti particles are refined and the homogeneity of the HA/Ti mixtures is improved;HA will partially decompose due to the existence of Ti and high sintering temperature. The microstructure of HA/Ti composites is highly dependent on the milling condition and the composition. In the microstructure, Ti phase con-nects to be a continuous network, and HA/Ti mixtures disperse in the network. The longer the milling time, the fi-ner the network will be. The density of HA/Ti composites decreases with the content of HA increasing and themilling time prolonging, because HA deteriorates the sinterability of Ti. The hardness of HA/Ti composites increa-ses firstly with the content of HA increasing, and then drops when the content of HA exceeds 30%. Addition ofHA will strengthen the HA/Ti composite but will decrease the density of the composite, which accounts for theeffect of HA on the hardness of the composites.

  8. Suppressing Heavy Metal Leaching through Ball Milling of Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling is investigated as a method of reducing the leaching concentration (often termed stablilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI fly ash. Three heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb loose much of their solubility in leachate by treating fly ash in a planetary ball mill, in which collisions between balls and fly ash drive various physical processes, as well as chemical reactions. The efficiency of stabilization is evaluated by analysing heavy metals in the leachable fraction from treated fly ash. Ball milling reduces the leaching concentration of Cu, Cr, and Pb, and water washing effectively promotes stabilization efficiency by removing soluble salts. Size distribution and morphology of particles were analysed by laser particle diameter analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals significant reduction of the crystallinity of fly ash by milling. Fly ash particles can be activated through this ball milling, leading to a significant decrease in particle size, a rise in its BET-surface, and turning basic crystals therein into amorphous structures. The dissolution rate of acid buffering materials present in activated particles is enhanced, resulting in a rising pH value of the leachate, reducing the leaching out of some heavy metals.

  9. Sugarcane Tandem Mills Operation at Two Hydraulic Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Michel Corrales-Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the areas with more energy consumption in a sugar factory is the tandem of mills. The applied hydraulic pressure on the superior mace is one of the variables that have influence on this energy consumption. Hydraulic pressures were decreased in a value that did not affect the extraction process efficiency to determine the possibilities of decreasing this energy consumption. The research was carried out in two sugar cane tandems of six mills. The pressures were only varied in the extraction mills in humid according to a statistical design of experiments in random blocks. The results were analyzed by means of the analysis of variance of double classification. The independent variables were the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills while the dependent variables were the % pol and % humidity of the final bagasse. The hydraulic pressures of the intermediate mills were reduced 3.45 MPa in the Tandem 1 and 2.07 MPa in the Tandem 2. It was demonstrated that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of working hydraulic pressures smaller than the usually established ones for each tandem did not affect the extraction process of the sugar cane sucrose significantly, but decreased 11.75% the power demand on tandem 1 and 8.17% on tandem 2.

  10. Observer-based Coal Mill Control using Oxygen Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; S., Tom;

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control of the c......This paper proposes a novel approach to coal flow estimation in pulverized coal mills, which utilizes measurements of oxygen content in the flue gas. Pulverized coal mills are typically not equipped with sensors that detect the amount of coal injected into the furnace. This makes control...... into the furnace and oxygen concentration in the flue gas is designed to estimate the actual coal flow injected into the furnace. With this estimate, it becomes possible to close an inner loop around the coal mill itself, thus giving a better disturbance rejection capability. The approach is validated against...... a fairly detailed, nonlinear differential equation model of the furnace and the steam circuit using data measured at a Danish power plant....

  11. Determination of Soursop (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita Fruit Volatiles during Ripening by Electronic Nose and Gas Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectroscopy / Determinación de Compuestos Volátiles en Frutos de Guanábana (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita, d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La guanábana (Annona muricata L. es una frutatropical exótica que se cultiva comercialmente en Colombia. Su condición altamente perecedera justifica los estudios de manejo en poscosecha. Por esta razón, la evaluación de la maduración se hizo en primer lugar, por un sistema de medición de compuestos volátiles conocido como nariz electrónica (NE y por otro lado mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas mediante microextracción en fase sólida del espaciode cabeza (CG-EM/MEFS. El estudio del perfil de sustanciasvolátiles en las frutas es uno de los principales indicadores de los atributos sensoriales que tipifica la calidad organoléptica de los vegetales. La NE se constituye en una alternativa rápida, novedosa, económica y relativamente simple para determinar grupos de sustancias volátiles en frutos de interés comercial, bien sea enteros o en fracciones. En contraste, el uso de laCGEM/MEFS puede verse limitado por su alto costo, no obstante ser una técnica altamente selectiva. Con base en la evaluación de la pulpa realizada con NE fue posible clasificar el estado de madurez de las frutas así: inmaduro, madurez intermedia, maduro y sobremaduro, siendo los sensores de mayor impacto el 2 (reactivo con óxidos de nitrógeno, el 6 (sensible al metano y el 8 (sensiblea alcoholes y compuestos parcialmente aromáticos. Por CG-EM/ MEFS, se logró establecer que durante la etapa de poscosecha, la mayor proporción de compuestos volátiles pertenece al grupo de los ésteres, predominando el Hexanoato de metilo. De manera particular en frutas sobremaduras, la presencia de compuestosalcohólicos, coincide con la evaluación hecha con la NE, lacual mostró sensibilidad a alcoholes y compuestos aromáticos de amplio rango para las frutas evaluadas. El estudio realizado aporta a la caracterización en poscosecha de los volátiles, uno de los principales atributos sensoriales en las frutas tropicales. /As an exotic

  12. Active chatter control in a milling machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  14. Modeling and identification of HAGC system of temper rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shang-hong; ZHONG Jue

    2005-01-01

    Including servo valve, hydraulic cylinder, mill and sensor and ignoring nonlinear factors, the linear dynamic model of hydraulic automatic gage control(HAGC) system of a temper rolling mill was theoretically derived. The order of the model is 4/4, and can be reduced to 2/2. Based on modulating functions method, utilizing numerical integration, we constructed the equivalent identification model of HAGC, and the least square estimation algorithm was established. The input and output data were acquired on line at temper rolling mill in Shangshai Baosteel Group Corporation, and the continuous time model of HAGC system was estimated with the proposed method. At different modulating window intervals, the estimated parameters changed remarkably. When the frequency bandwidth of modulating filter matches that of estimated system, the parameters can be estimated accurately. Finally, the dynamic model of the HAGC was obtained and validated based on the spectral analysis result.

  15. Quantum Yang-Mills theory: an overview of a programme

    CERN Document Server

    Milsted, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    We present an overview of a programme to understand the low-energy physics of quantum Yang-Mills theory from a quantum-information perspective. Our setting is that of the hamiltonian formulation of pure Yang-Mills theory in the temporal gauge on the lattice. Firstly, inspired by recent constructions for $\\mathbb{Z}/2\\mathbb{Z}$ lattice gauge theory, in particular, Kitaev's toric code, we describe the gauge-invariant sector of hilbert space by introducing a primitive quantum gate: the quantum parallel transporter. We then develop a nonabelian generalisation of laplace interpolation to present an ansatz for the ground state of pure Yang-Mills theory which interpolates between the weak- and strong-coupling RG fixed points. The resulting state acquires the structure of a tensor network, namely, a multiscale entanglement renormalisation ansatz, and allows for the efficient computation of local observables and Wilson loops. Various refinements of the tensor network are discussed leading to several generalisations. ...

  16. Exact, Schwarzschild-like solution for Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, D.

    1995-04-01

    Exploiting the connection between general relativity and Yang-Mills theory an exact, Schwarzchild-like solution is given for an SU(N) gauge field coupled to a scalar field in the Bogomolny, Prasad, Sommerfield limit. The SU(2) solution is found using the second order Euler-Lagrange formalism, while the SU(N) generalization is given using the first order Bogomolny formalism. In analogy with the Schwarzschild solution of general relativity, these Yang-Mills solutions possess an event horizon with respect to the SU(N) charge. It is conjectured that this may be the confinement mechanism for QCD, since just as a Schwarzschild black hole will permanently confine anything which carries the charge of general relativity (mass-energy), so this Yang-Mills solution will confine any particle which carries the SU(N) charge.

  17. Yang-Mills theory and fermionic path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The Yang-Mills gauge field theory, which was proposed 60 years ago, is extremely successful in describing the basic interactions of fundamental particles. The Yang-Mills theory in the course of its developments also stimulated many important field theoretical machinery. In this brief review I discuss the path integral techniques, in particular, the fermionic path integrals which were developed together with the successful applications of quantized Yang-Mills field theory. I start with the Faddeev-Popov path integral formula with emphasis on the treatment of fermionic ghosts as an application of Grassmann numbers. I then discuss the ordinary fermionic path integrals and the general treatment of quantum anomalies. The contents of this review are mostly pedagogical except for a recent analysis of path integral bosonization.

  18. [Pleasure and confusion. A footnote to Freud's translations of Mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In 1863 Theodor Gomperz came to England to propose to Helen Taylor Mill, step-daughter of J. S. Mill. For several months he delayed the proposal while studying transcripts of the Philodemus papyri in the Bodleian Library. There a threatening note, supposedly left on his desk, triggered an attack of paranoia. My study of this incident, initially a mere footnote, expanded into an examination of the obscure causes of this attack. The philosophical question of the nature of desire and the researcher's passion to reconstruct a fragmented classical text are related to Gomperz's unfocussed relationship with both Mill and his step-daughter, and his ensuing confusion between reality and fantasy. The incident is considered paradigmatic of the perils of scholarly research, when the desire to possess knowledge becomes entangled with transferential relationships.

  19. Plate Shape Control Theory and Experiment for 20-high Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-wen YUAN; Hong XIAO

    2015-01-01

    Roll lfattening theory is an important part of plate shape control theories for 20-high mill. In order to improve the ac-curacy of roll lfattening calculation for 20-high mill, a new and more accurate roll lfattening model was proposed. In this model, the roll barrel was considered as a ifnite length semi-inifnite body. Based on the boundary integral equation method, the numerical solution of the ifnite length semi-inifnite body under the distributed force was obtained and an accurate roll lfattening model was established. Coupled with roll bending model and strip plastic deformation, a new and more accurate plate control model for 20-high mill was established. Moreover, the effects of the ifrst intermediate roll taper angle and taper length were analyzed. The ten-sion distribution calculated by analytical model was consistent with the experimental results.

  20. NUMERICAL EVALUATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN THE ROLLING MILL ROLLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudino de Lira Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In hot rolling processes occur changes in the profile of the rolling mill rolls (expansion and contraction and constant wear due to mechanical stress and continuous thermal cycles of heating/cooling caused by contact rolled material- working roll and the cooling system by water jets in their surface, decreasing their lifetime. This paper presents a computational model to simulate the thermal performance of rolling mill rolls. The model was developed using the finite volume method for a transient two-dimensional system and allows calculating the temperature distribution of the rolling mill rolls under various conditions of service. Here it is investigated the influence of flow rate and temperature of the cooling water on the temperature distribution. The results show that the water temperature has greater influence than the water flow to control the surface temperature of the cylinders.

  1. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Tyler Lott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Matthews, Austin Colter [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Williams, Christopher Luke [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  2. Wet gringing of zeolite in stirred media mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucsi, G.; Bohács, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study the results of systematic experimental series are presented with the specific goal of optimizing the zeolite nanoparticles' production using a wet stirred media mill. The diameter of the grinding media as well as the rotor velocity were varied in the experiments. Particle size distribution and "outer" specific surface area of the ground samples were measured by a laser particle size analyser. Additionally, BET, XRD and FT-IR analyses were performed for the characterization of the "total" specific surface area as well as the crystalline and material structure, respectively. Based on the results of the laboratory experiments it was found that wet stirred media milling provided significant reductions in the particle size of zeolite. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the samples also decreased, so not only the physical but the mineralogical characteristics of zeolite can be controlled by stirred media milling.

  3. Effect of Milling Time on Al-Fe-Cr-20 Wt. % Al2O3composite Prepared Through Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameedur Rehman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges towards achieving a homogeneous distribution of the ceramic phase in the metal matrix composites is agglomeration of the reinforcement particles. Mechanical alloying is among the most important processing techniques used for manufacturing of metal matrix composites (MMCs.An attempt was made to synthesize Al-Fe-Cr-Al2O3composites synthesized through mechanical alloying. Al2O3 is used as reinforcement. Ethanol (5 wt. % has been used as a process control agent (PCA. Mechanical alloying is carried out in a conventional ball mill using stainless steel grinding media at 115 rpm in the argon environment for 5h, 10h and 15h. The ball to powder weight ratio was maintained at 20:1. The characterization of the ball milled powder was followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Showed the formation of a homogeneous phase for all compositions after milling for 15 h. XRD patterns were recorded for the milled powders, and analyzed using Williamson–Hall method and Scherrer’s equation to determine the lattice strain and grain size.EDX is performed to check the contamination of composites during the mechanical alloying.XRD is used to study structural evolution of synthesized aluminium composite. Effect of milling time is investigated on synthesized Al-Fe-Cr-20 wt. % Al2O3 composites.

  4. Effect of Milling Time and Dispersant on Microstructures of Alpha Alumina Nano powder Synthesized from Aluminium Dross Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet milling was performed in a high velocity planetary mill at speed of 1100 rpm and for 2 to 5 hours. Samples milled with dispersant gave a smaller crystallite size and the smallest crystallite value was 39.4 nm, obtained by milling for 5 hours. Similarly, the mean particle size obtained for samples milled with dispersant gave smaller value and the smaller mean particle size obtained was 0.771 μm after 5 hours of milling. (author)

  5. SIMULATION OF NONLINEAR COLOR OSCILLATIONS IN YANG-MILLS THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the simulation of non-linear spatial-temporal color oscillations in Yang-Mills theory in the case of SU (2 and SU (3 symmetry. We examined three systems of equations derived from the Yang-Mills theory, which describes the transition to chaotic behaviour. These transitions are caused by nonlinear vibrations of colour, depending on the model parameters - the coupling constants and the initial wave amplitude. Such transitions to chaotic behaviour by increasing the parameters are characteristic of hydrodynamic turbulence. A model of spatial-temporal oscillations of the Yang-Mills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three of five colors or vice versa - the first three five other colors. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. Note that the general property of physical systems described by nonlinear equations in the Yang-Mills theory and hydrodynamics is particularly strong in the formation of quark-gluon plasma and hadrons jets, when the Yang-Mills is involved in the formation of hydrodynamic flow. Note that there is a relationship between the Einstein and Yang-Mills theory, on the one hand, Einstein's equations and hydrodynamics - on the other. All of this points to the existence in the nature of a general mechanism of formation of a special type of turbulence - geometric turbulence

  6. Modelling anaerobic codigestion of manure with olive oil mill effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, I.; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the combined anaerobic degradation of complex organic material, such as manure, and a lipid containing additive, such as olive oil mill effluents, has been developed based on a model previously described (Angelidaki et al. 1993). The model has been used to simulate...... anaerobic codigestion of cattle manure together with olive oil mill effluent (OME) and the simulations were compared with experimental data. Simulation data indicated that lack of ammonia, needed as nitrogen source for synthesis of bacterial biomass and as an important pH buffer, could be responsible...

  7. Super Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories coupled to supergravity are analyzed by using the tangent bundle to a supergroup manifold as geometrical framework. The factorization condition imposed on these theories is considered from this point of view. The so-called H-gauge transformation for both, the super Yang-Mills and supergravity one-forms gauge fields are obtained as a consequence of a change of trivialization in the corresponding coset manifold. The authors point out the existence of factorized solutions not diffeomorphically equivalent for the set of pseudo-connections one-forms or gauge fields

  8. Gauge covariance approach to massive Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By observation of the gauge structure introduced in the SU(2) Higgs-Kibble model on the basis of a massless Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance, another possible formalism of a massive Yang-Mills field theory with gauge covariance is presented. The formalism exhibits a close analogy to the case of massive abelian-gauge fields. In contrast with the case of the Higgs-Kibble model, no dipole-ghost field is introduced in the formalism. Supplementary conditions for physical states are given in a consistent way. (author)

  9. Modifikasi Alat Penggiling Biji Kopi Tipe Flat Burr Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Arta Naomi Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    Milling is done to reduce size or to powder food material into a certain level of refinement to be more easily processed into other products. The aims of the was to modificate, design, build and test coffee bean grinder flat burr type mill on robusta coffee. Observed parameters were the effective capacity of the equipment, the percentage of losses materials, and economic analysis. The results showed that the effective capacity of the equipment was 35,66 kg/hour for robusta coffee and 33,84...

  10. Advanced Modeling and Materials in Kraft Pulp Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Gorog, J.P.

    2002-05-15

    This CRADA provided technical support to the Weyerhaeuser Company on a number of issues related to the performance and/or selection of materials at a number of locations in a pulp and paper mill. The studies related primarily to components for black liquor recovery boilers, but some effort was directed toward black liquor gasifiers and rolls for paper machines. The purpose of this CRADA was to assist Weyerhaeuser in the evaluation of materials exposed in various paper mill environments and to provide direction in the selection of alternate materials, when appropriate.

  11. Model Predictive Control for an Industrial SAG Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohan, Valeriu; Steinke, Florian; Metzger, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    We discuss Model Predictive Control (MPC) based on ARX models and a simple lower order disturbance model. The advantage of this MPC formulation is that it has few tuning parameters and is based on an ARX prediction model that can readily be identied using standard technologies from system...... identication. When applied to MIMO systems we call this controller a MIMO-ARX based MPC. We use an industrial Semi-Autogenous Grinding (SAG) mill to illustrate the performance of this controller. SAG mills are the primary units in a grinding chain and also the most power consuming units. Therefore, improved...

  12. Advances in Milling Machine Using CAD/CAM: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dahake, Prajakta H.; Sahakar, Nikita R.; Gadge, P.A

    2015-01-01

    The development of unmanned machining systems has been a recent focus of manufacturing research. The conventional milling machine removes metal with a revolving cutting tool called a milling cutter. For this, CNC machines are in use. CNC machine operates on part program. This program includes several G-codes and M-codes. This program is generated by skilled operators. This may cause error in geometry. Also increases labor cost. Thus new t...

  13. Review of fugitive dust control for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immediate concern associated with the disposal of uranium mill tailings is that wind erosion of the tailings from an impoundment area will subsequently deposit tailings on surrounding areas. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating the current technology for fugitive dust control. Different methods of fugitive dust control, including chemical, physical, and vegetative, have been used or tested on mill tailings piles. This report presents the results of a literature review and discussions with manufacturers and users of available stabilization materials and techniques

  14. Global coupled equations for dynamic analysis of planishing mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敢为; 钟掘

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic properties of rolling mill are significantly influenced by many coupling factors. Accordingto the coupled mechanical and electric dynamics theory, the global coupled equations for the dynamic analysis ofplanishing mill CM04 of Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation were derived, by using finite element methods. Theseelasto-dynamic equations establish the coupling relations among the stand vibration system, torsional vibration sys-tem, driving motors, etc. It provides theoretical basis to a certain extent for globally dynamic simulation, analysis ofstability of motion, prediction of abnormal operating mode, globally optimum design and control, etc.

  15. Effect of milling on reduction behavior of blue dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Blue dust is a secondary source of hematite mineral reduced to wustite phase when it is subjected planetary ball milling in the presence of metallic iron power as a reducing reagent. Reduction characteristics of hematite (blue dust) can take place in the following reaction schemes. 4Fe2O3+Fe→3Fe3O4 Fe3O4+Fe→4FeO Fe2O3+Fe→3FeO The direct formation of wustite is possible only due to higher rate of hematite reduction which is driven by high energy planetary ball milling. X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer studies confirm the blue dust is reduced to wustite. Higher rate of reduction of blue dust (hematite) leading to the formation of wustite. Formation of magnetite from hematite could be a transient phase which reacts immediately with added metallic iron powder or iron comes out from the friction between the steel balls and jar to yield wustite. -- Highlights: • Natural mineral-blue dust (96% hematite) is reduced in the presence of metallic iron as reducing reagent. • Reaction milling provides the sufficient energy to facilitate the reduction of blue dust to undergo phase transformation from hematite to form wustite as major phase. • Reaction mechanism for formation of wustite phase is explained on the basis of the particle size of reactants. • XRD and Mossbauer studies confirm the phase change from hematite to wustite. -- Abstract: Blue dust is a high grade soft hematite material containing 96.14% Fe2O3. It is transformed into wustite when subjected to planetary ball milling in the presence of iron powder as a reducing reagent. The phase evolution, particle size distribution, and morphology of particles during milling are studied for various samples collected at various milling times by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Mössbauer spectrometer and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). XRD and Mössbauer studies reveal that the blue dust is transformed into wustite after 50 h of milling. Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM

  16. Pressurized drying of paper mill sludge; Kartonkilietteen paineistettu kuivaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Heinonen, O.; Tiihonen, J.; Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The original objective of the project was to study and develop pressurised steam drying of paper mill sludge to be used in a power plant project in the USA. However, due to the difficulties in the project finalisation in USA, the contents of the study was changed. The results of the first phase dealing with pressurised sludge drying in pilot scale were reported in early 1997. This paper presents the topics and results of the second phase of the project. The second phase consists of two projects: (1) Fuel feeding into high pressure - preparation of the technology demonstration and (2) Application of the bed mixing dryer for pulp and paper mill sludges. (orig.)

  17. Hydrogen storage alloys prepared by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Staszewski

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate an efficiency of high-energy milling, as a method to obtain hydrogen storage alloys with good properties.Design/methodology/approach: Two classes of the alloys were studied: AB2 type with atomic composition of (Ti0.5Zr0.5(V0.68Mn0.68Cr0.34Ni0.7 and AB5 type with atomic composition of (Ce0.63La0.37(Ni3.55Al0.3Mn0.4 Co0.75.The materials were prepared by arc melting and initially pulverized and afterwards subjected to wet milling process in a planetary mill.Findings: Both initially obtained alloys had proper, single phase structure of hexagonal symmetry. However their elemental composition was greatly inhomogeneous. High-energy milling causes both homogenization of the composition and severe fragmentation of the powder particles, which after milling have mean diameter of about 3 µm (AB2 alloy and below 2 µm (AB5 alloy. The morphology of obtained powders reveals that they tend to form agglomerates consisting of large number of crystallites. Mean crystallite sizes after milling are of about 4.5 nm and of 20 nm, respectively. The specific surface of the powders, measured using BET method, equals 8.74 m2/g and 2.70 m2/g, respectively.Research limitations/implications: The results provide the information on the possibility of obtaining hydrogen storage alloys by high-energy milling and on the transformations taking place as a result of this process.Practical implications: The obtained powders can be used to produce the elements of hydrogen-nickel batteries and fuel cells, providing improved properties; especially extreme rise of the specific surface of the hydrogen storage material, in compare to the standard methods.Originality/value: New method for preparation of hydrogen storage alloys by means of high-energy milling technique has been successfully tested.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site

  19. Effect of milling time on the formation of carbon nanotube by mechano-thermal method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ertan Evin; Ömer Güler; Mustafa Aksoy; Seval Hale Güler

    2015-08-01

    Mechano-thermal method was used for synthesizing the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in this study. In this method, graphite powders in the elemental form were firstly exposed to milling process in high-energy ball milling and then the milled powders were annealed at high temperatures. As a result of milling of the graphite, ultra-active disordered carbon structures were obtained. This structure serves as a carbon source for the formation of nanotubes during the annealing process. This study investigated the effect of the milling process. For this purpose, graphite powders were milled at different periods such as 5 and 150 h and then annealed at 1600°C. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy examinations demonstrated that CNTs formed in samples milled both for 5 and 150 h. However, the difference in the milling time influenced the amount of CNTs, their size and the formation of other structures except from nanotubes.

  20. Effects and mechanism of ball milling on torrefaction of pine sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunxiao; Huang, Jing; Feng, Chen; Wang, Guanghui; Tabil, Lope; Wang, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    The effects and mechanism of ball milling on the torrefaction process were studied. Ball- and hammer-milled (screen size 1mm) pine sawdust samples were torrefied at three temperatures (230, 260, and 290°C) and two durations (30 and 60min) to investigate into their torrefaction behavior and physicochemical properties. The results showed that, under identical torrefaction conditions, torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust had a higher carbon content and fixed carbon, and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust produced lower mass and energy yields, but higher heating values than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Ball milling destroyed the crystalline structure of cellulose and thus reduced the thermal stability of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, causing them to degrade at relatively lower temperatures. In conclusion, biomass pretreated with a combination of ball milling and torrefaction has the potential to produce an alternative fuel to coal.