WorldWideScience

Sample records for annihilation

  1. Neutron mean annihilation time and inverse of the mean annihilation rate in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masatoshi

    1999-01-01

    There is a dogma in nuclear reactor theory that in a critical reactor the mean annihilation time of neutron is equal to the mean generation time. The author insists that this is a dogma from the basic reexamination of the mean annihilation time of neutron. There are two kinds of neutrons, one participating in chain reactions and the other not participating in chain reactions. The mean annihilation time of neutron is the mean time of the time to annihilation of all neutrons generated in the reactor. The 'prompt neutron life' as a dynamic characteristic parameter proper to nuclear reactor can not be understood as the mean time of neutron to annihilation. The author explains the logic quantitatively with two kinds of nuclear reactors, a bare reactor and an infinite reactor, for which two different mean neutron annihilation times can be defined. Thus, (1) the inverse of the annihilation rate can not simply be considered as the mean annihilation time, (2) the mean annihilation time of a critical reactor is not necessarily equal to the mean generation time, and (3) the prompt neutron life used as a dynamic characteristic parameter of a nuclear reactor can not be understood as the mean time of neutron to annihilation. (M.M.)

  2. Antideuteron annihilation on nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugnon, J.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of antideuteron annihilation on nuclei within an intranuclear cascade (INC) model is presented. Two models are set up to describe the annihilation itself, which either implies the antideuteron as a whole and occurs at a single point, or which may be considered as two independent nucleon-antinucleon annihilation occurring at different points and different times. Particular attention is paid to the energy transferred from the pions issued from the annihilation to the nuclear system and to the possibility of having a multifragmentation of the target. The latter feature is investigated within a percolation model. The pion distribution and the energy distribution are also discussed. Predictions of proton multiplicity distributions are compared with experiment. (orig.)

  3. Multiple gamma lines from semi-annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; McCullough, Matthew; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Hints in the Fermi data for a 130 GeV gamma line from the galactic center have ignited interest in potential gamma line signatures of dark matter. Explanations of this line based on dark matter annihilation face a parametric tension since they often rely on large enhancements of loop-suppressed cross sections. In this paper, we pursue an alternative possibility that dark matter gamma lines could arise from ''semi-annihilation'' among multiple dark sector states. The semi-annihilation reaction ψ i ψ j → ψ k γ with a single final state photon is typically enhanced relative to ordinary annihilation ψ i ψ-bar i → γγ into photon pairs. Semi-annihilation allows for a wide range of dark matter masses compared to the fixed mass value required by annihilation, opening the possibility to explain potential dark matter signatures at higher energies. The most striking prediction of semi-annihilation is the presence of multiple gamma lines, with as many as order N 3 lines possible for N dark sector states, allowing for dark sector spectroscopy. A smoking gun signature arises in the simplest case of degenerate dark matter, where a strong semi-annihilation line at 130 GeV would be accompanied by a weaker annihilation line at 173 GeV. As a proof of principle, we construct two explicit models of dark matter semi-annihilation, one based on non-Abelian vector dark matter and the other based on retrofitting Rayleigh dark matter

  4. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons; Modelisation de l'emission d'annihilation des positrons Galactiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, W

    2008-01-15

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  5. Positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Viswanathan, B.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy, the experimental techniques and its application to studies on defects and electronic structure of materials is presented. The scope of this paper is to present the requisite introductory material, that will enable a better appreciation of the subsequent specialized articles on the applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to investigate various problems in materials science. (author). 31 refs., 3 figs

  6. Positron annihilation in vitreous silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro

    1993-01-01

    The annihilation characteristics of positrons in vitreous silica glasses (v-SiO 2 ) were studied by measurements of two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiations and positron lifetime spectra. From the measurements, it was found that positrons and positronium (Ps) atoms mainly annihilate from trapped states by vacancy-type defects in v-SiO 2 . For v-SiO 2 specimens with cylindrical porous structures, annihilations of Ps with anisotropic momentum distributions were observed. This fact was attributed to the momentum uncertainty due to localization of Ps in a finite dimension of pores. This investigation showed possibilities for the detection of microstructures in v-SiO 2 by the positron annihilation technique. (author)

  7. QCD in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.

    1981-04-01

    The promise of e + e - annihilation as an ideal laboratory to test Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, has been the dominating theme in elementary particle physics during the last several years. An attempt is made to partially survey the subject in deep perturbative region in e + e - annihilation where theoretical ambiguities are minimal. Topics discussed include a review of the renormalization group methods relevant for e + e - annihilation, total hadronic cross section, jets and large-psub(T) phenomena, non-perturbative quark and gluon fragmentation effects and analysis of the jet distributions measured at DORIS, SPEAR and PETRA. My hope is to review realistic tests of QCD in e + e - annihilation - as opposed to the ultimate tests, which abound in literature. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of lacunar defects by positrons annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, M.F.; Corbel, C.; Blondiaux, G.

    2003-01-01

    Among the nondestructive methods for the study of matter, the positrons annihilation method allows to sound the electronic structure of materials by measuring the annihilation characteristics. These characteristics depend on the electronic density as seen by the positon, and on the electron momentums distribution which annihilate with the positon. The positon is sensible to the coulombian potential variations inside a material and sounds preferentially the regions away from nuclei which represent potential wells. The lacunar-type defects (lack of nuclei) represent deep potential wells which can trap the positon up to temperatures close to the melting. This article describes the principles of this method and its application to the characterization of lacunar defects: 1 - positrons: matter probes (annihilation of electron-positon pairs, annihilation characteristics, positrons sources); 2 - positrons interactions in solids (implantation profiles, annihilation states, diffusion and trapping, positon lifetime spectrum: evolution with the concentration of defects); 3 - measurement of annihilation characteristics with two gamma photons (lifetime spectroscopy with the β + 22 Na isotope, spectroscopy of Doppler enlargement of the annihilation line); 4 - determination of the free volume of defects inside or at the surface of materials (annihilation signature in lacunar defects, lacuna, lacunar clusters and cavities, acceptors nature in semiconductors: ionic or lacunar, interface defects, precipitates in alloys); 5 - conclusions. (J.S.)

  9. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons; Modelisation de l'emission d'annihilation des positrons Galactiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, W

    2008-01-15

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  10. Characterization of lacunar defects by positrons annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, M F; Blondiaux, G

    2003-01-01

    Among the nondestructive methods for the study of matter, the positrons annihilation method allows to sound the electronic structure of materials by measuring the annihilation characteristics. These characteristics depend on the electronic density as seen by the positon, and on the electron momentums distribution which annihilate with the positon. The positon is sensible to the coulombian potential variations inside a material and sounds preferentially the regions away from nuclei which represent potential wells. The lacunar-type defects (lack of nuclei) represent deep potential wells which can trap the positon up to temperatures close to the melting. This article describes the principles of this method and its application to the characterization of lacunar defects: 1 - positrons: matter probes (annihilation of electron-positon pairs, annihilation characteristics, positrons sources); 2 - positrons interactions in solids (implantation profiles, annihilation states, diffusion and trapping, positon lifetime spec...

  11. CERN: Antiprotons resist annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Ask any particle physicist what is the eventual fate of an antiproton in matter and he will likely tell you that It annihilates'. True as this answer is, it hides a number of fascinating questions about the actual 'route' followed by the antiproton into the nucleus where it finally stops before annihilating with a nuclear particle

  12. Quasinuclear baryonium and annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbikov, B.O.; Shapiro, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The properties of the quasinuclear baryonium are considered in the framework of the dynamical coupled channel model. The main principles of the model are reviewed. The energy spectrum of the N anti N system and the problem of the baryonium radius are discussed. A detailed investigation of the problem of baryonium annihilation width and the low energy N anti N annihilation cross section is presented

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in materials structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafutin, Viktor I; Prokop'ev, Evgenii P

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of materials structure analysis - positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) - is reviewed. Measurements of positron lifetimes, the determination of positron 3γ- and 2γ-annihilation probabilities, and an investigation of the effects of different external factors on the fundamental characteristics of annihilation constitute the basis for this promising method. The ways in which the positron annihilation process operates in ionic crystals, semiconductors, metals and some condensed matter systems are analyzed. The scope of PAS is described and its prospects for the study of the electronic and defect structures are discussed. The applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy in radiation physics and chemistry of various substances as well as in physics and chemistry of solutions are exemplified. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  14. Skyrmion creation and annihilation by spin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yizhou; Yin, Gen; Lake, Roger K.; Zang, Jiadong; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Single skyrmion creation and annihilation by spin waves in a crossbar geometry are theoretically analyzed. A critical spin-wave frequency is required both for the creation and the annihilation of a skyrmion. The minimum frequencies for creation and annihilation are similar, but the optimum frequency for creation is below the critical frequency for skyrmion annihilation. If a skyrmion already exists in the cross bar region, a spin wave below the critical frequency causes the skyrmion to circulate within the central region. A heat assisted creation process reduces the spin-wave frequency and amplitude required for creating a skyrmion. The effective field resulting from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the emergent field of the skyrmion acting on the spin wave drive the creation and annihilation processes

  15. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  16. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, W.

    2008-01-01

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  17. Positron annihilation characterization of nanostructured ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alinger, M.J.; Glade, S.C.; Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; Toyama, T.; Nagai, Y.; Hasegawa, M.

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) were produced by mechanically alloying Fe-14Cr-3W-0.4Ti and 0.25Y 2 O 3 (wt%) powders followed by hot isostatic pressing consolidation at 850, 1000 and 1150 deg. C. Positron annihilation lifetime and orbital momentum spectroscopy measurements are in qualitative agreement with small angle neutron scattering, transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography observations, indicating that up to 50% of the annihilations occur at high densities of Y-Ti-O enriched nm-scale features (NFs). Some annihilations may also occur in small cavities. In Y-free control alloys, that do not contain NFs, positrons primarily annihilate in the Fe-Cr matrix and at features such as dislocations, while a small fraction annihilate in large cavities or Ar bubbles.

  18. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hangst, J.S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Hardy, W.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayden, M.E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6 (Canada); Hayano, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Humphries, A.J. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-08-21

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  19. Antihydrogen annihilation reconstruction with the ALPHA silicon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Hayano, R S; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Jorgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment has succeeded in trapping antihydrogen, a major milestone on the road to spectroscopic comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen. An annihilation vertex detector, which determines the time and position of antiproton annihilations, has been central to this achievement. This detector, an array of double-sided silicon microstrip detector modules arranged in three concentric cylindrical tiers, is sensitive to the passage of charged particles resulting from antiproton annihilation. This article describes the method used to reconstruct the annihilation location and to distinguish the annihilation signal from the cosmic ray background. Recent experimental results using this detector are outlined.

  20. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britkov, O.M.; Gavrilov, S.A.; Kalugin, V.V.; Timoshenkov, S.P.; Grafutin, V.I.; Ilyukhina, O.V.; Myasishcheva, G.G.; Prokop'ev, E.P.; Funtikov, Yu.V.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies of porous silicon by means of a standard positron annihilation technique based on measuring the angular distribution of annihilation photons, are reported. It was shown that the spectra of angular correlation of annihilation radiation in porous silicon are approximated well by a parabola (I p ) and two Gaussians (I g1 , I g2 ). The narrow Gaussian component I g1 is most likely due to the annihilation of localized para-positronium in pores. The full width at half maximum is on the order of 0.8 mrad, a value that corresponds to the kinetic energy of an annihilating positron-electron pair (0.079 ± 0.012 eV), and its intensity is about 1.5%. The total positronium yield in porous silicon reaches 6% in this case. The particle radius determined in the study is about 10-20 A [ru

  1. ANTICOOL: Simulating positron cooling and annihilation in atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D. G.

    2018-03-01

    The Fortran program ANTICOOL, developed to simulate positron cooling and annihilation in atomic gases for positron energies below the positronium-formation threshold, is presented. Given positron-atom elastic scattering phase shifts, normalised annihilation rates Zeff, and γ spectra as a function of momentum k, ANTICOOL enables the calculation of the positron momentum distribution f(k , t) as a function of time t, the time-varying normalised annihilation rate Z¯eff(t) , the lifetime spectrum and time-varying annihilation γ spectra. The capability and functionality of the program is demonstrated via a tutorial-style example for positron cooling and annihilation in room temperature helium gas, using accurate scattering and annihilation cross sections and γ spectra calculated using many-body theory as input.

  2. Electron-positron annihilation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, B.

    1990-01-01

    Electron-Positron Annihilation Physics is a detailed introduction to the main topics in e + e - annihilation, with particular emphasis on experimental work. Four main areas are covered, each in great detail, beginning with the Standard Model and its application to the production of lepton, quark and boson pairs. Secondly, the general features of fragmentation and different fragmentation models are explained. Chapter 3 is devoted to heavy quark and lepton physics, to which e + e - experiments have made an immense contribution. The final chapter, 'Where do we go from here?', looks for new phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Predictions of theory are compared with experimental results, highlighting shortcomings of some current theories. Details of instrumentation are included whenever possible. This ensures that the book is of maximum practical use to research workers. A comprehensive introduction to the major topics in the field, Electron-Positron Annihilation Physics is aimed at both graduate students studying high-energy physics and mature research workers. (author)

  3. ATHENA: an actual antihydrogen annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is an image of an actual matter-antimatter annihilation due to an atom of antihydrogen in the ATHENA experiment, located on the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN since 2001. The antiproton produces four charged pions (yellow) whose positions are given by silicon microstrips (pink) before depositing energy in CsI crystals (yellow cubes). The positron also annihilates to produce back-to-back gamma rays (red).

  4. Positron Transport and Annihilation in the Galactic Bulge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Helen Panther

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The annihilation of positrons in the Milky Way Galaxy has been observed for ∼50 years; however, the production sites of these positrons remains hard to identify. The observed morphology of positron annihilation gamma-rays provides information on the annihilation sites of these Galactic positrons. It is understood that the positrons responsible for the annihilation signal originate at MeV energies. The majority of sources of MeV positrons occupy the star-forming thin disk of the Milky Way. If positrons propagate far from their sources, we must develop accurate models of positron propagation through all interstellar medium (ISM phases in order to reveal the currently uncertain origin of these Galactic positrons. On the other hand, if positrons annihilate close to their sources, an alternative source of MeV positrons with a distribution that matches the annihilation morphology must be identified. In this work, I discuss the various models that have been developed to understand the origin of the 511 keV line from the direction of the Galactic bulge, and the propagation of positrons in the ISM.

  5. Positrons annihilation and the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallyn, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The Galactic center has been observed in gamma rays, many times since more than two decades and we do not still have a full comprehensive picture of this region. It is fairly well established that the 511 keV annihilation line has two origins: a steady diffuse emission, which follows more or less the type I supernovae distribution along the Galactic plane and a variable emission coming from the positrons emitted by (at least) one compact object and annihilating in a nearby cold molecular cloud. We present here an analysis of the profiles and intensifies of the 511 keV annihilation line observed in the direction of the Galactic center. We find that a warm medium (temperature of 8000 K) can describe the annihilation of positrons from the diffuse component of the line. The high state observations of the 511 keV line can be explained if the time-variable component is coming from the annihilation of the positrons in a cold medium (temperature around 80 K). This constraint on the annihilation medium temperature supports the association with the molecular cloud G-0.86-0.08 in the direction of 1E1740.7-2942. On may 22, 1989, HEXAGONE detected a narrow 511 keV line and also a broad emission around 170 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. Two weeks before, EXITE observed in the same direction a new transient source EXS 1737.9-2952 which showed a bump around 102 keV. We propose a simple semi-quantitative model which can mimic the bumps as well as its time variations and emphasize the strong similarities between EXS1737.9-2952 and Nova Muscae. We study the behaviour of positron annihilation by charge exchange in the cold phase of the interstellar medium. We calculate formula for the slowing-down time before thermalization of positrons of a given initial energy, for different medium densities. Our scenario explains the lack of detection of the recombination lines from positronium and gives new constraints on their possible observation. (author) [fr

  6. Positron Annihilation in Insulating Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P; Sterne, PA

    2002-01-01

    We describe positron results from a wide range of insulating materials. We have completed positron experiments on a range of zeolite-y samples, KDP crystals, alkali halides and laser damaged SiO 2 . Present theoretical understanding of positron behavior in insulators is incomplete and our combined theoretical and experimental approach is aimed at developing a predictive understanding of positrons and positronium annihilation characteristics in insulators. Results from alkali halides and alkaline-earth halides show that positrons annihilate with only the halide ions, with no apparent contribution from the alkali or alkaline-earth cations. This contradicts the results of our existing theory for metals, which predicts roughly equal annihilation contributions from cation and anion. We also present result obtained using Munich positron microprobe on laser damaged SiO 2 samples

  7. Positron annihilation in metallic glasses - a general survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.; Kajcsos, Zs.; Kemeny, T.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents a review of the literature on positron annihilation studies concerning metallic glasses. After some general information and overview on structural models of metallic glasses as well as a short description of the positron annihilation method itself are added. Conclusions regarding information on the structure of metallic glasses obtainable by positron annihilation are also given. (author)

  8. Initial angular momentum state in pp annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bizzarri, R

    1972-01-01

    The author shows that no quantitative statement on the relative importance of initial P-states in pp annihilation can be made. Annihilations in flight indicate that P-wave annihilation into K/sub 1 //sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/ is inhibited while annihilation into pi pi is enhanced and might suggest a P-wave contamination approximately 10%. The observatory of the final state K/sub 1//sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/n from annihilations at rest indicates that the depression of the K/sub 1//sup 0/K/sub 1//sup 0/ final state is not so important and suggests a P-wave contamination smaller than 4%. Furthermore the successes obtained in the analysis of various final states on the assumption of S-wave annihilation are hard to reconcile with a P-wave contribution bigger than approximately 5%. (20 refs).

  9. The annihilation spectrum of relatiVistic electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragonyan, F.A.; Atoyan, A.M.; Syunyaev, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The annihilation spectrum of isotropically distributed monoenergetic electrons and positrons is obtained. The spectrum of the (e + e - ) plasma is analyzed in a large range of plasma temperatures. The comparison of transitions peratures. The comparison of transitions intensities of annihilation radiation and bremsstrahlung shows that for temperatures kT 2 (e + e - ) plasma is cooled mainly due to annihilation. The case of the fast positron annihilation on the rest electrons also considered. The possible astrophysical applications are discussed [ru

  10. Angular correlation in positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arponen, J.; Pajanne, E.

    1978-01-01

    The angular correlation of the two gamma quanta emitted when a thermalized positron annihilates with metallic conduction electrons is investigated by applying the newly developed theory of electron gas as a system of interacting collective excitations. The method leads in a natural way to the appearance of high-momentum components (i.e. pair momentum p>psub(F) in the annihilation radiation already in the case of annihilation with conduction electrons only. The amount of these components is significant approximately (10 %) in a dilute electron gas (like alkali metals), but fairly irrelevant for higher densities. The momentum-dependence of the enhancement factor for a dense system (with rsub(s) approximately equal to 2) agrees well both with the earlier theories due to Kahana and others, and also with recent accurate experimental observations. As rsub(s) increases into the alkali-metal region, the enhancement factor for p< psub(F) becomes relatively more and more constant, in contrast with the trend in the Kahana theory. In this density regime the experimental results seem to vary widely, although most of them desagree with the present prediction. We discuss the possible discrepancy and try to account for the effects of the core annihilation by a simple model. (author)

  11. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  12. Hadron production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1977-01-01

    The lectures cover recent results on hadron production by e + e - annihilation. Included are total hadronic cross section and scale invariance as applied to e + e - annihilation, the present status of the psi spectroscopy by study of the decay modes of the narrow psi resonances, and the recent discovery of charmed mesons. 93 references

  13. Structure formation constraints on Sommerfeld-enhanced dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T.

    2012-01-01

    We study the growth of cosmic structure in a ΛCDM universe under the assumption that dark matter self-annihilates with an averaged cross section times relative velocity that grows with the scale factor, an increase known as Sommerfeld-enhancement. Such an evolution is expected in models in which a light force carrier in the dark sector enhances the annihilation cross section of dark matter particles, and has been invoked, for instance, to explain anomalies in cosmic ray spectra reported in the past. In order to make our results as general as possible, we assume that dark matter annihilates into a relativistic species that only interacts gravitationally with the standard model. This assumption also allows us to test whether the additional relativistic species mildly favored by cosmic-microwave background data could originate from dark matter annihilation. We do not find evidence for Sommerfeld-enhanced dark matter annihilation and derive the corresponding upper limits on the annihilation cross-section

  14. Thermal equilibrium defects in anthracene probed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Tachibana, Masaru; Shimizu, Mikio; Satoh, Masaaki; Kojima, Kenichi; Ishibashi, Shoji; Kawano, Takao.

    1996-01-01

    Defects in anthracene were investigated by the positron annihilation technique. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured in the temperature range between 305 K and 516 K. The lifetime of positrons annihilated from the delocalized state was determined to be 0.306 ns around room temperature. Below the melting point, the observed temperature dependence of the line shape parameter S was explained assuming the formation energy of thermal equilibrium defects was 1 eV. Above the melting point, the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium in open spaces was observed, where the size of these spaces was estimated to be 0.2 nm 3 . The annihilation of positrons from the self-trapped state was also discussed. (author)

  15. Thermal equilibrium defects in anthracene probed by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Tachibana, Masaru; Shimizu, Mikio; Satoh, Masaaki; Kojima, Kenichi; Ishibashi, Shoji; Kawano, Takao

    1996-06-01

    Defects in anthracene were investigated by the positron annihilation technique. Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation and lifetime spectra of positrons were measured in the temperature range between 305 K and 516 K. The lifetime of positrons annihilated from the delocalized state was determined to be 0.306 ns around room temperature. Below the melting point, the observed temperature dependence of the line shape parameter S was explained assuming the formation energy of thermal equilibrium defects was 1 eV. Above the melting point, the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium in open spaces was observed, where the size of these spaces was estimated to be 0.2 nm{sup 3}. The annihilation of positrons from the self-trapped state was also discussed. (author)

  16. Antiproton-helium annihilation around 45 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Bassolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Barbieri, R.; Bendiscioli, G.; Filippini, V.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Zenoni, A.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The anti p 4 He annihilation cross section averaged over the interval 40-50 MeV/c has been measured using a streamer chamber in a magnetic field. The measured value is 1342±250 mb. It agrees with a behaviour like 1/p of the annihilation cross section. Our result has been obtained at the lowest momentum achieved till now in measurements of antiproton annihilation in flight. (orig.)

  17. Antiproton-helium annihilation around 45 MeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestra, F.; Bassolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F. (Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)); Barbieri, R.; Bendiscioli, G.; Filippini, V.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Zenoni, A. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)); Batusov, Yu.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)); Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O. (Oslo Univ. (Norway). Fysisk Inst.); Guaraldo, C.; Maggiora, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati); Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M. (Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Physics); Lodi Rizzini, E. (Brescia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Automazione Industriale); Masala, M. (Brescia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Automazione Ind

    1989-10-26

    The anti p{sup 4}He annihilation cross section averaged over the interval 40-50 MeV/c has been measured using a streamer chamber in a magnetic field. The measured value is 1342+-250 mb. It agrees with a behaviour like 1/p of the annihilation cross section. Our result has been obtained at the lowest momentum achieved till now in measurements of antiproton annihilation in flight. (orig.).

  18. Cosmic gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2007-01-01

    High-energy photons from pair annihilation of dark matter particles contribute to the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) observed in a wide energy range. The precise shape of the energy spectrum of CGB depends on the nature of dark matter particles. In order to discriminate between the signals from dark matter annihilation and other astrophysical sources, however, the information from the energy spectrum of CGB may not be sufficient. We show that dark matter annihilation not only contributes to the mean CGB intensity, but also produces a characteristic anisotropy, which provides a powerful tool for testing the origins of the observed CGB. We show that the expected sensitivity of future gamma-ray detectors such as GLAST should allow us to measure the angular power spectrum of CGB anisotropy, if dark matter particles are supersymmetric neutralinos and they account for most of the observed mean intensity. As the intensity of photons from annihilation is proportional to the density squared, we show that the predicted shape of the angular power spectrum of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation is different from that due to other astrophysical sources such as blazars, whose intensity is linearly proportional to density. Therefore, the angular power spectrum of the CGB provides a 'smoking-gun' signature of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation

  19. Dislocation dipole annihilation in diamond and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabier, J; Pizzagalli, L, E-mail: jacques.rabier@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut PPRIMME, Departement de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux - UPR 3346 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA - SP2MI, BP 30179, F-86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2011-02-01

    The mechanism of dislocation dipole annihilation has been investigated in C and Si using atomistic calculations with the aim of studying their annihilation by-products. It is shown, in C as well as in Si, that dipole annihilation yields debris that can be depicted as a cluster of vacancies, or alternately by two internal free surfaces. These defects have no strain field and can hardly be seen using usual TEM techniques. This suggests that the brown colouration of diamond could be due to microstructures resulting from deformation mechanisms associated with dipole formation and their annihilation rather than to a climb mechanism and vacancy aggregation. In silicon where a number of dipoles have been evidenced by TEM when dislocation trails are found, such debris could be the missing link responsible for the observation of strong chemical reactivity and electrical activity in the wake of moving dislocations.

  20. Evidence of isospin effects in antiproton-nucleus annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Barbieri, R.; Bendiscioli, G.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Venaglioni, A.; Zenoni, A.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Guaraldo, C.; Maggiora, A.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    Antiproton- 3 He annihilation events at rest have been detected using a self-shunted streamer chamber. The ratio of the cross section for annihilation on neutrons and on protons has been measured (0.467±0.035). It is compared with other results from annihilation on free nucleons, deuterium, 3 He and 4 He. The low value of the ratio seems to indicate a strong isospin dependence of the antinucleon-nucleon P-wave amplitude. (orig.)

  1. Light dark matter through assisted annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Maity, Tarak Nath; Ray, Tirtha Sankar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate light dark matter scenarios where annihilation to Standard Model particles at tree-level is kinematically forbidden. In such cases annihilation can be aided by massive Standard Model-like species, called assisters , in the initial state that enhances the available phase space opening up novel tree-level processes. We investigate the feasibility of such non-standard assisted annihilation processes to reproduce the observed relic density of dark matter. We present a simple scalar dark matter-scalar assister model where this is realised. We find that if the dark matter and assister are relatively degenerate the required relic density can be achieved for a keV-MeV scale dark matter. We briefly discuss the cosmological constraints on such dark matter scenarios.

  2. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Contribution from S and P waves in pp annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bendiscioli, G; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Cesari, N S; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vagnoni, V M; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Bonomi, G; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; De Falco, A; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Usai, G L; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Petrascu, C; Kudryavtsev, A E; Balestra, F; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Denisov, O Yu; Ferrero, L; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Tosello, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Calvo, D; Costa, S; D'Isep, D; Feliciello, A; Filippi, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Tessaro, S

    2001-01-01

    The annihilation frequencies of 19 pp annihilation reactions at rest obtained in different target densities are analysed in order to determine the values of the P-wave annihilation percentage at each target density and the average hadronic branching ratios from P- and S-states. Both the assumptions of linear dependence of the annihilation frequencies on the P-wave annihilation percentage of the protonium state and the approach with the enhancement factors of Batty (1989) are considered. Furthermore the cases of incompatible measurements are discussed. (55 refs).

  4. Positron Annihilation Characteristics in Polymer Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, A.; Hemdan, M.; Ismail, A.; Ismail, H.; Osman, H.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of incorporation of GPF-carbon black on the free volume properties as well as the Doppler broadening parameters has been investigated for Natural rubber/Styrene Butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) blends. It is seen that, the free volume decreases with increasing of the GPF-black. Besides, as the size of the free volume decreases, the W-parameter, which corresponds to high momentum region, decreases and the S-parameter, which corresponds to low momentum one, shows an opposite behaviour. Furthermore, the d.c.electrical conductivity, mechanical and swelling behavior have been also investigated. Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) and Doppler Broadening of the Annihilation Radiation (DBAR) results are compared with the other physical parameters measured. The analysis of positron annihilation parameters introduces a trusted support for the interpretations of the other macroscopic physical properties

  5. Defect characterization with positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granatelli, L.; Lynn, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    Positron annihilation in metal crystals is reviewed. A brief introduction to the positron annihilation technique is presented first. Then the ability of the positron technique to perform microstructural characterization of four types of lattice defects (vacancies, voids, dislocations, grain boundaries) is discussed. It is frequently not possible to obtain samples that contain only one type of defect in nonnegligible concentrations. Such situations exist for some alloys and for fatigued metal samples. Finally, the current limitations and some future prospects of the technique are presented. 79 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  6. Doppler-broadening of positron annihilation in a biological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrisi, L.; La Mela, C.; Catania, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Doppler effect of the 511 keV γ peak from positron annihilation in biological matter: The broadening of the annihilation peak is due to positron annihilation with electrons that have high momentum. In aqueous solutions annihilation depends on the temperature and it is linked positronium formation. Measurements in vivo, on human brain, were taken during the diagnosis of positron emission tomography (PET) on healthy patients by injecting them with the beta emitter of short lifetime 18F . The Doppler-broadening in biological tissues rich in water content decreased significantly compared to biological solutions and water

  7. Zadig: latest improvements to Bremsstrahlung treatment and in-flight annihilation scheme; Zadig: amelioration du traitement Bremsstrahlung et traitement de l'annihilation en vol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, St

    2006-07-01

    Multigroup cross-section for the 3-dimensional Monte-Carlo transport code DIANE are produced by the ZADIG code. Although DIANE does not transport the electrons and positrons, the production of Bremsstrahlung photons induced by the electrons and positrons during their slowing down is taken into account in the ZADIG code because the electron-gamma cascade is an important process in high energy gamma ray transport. ZADIG does not distinguish positrons from electrons except for the positron annihilation. However, the user can turn on this direction. This report presents the latest improvements to the Bremsstrahlung model of ZADIG and to the positron annihilation algorithm implemented in the code. Positrons can annihilate either in flight or at rest in the latest release of ZADIG. As MCNP does not take into account the annihilation in flight, results of ZADIG-DIANE calculations are compared to the results of GEANT-4 in order to validate the annihilation scheme of ZADIG. The results with annihilation divided by the results without present similar trends between 0.6 and 10 MeV for the 2 codes (GEANT-4 and ZADIG-DIANE), in other words an influence of 5%, so the annihilation scheme programmed in ZADIG appears to be satisfying and can be considered as validated.

  8. Positron annihilation in solids: positronium diffusion; Annihilation du positon dans les solides diffusion du positonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulin, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    The existence of two slow components in life-time spectrum of positron annihilation in silicium, aluminium and alkaline-earth oxides powders is established. These two long mean-lives {approx_equal} 10{sup -9} s and {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} s result from annihilation, inside and outside the grains respectively, of ortho-positronium formed in defects present in ionic crystals investigated. Dynamic behaviour of Ps, so revealed, is analyzed in terms of diffusion in excellent agreement with experiment. Diffusion constants of the order of 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} and mean path before annihilation from 50 to 300 Angstrom are measured. From 100 to 500 K the temperature influence upon diffusion process is effective only in SiO{sub 2} where activation energy is found about 10{sup -2} eV. The p-Ps zero point energy evaluated by angular correlation gives the order of magnitude for defects dimensions and diffusion mean-time. Finally, o-Ps behaviour in space between grains, where its interaction with atmospheric gases can be only detected, is analysed. (author) [French] Nous mettons en evidence l'existence de deux composantes lentes dans le spectre de temps de vie du positon avant annihilation dans des poudres d'oxydes alcalinoterreux d'alumine et de silice. Ces deux longues vies moyennes {approx_equal} 10{sup -9} s et {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} s resultent respectivement de l'annihilation a l'interieur et a l'exterieur des grains de l'ortho-positonium forme dans certains defauts presents dans les cristaux ioniques etudies. L'analyse des proprietes dynamiques du Ps ainsi revelees, est effectuee en termes de diffusion en excellent accord avec l'experience. Des constantes de diffusion de l'ordre de 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} et des parcours moyens avant annihilation variant de 50 a 300 Angstrom sont ainsi mesures. Entre 100 et 500 K l'influence de la temperature sur le processus de diffusion n'est sensible que dans SiO{sub 2} ou l'energie d'activation est trouvee

  9. Determination and applications of enhancement factors for positron and ortho-positronium annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron-positron annihilation rates calculated directly from the electron and positron densities are known to underestimate the true annihilation rate. A correction factor, known as the enhancement factor, allows for the local increase of the electron density around the positron caused by the attractive electron-positron interaction. Enhancement factors are given for positrons annihilating with the 1s electron in H, He + , He, Li 2+ , and Li + . The enhancement factor for a free positron annihilating with He + and He is found to be close to that of ortho-positronium (i.e., Ps in its triplet state) annihilating with these atoms. The enhancement factor for Ps-He scattering is used in conjunction with the known annihilation rate for pickoff annihilation to derive a scattering length of 1.47a 0 for Ps-He scattering. Further, enhancement factors for e + -Ne and e + -Ar annihilation are used in conjunction with the pickoff annihilation rate to estimate scattering lengths of 1.46a 0 for Ps-Ne scattering and 1.75a 0 for Ps-Ar scattering

  10. New particles produced in electron--positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    The main properties of the new particles produced in e + e - annihilation are reviewed. Included are properties of the continuum region, the 4.1-GeV enhancement, the psi and psi', radiative decays of the psi and psi', singly charmed particle searches in e + - e - annihilation, and the e/sub μ/ events

  11. Surface investigations by means of positrons annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.; Stegemann, T.; Cleff, B.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the report is a presentation of the positron annihilation studies performed on the Cu samples that surface was exposed to the friction and wear processes. Using the measurement of Doppler broadening of annihilation line, we were able to detect the profile of vacancies in the top layers of the defected metals. It was established that one could describe the profile by a simple exponential function of the depth in all cases. The range of vacancies concentration depth depends on the load, time and the speed of the defects creation processes on the surface of a sample. The outline of the positron annihilation method is also given. (author). 10 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Comparison between photon annihilation-then-creation and photon creation-then-annihilation thermal states: Non-classical and non-Gaussian properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xue-Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS.

  13. Comparison between photon annihilation-then-creation and photon creation-then-annihilation thermal states: Non-classical and non-Gaussian properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xue-Xiang; Wang Yan; Yuan Hong-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS. (general)

  14. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  15. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  16. The p-antip annihilation in the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niskanen, J.A.

    1988-05-01

    After a concise review of the N-antiN annihilation in the quark rearrangement and 3 P 0 annihilation models, preliminary results are given for the case with an additional term where a q-antiq pair with the gluon quantum number 3 S 1

  17. Soliton annihilation in the perturbed sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Welner, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fluxon-antifluxon annihilation in the perturbed sine-Gordon equation with loss and driving terms is investigated. For the infinite line we find a simple analytic expression for the threshold driving term corresponding to annihilation. With the application of the results to a Josephson junction...

  18. Production bias and cluster annihilation: Why necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    the primary cluster density is high. Therefore, a sustained high swelling rate driven by production bias must involve the annihilation of primary clusters at sinks. A number of experimental observations which are unexplainable in terms of the conventional dislocation bias for monointerstitials is considered......-field approach. The production bias approach, on the other hand, is based on the physical features of the cascade damage and is therefore considered to be more appropriate for describing the damage accumulation under cascade damage conditions. However, production bias can not produce high a swelling rate when....... It is found that the production bias and cluster annihilation are necessary to explain these observations, with, in many cases, the explicit consideration of the annihilation of the primary interstitial clusters....

  19. Peculiarities of annihilation of polarized positronium in polarized media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silenko, A.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Features of positronium annihilation (PA) in polarized media are investigated. Strong exchange interaction with nonpaired electrons of paramagnetic atoms essentially accelerates the PA in comparison with annihilation of free positrons. The value of the spin projection on the direction of polarized nonpaired electrons has essential effect on the orthopositronium lifetime and on the width of the gamma spectrum annihilation line. It is shown that these features of PA permit to use it for studying the paramagnetic polarization [ru

  20. Positron annihilation in solids: positronium diffusion; Annihilation du positon dans les solides diffusion du positonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulin, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    The existence of two slow components in life-time spectrum of positron annihilation in silicium, aluminium and alkaline-earth oxides powders is established. These two long mean-lives {approx_equal} 10{sup -9} s and {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} s result from annihilation, inside and outside the grains respectively, of ortho-positronium formed in defects present in ionic crystals investigated. Dynamic behaviour of Ps, so revealed, is analyzed in terms of diffusion in excellent agreement with experiment. Diffusion constants of the order of 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} and mean path before annihilation from 50 to 300 Angstrom are measured. From 100 to 500 K the temperature influence upon diffusion process is effective only in SiO{sub 2} where activation energy is found about 10{sup -2} eV. The p-Ps zero point energy evaluated by angular correlation gives the order of magnitude for defects dimensions and diffusion mean-time. Finally, o-Ps behaviour in space between grains, where its interaction with atmospheric gases can be only detected, is analysed. (author) [French] Nous mettons en evidence l'existence de deux composantes lentes dans le spectre de temps de vie du positon avant annihilation dans des poudres d'oxydes alcalinoterreux d'alumine et de silice. Ces deux longues vies moyennes {approx_equal} 10{sup -9} s et {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} s resultent respectivement de l'annihilation a l'interieur et a l'exterieur des grains de l'ortho-positonium forme dans certains defauts presents dans les cristaux ioniques etudies. L'analyse des proprietes dynamiques du Ps ainsi revelees, est effectuee en termes de diffusion en excellent accord avec l'experience. Des constantes de diffusion de l'ordre de 10{sup -4} cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} et des parcours moyens avant annihilation variant de 50 a 300 Angstrom sont ainsi mesures. Entre 100 et 500 K l'influence de la temperature sur le processus de diffusion n'est sensible

  1. The influence of antioxidant on positron annihilation in polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djourelov, N.; He, C.; Suzuki, T.; Ito, Y; Kondo, K.; Ito, Y.; Shantarovich, V.P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to check the influence of the carbonyl groups (CG), created by oxygen naturally dissolved in a polymer matrix and by the source irradiation, on annihilation characteristics of free positrons using the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). Positron annihilation in a pure polypropylene (PP) and in an antioxidant-containing polypropylene (PPA) sample at room and low temperatures has been studied by CDBS. PALS has been used as an o-Ps (orth-positronium) formation monitor. The momentum density distributions of electrons obtained by CDBS at the beginning of measurements have been compared to that at the o-Ps intensity saturation level. It has been shown that the initial concentration of carbonyl groups in a PP sample is high, while for an antioxidant-containing sample, PPA, carbonyl groups are not detected by CDBS. CDBS spectra for a PP can be explained by annihilation of free positrons with the oxygen contained in the carbonyl groups. For a PPA sample, no significant contribution of annihilation with oxygen core electrons can be concluded. (Y. Kazumata)

  2. Studies of glasses by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.; Boden, G.

    1981-04-01

    Investigations of silica glasses, pyrocerams and metallic glasses by positron annihilation (lifetime, Doppler broadening) are presented. The measurements on silica glasses showed, that silica glass fused from naturally occuring quartz exhibits a higher order than that one produced from SiCl 4 . Furthermore it was found that the order of silica glasses increases after heat treatment above 900 0 C. Thus the X-amorphous state of silica glasses could be characterized by positron annihilation what is impossible at present by diffraction methods. (author)

  3. Higher-order nonclassical effects generated by multiple-photon annihilation-then-creation and creation-then-annihilation coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hong-Chun; Xiao Jin; Xiong Chao; Zhu Xi-Fang; Xu Xue-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    We explore two observable nonclassical properties of quantum states generated by repeatedly operating annihilation-then-creation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation (CA) on the coherent state, respectively, such as higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics and higher-order squeezing-enhanced effect. The corresponding analytical expressions are derived in detail depending on m . By numerically comparing those quantum properties, it is found that these states above have very different nonclassical properties and nonclassicality is exhibited more strongly after AC operation than after CA operation. (paper)

  4. Dark matter annihilation with s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jason; Liao, Jiajun, E-mail: liaoj@hawaii.edu; Marfatia, Danny

    2016-08-10

    We study the scenario of fermionic dark matter that annihilates to standard model fermions through an s-channel axial vector mediator. We point out that the well-known chirality suppression of the annihilation cross section can be alleviated by s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung. The shapes of the cosmic ray spectra are identical to that of t-channel internal Higgsstrahlung in the limit of a heavy mediating particle. Unlike the general case of t-channel bremsstrahlung, s-channel Higgsstrahlung can be the dominant annihilation process even for Dirac dark matter. Since the s-channel mediator can be a standard model singlet, collider searches for the mediator are easily circumvented.

  5. Dark matter annihilation with s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Jason; Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny

    2016-01-01

    We study the scenario of fermionic dark matter that annihilates to standard model fermions through an s-channel axial vector mediator. We point out that the well-known chirality suppression of the annihilation cross section can be alleviated by s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung. The shapes of the cosmic ray spectra are identical to that of t-channel internal Higgsstrahlung in the limit of a heavy mediating particle. Unlike the general case of t-channel bremsstrahlung, s-channel Higgsstrahlung can be the dominant annihilation process even for Dirac dark matter. Since the s-channel mediator can be a standard model singlet, collider searches for the mediator are easily circumvented.

  6. Positron Annihilation Ratio Spectroscopy (PsARS) Applied to Positronium Formation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Positron Annihilation Ratio Spectroscopy (PsARS). These experimental techniques have been used for a variety of military and civilian applications ... POSITRON ANNIHILATION RATIO SPECTROSCOPY (PsARS) APPLIED TO POSITRONIUM FORMATION STUDIES THESIS...of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GNE/ENP/10-M07 POSITRON ANNIHILATION RATIO SPECTROSCOPY

  7. The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Belikov, Alexander V. [Institut d' Astrophysique (France); Jeltema, Tesla E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Linden, Tim [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Profumo, Stefano [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.

  8. Positron annihilation microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, K F [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Advances in positron annihilation microprobe development are reviewed. The present resolution achievable is 3 {mu}m. The ultimate resolution is expected to be 0.1 {mu}m which will enable the positron microprobe to be a valuable tool in the development of 0.1 {mu}m scale electronic devices in the future. (author)

  9. Origin and annihilation physics of positrons in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexis, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A gamma radiation at 511 keV is observed since the early 1970's toward the Galactic bulge region. This emission is the signature of a large number of electron-positron annihilations, the positron being the electron's antiparticle. Unfortunately, the origin of the positrons responsible for this emission is still a mystery. Many positron-source candidates have been suggested but none of them can account for the galactic annihilation emission. The spatial distribution of this emission is indeed very atypical. Since 2002, the SPI spectrometer onboard the INTEGRAL space laboratory revealed an emission strongly concentrated toward the galactic bulge and a weaker emission from the galactic disk. This morphology is unusual because it does not correspond to any of the known galactic astrophysical-object or interstellar-matter distributions. The assumption that positrons annihilate close to their sources (i.e. the spatial distribution of the annihilation emission reflects the spatial distribution of the sources) has consequently been called into question. Recent studies suggest that positrons could propagate far away from their sources before annihilating. This physical aspect could be the key point to solve the riddle of the galactic positron origin. This thesis is devoted to the modelling of the propagation and annihilation of positrons in the Galaxy, in order to compare simulated spatial models of the annihilation emission with recent measurements provided by SPI/INTEGRAL. This method allows to put constraints on the origin of galactic positrons. We therefore developed a propagation Monte-Carlo code of positrons within the Galaxy in which we implemented all the theoretical and observational knowledge about positron physics (sources, transport modes, energy losses, annihilation modes) and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy (interstellar gas distributions, galactic magnetic fields, structures of the gaseous phases). Due to uncertainties in several physical parameters

  10. Radiation damage analysis by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the characterization and study of defects in metals produced by radiation damage is discussed. The physical basis for the positron annihilation techniques (lifetime, Doppler broadening, angular correlation) is introduced and the techniques briefly described. Some examples of the application of PAS to radiation damage analysis are presented with a view toward elucidating the particular advantages of PAS over more traditional defect characterization techniques

  11. Substructure boosts to dark matter annihilation from Sommerfeld enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, Jo

    2009-01-01

    The recently introduced Sommerfeld enhancement of the dark matter annihilation cross section has important implications for the detection of dark matter annihilation in subhalos in the Galactic halo. In addition to the boost to the dark matter annihilation cross section from the high densities of these subhalos with respect to the main halo, an additional boost caused by the Sommerfeld enhancement results from the fact that they are kinematically colder than the Galactic halo. If we further believe the generic prediction of the cold dark matter paradigm that in each subhalo there is an abundance of substructure which is approximately self-similar to that of the Galactic halo, then I show that additional boosts coming from the density enhancements of these small substructures and their small velocity dispersions enhance the dark matter annihilation cross section even further. I find that very large boost factors (10 5 to 10 9 ) are obtained in a large class of models. The implications of these boost factors for the detection of dark matter annihilation from dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Galactic halo are such that, generically, they outshine the background gamma-ray flux and are detectable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  12. Porous silicon investigated by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.M. de la; Pareja, R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the anodic conversion in silicon single crystals is investigated by positron lifetime measurements. Anodization at constant current induces changes in the positron lifetime spectrum of monocrystalline silicon samples. It is found that theses changes are primarily dependent on the silicon resistivity. The annihilation parameter behaviour of anodized samples, treated at high temperature under reducing conditions, is also investigated. The results reveal that positron annihilation can be a useful technique to characterize porous silicon formed by anodizing as well as to investigate its thermal behaviour. (author)

  13. To the measurement of 3γ/2γ ratio for positron annihilation in matter using annihilation energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrukhovich, S.K.; Berestov, A.V.; Antovich, N.M.; Metelitsa, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    Processes of the summation of cascade γ-quanta usually neglected, when registering the annihilation energy spectrum for the determination of the three-photon annihilation probability P 3γ of positronium in samples, are studied. The deviations of the actual P 3γ value from that determined without allowance made for the summation processes are 56% and 25% for Na(Tl) and Ge detectors placed at the distance of 3 cm from a positron source respectively. (author)

  14. Positron two-photon annihilation coincidence technique: difference mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karol, P J; Klobuchar, R L [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1978-05-01

    A difference (or comparative) mode in the measurement of two-photon coincidences from positron or positronium annihilation has been developed. The method can be used to advantage, particularly in gases, in determining annihilation parameters such as quenching cross sections for low concentration strongly quenching chemical species in a reference medium which is relatively non-quenching.

  15. Positron annihilation studies on high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.

    1991-01-01

    The results of positron annihilation measurements as a function of temperature, across Tc, in a variety of high temperature superconductors such as Y-Ba-Cu-O (Y1237), Y-Ba-Cu-O (Y1248), Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O, Ba-K-Bi-O and Nd-Ce-Cu-O are presented. It is shown that the variation of annihilation parameters in the superconducting state is correlated with the diposition of the positron density distribution with respect to the superconducting CuO planes. An increase in positron lifetime is observed below Tc when the positrons probe the CuO planes whereas a decrease in lifetime is observed when the positron density overlaps predominantly with the apical oxygen atom. With this correlation, the different temperature variation of annihilation parameters, seen in the various high temperature superconductors, is understood in terms of a local charge transfer from the planar oxygen atom to the apical oxygen atom. The significance of these results in the context of various theoretical models of high temperature superconductivity is discussed. In addition, the application of positron annihilation spectroscopy to the study of oxygen defects in the Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and Nd-Ce-Cu-O is presented. (author). 53 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Radiation damage analysis by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has in recent years become a valuable new tool for investigating defects in metals. The ability of the positron to localize in a trapped state at various defect sites, in which the positron annihilates with unique characteristics, has enabled the positron to be used as a localized probe of these defect sites. Several reviews of the application of PAS to the study of defects in metals have been published, as have more general treatises on the applications of positron annihilation to the study of solids. PAS has made, and has considerably greater potential for, a significant contribution to radiation damage analysis in two areas of importance: (1) the determination of atomic-defect properties, a knowledge of which is necessary for the modeling required to couple the results of model experiments using electron and ion irradiation with the expected irradiation conditions of reactor systems, and (2) the monitoring and characterization of irradiation-induced microstructure development. A unique aspect of PAS for radiation damage analysis is the defect specificity of the annihilation characteristics of a trapped positron. In addition to its value as an independent analytical tool, PAS can be a useful complement to more traditional techniques for defect studies

  17. Effect of Voids on Angular Correlation of Positron Annihilation Photons in Molybdenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Petersen, K.; Cotterill, R. M. J.

    1972-01-01

    POSITRON annihilation investigations of defects in crystals have shown that for sufficiently high defect concentrations (typically above about 10−6) all positrons become trapped in the defects before annihilation, thus changing the characteristics of the annihilation process. For example, trappin...

  18. Positron annihilation and pressure-induced electronic s-d transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, A.K.; Skriver, H.L.

    1985-06-01

    The polycrystalline, partial annihilation rates for positrons in compressed cesium have been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method. These results suggest that the pressure-induced electronic s-d transition in Cs should be directly observable by momentum sensitive positron annihilation experiments

  19. Positron annihilation in solids: positronium diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, R.

    1969-04-01

    The existence of two slow components in life-time spectrum of positron annihilation in silicium, aluminium and alkaline-earth oxides powders is established. These two long mean-lives ≅ 10 -9 s and ≅ 10 -7 s result from annihilation, inside and outside the grains respectively, of ortho-positronium formed in defects present in ionic crystals investigated. Dynamic behaviour of Ps, so revealed, is analyzed in terms of diffusion in excellent agreement with experiment. Diffusion constants of the order of 10 -4 cm 2 sec -1 and mean path before annihilation from 50 to 300 Angstrom are measured. From 100 to 500 K the temperature influence upon diffusion process is effective only in SiO 2 where activation energy is found about 10 -2 eV. The p-Ps zero point energy evaluated by angular correlation gives the order of magnitude for defects dimensions and diffusion mean-time. Finally, o-Ps behaviour in space between grains, where its interaction with atmospheric gases can be only detected, is analysed. (author) [fr

  20. High statistics study of $\\bar{p}p$ annihilation physics at the EHS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform an experiment to study antiproton-proton annihilations at 50 GeV/c, using the EHS facility.\\\\ \\\\ We will study in detail annihilation processes in terms of the underlying quark structure, and to compare our results with the predictions of the three principal models: quark fusion, fragmentation and recombination.\\\\ \\\\ These models achieved satisfactory results for pion and non-strange resonance production but failed for strange particle production. In fact a study of the production of strange particles could lead to valuable dues in understanding the annihilation mechanisms. A possible explanation of their production is that fast gluons materialize as strange quark pairs in the annihilation process. \\\\ \\\\ We expect to obtain 35 K, well identified, annihilation events.

  1. Revisiting big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints on dark-matter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kohri, Kazunori [Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Sokendai, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Moroi, Takeo [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takaesu, Yoshitaro, E-mail: takaesu@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-12-17

    We study the effects of dark-matter annihilation during the epoch of big-bang nucleosynthesis on the primordial abundances of light elements. We improve the calculation of the light-element abundances by taking into account the effects of anti-nucleons emitted by the annihilation of dark matter and the interconversion reactions of neutron and proton at inelastic scatterings of energetic nucleons. Comparing the theoretical prediction of the primordial light-element abundances with the latest observational constraints, we derive upper bounds on the dark-matter pair-annihilation cross section. Implication to some of particle-physics models are also discussed.

  2. Revisiting big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints on dark-matter annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of dark-matter annihilation during the epoch of big-bang nucleosynthesis on the primordial abundances of light elements. We improve the calculation of the light-element abundances by taking into account the effects of anti-nucleons emitted by the annihilation of dark matter and the interconversion reactions of neutron and proton at inelastic scatterings of energetic nucleons. Comparing the theoretical prediction of the primordial light-element abundances with the latest observational constraints, we derive upper bounds on the dark-matter pair-annihilation cross section. Implication to some of particle-physics models are also discussed.

  3. Positron annihilation in superconductive metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekhtjar, I.J.

    1969-03-10

    A correlation is shown between the parameters of superconductive metals and those of positron annihilation. Particular attention is paid to the density states obtained from the electron specific heat.

  4. On the Role of the Annihilation Channel in Front Form Positronium

    OpenAIRE

    Trittmann, Uwe

    1997-01-01

    The annihilation channel is implemented into the front form calculations of the positronium spectrum presented in a previous publication. The effective Hamiltonian is calculated analytically. Its eigensolutions are obtained numerically. A complete separation of the dynamical and instantaneous part of the annihilation interaction is observed. We find the remarkable effect that the annihilation channel stabilizes the cutoff behavior of the spectrum.

  5. Molecular model for annihilation rates in positron complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Walters, H.R. James [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Mohallem, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rachid@fisica.ufmg.br

    2008-02-15

    The molecular approach for positron interaction with atoms is developed further. Potential energy curves for positron motion are obtained. Two procedures accounting for the nonadiabatic effective positron mass are introduced for calculating annihilation rate constants. The first one takes the bound-state energy eigenvalue as an input parameter. The second is a self-contained and self-consistent procedure. The methods are tested with quite different states of the small complexes HPs, e{sup +}He (electronic triplet) and e{sup +}Be (electronic singlet and triplet). For states yielding the positronium cluster, the annihilation rates are quite stable, irrespective of the accuracy in binding energies. For the e{sup +}Be states, annihilation rates are larger and more consistent with qualitative predictions than previously reported ones.

  6. Molecular model for annihilation rates in positron complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assafrao, Denise; Walters, H.R. James; Mohallem, Jose R.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular approach for positron interaction with atoms is developed further. Potential energy curves for positron motion are obtained. Two procedures accounting for the nonadiabatic effective positron mass are introduced for calculating annihilation rate constants. The first one takes the bound-state energy eigenvalue as an input parameter. The second is a self-contained and self-consistent procedure. The methods are tested with quite different states of the small complexes HPs, e + He (electronic triplet) and e + Be (electronic singlet and triplet). For states yielding the positronium cluster, the annihilation rates are quite stable, irrespective of the accuracy in binding energies. For the e + Be states, annihilation rates are larger and more consistent with qualitative predictions than previously reported ones

  7. Evaluation of nonuniformity of polymeric membrane materials by positron annihilation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Kevdina, I.B.; Yampol'skij, Yu.P.

    2000-01-01

    Time distribution of annihilation radiation of positrons in some glass-like polymers including polymer membrane materials in the air and in nitrogen atmosphere was studied experimentally. Main attention is paid to long-lived component of distribution, i.e. ortho-positronium annihilation (positron-electron bound system). Influence of atmospheric oxygen on positronium annihilation characteristics was detected. The conceived notions on the mechanisms of positronium formation, localization and annihilation in the polymers suggest irregularity of distribution of free volumes of different size in the polymer matrix. The concentration and size of the elementary free volumes, as well as sizes of micro heterogeneities containing the volumes are evaluated [ru

  8. Effect of the element substitutions in Cu position on positron annihilation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xianyi

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the element substitutions in Cu position on positron annihilation spectra was studied systematically by the measurement of one-dimensional angular correlation spectra of positron annihilation radiation for YBa 2 Cu 3-x M x O y (M = Sn, Al) samples. The results show that 1D ACPAR of YBaCuO superconductor is constituted by two Gaussian parts, corresponding to annihilation position sampled in the Cu-O plane and Cu-O chain respectively. The parabola like the positron annihilation with Fermi electron gas in metals and alloys is not found out. Positron annihilation spectra are sensitive to the element substitution in Cu positions, especially in Cu-chains, and could be used to probe the substituting positions in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

  9. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Positron annihilation spectroscopy in materials structure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafutin, Viktor I.; Prokop'ev, Evgenii P.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of materials structure analysis — positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) — is reviewed. Measurements of positron lifetimes, the determination of positron 3γ- and 2γ-annihilation probabilities, and an investigation of the effects of different external factors on the fundamental characteristics of annihilation constitute the basis for this promising method. The ways in which the positron annihilation process operates in ionic crystals, semiconductors, metals and some condensed matter systems are analyzed. The scope of PAS is described and its prospects for the study of the electronic and defect structures are discussed. The applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy in radiation physics and chemistry of various substances as well as in physics and chemistry of solutions are exemplified.

  10. Study of double scattering effect in antiproton--deuteron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemany, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The double scattering process in the deuteron is investigated for the reaction anti pd → p/sub s/ + mesons. About 30 percent of the apparent anti pn annihilations are involved in double scattering. A model which describes the properties of protons emerging from apparent anti pn annihilations is presented

  11. Positron annihilation and perturbed angular correlation studies of radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiazheng; Li Anli; Xu Yongjun; Wang Zhiqiang; Zhou Dongmei; Zheng Yongnan; Zhu Shengyun; Iwata, T.

    2002-01-01

    The positron annihilation and perturbed angular correlation techniques have been employed to study radiation damage in Si and Nb. The results obtained by the positron annihilation are consistent with those given by the perturbed angular correlation

  12. Annihilation of antiprotons at rest in 3He and 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Bendiscioli, G.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Zenoni, A.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Nichitiu, F.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Guaraldo, C.; Maggiora, A.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    At LEAR of CERN the annihilation of antiprotons, stopping in 3 He and 4 He filling a self-shunted streamer chamber in a magnetic field, has been studied. The charged-particle multiplicities have been measured and the relative probabilities of π - production in anti p 3 He and anti p 4 He annihilation events have been obtained. The ratio between the anti p annihilation probability on the neutron and the proton for 3 He and 4 He has been deduced to be about half the value obtained for 2 H in bubble chamber experiments. The analysis of the results shows that this difference cannot be due only to the pion final-state interaction or to the shadow effect of the nucleons of the nuclei. The probability of anti p annihilation at rest on a proton bound in the nucleus results to be twice as high as that on a bound neutron, showing the dominance of annihilation in the I=0 isospin states. (orig.)

  13. Characterization of the melting process of PTFE using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y; Nishijima, S

    2015-01-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the lifetime of ortho-positronium(o-Ps) is known to be able to be separated into two components due to annihilation in the crystal region and in the amorphous region. The melting process of PTFE was investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that volume expansion with an increase of temperature is dominantly due to the expansion of the amorphous region and a Ps bubble is formed at melting in both regions. The o-Ps relating to the crystal region definitely remains on the surface of crystal at the time of annihilation. The production of lower energy electrons at melting was deduced by the analysis of the Doppler broadened annihilation photopeak, and the increase in the number of such electrons was found to have great influence on the formation of the o-Ps and annihilation processes of positron and o-Ps. (paper)

  14. Application of positron annihilation to the characterization of polymer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yu, R.S.; Ito, Y.; Kondo, K.; Shantarovich, V.

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation has been applied to study characteristics of polymers last many years. Positron behaves as a nano-meter probe and brings out information of chemical structures, geometric structures, and momentum of electrons through the annihilation gamma-rays. Positrons injected in polymers tends to form positronium, which is similar structure to hydrogen atom and consists of electron and positron. Positronium diffuses through polymer structures and preferentially trapped by intermolecular spaces, if there is not any strong polar group in the chemical structure. Inside the spaces positronium annihilates through pick-off annihilation with electrons constituting walls of the spaces. Thus the pick-off annihilation brings out information about the interaction with electrons on the walls forming the spaces. These information can be measured by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Doppler broadening spectroscopy: from the former lifetimes and intensities of positronium can be measured and from the latter energy spectrum of the positron annihilation gamma-rays. The lifetimes are connected with the nano-meter size of the spaces and, using an empirical formula, the pore size can be estimated quantitatively. However the intensities bring out many kinds of information. Knowing the sample chemical structures, the values can be simply connected with the amount of spaces and often reflect the polar effect and temperature effect. In the positron annihilation technique, the energy distribution of-positron annihilation gamma-rays plays important role in the investigation of positron interaction with atoms constituting polymer chemical structures. The energy distribution can be measured using a high pure Ge detector. Although the spectrum obtained by one Ge detector has a large peak to back-ground ratio, using a coincidence technique of two Ge detectors, the coincidence Doppler broadening spectrum (CDBS) can improve the ratio from the order of 10-2 to 10

  15. THE EFFECTS OF DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION ON COSMIC REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Hooper, Dan; Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: kaurov@uchicago.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We revisit the possibility of constraining the properties of dark matter (DM) by studying the epoch of cosmic reionization. Previous studies have shown that DM annihilation was unlikely to have provided a large fraction of the photons which ionized the universe, but instead played a subdominant role relative to stars and quasars. The DM might, however, have begun to efficiently annihilate with the formation of primordial microhalos at z  ∼ 100–200, much earlier than the formation of the first stars. Therefore, if DM annihilation ionized the universe at even the percent level over the interval z  ∼ 20–100, it could leave a significant imprint on the global optical depth, τ . Moreover, we show that cosmic microwave background polarization data and future 21 cm measurements will enable us to more directly probe the DM contribution to the optical depth. In order to compute the annihilation rate throughout the epoch of reionization, we adopt the latest results from structure formation studies and explore the impact of various free parameters on our results. We show that future measurements could make it possible to place constraints on the DM’s annihilation cross-sections, which are at a level comparable to those obtained from the observations of dwarf galaxies, cosmic-ray measurements, and studies of recombination.

  16. Light-Baryon Production in Binary $pd$ Annihilation Reactions at Rest

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu; Balestra, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Calvo, D; Cerello, P G; Costa, S; D'Isep, D; Fava, L; Feliciello, A; Ferrero, L; Filippi, A; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Iazzi, F; Maggiora, A; Marcello, S; Minetti, B; Mirfakhraee, N; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Piragino, G; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Alberico, V; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; D'Antone, I; De Castro, S; Ferretti, A; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Piccinini, M; Poli, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vagnoni, V M; Vigotti, F; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Corradini, M; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Mauro, S; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Temnikov, P P; Usai, G L; Gortchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Nichitiu, F; Petrascu, C; Ableev, V G; Cavion, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Lombardi, M; Maron, G; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Pauli, G; Tessaro, S; Santi, L

    1999-01-01

    We report the study of light baryon production in two-prong annihilation reactions due to antiprotons stopping in gaseous deuterium and detected by the OBELIX spectrometer (LEAR, CERN). A clear signal of the Delta (1232) production in binary reactions was found in both annihilation channels: pd to pi /sup -/ Delta /sup +/( Delta /sup +/ to pi /sup 0/p) and pd to pi /sup 0/ Delta /sup 0/( Delta /sup 0/ to pi /sup -/p). The annihilation probabilities for these reactions turned out to be Y=(1.01+or-0.08)*10/sup -5/ and Y= (1.12+or-0.20)*10/sup -5/, respectively. In addition, the annihilation probability for the prototype Pontecorvo reaction pd to pi /sup -/p was measured with the best world statistics: Y= (1.46+or-0.08)*10/sup -5/. (16 refs).

  17. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from...... the trapped state iri the defect. The annihilation characteristics (e.g., the lifetime of the positron) can be measured and provide information about the nature of the defect (e.g., size, density, morphology). The technique is sensitive to both defect size (in the range from monovacancies up to cavities...

  18. Flavoured co-annihilation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... (2) one can see that increasing δRR will decrease the stau mass or in other words the co-annihilation will occur at a lower neutralino mass for the fixed universal scalar mass parameter (m0). But having large flavour violating entry in the ˜μR–˜τR sectors of the sleptonic mass matrix will also give rise to rare ...

  19. Significant gamma-ray lines from dark matter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr, Michael [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fileviez Perez, Pavel; Smirnov, Juri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-ray lines from dark matter annihilation are commonly seen as a ''smoking gun'' for the particle nature of dark matter. However, in many dark matter models the continuum background from tree-level annihilations makes such a line invisible. I present two simple extensions of the Standard Model where the continuum contributions are suppressed and the gamma-ray lines are easily visible over the continuum background.

  20. Anisotropy of the cosmic gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2006-01-01

    High-energy photons from pair annihilation of dark matter particles contribute to the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) observed in a wide energy range. Since dark matter particles are weakly interacting, annihilation can happen only in high density regions such as dark matter halos. The precise shape of the energy spectrum of CGB depends on the nature of dark matter particles--their mass and annihilation cross section, as well as the cosmological evolution of dark matter halos. In order to discriminate between the signals from dark matter annihilation and other astrophysical sources, however, the information from the energy spectrum of CGB may not be sufficient. We show that dark matter annihilation not only contributes to the mean CGB intensity, but also produces a characteristic anisotropy, which provides a powerful tool for testing the origins of the observed CGB. We develop the formalism based on a halo model approach to analytically calculate the three-dimensional power spectrum of dark matter clumping, which determines the power spectrum of annihilation signals. We show that the expected sensitivity of future gamma-ray detectors such as the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) should allow us to measure the angular power spectrum of CGB anisotropy, if dark matter particles are supersymmetric neutralinos and they account for most of the observed mean intensity of CGB in GeV region. On the other hand, if dark matter has a relatively small mass, on the order of 20 MeV, and accounts for most of the CGB in MeV region, then the future Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) should be able to measure the angular power spectrum in MeV region. As the intensity of photons from annihilation is proportional to the density squared, we show that the predicted shape of the angular power spectrum of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation is different from that due to other astrophysical sources such as blazars and supernovae, whose intensity is linearly proportional to

  1. Applications of positron annihilation to dermatology and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guang; Chen, Hongmin; Chakka, Lakshmi; Gadzia, Joseph E.; Jean, Y.C.

    2007-01-01

    Positronium annihilation lifetime experiments have been performed to investigate the interaction between skin cancer and positronium for human skin samples. Positronium annihilation lifetime is found to be shorter and intensity is found to be less for the samples with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma than the normal skin samples. These results indicate a reduction of free volume in the molecular level for the skin with cancer with respect to the skin without cancer. Positron annihilation spectroscopy may be potentially developed as a new noninvasive and external method for dermatology clinics, early detection of cancer, and nano-PET technology in the future. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Applications of positron annihilation to dermatology and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guang; Chen, Hongmin; Chakka, Lakshmi [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 and Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States); Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li (China)

    2007-07-01

    Positronium annihilation lifetime experiments have been performed to investigate the interaction between skin cancer and positronium for human skin samples. Positronium annihilation lifetime is found to be shorter and intensity is found to be less for the samples with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma than the normal skin samples. These results indicate a reduction of free volume in the molecular level for the skin with cancer with respect to the skin without cancer. Positron annihilation spectroscopy may be potentially developed as a new noninvasive and external method for dermatology clinics, early detection of cancer, and nano-PET technology in the future. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Study of radiation damage in metals by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauster, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Positron annihilation is a sensitive technique for probing defects in metals and it has recently been shown to be a valuable tool for the study of radiation damage. After an introduction to the three basic experimental methods (angular correlation, Doppler broadening, and lifetime measurements), the interaction of positrons with lattice defects is reviewed. Results for the annealing of damage after low temperature irradiation are used to show that positron annihilation has provided new information on annealing kinetics. The role of positron techniques in characterizing complex defect structures resulting from high-temperature neutron irradiation is reviewed and the possible utility of positron annihilation as a nondestructive monitor of property changes is pointed out

  4. Dynamics of an exclusion process with creation and annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Robert; Santen, Ludger

    2004-01-01

    We examine the dynamical properties of an exclusion process with creation and annihilation of particles in the framework of a phenomenological domain-wall theory, by scaling arguments and by numerical simulation. We find that the length and the time scales are finite in the maximum current phase for finite creation and annihilation rates as opposed to the algebraically decaying correlations of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Critical exponents of the transition to the TASEP are determined. The case where bulk creation and annihilation rates vanish faster than the inverse of the system size N is also analysed. We point out that shock localization is possible even for rates proportional to N -a , 1 < a < 2

  5. Sensitivity of orthopositronium annihilation to density fluctuations in ethane gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, A.

    1982-01-01

    The annihilation rates of orthopositronium (o-Ps) and free positrons and positronium formation fractions have been measured in gaseous ethane at seven temperatures between 295 and 377 K for densities in the range 1.2-286 amagat. The pick off quenching rate of o-Ps is observed to vary with temperature at low densities of ethane. The observed behavior of the o-Ps annihilation rates with density and temperature is interpreted in terms of density fluctuations in ethane gas. A simple theoretical model is developed which explains the observed annihilation behavior reasonably well at those temperatures and densities where density fluctuations are small. The annihilation rates of flow-energy positrons indicate the formation of positron-ethane collision complexes and self-trapping of positrons in clusters of ethane molecules. The o-Ps yields appear to be independent of temperature and show a strong dependence on the density of the gas

  6. Defect Characterization in Semiconductors with Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Filip

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is an experimental technique that allows the selective detection of vacancy defects in semiconductors, providing a means to both identify and quantify them. This chapter gives an introduction to the principles of the positron annihilation techniques and then discusses the physics of some interesting observations on vacancy defects related to growth and doping of semiconductors. Illustrative examples are selected from studies performed in silicon, III-nitrides, and ZnO.

  7. Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Rehagen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data

  8. Light mesons and separated J(PC) sources in N-antiN annihilations at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaci-Timoce, Angela; Lazanu, I.

    2002-01-01

    N-antiN annihilations at rest and in flight are the most productive physics tools to investigate the spectroscopy of light mesons. The annihilations proceed from more sources of initial states, with different J (PC) quantum numbers. This makes the interpretation of the experimental data much more difficult than in the case of other annihilation process, as for example the e + e - annihilations, and introduces ambiguities in the results. In this talk, the possibilities to separate the N-antiN contributions of initial quantum states in different annihilation channels, are analyzed. The interference phenomena that appear are also discussed. (authors)

  9. A systematic effective operator analysis of semi-annihilating dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yi; Spray, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories stabilized by symmetries larger than a ℤ 2 . It contributes to thermal freeze out, but is irrelevant for direct and collider searches. This allows semi-annihilating dark matter to avoid those limits in a natural way. We use an effective operator approach to make the first model-independent study of the associated phenomenology. We enumerate all possible operators that contribute to 2→2 semi-annihilation up to dimension 6, plus leading terms at dimension 7. We find that when the only light states charged under the dark symmetry are dark matter, the model space is highly constrained. Only fifteen operators exist, and just two for single-component dark sectors. If there can be additional light, unstable “dark partner” states the possible phenomenology greatly increases, at the cost of additional model dependence in the dark partner decay modes. We also derive the irreducible constraints on models with single-component dark matter from cosmic ray searches and astrophysical observations. We find that for semi-annihilation to electrons and light quarks, the thermal relic cross sections can be excluded for dark matter masses up to 100 GeV. However, significant model space for semi-annihilating dark matter remains.

  10. Constraints on dark matter annihilation from CMB observations before Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Honorez, Laura [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    We compute the bounds on the dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section using the most recent Cosmic Microwave Background measurements from WMAP9, SPT'11 and ACT'10. We consider DM with mass in the MeV–TeV range annihilating 100% into either an e{sup +}e{sup −} or a μ{sup +}μ{sup −} pair. We consider a realistic energy deposition model, which includes the dependence on the redshift, DM mass and annihilation channel. We exclude the canonical thermal relic abundance cross section ((σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26}cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}) for DM masses below 30 GeV and 15 GeV for the e{sup +}e{sup −} and μ{sup +}μ{sup −} channels, respectively. A priori, DM annihilating in halos could also modify the reionization history of the Universe at late times. We implement a realistic halo model taken from results of state-of-the-art N-body simulations and consider a mixed reionization mechanism, consisting on reionization from DM as well as from first stars. We find that the constraints on DM annihilation remain unchanged, even when large uncertainties on the halo model parameters are considered.

  11. Positron life time and annihilation Doppler broadening measurements on transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levay, B.; Burger, K.

    1982-01-01

    Positron life time and annihilation Doppler broadening measurements have been carried out on 44 solid coordination compounds. Several correlations have been found between the annihilation life time (tau 1 ) and line shape parameters (L) and the chemical structure of the compounds. Halide ligands were the most active towards positrons. This fact supports the assumption on the possible formation of [e + X - ] positron-halide bound state. The life time was decreasing and the annihilation energy spectra were broadening with the increasing negative character of the halides. The aromatic base ligands affected the positron-halide interaction according to their basicity and space requirement and thus they indirectly affected the annihilation parameters, too. In the planar and tetrahedral complexes the electron density on the central met--al ion affected directly the annihilation parameters, while in the octahedral mixed complexes it had only an ind--irect effect through the polarization of the halide ligands. (author)

  12. Benchmarking triplet-triplet annihilation photon upconversion schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsen, Anders S; Koerstz, Mads; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2018-05-07

    Photon upconversion facilitated by triplet-triplet annihilation in molecular systems is a promising path toward utilization of sub bandgap photons in photovoltaic devices. Prior to the challenging synthesis of new molecules, quantum chemical computations can aid the design process and provide suggestions for new and optimal systems. Here, we benchmark time-dependent density functional methods by their ability to describe relevant photophysical quantities of a range of different types of sensitizer/annihilator pairs to provide guidelines for future computational studies of potential new pairs. Using meta-GGA, hybrid, and range-separated hybrid functionals, we find that the hybrid functionals B3LYP and PBE0 (incorporating low to medium fractions of exact exchange of 20% and 25%, respectively) describe singlet absorptions the best, while triplet energetics are best described by the meta-GGA functionals M06-L and M11-L (incorporating no exact exchange), respectively. Furthermore, we find that the Tamm-Dancoff approximation of time-dependent density functional theory in general does not improve the description of neither singlet nor triplet energies of sensitizer/annihilator pairs.

  13. Study of $\\eta$ and $\\eta'$ Production in $\\overline{n}p$ Annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Filippi, A; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Calvo, D; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Feliciello, A; Iazzi, F; Marcello, S; Minetti, B; Mirfakhraee, N; Balestra, F; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Denisov, O Yu; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Tosello, F; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Poli, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vagnoni, V M; Vecchi, S; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Bonomi, G; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Mauro, S; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Usai, G L; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Petrascu, C; Ableev, V G; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Tessaro, S

    1999-01-01

    The annihilation fractions and cross sections for the np annihilation reaction in flight (~50-400 MeV/c) into eta pi /sup +/ and eta ' pi /sup +/ final states have been measured. The first ones follow the trend expected for P wave annihilations. From the ratios of the yields an evaluation of the pseudoscalar mixing angle in the standard form is possible. The value found shows that for pseudoscalar meson production from P wave the quark line rule is not grossly violated. (22 refs).

  14. Impact of dark matter decays and annihilations on structure formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We derived the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by different decaying (or annihilating) dark matter (DM) candidates. Heavy annihilating DM particles (with mass larger than a few GeV) have no influence on reionization and heating, even if we assume that

  15. Polarization of photons in matter–antimatter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskaliuk, S.S. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrolohichna Street, 14-b, Kyiv-143, Ukraine, UA-03143 e-mail: mss@bitp.kiev.ua (Ukraine)

    2015-03-10

    In this work we demonstrate the possibility of generation of linear polarization of the electromagnetic field (EMF) due to the quantum effects in matter-antimatter annihilation process for anisotropic space of the I type according to Bianchi. We study the dynamics of this process to estimate the degree of polarisation of the EMF in the external gravitational field of the anisotropic Bianchi I model. It has been established that the quantum effects in matter-antimatter annihilation process in the external gravitational field of the anisotropic Bianchi I model provide contribution to the degree of polarisation of the EMF in quadrupole harmonics.

  16. Examination of minor actinide annihilation by BWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Kazuki

    1995-01-01

    From the viewpoint of reducing burden for disposing high level waste generated from spent fuel, the examination of recycling minor actinide (MA) to reactors and reducing its accumulation has been advanced. In this study, the possibility of annihilation in the case of recycling it to a BWR was examined. The main MAs are 237 Np, 241 Am, 243 Am, 242 Cm, and 244 Cm. However, as for Cm isotopes, the half life is short, the amount of generation is small, and the rate of neutron emission is high, therefore, those are disposed as waste, and 237 Np, 241 Am and 243 Am were taken as the objects of recycling. In order to grasp the basic characteristics in the case of recycling MAs to a BWR, MAs were added to UO 2 fuel, MOX fuel and HCR fuel and burned, and the nuclear conversion characteristics were examined. As the result, it was found that they were converted to short half life nuclides, and as the neutron spectra were softer, the rate of annihilation was higher. In the case of recycling MAs by concentrating to a specific reactor, reactivity loss, the degree of uranium enrichment required for compensating reactivity, and the rate of MA annihilation were calculated. Based on these data, the MA recycling system was set up, and the rate of MA annihilation was evaluated. This is reported. (K.I.)

  17. Fusion Reactions and Matter-Antimatter Annihilation for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-13

    FUSION REACTIONS AND MATTER- ANTIMATTER ANNIHILATION FOR SPACE PROPULSION Claude DEUTSCH LPGP (UMR-CNRS 8578), Bât. 210, UPS, 91405 Orsay...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE šFusion Reactions And Matter- Antimatter Annihilation For Space Propulsion 5a...which is possible with successful MCF or ICF. Appropriate vessel designs will be presented for fusion as well as for antimatter propulsion. In

  18. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C., E-mail: chanpreet.amole@cern.ch [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Butler, E. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, R. S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  19. Alternative method for reconstruction of antihydrogen annihilation vertices

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Andresen , G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    The ALPHA experiment, located at CERN, aims to compare the properties of antihydrogen atoms with those of hydrogen atoms. The neutral antihydrogen atoms are trapped using an octupole magnetic trap. The trap region is surrounded by a three layered silicon detector used to reconstruct the antiproton annihilation vertices. This paper describes a method we have devised that can be used for reconstructing annihilation vertices with a good resolution and is more efficient than the standard method currently used for the same purpose.

  20. Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Shioya, Y.; Ishimaru, T.

    2003-01-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films has been investigated by means of measurement techniques with a monoenergetic pulsed positron beam. The age-momentum correlation study revealed that positron annihilation in thermally grown SiO 2 is basically the same as that in bulk amorphous SiO 2 while o-Ps in the PECVD grown SiCOH film predominantly annihilate with electrons of C and H at the microvoid surfaces. We also discuss time-dependent three-gamma annihilation in porous low-k films by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

  1. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to study microstructural properties of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has been applied to characterize the free-volume properties of polymers. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements give direct information about the dimension, content, and hole-size distributions of free-volume in amorphous materials. The angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation measurements give additional information about the shape of the free-volume holes in oriented polymeric materials. The unique capability of PAS to probe free-volume properties is from the fact that positronium atom is preferentially trapped in the atomic-scale holes which have a size ranging from 1 to 10 A. (author)

  2. Positron-electron annihilation in a field of a fixed electric dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkevich, E.R.; Sabirov, R.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Positron annihilation from dipole Ps state conditioned by simultaneous localization of positron and electron in the field of fixed electric dipole is considered. Calculation of annihilation γ-quantum angular correlation curve is performed. For the fixed value of the dipole moment the correlation curve half-width is reduced with the reduction of dipole charges. Correlation curve narrowing takes place with the growth of dipole moment. It is stressed that when interpreting the narrow component one should be careful when choosing the appropriate annihilation mechanism. Experimental result analysis is given

  3. Notes on symmetric and exterior depth and annihilator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Kampf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey and compare invariants of modules over the polynomial ring and the exterior algebra. In our considerations, we focus on the depth. The exterior analogue of depth was first introduced by Aramova, Avramov and Herzog. We state similarities between the two notion of depth and exhibit their relation in the case of squarefree modules. Work of Conca, Herzog and Hibi and Trung, respectively, shows that annihilator numbers are a meaningful generalization of depth over the polynomial ring. We introduce and study annihilator numbers over the exterior algebra. Despite some minor differences in the definition, those invariants show common behavior. In both situations a positive linear combination of the annihilator numbers can be used to bound the symmetric and exterior graded Betti numbers, respectively, from above.

  4. pbarp, pbarD, pbar sup 4 He annihilation cross sections at low energy

    CERN Document Server

    Tessaro, S; Capponi, M; Cereda, B; De Castro, S; Ferretti, A; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Piccinini, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vezzani, A; Vigotti, F; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Belli, G; Corradini, M; Donzella, A; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Temnikov, P P; Usai, G L; Ableev, V G; Denisov, O Yu; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sapozhnikov, M G; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Nichitiu, F; Petrascu, C; Rosca, A; Cavion, C; Gastaldi, Ugo; Lombardi, M; Vannucci, Luigi; Vedovato, G; Andrighetto, A; Morando, M; Ricci, R A; Bendiscioli, G; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Saino, A; Salvini, P; Filippi, A; Balestra, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Calvo, D; Cerello, P G; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Fava, L; Feliciello, A; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Panzieri, D; Parena, D; Rossetto, E; Tosello, F; Zosi, G; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Pauli, G; Tessaro, S; Santi, L

    1999-01-01

    New measurements of the pbarp annihilation cross section have been performed with the OBELIX apparatus between 37 and 70 MeV/c. From previous samples of data it was already clear that the 1/p behaviour for the annihilation cross section is drastically modified at very low momenta, due to the Coulomb interaction. However, at the lowest measured momentum (43.6 MeV/c), the annihilation cross section was unexpectedly high; this evidence suggested a more accurate investigation of this region. Furthermore, measurements of annihilation cross section have been performed with pbar impinging on D sub 2 and sup 4 He targets.

  5. Applications of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Asoka-Kumar , P.; Lynn , K.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the application of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) to some selected technologically important systems. The method involves a nondestructive probe to detect low levels of open-volume defects. The discussion shows the application of PAS to a wide range of advanced material systems.

  6. The annihilation diagram in three-body D-meson decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.F.; Holstein, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss some features of three-body decays of the D meson cohich are puzzling from the standpoint of the annihilation diagram. As a result, we (1) provide an upper bound on the lifetime ratio of D's, tau + sub(D)/tau 0 sub(D) smaller than 2.5 +- 3.4 and (2) argue that the puzzles are resolved, even if somewhat inelegantly, if final state interactions generate the annihilation diagram. (orig.)

  7. SiO 2/SiC interface proved by positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, H.

    2003-06-01

    We have studied positron annihilation in a Silicon carbide (SiC)-metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure using a monoenergetic positron beam. The Doppler broadening of annihilation quanta were measured as functions of the incident positron energy and the gate bias. Applying negative gate bias, significant increases in S-parameters were observed. This indicates the migration of implanted positrons towards SiO 2/SiC interface and annihilation at open-volume type defects. The behavior of S-parameters depending on the bias voltage was well correlated with the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics. We observed higher S-parameters and the interfacial trap density in MOS structures fabricated using the dry oxidation method as compared to those by pyrogenic oxidation method.

  8. SiO2/SiC interface proved by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Itoh, H.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied positron annihilation in a Silicon carbide (SiC)-metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure using a monoenergetic positron beam. The Doppler broadening of annihilation quanta were measured as functions of the incident positron energy and the gate bias. Applying negative gate bias, significant increases in S-parameters were observed. This indicates the migration of implanted positrons towards SiO 2 /SiC interface and annihilation at open-volume type defects. The behavior of S-parameters depending on the bias voltage was well correlated with the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. We observed higher S-parameters and the interfacial trap density in MOS structures fabricated using the dry oxidation method as compared to those by pyrogenic oxidation method

  9. Study of high-k gate dielectrics by means of positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, A.; Naito, T.; Otsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Shiraishi, K.; Yamabe, K.; Miyazaki, S.; Watanabe, H.; Umezawa, N.; Hamid, A.; Chikyow, T.; Ohdaira, T.; Suzuki, R.; Ishibashi, S.; Inumiya, S.; Kamiyama, S.; Akasaka, Y.; Nara, Y.; Yamada, K.

    2007-01-01

    High-dielectric constant (high-k) gate materials, such as HfSiO x and HfAlO x , fabricated by atomic-layer-deposition techniques were characterized using monoenergetic positron beams. Measurements of the Doppler broadening spectra of annihilation radiation and the lifetime spectra of positrons indicated that positrons annihilated from the trapped state by open volumes that exist intrinsically in amorphous structures of the films. The size distributions of the open volumes and the local atomic configurations around such volumes can be discussed using positron annihilation parameters, and they were found to correlate with the electrical properties of the films. We confirmed that the positron annihilation is useful technique to characterize the matrix structure of amorphous high-k materials, and can be used to determine process parameters for the fabrication of high-k gate dielectrics. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Radiative corrections to neutralino annihilation. Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Bjoern

    2010-11-01

    Evaluating the relic density of dark matter is an interesting possibility to constrain the parameter space of new physics models. However, this calculation is affected by several sources of uncertainty. On the particle physics side, considerable progress has been made in the recent years concerning the calculation of the annihilation cross-section of dark matter, which is needed in this context. In particular, within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, the theoretical uncertainty has been reduced through the calculation of loop corrections. The present contribution gives an overview over the achievements that have been made in QCD corrections to neutralino pair annihilation. The numerical impact is illustrated for a few examples. (orig.)

  11. Depth-dependent positron annihilation in different polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, P.; Cheng, G.D.; Li, D.X.; Wu, H.B.; Li, Z.X.; Cao, X.Z. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Jia, Q.J. [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, R.S. [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, B.Y., E-mail: wangboy@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Depth-dependent positron annihilation Doppler broadening measurements were conducted for polymers with different chemical compositions. Variations of the S parameter with respect to incident positron energy were observed. For pure hydrocarbons PP, HDPE and oxygen-containing polymer PC, S parameter rises with increasing positron implantation depth. While for PI and fluoropolymers like PTFE, ETFE and PVF, S parameter decreases with higher positron energy. For chlorine-containing polymer PVDC, S parameter remains nearly constant at all incident positron energies. It is suggested that these three variation trends are resulted from a competitive effect between the depth-dependent positronium formation and the influence of highly electronegative atoms on positron annihilation characteristics.

  12. Isospin effects in anti p3He annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Barbieri, R.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bendiscioli, G.; Breivik, F.O.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Falomkin, I.V.; Ferrero, L.; Guaraldo, C.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Maggiora, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Soerensen, S.O.; Tosello, F.; Tretyak, V.I.; Venaglioni, A.; Zenoni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of anti p 3 He annihilation events at rest (from the PS 179 experiment at LEAR) gives the value 0.467±0.035 for the ratio between the annihilation cross sections on n and on p. This low value indicates a strong isospin dependence of the anti NN amplitude in P wave. (orig.)

  13. Simplified models of dark matter with a long-lived co-annihilation partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoze, Valentin V.; Plascencia, Alexis D.; Sakurai, Kazuki

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a new set of simplified models to address the effects of 3-point interactions between the dark matter particle, its dark co-annihilation partner, and the Standard Model degree of freedom, which we take to be the tau lepton. The contributions from dark matter co-annihilation channels are highly relevant for a determination of the correct relic abundance. We investigate these effects as well as the discovery potential for dark matter co-annihilation partners at the LHC. A small mass splitting between the dark matter and its partner is preferred by the co-annihilation mechanism and suggests that the co-annihilation partners may be long-lived (stable or meta-stable) at collider scales. It is argued that such long-lived electrically charged particles can be looked for at the LHC in searches of anomalous charged tracks. This approach and the underlying models provide an alternative/complementarity to the mono-jet and multi-jet based dark matter searches widely used in the context of simplified models with s-channel mediators. We consider four types of simplified models with different particle spins and coupling structures. Some of these models are manifestly gauge invariant and renormalizable, others would ultimately require a UV completion. These can be realised in terms of supersymmetric models in the neutralino-stau co-annihilation regime, as well as models with extra dimensions or composite models.

  14. Bremsstrahlung Based Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy for Material Defect Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, F.A.; Wells, D.P.; Harmon, F.; Kwofie, J.; Lancaster, G.; Jones, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has developed new techniques for Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) using highly penetrating γ-rays to create positrons inside the material via pair production. γ-Ray induced positron annihilation spectroscopy can provide highly penetrating probes for material characterization and defect analysis. Bremsstrahlung beams from small, pulsed electron Linacs (6 MeV) have been used to bombard the materials to generate positrons, which annihilate with the material electrons emitting 511 keV radiation. We have also synchronized bremsstrahlung pulses with laser irradiation pulses to study dynamic structural changes in material. In addition, we have developed another method using (p,γ) reactions from a 2 MeV proton beam, which induce coincident γ-rays to perform positron life-time spectroscopy. We have showed the feasibility of extending PAS into thick samples and a wide variety of materials and industrial applications

  15. Fractal studies on the positron annihilation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, the Euclidean lines, circles and spheres have served as the basis of the intuitive understanding of the geometry of nature. Recently, the concept of fractals has caught the imagination of scientists in many fields. This paper is to continue our previous work on position annihilation near fractal surfaces to demonstrate that the concept of fractals provides a powerful tool for understanding the structure and properties of defects and rough surfaces in relation to positron annihilation studies. Some problems on Berry geometrical phase have also been discussed. (author). 15 refs, fig., 1 tab

  16. Modeling of positron states and annihilation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puska, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical models and computational aspects to describe positron states and to predict positron annihilation characteristics in solids are discussed. The comparison of the calculated positron lifetimes, core annihilation lineshapes, and two-dimensional angular correlation maps with experimental results are used in identifying the structure (including the chemical composition) of vacancy-type defects and their development e.g. during thermal annealing. The basis of the modeling is the two-component density-functional theory. The ensuing approximations and the state-of-the-art electronic-structure computation methods enable practical schemes with a quantitative predicting power. (author)

  17. Relativistic hydrodynamics, heavy ion reactions and antiproton annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strottman, D.

    1985-01-01

    The application of relativistic hydrodynamics to relativistic heavy ions and antiproton annihilation is summarized. Conditions for validity of hydrodynamics are presented. Theoretical results for inclusive particle spectra, pion production and flow analysis are given for medium energy heavy ions. The two-fluid model is introduced and results presented for reactions from 800 MeV per nucleon to 15 GeV on 15 GeV per nucleon. Temperatures and densities attained in antiproton annihilation are given. Finally, signals which might indicate the presence of a quark-gluon plasma are briefly surveyed

  18. Oxygen vacancies in oxides studied by annihilation of mono-energetic positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Pikart, Philip [ZWE FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E21, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schreckenbach, Klaus [Physik-Department E21, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Oxygen vacancies play a fundamental role for the material properties of various oxides, e.g. charge carrier density in high-Tc superconductors, magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors or paramagnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}. In this study, open volume defects in (metal) oxides are investigated by Doppler-broadening spectroscopy (DBS) of the positron annihilation. More detailed information about the chemical surrounding at the positron annihilation site is gained by additional coincident DBS experiments, where a signature of positrons annihilating with electrons from oxygen is observed. The mono-energetic positron beam at NEPOMUC was used which allows depth dependent measurements, and hence the investigation of thin oxide layers. Recent results for metallic oxides such as ZnO are presented and compared with various non-metallic oxides such as amorphous and crystalline SiO{sub 2}, oxygen terminated Si-surface, and ice. The role of neutral and charged oxygen vacancies and the application of the positron annihilation technique to study oxygen vacancies will be discussed.

  19. Radiative annihilation and isospin mixing in protonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsche, T.; Faessler, A.; Vinh Mau, R.

    1999-01-01

    In recent experiments by the Crystal Barrel collaboration at CERN, a systematic study of reactions of the type p-bar p → γX where X γ,π 0 ,η , ω and η' were performed and the branching ratios are measured. Thereby, a sensitive test for different NN interaction models in the p-bar p atom can be performed. We evaluate the branching ratio for radiative proton-antiproton annihilation in the framework of the constituent quark model. In setting up the annihilation mechanism we adopt a two-step process where the p-bar p system first annihilates into two mesons π 0 ρ, π 0 ω, ωω, ρ 0 ρ 0 , ωρ 0 , ηρ, ηω and where the produced vector meson converts into a photon analogous to the vector dominance model (VDM). Both steps can be derived from the underlying quark mechanism. Amplitudes for the strong annihilation of p-bar p into two mesons are calculated in the framework of the so-called A 2 quark model. Radiative decay channels, in contrast to nonstrange mesonic decay channels, couple to the isospin I = 0 and I = 1 components of the atomic p-bar p initial states. The resulting transition amplitudes interfere in the predictions for the branching ratios. Combining experimental inputs with the outlined theoretical derivation we are able to extract the interference terms from the data, which are sizable and depend strongly on the initial atomic state considered. The interference terms are used to determine the isospin mixing effects in the p-bar p atomic wave functions. Radiative decays offer a unique window to study isospin mixing effects in the p-bar p system, which are strongly dependent on the NN-bar initial state interaction model. (authors)

  20. Doppler Broadening of In-Flight Positron Annihilation Radiation due to Electron Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A. W.; Cassidy, D. B.; Sterne, P. A.; Cowan, T. E.; Howell, R. H.; Lynn, K. G.; Golevchenko, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We report the first observation of electron momentum contributions to the Doppler broadening of radiation produced by in-flight two-photon annihilation in solids. In these experiments an approximately 2.5 MeV positron beam impinged on thin polyethylene, aluminum, and gold targets. Since energetic positrons easily penetrate the nuclear Coulomb potential and do not cause a strong charge polarization, the experimental annihilation line shapes agree well with calculations based on a simple independent-particle model. Moreover, annihilations with the deepest core electrons are greatly enhanced

  1. Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Galaxy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Rodd, Nicholas L; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2018-03-09

    We use 413 weeks of publicly available Fermi Pass 8 gamma-ray data combined with recently developed galaxy group catalogs to search for evidence of dark matter annihilation in extragalactic halos. In our study, we use luminosity-based mass estimates and mass-to-concentration relations to infer the J factors and associated uncertainties for hundreds of galaxy groups within a redshift range z≲0.03. We employ a conservative substructure boost factor model, which only enhances the sensitivity by an O(1) factor. No significant evidence for dark matter annihilation is found, and we exclude thermal relic cross sections for dark matter masses below ∼30  GeV to 95% confidence in the bb[over ¯] annihilation channel. These bounds are comparable to those from Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies. The results of our analysis increase the tension but do not rule out the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center excess. We provide a catalog of the galaxy groups used in this study and their inferred properties, which can be broadly applied to searches for extragalactic dark matter.

  2. Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Galaxy Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Safdi, Benjamin R.

    2018-03-01

    We use 413 weeks of publicly available Fermi Pass 8 gamma-ray data combined with recently developed galaxy group catalogs to search for evidence of dark matter annihilation in extragalactic halos. In our study, we use luminosity-based mass estimates and mass-to-concentration relations to infer the J factors and associated uncertainties for hundreds of galaxy groups within a redshift range z ≲0.03 . We employ a conservative substructure boost factor model, which only enhances the sensitivity by an O (1 ) factor. No significant evidence for dark matter annihilation is found, and we exclude thermal relic cross sections for dark matter masses below ˜30 GeV to 95% confidence in the b b ¯ annihilation channel. These bounds are comparable to those from Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies. The results of our analysis increase the tension but do not rule out the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center excess. We provide a catalog of the galaxy groups used in this study and their inferred properties, which can be broadly applied to searches for extragalactic dark matter.

  3. Positron-Electron Annihilation Process in (2,2)-Difluoropropane Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Zhu, Ying-Hao

    2016-04-01

    The positron-electron annihilation process in (2,2)-difluoropropane molecule and the corresponding gamma-ray spectra are studied by quantum chemistry method. The positrophilic electrons in (2,2)-difluoropropane molecule are found for the first time. The theoretical predictions show that the outermost 2s electrons of fluoride atoms play an important role in positron-electron annihilation process of (2,2)-difiuoropropane. In the present scheme, the correlation coefficient between the theoretical gamma-ray spectra and the experiments can be 99%. The present study gives an alternative annihilation model for positron-electron pair in larger molecules. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11347011 and the Natural Science Foundation Project of Shandong Province under Grant No. ZR2011AM010 and 2014 Technology Innovation Fund of Ludong University under Grant Nos. 1d151007 and ld15l016

  4. High nuclear temperatures by antimatter-matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Strottman, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that the quark-gluon phase be created through the use of antiproton or antideuteron beams. The first advantage to this method, using higher energy antiprotons than 1.5 GeV/c, is that the higher momenta antiprotons penetrate more deeply so that mesons produced are more nearly contained within the nucleus. Another advantage is that the annihilation products are very forward-peaked and tend to form a beam of mesons so that the energy density does not disperse very rapidly. Calculations were performed using the intranuclear cascade to try to follow the process of annihilation in some detail. The intranuclear cascade type calculation method is compared to the hydrodynamic approach. 8 refs., 8 figs

  5. Increased Elemental Specificity of Positron Annihilation Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Alatalo, M.; Ghosh, V.J.; Kruseman, A.C.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a sensitive probe for studying the electronic structure of defects in solids. We show that the high-momentum part of the Doppler-broadened annihilation spectra can be used to distinguish different elements. This is achieved by using a new two-detector coincidence system to examine the line shape variations originating from high-momentum core electrons. Because the core electrons retain their atomic character even when atoms form a solid, these results can be directly compared to simple theoretical predictions. The new approach adds increased elemental specificity to the PAS technique, and is useful in studying the elemental variations around a defect site. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Hybrid mesons (Q anti Qg) in N anti N annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Gutsche, T.; Faessler, A.

    1993-09-01

    N anti N annihilation reactions provide exciting possibilities to study mesonic resonances beyond the usual Q anti Q spectrum. Particularly the search for Q anti Qg mesons containing an explicit dynamical excitation of the gluon field is not promising, since hybrids are predicted to display unique features: exotic quantum numbers (J πC ) and dynamical selection rules for their decay modes. The authors have investigated the possibility of producing hybrids from p anti p atomic states in reactions of the type N anti N(L= 0,1) → π + Q anti Qg. Production rates for hybrid mesons are found to display a strong dependence on the quantum numbers and kinematical factors associated with the transition. The dependence on the orbital angular momentum L of the p anti p atomic state, accessible in p anti p annihilation at rest, would provide a striking signature for the production of hybrids. In estimating branching ratios for the formation of Q anti Qg hybrid mesons in N anti N annihilation reactions at rest, the authors have employed a microscopic model with constituent quarks and gluons in analogy to the annihilation model for the production of Q anti Q mesons

  7. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.

    1982-09-01

    The topic of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the investigation of all aspects connected with the annihilation of slow positrons. This work deals with the application of PAS to different problems of materials science. The first chapter is an introduction to fundamental aspects of positron annihilation, as far as they are important to the different experimental techniques of PAS. Chapter 2 is concerned with the information obtainable by PAS. The three main experimental techniques of PAS (2γ-angular correlation, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening) are explained and problems in the application of these methods are discussed. Chapter 3 contains experimental results. According to the different fields of application it was subgrouped into: 1. Investigations of crystalline solids. Detection of structural defects in Cu, estimation of defect concentrations, study of the sintering of Cu powders as well as lattice defects in V 3 Si. 2. Chemical investigations. Structure of mixed solvents, selective solvation of mixed solvents by electrolytes as well as the micellization of sodium dodecylsulphate in aqueous solutions. 3. Investigations of glasses. Influence of heat treatment and production technology on the preorder of X-amorphous silica glass as well as preliminary measurements of pyrocerams. 4. Investigations of metallic glasses. Demonstration of the influence of production technology on parameters measurable by PAS. Chapter 4 contains a summary as well as an outlook of further applications of PAS to surface physics, medicine, biology and astrophysics. (author)

  8. Glass transition and relaxation processes of polymers studied by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science

    1996-10-01

    The glass transition and relaxation processes of polymers were studied by the positron annihilation technique. A positron implanted into polymers might annihilate from positronium (Ps) states in open spaces. Ps is a bound state between a positron and an electron, and its nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is practically identical to that of a hydrogen atom. The lifetime of Ps can be associated with the size of the open spaces, and the formation probability of Ps provides information of motions of molecules. Since the glass transition or relaxation processes affect behavior of open spaces, one can study these phenomena through the detection of the open spaces using the positron annihilation technique. In the present paper, we report studies of the glass transition and relaxation processes in polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene by measurements of lifetime spectra of positrons and those of Doppler broadening profiles of the annihilation radiation. For these specimens, by measurements of the lifetime of Ps, {tau}{sub 3}, as a function of temperature, the glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, was determined as an onset temperature of the increase in the temperature coefficient of {tau}{sub 3}. Below T{sub g}, local motions of molecules were detected by measurements of the formation probability of Ps. The positron annihilation as a tool for the characterization of polymers was discussed. (author). 51 refs.

  9. Real-time Detection of Antihydrogen Annihilations and Applications to Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stracka Simone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A detection scheme based on real-time measurement of antihydrogen annihilations during radiation injection is presented, which allows an efficient use of the trapped atoms for laser and microwave spectroscopy. The application of real-time detection of H¯$\\bar H$ annihilations to microwave spectroscopy, which yielded the first evidence of microwave induced spin-flip transitions in trapped antihydrogen [1], is reported.

  10. Characterization of advanced semiconductor materials by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, Akira; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Ishibashi, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation is an established technique for investigating vacancy-type defects near surfaces or interfaces. Using this technique, one can identify defect species in a nondestructive manner. Because there is no restriction of sample conductivity or temperature, this technique can be applied to a various materials, such as semiconductors, metals, metal oxides, and polymers. The positron annihilation has been applied to the studies of Si-technology related materials, which show that it can provide useful information for the development of semiconductor devices. In this article, we report the results obtained for electroplated Cu, strained Si and high-k materials. (author)

  11. Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmic-ray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

  12. Microemulsion systems studied by positron annihilation techniques. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.; Olea, O.; Fucugauchi, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The positron annihilation technique was applied to assess the effect of the double bond of the surfactant molecule on the microemulsion formation mechanism by replacing sodium stearate by sodium oleate in surfactant-cosurfactant-solvent-water systems. Diameters of microemulsions were measured by dynamic laser light scattering, and the obtained values concur with the present positron annihilation data. Structures of these microemulsions have been assessed by considering the available conformation and shapes of the surfactant-cosurfactant-solvent-assemblies. Volumes of the same aggregates have been calculated by taking into consideration the packing constraint imposed upon kink formation. (Auth.)

  13. Positron annihilation near fractal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.; Deng, K.M.; Xiong, L.Y.

    1991-07-01

    A model for positron annihilation in the sub-surface region near a fractal surface is proposed. It is found that the power law relationship between the mean positron implantation depth and incident positron energy can be used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractal surface in materials. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  14. A Study of the Vacancy-Impurity Interaction in Dilute Nickel Alloys by Core Electron Annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzov, V. L.; Danilov, S. E.; Druzhkov, A. P.

    1997-08-01

    It is shown that the angular correlation of annihilation radiation can be used to identify vacancy-impurity complexes in dilute alloys. Annihilation of trapped positrons with core electrons bears information about the chemical environment of a vacancy defect. The method is especially effective for d-matrices doped with sp-impurities since annihilation parameters of positrons with d- and sp-shell electrons differ considerably. The potentialities of the method of core-electron annihilation of positrons are demonstrated taking electron-irradiated dilute Ni-P and Ni-Si alloys as an example. It is shown that the interaction between the vacancies, which migrate at the III stage of annealing, and P atoms in Ni-P causes a considerable change in the annihilation parameters of positrons with core electrons compared to pure Ni. In Ni-Si alloys the annihilation parameters of trapped positrons with core electrons do not differ from those in Ni. This fact is an evidence that Si atoms do not interact with vacancies in Ni.

  15. CMB bounds on dark matter annihilation: Nucleon energy losses after recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weniger, C.; Serpico, P.D.; Iocco, F.; Bertone, G.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the propagation and energy losses of protons and antiprotons produced by dark matter annihilation at redshifts 100annihilations into quarks, gluons and weak gauge bosons, protons and antiprotons carry about 20% of the energy injected into e± and γ’s,

  16. Positron annihilation in germanium in thermal equilibrium at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uedono, Akira; Moriya, Tsuyoshi; Komuro, Naoyuki; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Kawano, Takao; Ikari, Atsushi

    1996-09-01

    Annihilation characteristics of positrons in Ge in thermal equilibrium at high temperature were studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Precise measurements of Doppler broadening profiles of annihilation radiation were performed in the temperature range between 300 K and 1211 K. The line shape parameters of Doppler broadening profiles were found to be almost constant at 300-600 K. The changes in these parameters were observed to start above 600 K. This was attributed to both the decrease in the fraction of positrons annihilating with core electrons and the lowering of the crystal symmetry around the region detected by positron-electron pairs. This suggests that behaviors of positrons are dominated by some form of positron-lattice coupling in Ge at high temperatures. The temperature dependence of the diffusion length of positrons was also discussed. (author)

  17. Antiproton annihilation in very low-energy antihydrogen scattering by simple atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Gregory, M.R.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of experimentalists currently working on the preparation of antihydrogen is to trap it at very low temperatures so that its properties can be studied. Of concern to experimentalists are processes that lead to a loss of antihydrogen through annihilation. The dominant annihilation process that leads to the loss of antihydrogen is the annihilation of the antiproton with nuclei through the strong interaction. A recent scattering calculation of antihydrogen with hydrogen at very low energy, using the complex strong interaction potential of Kohno and Weise, has found an average annihilation cross-section of 0.13E -1/2 a 0 -2 , where E is the energy of relative motion. The antihydrogen-helium system is of particular interest to experimentalists as helium may be present as an impurity in the trap. Also there is interest in the possibility of using it to cool antihydrogen. We present a treatment of antihydrogen scattering with helium at very low temperatures. The annihilation cross-sections obtained are much larger than antihydrogen-hydrogen scattering cross-section, making it very unlikely that helium can be used to cool antihydrogen

  18. Probing dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy with antiprotons and gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Heisig, Jan; Korsmeier, Michael; Krämer, Michael, E-mail: cuoco@physik.rwth-aachen.de, E-mail: heisig@physik.rwth-aachen.de, E-mail: korsmeier@physik.rwth-aachen.de, E-mail: mkraemer@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    A possible hint of dark matter annihilation has been found in Cuoco, Korsmeier and Krämer (2017) from an analysis of recent cosmic-ray antiproton data from AMS-02 and taking into account cosmic-ray propagation uncertainties by fitting at the same time dark matter and propagation parameters. Here, we extend this analysis to a wider class of annihilation channels. We find consistent hints of a dark matter signal with an annihilation cross-section close to the thermal value and with masses in range between 40 and 130 GeV depending on the annihilation channel. Furthermore, we investigate in how far the possible signal is compatible with the Galactic center gamma-ray excess and recent observation of dwarf satellite galaxies by performing a joint global fit including uncertainties in the dark matter density profile. As an example, we interpret our results in the framework of the Higgs portal model.

  19. Annihilation gamma ray background characterization and rejection for a positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, C.S.; Tornai, M.P.; MacDonald, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a miniature (1.2 cm 2 ) beta-ray camera prototype to assist a surgeon in locating and removing the margins of a resected tumor. When imaging positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals, annihilation gamma ray interactions in the detector can mimic those of the betas. The extent of the background contamination depends on the detector, geometry and tumor specificity of the radiopharmaceutical. We have characterized the effects that annihilation gamma rays have on positron imaging with the camera. We studied beta and gamma ray detection rates and imaging using small positron or electron sources directly exposed to the detector to simulate hot tumor remnants and a cylinder filled with 18 F to simulate annihilation background from the brain. For various ratios of phantom brain/tumor activity, a annihilation gamma rate of 1.8 cts/sec/gCi was measured in the CaF 2 (Eu) detector. We present two gamma-ray background rejection schemes that use a β-γ coincidence. Results show that the coincidence methods works with ∼99% gamma ray rejection efficiency

  20. Heating of galactic gas by dark matter annihilation in ultracompact minihalos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Hamish A.; Iwanus, Nikolas; Lewis, Geraint F. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Elahi, Pascal J. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Scott, Pat, E-mail: hamish.clark@sydney.edu.au, E-mail: nikolas.iwanus@sydney.edu.au, E-mail: pascal.elahi@uwa.edu.au, E-mail: geraint.lewis@sydney.edu.au, E-mail: p.scott@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    The existence of substructure in halos of annihilating dark matter would be expected to substantially boost the rate at which annihilation occurs. Ultracompact minihalos of dark matter (UCMHs) are one of the more extreme examples of this. The boosted annihilation can inject significant amounts of energy into the gas of a galaxy over its lifetime. Here we determine the impact of the boost factor from UCMH substructure on the heating of galactic gas in a Milky Way-type galaxy, by means of N-body simulation. If 1% of the dark matter exists as UCMHs, the corresponding boost factor can be of order 10{sup 5}. For reasonable values of the relevant parameters (annihilation cross section 3×10{sup −26} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1}, dark matter mass 100 GeV, 10% heating efficiency), we show that the presence of UCMHs at the 0.1% level would inject enough energy to eject significant amounts of gas from the halo, potentially preventing star formation within ∼1 kpc of the halo centre.

  1. New techniques of positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Studies on new techniques of positron annihilation and its application to various fields are presented. First, production of slow positron and its characteristic features are described. The slow positron can be obtained from radioisotopes by using a positron moderator, proton beam bombardment on a boron target, and pair production by using an electron linear accelerator. Bright enhancement of the slow positron beam is studied. Polarized positron beam can be used for the study of the momentum distribution of an electron in ferromagnetic substances. Production of polarized positrons and measurements of polarization are discussed. Various phases of interaction between slow positrons and atoms (or molecules) are described. A comparative study of electron scavenging effects on luminescence and on positronium formation in cyclohexane is presented. The positron annihilation phenomena are applicable for the surface study. The microscopic information on the surface of porous material may be obtained. The slow positrons are also useful for the surface study. Production and application of slow muon (positive and negative) are presented in this report. (Kato, T.)

  2. Annihilation diagrams in two-body nonleptonic decays of charmed mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedaque, P.; Das, A.; Mathur, V.S.

    1994-06-01

    In the pole-dominance model for the two-body nonleptonic decays of charmed mesons D → PV and D → VV, it is shown that the contributions of the intermediate pseudoscalar and the axial-vector meson poles cancel each other in the annihilation diagrams in the chiral limit. In the same limit, the annihilation diagrams for the D → PP decays vanish independently. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs

  3. Annihilation of antiprotons at rest in 3He and 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Bendiscioli, G.; Rotondi, R.; Salvini, P.; Zenoni, A.; Batusov, Y.A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Nichitiu, F.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Guaraldo, C.; Maggiora, A.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Sorensen, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    At LEAR of CERN the annihilation of antiprotons stopping in 3 He and 4 He filling a self shunted streamer chamber in magnetic field has been studied. The relative probabilities of π - production in anti p 3 He and anti p 4 He annihilation events have been obtained. The ratio between the anti p annihilation probability on the neutron and on the proton for 3 He and 4 He has been deduced to be about half the value obtained for 2 H in bubble chamber experiments. The analysis of the results shows this difference cannot be ascribed only to the pion final state interaction or to the shadow effect of the nucleons in the nuclei. 9 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Can annihilating dark matter be lighter than a few GeVs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, C; Ensslin, T A; Silk, J

    2004-01-01

    We estimate the gamma-ray fluxes from the residual annihilations of dark matter (DM) particles having a mass m dm from [MeV, O(10) GeV] (a possible solution to the DM issue provided they have a new kind of interactions and no significant coupling to the Z) and compare them to observations. We find that particles lighter than O(100 MeV) can be viable DM candidates provided their dominant annihilation cross section is S-wave suppressed so as to satisfy the gamma-ray constraints. A similar conclusion is obtained for particles lighter than O(10) GeV from the study of radio fluxes, assuming a NFW profile and that they mainly annihilate into electrons

  5. Positron scattering and annihilation from hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, S.A.; Bromley, M.W.J.; Mitroy, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Kohn variational method is used with a configuration-interaction-type wave function to determine the J=0 and J=1 phase shifts and annihilation parameter Z eff for positron-hydrogenic ion scattering. The phase shifts are within 1-2% of the best previous calculations. The values of Z eff are small and do not exceed unity for any of the momenta considered. At thermal energies Z eff is minute with a value of order 10 -50 occurring for He + at k=0.05a 0 -1 . In addition to the variational calculations, analytic expressions for the phase shift and annihilation parameters within the Coulomb wave Born approximation are derived and used to help elucidate the dynamics of positron collisions with positive ions

  6. Positron annihilation at the Si/SiO2 interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, T.C.; Weinberg, Z.A.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Rubloff, G.W.; Lynn, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    Variable-energy positron annihilation depth-profiling has been applied to the study of the Si/SiO 2 interface in Al-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures. For both n- and p-type silicon under conditions of negative gate bias, the positron annihilation S-factor characteristic of the interface (S int ) is substantially modified. Temperature and annealing behavior, combined with known MOS physics, suggest strongly that S int depends directly on holes at interface states or traps at the Si/SiO 2 interface

  7. Positron annihilation in disordered regions in neutron-irradiated Ge and Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovoit, A.K.; Konopleva, R.F.; Kupchishin, A.I.; Mukashev, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    The method of angular distribution of annihilation photons was used to investigate the formation and annealing of radiation defects in Ge and Si irradiated with reactor neutrons. These effects were studied as a function of the type of conduction of the dopant concentration. The nature of annealing demonstrated positron annihilation at multivacancy complexes located within disordered regions

  8. Positron-annihilation studies on the YBa2Cu4O8 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.; Jean, Y.C.; Hor, P.H.; Meng, R.L.; Xue, Y.Y.; Huang, Z.J.; Chu, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-lifetime and Doppler-broadened annihilation-radiation line-shape parameter S in YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 are observed to decrease with temperature below T c . The calculation of the positron-density distribution shows that the maximum of the positron density is in the region between the Cu-O double chains. The correlation between the temperature dependence of annihilation parameters and the positron-density distribution is discussed. The decrease in annihilation parameters below T c is understood in terms of a local electron transfer from the CuO 2 layers to the Cu-O chains in the superconducting state

  9. Development of a pico-second life-time spectrometer for positron annihilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujari, P.K.; Datta, T.; Tomar, B.S.; Das, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    Positron annihilation technique is a sensitive probe to investigate various physico-chemical phenomena due to the ability to provide information about the electron momentum and density in any medium. While measurements on the Doppler broadening and angular correlation of annihilation photons provide information about the electron momentum, the electron density at the annihilation site is obtained, by the positron life-time measurement. This report describes the development, optimization and calibration of a high resolution life-time spectrometer (FWHM=230 ps), based on fast-fast coincidence technique, a relatively new concept in nuclear timing spectroscopy. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter. Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s-wave and p-wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  11. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter: Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason [DESY, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg, D-22607 Germany (Germany); Petraki, Kalliopi, E-mail: iason.baldes@desy.de, E-mail: kpetraki@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE), UMR 7589 CNRS and UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris, F-75252 France (France)

    2017-09-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s -wave and p -wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  12. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter. Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Petraki, Kalliopi [Nationaal Instuut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMR 7589 CNRS et UPMC, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE)

    2017-03-15

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s-wave and p-wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  13. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter: Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s -wave and p -wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  14. Weak annihilation cusp inside the dark matter spike about a black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Stuart L; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-15

    We reinvestigate the effect of annihilations on the distribution of collisionless dark matter (DM) in a spherical density spike around a massive black hole. We first construct a very simple, pedagogic, analytic model for an isotropic phase space distribution function that accounts for annihilation and reproduces the "weak cusp" found by Vasiliev for DM deep within the spike and away from its boundaries. The DM density in the cusp varies as r -1/2 for s -wave annihilation, where r is the distance from the central black hole, and is not a flat "plateau" profile. We then extend this model by incorporating a loss cone that accounts for the capture of DM particles by the hole. The loss cone is implemented by a boundary condition that removes capture orbits, resulting in an anisotropic distribution function. Finally, we evolve an initial spike distribution function by integrating the Boltzmann equation to show how the weak cusp grows and its density decreases with time. We treat two cases, one for s -wave and the other for p -wave DM annihilation, adopting parameters characteristic of the Milky Way nuclear core and typical WIMP models for DM. The cusp density profile for p -wave annihilation is weaker, varying like ~ r -0.34 , but is still not a flat plateau.

  15. Annihilation decays of bottomonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Antony Prakash; Bhat, Manjunath; D'Souza, Praveen P.; Vijaya Kumar, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    The bound state of a bottom quark b and its anti quark b-bar known as bottomonium was first seen in the spectrum of μμ"- pairs produced in 400 GeV proton-nucleus collisions at Fermilab. It was discovered as spin triplet states ϒ(1S), ϒ(2S) and ϒ(3S) by E288 collaboration at Fermilab. We have calculated annihilation decay widths of bottomonium states. The calculated decay widths are presented

  16. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  17. SMM detection of diffuse Galactic 511 keV annihilation radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Messina, D. C.; Purcell, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the 511 keV annihilation line from the vicinity of the Galactic center from October to February for 1980/1981, 1981/1982, 1982/1983, 1984/1985, and 1985/1986 are presented. The measurements were made with the gamma-ray spectrometer on the SMM. The design of the instrument and some of its properties used in the analysis are described, and the methods used for accumulating, fitting, and analyzing the data are outlined. It is shown how the Galactic 511 keV line was separated from the intense and variable background observed in orbit. The SMM observations are compared with previous measurements of annihilation radiation from the Galactic center region, and the astrophysical implications are discussed. It is argued that most of the measurements made to date suggest the presence of an extended Galactic source of annihilation radiation.

  18. The Distribution and Annihilation of Dark Matter Around Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    We use a Monte Carlo code to calculate the geodesic orbits of test particles around Kerr black holes, generating a distribution function of both bound and unbound populations of dark matter (DM) particles. From this distribution function, we calculate annihilation rates and observable gamma-ray spectra for a few simple DM models. The features of these spectra are sensitive to the black hole spin, observer inclination, and detailed properties of the DM annihilation cross-section and density profile. Confirming earlier analytic work, we find that for rapidly spinning black holes, the collisional Penrose process can reach efficiencies exceeding 600%, leading to a high-energy tail in the annihilation spectrum. The high particle density and large proper volume of the region immediately surrounding the horizon ensures that the observed flux from these extreme events is non-negligible.

  19. Positron Annihilation Ratio Spectroscopy Study of Electric Fields Applied to Positronium at Material Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    from 142 ns to a few ns [3:3]. Through the application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) on a material, the o-Ps lifetime can be...Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. POSITRON ANNIHILATION RATIO SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF ELECTRIC FIELDS APPLIED TO...protection in the United States. AFIT/GNE/ENP/11-M19 POSITRON ANNIHILATION RATIO SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF ELECTRIC FIELDS APPLIED TO POSITRONIUM AT

  20. Annihilation vs. Decay: Constraining dark matter properties from a gamma-ray detection

    CERN Document Server

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Most proposed dark matter candidates are stable and are produced thermally in the early Universe. However, there is also the possibility of unstable (but long-lived) dark matter, produced thermally or otherwise. We propose a strategy to distinguish between dark matter annihilation and/or decay in the case that a clear signal is detected in gamma-ray observations of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies with current or future gamma-ray experiments. The sole measurement of the energy spectrum of an indirect signal would render the discrimination between these cases impossible. We show that by examining the dependence of the intensity and energy spectrum on the angular distribution of the emission, the origin could be identified as decay, annihilation, or both. In addition, once the type of signal is established, we show how these measurements could help to extract information about the dark matter properties, including mass, annihilation cross section, lifetime, dominant annihilation and decay channels, and the p...

  1. Measurement of antiproton annihilation on Cu, Ag and Au with emulsion films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghion, S.; Consolati, G.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Ereditato, A.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Demetrio, A.; Brusa, R.S.; Cabaret, L.; Comparat, D.; Caccia, M.; Castelli, F.; Caravita, R.; Noto, L. Di; Cerchiari, G.; Doser, M.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of low energy antiproton annihilations on nuclei (e.g. hadronization and product multiplicities) are not well known, and Monte Carlo simulation packages that use different models provide different descriptions of the annihilation events. In this study, we measured the particle multiplicities resulting from antiproton annihilations on nuclei. The results were compared with predictions obtained using different models in the simulation tools GEANT4 and FLUKA. For this study, we exposed thin targets (Cu, Ag and Au) to a very low energy antiproton beam from CERN's Antiproton Decelerator, exploiting the secondary beamline available in the AEgIS experimental zone. The antiproton annihilation products were detected using emulsion films developed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics in Bern, where they were analysed at the automatic microscope facility. The fragment multiplicity measured in this study is in good agreement with results obtained with FLUKA simulations for both minimally and heavily ionizing particles.

  2. Measurement of antiproton annihilation on Cu, Ag and Au with emulsion films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bonomi, G.; Bräunig, P.; Brusa, R. S.; Cabaret, L.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Ereditato, A.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Hinterberger, A.; Holmestad, H.; Huse, T.; Kawada, J.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kimura, M.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Müller, S. R.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Pistillo, C.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Rienaecker, B.; RØhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sacerdoti, M.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Simon, M.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Vamosi, S.; Vladymyrov, M.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zimmer, C.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.

    2017-04-01

    The characteristics of low energy antiproton annihilations on nuclei (e.g. hadronization and product multiplicities) are not well known, and Monte Carlo simulation packages that use different models provide different descriptions of the annihilation events. In this study, we measured the particle multiplicities resulting from antiproton annihilations on nuclei. The results were compared with predictions obtained using different models in the simulation tools GEANT4 and FLUKA. For this study, we exposed thin targets (Cu, Ag and Au) to a very low energy antiproton beam from CERN's Antiproton Decelerator, exploiting the secondary beamline available in the AEgIS experimental zone. The antiproton annihilation products were detected using emulsion films developed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics in Bern, where they were analysed at the automatic microscope facility. The fragment multiplicity measured in this study is in good agreement with results obtained with FLUKA simulations for both minimally and heavily ionizing particles.

  3. Investigation of vanadium oxide bronzes of phase β by means of annihilation of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, E.

    1992-01-01

    The vanadium bronzes with general composition M x V 2 O 5 (where M means the donor element Li, Na, K, Cu, Na) have been the object of the investigation. The positron annihilation method as well as the broadening of the annihilation line in Doppler spectra have been the basing methods for the study of material structure. The donor lattice vacancies have been investigated as a positron traps being responsible for the shape of annihilation spectra. The model of clustering of donor ions has been constructed. On that base and temperature dependence of the positron annihilation spectra the thermodynamical parameters of donor ion vacancies in vanadium bronzes have been calculated. 112 refs, 33 figs, 11 tabs

  4. Bounds on Dark Matter annihilations from 21 cm data arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Strumia, Alessandro

    The observation of an absorption feature in the 21 cm spectrum at redshift $z\\approx 17$ implies bounds on Dark Matter annihilations for a broad range of masses, given that significant heating of the intergalactic medium would have erased such feature. The resulting bounds on the DM annihilation cross sections are comparable to the strongest ones from all other observables.

  5. Antiproton annihilation in very low-energy antihydrogen scattering by simple atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, E.A.G. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gregory, M.R. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mark.gregory@maths.nottingham.ac.uk; Liu, Y. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    The aim of experimentalists currently working on the preparation of antihydrogen is to trap it at very low temperatures so that its properties can be studied. Of concern to experimentalists are processes that lead to a loss of antihydrogen through annihilation. The dominant annihilation process that leads to the loss of antihydrogen is the annihilation of the antiproton with nuclei through the strong interaction. A recent scattering calculation of antihydrogen with hydrogen at very low energy, using the complex strong interaction potential of Kohno and Weise, has found an average annihilation cross-section of 0.13E{sup -1/2}a{sub 0}{sup -2}, where E is the energy of relative motion. The antihydrogen-helium system is of particular interest to experimentalists as helium may be present as an impurity in the trap. Also there is interest in the possibility of using it to cool antihydrogen. We present a treatment of antihydrogen scattering with helium at very low temperatures. The annihilation cross-sections obtained are much larger than antihydrogen-hydrogen scattering cross-section, making it very unlikely that helium can be used to cool antihydrogen.

  6. Positron annihilation study of structural subnanovoids and irradiation damages in silica-based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.

    2004-01-01

    Structural subnanovoids in glass solidified with radioactive waste disposal were studied by positron annihilation 2-dimensional angular correlation and positron life time measurements. Positroniums in crystalline SiO 2 were in a delocalized state, but in glass SiO 2 were in a localized state. Pick-off annihilation (pair annihilation between an ortho-positroniums and a spin antiparallel electron) rate was shortened with decreasing molarity of glass network formers and consequently radii of structural subnanovoids were reduced. The sizes of structural subnanovoids determined from the pick-off annihilation were good agreement with those measured by momentum distribution of para-positroniums. In waste disposal model glass, no presence of positronims indicated that radioactive substances occupied almost all subnanovoids, and therefore voids with large size enough to localize positroniums (above 0.1 nm radius) could not be present. (Y. Kazumata)

  7. Vector dark matter annihilation with internal bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambhaniya, Gulab, E-mail: gulab@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Kumar, Jason, E-mail: jkumar@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marfatia, Danny, E-mail: dmarf8@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Nayak, Alekha C., E-mail: acnayak@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Tomar, Gaurav, E-mail: tomar@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2017-03-10

    We consider scenarios in which the annihilation of self-conjugate spin-1 dark matter to a Standard Model fermion–antifermion final state is chirality suppressed, but where this suppression can be lifted by the emission of an additional photon via internal bremsstrahlung. We find that this scenario can only arise if the initial dark matter state is polarized, which can occur in the context of self-interacting dark matter. In particular, this is possible if the dark matter pair forms a bound state that decays to its ground state before the constituents annihilate. We show that the shape of the resulting photon spectrum is the same as for self-conjugate spin-0 and spin-1/2 dark matter, but the normalization is less heavily suppressed in the limit of heavy mediators.

  8. Antinucleon-nucleon annihilation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhrer, F.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1989-01-01

    The antinucleon-nucleon annihilation is predominantly described by a hot-fireball process where the many final quantum numbers are distributed in a statistical fashion. It is argued that caution must be used in employing the long-range meson-exchange forces to describe the protonium atomic states. The simplest processes of two final mesons do show puzzling behavior which might be a reflection of quark dynamics, but no guiding principles for these quark calculations have been established yet. (orig.)

  9. Exciplex-exciplex energy transfer and annihilation in solid films of porphyrin-fullerene dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V

    2006-12-20

    Exciplex-exciplex annihilation was observed for the first time in porphyrin-fullerene molecular films. The films were prepared using Langmuir-Blodgett and drop casting methods. The exciplex-exciplex interactions were studied using femtosecond pump-probe method. The exciplex-exciplex annihilation can be seen as a fast (within few picoseconds) decay of the transient absorption at excitation densities higher than 0.4 mJ/cm2. Analysis of the excitation density dependences indicates that in average four dyads are involved in the exciplex-exciplex interaction, suggesting that an exciplex-exciplex energy transfer may precede the annihilation.

  10. Searching for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Smith High-Velocity Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gomez-Vargas, German A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use gamma-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant gamma-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (approximately 3 x 10 (sup -26) cubic centimeters per second) for dark matter masses less than or approximately 30 gigaelectronvolts annihilating via the B/B- bar oscillation or tau/antitau channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  11. Power spectrum tomography of dark matter annihilation with local galaxy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-10-01

    Cross-correlating the gamma-ray background with local galaxy catalogs potentially gives stringent constraints on dark matter annihilation. We provide updated theoretical estimates of sensitivities to the annihilation cross section from gamma-ray data with Fermi telescope and 2MASS galaxy catalogs, by elaborating the galaxy power spectrum and astrophysical backgrounds, and adopting the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we show that taking tomographic approach by dividing the galaxy catalogs into more than one redshift slice will improve the sensitivity by a factor of a few to several. If dark matter halos contain lots of bright substructures, yielding a large annihilation boost (e.g., a factor of ∼100 for galaxy-size halos), then one may be able to probe the canonical annihilation cross section for thermal production mechanism up to masses of ∼700 GeV. Even with modest substructure boost (e.g., a factor of ∼10 for galaxy-size halos), on the other hand, the sensitivities could still reach a factor of three larger than the canonical cross section for dark matter masses of tens to a few hundreds of GeV.

  12. Searching for dark matter annihilation in the Smith high-velocity cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Gómez-Vargas, Germán A.; Hewitt, John W.; Linden, Tim; Tibaldo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use γ-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant γ-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (∼ 3 × 10 –26 cm 3 s –1 ) for dark matter masses ≲ 30 GeV annihilating via the b b-bar or τ + τ – channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  13. Solvable single-species aggregation-annihilation model for chain-shaped cluster growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianhong; Lin Zhenquan; Zheng Yizhuang; Chen Xiaoshuang; Lu Wei

    2007-01-01

    We propose a single-species aggregation-annihilation model, in which an aggregation reaction between two clusters produces an active cluster and an annihilation reaction produces an inert one. By means of the mean-field rate equation, we respectively investigate the kinetic scaling behaviours of three distinct systems. The results exhibit that: (i) for the general aggregation-annihilation system, the size distribution of active clusters consistently approaches the conventional scaling form; (ii) for the system with the self-degeneration of the cluster's activities, it takes the modified scaling form; and (iii) for the system with the self-closing of active clusters, it does not scale. Moreover, the size distribution of inert clusters with small size takes a power-law form, while that of large inert clusters obeys the scaling law. The results also show that all active clusters will eventually transform into inert ones and the inert clusters of any size can be produced by such an aggregation-annihilation process. This model can be used to mimic the chain-shaped cluster growth and can provide some useful predictions for the kinetic behaviour of the system

  14. Searching for dark matter annihilation in the Smith high-velocity cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drlica-Wagner, Alex [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Gómez-Vargas, Germán A. [Departamento de Fisíca, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Hewitt, John W. [CRESST, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Linden, Tim [The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tibaldo, Luigi [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Recent observations suggest that some high-velocity clouds may be confined by massive dark matter halos. In particular, the proximity and proposed dark matter content of the Smith Cloud make it a tempting target for the indirect detection of dark matter annihilation. We argue that the Smith Cloud may be a better target than some Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and use γ-ray observations from the Fermi Large Area Telescope to search for a dark matter annihilation signal. No significant γ-ray excess is found coincident with the Smith Cloud, and we set strong limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section assuming a spatially extended dark matter profile consistent with dynamical modeling of the Smith Cloud. Notably, these limits exclude the canonical thermal relic cross section (∼ 3 × 10{sup –26} cm{sup 3} s{sup –1}) for dark matter masses ≲ 30 GeV annihilating via the b b-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup –} channels for certain assumptions of the dark matter density profile; however, uncertainties in the dark matter content of the Smith Cloud may significantly weaken these constraints.

  15. Theory of triplet-triplet annihilation in optically detected magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevers, T. L.; McCamey, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Triplet-triplet annihilation allows two low-energy photons to be upconverted into a single high-energy photon. By essentially engineering the solar spectrum, this allows solar cells to be made more efficient and even exceed the Shockley-Quiesser limit. Unfortunately, optimizing the reaction pathway is difficult, especially with limited access to the microscopic time scales and states involved in the process. Optical measurements can provide detailed information: triplet-triplet annihilation is intrinsically spin dependent and exhibits substantial magnetoluminescence in the presence of a static magnetic field. Pulsed optically detected magnetic resonance is especially suitable, since it combines high spin sensitivity with coherent manipulation. In this paper, we develop a time-domain theory of triplet-triplet annihilation for complexes with arbitrary spin-spin coupling. We identify unique "Rabi fingerprints" for each coupling regime and show that this can be used to characterize the microscopic Hamiltonian.

  16. Positron annihilation probing for the hydratation rate of cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, R.; Karras, M.

    1975-01-01

    Positron annihilation has been found to be a possible probe for the exponential hydratation of cement paste. Both lifetime and Doppler line broadening measurements revealed the hydratation rate. With the aid of increased stability in the lifetime spectrometer it has been possible to extend the measuring sensitivity over a period of several weeks. Two main lifetimes, tau 1 = 480 +- 20 psec and tau 2 = 2.1 +- 0.1 nsec, were observed to be constant during the hydratation. The intensity of the 2.1 nsec component changed from 4 to 8% after 47 days, and simultaneously the annihilation line narrowed from 2.6 to 2.4 keV. This behaviour has been interpreted as an increase in positronium formation. The possible practical applications of positron annihilation radiation as a hydratation probe has been evaluated for use in a concrete laboratory and even for regular construction work. (orig.) [de

  17. Application of positron annihilation to the characterization of zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, H.; Ujihira, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements were carried out for synthetic zeolite 13X, SK-40, NH 4 -X, and NH 4 -Y by varying the evacuation temperature in order to study the character of the zeolite cages. Four components of the positron annihilation, derived from the lifetime spectra, were interpreted from the results of the authors' measurements and other studies on zeolites. The o-Ps lifetimes in the cages became longer as the desorption of water molecules proceeded. It was found that some active groups in zeolites interacted with o-Ps and reduced the o-Ps lifetime after all the water molecules had detected. Bronsted acid in the zeolite acted not only as an oxidizer but also as an inhibitor of Ps formation. An attempt was made to estimate the amount of Bronsted acids by the positron lifetime technique. The longest lifetime of 50 ns indicates o-Ps annihilation in a pore with 60 A free diameter, which seems to exist irregularly in the faujasite zeolites. It was found that o-Ps was oxidized in this large cavity

  18. Positron annihilation lifetime study of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krsjak, V.; Szaraz, Z.; Hähner, P.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative positron annihilation lifetime study has been performed on various commercial ferritic and ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. Both as-extruded and recrystallized materials were investigated. In the materials with recrystallized coarse-grained microstructures, only the positron trapping at small vacancy clusters and yttria nanofeatures was observed. Materials which had not undergone recrystallization treatment clearly showed additional positron trapping which is associated with dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated from a two-component decomposition of the positron lifetime spectra by assuming the first component to be a superposition of the bulk controlled annihilation rate and the dislocation controlled trapping rate. The second component (which translates into lifetimes of 240–260 ps) was found to be well separated in all those ODS materials. This paper presents the potentialities and limitations of the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and discusses the results of the experimental determination of the defect concentrations and sensitivity of this technique to the material degradation due to thermally induced precipitation of chromium-rich α′ phases.

  19. Exciplex-exciplex energy transfer and annihilation in solid films of porphyrin-fullerene dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Lemmetyinen, Helge; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.

    2006-01-01

    Exciplex-exciplex annihilation was observed for the first time in porphyrin-fullerene molecular films. The films were prepared using Langmuir-Blodgett and drop casting methods. The exciplex-exciplex interactions were studied using femtosecond pump-probe method. The exciplex-exciplex annihilation can

  20. Direct Detection Phenomenology in Models Where the Products of Dark Matter Annihilation Interact with Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional non-relativistic direct detection by more than three orders of magnitude for masses in a 2-7 GeV window.......We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... experiments is controlled by relativistic kinematics. This results in a distinctive recoil spectrum, a non-standard and or even absent annual modulation, and the ability to probe DM masses as low as a $\\sim$10 MeV. We use current LUX data to show that experimental sensitivity to thermal relic annihilation...

  1. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Multiwavelength analysis of dark matter annihilation and RX-DMFIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, A.; Jeltema, T.; Profumo, S.; Storm, E.

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter (DM) particles are predicted by several well motivated models to yield Standard Model particles through self-annihilation that can potentially be detected by astrophysical observations. In particular, the production of charged particles from DM annihilation in astrophysical systems that contain magnetic fields yields radio emission through synchrotron radiation and X-ray emission through inverse Compton scattering of ambient photons. We introduce RX-DMFIT, a tool used for calculating the expected secondary emission from DM annihilation. RX-DMFIT includes a wide range of customizable astrophysical and particle parameters and incorporates important astrophysics including the diffusion of charged particles, relevant radiative energy losses, and magnetic field modelling. We demonstrate the use and versatility of RX-DMFIT by analyzing the potential radio and X-ray signals for a variety of DM particle models and astrophysical environments including galaxy clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and normal galaxies. We then apply RX-DMFIT to a concrete example using Segue I radio data to place constraints for a range of assumed DM annihilation channels. For WIMP models with M χ ≤ 100 GeV and assuming weak diffusion, we find that the leptonic μ + μ − and τ + τ − final states provide the strongest constraints, placing limits on the DM particle cross-section well below the thermal relic cross-section, while even for the b b-bar channel we find limits close to the thermal relic cross-section. Our analysis shows that radio emission provides a highly competitive avenue for dark matter searches.

  3. Multiwavelength analysis of dark matter annihilation and RX-DMFIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, A.; Jeltema, T.; Profumo, S. [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High St. Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States); Storm, E., E-mail: alexmcdaniel@ucsc.edu, E-mail: tesla@ucsc.edu, E-mail: profumo@ucsc.edu, E-mail: e.m.storm@uva.nl [GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-01

    Dark matter (DM) particles are predicted by several well motivated models to yield Standard Model particles through self-annihilation that can potentially be detected by astrophysical observations. In particular, the production of charged particles from DM annihilation in astrophysical systems that contain magnetic fields yields radio emission through synchrotron radiation and X-ray emission through inverse Compton scattering of ambient photons. We introduce RX-DMFIT, a tool used for calculating the expected secondary emission from DM annihilation. RX-DMFIT includes a wide range of customizable astrophysical and particle parameters and incorporates important astrophysics including the diffusion of charged particles, relevant radiative energy losses, and magnetic field modelling. We demonstrate the use and versatility of RX-DMFIT by analyzing the potential radio and X-ray signals for a variety of DM particle models and astrophysical environments including galaxy clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and normal galaxies. We then apply RX-DMFIT to a concrete example using Segue I radio data to place constraints for a range of assumed DM annihilation channels. For WIMP models with M {sub χ} ≤ 100 GeV and assuming weak diffusion, we find that the leptonic μ{sup +}μ{sup −} and τ{sup +}τ{sup −} final states provide the strongest constraints, placing limits on the DM particle cross-section well below the thermal relic cross-section, while even for the b b-bar channel we find limits close to the thermal relic cross-section. Our analysis shows that radio emission provides a highly competitive avenue for dark matter searches.

  4. Positron-annihilation-radiation transmission gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padawer, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A radiographic method and apparatus for nondestructively monitoring a specimen for density variations are disclosed. A positron-annihilation-radiation-emitting point source is situated approximately midway along the axis separating two detectors sensitive to positron-annihilation (0.511-MeV photon) radiation. The outputs of the two detectors are fed to an electronic circuit that reckons only time-coincident events that are sensed simultaneously in the two detectors. The specimen to be measured is positioned between the source and one of the detectors such that the cone of detected, i.e., coincident, photons intercepts the region of interest. The number of coincidences that are counted in a preset time interval are recorded, or, alternatively, the coincidence count rate is monitored directly with a ratemeter. A linear scan of the region of interest is performed by the sequential displacing of the source/detectors axis with respect to the measured specimen, or the specimen with respect to the source/detectors axis. The number of coincidence counts accumulated within a preset time interval are recorded for each displacement. The spatial variation of density within the specimen is inferred from corresponding variations in the coincidence count rate

  5. Monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belotskij, K.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Shibaev, K.I.

    2001-01-01

    Accumulation inside the Earth and Sun of heavy (with the mass of 50 GeV) primordial neutrinos and antineutrinos of the fourth generation and their successive annihilation is considered. The minimal estimations of annihilational fluxes of monochromatic e, μ, τ neutrinos (neutrinos and antineutrinos) with the energy of 50 GeV are 4.1·10 -6 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Earth core and 1.1·10 -7 cm -2 ·s -1 from the Sun core. That makes the analysis of underground neutrino observatory data the additional source of information on the existence of massive stable 4th generation neutrino. It is shown that due to the kinetic equilibrium between the influx of the neutrinos and their annihilation the existence of new U(1)-gauge interaction of the 4th generation neutrino does not virtually influence the estimations of annihilational e-, μ-, τ-neutrino fluxes

  6. 22 Na positron source for annihilation positron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpeanu, Catalina; Craciun, L.; Dragulescu, E.; Dudu, D.; Racolta, P.M.; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    2002-01-01

    To extend the nuclear physics applications and to perform the study of vacancy - type defects in metals, semiconductors, polymers etc., we decided to promote positron annihilation techniques. In order to achieve this goal we started a project of dedicated positron sources produced at the IFIN-HH U-120 Cyclotron. We have used the nuclear reaction 24 Mg(d,α) 22 Na and deuterons of 13 MeV energy. The paper presents the main steps of this procedure like: general conditions required for 22 NaCl sources, reactive chamber and characteristics of Mg target, parameters for the irradiation, radiochemical procedures to separate Na from Mg after the irradiation and geometrical or mechanical requirements for dedicated NaCl source for positron annihilation spectrometry. In the e + lifetime measurements the e + 'death - stop' signals are always provided by γ - quanta generated by the e + e - annihilation and the 'birth - start' signals may be obtained from 'prompt' γ - quanta emitted from the NaCl source (the 1.275 MeV photons). The 22 NaCl stock solution obtained by radiochemical separation will be kept in the sealed quartz vials in dry places and will be dropped between the studied materials before use in positron spectrometry. (authors)

  7. Annihilation of unthermalized positrons in a silicon single crystal at 770K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsev, Yu.E.; Mungir, L.; Ue'pe, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A model is considered for the annihilation of nonrelativistic positrons from quantized states in lattice channels. Annihilation gamma rays of energy over 511 keV have been observed when the positrons from an Na 22 source strike a silicon single crystal at 77 0 K. The experimental results agree well with the proposed model

  8. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in doped p-type ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sayanee; Sanyal, D.

    2011-07-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been used to investigate the vacancy type defect of the Li and N doped ZnO. The mono-vacancies, shallow -vacancies and open volume defects have been found in both the Li and N doped ZnO. The mono-vacancies, shallow-vacancies and open volume defects increase in N-doped ZnO as the size of N is quite high compared to Li. Positron annihilation study showed that the doping above 1-3% Li and 3-4% N in ZnO are not required in order to achieve low resistivity, high hole concentration and good mobility.

  9. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y.C.; Li Ying; Liu Gaung; Chen, Hongmin; Zhang Junjie; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2006-01-01

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 μm depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages

  10. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Liu Gaung [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhang Junjie [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 {mu}m depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  11. The 21 cm signal and the interplay between dark matter annihilations and astrophysical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Honorez, Laura [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Mena, Olga; Moliné, Ángeles; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Vincent, Aaron C., E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: maria.moline@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: sergio.Palomares.Ruiz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Future dedicated radio interferometers, including HERA and SKA, are very promising tools that aim to study the epoch of reionization and beyond via measurements of the 21 cm signal from neutral hydrogen. Dark matter (DM) annihilations into charged particles change the thermal history of the Universe and, as a consequence, affect the 21 cm signal. Accurately predicting the effect of DM strongly relies on the modeling of annihilations inside halos. In this work, we use up-to-date computations of the energy deposition rates by the products from DM annihilations, a proper treatment of the contribution from DM annihilations in halos, as well as values of the annihilation cross section allowed by the most recent cosmological measurements from the Planck satellite. Given current uncertainties on the description of the astrophysical processes driving the epochs of reionization, X-ray heating and Lyman-α pumping, we find that disentangling DM signatures from purely astrophysical effects, related to early-time star formation processes or late-time galaxy X-ray emissions, will be a challenging task. We conclude that only annihilations of DM particles with masses of ∼100 MeV, could leave an unambiguous imprint on the 21 cm signal and, in particular, on the 21 cm power spectrum. This is in contrast to previous, more optimistic results in the literature, which have claimed that strong signatures might also be present even for much higher DM masses. Additional measurements of the 21 cm signal at different cosmic epochs will be crucial in order to break the strong parameter degeneracies between DM annihilations and astrophysical effects and undoubtedly single out a DM imprint for masses different from ∼100 MeV.

  12. Relic density and CMB constraints on dark matter annihilation with Sommerfeld enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala, Jesus; White, Simon D. M.; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We calculate how the relic density of dark matter particles is altered when their annihilation is enhanced by the Sommerfeld mechanism due to a Yukawa interaction between the annihilating particles. Maintaining a dark matter abundance consistent with current observational bounds requires the normalization of the s-wave annihilation cross section to be decreased compared to a model without enhancement. The level of suppression depends on the specific parameters of the particle model, with the kinetic decoupling temperature having the most effect. We find that the cross section can be reduced by as much as an order of magnitude for extreme cases. We also compute the μ-type distortion of the CMB energy spectrum caused by energy injection from such Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation. Our results indicate that in the vicinity of resonances, associated with bound states, distortions can be large enough to be excluded by the upper limit |μ|≤9.0x10 -5 found by the FIRAS (Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer) instrument on the COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) satellite.

  13. Inclusive quarkonium production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, V.N.; Grozin, A.G.

    1981-03-01

    The inclusive production of S-wave state mesons composed of identical heavy quarks in e + e - annihilation at an energy high as compared with the meson mass, is considered. Exclusive production of meson pairs is also considered. (orig.)

  14. Application of positron annihilation in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.; Fluss, M.J.; Smedskjaer, L.C.

    1984-05-01

    Owing to the ability of the positron to annihilate from a variety of defect-trapped states, positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has been applied increasingly to the characterization and study of defects in materials in recent years. In metals particularly, it has been demonstrated that PAS can yield defect-specific information which, by itself or in conjunction with more traditional experimental techniques, has already made a significant impact upon the determination of atomic-defect properties and the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development, as occurs during post-irradiation annealing. The applications of PAS are now actively expanding to the study of more complex defect-related phenomena in irradiated or deformed metals and alloys, phase transformations and structural disorder, surfaces and near-surface defect characterization. A number of these applications in materials science are reviewed and discussed with respect to profitable future directions

  15. On the inclusive annihilation of polarized e+e--pair with two observed hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, G.N.; Shakhnazaryan, Yu.G.

    1976-01-01

    The general consideration of the inclusive annihilation of polarized e + e - -pair with two observed hadrons in final state (e + e - →h 1 h 2 X) is carried out. The annihilation cross section is expressed in terms of five structure functions describing the transition γ*→h 1 h 2 X. The partial widths of the corresponding decay of a virtual photon for different polarizations of the photon are also introduced and the annihilation cross section is written through these widths. The density matrix of the virtual photon and its polarizational multipole moments are given as well

  16. Creation and annihilation operators for SU(3) in an SO(6,2) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, A.J.; MacGibbon, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Creation and annihilation operators are defined which are Wigner operators (tensor shift operators) for SU(3). While the annihilation operators are simply boson operators, the creation operators are cubic polynomials in boson operators. Together they generate under commutation the Lie algebra of SO(6,2). A model for SU(3) is defined. The different SU(3) irreducible representations appear explicitly as manifestly covariant, irreducible tensors, whose orthogonality and normalisation properties are examined. Other Wigner operators for SU(3) can be constructed simply as products of the new creation and annihilation operators, or sums of such products. (author)

  17. Quantitative positron annihilation studies in citrates, halides and oxyhalides chemisorbed on γ-alumina catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.H.; Jean, Y.C.; Cheng, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative study of the γ-alumina catalyst chemisorbed by nitrates, halides, and oxyhalides has been conducted with the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Catalysts containing Fe, Co, or Ni have been extensively used in chemical industry and petroleum refining. The positron or Ps annihilation can provide a profile information about the bulk, near surface, and void. It is an in-situ surface technique. The PAS technique has shown its capability to determine the nitrate or chloride in γ-alumina as low as 0.02% in solids. It is interesting to note that the PAS may offer the oxidation state information in solids. This is not surprising because the positron annihilation is sensitive to the electron density variation in environments. Positron annihilation models for halides and oxyhalides are proposed

  18. Pseudoscalar boson production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, S.G.; Chatrchyan, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    A mechanism of pseudoscalar boson production by the heavy quark-antiquark pair via one-photon exchange in e + e - annihilation is studied. The total cross sections of this reaction and energy distributions of produced p 0 -boson are obtained

  19. Electron-positron annihilation: unitarity, scaling and electrodynamics at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, G [Guelph Univ., Ontario (Canada); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1974-01-01

    The work on e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation by Cabibbo, Wolfenstein and the author is reviewed. The restrictions of unitarity are analyzed and the connection between the cross sections sigmasub(h) (into hadrons) and sigmasub(..mu..) (into muons) is derived. The possibility of non-scaling in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is studied and it is pointed out that it leads to no contradiction with presently available information. It is further pointed out that non-scaling could provide a cut-off mechanism for quantum electrodynamics.

  20. Pore annihilation in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy during hot isostatic pressing: Experiment and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, Alexander; Fedelich, Bernard; Link, Thomas; Feldmann, Titus; Svetlov, Igor L.

    2013-01-01

    Pore annihilation during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 experimentally by interrupted HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined by density measurement and quantitative metallography. Transmission electron microscopy of a HIPed specimen showed that the pores shrink via dislocation movement on octahedral glide planes. Theoretically pore closure under HIP condition was modelled by the finite element method using crystal plasticity and large strain theories. The modelling gives a similar kinetics of pore annihilation as observed experimentally, however somewhat higher annihilation rate

  1. Nanometer cavities studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, O.E.

    1992-01-01

    Positronium (Ps) is trapped in cavities in insulating solids, and the lifetime of ortho Ps is determined by the size of the cavity. The information on the properties of the cavities obtained by use of the standard slow positron beam and the 'normal' positron annihilation techniques is compared for several selected cases. (author)

  2. Solar atmospheric neutrinos and the sensitivity floor for solar dark matter annihilation searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argüelles, C.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge MA (United States); De Wasseige, G. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene, Brussels (Belgium); Fedynitch, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Jones, B.J.P., E-mail: caad@mit.edu, E-mail: gdewasse@vub.ac.be, E-mail: anatoli.fedynitch@desy.de, E-mail: ben.jones@uta.edu [University of Texas at Arlington, 108 Science Hall, 502 Yates St, Arlington TX (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Cosmic rays interacting in the solar atmosphere produce showers that result in a flux of high-energy neutrinos from the Sun. These form an irreducible background to indirect solar WIMP self-annihilation searches, which look for heavy dark matter particles annihilating into final states containing neutrinos in the Solar core. This background will eventually create a sensitivity floor for indirect WIMP self-annihilation searches analogous to that imposed by low-energy solar neutrino interactions for direct dark matter detection experiments. We present a new calculation of the flux of solar atmospheric neutrinos with a detailed treatment of systematic uncertainties inherent in solar atmospheric shower evolution, and we use this to derive the sensitivity floor for indirect solar WIMP annihilation analyses. We find that the floor lies less than one order of magnitude beyond the present experimental limits on spin-dependent WIMP-proton cross sections for some mass points, and that the high-energy solar atmospheric neutrino flux may be observable with running and future neutrino telescopes.

  3. PAES: Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) is a newly developed application for surface studies with high elemental selectivity and exceptional surface sensitivity. The instrument is operated by the Technische Universität München and is located at NEPOMUC.

  4. Positron Annihilation Induced Auger and Gamma Spectroscopy of Catalytically Important Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A. H.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Fazleev, N. G.

    2006-10-01

    The annihilation of positrons with core electrons results in unique signatures in the spectra of Auger-electron and annihilation-gamma rays that can be used to make clear chemical identification of atoms at the surface. Because positrons implanted at low energies are trapped with high efficiency in the image-correlation well where they are localized just outside the surface it is possible to use annihilation induced Auger and Gamma signals to probe the surfaces of solids with single atomic layer depth resolution. In this talk we will report recent applications of Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) and Auger-Gamma Coincidence Spectroscopy (AGCS) to the study of surface structure and surface chemistry. Our research has demonstrated that PAES spectra can provide new information regarding the composition of the top-most atomic layer. Applications of PAES to the study of catalytically important surfaces of oxides and wide band-gap semiconductors including TiO2, SiO2,Cu2O, and SiC will be presented. We conclude with a discussion of the use of Auger-Gamma and Gamma-Gamma coincidence spectroscopy for the study of surfaces at pressures closer to those found in practical chemical reactors. Research supported by the Welch Foundation Grant Number Y-1100.

  5. Investigation of silicon sensors for their use as antiproton annihilation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacifico, N., E-mail: nicola.pacifico@cern.ch [University of Bergen, Institute of Physics and Technology, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Aghion, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Ahlén, O. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Belov, A.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Bonomi, G. [University of Brescia, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Via Branze 38, 25133 Brescia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Bräunig, P. [Kirchhoff Institute for Physics, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bremer, J. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Brusa, R.S. [Department of Physics, University of Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); INFN-TIFPA, via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Burghart, G. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Physics Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Cabaret, L. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, ENS Cachan, Bâtiment 505, Campus d' Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Caccia, M. [University of Insubria, Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, via Valleggio 11, Como (Italy); Canali, C. [University of Zurich, Physics Institute, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Caravita, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sez. di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); University of Genoa, Department of Physics, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Castelli, F. [University of Milano, Department of Physics, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-11-21

    We present here a new application of silicon sensors aimed at the direct detection of antinucleons annihilations taking place inside the sensor's volume. Such detectors are interesting particularly for the measurement of antimatter properties and will be used as part of the gravity measurement module in the AEg{sup ¯}IS experiment at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. One of the goals of the AEg{sup ¯}IS experiment is to measure the gravitational acceleration of antihydrogen with 1% precision. Three different silicon sensor geometries have been tested with an antiproton beam to investigate their properties as annihilation detection devices: strip planar, 3D pixels and monolithic pixel planar. In all cases we were successfully detecting annihilations taking place in the sensor and we were able to make a first characterization of the clusters and tracks.

  6. Evidence of mesoniums in anti pn annihilations and γγ reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.F.; Li, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new resonance at 1480 MeV with a width of 110 MeV is found in anti pn annihilations in the channel anti pn → π - X 0 (1480) → π - ρ 0 ρ 0 . Its mass, width and spin-parity are shown to be consistent with the ρ 0 ρ 0 enhancement observed in γγ reactions. Together with the suppression in the γγ → ρ + ρ - data which requires the admixture of an isotensor structure, this ρ 0 ρ 0 resonance in anti pn annihilation and γγ reactions and their small ππ branching ratios represent the best evidence yet for the Q 2 Q-bar 2 nature of the mesoniums. A ρ - ρ - resonance in anti pn annihilations which would betray the exotic isotensor nature of the resonance is predicted. (author)

  7. Positron annihilation study of the CoFe2O4 ferrofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Baogang; Ma Zhongping; Liu Cunye; Li Jian; Lin Yueqiang

    2000-01-01

    The CoFe 2 O 4 ferro fluid was studied by positron annihilation technique. The experimental results showed that there were three kinds of life-time state τ 1 = 151.0 ps, τ 2 = 457.9 ps and τ 3 = 2325.6 ps in the positron annihilation spectrum. It indicated that there were a large number of vacancy and vacancy cluster in the surface layer of the CoFe 2 O 4 nanoparticles

  8. PAES: Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hugenschmidt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES is a newly developed application for surface studies with high elemental selectivity and exceptional surface sensitivity. The instrument is operated by the Technische Universität München and is located at NEPOMUC.

  9. Positron annihilation studies on BeO powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.; Kerbe, F.; Kajcsos, Z.; Ashry, A.

    1984-01-01

    The sintering behaviour of two differently produced BeO powders is studied by positron annihilation. The positron lifetime in dislocations is found to be tau/sub d/ = (185 +- 2) ps, whereas for the perfect lattice tau/sub c/ = (130 +- 2) ps. (author)

  10. Short gamma ray bursts triggered by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasin, Hannah; Perego, Albino [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Arcones, Almudena [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are one of the most energetic events in the universe. Neutron star mergers are the most favourable candidate for the subclass of GRBs that last less than two seconds. It has been suggested that the annihilation of neutrino-antineutrino pairs emitted by the hot and dense merger remnant could be enough to launch a relativistic jet, producing such a burst. We calculate the energy deposition by neutrino-antineutrino annihilation based on the results of a Newtonian simulation of the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. In addition, we investigate the necessary requirements for launching a GRB and compare with our numerical results.

  11. Positron annihilation studies on nasicon analogues containing cation vacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreeramalu, V.; Sreepad, H.R.; Chandrashekara, A.; Ravindrachary, V.; Gopal, S.

    1990-01-01

    Positron annihilation studies were carried out on the Nasicon analogue Na 2 (La, Al)Zr(PO 4 ) 3 compound for three different concentrations (2.2, 2.8 and 5.2 by wt.%) of ZrO 2 in the nutrient. Angular correlation study of annihilated photons reveals that the defect concentration is maximum for 2.8(wt.%) of ZrO 2 . Further, positron lifetime studies indicate that the positrons are trapped at cation vacancies. Application of a two state trapping model to this system made it possible to evaluate the lifetime of positrons in the Bloch state and of positrons trapped at cation vacancies. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs

  12. Positron-annihilation-induced ion desorption from TiO2(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, T.; Hirayama, T.; Nagashima, Y.

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated the positron-stimulated desorption of ions from a TiO2(110) surface. Desorbed O+ ions were detected in coincidence with the emission of annihilation γ rays. The energy dependence of the ion yields shows that the O+ ions were detected at energies much lower than the previously reported threshold for electron impact desorption corresponding to the excitation energy of Ti(3p) core electrons. These results provide evidence that core-hole creation by positron annihilation with electrons in the core levels leads to ion desorption.

  13. Application of positron annihilation technique to reverse osmosis membrane materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, A.; Ikeda, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Ito, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy has been adopted as a new approach for studying vacancies of reverse osmosis membrane materials composed of cellulose acetate films and aromatic polyamide resins. The intensity of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime increased with the amount of vacancies determined using N 2 isotherm at -195 deg. C. Changes of vacancy profiles induced by heat treatment in the cellulose acetate films were detected using o-Ps. It was found that the positron annihilation technique is applicable to the study of vacancy profiles associated with salt selectivity in typical reverse osmosis membranes.

  14. Quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. S.; Giebink, N. C., E-mail: ncg2@psu.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    Various exciton annihilation processes are known to impact the efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs); however, isolating and quantifying their contribution in the presence of other factors such as changing charge balance continue to be a challenge for routine device characterization. Here, we analyze OLED electroluminescence resulting from a sinusoidal dither superimposed on the device bias and show that nonlinearity between recombination current and light output arising from annihilation mixes the quantum efficiency measured at different dither harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of the annihilation process. We derive a series of analytical relations involving the DC and first harmonic external quantum efficiency that enable annihilation rates to be quantified through linear regression independent of changing charge balance and evaluate them for prototypical fluorescent and phosphorescent OLEDs based on the emitters 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran and platinum octaethylporphyrin, respectively. We go on to show that, in most cases, it is sufficient to calculate the needed quantum efficiency harmonics directly from derivatives of the DC light versus current curve, thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from standard light-current-voltage measurement data.

  15. Search for right-handed neutrinos from dark matter annihilation with gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Miguel D.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Weniger, Christoph, E-mail: miguel.campos@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: farinaldo.queiroz@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uptc.edu.co, E-mail: c.weniger@uva.nl [GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-07-01

    Several extensions of the Standard Model contain right-handed (sterile) neutrinos in the GeV-TeV mass range. Due to their mixing with the active neutrinos, they may give rise to novel effects in cosmology, neutrino physics, and collider searches. In addition, right-handed neutrinos can also appear as final states from dark matter annihilations, with important implications for dark matter indirect detection searches. In this paper, we use current data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (6-year observation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies) and H.E.S.S. (10-year observation of the Galactic center) to constrain the annihilation of dark matter into right-handed neutrinos. We consider right-handed neutrino with masses between 10 GeV and 1 TeV, including both two-body and three-body decays, to derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation rate, ( σ v ), as a function of the dark matter mass. Our results show, in particular, that the thermal dark matter annihilation cross section, 3× 10{sup −26} cm{sup 3} s {sup −1} , into right-handed neutrinos is excluded for dark matter masses smaller than 200 GeV.

  16. Search for right-handed neutrinos from dark matter annihilation with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Miguel D.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Weniger, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Several extensions of the Standard Model contain right-handed (sterile) neutrinos in the GeV-TeV mass range. Due to their mixing with the active neutrinos, they may give rise to novel effects in cosmology, neutrino physics, and collider searches. In addition, right-handed neutrinos can also appear as final states from dark matter annihilations, with important implications for dark matter indirect detection searches. In this paper, we use current data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (6-year observation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies) and H.E.S.S. (10-year observation of the Galactic center) to constrain the annihilation of dark matter into right-handed neutrinos. We consider right-handed neutrino with masses between 10 GeV and 1 TeV, including both two-body and three-body decays, to derive bounds on the dark matter annihilation rate, ( σ v ), as a function of the dark matter mass. Our results show, in particular, that the thermal dark matter annihilation cross section, 3× 10 −26 cm 3 s −1 , into right-handed neutrinos is excluded for dark matter masses smaller than 200 GeV.

  17. Measurement of the antiproton-nucleus annihilation cross-section at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai-Khozani, H.; Bianconi, A.; Corradini, M.; Hayano, R.; Hori, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Mascagna, V.; Murakami, Y.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Venturelli, L.; Yamada, H.

    2018-02-01

    Systematic measurements of the annihilation cross sections of low energy antinucleons were performed at CERN in the 80's and 90's. However the antiproton data on medium-heavy and heavy nuclear targets are scarce. The ASACUSA Collaboration at CERN has measured the antiproton annihilation cross section on carbon at 5.3 MeV: the value is (1.73 ± 0.25) barn. The result is compared with the antineutron experimental data and with the theoretical previsions.

  18. Bubble detector measurements of a mixed radiation field from antiproton annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassler, Niels; Knudsen, Helge; Moller, Soren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen B.; Rahbek, Dennis; Uggerhoj, Ulrik I.

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent progress in the study of the biological potential of antiproton tumour treatment it is important to be able to characterize the neutron intensity arising from antiproton annihilation using simple, compact and reliable detectors. The intensity of fast neutrons from antiproton annihilation on polystyrene has been measured with bubble detectors and a multiplicity has been derived as well as an estimated neutron equivalent dose. Additionally the sensitivity of bubble detectors towards protons was measured

  19. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Jiaheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Zhejie; Wu, Yichu

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (V Cu , V O ) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V − Cu - V + O complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  20. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Jiaheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Zhejie; Wu, Yichu, E-mail: ycwu@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Wuhan University (WHU), Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (V{sub Cu}, V{sub O}) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V{sup −}{sub Cu} - V{sup +}{sub O} complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  1. Prospects for discovering a neutrino line induced by dark matter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisati, Chaimae El; Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Hambye, Thomas; Vanderheyden, Laurent, E-mail: Chaimae.El.Aisati@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: Camilo.Alfredo.Garcia.Cely@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: thambye@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: laurent.vanderheyden@ulb.ac.be [Service de Physique Théorique—Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-10-01

    In the near future, neutrino telescopes are expected to improve their sensitivity to the flux of monochromatic neutrinos produced by dark matter (DM) in our galaxy. This is illustrated by a new limit on the corresponding cross section that we derive from public IceCube data. In this context, we study which DM models could produce an observable flux of monochromatic neutrinos from DM annihilations. To this end, we proceed in two steps. First, within a set of simple and minimal assumptions concerning the properties of the DM particle, we determine the models that could give rise to a significant annihilation into monochromatic neutrinos at the freeze-out epoch. The list of models turns out to be very limited as a result of various constraints, in particular direct detection and neutrino masses at loop level. Given the fact that, even if largely improved, the sensitivities will be far from reaching the thermal annihilation cross section soon, a signal could only be observed if the annihilation into neutrinos today is boosted with respect to the freeze-out epoch. This is why, in a second step, we analyze the possibility of having such a large enhancement from the Sommerfeld effect. For each scenario, we also compute the cross sections into other annihilation products and confront our results with experimental constraints. We find that, within our simple and minimal assumptions, the expectation to observe monochromatic neutrinos is only possible in very specific scenarios. Some will be confirmed or excluded in the near future because they predict signals slightly below the current experimental sensitivities. We also discuss how these prospects change by relaxing our assumptions as well as by considering other types of sharp spectral features. For the latter, we consider boxed-shaped and bremsstrahlung spectra and provide the corresponding limits from IceCube data.

  2. Application of positron annihilation line-shape analysis to fatigue damage for nuclear plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, N.; Uchida, M.; Ohta, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation line-shape analysis is sufficiently sensitive to detect microstructural defects such as vacancies and dislocations. We are developing a portable positron annihilation system and applying this technique to fatigue damage in type 316 stainless steel and SA508 low alloy steel. The positron annihilation technique was found to be sensitive in the early fatigue life, i.e. up to 10% of the fatigue life, but showed little sensitivity in later stages of the fatigue life in type 316 stainless steel and SA508 low alloy steel. Type 316 stainless steel a higher positron annihilation sensitivity than that of SA508. It was considered that the amount of dislocation density change in the stainless steel was greater than that in the low alloy steel, because the initial microstructure contained a low dislocation density because of the solution heat treatment for the type 316 stainless steel. (orig.)

  3. Multi-messenger constraints and pressure from dark matter annihilation into e--e+ pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechakama, Maneenate

    2013-01-01

    Despite striking evidence for the existence of dark matter from astrophysical observations, dark matter has still escaped any direct or indirect detection until today. Therefore a proof for its existence and the revelation of its nature belongs to one of the most intriguing challenges of nowadays cosmology and particle physics. The present work tries to investigate the nature of dark matter through indirect signatures from dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs in two different ways, pressure from dark matter annihilation and multi-messenger constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross-section. We focus on dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs and adopt a model-independent approach, where all the electrons and positrons are injected with the same initial energy E 0 ∝m dm c 2 . The propagation of these particles is determined by solving the diffusion-loss equation, considering inverse Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation, Coulomb collisions, bremsstrahlung, and ionization. The first part of this work, focusing on pressure from dark matter annihilation, demonstrates that dark matter annihilation into electron-positron pairs may affect the observed rotation curve by a significant amount. The injection rate of this calculation is constrained by INTEGRAL, Fermi, and H.E.S.S. data. The pressure of the relativistic electron-positron gas is computed from the energy spectrum predicted by the diffusion-loss equation. For values of the gas density and magnetic field that are representative of the Milky Way, it is estimated that the pressure gradients are strong enough to balance gravity in the central parts if E 0 0 . By comparing the predicted rotation curves with observations of dwarf and low surface brightness galaxies, we show that the pressure from dark matter annihilation may improve the agreement between theory and observations in some cases, but it also imposes severe constraints on the model parameters (most notably, the

  4. Application of positron annihilation techniques for semiconductor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwasz, G.P.; Zecca, A.; Brusa, R.S.; Pliszka, D.

    2004-01-01

    Positron annihilation techniques, being non-destructive, allowing depth profiling down to a few micrometers and detecting open-volume defects (vacancies, dislocations etc.) at single ppm concentrations constitute a valuable and complementary method, compared to other solid-state-physics studies. We give examples of investigation in the field of semiconductors with different techniques, both with and without use of positron low-energy beams. The Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line method and the slow positron beam were used to study helium-implanted silicon and the surface reduction processes in semiconducting glasses. The positron lifetime technique and coincidence spectra of the Doppler broadening were used for systematic studies of metals and semiconductors. Doppler-coincidence method was then used to identify the kinetics of oxygen precipitates in Czochralski-grown silicon

  5. Positron annihilation studies of zirconia doped with metal cations of different valence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, I.; Cizek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Konstantinova, T. E.; Danilenko, I. A.; Yashchishyn, I. A.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

    2013-06-01

    New results obtained by applying positron annihilation spectroscopy to the investigation of zirconia-based nanomaterials doped with metal cations of different valence are reported. The slow-positron implantation spectroscopy combined with Doppler broadening measurements was employed to study the sintering of pressure-compacted nanopowders of tetragonal yttria-stabilised zirconia (t-YSZ) and t-YSZ with chromia additive. Positronium (Ps) formation in t-YSZ was proven by detecting 3γ-annihilations of ortho-Ps and was found to gradually decrease with increasing sintering temperature. A subsurface layer with enhanced 3γ-annihilations, compared to the deeper regions, could be identified. Addition of chromia was found to inhibit Ps formation. In addition, first results of positron lifetime measurements on nanopowders of zirconia phase-stabilised with MgO and CeO2 are presented.

  6. Characterisation of Ion Implantation-induced Defects in Certain Technologically Important Materials by Positron Annihilation (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.G. Nambissan

    2009-01-01

    The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy for the studies of defects produced by different types of charged particles and ions in a variety of materials is discussed with specific examples. The ability to detect and quantify the information through the characteristic parameters of the annihilation radiation in a totally non-destructive method has made the fundamental process of electron-positron annihilation a powerful spectroscopic probe for investigating the structure and proper...

  7. Toward a minimum branching fraction for dark matter annihilation into electromagnetic final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, James B.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Observational limits on the high-energy neutrino background have been used to place general constraints on dark matter that annihilates only into standard model particles. Dark matter particles that annihilate into neutrinos will also inevitably branch into electromagnetic final states through higher-order tree and loop diagrams that give rise to charged leptons, and these charged particles can transfer their energy into photons via synchrotron radiation or inverse Compton scattering. In the context of effective field theory, we calculate the loop-induced branching ratio to charged leptons and show that it is generally quite large, typically > or approx. 1%, when the scale of the dark matter mass exceeds the electroweak scale, M W . For a branching fraction >or approx. 3%, the synchrotron radiation bounds on dark matter annihilation are currently stronger than the corresponding neutrino bounds in the interesting mass range from 100 GeV to 1 TeV. For dark matter masses below M W , our work provides a plausible framework for the construction of a model for 'neutrinos-only' dark matter annihilations.

  8. Dark matter annihilation into right-handed neutrinos and the galactic center gamma-ray excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yi-Lei [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Shou-hua [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University,Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-03-08

    In this paper, we will discuss a specific case that the dark matter particles annihilate into right-handed neutrinos. We calculate the predicted gamma-ray excess from the galactic center and compare our results with the data from the Fermi-LAT. An approximately 10–60 GeV right-handed neutrino with heavier dark matter particle can perfectly explain the observed spectrum. The annihilation cross section 〈σv〉 falls within the range 0.5–4×10{sup −26} cm{sup 3}/s, which is roughly compatible with the WIMP annihilation cross section.

  9. Surface investigations by means of positrons annihilation; Badania warstwy wierzchniej metoda anihilacji pozytonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryzek, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Stegemann, T.; Cleff, B. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the report is a presentation of the positron annihilation studies performed on the Cu samples that surface was exposed to the friction and wear processes. Using the measurement of Doppler broadening of annihilation line, we were able to detect the profile of vacancies in the top layers of the defected metals. It was established that one could describe the profile by a simple exponential function of the depth in all cases. The range of vacancies concentration depth depends on the load, time and the speed of the defects creation processes on the surface of a sample. The outline of the positron annihilation method is also given. (author). 10 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs.

  10. Element specificity of ortho-positronium annihilation for alkali-metal loaded SiO2 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Hatta, T

    2015-03-07

    Momentum distributions associated with ortho-positronium (o-Ps) pick-off annihilation photon are often influenced by light elements, as, e.g., carbon, oxygen, and fluorine. This phenomenon, so-called element specificity of o-Ps pick-off annihilation, has been utilized for studying the elemental environment around the open spaces. To gain an insight into the element specificity of o-Ps pick-off annihilation, the chemical shift of oxygen 1s binding energy and the momentum distributions associated with o-Ps pick-off annihilation were systematically investigated for alkali-metal loaded SiO2 glasses by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron-age-momentum correlation spectroscopy, respectively. Alkali metals introduced into the open spaces surrounded by oxygen atoms cause charge transfer from alkali metals to oxygen atoms, leading to the lower chemical shift for the oxygen 1s binding energy. The momentum distribution of o-Ps localized into the open spaces is found to be closely correlated with the oxygen 1s chemical shift. This correlation with the deepest 1s energy level evidences that the element specificity of o-Ps originates from pick-off annihilation with orbital electrons, i.e., dominantly with oxygen 2p valence electrons and s electrons with lower probability.

  11. Positron annihilation and Wheeler complexes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokob'ev, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Wheeler complexes Ps-Ex (positronium-exciton) were studied. These complexes are formed during irradiation of semiconductors and ionic crystals with positrons at low temperatures under optical excitation by excitons. The binding energy of these and more complex entities preventing dissociation into Ps and Ex and/or Ex ± is at least 0.1 eV, and the lifetime for the two-photon self-annihilation is τ 2γ ∼ 5.02 x 10 -10 x c 3 s (x c is the phenomenological parameter of the effective-mass method). The estimation of lifetimes τ 2γ and τ 2γ t (the total lifetime of Ps-Ex complexes with account for positron annihilation on valence electrons) led to the conclusion that Ps-Ex complexes can be observed in a number of oxide semiconductors, in zinc sulfide, and in alkali halide crystals; however, it was difficult to observe such complexes in silicon, gallium arsenide, and other A 3 B 5 and A 2 B 6 semiconductors

  12. Analysis of sub-nano spaces by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y.C.; Liu, J.; Huang, C.M.; Dai, G.H.; Yuan, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has been realized to be a novel and potentially powerful tool to evolve the open spaces in the range 1-20 angstrom in molecular systems. Due to the repulsive force between the positron (the anti-particle of the electron) and the cores, annihilation signals are solely contributed from the open spaces, such as vacancies, holes, and voids in the molecular subtracts under study. By further developing two PAS techniques, positron lifetime (PAL), and angular correlation (ACAR), the authors are able to obtain useful and important information of: hole sizes, distributions, hole fractions, and anisotropic structures at sub-nano scales. Applications of PAS to chemical analysis, surface chemistry of inner pores, and polymer sciences are discussed

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). Chapter 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.L.; Jean, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter gives an up to date overview of positron annihilation spectroscopy for chemical analysis (PASCA). As an in situ technique PASCA is especially suitable for studying processes occurring at surfaces. The in situ characteristics of PASCA are treated. The principes of positron annihilation life time spectroscopy (PAL) are discussed and some important analytical applications such as, in determining of total surface areas and cavity volumes in chemical reactions, in the study of chemisorption and catalytic reactions on porous surfaces, in the analysis of bulk materials, in determining molecular association constants in biological systems, in proton and neutron activation analysis, in thin layer chromatography and in tracer technology. 28 refs.; 15 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. Atomic ionization at positron-electron annihilation at β+-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotkin, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the nuclear charge screening and corrections to the Born approximation for the flying from atom electron in a process of atomic ionization at annihilation of positron with another electron of daughter's atom at β + - decay is studied. It was considered the processes of ionization of different atomic shells (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) at annihilation of positron, emitted at β'+ - decay with K- electron of daughter's atom. It is shown that the screening effect is important only for shell with n = 4. While corrections to the Born approximation plays the essential role for all shells. It is shown that the most probable process is related with emission of the another K- electron

  15. D-brane anti-brane annihilation in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Mahbub; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2003-01-01

    The time-varying density of D-branes and anti-D-branes in an expanding universe is calculated. The D-brane anti-brane annihilation rate is shown to be too small to compete with the expansion rate of a FRW type universe and the branes over-close the universe. This brane problem is analogous to the old monopole problem. Interestingly however, it is shown that small dimension D-branes annihilate more slowly than high dimension branes. Hence, an initially brany universe may be filled with only low dimension branes at late times. When combined with an appropriate late inflationary theory this leads to an attractive dynamical way to create a realistic braneworld scenario. (author)

  16. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to polymeric and biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y.C.; Chen, Hongmin; Liu, Guang; Chakka, Lakshmi; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a novel radio-analytical technique which uses the positron (anti-electron) and is capable of probing the atomic and molecular scale (0.2-2 nm) free-volume and hole properties in polymeric and biological materials. Recently, we developed positron annihilation lifetime and Doppler broadening of energy spectroscopies coupled with a variable mono-energetic positron beam to measure the free-volume depth profile from the surface, interfaces, and to the bulk. This paper presents applications of PAS to determine multi-layer structures, glass transition temperatures in nano-scale polymeric films and to detect cancer in the human skin. (author)

  17. Positron annihilation studies of high dose Sb implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Beling, C.D.; Ho, K.; Takamura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The formation and evolution of vacancies and precipitates created by implantation of 60 keV, 2 x 10 16 cm -2 Sb + in pre-amorphized (0 0 1) Cz-Si is studied using the Doppler broadening (DB) and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) positron beam techniques. After implantation, samples were laser annealed (LTA) and subsequently thermal annealed at temperatures ranging from 400 to 1000 deg. C. Implantation-induced vacancy-type defects were detected up to a depth of 280 nm. After LTA, positron annihilation related to both Sb and remaining defects is observed in the first 100 nm below the surface. The deeper region only shows positron trapping at vacancy-type defects with strong reduced concentration. Complete removal is obtained after 600 deg. C anneal. At this temperature, the positron data for the upper region reveals trapping at Sb and Si sites only. With increasing annealing time (at 600 deg. C) or increasing temperature (up to 1000 deg. C) positron annihilation at Sb-sites associated with neighboring vacancies becomes apparent. Results are correlated with the observed Sb electrical deactivation above 600 deg. C, the shift from small Sb aggregates to precipitates and out-diffusion of Sb from the implantation region at higher temperatures

  18. Characterization of defects in metals by positron-annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.W.

    1981-10-01

    The application of positron-annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to the characterization and study of defects in metals has grown rapidly and increasingly useful in recent years. Owing to the ability of the positron to annihilate from a variety of defect-trapped states in metals, PAS can yield defect-specific information which, by itself or in conjunction with more traditional experimental techniques, has already made a significant impact upon our knowledge regarding lattice defect properties in metals. This has been especially true for vacancy defets, as a result of the positron's affinity for lower-than-average electron-density regions in the metal. The physical basis for the positron annihilation techniques is presented in this paper; and the experimental techniques, lifetime, Doppler broadening, and angular correlation, are briefly described and compared with respect to the information that can be obtained from each of them. A number of examples of the application of PAS to the characterization of atomic defects and their agglomerates are presented. The particular examples, chosen from the areas of equilibrium vacancy formation and atomic-defect recovery, were selected with a view toward elucidating the particular advantages of PAS over more traditional defect-characterization techniques. Limitations of PAS are also pointed out. 98 references

  19. Baryon production in e+e--annihilation at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Krehbiel, H.; Meier, K.; Naroska, B.; O'Neill, L.H.

    1981-06-01

    Data on anti p and anti Λ production by e + e - -annihilation at CM energies between 30 and 36 GeV are presented. Indication for an angular anticorrelation in events with baryon antibaryon pairs is seen. (orig.)

  20. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1986-01-01

    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to -180.degree. C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree...

  1. Annihilation vs. decay: constraining dark matter properties from a gamma-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Most proposed dark matter candidates are stable and are produced thermally in the early Universe. However, there is also the possibility of unstable (but long-lived) dark matter, produced thermally or otherwise. We propose a strategy to distinguish between dark matter annihilation and/or decay in the case that a clear signal is detected in gamma-ray observations of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies with gamma-ray experiments. The sole measurement of the energy spectrum of an indirect signal would render the discrimination between these cases impossible. We show that by examining the dependence of the intensity and energy spectrum on the angular distribution of the emission, the origin could be identified as decay, annihilation, or both. In addition, once the type of signal is established, we show how these measurements could help to extract information about the dark matter properties, including mass, annihilation cross section, lifetime, dominant annihilation and decay channels, and the presence of substructure. Although an application of the approach presented here would likely be feasible with current experiments only for very optimistic dark matter scenarios, the improved sensitivity of upcoming experiments could enable this technique to be used to study a wider range of dark matter models

  2. Annihilation vs. decay: constraining dark matter properties from a gamma-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M., E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jsg@mps.ohio-state.edu [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus OH 43210 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Most proposed dark matter candidates are stable and are produced thermally in the early Universe. However, there is also the possibility of unstable (but long-lived) dark matter, produced thermally or otherwise. We propose a strategy to distinguish between dark matter annihilation and/or decay in the case that a clear signal is detected in gamma-ray observations of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies with gamma-ray experiments. The sole measurement of the energy spectrum of an indirect signal would render the discrimination between these cases impossible. We show that by examining the dependence of the intensity and energy spectrum on the angular distribution of the emission, the origin could be identified as decay, annihilation, or both. In addition, once the type of signal is established, we show how these measurements could help to extract information about the dark matter properties, including mass, annihilation cross section, lifetime, dominant annihilation and decay channels, and the presence of substructure. Although an application of the approach presented here would likely be feasible with current experiments only for very optimistic dark matter scenarios, the improved sensitivity of upcoming experiments could enable this technique to be used to study a wider range of dark matter models.

  3. The non-destructive examination of reactor pressure vessel steels by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highton, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The rapid radiation hardening of copper bearing reactor pressure vessel steels has been linked with microvoids that are associated with copper based complexes in the metal lattice. These microvoids are active in the sense that their size appears to be related to the temperature of irradiation, which thus determines their influence on dislocation mobility. These sites appear to grow by vacancy condensation which causes a reduction in the local lattice energy. Thus prolonged exposure to PWR temperatures, even in the absence of a neutron flux, may also cause embrittlement. It has been found that these sites, which represent a local negative charge, act as traps to positrons. The size of each site dictates its positron trapping potential. As the trapping potential increases so too does the probability that the positrons will annihilate with low momentum conduction electrons. The momentum of the annihilating electrons will determine the degree of Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation gamma peak. Thus careful analysis of this peak can yield useful information on the degree of embrittlement caused by these active defect complexes. In this way positron annihilation offers a powerful non-destructive alternative to current methods of assessing the integrity of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. (author)

  4. Antiproton-neon annihilation at rest and at 607 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Barbieri, R.; Bendiscioli, G.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Zenoni, A.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Guaraldo, C.; Maggiora, A.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis is based upon anti pNe annihilation events at rest and at 607 MeV/c detected with a self-shunted streamer chamber exposed to the LEAR beams. The main measured quantities are the following: charged-prong multiplicity, negative pion multiplicity; momentum, angular and rapidity distributions. General distributions are given as well as distributions as functions of charged prong multiplicity. A correlation is found between high multiplicity and depth of the annihilation point. The data are compared with recent theoretical analyses. (orig.)

  5. Correlations between TD annihilation and oxygen precipitation in Czochralski-grown silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of two-stage annealing experiments are presented including preannealing at T o C (TD formation) and a second annealing step at T=550 to 850 o C in order to study the annihilation of TD's and their influence on the oxygen precipitation. The investigations show that (1) TD's cannot act as nuclei for oxide precipitates and that (2) their annihilation, connected with the increased formation of Si I induced defects (RLD's), proves TD's to consist also of self-interstitials. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs

  6. Diffuse gamma ray constraints on annihilating or decaying Dark Matter after Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirelli, Marco; Panci, Paolo; Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the diffuse gamma ray data from Fermi first year observations and compare them to the gamma ray fluxes predicted by Dark Matter annihilation or decay (both from prompt emission and from Inverse Compton Scattering), for different observation regions of the sky and a range of Dark Matter masses, annihilation/decay channels and Dark Matter galactic profiles. We find that the data exclude large regions of the Dark Matter parameter space not constrained otherwise and discuss possible directions for future improvements. Also, we further constrain Dark Matter interpretations of the e ± PAMELA/Fermi spectral anomalies, both for the annihilating and the decaying Dark Matter case: under very conservative assumptions, only models producing dominantly μ ± and assuming a cored Dark Matter galactic profile can fit the lepton data with masses around ∼2 TeV.

  7. Annihilation characteristics of positrons in oxide powders in relation to catalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Ohtsu, Y.; Tanigawa, S.; Enomura, A.; Tsuda, N.

    1982-01-01

    The annihilation chaaracteristics in magnesium oxide powders were studied by the measurements of Doppler broadening of annihilation radiations. MgO powders are well known as a solid base and are utilized as a catalyst for the reactions which start by extracting protons from molecules such as decomposition of alcohol. The isochronal annealing behavior of annihilation characteristics in the process Mg(OH) 2 → MgO was found to correspond just to the change in the number of basic points, specific surface area and catalytic activities in some reactions. From the results of the thermal equilibrium measurements of MgO powders after dehydration, the temperature dependence of S parameter can be considered as the thermal activation process of the escape of positrons from trapped states at surface to form positroniums. The derived value of this activation energy was 0.187 eV. (Auth.)

  8. Creation and annihilation operators for Nielsen-Olesen vortices in the coherent state approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottinger, D.E.L.

    1978-01-01

    Using the standard techniques of canonical quantization, the author constructs approximate expressions for the creation and annihilation operators for Nielsen-Olesen vortices. The forms for the creation and annihilation operators are appropriate to situations where large-scale vortex condensation takes place. In particular, a phenomenon such as this is basic in the quark confinement schemes of Mandelstam and 't Hooft. (Auth.)

  9. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy to test accelerated weathering of protective polymer coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, R; Chen, H M; Mallon, P; Sandreczki, T C; Richardson, J R; Jean, Y C; Nielsen, B; Suzuki, R; Ohdaira, T

    2000-01-01

    A variable mono-energetic positron beam with a computer-controlled system has recently been constructed at the University of Missouri-Kansas City for weathering studies of polymeric coatings. The beam is designed to measure the S-parameter from Doppler-broadening energy spectra and the sub-nanometer defect properties from positron annihilation lifetimes (PAL). Significant variations of S-parameter and ortho-positronium intensity in coatings, as obtained from the newly built beam and from the Electrotechnical Laboratory's beam, respectively, are observed as a function of depth and exposure time due to the Xe-light irradiation. A high sensitivity of positron annihilation signal response to the early stage of degradation is observed. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy to test accelerated weathering of polymeric coatings is discussed.

  10. Development of accelerator-based γ-ray-induced positron annihilation spectroscopy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, F.A.; Wells, D.P.; Harmon, J. F.; Williams, J.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerator-based γ-ray-induced positron annihilation spectroscopy performs positron annihilation spectroscopy by utilizing MeV bremsstrahlung radiation generated from an accelerator (We have named the technique 'accelerator-based γ-ray-induced PAS', even though 'bremsstrahlung' is more correct here than 'γ rays'. The reason for that is to make the name of the technique more general, since PAS may be performed by utilizing MeV γ rays emitted from nuclei through the use of accelerators as described later in this article and as in the case of positron lifetime spectroscopy [F.A. Selim, D.P. Wells, and J.F. Harmon, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033905 (2005)].) instead of using positrons from radioactive sources or positron beams. MeV γ rays create positrons inside the materials by pair production. The induced positrons annihilate with the material electrons emitting a 511-keV annihilation radiation. Doppler broadening spectroscopy of the 511-keV radiation provides information about open-volume defects and plastic deformation in solids. The high penetration of MeV γ rays allows probing of defects at high depths in thick materials up to several centimeters, which is not possible with most of the current nondestructive techniques. In this article, a detailed description of the technique will be presented, including its benefits and limitations relative to the other nondestructive methods. Its application on the investigation of plastic deformation in thick steel alloys will be shown

  11. Automation of low temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, T.P.; Venkiteswaran, S.; Pujari, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the automation implemented in the low temperature measurements in positron annihilation spectroscopic studies. This has not only widened the scope of the positron research, but also helps achieve result with better precision. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  12. Study of the process of positron annihilation in GaAs disturbed surface layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, A.A.; Aref'ev, K.P.; Vorob'ev, S.A.; Karetnikov, A.S.; Prokop'ev, E.P.; Kuznetsov, Yu.N.; Khashimov, F.R.; Markova, T.I.

    1977-01-01

    The effect was investigated of single-crystal semiconductor surface treatment types on positron annihilation characteristics. CaAs single-crystal specimens were investigated with the following surface treatment types: (a) polishing with Al 2 O 3 abrasive powder water suspension; (b) mechanical polishing with diamond paste; (c) mechanical chemical polishing with Al 2 O 3 or ZrO 2 suspensions; (d) chemical polishing with the 1HF:3HNO 3 :2H 2 O mixture. The investigation of annihilation was performed by the method of distinguishing the narrow component Isub(N) from correlation curves in 14.5 kOc statical magnetic field and by that of measuring the relative value of friquantuum annihilation Psub(3γ). The maximum Isub(N) and Psub(3γ) values are shown to occur in GaAs specimens with the (d) type of treatment. The experimental data provided a conclusion about the presence of a maximum thickness oxide layer of complex composition on the surface of the specimens compared with oxide layer thicknesses on the surface of specimens with (a), (b), and (c) treatmens. It is concluded that the positron annihilation method may be successfully used for the study of semiconductor material oxide layers

  13. Strong CMB constraint on P-wave annihilating dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng An

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of this suppression. In this letter we show that dark matter annihilation via bound state formation occurs through the S-wave and hence there is a constraint on the parameter space of the model from the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  14. Dark matter distribution and annihilation at the Galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, V I; Eroshenko, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    We describe a promising method for measuring the total dark matter mass near a supermassive black hole at the Galactic center based on observations of nonrelativistic precession of the orbits of fast S0 stars. An analytical expression for the precession angle has been obtained under the assumption of a power-law profile of the dark matter density. The awaited weighing of the dark matter at the Galactic center provides the strong constraints on the annihilation signal from the neuralino dark matter particle candidate. The mass of the dark matter necessary for the explanation of the observed excess of gamma-radiation owing to the annihilation of the dark matter particles has been calculated with allowance for the Sommerfeld effect. (paper)

  15. Determination of the solubility of neodymium in iron by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.Y.; Qing, L.N.; Zhuo, T.Z.; Rong, C.X.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have measured the lineshape parameters and lifetimes of positron annihilation in eleven samples of iron containing various concentration of Nd between 0 and 0.87 wt. %, which have been heat-treated at two different temperatures successively. According to the abrupt increase, for the two conditions of heat-treatment the solubility of Nd in iron is interpreted to be 0.082 wt. % and 0.088 wt. % respectively. Using positron annihilation technique for determining the solubility of Nd in iron appears to be more sensitive and accurate than metallography method and X-ray diffraction analysis

  16. Positron-annihilation 2D-ACAR studies of disordered and defected alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, A.; Prasad, R.; Smedskjaer, L.C.; Benedek, R.; Mijnarends, P.E.

    1987-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental progess in connection with 2D-ACAR positron annihilation studies of ordered, disordered, and defected alloys is discussed. We present, in particular, some of the recent developments concerning the electronic structure of disordered alloys, and the work in the area of annihilation from positrons trapped at vacancy-type defects in metals and alloys. The electronic structure and properties of a number of compounds are also discussed briefly; we comment specifically on high T/sub c/ ceramic superconductors, Heusler alloys, and transition-metal aluminides. 58 refs., 116 figs

  17. Impact of semi-annihilations on dark matter phenomenology - an example of ZN symmetric scalar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, G.; Kannike, K.; Pukhov, A.; Raidal, M.

    2012-01-01

    We study the impact of semi-annihilations χχ ↔ χX; where χ is dark matter and X is any standard model particle, on dark matter phenomenology. We formulate scalar dark matter models with minimal field content that predict non-trivial dark matter phenomenology for different discrete Abelian symmetries Z N , N > 2, and contain semi-annihilation processes. We implement such an example model in micrOMEGAs and show that semi-annihilations modify the phenomenology of this type of models. (authors)

  18. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations obtained using a full three-flavor Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Ohlsson, Tommy; Edsjö, Joakim

    2008-01-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are one of the main candidates for making up the dark matter in the Universe. If these particles make up the dark matter, then they can be captured by the Sun or the Earth, sink to the respective cores, annihilate, and produce neutrinos. Thus, these neutrinos can be a striking dark matter signature at neutrino telescopes looking towards the Sun and/or the Earth. Here, we improve previous analyses on computing the neutrino yields from WIMP annihilations in several respects. We include neutrino oscillations in a full three-flavor framework as well as all effects from neutrino interactions on the way through the Sun (absorption, energy loss, and regeneration from tau decays). In addition, we study the effects of non-zero values of the mixing angle θ 13 as well as the normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies. Our study is performed in an event-based setting which makes these results very useful both for theoretical analyses and for building a neutrino telescope Monte Carlo code. All our results for the neutrino yields, as well as our Monte Carlo code, are publicly available. We find that the yield of muon-type neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun is enhanced or suppressed, depending on the dominant WIMP annihilation channel. This effect is due to an effective flavor mixing caused by neutrino oscillations. For WIMP annihilations inside the Earth, the distance from source to detector is too small to allow for any significant amount of oscillations at the neutrino energies relevant for neutrino telescopes

  19. Moessbauer and positron annihilation studies of microstructural peculiarities of iron-dextran complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M.I.; Kopelyan, E.A.; Semionkin, V.A.; Livshits, A.B.; Kozlov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    The microstructural peculiarities of pharmaceutically important iron-dextran complexes were studied by Moessbauer and positron annihilation techniques. The results of Moessbauer spectroscopy showed variations of the iron cores in iron-dextran complexes containing different forms of FeOOH and different electronic and magnetic states of iron. The results of angular correlations of annihilation radiation and positron life-time spectroscopies showed microstructural variations of the dextran shell of the iron-dextran complexes. (author) 19 refs.; 4 tabs

  20. Positron annihilation characteristics in multi-wall carbon nanotubes with different average diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuyen, L A; Khiem, D D; Phuc, P T; Kajcsos, Zs; Lázár, K; Tap, T D

    2013-01-01

    Positron lifetime spectroscopy was used to study multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The measurements were performed in vacuum on the samples having different average diameters. The positron lifetime values depend on the nanotube diameter. The results also show an influence of the nanotube diameter on the positron annihilation intensity on the nanotube surface. The change in the annihilation probability is described and interpreted by the modified diffusion model introducing the positron escape rate from the nanotubes to their external surface.

  1. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin; Cizek, Jakub; Melikhova, Oksana; Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil; Kekule, Tomas; Kudrnova, Hana; Gemma, Ryota; Neubert, Volkmar

    2015-01-01

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  2. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2015-01-29

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  3. Production of new particles in electron-positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1977-02-01

    A number of areas are reviewed where there is important progress in the production of new particles in electron--positron annihilation, but of a more detailed quantitative nature. Charmonium states, charmed mesons, and evidence for a charged heavy lepton are covered. 50 references

  4. Neutralino-stop co-annihilation into electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons at one loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harz, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Herrmann, B. [Univ. Savoie/CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; Klasen, M. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Kovarik, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Le Boulc' h, Q. [Grenoble Univ. (France). CNRS-IN2P3/INPG

    2012-12-15

    We compute the full O({alpha}{sub s}) supersymmetric QCD corrections for neutralino-stop co-annihilation into electroweak gauge and Higgs bosons in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We show that these annihilation channels are phenomenologically relevant within the so-called phenomenological MSSM, in particular in the light of the observation of a Higgs-like particle with a mass of about 126 GeV at the LHC. We present in detail our calculation, including the renormalization scheme, the infrared treatment, and the kinematical subtleties to be addressed. Numerical results for the co-annihilation cross sections and the predicted neutralino relic density are presented. We demonstrate that the impact of including the corrections on the cosmologically preferred region of parameter space is larger than the current experimental uncertainty from WMAP data.

  5. Positron annihilation in PI189 and PI304 polyimides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shantarovich, V.P. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul Kosygina 4 st., 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: shant@center.chph.ras.ru; Suzuki, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); He, C. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Ito, Y. [Reasearch Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan); Yampolskii, Y.P. [A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, 29 Leninskii Pr., 117912 Moscow (Russian Federation); Alentiev, A.Yu. [A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, 29 Leninskii Pr., 117912 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-01

    Temperature dependence of the lifetime {tau}3 and intensity I{sub 3} of the long-lived ortho-positronium (o-Ps) component was measured for two polyimides PI189 and PI304 both below and above glass-transition temperatures Tg of these polymers. First heating runs of the experiments revealed anomalous, irregular behavior of the lifetime {tau}3 in both PI in the vicinity (below) of the glass transition temperature. The effect was similar to that discussed recently for a number of PI. However, on the cooling stage of the first cycle and on the heating run of the second cycle, such irregularities disappeared. These results show that anomalous behavior of annihilation characteristics of o-Ps in our PI samples were due not to anomalous behavior of PI structure itself close to Tg point (not to a specific phase transition), but to removal of residual solvent in vicinity of Tg during the first heating cycle. Different approaches to estimations of the specific hole volume and of the holes number density N on the basis of positron annihilation data are discussed. Final estimation for PI189 gives the fractional free volume h=3.35% and N=0.44x1027m-3. The effects of positron trapping by polar-CO groups on annihilation characteristics of PI and on the obtained value of N are also considered.

  6. Efficient kinetic Monte Carlo method for reaction-diffusion problems with spatially varying annihilation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Karsten; Rieger, Heiko

    2013-03-01

    We present an efficient Monte Carlo method to simulate reaction-diffusion processes with spatially varying particle annihilation or transformation rates as it occurs for instance in the context of motor-driven intracellular transport. Like Green's function reaction dynamics and first-passage time methods, our algorithm avoids small diffusive hops by propagating sufficiently distant particles in large hops to the boundaries of protective domains. Since for spatially varying annihilation or transformation rates the single particle diffusion propagator is not known analytically, we present an algorithm that generates efficiently either particle displacements or annihilations with the correct statistics, as we prove rigorously. The numerical efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated with an illustrative example.

  7. Positron annihilation in Si and Si-related materials in thermal equilibrium at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Ubukata, T.; Tanino, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Tanigawa, S.; Takasu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Annihilation characteristics of positrons in the carbon/Si structure in thermal equilibrium at high temperature were studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation were measured as a function of incident positron energy in the temperature range between 298 K and 1473 K. Above 1173 K, the value of S corresponding to the annihilation of positrons near the carbon/Si interface started to increase, which was attributed to the carbonization of Si and the introduction of open-space defects due to the diffusion of Si atoms toward the carbon layer. The behavior of Ps in a thermally grown SiO 2 film was also studied at 298-1523 K. (orig.)

  8. Possible Dark Matter Annihilation Signal in the AMS-02 Antiproton Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming-Yang; Yuan, Qiang; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2017-05-12

    Using the latest AMS-02 cosmic-ray antiproton flux data, we search for a potential dark matter annihilation signal. The background parameters about the propagation, source injection, and solar modulation are not assumed a priori but based on the results inferred from the recent B/C ratio and proton data measurements instead. The possible dark matter signal is incorporated into the model self-consistently under a Bayesian framework. Compared with the astrophysical background-only hypothesis, we find that a dark matter signal is favored. The rest mass of the dark matter particles is ∼20-80  GeV, and the velocity-averaged hadronic annihilation cross section is about (0.2-5)×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1}, in agreement with that needed to account for the Galactic center GeV excess and/or the weak GeV emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies Reticulum 2 and Tucana III. Tight constraints on the dark matter annihilation models are also set in a wide mass region.

  9. Weak annihilation and new physics in charmless B → MM decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobeth, Christoph [Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Gorbahn, Martin [University of Liverpool, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Vickers, Stefan [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    We use currently available data of nonleptonic charmless 2-body B → MM decays (MM = PP, PV,VV) that are mediated by b → (d, s) QCD- and QED-penguin operators to study weak annihilation and new-physics effects in the framework of QCD factorization. In particular we introduce one weak-annihilation parameter for decays related by (u <-> d) quark interchange and test this universality assumption. Within the standard model, the data supports this assumption with the only exceptions in the B → Kπ system, which exhibits the well-known ''ΔA{sub CP} puzzle'', and some tensions in B → K*φ. Beyond the standard model, we simultaneously determine weak-annihilation and new-physics parameters from data, employing model independent scenarios that address the ''ΔA{sub CP} puzzle'', such as QED-penguins and b → s anti uu current-current operators. We discuss also possibilities that allow further tests of our assumption once improved measurements from LHCb and Belle II become available. (orig.)

  10. Baryon production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1988-11-01

    The phenomenology of baryon production in high energy e + e - annihilation is described. Much can be understood in terms of mass effects. Comparisons with the rates for different flavours and spins, with momentum and transverse momentum spectra and with particle correlations are used to confront models. Diquark models give good descriptions, except for the on/off Υ(1s) rates. Areas for experimental and theoretical development are indicated. (author)

  11. Positron and positronium annihilation in low-dielectric-constant films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Yu, R.S.; Shioya, Y.; Ichikawa, H.; Hosomi, H.; Ishikiriyama, K.; Shirataki, H.; Matsuno, S.; Xu, J.

    2004-01-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in porous low-dielectric-constant (low-k) films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and spin-on dielectric (SOD) have been investigated by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and age-momentum correlation (AMOC) spectroscopy with a pulsed slow positron beam. The ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime strongly depends on the deposition condition. In general, PECVD low-k films have shorter o-Ps lifetimes than SOD low-k films, indicating PECVD low-k films have smaller pores. Since o-Ps diffusion and escaping from the surface occurs in most of porous SOD films, three-gamma annihilation measurement is important. To investigate o-Ps behavior in SOD films, we have carried out two-dimensional (2D) PALS measurement, which measures annihilation time and pulse-height of the scintillation detector simultaneously. Monte-Carlo simulation of the o-Ps diffusion and escaping in porous films has been carried out to simulate the 2D-PALS results. (orig.)

  12. Kinetics of fragmentation-annihilation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, JAN; Rodgers, GJ

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the kinetics of systems in which particles of one species undergo binary fragmentation and pair annihilation. In the latter, nonlinear process, fragments react at collision to produce an inert species, causing loss of mass. We analyze these systems in the reaction-limited regime by solving a continuous model within the mean-field approximation. The rate of fragmentation for a particle of mass x to break into fragments of masses y and x-y has the form x(lambda-1) (lambda > 0), a...

  13. On hadron jet multiplicity in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The Q 2 -dependence of the average hadron multiplicity in e + e - -annihilation jets is found in QCD within the framework of planar diagram approximation (Q-transfer momentum). It is shown that account for kinematical restrictions alters the result obtained previously by other authors

  14. Positron annihilation in low-temperature rare gases. II. Argon and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, K.F.; Roellig, L.O.

    1975-01-01

    Lifetime measurements of slow-positron and ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation were made in argon and neon gases at room temperature and below. The argon experiments cover the temperature range 115 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.0356 to 0.0726 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 20 to 40 amagat). The slow-positron spectra in argon exhibit a departure from free-positron annihilation below 200 0 K. The departure becomes more marked as the temperature is lowered. No deviation from free o-Ps pickoff annihilation is observed in argon at low temperatures. The neon measurements cover the temperature range 30 to 300 0 K and the density range 0.032 to 0.89 g/cm 3 (approximately equal to 35 to 980 amagat). No effect of temperature on the slow-positron spectra throughout the temperature and density ranges investigated in neon is observed. The spectra are very exponential with a corresponding decay rate which is temperature as well as time independent and is directly proportional to density over the ranges investigated. The o-Ps data are more eventful in that the o-Ps lifetime at near-liquid densities is approximately 20 nsec, a factor of nearly 4 greater than the value obtained using the pickoff-annihilation coefficient obtained at lower densities. This is evidence for positronium-induced cavities in low-temperature neon. A brief discussion of the argon and neon results is given in the context of the explanations offered for the low-temperature effects observed in helium gas

  15. Appearance of a Minimal Length in $e^+ e^-$ Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Dymnikova, Irina; Ulbricht, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data reveal with a 5$\\sigma$ significance the existence of a characteristic minimal length $l_e$= 1.57 × 10$^{−17}$ cm at the scale E = 1.253 TeV in the annihilation reaction $e^+e^- \\to \\gamma\\gamma(\\gamma)$ . Nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to gravity and satisfying the weak energy condition predicts, for an arbitrary gauge invariant Lagrangian, the existence of spinning charged electromagnetic soliton asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer with the gyromagnetic ratio g=2 . Its internal structure includes a rotating equatorial disk of de Sitter vacuum which has properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic, displays superconducting behavior, supplies a particle with the finite positive electromagnetic mass related to breaking of space-time symmetry, and gives some idea about the physical origin of a minimal length in annihilation.

  16. Positron annihilation studies on structural materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, R.; Amarendra, G.; Sundar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Structural steels for nuclear reactors have renewed interest owing to the future advanced fission reactor design with increased burn-up goals as well as for fusion reactor applications. While modified austenitic steels continue to be the main cladding materials for fast breeder reactors, Ferritic/martensitic steels and oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels are the candidate materials for future reactors applications in India. Sensitivity and selectivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy to open volume type defects and nano clusters have been extensively utilized in studying reactor materials. We have recently reviewed the application of positron techniques to reactor structural steels. In this talk, we will present successful application of positron annihilation spectroscopy to probe various structural materials such as D9, ferritic/martensitic, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and related model alloys, highlighting our recent studies. (author)

  17. Antiproton-neutron annihilations at rest: Search for broad states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogeropoulos, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The searches so far for meson states produced in p-bar annihilations at rest into π+X have been sensitive to narrow X states. The combinatorial background and the narrow phase space width in missing mass spectra are the main problems. Most of the theoretical models predict broad states. We have measured in a high statistis experiment p-bar(at rest)d→π/sup +- /+Anything inclusive spectra. Using a novel analysis technique the π + π - difference spectra, it is shown that the p-barn annihilation is dominated by two-body cascades. Two new states of opposite G-parity of (mass, width) = (1480, 100) MeV/c 2 are dominant. The G = +1 state has a large decay branching ratio into rho 0 rho 0 . Other features are presented

  18. e+e- annihilation into hadrons at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.

    1975-08-01

    The review of e + e - annihilation includes the detectors, total hadronic cross sections, charged multiplicity, and inclusive distributions. The new particles are excluded. Some results on the search for new particles, searches for monochromatic photons from the psi 1 , a search for nonleptonic decays of charmed mesons, and evidence for anomalous lepton production are also given. 20 references

  19. Positron annihilation lifetime study of extended defects in semiconductor glasses and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyko, Olha [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Pekarska str. 69, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Shpotyuk, Yaroslav [Department of Optoelectronics and Information Technologies, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Dragomanova str. 50, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 202, 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, Jacek [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej al. 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    The processes of atomic shrinkage in network-forming solids initiated by external influences are tested using technique of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at the example of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of arsenic sulphide type and acrylic polymers for dental application. Two state positron trapping is shown to be responsible for atomic shrinkage in chalcogenide glasses, while mixed trapping and ortho-positronium decaying is character for volumetric densification and stress propagation in acrylic dental polymers. At the basis of the obtained results it is concluded that correct analysis of externally-induced shrinkage in polymer networks under consideration can be developed by using original positron lifetime data treatment algorithms to compensate defect-free bulk annihilation channel within two-state positron trapping model and account for an interbalance between simultaneously co-existing positron trapping and orth-positronium related decaying channels within mixed three-state positron annihilation model (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Positron annihilation lifetime study of extended defects in semiconductor glasses and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, Olha; Shpotyuk, Yaroslav; Filipecki, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The processes of atomic shrinkage in network-forming solids initiated by external influences are tested using technique of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at the example of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of arsenic sulphide type and acrylic polymers for dental application. Two state positron trapping is shown to be responsible for atomic shrinkage in chalcogenide glasses, while mixed trapping and ortho-positronium decaying is character for volumetric densification and stress propagation in acrylic dental polymers. At the basis of the obtained results it is concluded that correct analysis of externally-induced shrinkage in polymer networks under consideration can be developed by using original positron lifetime data treatment algorithms to compensate defect-free bulk annihilation channel within two-state positron trapping model and account for an interbalance between simultaneously co-existing positron trapping and orth-positronium related decaying channels within mixed three-state positron annihilation model (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Connecting dark matter annihilation to the vertex functions of Standard Model fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jason; Light, Christopher, E-mail: jkumar@hawaii.edu, E-mail: lightc@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, Hawaii (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We consider scenarios in which dark matter is a Majorana fermion which couples to Standard Model fermions through the exchange of charged mediating particles. The matrix elements for various dark matter annihilation processes are then related to one-loop corrections to the fermion-photon vertex, where dark matter and the charged mediators run in the loop. In particular, in the limit where Standard Model fermion helicity mixing is suppressed, the cross section for dark matter annihilation to various final states is related to corrections to the Standard Model fermion charge form factor. These corrections can be extracted in a gauge-invariant manner from collider cross sections. Although current measurements from colliders are not precise enough to provide useful constraints on dark matter annihilation, improved measurements at future experiments, such as the International Linear Collider, could improve these constraints by several orders of magnitude, allowing them to surpass the limits obtainable by direct observation.

  2. Positron annihilation in sodium and copper β-vanadium oxide bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.; Rogowska, E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of copper and sodium β-vanadium oxide bronzes are performed using positron annihilation measured with a long slit angular correlation apparatus. The dependences of peak coincidence rate on temperature (40 to 310deg C) are obtained for different concentrations of donor atoms in the case of copper vanadium oxide bronzes. A three-states model corresponding to the annihilation of positrons in donor atom sublattice is applied for the description of the experimental data. The creation enthalpy of vacancies for that sublattice is equal to (0.60 ± 0.01) eV for Na 0.33 V 2 O 5 and equal to (0.64 ± 0.01) eV for Cu x V 2 O 5 . (author)

  3. Single-quantum annihilation of positrons with shell-bound atomic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palathingal, J.C.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Posada, Y.; Wu, X.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The single-quantum annihilation of positrons has been studied experimentally with a positron beam and a thin lead target, at energies 1 MeV and higher. Spectral peaks corresponding to the K, L, and M shells have been resolved and observed distinctly for the first time. The shell ratios L/K and M/K have been determined. An analysis of the L peak has yielded the (LII+LIII)/L ratio. The first measurements of the directional distributions of the annihilation quanta of the three individual electron shells are also reported. The results are in agreement with theory. They also point out the potential for applying the phenomena to the development of a tunable, highly directional gamma-ray source

  4. Violation of G-parity in antinucleon-nucleon annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.M.; Sainio, M.E.; Moussallam, B.; Niskanen, J.A.; Wycech, S.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for investigating the violation of G-parity in the annihilation reaction anti np → π + π 0 . As illustrations π 0 -η mixing and the mass difference effects are considered. This leads to an asymmetry of about 1% in the cross section. (orig.)

  5. Positron annihilation and tribological studies of nano-embedded Al ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Positron annihilation studies of aluminium alloys with nanodispersions of insoluble elements, i.e.,. In, Sn, Pb and Au ... potential objects of different studies and applications. ... dence Doppler broadening spectroscopy is the high sensi- tivity to ...

  6. Positron annihilation lifetime characterization of oxygen ion irradiated rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Homnath; Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Chattopadhyay, S.; Asokan, K.; Sanyal, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature has been induced in rutile phase of TiO2 polycrystalline sample by O ion irradiation. 96 MeV O ion induced defects in rutile TiO2 sample has been characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques. Positron annihilation results indicate the formation of cation vacancy (VTi, Ti vacancy) in these irradiated TiO2 samples. Ab initio density functional theoretical calculations indicate that in TiO2 magnetic moment can be induced either by creating Ti or O vacancies.

  7. Antiproton-proton annihilations into four prongs at 7.2 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuw, A. de.

    1979-01-01

    Annihilation reactions are described in which four charged pions and also maybe uncharged particles are produced. Data was acquired in an antiproton-proton experiment at a beam momentum of 7.2 GeV/c and 220K pictures of the CERN 2m HBC were measured. Cross sections have been determined and angular distributions of the pions and of some resonances are given. Two models that describe annihilation reactions are treated, the so called CLA model and a simple quark model. (C.F./Auth.)

  8. SUSY-QCD corrections to the (co)annihilation of neutralino dark matter within the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Moritz

    2015-06-15

    Based on experimental observations, it is nowadays assumed that a large component of the matter content in the universe is comprised of so-called cold dark matter. Furthermore, latest measurements of the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background provided an estimation of the dark matter relic density at a measurement error of one percent (concerning the experimental 1σ-error). The lightest neutralino χ 0{sub 1}, a particle which subsumes under the phenomenologically interesting category of weakly interacting massive particles, is a viable dark matter candidate for many supersymmetric (SUSY) models whose relic density Ω{sub χ} {sub 0{sub 1}} happens to lie quite naturally within the experimentally favored ballpark of dark matter. The high experimental precision can be used to constrain the SUSY parameter space to its cosmologically favored regions and to pin down phenomenologically interesting scenarios. However, to actually benefit from this progress on the experimental side it is also mandatory to minimize the theoretical uncertainties. An important quantity within the calculation of the neutralino relic density is the thermally averaged sum over different annihilation and coannihilation cross sections of the neutralino and further supersymmetric particles. It is now assumed and also partly proven that these cross sections can be subject to large loop corrections which can even shift the associated Ω{sub χ} {sub 0{sub 1}} by a factor larger than the current experimental error. However, most of these corrections are yet unknown. In this thesis, we calculate higher-order corrections for some of the most important (co)annihilation channels both within the framework of the R-parity conserving Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and investigate their impact on the final neutralino relic density Ω{sub χ} {sub 0{sub 1}}. More precisely, this work provides the full O(α{sub s}) corrections of supersymmetric quantum chromodynamics (SUSY

  9. Semi-inclusive production of two back-to-back hadron pairs in e+e- annihilation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Boer, Daniël; Courtoy, Aurore; Kotzinian, Aram; Radici, Marco; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2018-04-01

    The cross section for back-to-back hadron pair production in e+e- annihilation provides access to the dihadron fragmentation functions (DiFF) needed to extract nucleon parton distribution functions from the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) experiments with two detected final state hadrons. Particular attention is given to the so-called interference DiFF (IFF), which makes it possible to extract the transversity parton distribution of the nucleon in the collinear framework. However, previously unnoticed discrepancies were recently highlighted between the definitions of the IFFs appearing in the collinear kinematics when reconstructed from DiFFs entering the unintegrated fully differential cross sections of SIDIS and e+e- annihilation processes. In this work, to clarify this problem we re-derive the fully differential cross section for e+e- annihilation at the leading-twist approximation. We find a mistake in the definition of the kinematics in the original expression that systematically affects a subset of terms and that leads to two significant consequences. First, the discrepancy between the IFF definitions in the cross sections for SIDIS and e+e- annihilation is resolved. Second, the previously derived azimuthal asymmetry for accessing the helicity dependent DiFF G1⊥ in e+e- annihilation vanishes, which explains the nonobservation of this asymmetry in the recent experimental searches by the BELLE collaboration. We discuss the recently proposed alternative option to extract G1⊥.

  10. Application of positron annihilation induced auger electron spectroscopy to the study of surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.H.; Yang, G.; Nangia, A.; Kim, J.H.; Fazleev, N.G.

    1996-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES), makes use a beam of low energy positrons to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons. This novel mechanism provides PAES with a number of unique features which distinguishes it from other methods of surface analysis. In PAES the very large collisionally induced secondary electron background which is present under the low energy Auger peaks using conventional techniques can be eliminated by using a positron beam whose energy is below the range of Auger electron energies. In addition, PAES is more surface selective than conventional Auger Spectroscopy because the PAES signal originates almost exclusively from the topmost atomic layer due to the fact that the positrons annihilating with the core electrons are trapped in an image correlation well just outside the surface. In this paper, recent applications of Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) to the study of surface structure and surface chemistry will be discussed including studies of the growth, alloying and inter-diffusion of ultrathin layers of metals, metals on semiconductors, and semiconductors on semiconductors. In addition, the possibilities for future application of PAES to the study of catalysis and surface chemistry will be outlined. (author)

  11. First search for dark matter annihilations in the Earth with the IceCube detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J.; Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Veenkamp, J.; Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bretz, H.P.; Franckowiak, A.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Yanez, J.P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O'Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C.; Ahlers, M.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Krueger, C.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Rossem, M. van; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L.; Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M.; Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eller, P.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G.; Weiss, M.J.; Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Pino Rosendo, E. del; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Krueckl, G.; Peiffer, P.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K.; Argueelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Jones, B.J.P.; Moulai, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Glagla, M.; Glauch, T.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Penek, Oe.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stahlberg, M.; Stettner, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Wallraff, M.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G.; Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Mandelartz, M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Tenholt, F.; Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Kopper, S.; Lauber, F.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Soldin, D.; BenZvi, S.; Cross, R.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Friedman, E.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W.; Besson, D.Z.; Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Tatar, J.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of the first IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the center of the Earth. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), candidates for dark matter, can scatter off nuclei inside the Earth and fall below its escape velocity. Over time the captured WIMPs will be accumulated and may eventually self-annihilate. Among the annihilation products only neutrinos can escape from the center of the Earth. Large-scale neutrino telescopes, such as the cubic kilometer IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole, can be used to search for such neutrino fluxes. Data from 327 days of detector livetime during 2011/2012 were analyzed. No excess beyond the expected background from atmospheric neutrinos was detected. The derived upper limits on the annihilation rate of WIMPs in the Earth and the resulting muon flux are an order of magnitude stronger than the limits of the last analysis performed with data from IceCube's predecessor AMANDA. The limits can be translated in terms of a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. For a WIMP mass of 50 GeV this analysis results in the most restrictive limits achieved with IceCube data. (orig.)

  12. First search for dark matter annihilations in the Earth with the IceCube detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide (Australia); Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Veenkamp, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bretz, H.P.; Franckowiak, A.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O' Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Krueger, C.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Rossem, M. van; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Marquette University, Department of Physics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Anderson, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eller, P.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G.; Weiss, M.J. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Pino Rosendo, E. del; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Krueckl, G.; Peiffer, P.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Argueelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Jones, B.J.P.; Moulai, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Glagla, M.; Glauch, T.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Penek, Oe.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stahlberg, M.; Stettner, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Wallraff, M.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebusch, C.H. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Mandelartz, M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Tenholt, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Kopper, S.; Lauber, F.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Soldin, D. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); BenZvi, S.; Cross, R. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Friedman, E.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Tatar, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2017-02-15

    We present the results of the first IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the center of the Earth. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), candidates for dark matter, can scatter off nuclei inside the Earth and fall below its escape velocity. Over time the captured WIMPs will be accumulated and may eventually self-annihilate. Among the annihilation products only neutrinos can escape from the center of the Earth. Large-scale neutrino telescopes, such as the cubic kilometer IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole, can be used to search for such neutrino fluxes. Data from 327 days of detector livetime during 2011/2012 were analyzed. No excess beyond the expected background from atmospheric neutrinos was detected. The derived upper limits on the annihilation rate of WIMPs in the Earth and the resulting muon flux are an order of magnitude stronger than the limits of the last analysis performed with data from IceCube's predecessor AMANDA. The limits can be translated in terms of a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. For a WIMP mass of 50 GeV this analysis results in the most restrictive limits achieved with IceCube data. (orig.)

  13. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy in materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.

    1988-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) has emerged as a powerful technique for research in condensed matter. It has been used extensively in the study of metals, ionic crystals, glasses and polymers. The present review concentrates on applications of positron lifetime measurements for elucidation of the physicochemical structure of polymers.

  14. The electroweak interaction in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.

    1982-04-01

    The role of e + e - annihilation in studying the weak neutral current, at PETRA and PEP, is reviewed. The way in which the vector and axial vector couplings appear in the total cross sections, the angular distributions and the polarisation dependences are discussed. The dependence of external gauge models on the results of PETRA and PEP experiments is examined. (U.K.)

  15. Moisture dependence of positron annihilation rates in molecular substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation rates have been studied in polymers and graphite-polymer composites as a function of their moisture content. The annihilation rates have been found to increase linearly with increasing moisture content in epoxies and polyamides, whereas no definite trends have been observed in polyimides. These experimental results have been used as the basis for the calculation of moisture content of several polymeric test specimens. For example, the directly measured moisture content of a Kevlar specimen was 45.5 + or - 5.0% of saturation value, whereas the moisture content on the basis of the decrease in positron lifetime was calculated to be 46.5 + or - 3.5%. Similarly, the directly measured moisture content of a graphite-epoxy composite (55 v/o fiber) was 19.2 + or - 0.6% of saturation value as opposed to a calculated value of 16.0 + or - 5.0%

  16. Impacts of dark matter particle annihilation on recombination and the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Le; Chen Xuelei; Lei Yian; Si Zongguo

    2006-01-01

    The recombination history of the Universe provides a useful tool for constraining the annihilation of dark matter particles. Even a small fraction of dark matter particles annihilated during the cosmic dark age can provide sufficient energy to affect the ionization state of the baryonic gas. Although this effect is too small for neutralinos, lighter dark matter particle candidates, e.g. with mass of 1-100 MeV, which was proposed recently to explain the observed excess of positrons in the galactic center, may generate observable differences in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies. The annihilations at the era of recombination affects mainly the CMB anisotropy at small angular scales (large l), and is distinctively different from the effect of early reionization. We perform a multiparameter analysis of the CMB data, including both the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) first year and three year data, and the ACBAR, Boomerang, CBI, and VSA data. Assuming that the observed excess of e + e - pairs in the galactic center region is produced by dark matter annihilation, and that a sizable fraction of the energy produced in the annihilation is deposited in the baryonic gas during recombination, we obtain a 95% dark matter mass limit of M<8 MeV with the current data set

  17. On the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from dark matter annihilation or decay in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, Julien; Boehm, Céline; Barthès, Julien

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the prospects for detecting the Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) effect induced by dark matter (DM) annihilation or decay. We show that with standard (or even extreme) assumptions for DM properties, the optical depth associated with relativistic electrons injected from DM annihilation or decay is much smaller than that associated with thermal electrons, when averaged over the angular resolution of current and future experiments. For example, we find: τ DM ∼ 10 −9 −10 −5 (depending on the assumptions) for m χ = 1 GeV and a density profile ρ∝r −1 for a template cluster located at 50 Mpc and observed within an angular resolution of 10'', compared to τ th ∼ 10 −3 −10 −2 . This, together with a full spectral analysis, enables us to demonstrate that, for a template cluster with generic properties, the SZ effect due to DM annihilation or decay is far below the sensitivity of the Planck satellite. This is at variance with previous claims regarding heavier annihilating DM particles. Should DM be made of lighter particles, the current constraints from 511 keV observations on the annihilation cross section or decay rate still prevent a detectable SZ effect. Finally, we show that spatial diffusion sets a core of a few kpc in the electron distribution, even for very cuspy DM profiles, such that improving the angular resolution of the instrument, eg with ALMA, does not necessarily improve the detection potential. We provide useful analytical formulæ parameterized in terms of the DM mass, decay rate or annihilation cross section and DM halo features, that allow quick estimates of the SZ effect induced by any given candidate and any DM halo profile

  18. Materials characterization of free volume and void properties by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmin; Van Horn, J. David; Jean, Y. C.; Hung, Wei-Song; Lee, Kueir-Rarn

    2013-04-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has been widely used to determine the free volume and void properties in polymeric materials. Recently, a two dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (2DPALS) system has been developed for membrane applications. The system measures the coincident signals between the lifetime and the energy which could separate the 2γ and 3γ annihilations and improve the accuracy in the determination of the free volume and void properties. When 2D-PALS is used in coupling with a variable mono-energy slow positron beam, it could be applied to a variety of material characterization. Results of free volumes and voids properties in a multi-layer polymer membrane characterized using 2D-PALS are presented.

  19. Defects in fine-grained and porous materials characterized by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, T.E.M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Kieback, B.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the annihilation parameters (lifetimes and intensities) for positrons becoming trapped at grain boundaries and at inner surfaces (pores), examining fine-grained nickel powder compacts (effective powder particle size 1 - 10 μm with grains in or even below the micron size). Furthermore, we can monitor grain growth and sintering (volume shrinkage) during successive heat treatment of powder compacts. To reach this aim, we correlate the annihilation parameters with results of a Monte-Carlo simulation and analytical solutions of the positron diffusion. We find that it is possible to determine an effective average powder particle size as well as grain sizes by positron lifetime spectroscopy. (author)

  20. Dark matter annihilations search in dwarf spheroidal galaxies with fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnier, C.; Nuss, E.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.

    2011-01-01

    Launched in June 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Telescope includes a pair conversion detector designed for the 20 MeV to ∼300GeV gamma-ray sky study, the Large Area Telescope (LAT). Operating in all-sky survey mode, its excellent sensitivity and angular resolution will allow either to discover or constrain a signal coming through the annihilation of dark matter particles. Predicted by cold dark matter scenarios as the largest clumps, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are amongst the most attractive targets for indirect search of dark matter by gamma-ray experiments. We present here an overview of the Fermi LAT Dark Matter and New Physics Working Group efforts in the searches of gamma-ray fluxes coming from WIMP pair annihilations in dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  1. Annihilation and gravitational clumping of monopoles in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Mizuo; Sato, Katsuhiko.

    1983-01-01

    In order to avoid the overproduction of magnetic monopoles in the early Universe, we investigate how monopoles evolve in the Big Bang Universe for arbitrary mass of monopoles and the arbitrary initial abundance. First, we calculate pair annihilation of monopoles by taking into account the entropy production due to the annihilations. Second, we investigate the formation of monopole stars and black holes due to gravitational clumping of monopoles. In particular, we take into account the entropy and baryon number generation by black hole evaporation. It is shown, however, that the burning of monopole stars or the evaporation of black holes cannot dilute the monopole abundance sufficiently without conflicts with present baryon/entropy ratio and primordial nucleosynthesis regardless of monopole mass. (author)

  2. Intermittency study in e+e- annihilations at 29 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, K.

    1990-01-01

    The intermittency and fractal behavior in e + e - annihilations has been studied using the HRS detector at PEP (√s = 29 GeV). The factorial moments F i (i = 2 ∼ 5) in small rapidity intervals show stronger intermittency slopes than those for the πp, bar pp, and AA reactions. This direct measurement confirms our previous data derived from the k-values in the negative binomial fits to the multiplicity distributions in various central rapidity windows. The fractal moments G q have been measured for the first time in e + e - annihilations. The Legendre transform f(α) derived from the fractal moments show a self-similar behavior which is consistent with the jet cascading mechanism. 95 refs., 46 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) has emerged as a powerful technique for research in condensed matter. It has been used extensively in the study of metals, ionic crystals, glasses and polymers. The present review concentrates on applications of positron lifetime measurements for elucidation of the physicochemical structure of polymers. 10 references

  4. Annihilation of antiprotons stopped in liquid hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalkarov, O.D.; Kerbikov, B.O.; Markushin, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed analysis is given of stopping antiproton annihilation in liquid hydrogen and deuterium. Connection between capture schedule and properties of bound states in nucleon-antinucleon system is established. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data which appeared in 1971-75

  5. Heavy lepton production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Noboru

    1976-01-01

    We first enumerate several global properties of e + e - annihilation, which were left untouched in previous studies, as evidences of a heavy lepton with the mass of 1.8 GeV. As for the charged energy fraction in e + e - annihilation, we note that the effect of heavy lepton productions superimposed on the linearly decreasing background parametrized as r sub(h)=-0.014√s+0.632 can give a satisfactory fit to the data up to √s -- 8 GeV (where √s is the total c.m. energy). In this case, the charged energy fraction at PEP and PETRA energies is expected to come far below the naive application of the Llewellyn-Smith-Pais lower bound. We also compare the heavy lepton interpretation of the eμ events with other interpretations, and we argue that the 1.8 GeV heavy lepton gives the most plausible interpretation. Finally we discuss the observed eμ cross section and momentum distributions in terms of this heavy lepton with a general structure of the weak current and with an arbitrary mass for the associated neutrino. (auth.)

  6. Positron annihilation spectroscopic studies of solvothermally synthesized ZnO nanobipyramids and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Biswas, Subhajit; Kar, Soumitra; Chaudhuri, Subhadra; Nambissan, P. M. G.

    2008-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) samples in the form of hexagonal-based bipyramids and particles of nanometer dimensions were synthesized through solvothermal route and characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Positron annihilation experiments were performed to study the structural defects such as vacancies and surfaces in these nanosystems. From coincidence Doppler broadening measurements, the positron trapping sites were identified as Zn vacancies or Zn-O-Zn trivacancy clusters. The positron lifetimes, their relative intensities, and the Doppler broadened lineshape parameter S all showed characteristic changes across the nanobipyramid size corresponding to the thermal diffusion length of positrons. In large nanobipyramids, vacancies within the crystallites also trapped positrons and the effects of agglomeration of such vacancies due to increased temperatures of synthesis were reflected in the variation of the annihilation parameters with their base diameters. The sizes of the nanoparticles used were all in the limit of thermal diffusion length of positrons and the annihilation characteristics were in accordance with the decreasing contribution from surfaces with increasing particle size.

  7. Reappraisal of dark matter co-annihilating with a top or bottom partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, Wai-Yee; Low, Ian; Zhang, Yue

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the calculation of the relic density of dark matter particles co-annihilating with a top or bottom partner by properly including the QCD bound-states (onia) effects of the colored partners as well as the relevant electroweak processes, which become important in the low-mass region. We carefully set up the complete framework that incorporates the relevant contributions and investigate their effects on the cosmologically preferred mass spectrum, which turn out to be comparable in size to those coming from the Sommerfeld enhancement. We apply the calculation to three scenarios: bino-stop and bino-sbottom co-annihilations in supersymmetry and a vector dark matter co-annihilating with a fermionic top partner. In addition, we confront our analysis of the relic abundance with recent direct detection experiments and collider searches at the LHC, which have important implications in the bino-stop and bino-sbottom scenarios. In particular, in the bino-stop case, recent LHC limits have excluded regions of parameter space with a direct detection rate that is above the neutrino floor.

  8. Positron annihilation studies in lysozyme and catalase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohilla, Y.; Singh, K.P.; Roy Choudhury, S.; Jain, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Positron annihilation studies have been carried out in two enzymes, lysozyme and catalase. Temperature dependence of the positron lifetimes in these two enzymes has been investigated. The results explained in terms of the free volume model and fluctuations between different conformational micro states of enzyme structures provide a new insight into the mechanism of bio-activity of these enzymes. (author). 15 refs., 4 figs

  9. Source theory analysis of electron--positron annihilation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinger, J.

    1975-01-01

    The phenomenological viewpoint already applied to deep inelastic scattering is extended to the discussion of electron-positron annihilation experiments. Some heuristic arguments lead to simple forms for the pion differential cross section that are in reasonable accord with the published experimental data in the energy interval 3 to 4.8 GeV

  10. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Timothy Ryan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  11. Moisture dependence of positron annihilation rates in molecular substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.J.; Holt, W.H.; Mock, W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Positron annihilation rates have been studied in polymers and graphite-polymer composites as a function of their moisture content. The annihilation rates have been found to increase linearly with increasing moisture content in epoxies and polyamides, whereas no definite trends have been observed in the polymides. These experimental results have been used as the basis for the calculation of moisture content of several polymeric test specimens. For example, the directly measured moisture content of a Kevlar/epoxy specimen (55 v/o fiber) was 45.5 +- 5.0% of saturation value, whereas the moisture content on the basis of the decrease in positron lifetime was calculated to be 46.5 +- 3.5%. Similarly, the directly measured moisture content of a graphite/epoxy composite (55 v/o fiber) was 19.2 +- 0.6% of saturation value as opposed to a calculated value of 16.0 +- 5.0%. (orig.)

  12. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in the SINQ target irradiation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K., E-mail: ksato@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Dai, Y. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kikuchi, K. [Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1106 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Titanium-doped austenitic stainless steel (JPCA) and reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) irradiated with high-energy protons and spallation neutrons were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. Subnanometer-sized (<{approx}0.8 nm) helium bubbles, which cannot be observed by transmission electron microscopy, were detected by positron annihilation lifetime measurements for the first time. For the F82H steel, the positron annihilation lifetime of the bubbles decreased with increasing irradiation dose and annealing temperature because the bubbles absorb additional He atoms. In the case of JPCA steel, the positron annihilation lifetime increased with increasing annealing temperature above 773 K, in which case the dissociation of complexes of vacancy clusters with He atoms and the growth of He bubbles was detected. He bubble size and density were also discussed.

  13. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in the SINQ target irradiation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Dai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium-doped austenitic stainless steel (JPCA) and reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) irradiated with high-energy protons and spallation neutrons were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. Subnanometer-sized (<∼0.8 nm) helium bubbles, which cannot be observed by transmission electron microscopy, were detected by positron annihilation lifetime measurements for the first time. For the F82H steel, the positron annihilation lifetime of the bubbles decreased with increasing irradiation dose and annealing temperature because the bubbles absorb additional He atoms. In the case of JPCA steel, the positron annihilation lifetime increased with increasing annealing temperature above 773 K, in which case the dissociation of complexes of vacancy clusters with He atoms and the growth of He bubbles was detected. He bubble size and density were also discussed.

  14. Event shapes in e+e- annihilation and deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Mrinal; Salam, Gavin P

    2004-01-01

    This review examines the status of event-shape studies in e + e - annihilation and DIS. It includes discussions of perturbative calculations, of various approaches to modelling hadronization and of comparisons to data. (topical review)

  15. Search for structure in the low-energy anti p-p annihilation cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Haik, N.; McFarlane, W.K.; Mandelkern, M.A.; Schultz, D.C.; Amsler, C.; Hermann, C.C.; Wolfe, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The relative cross section for annihilation of antiprotons on hydrogen into one or more charged pions was measured. Incident beam momentum was 600 MeV/c. Numbers of observed events (relative) were compared with those expected from the sensitivity of the apparatus. A phase-space model was used for p-barp annihilation. Relative cross sections are plotted vs invariant mass. Upper limits on cross sections for the formation of narrow resonances in the S region are given; previously reported structures are not confirmed. 2 figures, 1 table

  16. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction

  17. anti ee annihilation into hadrons from dual unitarisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-mo, C.

    1976-09-01

    By grafting to the dual unitarisation scheme for hadron reactions a quark-current coupling suggested by the parton model, a model is obtained for anti ee annihilations in which the conversion of quarks into final hadrons is specific. As a first application, the correction to the value of R given by the parton model is estimated. (author)

  18. Precise tests of QCD in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, P.N.

    1997-03-01

    A pedagogical review is given of precise tests of QCD in electron-positron annihilation. Emphasis is placed on measurements that have served to establish QCD as the correct theory of strong interactions, as well as measurements of the coupling parameter α s . An outlook is given for future important tests at a high-energy e + e - collider

  19. Production of φ-Mesons in anti NN-Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapozhnikov, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent results from the experiments on the φ-meson production in the annihilation of stopped antiprotons have demonstrated a significant (by a factor of 30-50) violation of the OZI rule. Experimental information on the φ-meson production is discussed and possible theoretical explanations of the strong OZI rule violation are reviewed. 37 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Studies Of Oxidation And Thermal Reduction Of The Cu(100) Surface Using Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Maddox, W.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-06-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) measurements from the surface of an oxidized Cu(100) single crystal show a large increase in the intensity of the annihilation induced Cu M2,3VV Auger peak as the sample is subjected to a series of isochronal anneals in vacuum up to annealing temperature 300 °C. The PAES intensity then decreases monotonically as the annealing temperature is increased to ˜550 °C. Experimental positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons are estimated from the measured intensities of the positron annihilation induced Cu M2,3VV and O KLL Auger transitions. PAES results are analyzed by performing calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of the surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons taking into account the charge redistribution at the surface and various surface structures associated with low and high oxygen coverages. The variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface are found to affect localization and spatial extent of the positron surface state wave function. The computed positron binding energy and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to charge transfer effects, atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface. Theoretical positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons computed for the oxidized Cu(100) surface are compared with experimental ones. The obtained results provide a demonstration of thermal reduction of the copper oxide surface after annealing at 300 °C followed by re-oxidation of the Cu(100) surface at higher annealing temperatures presumably due to diffusion of subsurface oxygen to the surface.

  1. Studies Of Oxidation And Thermal Reduction Of The Cu(100) Surface Using Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Maddox, W.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) measurements from the surface of an oxidized Cu(100) single crystal show a large increase in the intensity of the annihilation induced Cu M2,3VV Auger peak as the sample is subjected to a series of isochronal anneals in vacuum up to annealing temperature 300 deg. C. The PAES intensity then decreases monotonically as the annealing temperature is increased to ∼550 deg. C. Experimental positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons are estimated from the measured intensities of the positron annihilation induced Cu M 2,3 VV and O KLL Auger transitions. PAES results are analyzed by performing calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of the surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons taking into account the charge redistribution at the surface and various surface structures associated with low and high oxygen coverages. The variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface are found to affect localization and spatial extent of the positron surface state wave function. The computed positron binding energy and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to charge transfer effects, atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface. Theoretical positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons computed for the oxidized Cu(100) surface are compared with experimental ones. The obtained results provide a demonstration of thermal reduction of the copper oxide surface after annealing at 300 deg. C followed by re-oxidation of the Cu(100) surface at higher annealing temperatures presumably due to diffusion of subsurface oxygen to the surface.

  2. Relevance of slow positron beam research to astrophysical studies of positron interactions and annihilation in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guessoum, N.; Jean, P.; Gillard, W.

    2006-01-01

    The processes undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium (ISM) from the moments of their birth to their annihilation are examined. Both the physics of the positron interactions with gases and solids (dust grains), and the physical conditions and characteristics of the environments where the processes of energy loss, positronium formation, and annihilation taking place, are reviewed. An explanation is given as to how all the relevant physical information are taken into account in order to calculate annihilation rates and spectra of the 511 keV emission for the various phases of the ISM; special attention is paid to positron interactions with dust and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. An attempt is made to show to what extent the interactions between positrons and interstellar dust grains are similar to laboratory experiments in which beams of slow positrons impinge upon solids and surfaces. Sample results are shown for the effect of dust grains on positron annihilation spectra in some phases of the ISM which, together with high resolution spectra measured by satellites, can be used to infer useful knowledge about the environment where the annihilation is predominantly taking place and ultimately about the birth place and history of positrons in the Galaxy. The important complementarity between work done by the astrophysical and the solid-state positron communities is strongly emphasized and specific experimental work is suggested which could assist the modeling of the interaction and annihilation of positrons in the ISM

  3. Relevance of slow positron beam research to astrophysical studies of positron interactions and annihilation in the interstellar medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guessoum, N. [American University of Sharjah, Physics Department, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)]. E-mail: nguessoum@aus.ac.ae; Jean, P. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France); Gillard, W. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France)

    2006-02-28

    The processes undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium (ISM) from the moments of their birth to their annihilation are examined. Both the physics of the positron interactions with gases and solids (dust grains), and the physical conditions and characteristics of the environments where the processes of energy loss, positronium formation, and annihilation taking place, are reviewed. An explanation is given as to how all the relevant physical information are taken into account in order to calculate annihilation rates and spectra of the 511 keV emission for the various phases of the ISM; special attention is paid to positron interactions with dust and with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. An attempt is made to show to what extent the interactions between positrons and interstellar dust grains are similar to laboratory experiments in which beams of slow positrons impinge upon solids and surfaces. Sample results are shown for the effect of dust grains on positron annihilation spectra in some phases of the ISM which, together with high resolution spectra measured by satellites, can be used to infer useful knowledge about the environment where the annihilation is predominantly taking place and ultimately about the birth place and history of positrons in the Galaxy. The important complementarity between work done by the astrophysical and the solid-state positron communities is strongly emphasized and specific experimental work is suggested which could assist the modeling of the interaction and annihilation of positrons in the ISM.

  4. Calculation of gamma spectra for positron annihilation on molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dermot G; Gribakin, G F [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wang, F [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Sinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Surko, C M, E-mail: dgreen09@qub.ac.u [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0319 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Gamma spectra for positron annihilation on molecules are calculated based on molecular electron momentum densities and using an atomic adjustment factor that accounts for the positron. Results for H{sub 2} agree well with experiment. Analysis of methane and larger alkanes and their substitutes is underway.

  5. Gamma-ray Background Spectrum and Annihilation Rate in the Baryon-symmetric Big-bang Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puget, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to acquire experimental information on the problem of baryon symmetry on a large cosmological scale by observing the annihilation products. Data cover absorption cross sections and background radiation due to other sources for the two main products of annihilation, gamma rays and neutrinos. Test results show that the best direct experimental test for the presence of large scale antimatter lies in the gamma ray background spectrum between 1 and 70 MeV.

  6. Positron annihilation studies of some charge transfer molecular complexes

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, A; Boraei, A A A

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetimes were measured for some solid charge transfer (CT) molecular complexes of quinoline compounds (2,6-dimethylquinoline, 6-methoxyquinoline, quinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 3-bromoquinoline and 2-chloro-4-methylquinoline) as electron donor and picric acid as an electron acceptor. The infrared spectra (IR) of the solid complexes clearly indicated the formation of the hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes. The annihilation spectra were analyzed into two lifetime components using PATFIT program. The values of the average and bulk lifetimes divide the complexes into two groups according to the non-bonding ionization potential of the donor (electron donating power) and the molecular weight of the complexes. Also, it is found that the ionization potential of the donors and molecular weight of the complexes have a conspicuous effect on the average and bulk lifetime values. The bulk lifetime values of the complexes are consistent with the formation of stable hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes as inferred...

  7. Extinction and survival in two-species annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, J. G.; Ben-Naim, E.; Davis, S. M.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2018-02-01

    We study diffusion-controlled two-species annihilation with a finite number of particles. In this stochastic process, particles move diffusively, and when two particles of opposite type come into contact, the two annihilate. We focus on the behavior in three spatial dimensions and for initial conditions where particles are confined to a compact domain. Generally, one species outnumbers the other, and we find that the difference between the number of majority and minority species, which is a conserved quantity, controls the behavior. When the number difference exceeds a critical value, the minority becomes extinct and a finite number of majority particles survive, while below this critical difference, a finite number of particles of both species survive. The critical difference Δc grows algebraically with the total initial number of particles N , and when N ≫1 , the critical difference scales as Δc˜N1 /3 . Furthermore, when the initial concentrations of the two species are equal, the average number of surviving majority and minority particles, M+ and M-, exhibit two distinct scaling behaviors, M+˜N1 /2 and M-˜N1 /6 . In contrast, when the initial populations are equal, these two quantities are comparable M+˜M-˜N1 /3 .

  8. Positron annihilation in calcium-doped barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.T.; Zhang, X.W.; Smyth, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Positron Annihilation Technique (PAT) has been used to study lattice defects in CaO-doped BaTiO/sub 3/ having the general composition BaTi/sub 1-x/Ca/sub x/O/sub 3-x/, with x = 0, 0.005, 0.010, 0.015, and 0.020. The long lifetime, tau/sub 2/, and the mean lifetime, tau/sub m/, of the positrons were both found to increase with increasing Ca content, x, up to x = 0.015-0.020. This is in good agreement wit the solubility limit for Ca on Ti-sites in BaTiO/sub 3/ found by others from measurements of the equilibrium electrical conductivity, and by other investigators from x-ray diffraction studies. In these studies, it was shown that for compositions with (Ba+Ca)/Ti > 1, Ca can be forced to occupy Ti-sites up to 1.5-2%, where it acts as a doubly-charged acceptor center that is compensated by oxygen vacancies. It is suggested that the oxygen vacancies represent places where the annihilation of positrons is delayed because of the low local electron density. These results indicate that the PAT can be a useful tool for the characterization of the defect structure of complex oxides

  9. Experimental and theoretical study of yield and spectrum of photons obtained from positron annihilation in flight; Etude experimentale et theorique du nombre total de photons et de la forme de la raie obtenue par annihilation en vol de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audit, G; Botton, N de; Le Poittevin, G; Schuhl, C; Tamas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A computer program has been used to calculate the spectrum of photons obtained from positron annihilation in flight; the calculation takes account of multiple scattering and energy loss of positrons in the annihilation target. Results are presented in the energy range 150-450 MeV which is the one of Saclay Linear Accelerator. As a check, results of the calculation are compared with measurements carried out at the Saclay Linac of 45 MeV. (author) [French] Nous avons ecrit un programme permettant de calculer le spectre des photons obtenus par annihilation en vol de positons; le calcul tient compte de la diffusion multiple et de la perte d'energie des positons dans la cible d'annihilation. Nous donnons une serie de resultats dans la zone d'energie de 150 a 450 MeV qui correspond aux possibilites de l'Accelerateur Lineaire de Saclay. Les resultats du calcul sont confrontes a des mesures effectuees a l'Accelerateur Lineaire de 45 MeV de Saclay. (auteur)

  10. Constraints on the dark matter annihilation from Fermi-LAT observation of M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhengwei; Yuan, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Huang, Xiaoyuan [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, Garching, D-85748 Germany (Germany); Xu, Yupeng, E-mail: lizw@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: huangxiaoyuan@gmail.com, E-mail: yuanq@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuyp@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray is a good probe of dark matter (DM) particles in the Universe. We search for the DM annihilation signals in the direction of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using 7.5 year Fermi-LAT pass 8 data. Similar to Pshirkov et al. (2016), we find that there is residual excess emission from the direction of M31 if only the galactic disk as traced by the far infrared emission is considered. Adding a point-like source will improve the fitting effectively, although additional slight improvements can be found if an extended component such as a uniform disk or two bubbles is added instead. Taking the far infrared disk plus a point source as the background model, we search for the DM annihilation signals in the data. We find that there is strong degeneracy between the emission from the galaxy and that from 10s GeV mass DM annihilation in the main halo with quark final state. However, the required DM annihilation cross section is about 10{sup −25}–10{sup −24} cm{sup 3}s{sup −1}, orders of magnitude larger than the constraints from observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, indicating a non-DM origin of the emission. If DM subhalos are taken into account, the degeneracy is broken. When considering the enhancement from DM subhalos, the constraints on DM model parameters are comparable to (or slightly weaker than) those from the population of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We also discuss the inverse Compton scattering component from DM annihilation induced electrons/positrons. For the first time we include an energy dependent template of the inverse Compton emission (i.e., a template cube) in the data analysis to take into account the effect of diffusion of charged particles. We find a significant improvement of the constraints in the high mass range of DM particles after considering the inverse Compton emission.

  11. Time of flight spectra of electrons emitted from graphite after positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladen, R W; Chirayath, V A; Chrysler, M D; Mcdonald, A D; Fairchild, A J; Shastry, K; Koymen, A R; Weiss, A H

    2017-01-01

    Low energy (∼2 eV) positrons were deposited onto the surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) using a positron beam equipped with a time of flight (TOF) spectrometer. The energy of the electrons emitted as a result of various secondary processes due to positron annihilation was measured using the University of Texas at Arlington’s (UTA) TOF spectrometer. The positron annihilation-induced electron spectra show the presence of a carbon KLL Auger peak at ∼263 eV. The use of a very low energy beam allowed us to observe a new feature not previously seen: a broad peak which reached to a maximum intensity at ∼4 eV and extended up to a maximum energy of ∼15 eV. The low energy nature of the peak was confirmed by the finding that the peak was eliminated when a tube in front of the sample was biased at -15 V. The determination that the electrons in the peak are leaving the surface with energies up to 7 times the incoming positron energy indicates that the electrons under the broad peak were emitted as a result of a positron annihilation related process. (paper)

  12. Energetic neutrinos from heavy-neutralino annihilation in the Sun. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc

    1991-01-01

    Neutralinos may be captured in the sun and annihilated therein producing high-energy neutrinos. Present limits on the flux of such neutrinos from underground detectors such as IMB and Kamiokande 2 may be used to rule out certain supersymmetric dark matter candidates, while in many other supersymmetric models the rates are large enough that if neutralinos do reside in the galactic halo, observation of a neutrino signal may be possible in the near future. Neutralinos that are either nearly pure Higgsino or a Higgsino/gaugino combination are generally captured in the sun by coherent scattering off nuclei via exchange of the lightest Higgs boson. If the squark mass is not much greater than the neutralino mass, then capture of neutralinos that are primarily gaugino occurs predominantly by spin-dependent scattering off hydrogen in the sun. The neutrino signal from annihilation of WIMPs with masses in the range of 80 to 1000 GeV in the sun should generally be stronger than that from weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation in the earth, and detection rates for mixed-state neutralinos are generally higher than those for Higgsinos or gauginos.

  13. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjö, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    The prospects to detect neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes.

  14. Neutrinos from WIMP annihilations in the Sun including neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Edsjoe, Joakim; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2006-01-01

    The prospects for detecting neutrinos from the Sun arising from dark matter annihilations in the core of the Sun are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on new work investigating the effects of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes

  15. Positron annihilation in SiO 2-Si studied by a pulsed slow positron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.; Uedono, A.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Positron and positronium (Ps) behavior in SiO 2-Si have been studied by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and age-momentum correlation (AMOC) spectroscopy with a pulsed slow positron beam. The PALS study of SiO 2-Si samples, which were prepared by a dry-oxygen thermal process, revealed that the positrons implanted in the Si substrate and diffused back to the interface do not contribute to the ortho-Ps long-lived component, and the lifetime spectrum of the interface has at least two components. From the AMOC study, the momentum distribution of the ortho-Ps pick-off annihilation in SiO 2, which shows broader momentum distribution than that of crystalline Si, was found to be almost the same as that of free positron annihilation in SiO 2. A varied interface model was proposed to interpret the results of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) experiments. The narrow momentum distribution found in the n-type MOS with a negative gate bias voltage could be attributed to Ps formation and rapid spin exchange in the SiO 2-Si interface. We have developed a two-dimensional positron lifetime technique, which measures annihilation time and pulse height of the scintillation gamma-ray detector for each event. Using this technique, the positronium behavior in a porous SiO 2 film, grown by a sputtering method, has been studied.

  16. Positron annihilation studies of China's and Japan's magnesite refractory in different degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Lin-Juan; Zhang Cai-Guo; Zhu Xiu-Ying; Sun Quin-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Studying the magnesite refractories by positron annihilation technique, the obtained results show that China's and Japan's magnesite refractories in different degree form positron lifetime results have no obvious differences in microscopical properties. According to the positron annihilation lifetime results it was found that 1650 0 C is the best sintering temperature for this material. At this temperature positive ions in MgO are replaced by impurities, the solid solubility is higher. The positron average lifetime is more even and smooth with crystallization grain size changing. When grains increase, the positron average lifetime trends towards decreasing, which is in agreement with the crystal boundary theory of ceramic material. (author)

  17. Positron annihilation studies of mesoporous silica films using a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chunqing; Muramatsu, Makoto; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Kinomura, Atsushi; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Ito, Kenji; Kabayashi, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra were measured for mesoporous silica films, which were synthesized using triblock copolymer (EO 106 PO 70 EO 106 ) as a structure-directing agent. Different positron lifetime spectra for the deposited and calcined films indicated the formation of meso-structure after calcination, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation. Open porosity or pore interconnectivity of a silica film might be evaluated by a two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectrum of an uncapped film. Pore sizes and their distributions in the silica films were found to be affected by thermal treatments

  18. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy source correction determination: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Gurmeet S.; Keeble, David J., E-mail: d.j.keeble@dundee.ac.uk

    2016-02-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) can provide sensitive detection and identification of vacancy-related point defects in materials. These measurements are normally performed using a positron source supported, and enclosed by, a thin foil. Annihilation events from this source arrangement must be quantified and are normally subtracted from the spectrum before analysis of the material lifetime components proceeds. Here simulated PALS spectra reproducing source correction evaluation experiments have been systematically fitted and analysed using the packages PALSfit and MELT. Simulations were performed assuming a single lifetime material, and for a material with two lifetime components. Source correction terms representing a directly deposited source and various foil supported sources were added. It is shown that in principle these source terms can be extracted from suitably designed experiments, but that fitting a number of independent, nominally identical, spectra is recommended.

  19. Application of a digital data acquisition system for time of flight Positron annihilation-induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladen, R. W.; Chirayath, V. A.; McDonald, A. D.; Fairchild, A. J.; Chrysler, M. D.; Imam, S. K.; Koymen, A. R.; Weiss, A. H.

    We describe herein a digital data acquisition system for a time-of-flight Positron annihilation-induced Auger Electron Spectrometer. This data acquisition system consists of a high-speed digitizer collecting signals induced by Auger electrons and annihilation gammas in a multi-channel plate electron detector and a BaF2 gamma detector, respectively. The time intervals between these two signals is used to determine the times of flight of the Auger electrons, which are analyzed by algorithms based on traditional nuclear electronics methods. Ultimately, this digital data acquisition system will be expanded to incorporate the first coincidence measurements of Auger electron and annihilation gamma energies.

  20. Isotropic extragalactic flux from dark matter annihilations: lessons from interacting dark matter scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliné, Ángeles [CFTP, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Schewtschenko, Jascha A.; Boehm, Céline [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Baugh, Carlton M., E-mail: maria.moline@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jascha@schewtschenko.net, E-mail: Sergio.Palomares.Ruiz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: c.m.boehm@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: c.m.baugh@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology (ICC), Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    The extragalactic γ-ray and neutrino emission may have a contribution from dark matter (DM) annihilations. In the case of discrepancies between observations and standard predictions, one could infer the DM pair annihilation cross section into cosmic rays by studying the shape of the energy spectrum. So far all analyses of the extragalactic DM signal have assumed the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM) as the underlying theory. However, there are alternative DM scenarios where the number of low-mass objects is significantly suppressed. Therefore the characteristics of the γ-ray and neutrino emission in these models may differ from ΛCDM as a result. Here we show that the extragalactic isotropic signal in these alternative models has a similar energy dependence to that in ΛCDM, but the overall normalisation is reduced. The similarities between the energy spectra combined with the flux suppression could lead one to misinterpret possible evidence for models beyond ΛCDM as being due to CDM particles annihilating with a much weaker cross section than expected.

  1. Isotropic extragalactic flux from dark matter annihilations: lessons from interacting dark matter scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliné, Ángeles; Schewtschenko, Jascha A.; Boehm, Céline; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Baugh, Carlton M.

    2016-01-01

    The extragalactic γ-ray and neutrino emission may have a contribution from dark matter (DM) annihilations. In the case of discrepancies between observations and standard predictions, one could infer the DM pair annihilation cross section into cosmic rays by studying the shape of the energy spectrum. So far all analyses of the extragalactic DM signal have assumed the standard cosmological model (ΛCDM) as the underlying theory. However, there are alternative DM scenarios where the number of low-mass objects is significantly suppressed. Therefore the characteristics of the γ-ray and neutrino emission in these models may differ from ΛCDM as a result. Here we show that the extragalactic isotropic signal in these alternative models has a similar energy dependence to that in ΛCDM, but the overall normalisation is reduced. The similarities between the energy spectra combined with the flux suppression could lead one to misinterpret possible evidence for models beyond ΛCDM as being due to CDM particles annihilating with a much weaker cross section than expected.

  2. Electron shell contributions to gamma-ray spectra of positron annihilation in noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng; Selvam, Lalitha [Centre for Molecular Simulation, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Gribakin, Gleb F [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Surko, Clifford M, E-mail: fwang@swin.edu.a [Physics Department, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2010-08-28

    Gamma-ray positron annihilation spectra of the noble gases are simulated using computational chemistry tools for the bound electron wavefunctions and plane-wave approximation for the low-energy positron. The present annihilation line shapes, i.e. the full width at half maximum, {Delta}{epsilon}, of the {gamma}-ray annihilation spectra for He and Ar (valence) agree well with available independent atomic calculations using a different algorithm. For other noble gases they achieve moderate agreement with the experimental measurements. It is found that the contributions of various atomic electron shells to the spectra depend significantly on their principal quantum number n and orbital angular momentum quantum number l. The present study further reveals that the outermost ns electrons of the noble gases exhibit spectral line shapes in close agreement with those measured, indicating (as expected) that the measurements are not due to a simple sum over the momentum densities for all atomic electrons. The robust nature of the present approach makes it possible for us to proceed to more complex molecular systems using the tools of modern computational chemistry.

  3. Continuum photon spectrum from Z1Z1 annihilations in universal extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melbéus, Henrik; Merle, Alexander; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the continuum photon spectrum from the pair annihilation of a Z 1 LKP in non-minimal universal extra dimensions. We find that, due to the preferred annihilation into W + W - pairs, the continuum flux of collinear photons is relatively small compared to the standard case of the B 1 as the LKP. This conclusion applies in particular to the spectral endpoint, where also the additional fermionic contributions are not large enough to increase the flux significantly. When searching for the line signal originating from Z 1 Z 1 annihilations, this is actually a perfect situation, since the continuum signal can be regarded as background to the smoking gun signature of a peak in the photon flux at an energy that is nearly equal to the mass of the dark matter particle. This signal, in combination with (probably) a non-observation of the continuum signal at lower photon energies, constitutes a perfect handle to probe the hypothesis of the Z 1 LKP being the dominant component of the dark matter observed in the Universe.

  4. Pressure and temperature dependencies of o-Ps annihilation rates in ethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Juengerman, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report new results on the behavior of the sharp enhancement seen recently in the pickoff annihilation rates of orthopositronium atoms as functions of pressure and temperature of ethane gas

  5. Constraint on dark matter annihilation with dark star formation using Fermi extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Qiang; Yue, Bin; Chen, Xuelei; Zhang, Bing

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that during the formation of the first generation stars there might be a ''dark star'' phase in which the power of the star comes from dark matter annihilation. The adiabatic contraction process to form the dark star would result in a highly concentrated density profile of the host halo at the same time, which may give enhanced indirect detection signals of dark matter. In this work we investigate the extragalactic γ-ray background from dark matter annihilation with such a dark star formation scenario, and employ the isotropic γ-ray data from Fermi-LAT to constrain the model parameters of dark matter. The results suffer from large uncertainties of both the formation rate of the first generation stars and the subsequent evolution effects of the host halos of the dark stars. We find, in the most optimistic case for γ-ray production via dark matter annihilation, the expected extragalactic γ-ray flux will be enhanced by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In such a case, the annihilation cross section of the supersymmetric dark matter can be constrained to the thermal production level, and the leptonic dark matter model which is proposed to explain the positron/electron excesses can be well excluded. Conversely, if the positron/electron excesses are of a dark matter annihilation origin, then the early Universe environment is such that no dark star can form

  6. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy and its implementation at accelerator based low energy positron factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, A.; Koeymen, A.R.; Mehl, D.; Lee, K.H.; Yang Gimo; Jensen, K.

    1991-01-01

    Positron annihilation induced auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) makes use of a beam of low energy positrons to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons. The large secondary electron background usually present in Auger spectra can be eliminated by setting the positron beam energy well below the Auger electron energy. This allows true Auger lineshapes to be obtained. Further, because the positron is localized just outside the surface before it annihilates, PAES is extremely sensitive to the topmost atomic layer. Recent PAES results obtained at the University of Texas at Arlington will be presented. In addition, the use of high resolution energy analyzers with multichannel particle detection schemes to prevent problems due to the high data rates associated with accelerator based positron beams will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of scintillators and semiconductor detectors to image three-photon positron annihilation for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuelhia, E.; Spyrou, N.M.; Kacperski, K.; College University, Middlesex Hospital, London

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly becoming the main nuclear imaging modality of the present century. The future of PET instrumentation relies on semiconductor detectors because of their excellent characteristics. Three-photon positron annihilation has been recently investigated as a novel imaging modality, which demands the crucial high energy resolution of semiconductor detector. In this work the evaluation of the NaI(Tl) scintillator and HPGe and CdZTe semiconductor detectors, to construct a simple three-photon positron annihilation scanner has been explored. The effect of detector and scanner size on spatial resolution (FWHM) is discussed. The characteristics: energy resolution versus count rate and point-spread function of the three-photon positron annihilation image profile from triple coincidence measurements were investigated. (author)

  8. Peculiarities of the early Universe (Universes) birth and positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlov-Prokop'ev, E.P.

    2003-01-01

    Works on the problem of quantum birth of the Universe are reviewed. Possible peculiarities of electron-positron annihilation at the early stages of the Universe (s) birth in connection with black holes are considered. Possible concept of Eternity is discussed. (author)

  9. Reflection, transmutation, annihilation, and resonance in two-component kink collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the study of collisions between kinks arising in the family of MSTB models is addressed. Phenomena such as elastic kink reflection, mutual annihilation, kink-antikink transmutation and inelastic reflection are found and depend on the impact velocity.

  10. Finite-size effects on band structure of CdS nanocrystallites studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Soumitra; Biswas, Subhajit; Chaudhuri, Subhadra; Nambissan, P.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum confinement effects in nanocrystalline CdS were studied using positrons as spectroscopic probes to explore the defect characteristics. The lifetime of positrons annihilating at the vacancy clusters on nanocrystalline grain surfaces increased remarkably consequent to the onset of such finite-size effects. The Doppler broadened line shape was also found to reflect rather sensitively such distinct changes in the electron momentum redistribution scanned by the positrons, owing to the widening of the band gap. The nanocrystalline sizes of the samples used were confirmed from x-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy and the optical absorption results supported the quantum size effects. Positron annihilation results indicated distinct qualitative changes between CdS nanorods and the bulk sample, notwithstanding the identical x-ray diffraction pattern and close resemblance of the optical absorption spectra. The results are promising in the event of positron annihilation being proved to be a very successful tool for the study of such finite-size effects in semiconductor nanoparticles

  11. Investigation on the porosity of zeolite NU-88 by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolati, G.; Mariani, M.; Millini, R.; Quasso, F.

    2009-01-01

    Seven well characterized zeolites were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The lifetime spectra were analysed in four discrete components. The third one was associated with ortho-positronium annihilation in the channels, framed in terms of infinite cylinders. Differences between the radii determined from the positron annihilation technique and X-ray diffraction data were found and explained in terms of the physical structure of the channel. An analogous study on a high-silica NU-88 zeolite gave a value of 0.33 nm for the corresponding radius, in agreement with Ar and N 2 adsorption data as well as with the catalytic behaviour of this zeolite in several acid catalyzed reactions. The longest lifetime component in NU-88 reveals the existence of mesopores, with average radius of about 1.8 nm, which could explain the importance of hydrogen transfer reactions in this zeolite.

  12. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels irradiated in the SINQ target irradiation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Dai, Y.; Kikuchi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Titanium-doped austenitic stainless steel (JPCA) and reduced activated ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) irradiated with high-energy protons and spallation neutrons were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements. Subnanometer-sized (steel, the positron annihilation lifetime of the bubbles decreased with increasing irradiation dose and annealing temperature because the bubbles absorb additional He atoms. In the case of JPCA steel, the positron annihilation lifetime increased with increasing annealing temperature above 773 K, in which case the dissociation of complexes of vacancy clusters with He atoms and the growth of He bubbles was detected. He bubble size and density were also discussed.

  13. Positron annihilation characteristics of ODS and non-ODS EUROFER isochronally annealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Y.; Castro, V. de; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R.

    2008-01-01

    Yttrium oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and non-ODS EUROFER produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing have been subjected to isochronal annealing up to 1523 K, and the evolution of the open-volume defects and their thermal stability have been investigated using positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations have also been performed on the studied samples to verify the characteristics of the surviving defects after annealing at 1523 K. The CDB spectra of ODS EUROFER exhibit a characteristic signature that is attributed to positron annihilation in Ar-decorated cavities at the oxide particle/matrix interfaces. The variation of the positron annihilation parameters with the annealing temperature shows three stages: up to 623 K, between 823 and 1323 K, and above 1323 K. Three-dimensional vacancy clusters, or voids, are detected in either materials in as-HIPed condition and after annealing at T ≤ 623 K. In the temperature range 823-1323 K, these voids' growth and nucleation and the growth of other new species of voids take place. Above 1323 K, some unstable cavities start to anneal out, and cavities associated to oxide particles and other small precipitates survive to annealing at 1523 K. The TEM observations and the positron annihilation results indicate that these cavities should be decorated with Ar atoms absorbed during the mechanical alloying process

  14. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-04-27

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e{sup +}e{sup -} dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  15. Positron annihilation characteristics of ODS and non-ODS EUROFER isochronally annealed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)], E-mail: yanicet@fis.ucm.es; Castro, V. de; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2008-05-31

    Yttrium oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and non-ODS EUROFER produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing have been subjected to isochronal annealing up to 1523 K, and the evolution of the open-volume defects and their thermal stability have been investigated using positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations have also been performed on the studied samples to verify the characteristics of the surviving defects after annealing at 1523 K. The CDB spectra of ODS EUROFER exhibit a characteristic signature that is attributed to positron annihilation in Ar-decorated cavities at the oxide particle/matrix interfaces. The variation of the positron annihilation parameters with the annealing temperature shows three stages: up to 623 K, between 823 and 1323 K, and above 1323 K. Three-dimensional vacancy clusters, or voids, are detected in either materials in as-HIPed condition and after annealing at T {<=} 623 K. In the temperature range 823-1323 K, these voids' growth and nucleation and the growth of other new species of voids take place. Above 1323 K, some unstable cavities start to anneal out, and cavities associated to oxide particles and other small precipitates survive to annealing at 1523 K. The TEM observations and the positron annihilation results indicate that these cavities should be decorated with Ar atoms absorbed during the mechanical alloying process.

  16. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e + e - pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e + e - pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e + e - pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e + e - plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e + e - dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  17. 22 Na positron source for annihilation positron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpeanu, Catalina; Craciun, L.; Dragulescu, E.; Dudu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the nuclear physics applications and to perform the study of vacancy - type defects in metals, semiconductors, polymers etc., we decided to promote positron annihilation techniques. In order to achieve this goal we started a project of dedicated positron sources produced at the IFIN-HH U-120 Cyclotron. We have used the nuclear reaction: 24 Mg(d,α) 22 Na with deuterons of 13 MeV energy. The paper presents the main characteristics of this procedure, as follows: general conditions asked for 22 NaCl sources, reactive chamber and characteristics of Mg target, parameters for the irradiation, radiochemical procedures for separating Na from Mg after the irradiation and geometrical or mechanical requirements for dedicated NaCl source for positron annihilation spectrometry. In the e + lifetime measurements, the e + end - start signals may be obtained from prompt γ -quanta emitted from the NaCl source (1. 275 MeV photons). The 22 NaCl stock solution obtained by radiochemical separation will be kept in quartz sealed ampoules in dry places and will be dropped between the study materials before the use in positron spectrometry. (authors)

  18. 22 Na positron source for annihilation positron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpeanu, Catalina; Craciun, Liviu; Dragulescu, Emilian; Dudu, Dorin; Racolta, Petre Mihai; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    2005-01-01

    To extend the nuclear physics applications and to perform the study of vacancy - type defects in metals, semiconductors, polymers, etc., we developed new positron annihilation techniques. In line with this goal we started a project for production of positron sources at the IFIN-HH U-120 Cyclotron. We made use of the nuclear reaction: 24 Mg(d,α) 22 Na with deuterons of 13 MeV energy. The paper present the main steps of this procedure which are: establishing the conditions required for 22 NaCl sources, for the parameters of reaction chamber and the characteristics of Mg target, parameters for the irradiation, radiochemical procedures for separation of Na from Mg after irradiation as well as the geometrical and mechanical requirements for the NaCl source. In the e + lifetime measurements the e + 'stop' signals are always provided by gamma - quanta generated by the e + e - annihilation and the 'start' signals are obtained from 'prompt' gamma - quanta emitted by the NaCl source (1.275 MeV photons). The 22 NaCl stock solution obtained by radiochemical separation will be kept in quartz sealed ampoules. (authors)

  19. Detection of tokamak plasma positrons using annihilation photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guanying, Yu; Liu, Jian; Xie, Jinlin [University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Li, Jiangang, E-mail: j_li@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A design for detection of tokamak plasma positrons is given. • Identify the main obstacle toward experimental confirmation of fusion plasma positrons. • Signal to noise ratio in a plasma disruption is estimated. • Unique potential applications of fusion plasma positrons are discussed. - Abstract: A massive amount of positrons (plasma positrons), produced by the collision between runaway electrons and nuclei during fusion plasma disruption, was first predicted theoretically in 2003. To help confirm this prediction, we report here the design of an experimental system to detect tokamak plasma positrons. Because a substantial amount of positrons (material positrons) are produced when runaway electrons impact plasma-facing materials, we proposed maximizing the ratio of plasma to material positrons by inserting a thin carbon target at the plasma edge as a plasma positron bombing target and producing a plasma disruption scenario triggered by massive gas injection. Meanwhile, the coincidence detection of positron annihilation photons was used to filter out the noise of annihilation photons from locations other than the carbon target and that of bremsstrahlung photons near 511 keV. According to our simulation, the overall signal-to-noise ratio should be more than 10:1.

  20. Importance of non-local electron-positron correlations for positron annihilation characteristics in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubaszek, A.

    2001-01-01

    Several methods to describe the electron-positron (e-p) correlation effects are used in calculations of positron annihilation characteristics in solids. The weighted density approximation (WDA), giving rise to the non-local, state-selective e-p correlation functions, is applied to calculate positron annihilation rates and e-p momentum densities in a variety of metals and silicon. The WDA results are compared to the results of other methods such as the independent particle model, local density approximation, generalised gradient approximation, and also to experiments. The importance of non-locality and state-dependence of the e-p correlation functions is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Systematics in Bi-2201, -2212 and -2223 superconductors studied by positron annihilation radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, D.; Banerjee, D.; De, Udayan

    1998-01-01

    Positron lifetimes in Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca (n-1) Cu n O (2n+4+δ) or Bi-22(n-1)n superconducting compounds for n=1, 2 and 3 have been determined from positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy of associated γ-radiations. Bulk lifetime is shown to increase systematically with increase of n, the number of CuO 2 -layers in the Bi-22(n-1)n compound. Positron annihilation probing of structural units of this perovskite-like crystal system has thus been demonstrated

  2. Experimental results on QCD [Quantum Chromodynamics] from e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boer, W.

    1987-09-01

    A review is given on QCD results from studying e + e - annihilation with the PEP and PETRA storage rings with special emphasis on jet physics and the determination of the strong coupling constant α/sub s/. 92 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs

  3. On the simulation of annihilation process of positrons in flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrynin, Yu.L.

    1988-01-01

    The process of annihilation (AN) of positrons with the energy lower than 50 MeV in flight is sequentially considered.Formulae and data tables necessary for calculating probabilities and kinematics of AN process are presented in a suitable for computerized simulation algorithmic form

  4. Explanation of the 511 keV line. Cascade annihilating dark matter with the {sup 8}Be anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Lian-Bao [Southwest University of Science and Technology, School of Science, Mianyang (China)

    2018-02-15

    A possible dark matter (DM) explanation about the long-standing issue of the Galactic 511 keV line is explored in this paper. For DM cascade annihilations of concern, a DM pair π{sub d}{sup +}π{sub d}{sup -} annihilates into unstable π{sub d}{sup 0}π{sub d}{sup 0}, and π{sub d}{sup 0} decays into e{sup +}e{sup -} with new interactions suggested by the {sup 8}Be anomaly. Considering the constraints from the effective neutrino number N{sub eff} and the 511 keV gamma-ray emission, a range of DM is obtained, 11.6 annihilation cross section today is about 3.3 x 10{sup -29} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, which can give an explanation about the 511 keV line. The MeV scale DM may be searched by the DM-electron scattering, and the upper limit set by the CMB s-wave annihilation is derived in DM direct detections. (orig.)

  5. Positron annihilation radiation from the Galactic center - Cheshire cat' Compton scattering and the origin of excess continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildsten, L.; Zurek, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Two observations of the gamma-ray spectrum from the direction of the Galactic center were made by HEAO 3 in the fall of 1979 and the spring of 1980. The 2-gamma 511 keV annihilation line flux decreased by a factor of about three during the 6 months between these observations, while the excess gamma-ray continuum below the annihilation line, often interpreted as 3-gamma decay of orthopositronium, barely changed. This discrepancy in temporal behavior makes the identification of the bulk of excess continuum as 3-gamma decay of positronium difficult. It is shown that Compton scattering of the line and high-energy radiation provides a natural explanation for the surprisingly small changes seen in the excess continuum. Scattered photons are delayed by a time corresponding to the size of the scattering region. For the annihilation source in the Galactic center, this distance is probably a fraction of a parsec. Thus, even after the high-energy continuum and annihilation line are gone, low-energy Compton-scattered photons can still be detected with an almost unchanged flux. 23 references

  6. SEARCH FOR DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION SIGNALS FROM THE FORNAX GALAXY CLUSTER WITH H.E.S.S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowski, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Acero, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Astroparticules, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 70, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia); Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barnacka, A. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Barres de Almeida, U. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Becherini, Y. [Astroparticule et Cosmologie (APC), CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becker, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D 44780 Bochum (Germany); Behera, B. [Landessternwarte, Universitaet Heidelberg, Koenigstuhl, D 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Birsin, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D 12489 Berlin (Germany); Biteau, J.; Brun, F. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon (France); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bordas, P., E-mail: bjoern.opitz@desy.de [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-05-10

    The Fornax galaxy cluster was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System for a total live time of 14.5 hr, searching for very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) {gamma}-rays from dark matter (DM) annihilation. No significant signal was found in searches for point-like and extended emissions. Using several models of the DM density distribution, upper limits on the DM velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section ({sigma}v) as a function of the DM particle mass are derived. Constraints are derived for different DM particle models, such as those arising from Kaluza-Klein and supersymmetric models. Various annihilation final states are considered. Possible enhancements of the DM annihilation {gamma}-ray flux, due to DM substructures of the DM host halo, or from the Sommerfeld effect, are studied. Additional {gamma}-ray contributions from internal bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton radiation are also discussed. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, the exclusion limits at 95% of confidence level reach values of ({sigma}v){sup 95%C.L.} {approx} 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}, depending on the DM particle model and halo properties. Additional contribution from DM substructures can improve the upper limits on ({sigma}v) by more than two orders of magnitude. At masses around 4.5 TeV, the enhancement by substructures and the Sommerfeld resonance effect results in a velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section upper limit at the level of ({sigma}v){sup 95%C.L.} {approx}10{sup -26} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}.

  7. SEARCH FOR DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION SIGNALS FROM THE FORNAX GALAXY CLUSTER WITH H.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Brun, F.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Fornax galaxy cluster was observed with the High Energy Stereoscopic System for a total live time of 14.5 hr, searching for very high energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) γ-rays from dark matter (DM) annihilation. No significant signal was found in searches for point-like and extended emissions. Using several models of the DM density distribution, upper limits on the DM velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section (σv) as a function of the DM particle mass are derived. Constraints are derived for different DM particle models, such as those arising from Kaluza-Klein and supersymmetric models. Various annihilation final states are considered. Possible enhancements of the DM annihilation γ-ray flux, due to DM substructures of the DM host halo, or from the Sommerfeld effect, are studied. Additional γ-ray contributions from internal bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton radiation are also discussed. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, the exclusion limits at 95% of confidence level reach values of (σv) 95%C.L. ∼ 10 –23 cm 3 s –1 , depending on the DM particle model and halo properties. Additional contribution from DM substructures can improve the upper limits on (σv) by more than two orders of magnitude. At masses around 4.5 TeV, the enhancement by substructures and the Sommerfeld resonance effect results in a velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section upper limit at the level of (σv) 95%C.L. ∼10 –26 cm 3 s –1 .

  8. Positron annihilation lifetime measurement of electron-irradiated ZnO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, N.; Takenaka, M.; Kuramoto, E.

    1992-01-01

    In order to clarify the basic properties of radiation-induced defects in ZnO crystals positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed for the ZnO crystals irradiated by 28 MeV electrons at 77 K. The electron-irradiation induced the color change of the specimens from the original yellowish-white to the orange and long lifetime component of about 200 psec. The isochronal annealing experiments showed that the decrease of the positron annihilation lifetime appeared in the temperature range between 423 and 473 K and between 723 and 923 K. The radiation-induced color change disappeared in the first temperature range. It can be considered that the first stage corresponds to migration and recovery of radiation-induced oxygen vacancies. It is difficult to identify the second stage, but it might be the recovery stage of small ZnO interstitial clusters formed through clustering of Zn and O interstitials

  9. Identification of equilibrium and irradiation-induced defects in nuclear ceramics: electronic structure calculations of defect properties and positron annihilation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor, Julia

    2015-01-01

    During in-pile irradiation the fission of actinide nuclei causes the creation of large amounts of defects, which affect the physical and chemical properties of materials inside the reactor, in particular the fuel and structural materials. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) can be used to characterize irradiation induced defects, empty or containing fission products. This non-destructive experimental technique involves detecting the radiation generated during electron-positron annihilation in a sample and deducing the properties of the material studied. As positrons get trapped in open volume defects in solids, by measuring their lifetime and momentum distributions of the annihilation radiation, one can obtain information on the open and the chemical environments of the defects. In this work electronic structure calculations of positron annihilation characteristics were performed using two-component density functional theory (TCDFT). To calculate the momentum distributions of the annihilation radiation, we implemented the necessary methods in the open-source ABINIT program. The theoretical results have been used to contribute to the identification of the vacancy defects in two nuclear ceramics, silicon carbide (SiC) and uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). (author) [fr

  10. Studying the gelation process of titanium isopropoxide by method of positron annihilation spectroscopy; Studium procesu gelacie izopropoxidu titaniciteho metodou pozitronovej anihilacnej spektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyblova, D.; Jesenak, K. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra anorganickej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Sausa, O. [Slovenska akademia vied, Fyzikalny ustav, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Thank to its harmlessness titanium dioxide is widely utilized material. One of the new areas to use titanium dioxide is photocatalysis, which could be the way to e.g. remove organic pollutants from water or air. Titanium dioxide based gels are perspective form of TiO{sub 2} for photocatalysis because of their high porosity thus high surface area. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a physical method to study microporous structure and electron energy distribution in materials. We studied gelation process of titanium isopropoxide in ethanol with various amount of water catalyzed by hydrochloric acid by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and doppler broadening of annihilation line in this work. Positronium is weakly formed in TiO{sub 2} in general wherefore it cannot be monitored by positron annihilation spectroscopy very well. Gelation process can be monitored through pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium. (authors)

  11. Gamma-ray signatures of annihilation to charged leptons in dark matter substructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their higher concentrations and small internal velocities, Milky Way subhalos can be at least as important as the smooth halo in accounting for the GeV positron excess via dark matter annihilation. After showing how this can be achieved in various scenarios, including in Sommerfeld models, we demonstrate that, in this case, the diffuse inverse-Compton emission resulting from electrons and positrons produced in substructure leads to a nearly-isotropic signal close to the level of the isotropic GeV gamma-ray background seen by Fermi. Moreover, we show that HESS cosmic-ray electron measurements can be used to constrain multi-TeV internal bremsstrahlung gamma rays arising from annihilation to charged leptons.

  12. Entropic formulation of the uncertainty principle for the number and annihilation operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegin, Alexey E

    2011-01-01

    An entropic approach to formulating uncertainty relations for the number-annihilation pair is considered. We construct some normal operator that traces the annihilation operator as well as commuting quadratures with a complete system of common eigenfunctions. Expanding the measured wave function with respect to them, one obtains a relevant probability distribution. Another distribution is naturally generated by measuring the number operator. Due to the Riesz-Thorin theorem, there exists a nontrivial inequality between corresponding functionals of the above distributions. We find the bound in this inequality and further derive uncertainty relations in terms of both the Rényi and Tsallis entropies. Entropic uncertainty relations for a continuous distribution as well as relations for a discretized one are presented. (comment)

  13. Positron annihilation study of Pd contacts on impurity-doped GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Lam; Kim, Jong Kyu; Weber, Marc H.; Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2001-01-01

    Pd contacts on both n-type and p-type GaN were studied using positron annihilation spectroscopy, and the results were used to interpret the role of Ga vacancies on the band bending below the contacts. The concentration of Ga vacancy in Si-doped GaN was higher than that in the Mg-doped one. In Si-doped GaN, implanted positrons were annihilated at the nearer surface region and the interface of Pd/n-type GaN was detected by positrons clearly shifted toward the surface of Pd. This suggests that Ga vacancies could act as an interface state, pinning the Fermi level at the interface of Pd with GaN, leading to the production of a negative electric field below the interface. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  14. Irradiation-induced defects in ZnO studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, F.; Saarinen, K.; Look, D.C.

    2004-01-01

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the point defects induced by 2 MeV electron irradiation (fluence 6 x 10 17 cm -2 ) in single crystal n-type ZnO samples. The positron lifetime measurements have shown that the zinc vacancies in their doubly negative charge state, which act as dominant compensating centers in the as-grown material, are produced in the irradiation and their contribution to the electrical compensation is important. The lifetime measurements reveal also the presence of competing positron traps with low binding energy and lifetime close to that of the bulk lattice. The analysis of the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line indicates that these defects can be identified as neutral oxygen vacancies. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. High Energy Electron Signals from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Philip; /SLAC; Toro, Natalia; /Stanford U., ITP; Weiner, Neal; Yavin, Itay; /New York U., CCPP

    2012-04-09

    In this paper we discuss two mechanisms by which high energy electrons resulting from dark matter annihilations in or near the Sun can arrive at the Earth. Specifically, electrons can escape the sun if DM annihilates into long-lived states, or if dark matter scatters inelastically, which would leave a halo of dark matter outside of the sun. Such a localized source of electrons may affect the spectra observed by experiments with narrower fields of view oriented towards the sun, such as ATIC, differently from those with larger fields of view such as Fermi. We suggest a simple test of these possibilities with existing Fermi data that is more sensitive than limits from final state radiation. If observed, such a signal will constitute an unequivocal signature of dark matter.

  16. Study of Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troev, T.; Zolov, R.; Dimova, V.; Levay, B.

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma spectra obtained from positron-electron annihilation in pure polycrystalline zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron have been investigated. The line shapes were measured by a Ge(Li) detector in coincidence with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The results are quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positrons are trapped by impurity atoms and vacancy-impurity pairs in zinc containing 0.05 at. % iron. (author)

  17. Significant Enhancement of Neutralino Dark Matter Annihilation from Electroweak Bremsstrahlung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bringmann, T.; Calore, F.

    2014-01-01

    ndirect searches for the cosmological dark matter have become ever more competitive during the past years. Here, we report the first full calculation of leading electroweak corrections to the annihilation rate of supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. We find that these corrections can be huge,

  18. Baryon pair production in e+e- annihilation at √s = 2.4 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Nigro, M.; Pescara, L.; Posocco, M.; Sartori, P.; Stanco, L.; Antonelli, A.; Biagini, M.E.; Baldini, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Schioppa, M.

    1990-04-01

    Search for baryon pair production in e + e - annihilation at √s = 2386 MeV is reported. The data relate to a luminosity of 161 nb -1 collected by the DM2 experiment at DCI, the Orsay colliding ring. First measurement of direct e + e - annihilation into ΛantiΛ and of e + e - → pantip at this energy are presented. First observation of a good e + e - → nantin, candidate is reported and upper limits are given for e + e - → nantin, ΛantiΣ 0 + c.c. and Σ 0 antiΣ 0

  19. Systematics in Bi-2201, -2212 and -2223 superconductors studied by positron annihilation radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, D.; Banerjee, D. [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India); De, Udayan [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India)

    1998-12-01

    Positron lifetimes in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub (n-1)}Cu{sub n}O{sub (2n+4+{delta}}{sub )} or Bi-22(n-1)n superconducting compounds for n=1, 2 and 3 have been determined from positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy of associated {gamma}-radiations. Bulk lifetime is shown to increase systematically with increase of n, the number of CuO{sub 2}-layers in the Bi-22(n-1)n compound. Positron annihilation probing of structural units of this perovskite-like crystal system has thus been demonstrated.

  20. Annihilation probability density and other applications of the Schwinger multichannel method to the positron and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varella, Marcio Teixeira do Nascimento

    2001-12-01

    We have calculated annihilation probability densities (APD) for positron collisions against He atom and H 2 molecule. It was found that direct annihilation prevails at low energies, while annihilation following virtual positronium (Ps) formation is the dominant mechanism at higher energies. In room-temperature collisions (10 -2 eV) the APD spread over a considerable extension, being quite similar to the electronic densities of the targets. The capture of the positron in an electronic Feshbach resonance strongly enhanced the annihilation rate in e + -H 2 collisions. We also discuss strategies to improve the calculation of the annihilation parameter (Z eff ), after debugging the computational codes of the Schwinger Multichannel Method (SMC). Finally, we consider the inclusion of the Ps formation channel in the SMC and show that effective configurations (pseudo eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of the collision ) are able to significantly reduce the computational effort in positron scattering calculations. Cross sections for electron scattering by polyatomic molecules were obtained in three different approximations: static-exchange (SE); tatic-exchange-plus-polarization (SEP); and multichannel coupling. The calculations for polar targets were improved through the rotational resolution of scattering amplitudes in which the SMC was combined with the first Born approximation (FBA). In general, elastic cross sections (SE and SEP approximations) showed good agreement with available experimental data for several targets. Multichannel calculations for e - -H 2 O scattering, on the other hand, presented spurious structures at the electronic excitation thresholds (author)

  1. Revisiting Bremsstrahlung emission associated with Light Dark Matter annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, C

    2006-01-01

    We compute the single bremsstrahlung emission associated with the pair annihilation of spin-0 particles into electrons and positrons, via the t-channel exchange of a heavy fermion. We compare our result with the work of Beacom et al. . Unlike what is stated in the literature, we show that the Bremsstrahlung cross section is not necessarily given by the tree-level annihilation cross section (for a generalized kinematics) times a factor related to the emission of a soft photon. Such a factorization appears only in the soft photon limit or in the approximation where the masses of the particles in the initial and final states are negligible with respect to the mass of the internal particle. However, in the latter case, we do not recover the same factor as for e^+ e- --> mu^+ mu^- gamma. Numerically the difference, in the hard photon limit, is as large as a factor 3.6. However the effect on the upper limit of the dark matter mass is not significant. Using gamma ray observations, we obtain an upper limit on the dar...

  2. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Hajdukovic, D; Knudsen, H; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  3. Study of the Van Cittert and Gold iterative methods of deconvolution and their application in the deconvolution of experimental spectra of positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandzuch, P.; Morhac, M.; Kristiak, J.

    1997-01-01

    The study of deconvolution by Van Cittert and Gold iterative algorithms and their use in the processing of experimental spectra of Doppler broadening of the annihilation line in positron annihilation measurement is described. By comparing results from both algorithms it was observed that the Gold algorithm was able to eliminate linear instability of the measuring equipment if one uses the 1274 keV 22 Na peak, that was measured simultaneously with the annihilation peak, for deconvolution of annihilation peak 511 keV. This permitted the measurement of small changes of the annihilation peak (e.g. S-parameter) with high confidence. The dependence of γ-ray-like peak parameters on the number of iterations and the ability of these algorithms to distinguish a γ-ray doublet with different intensities and positions were also studied. (orig.)

  4. Annihilation model of the Tormac sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1979-02-01

    A one-dimensional, steady state fluid model is developed to describe the boundary layer between plasma and magnetic field that occurs in the Tormac sheath. Similar systems which may be treatable by the same model are tokamaks with divertors and reversed field mirrors. The model includes transport across the magnetic field as well as mirror losses along the field, the latter being represented as annihilation terms in the one-dimensional equations. The model equations are derived from the two-dimensional, time dependent hierarchy of equations generated by taking velocity moments of the kinetic equation including collisions

  5. On baryogenesis from dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Colucci, Stefano; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Josse-Michaux, François-Xavier; Racker, J.

    2013-01-01

    We study in detail the conditions to generate the baryon asymmetry of the universe from the annihilation of dark matter. This scenario requires a low energy mechanism for thermal baryogenesis, hence we first discuss some of these mechanisms together with the specific constraints due to the connection with the dark matter sector. Then we show that, contrary to what stated in previous studies, it is possible to generate the cosmological asymmetry without adding a light sterile dark sector, both in models with violation and with conservation of B−L. In addition, one of the models we propose yields some connection to neutrino masses

  6. Study of wino pair production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Tomoki; Kizukuri, Yoshiki; Oshimo, Noriyuki; Otake, Yoshie; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1987-01-01

    We discuss wino pair production in e + e - annihilation and subsequent leptonic wino decay for various types of supersymmetric or supergravity models. Phenomenological predictions on this process depend considerably on a specific model. We analyze the energy distribution, forward-backward asymmetry and angular distribution of a charged lepton in the final state. (Author shortened by G.Q.)

  7. Positrons from supernova and the origin of the galactic-center positron-annihilation radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The emission of positrons from supernova ejecta is dicussed in terms of the galactic-center annihilation radiation. The positrons from the radioactive sequences 56 Ni→ 56 Co→ 56 Fe are the most numerous source from supernova. Only type I supernova will allow a significant fraction to escape the expanding ejecta. For a neutron star model of a type I SN a fraction 4 x 10 -3 of the escaped positron is enough to create the observed several year fluctuation of the annihilation radiation. The likelihood of this model is discussed in terms of other astrophysical evidence as well as the type I SN light curve

  8. Decaying vs. annihilating dark matter in light of a tentative gamma-ray line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmüller, Wilfried; Garny, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Recently reported tentative evidence for a gamma-ray line in the Fermi-LAT data is of great potential interest for identifying the nature of dark matter. We compare the implications for decaying and annihilating dark matter taking the constraints from continuum gamma-rays, antiproton flux and morphology of the excess into account. We find that higgsino and wino dark matter are excluded, also for nonthermal production. Generically, the continuum gamma-ray flux severely constrains annihilating dark matter. Consistency of decaying dark matter with the spatial distribution of the Fermi-LAT excess would require an enhancement of the dark matter density near the Galactic center

  9. Decaying vs annihilating dark matter in light of a tentative gamma-ray line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Garny, Mathias

    2012-06-15

    Recently reported tentative evidence for a gamma-ray line in the Fermi-LAT data is of great potential interest for identifying the nature of dark matter. We compare the implications for decaying and annihilating dark matter taking the constraints from continuum gamma-rays, antiproton flux and morphology of the excess into account. We find that higgsino and wino dark matter are excluded, also for nonthermal production. Generically, the continuum gamma-ray ux severely constrains annihilating dark matter. Consistency of decaying dark matter with the spatial distribution of the Fermi-LAT excess would require an enhancement of the dark matter density near the Galactic center.

  10. Dark matter annihilations into two light fermions and one gauge boson. General analysis and antiproton constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    We study in this paper the scenario where the dark matter is constituted by Majo- rana particles which couple to a light Standard Model fermion and an extra scalar via a Yukawa coupling. In this scenario, the annihilation rate into the light fermions with the mediation of the scalar particle is strongly suppressed by the mass of the fermion. Nevertheless, the helicity suppression is lifted by the associated emission of a gauge boson, yielding annihilation rates which could be large enough to allow the indirect detection of the dark matter particles. We perform a general analysis of this scenario, calculating the annihilation cross section of the processes χχ → f anti fV when the dark matter particle is a SU(2) L singlet or doublet, f is a lepton or a quark, and V is a photon, a weak gauge boson or a gluon. We point out that the annihilation rate is particularly enhanced when the dark matter particle is degenerate in mass to the intermediate scalar particle, which is a scenario barely constrained by collider searches of exotic charged or colored particles. Lastly, we derive upper limits on the relevant cross sections from the non-observation of an excess in the cosmic antiproton-to-proton ratio measured by PAMELA. (orig.)

  11. Dark matter annihilations into two light fermions and one gauge boson. General analysis and antiproton constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2011-12-15

    We study in this paper the scenario where the dark matter is constituted by Majo- rana particles which couple to a light Standard Model fermion and an extra scalar via a Yukawa coupling. In this scenario, the annihilation rate into the light fermions with the mediation of the scalar particle is strongly suppressed by the mass of the fermion. Nevertheless, the helicity suppression is lifted by the associated emission of a gauge boson, yielding annihilation rates which could be large enough to allow the indirect detection of the dark matter particles. We perform a general analysis of this scenario, calculating the annihilation cross section of the processes {chi}{chi} {yields} f anti fV when the dark matter particle is a SU(2){sub L} singlet or doublet, f is a lepton or a quark, and V is a photon, a weak gauge boson or a gluon. We point out that the annihilation rate is particularly enhanced when the dark matter particle is degenerate in mass to the intermediate scalar particle, which is a scenario barely constrained by collider searches of exotic charged or colored particles. Lastly, we derive upper limits on the relevant cross sections from the non-observation of an excess in the cosmic antiproton-to-proton ratio measured by PAMELA. (orig.)

  12. Characterizing free volumes and layer structures in polymeric membranes using slow positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y C; Chen Hongmin; Awad, Somia; Zhang Sui; Chen Hangzheng; Lau, Cher Hon; Wang Huan; Li Fuyun; Chung, Tai-Shung; Lee, L James; Huang, James

    2011-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy coupled with a newly built slow positron beam at National University of Singapore has been used to study the free volume, pore, and depth profile (0 - 10 μm) in cellulose acetate polymeric membrane at the bottom and top sides of membranes for ionic separation in water purification applications. The S and R parameters from Doppler broadening energy of annihilation radiation representing free volumes (0.1-1 nm size) and pores (>1 nm-μm) as a function of depth have been analyzed into multilayers, i.e. skin dense, transition, and porous layers, respectively. The top side of membrane has large free volumes and pores and the bottom side has a skin dense layer, which plays a key role in membrane performance. Positron annihilation lifetime results provide additional information about free-volume size and distribution at the atomic and molecular scale in polymeric membrane systems. Doppler broadening energy and lifetime spectroscopies coupled with a variable mono-energy slow positron beam are sensitive and novel techniques for characterization of polymeric membrane in separation applications.

  13. Strangeness production in antiproton annihilation at rest on 3He, 4He and 20Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Falomkin, I.V.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Tretyak, V.I.; Bendiscioli, G.; Filippini, V.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Venaglioni, A.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Tosello, F.; Breivik, F.O.; Danielsen, K.M.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.; Guaraldo, C.; Maggiora, A.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Brescia Univ.; Zenoni, A.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    1991-01-01

    New data are reported on antiproton annihilations at rest with production of Λ and K S 0 , using a streamer chamber with 3 He, 4 He and 20 Ne as gas targets. The data include Λ, K S 0 , ΛK S 0 and K S 0 K S 0 production rates and momentum distributions, π - momentum spectra, mean numbers of charged particles generally and of negatively charged particles separately for different reaction channels. The yields are compared to simple combinatorial calculations based on the extreme assumptions of Λ production via B=1 or via B=0 (anti K rescattering) annihilations. Λ and K S 0 momentum spectra are compared to simple model calculations where B=0 and B=1 annihilations with and without final-state interactions are considered. A review of existing data on Λ and K S 0 production is presented, showing the dependence on the anti p momentum and on the mass number of the target. (orig.)

  14. Dark matter annihilation into four-body final states and implications for the AMS antiproton excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven J.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Strigari, Louis E.

    2018-01-01

    We consider dark matter annihilation into a general set of final states of standard model particles, including two-body and four-body final states that result from the decay of intermediate states. For dark matter masses ˜10 - 105 GeV , we use updated data from Planck and from high gamma-ray experiments such as Fermi-LAT, MAGIC, and VERITAS to constrain the annihilation cross section for each final state. The Planck constraints are the most stringent over the entire mass range for annihilation into light leptons, and the Fermi-LAT constraints are the most stringent for four-body final states up to masses ˜104 GeV . We consider these constraints in light of the recent AMS antiproton results, and show that for light mediators it is possible to explain the AMS data with dark matter, and remain consistent with Fermi-LAT Inner Galaxy measurements, for mχ˜60 - 100 GeV mass dark matter and mediator masses mϕ/mχ≲1 .

  15. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Study of Pure and Doped Polyvinyl Chloride with Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hady, E.E.; Hamdy, F. M. M.; Alaa, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime of pure and doped polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with Al 2 O 3 reflect the effect of concentration as well as temperature on free volume. Therefore, variations of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity have been correlated with changes in the dielectric properties of the pure and doped PVC. The o-Ps lifetime and its intensity show a linear dependence with a discontinuity at 20 % concentration of Al 2 O 3 . The size and the fractional of the o-Ps hole volume were estimated from the positron annihilation parameters. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and the positron annihilation parameters on pure and doped PVC with 20 % Al 2 O 3 were studied in the range from 20 to 140 degree C. The shift of the glass transition temperature to lower temperature for the 20 % Al 2 O 3 doped PVC might explain the increase in the electrical conductivity with the concentration of the additive

  16. Irradiation-induced defects in ZnO studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, F.; Saarinen, K. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology (Finland); Look, D.C. [Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio (United States)

    2004-08-01

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the point defects induced by 2 MeV electron irradiation (fluence 6 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}) in single crystal n-type ZnO samples. The positron lifetime measurements have shown that the zinc vacancies in their doubly negative charge state, which act as dominant compensating centers in the as-grown material, are produced in the irradiation and their contribution to the electrical compensation is important. The lifetime measurements reveal also the presence of competing positron traps with low binding energy and lifetime close to that of the bulk lattice. The analysis of the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line indicates that these defects can be identified as neutral oxygen vacancies. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Temperature dependence of o-Ps annihilation lifetime in non-uniform cylindrical pores in comparison with ETE model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaghani, Morteza, E-mail: m.khaghani@pgs.usb.ac.ir; Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, Ali Akbar, E-mail: mehmandoost@phys.usb.ac.ir

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Using the well known multi-physics program COMSOL calculating o-Ps annihilation lifetime in complex geometries. • Investigation of shape non-uniformity of cylindrical pores on o-Ps annihilation lifetime. • Verifying temperature dependency of o-Ps lifetime in non-uniform cylindrical pores. • Suggesting PALS at low temperature as a method to verify pore uniformity in porous material. - Abstract: Ortho-positronium (o-Ps) annihilation lifetime was calculated in non-uniform cylinder-shaped pores by solving Schrodinger equation using a well-known multi-physics program called COMSOL. The o-Ps annihilation lifetime variation in terms of temperature was calculated on the basis of ETE model via a numerical method. The COMSOL simulations indicate that as long as the pore is uniform cylinder-shaped, the results agree with those of two-dimensional ETE model, whereas deformations in the cylinder shape (indentation or protrusion) change the temperature behavior of ETE model and, thereby, higher values are predicted for o-Ps lifetime in the pore at lower temperatures. The geometry of the non-uniform cylinder-shaped pores, which is accompanied by empirical evidence, can be used for the analysis of empirical results obtained from positron lifetime spectroscopy in different temperatures.

  18. Movable collimator for positron annihilation imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    A positron annihilation imaging device having two circular arrays of detectors disposed in spaced apart parallel planes wherein axially movable annular collimator rings are generally disposed in a pair of opposite planes outside the associated planes of the collimators to each collimator being movable toward the opposite collimator and a central collimator of annular configuration generally disposed between the two rows of detectors but being split into two rings which may be separated, the outer and inner collimators serving to enhance data readout and imaging

  19. Annihilation of positrons with localized electrons in oxides and YBa2Cu3O7-x ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishchenko, M.M.; Likhtorovich, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The angular correlation of annihilation photons (ACAP) has been studied in CuO, Cu 2 O,BaO,Y 2 O 3 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x oxides. Localization radius of the electron wave function is found to be about 0,8 A. It is also shown that with the more localization of the electron its probability of annihilation with positrons is less

  20. Long-time aging behaviour of the alloy Al-2024 characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicht, E.-M.; Brauer, G; Tempus, G.

    2001-01-01

    The reconstruction of the precipitation structure after solution treatment has been investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. In this study the behaviour of samples taken from the aircraft A irbus 300', being in operation for 18 years, is compared to a reference material supplied by Alcoa. The results of positron annihilation spectroscopy show that there are no significant differences in both materials. This finding is in agreement with the results obtained from other methods within the scope of the general research program which points to a materials behaviour as predicted for a safe operation of this type of aircraft. (author)

  1. Positron annihilation in a high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavryshchuk, Ya.; Levandovski, M.; Rybakov, V.N.; Yutlandov, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    Positron annihilation as a function of temperature in high-temperature superconductors YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ has been investigated. It is shown that a change in the annihilation capacity at the transition into superconducting state is relatively small. The change of r 1 and r 2 positron lifetimes as well as of the intensity of the component with r 2 -J 2 and Doppler broadening S parameter allows one to assume that transition into superconducting state is accompanied with a certain decrease in electron density and with decreasing number of defects or increasing size of crystalline net

  2. Calculation of positron annihilation in high Tc copper oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, B.; Jarlborg, T.; Gauthier, M.; Shukla, A.

    1992-01-01

    LMTO calculations have been done in order to obtain electronic and positronic states in YBaCuO compounds. The annihilation rates have been calculated including the enhancement effects. Folded momentum density spectra are calculated and used for prediction of Fermi surface signals. The influence of lattice defects on the spectra is studied by the comparison between experimental and calculated positron lifetimes. (orig.)

  3. Chemical application of positron annihilation through triple coincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegnasubramanian, S.; Gangadharan, S.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarises the work on the application of triple coincidence measurement of annihilation radiation for providing chemical state information; the observations have been corroborated by angular correlation and Doppler broadening measurements and supplemented by the magnetic quenching in the angular correlation and peak-to-valley ratio in the Ge(Li) singles spectrum for the 511 keV line. (author)

  4. Characteristics of the positron annihilation process in the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this report the positrons annihilation spectroscopy, as a method for the matter study is described. The interaction of positrons of high as well as thermal energies are discussed and different models of mentioned interactions are presented. Special attention is paid for positrons interaction with crystal lattice and its defects. The influence of positron beams characteristics on measured values are also discussed

  5. Constraining dark matter late-time energy injection: decays and p-wave annihilations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamanti, Roberta; Mena, Olga; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Vincent, Aaron C. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lopez-Honorez, Laura, E-mail: R.Diamanti@uva.nl, E-mail: llopezho@vub.ac.be, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: sergio.palomares.ruiz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: vincent@ific.uv.es [Theoretische Natuurkunde Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-02-01

    We use the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations to provide updated constraints on the dark matter lifetime as well as on p-wave suppressed annihilation cross sections in the 1 MeV to 1 TeV mass range. In contrast to scenarios with an s-wave dominated annihilation cross section, which mainly affect the CMB close to the last scattering surface, signatures associated with these scenarios essentially appear at low redshifts (z∼<50) when structure began to form, and thus manifest at lower multipoles in the CMB power spectrum. We use data from Planck, WMAP9, SPT and ACT, as well as Lyman–α measurements of the matter temperature at z ∼ 4 to set a 95% confidence level lower bound on the dark matter lifetime of ∼ 4 × 10{sup 25} s for m{sub χ} = 100 MeV. This bound becomes lower by an order of magnitude at m{sub χ} = 1 TeV due to inefficient energy deposition into the intergalactic medium. We also show that structure formation can enhance the effect of p-wave suppressed annihilation cross sections by many orders of magnitude with respect to the background cosmological rate, although even with this enhancement, CMB constraints are not yet strong enough to reach the thermal relic value of the cross section.

  6. Heavy quark spin correlations in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.; Goldstein, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    It is pointed out that in e + e - annihilation the physical situation is especially favourable for the observation of the strong spin correlation between the D * and anti D * in opposing c- and anti c-jets, predicted by QCD. Some assessment is given of the possibility of observing this in PEP and PETRA data, and with LEP. The possibilities for similar observations for (B * , anti B * ) and (T * , anti T * ) are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  7. Theoretical calculations of positron annihilation characteristics in inorganic solids -- Recent advances and problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sob, M.; Sormann, H.; Kuriplach, J.

    Principles and applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to electronic structure and defect studies are briefly reviewed and some recent advances and pending problems are illustrated by specific examples. In particular, it turns out that the sensitivity of calculated momentum densities of electron-positron annihilation pairs (MDAP) to the choice of electron crystal potential is higher or comparable to its sensitivity with respect to the choice of description of the electron-positron interaction. As a result, it is very hard to distinguish between various electron-positron interaction theories on the basis of the comparison of theoretical and experimental MDAPs. Furthermore, the positron affinity is determined theorttically for several systems having a band gap (semiconductors, insulators). It appears that the calculated positron affinities are significantly underestimated when compared to experimental data and, apparently, electron-positron interactions in such systems are not described satisfactorily by contemporary theoretical approaches. The above examples are related rather to electronic structure studies, but positrons are often used to investigate various open-volume defects in solids, which is dealt with in the last illustration. A non-selfconsistent computational technique suitable for the theoretical examination of configurations having large number (thousands) of non-equivalent atoms has been updated recently to treat non-periodic solids. It is based on the superposition of atomic densities in order to approximate the electronic density of the system studied. Though the charge redistribution due to selfconsistency effects is neglected, positron annihilation characteristics are determined quite reasonably. This allows for studying properties of extended defects like grain boundaries (and other interfaces), dislocations, precipitates, etc., which is very helpful when interpreting experimental positron annihilation data. Our technique is

  8. Annihilation of positrons with the electrons of chemical bonds of the superconducting CuO-polyhedrons in the HTSC materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunov, N.Yu.; Trashchakov, V.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    Angular distribution parameters of annihilation photon pairs emitted from R-Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (x≤0.2; R=Y, Nd, Lu) specimens after injection and subsequent annihilation of positrons in them. It is shown that annihilation of thermalized positrons proceeds advantageously with electrons of chemical bonds of O(4)-Cu(I)-O(I) polyhedrons in R-Ba-Cu-O oxides. In an orthorhombic phase positrons are mostly delocalized in rows of ordered stoichiometric vacancies. The result obtained provides to recommend the methods of positron diagnostics for studying parameters of electron state density in superconducting structural groups of high-temperature superconductors. 2 refs.; 1 fig

  9. Production of hyperfragments by antiprotons at rest annihilating on nuclei in nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Pontecorvo, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    Events have been observed, for the first time, of the production, departure and mesonic decay of the light hyperfragments Λ 3 H and Λ 4 H in the annihilation on the light (C, N, O, S)-nuclei of antiprotons stopping in nuclear photoemulsion. The lower limit of the production probability of Λ 3 H and Λ 4 H hyperfragments per single antiproton stopping in nuclear photoemulsion has been determined to be (6.1±3.5)x10 -4 . The charge exchange, on nucleons of the residual nucleus, of K - -mesons resulting from the annihilation process has been demonstrated to be the most probable mechanism of hyperfragment production. 17 refs.; 9 figs

  10. A Monte Carlo model to produce baryons in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.

    1981-08-01

    A simple model is described extending the Field-Feynman model to baryon production in quark fragmentation. The model predicts baryon baryon correlations within jets and in opposite jets produced in electron-positron annihilation. Existing data is well described by the model. (orig.)

  11. Hadronic physics in electron-positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethke, S.

    1993-01-01

    The author presents an introduction to the study of hadronic physics by means of e + e - processes. After an introduction to the theory of the strong interactions and QCD the current accelerator facilities for such studies are listed. Then the treatment of e + e - annihilation into hadrons by QCD is discussed. Thereafter the studies of hadronic event shapes, jet physics, the tests of the basic quantum numbers of quarks and gluons, the measurement of α S , and the studies of the differences between quark and gluon jets are described. Finally an outlook to further studies of such processes at higher energies is given. (HSI)

  12. Incorporation particle creation and annihilation into Bohm's Pilot Wave model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdlov, Roman [Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Sadashiva Nagar, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560080 (India)

    2011-07-08

    The purpose of this paper is to come up with a Pilot Wave model of quantum field theory that incorporates particle creation and annihilation without sacrificing determinism; this theory is subsequently coupled with gravity.

  13. Electrical properties of MOS structures on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown silicon: A positron annihilation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slugen, V.; Harmatha, L.; Tapajna, M.; Ballo, P.; Pisecny, P.; Sik, J.; Koegel, G.; Krsjak, V.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of interface trap density, effective generation lifetime (GL) and effective surface generation velocity have been performed using different methods on selected MOS structures prepared on nitrogen-doped Czochralski-grown (NCz) silicon. The application of the positron annihilation technique using a pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) focused on the detection of nitrogen-related defects in NCz silicon in the near surface region. In the case of p-type Cz silicon, all the results could be used for the testing of homogeneity. In n-type Cz silicon, positron annihilation was found insensitive to nitrogen doping

  14. Three instruments for positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Racolta, P.M.; Vata, I.

    2003-01-01

    The instruments presented here and dedicated to positron annihilation spectroscopy, PAS, are: 1. High Resolution Life Time Spectrometer (LTS) with time resolution τ = 260 ps, based on large BaF 2 scintillators; 2. Doppler Broadening Spectrometer (DBS) having a 1.6 keV resolution at 514 keV; 3. Positronium Life Time - Perturbed Angular Distribution Spectrometer ( PLT-PAD); positronium life time, in samples under high vacuum in magnetic field, is measured for time intervals up to 500 ns. Results of measurements are shown to illustrate performances of the instruments. (authors)

  15. Movable collimator for positron annihilation imaging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A positron annihilation imaging device has two or more rings of detectors from which three or more slices through the object being scanned can be determined at once. A technique is provided for adjusting the slice widths. One slice may be imaged by all detectors in adjacent planes simultaneously, and reconstructed as if all detectors were in the same plane. The single slice facility is provided without the necessity of rotating the detector array or moving it in any way during data collection, allowing the possibility of doing physiologically gated imaging of a single slice

  16. The Effects of Surface Reconstruction and Electron-Positron Correlation on the Annihilation Characteristics of Positrons Trapped at Semiconductor Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Jung, E.; Weiss, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Experimental positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) data from Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces display several strong Auger peaks corresponding to M 4,5 N 1 N 2,3 , M 2,3 M 4,5 M 4,5 , M 2,3 M 4,5 V, and M 1 M 4,5 M 4,5 Auger transitions. The integrated peak intensities of Auger transitions have been used to obtain experimental annihilation probabilities for the Ge 3d and 3p core electrons. The experimental data were analyzed by performing theoretical studies of the effects of surface reconstructions and electron-positron correlations on image potential induced surface states and annihilation characteristics of positrons trapped at the reconstructed Ge(100) and Ge(111) surfaces. Calculations of positron surface states and annihilation characteristics have been performed for Ge(100) surface with (2x1), (2x2), and (4x2) reconstructions, and for Ge(111) surface with c(2x8) reconstruction. Estimates of the positron binding energy and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to the specific atomic structure of the topmost layers of the semiconductor and to the approximations used to describe electron-positron correlations. The results of these theoretical studies are compared with the ones obtained for the reconstructed Si(100)-(2x1) and Si(111)-(7x7) surfaces.

  17. Investigation of transitions and relaxation processes in polystyrene by using positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, M.; Kyoto, M.

    1996-01-01

    The glass transition and relaxation processes in polystyrene resins with the number average molecular weight ranging from 7.0 x 10 2 to 9.8 x 10 4 were studied with the positron annihilation technique. The pick-off annihilation lifetime of ortho-positronium (τ 3 ) and its intensity (Ι 3 ) were measured in the temperature range from 20 to 430 K. The glass transition temperature (Τ g ) was determined as an onset temperature coefficient of τ 3 x Τ g shows the molecular weight dependence in these samples. Below Τ g , local motions were detected by measurements of Ι 3 . The local motions could be observed above 100 K in this experiment. Ι 3 show the minimum at around 250 K and it does not show molecular weight dependence. (author)

  18. Positron annihilation and 129Xe NMR studies of free volume in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Bunsow; Eguchi, Taro; Nakayama, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Nobuo; Ito, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    The existence and the average size of free volume in bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), poly (2,6-dimethyl-phenylene oxide)(PPO), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were studied by positron annihilation and 129 Xe NMR measurements. The 129 Xe NMR chemical shifts for xenon adsorbed in the polymers indicated that the average pore size of the free volume increased in the following order: PC, LDPE, PPO, and PTFE. This order of the pore size of the free volume agrees well with that estimated from the longest lifetime (τ 3 ) of ortho-positronium formed in the polymers. The unique correlation that δ -1 ∝ r is established between the 129 Xe NMR chemical shift (δ) and the pore size (r), which is deduced from the positron annihilation measurements.

  19. Positron annihilation study of radiation defects in α-Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi; Aono, Yasuhisa; Takenaka, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Positron annihilation studies have been performed for the radiation-induced defects in α-Al 2 O 3 specimens. Before irradiation polycrystals of α-Al 2 O 3 showed positron annihilation lifetime about 125 psec. But this value was increased by 60 MeV O 6+ ion irradiation to about 155 psec. This is considered to be corresponding to positron lifetime at O-vacancy sites. But, this lifetime disappeared gradually in the period of several months probably because of recombination of vacancies and interstitial atoms at room temperature. On the other hand, it was found that in single crystals positron lifetime before irradiation is between these two values. This is probably due to lack of oxygen atoms in single crystals in the fabrication process and it already has O-vacancies in the matrix before irradiation. (author)

  20. Temperature dependence of positron annihilation parameters in Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundar, C.S.; Bharathi, A.; Ching, W.Y.; Jean, Y.C.; Hor, P.H.; Meng, R.L.; Huang, Z.J.; Chu, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadened line-shape parameter measurements as a function of temperature, across T c , in the Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconductors are presented. The bulk lifetime in the normal state is found to decrease with the increase in the number of CuO 2 layers. Different temperature dependencies of the annihilation parameters are observed in the various Tl systems containing different numbers of CuO 2 layers. In the Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 system, an increase in lifetime is observed below T c , whereas in Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , a decrease in lifetime is seen below T c . In the Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 system, the lifetime is observed to be temperature independent. The different temperature variations of positron annihilation parameters are discussed in the light of the positron density distribution, obtained with use of the results of the self-consistent orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals band-structure calculations. It is argued that the different temperature dependencies of the annihilation parameters is related to the positron density distribution within the unit cell and arise due to local charge transfer in the vicinity of the CuO 2 layer in the superconducting state

  1. QCD analysis of jets in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A

    1980-10-01

    Jets in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are discussed in the context of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. Topics discussed include higher twist contribution, effects of quark masses and fragmentation on the 3 and 4 jet rates and some distributions bearing on the experimental verification of 4 jet events at the PETRA/PEP energies.

  2. Theoretical studies of positron states and annihilation characteristics at the oxidized Cu(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazleev, N. G. [Department of Physics, Box 19059, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington Texas 76019 (United States) and Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Weiss, A. H. [Department of Physics, Box 19059, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington Texas 76019 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    In this work we present the results of theoretical studies of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons at the oxidized Cu(100) surface under conditions of high oxygen coverage. An ab-initio study of the electronic properties of the Cu(100) missing row reconstructed surface at various on surface and sub-surface oxygen coverages has been performed on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT) using the Dmol3 code and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Surface structures in calculations have been constructed by adding oxygen atoms to various surface hollow and sub-surface octahedral sites of the 0.5 monolayer (ML) missing row reconstructed phase of the Cu(100) surface with oxygen coverages ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 ML. The charge redistribution at the surface and variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers associated with oxidation and surface reconstruction have been found to affect the spatial extent and localization of the positron surface state wave function and annihilation probabilities of surface trapped positrons with relevant core electrons. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data obtained from studies of oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES). It has been shown that positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3s and 3p core electrons decrease when total (on-surface and sub-surface) oxygen coverage of the Cu(100) surface increases up to 1 ML. The calculations show that for high oxygen coverage when total oxygen coverage is 1. 5 ML the positron is not bound to the surface.

  3. Probing dark matter decay and annihilation with Fermi LAT observations of nearby galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaoyuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatories; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Vertongen, Gilles [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Weniger, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Galaxy clusters are promising targets for indirect dark matter searches. Gamma-ray signatures from the decay or annihilation of dark matter particles inside these clusters could be observable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on three years of Fermi LAT gamma-ray data, we analyze the flux coming from eight nearby clusters individually as well as in a combined likelihood analysis. Concentrating mostly on signals from dark matter decay, we take into account uncertainties of the cluster masses as determined by X-ray observations and model the cluster emission with extended sources. We do not find significant emission from any of the considered clusters and present limits on the dark matter lifetime and annihilation cross-section. We compare our lifetime limits derived from cluster observations with the limits that can be obtained from the extragalactic gamma-ray background, and find that in case of hadronic decay the cluster limits become competitive at dark matter masses below a few hundred GeV. Finally, we show that in presence of dark matter substructures down to 10{sup -6} solar masses the limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section could improve by a factor of a few hundred, possibly going down to the thermal cross-section of 3 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} for dark matter masses annihilation into b anti b. As a direct application of our results, we derive limits on the lifetime of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with R-parity violation. Implications of these limits for the possible observation of long-lived superparticles at the LHC are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Probing dark matter decay and annihilation with Fermi LAT observations of nearby galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaoyuan; Vertongen, Gilles; Weniger, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Galaxy clusters are promising targets for indirect dark matter searches. Gamma-ray signatures from the decay or annihilation of dark matter particles inside these clusters could be observable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on three years of Fermi LAT gamma-ray data, we analyze the flux coming from eight nearby clusters individually as well as in a combined likelihood analysis. Concentrating mostly on signals from dark matter decay, we take into account uncertainties of the cluster masses as determined by X-ray observations and model the cluster emission with extended sources. We do not find significant emission from any of the considered clusters and present limits on the dark matter lifetime and annihilation cross-section. We compare our lifetime limits derived from cluster observations with the limits that can be obtained from the extragalactic gamma-ray background, and find that in case of hadronic decay the cluster limits become competitive at dark matter masses below a few hundred GeV. Finally, we show that in presence of dark matter substructures down to 10 -6 solar masses the limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section could improve by a factor of a few hundred, possibly going down to the thermal cross-section of 3 x 10 -26 cm 3 s -1 for dark matter masses < or similar 150 GeV and annihilation into b anti b. As a direct application of our results, we derive limits on the lifetime of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with R-parity violation. Implications of these limits for the possible observation of long-lived superparticles at the LHC are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Experimental study of jets in electron-positron-annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Krehbiel, H.; Naroska, B.; O'Neill, L.H.; Steffen, P.

    1981-02-01

    Data on hadron production by e + e - -annihilation at c.m. energies between 30 GeV and 36 GeV are presented and compared with two models both based on first order QCD but using different schemes for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into hadrons. In one model the fragmentation proceeds along the parton momenta, in the other along the colour-anticolour axes. The data are reproduced better by fragmentation along the colour axes. (orig.)

  6. production of resonances in annihilations p-barp →

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridki, J.

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 6435 events of the reaction p-barp →production of rhosup(+-), rho 0 , f 0 and ω 0 resonances in this sample is fitted. The results show more abundant resonance production than that found by Alles-Borelli et al. in the analysis of only 872 events of the same reaction. An A 1 -like effect is observed similarly as in annihilations p-bard → pπ + π - π - π 0 by Kasper et al

  7. Inclusive anomalous muon production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, G.J.; Bulos, F.; Lueke, D.; Abrams, G.S.; Alam, M.S.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Dorfan, J.; Friedberg, C.E.; Fryberger, D.; Goldhaber, G.; Hanson, G.; Heile, F.B.; Jaros, J.A.; Kadyk, J.A.; Larsen, R.R.; Litke, A.M.; Lueth, V.; Madaras, R.J.; Morehouse, C.C.; Nguyen, H.K.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Pierre, F.M.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Sadoulet, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Tanenbaum, W.; Trilling, G.H.; Vannucci, F.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wiss, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    We present measurements of inclusive anomalous muon production in e + e - annihilations in three energy ranges. In all three ranges we observe a large anomalous muon production rate in two-prong events which is compatible with the expected decays of pairs of heavy leptons. In the highest energy range there is also appreciable anomalous muon production in multiprong events which, due to its magnitude and momentum dependence, must come in part from a source other than a heavy lepton

  8. Bubble detector measurements of a mixed radiation field from antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Knudsen, Helge; Møller, Søren Pape

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent progress in the study of the biological potential of antiproton tumour treatment it is important to be able to characterize the neutron intensity arising from antiproton annihilation using simple, compact and reliable detectors. The intensity of fast neutrons from antiproto...

  9. Vacancy identification in Co+ doped rutile TiO2 crystal with positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Minyang; Qin Xiubo; Wang Baoyi; Wu Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Background: Room temperature Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (DMS) is a critical path in the study of spin-electronic devices, but there are many disputes in the intrinsic properties and origin of the room temperature ferromagnetism. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful technique for evaluating vacancy-type defects. Purpose: We aim to establish the relationship between the defect structure and ferromagnetism of the materials by analyzing the parameters of positron annihilation. Methods: Co-doped rutile TiO 2 films were synthesized by ion implantation and extensively studied by variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements with variable energy slow positron beam for identification of the vacancies. Results: The results of DBS showed that a newly formed type of vacancy could be concluded by the S-W plot and the CDB results indicated that the oxygen vacancy (Vo) complex Ti-Co-Vo and/or Ti-Vo were formed with Co ions implantation and the vacancy concentration increased with increasing dopant dose. Conclusion: We identify that the generation of Ti-Vo and/or Ti-Co-Vo vacancy complex are induced by the existence of excess Ti 3d electrons around the oxygen vacancy. (authors)

  10. Negative binomial distribution for multiplicity distributions in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, C.K.; Lim, Y.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors show that the negative binomial distribution fits excellently the available charged-particle multiplicity distributions of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation into hadrons at three different energies √s = 14, 22 and 34 GeV

  11. High-temperature equilibrium study of the oxygen-site occupancy in YBa2Cu3O7-δ by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermes, H.; Forster, M.; Schaefer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the positron lifetime and the Doppler broadening of the annihilation γ line were performed on sintered YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ specimens between ambient temperature and 1140 K at oxygen partial pressures, p O2 , between 10 2 and 10 5 Pa in order to study the atomic processes of changes of the oxygen content in thermal equilibrium. Above 680 K the positron lifetime increases with increasing temperature and decreasing oxygen partial pressure. It is found that the normalized positron annihilation rate λ 1 * depends exclusively on the oxygen deficiency δ and decreases linearly with increasing δ. Our results demonstrate that the positrons are annihilated predominantly on the sites of the Cu(1)-O(1) chains where the oxygen atoms are removed (oxygen-deficient sites), as suggested by theoretical studies. A simple atomistic model of oxygen exchange is confirmed by the experimentally observed variation of the positron annihilation rate with (p O2 ) -0.27

  12. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a positron annihilation imaging device comprising two or more coaxial circular arrays of detectors (2,2'), with the detectors in one array angularly offset with respect to the detectors in the adjacent array to detect more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient. (author)

  13. Positron annihilation studies in the field induced depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Leung, T. C.; Lynn, K. G.; Nielsen, B.; Forcier, M. P.; Weinberg, Z. A.; Rubloff, G. W.

    1992-06-01

    The centroid shifts of positron annihilation spectra are reported from the depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at room temperature and at 35 K. The centroid shift measurement can be explained using the variation of the electric field strength and depletion layer thickness as a function of the applied gate bias. An estimate for the relevant MOS quantities is obtained by fitting the centroid shift versus beam energy data with a steady-state diffusion-annihilation equation and a derivative-gaussian positron implantation profile. Inadequacy of the present analysis scheme is evident from the derived quantities and alternate methods are required for better predictions.

  14. Positron annihilation studies in the field induced depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Leung, T.C.; Lynn, K.G.; Nielsen, B.; Forcier, M.P.; Weinberg, Z.A.; Rubloff, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The centroid shifts of positron annihilation spectra are reported from the depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at room temperature and at 35 K. The centroid shift measurement can be explained using the variation of the electric field strength and depletion layer thickness as a function of the applied gate bias. An estimate for the relevant MOS quantities is obtained by fitting the centroid shift versus beam energy data with a steady-state diffusion-annihilation equation and a derivative-gaussian positron implantation profile. Inadequacy of the present analysis scheme is evident from the derived quantities and alternate methods are required for better predictions

  15. Positron annihilation study of the high-Tc (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H.J.; Byrne, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    Positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS) and positron Doppler-broadening spectroscopy (PDBS) were applied to the high-T c lead-doped Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x (BPSCCO 2223) superconductor as a function of temperature. Neither positron lifetimes nor Doppler parameters (S, W, and S/W) showed significant change through T c . This may result from having the highest positron density in the open BiO 2 double layers and no significant positron density in the superconducting CuO 2 layers where positrons, if mainly present, are known to be sensitive to the transition in other high-T c superconductors. Doppler parameters showed that the probability of positron annihilations with core electrons in the lattice slightly increased and that the probability of positron annihilations with conduction electrons slightly decreased as temperature decreased from ambient temperature to 20 K. The lifetime associated with positron annihilations in the perfect lattice of the sample (τ 1 ) was 209 ps and, due to the annihilations at internal surfaces or voids in the sample (τ 2 ) was about 540 ps, independent of temperature. Finally, the mean lifetime for BSCCO 2223 was about 307 ps. (orig.)

  16. Impact of semi-annihilations on dark matter phenomenology. An example of ZN symmetric scalar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bélanger, Geneviève; Kannike, Kristjan; Pukhov, Alexander; Raidal, Martti

    2012-01-01

    We study the impact of semi-annihilations x i x j ↔x k X and dark matter conversion x i x j ↔x k x l , where x i is any dark matter and X is any standard model particle, on dark matter phenomenology. We formulate minimal scalar dark matter models with an extra doublet and a complex singlet that predict non-trivial dark matter phenomenology with semi-annihilation processes for different discrete Abelian symmetries Z N , N > 2. We implement two such example models with Z 3 and Z 4 symmetry in micrOMEGAs and work out their phenomenology. We show that both semi-annihilations and dark matter conversion significantly modify the dark matter relic abundance in this type of models. In the Z 4 model, there are two stable neutral particles and therefore multi-component dark matter. We also study the possibility of dark matter direct detection in XENON100 in those models

  17. Study of Kanti-Kπ system in panti-p → Kanti-K nπ (n >=1) annihilations at 700 and 760 MeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacasch, Rene.

    1979-06-01

    The paper presents the results of the study on proton-antiproton annihilations at 760 MeV/C producing K anti-K nπ resonances D (1285) and E (1420) and reviews each of the paths corresponding to the production of five bodies. The annihilations in four bodies which, in addition to the D and E resonances, show the Fl resonance, are then discussed. The paper ends with the study of annihilations in three bodies [fr

  18. Constraints on dark matter annihilation in clusters of galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blanford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R.A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P.S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Edmonds, Y.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Lande, J.; Lee, S.H.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Omodei, N.; Panetta, J.H.; Porter, T.A.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Thayer, J.G.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Starck, J.L.; Tibaldo, L.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby clusters and groups of galaxies are potentially bright sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission resulting from the pair-annihilation of dark matter particles. However, no significant gamma-ray emission has been detected so far from clusters in the first 11 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We interpret this non-detection in terms of constraints on dark matter particle properties. In particular for leptonic annihilation final states and particle masses greater than similar to 200 GeV, gamma-ray emission from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons is expected to dominate the dark matter annihilation signal from clusters, and our gamma-ray limits exclude large regions of the parameter space that would give a good fit to the recent anomalous Pamela and Fermi-LAT electron-positron measurements. We also present constraints on the annihilation of more standard dark matter candidates, such as the lightest neutralino of supersymmetric models. The constraints are particularly strong when including the fact that clusters are known to contain substructure at least on galaxy scales, increasing the expected gamma-ray flux by a factor of similar to 5 over a smooth-halo assumption. We also explore the effect of uncertainties in cluster dark matter density profiles, finding a systematic uncertainty in the constraints of roughly a factor of two, but similar overall conclusions. In this work, we focus on deriving limits on dark matter models; a more general consideration of the Fermi-LAT data on clusters and clusters as gamma-ray sources is forthcoming. (authors)

  19. Vacancy-induced ferromagnetism in ZnO probed by spin-polarized positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Masaki; Abe, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Atsumi; Sakai, Seiji; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kawasuso, Atsuo

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the ferromagnetism of ZnO induced by oxygen implantation by using spin-polarized positron annihilation spectroscopy together with magnetization measurements. The magnetization measurements showed the appearance of ferromagnetism after oxygen implantation and its disappearance during post-implantation annealing at temperatures above 573 K. The Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) spectrum showed asymmetry upon field reversal after oxygen implantation. The obtained differential DBAR spectrum between positive and negative magnetic fields was well-explained with a theoretical calculation considering zinc vacancies. The disappearance of the field-reversal asymmetry of the DBAR spectrum as a result of annealing agreed with the observations of ferromagnetism by magnetization measurements. These results suggest the radiation-induced zinc vacancies to be the source of the observed ferromagnetism of ZnO.

  20. X-Ray Lines from Dark Matter Annihilation at the keV Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2018-02-09

    In 2014, several groups reported hints for a yet unidentified line in astrophysical x-ray signals from galaxies and galaxy clusters at an energy of 3.5 keV. While it is not unlikely that this line is simply a reflection of imperfectly modeled atomic transitions, it has renewed the community's interest in models of keV-scale dark matter, whose decay would lead to such a line. The alternative possibility of dark matter annihilation into monochromatic photons is far less explored, a lapse that we strive to amend in this Letter. More precisely, we introduce a novel model of fermionic dark matter χ with O(keV) mass, annihilating to a scalar state ϕ which in turn decays to photons, for instance via loops of heavy vectorlike fermions. The resulting photon spectrum is box shaped, but if χ and ϕ are nearly degenerate in mass, it can also resemble a narrow line. We discuss dark matter production via two different mechanisms-misalignment and freeze-in-which both turn out to be viable in vast regions of parameter space. We constrain the model using astrophysical x-ray data, and we demonstrate that, thanks to the velocity dependence of the annihilation cross section, it has the potential to reconcile the various observations of the 3.5 keV line. We finally argue that the model can easily avoid structure formation constraints on keV-scale dark matter.

  1. Investigation of the crystal lattice defects by means of the positrons annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this report the positrons annihilation methods as a tool for the crystal defects studies is presented. The short description of the positron - crystal interactions and different positron capture models are discussed. 192 refs, 67 figs, 6 tabs

  2. Characterization of Non-Polar ZnO Layers with Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zúñiga-Pérez, J.; Muñoz-San José, V.

    2008-11-01

    We applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the effect of growth polarity on the vacancy defects in ZnO grown by metal-organic vapor phase deposition on sapphire. Both c-plane and a-plane ZnO layers were measured, and Zn vacancies were identified as the dominant defects detected by positrons. The results are qualitatively similar to those of earlier experiments in GaN. The Zn vacancy concentration decreases in c-plane ZnO by almost one order of magnitude (from high 1017 cm-3 to low 1017 cm-3) when the layer thickness is increased from 0.5 to 2 μm. Interestingly, in a-plane ZnO the Zn vacancy concentration is constant at a level of about 2×1017 cm-3 in all the samples with thicknesses varying from 0.6 to 2.4 μm. The anisotropy of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation parallel and perpendicular to the hexagonal c-axis was also measured.

  3. Two- and three-point energy correlations in hadronic e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, G.C.; Wolfram, S.

    1980-01-01

    Correlations between the energies incident on two or three detectors around e + e - annihilation events are considered as a probe of the QCD structure of the events. Practical methods for deducing two-detector energy correlations (which give the mean product of energies incident on two detectors as a function of their angular separation) from measured events are devised. Analytical formulae for energy correlations from QCD perturbation theory are given, but it is found that large corrections from hadron formation obscure these asymptotic predictions at available energies. Correlations between the final state and the incoming e + - beam direction are discussed, and observables are presented which measure the angular distributions of planes of final particles with respect to the beam axis (but do not require explicit determination of the planes). Finally, three-detector energy correlations and their moments are treated, and methods for investigating planar structures in e + e - annihilation events are devised. (orig.) 891 HSI/orig. 892 MKO

  4. The study of defects in metallic alloys by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Salgueiro, W.; Somoza, A.

    1990-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has become in a very useful non destructive testing to the study of condensed matter. Specially, in the last two decades, with the advent of solid state detectors and high-resolution time spectrometers. The basic information obtained with PAS in solid-state physics is on electronic structure in free defect materials. However, positron annihilation techniques (lifetime, angular correlation and Doppler broadening) have been succesfully applied to study crystal lattice defects with lower-than-average electron density, such as vacancies, small vacancy clusters, etc.. In this sense, information about: vacancy formation and migration energies, dislocations, grain boundaries, solid-solid phase transformation and radiation damage was obtained. In this work the application of the positron lifetime technique to study the thermal effects on a fine-grained superplastic Al-Ca-Zn alloy and the quenched-in defects in monocrystals of β Cu-Zn-Al alloy for several quenching temperatures is shown. (Author) [es

  5. A method to study the antiproton-proton annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, A.

    1977-01-01

    The comparison between at rest and in flight antiproton-proton annihilations cannot be extended in terms of kinematical variables referred to the collision axis that is not defined for the at rest interactions. On the basis of the momentum vectors of the final state particles, other directions can be defined, event by event, and used as reference frame

  6. Effect of gravity on density distributions and orthopositronium annihilation rates in ethane and methane near the critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.C.; Kafle, S.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of gravity on density distributions has been studied in ethane and methane near their critical points using the linear-model parametric equation of state. The results obtained from this study are used to further understand the sensitivity of orthopositronium annihilation rates to density fluctuations in molecular gases. It is shown that the influence of gravity is too small to account for the recently observed dependence of orthopositronium annihilation rates on the density of ethane gas at 306.4 K. However, a significant variation in local density vs height is calculated at temperatures closer to the gas--liquid critical point. The density and temperature dependencies of the annihilation rates of orthopositronium atoms, recently observed in ethane and methane gases, are discussed in terms of the findings of this study

  7. Fermi surface in V3Si from positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, M.; Manuel, A.A.; Jarlborg, T.

    1982-01-01

    The recent work of the Geneva Group on the electronic structure of V 3 Si is briefly reviewed. Accurate self-consistent LMTO calculation leads to a Fermi surface and momentum distribution which is confirmed by high resolution 2-D angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACPAR). The bandstructure data are combined with phonon data from Junod's specific heat measurements to calculate parameters relevant to superconductivity. (orig.)

  8. A survey of models of baryon production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.W.; Foster, B.; Hart, J.C.; Proudfoot, J.; Saxon, D.H.; Woodworth, P.L.

    1982-02-01

    Current models of e+e- annihilation to baryons are reviewed and compared to the available data. Since the experimental predictions of most models are found to be very similar, an attempt is made to find differences between them which can be tested as more data become available. (author)

  9. Study of the electron-positron annihilation in the galactic center region with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; Etude de l'annihilation electron-positon dans la region du centre galactique avec le spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizun, P

    2007-04-15

    A spectral feature was detected in 1970 in the gamma-ray emission from the central regions of the Milky Way, during balloon flight observations. Located near 511 keV, this feature was soon attributed to the gamma-ray line tracing the annihilation of electrons with their anti-particles, positrons. However, none of the multiple astrophysical scenarios contemplated to explain the production of positrons in the Galactic bulge has been able to reproduce the high injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line, close to 10{sup 43} positrons per second. Launched in 2002, the European gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL was provided with a spectrometer, SPI, whose unprecedented imaging and spectral capabilities in this energy range enable us to further study the source of the 511 keV line detected in the Galactic centre region. Indeed, a better determination of the spatial extent of the source, the intrinsic width of the line and the fraction of positrons annihilating in-flight, directly or via the formation of ortho-Positronium atoms would improve our knowledge of both the annihilation medium and the initial source of positrons, and could allow us to discriminate between the various explanatory scenarios. The first part of this thesis deals with a key ingredient in the extraction of the annihilation spectrum: the optimization of the instrumental background model. New data screening and tracer selection procedures are presented. Classical multi-linear models are compared to neural and Bayesian networks. Finally, three years of observation are used to constrain the width of the source and derive its spectrum. The second part of the thesis focuses on one of the possible scenarios explaining the high positron injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line: the annihilation of light dark matter particles into electron-positron pairs. The various radiation mechanisms involved are modeled and confronted to observations in order to set an upper limit on the injection

  10. Positron annihilation imaging device having movable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a positron annihilation imaging device comprising two circular arrays of detectors disposed in spaced apart parallel planes and circumferentially offset by half the detector spacing, axially movable annular outer collimator rings, generally disposed in a pair of opposite planes outside the associated planes of the detectors, each collimator being movable toward the opposite collimator. An inner collimator of annular configuration is disposed between the two rows of detectors and is formed in two rings which may be separated axially. The outer and inner collimators serve to enhance data readout and imaging. (author)

  11. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H+ irradiated ZnO single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D.; Bhowmick, D.; Dechoudhury, S.; Chakrabarti, A.; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H+ ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a ‘hydrogen at oxygen vacancy’ type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ˜4 × 1017 cm-3 (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ˜175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  12. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H+ irradiated ZnO single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D; Bhowmick, D; Dechoudhury, S; Chakrabarti, A; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S K

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H + ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a ‘hydrogen at oxygen vacancy’ type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ∼4 × 10 17 cm -3 (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ∼175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed. (paper)

  13. Photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic investigation on a H(+) irradiated ZnO single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, A; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Sanyal, D; Bhowmick, D; Dechoudhury, S; Chakrabarti, A; Rakshit, Tamita; Ray, S K

    2012-08-15

    Low temperature photoluminescence and room temperature positron annihilation spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the defects incorporated by 6 MeV H(+) ions in a hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystal. Prior to irradiation, the emission from donor bound excitons is at 3.378 eV (10 K). The irradiation creates an intense and narrow emission at 3.368 eV (10 K). The intensity of this peak is nearly four times that of the dominant near band edge peak of the pristine crystal. The characteristic features of the 3.368 eV emission indicate its origin as a 'hydrogen at oxygen vacancy' type defect. The positron annihilation lifetime measurement reveals a single component lifetime spectrum for both the unirradiated (164 ± 1 ps) and irradiated crystal (175 ± 1 ps). It reflects the fact that the positron lifetime and intensity of the new irradiation driven defect species are a little higher compared to those in the unirradiated crystal. However, the estimated defect concentration, even considering the high dynamic defect annihilation rate in ZnO, comes out to be ∼4 × 10(17) cm(-3) (using SRIM software). This is a very high defect concentration compared to the defect sensitivity of positron annihilation spectroscopy. A probable reason is the partial filling of the incorporated vacancies (positron traps), which in ZnO are zinc vacancies. The positron lifetime of ∼175 ps (in irradiated ZnO) is consistent with recent theoretical calculations for partially hydrogen-filled zinc vacancies in ZnO. Passivation of oxygen vacancies by hydrogen is also reflected in the photoluminescence results. A possible reason for such vacancy filling (at both Zn and O sites) due to irradiation has also been discussed.

  14. Search for dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center with IceCube-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Whelan, B.J.; Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Veenkamp, J.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Kaminsky, B.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Shanidze, R.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Yanez, J.P.; Adams, J.; Brown, A.M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O'Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Middlemas, E.; Morse, R.; Richter, S.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Santen, J.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, C.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wille, L.; Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M.; Altmann, D.; Classen, L.; Kappes, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Groh, J.C.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Quinnan, M.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stanisha, N.A.; Tesic, G.; Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Luenemann, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schatto, K.; Wiebe, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Glagla, M.; Gier, D.; Gretskov, P.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Hellwig, D.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Paul, L.; Puetz, J.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schukraft, A.; Stahlberg, M.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wichary, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G.; Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Fedynitch, A.; Kroll, M.; Saba, S.M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Christy, B.; Felde, J.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Redl, P.; Schmidt, T.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H.; Besson, D.Z.; Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Milky Way is expected to be embedded in a halo of dark matter particles, with the highest density in the central region, and decreasing density with the halo-centric radius. Dark matter might be indirectly detectable at Earth through a flux of stable particles generated in dark matter annihilations and peaked in the direction of the Galactic Center. We present a search for an excess flux of muon (anti-) neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Galactic Center using the cubic-kilometer-sized IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole. There, the Galactic Center is always seen above the horizon. Thus, new and dedicated veto techniques against atmospheric muons are required to make the southern hemisphere accessible for IceCube. We used 319.7 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 79-string configuration during 2010 and 2011. No neutrino excess was found and the final result is compatible with the background. We present upper limits on the self-annihilation cross-section, left angle σ A right angle, for WIMP masses ranging from 30 GeV up to 10 TeV, assuming cuspy (NFW) and flat-cored (Burkert) dark matter halo profiles, reaching down to ≅ 4 . 10 -24 cm 3 s -1 , and ≅ 2.6 . 10 -23 cm 3 s -1 for the νanti ν channel, respectively. (orig.)

  15. Survey of elemental specificity in positron annihilation peak shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myler, U.; Simpson, P. J.

    1997-12-01

    Recently the detailed interpretation of positron-annihilation γ-ray peak shapes has proven to be of interest with respect to their chemical specificity. In this contribution, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements. To this purpose, annihilation spectra with strongly reduced background intensities were recorded in the two detector geometry, using a variable-energy positron beam. Division of the subsequently normalized spectra by a standard spectrum (in our case the spectrum of pure silicon) yields quotient spectra, which display features characteristic of the sample material. First we ascertain that the specific spectrum of an element is conserved in different chemical compounds, demonstrated here by identical oxygen spectra obtained from both SiO2/Si and MgO/Mg. Second, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements (Fe...Zn, Ag, Ir...Au). We show that the characteristic features in these spectra vary in a systematic fashion with the atomic number of the element and can be tentatively identified with particular orbitals. Finally, for 26 different elements we compare the maximum intensity in the quotient spectra with the relative atomic density in the corresponding element. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive survey of such data made to date.

  16. Positron annihilation in modified zeolites LTA and 13X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral-Prieto, A.; Garcia-Sosa, I.; Jimenez-Becerril, J. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Del. M. Hidalgo, Mexico D. F., c. p. 11801 (Mexico); Lopez-Castanares, R.; Olea-Cardoso, O. [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Paseo Tollocan esquina paseo Tollocan, esquina paseo Colon, Toluca, c. p. 50120, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The pick-off annihilation lifetimes of o -Ps, {tau}{sub po}, in dehydrated Co{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} exchanged zeolites LTA, in dehydrated Co{sup 2+} exchanged zeolite 13X, and in dehydrated Na{sup +} zeolites LTA and 13X, are estimated. Although {tau}{sub po} can be estimated from the lifetime spectra of the cation exchanged zeolites LTA and 13X, this lifetime can not be estimated from those spectra of Na{sup +} zeolite LTA unambiguously. The estimated pick-off lifetimes due to the annihilation of o-Ps in the internal walls of the zeolites are systematically lower than the average lifetime of p-Ps and o-Ps in vacuum {tau}{sub a}=0.5 ns. Since the pick-off process of o-Ps occurs particularly on the internal cavity walls of dehydrated zeolites, the replacement of {tau}{sub a} by {tau}{sub po} within the classical model of Tao-Eldrup to calculate cavity radius should provide more realistic cavity radii of these porous materials than when using {l_brace}{tau}{sub a}{r_brace}. This suggestion is supported by previous and present results. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  18. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husband, P; Selim, F A; Bartošová, I; Slugeň, V

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics. (paper)

  19. Positron annihilation study on Y-Ba-Cu-O high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, A.G.; Liszkay, L.; Molnar, B.; Puff, W.

    1987-08-01

    First positron annihilation measurements are reported on high T c superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . The lifetime and Doppler broadening spectra show a slight but significant change about 240K suggesting a deviation from the normal structure far above 90K where the resistance falls to zero. (author)

  20. Quark and gluon fragmentation in high energy e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1986-07-01

    The paper on quark and gluon fragmentation in high energy e + e - annihilation is based on lectures given at the International School of High Energy Physics, Yugoslavia, 1986. Fragmentation Models, charged particle multiplicity, Bose-Einstein correlations, single particle inclusive distributions, hadrons in jets, leading particle effects, baryon production, comparison of quark and gluon jets, and the string effect, are all discussed. (UK)

  1. Constraint on the velocity dependent dark matter annihilation cross section from gamma-ray and kinematic observations of ultrafaint dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Xinmin

    2018-03-01

    Searching for γ rays from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) is a promising approach to detect dark matter (DM) due to the high DM densities and low baryon components in dSphs. The Fermi-LAT observations from dSphs have set stringent constraints on the velocity independent annihilation cross section. However, the constraints from dSphs may change in velocity dependent annihilation scenarios because of the different velocity dispersions in galaxies. In this work, we study how to set constraints on the velocity dependent annihilation cross section from the combined Fermi-LAT observations of dSphs with the kinematic data. In order to calculate the γ ray flux from the dSph, the correlation between the DM density profile and velocity dispersion at each position should be taken into account. We study such correlation and the relevant uncertainty from kinematic observations by performing a Jeans analysis. Using the observational results of three ultrafaint dSphs with large J-factors, including Willman 1, Reticulum II, and Triangulum II, we set constraints on the p-wave annihilation cross section in the Galaxy as an example.

  2. Studies of Phase Transformation in Molecular Crystals Using the Positron Annihilation Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Lightbody, David; Sherwood, John N.

    1980-01-01

    An examination has been made of the brittle/plastic phase transformation in the molecular crystals cyclohexane, DL-camphene and succinonitrile using the positron annihilation technique. In each material, the transition is characterized by a distinct increase in ortho-positronium lifetime. The inf...

  3. Antiproton-proton annihilation into light neutral meson pairs within an effective meson theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Bystritskiy, Yury M.; Ahmadov, Azad I.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle

    2017-08-01

    Antiproton-proton annihilation into light neutral mesons in the few GeV energy domain is investigated in view of a global description of the existing data and predictions for future work at the Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). An effective meson model earlier developed, with mesonic and baryonic degrees of freedom in s , t , and u channels, is applied here to π0π0 production. Form factors with logarithmic s and t (u ) dependencies are applied. A fair agreement with the existing angular distributions is obtained. Applying SU(3) symmetry, it is straightforward to recover the angular distributions for π0η and η η production in the same energy range. A good agreement is generally obtained with all existing data.

  4. Limits on dark matter annihilation in the sun using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adrián-Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A search for muon neutrinos originating from dark matter annihilations in the Sun is performed using the data recorded by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. In order to obtain the best possible sensitivities to dark matter signals, an optimisation of the event selection criteria is performed taking into account the background of atmospheric muons, atmospheric neutrinos and the energy spectra of the expected neutrino signals. No significant excess over the background is observed and 90% C.L. upper limits on the neutrino flux, the spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections are derived for WIMP masses ranging from 50 GeV to 5 TeV for the annihilation channels WIMP+WIMP→bb¯,W+W− and τ+τ−.

  5. Quality of Heusler single crystals examined by depth-dependent positron annihilation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Bauer, A.; Böni, P.; Ceeh, H.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Gigl, T.; Pfleiderer, C.; Piochacz, C.; Neubauer, A.; Reiner, M.; Schut, H.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-01

    Heusler compounds exhibit a wide range of different electronic ground states and are hence expected to be applicable as functional materials in novel electronic and spintronic devices. Since the growth of large and defect-free Heusler crystals is still challenging, single crystals of Fe2TiSn and Cu2MnAl were grown by the optical floating zone technique. Two positron annihilation techniques—angular correlation of annihilation radiation and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS)—were applied in order to study both the electronic structure and lattice defects. Recently, we succeeded to observe clearly the anisotropy of the Fermi surface of Cu2MnAl, whereas the spectra of Fe2TiSn were disturbed by foreign phases. In order to estimate the defect concentration in different samples of Heusler compounds, the positron diffusion length was determined by DBS using a monoenergetic positron beam.

  6. Structural defects in electrodeposited Ni studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Szeles, C.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.

    1982-01-01

    Structural investigation of electrodeposited Ni was carried out by positron annihilation (PA) technique. Additional Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements were also performed. The samples were produced under different plating conditions resulting in stress in the range -100 to +600 N/mm 2 . From the positron lifetime measurements it seems that the defect pattern of electrodeposited Ni samples might be substantially different from sample to sample with different deposition and plating conditions. (Auth.)

  7. A positron annihilation study of compensation defects responsible for conduction-type conversions in LEC-grown InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Y.Y.; Ling, C.C.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.; Zhao, Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Positron annihilation techniques have been employed to investigate the formation of vacancy type of compensation defects in undoped LEC-grown InP. N-type InP becomes p-type semiconducting by short time annealing at 700 C, and then turns to be n-type again after further annealing but with a much higher resistivity. Positron lifetime measurements show that the positron average lifetime τ av increases to a high value of 247ps for the first n-type to p-type conversion and decreases to 240ps for the following p-type to n-type conversion. τ av increases slightly and saturates at 242ps upon further annealing. The results of positron annihilation Doppler-broadening measurements are consistent with the positron lifetime measurements. The correlation between the characteristics of positron annihilation and the conversions of conduction type indicates that the formation of vacancy type defects and the progressive variation of their concentrations during annealing are critical to the electrical properties of the bulk InP material. (orig.)

  8. Stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section from subhalo searches with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The dark matter halo of the Milky Way is predicted to contain a very large number of smaller subhalos. As a result of the dark matter annihilations taking place within such objects, the most nearby and massive subhalos could appear as point-like or spatially extended gamma-ray sources, without observable counterparts at other wavelengths. In this paper, we use the results of the Aquarius simulation to predict the distribution of nearby subhalos, and compare this to the characteristics of the unidentified gamma-ray sources observed by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Focusing on the brightest high latitude sources, we use this comparison to derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section. For dark matter particles lighter than ~200 GeV, the resulting limits are the strongest obtained to date, being modestly more stringent than those derived from observations of dwarf galaxies or the Galactic Center. We also derive independent limits based on the lack of unidentified gamma-ray sources with discernible spatial extension, but these limits are a factor of ~2-10 weaker than those based on point-like subhalos. Lastly, we note that four of the ten brightest high-latitude sources exhibit a similar spectral shape, consistent with 30-60 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to b quarks with an annihilation cross section on the order of sigma v ~ (5-10) x 10^-27 cm^3/s, or 8-10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to taus with sigma v ~ (2.0-2.5) x 10^-27 cm^3/s.

  9. Studies of the subsurface zone created in aluminium and its alloys by means of positron annihilation and complementary methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, E.

    2008-01-01

    There are presented the results of the studies of the subsurface zone created in aluminium and its alloys during sliding or other surface modification treatments. The application of the positron annihilation techniques due to their high sensitivity to crystal lattice defects enabled to determine defects profiles in the subsurface zone. The positron annihilation studies were correlated with other conventional measurements applied in tribology, i.e. microhardness measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and in a special case stress distribution calculated theoretically. It was shown that the positron annihilation spectroscopy is a useful tool for profiling of the subsurface zone created during sliding even for light metals their alloys and composites. The total range of the subsurface zone detected by the positron annihilation extends from 50 μm to 450 μm depending on the material studied and surface modification treatment. Additionally, the type of the main defects can be determined. The studies of the pure aluminium samples after dry sliding enabled to find the defect concentration of vacancy type in the depth less then 1 μm and to correlate its value with the size of crystallites. It supports the conclusion on recovery processes taking place in this layer. There was made the attempt to apply the Doppler broadening coincidence spectroscopy to the studies of aluminium alloy and composite. In view of the interdisciplinary character the present thesis enclose also the review of the basic issues of tribology, measurement methods applied to the subsurface zone studies and positron annihilation experimental techniques. (author)

  10. Positron annihilation studies of silicon-rich SiO2 produced by high dose ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.

    1997-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is used to study Si-rich SiO 2 samples prepared by implantation of Si (160 keV) ions at doses in the range 3x10 16 endash 3x10 17 cm -2 and subsequent thermal annealing at high temperature (up to 1100 degree C). Samples implanted at doses higher than 5x10 16 cm -2 and annealed above 1000 degree C showed a PAS spectrum with an annihilation peak broader than the unimplanted sample. We discuss how these results are related to the process of silicon precipitation inside SiO 2 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Application of the annihilation and creation operators in magnetic resonance problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosel, W.

    1981-01-01

    Application of the annihilation and creation operators in the following problems is presented: in the resonance of the free spins in rotating and oscillating magnetic field, in the influence of the nonresonance magnetic fields on magnetic resonance, in the thermodynamics of the spins with dipolar interaction and in the nuclear magnetic relaxation. (author)

  12. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νν-bar , τ + τ − , b b-bar , we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ + τ − channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νν-bar or τ + τ − channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions

  13. Exciplex-Sensitized Triplet-Triplet Annihilation in Heterojunction Organic Thin-Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo-Yen; Easley, Connor J; Chen, Chia-Hsun; Tseng, Po-Chen; Lee, Ming-Zer; Sher, Pin-Hao; Wang, Juen-Kai; Chiu, Tien-Lung; Lin, Chi-Feng; Bardeen, Christopher J; Lee, Jiun-Haw

    2017-03-29

    A new concept for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is presented, which is called exciplex-sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (ESTTA). The exciplex formed at the organic heterojunction interface of 4,4',4″-tris(N-3-methyphenyl-N-phenyl-amino) triphenylamine and 9,10-bis(2'-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) is used to sensitize the triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) process on the ADN molecules. This results in a turn-on voltage (2.2 V) of the blue emission from the OLED below the bandgap (2.9 eV). From the transient electroluminescence measurement, blue emission totally came from the TTA process without direct recombination on the ADN molecules. The blue singlet exciton from the TTA process can be quenched by energy transfer to the exciplex, as revealed by transient photoluminescence measurements. This can be prevented by blocking the energy transfer path and improving the radiative recombination rate of blue emission. With the insertion of the "triplet diffusion and singlet blocking (TDSB)" layer and the incorporation of the dopant material, an ESTTA-OLED with external quantum efficiency of 5.1% was achieved, which consists of yellow and blue emission coming from the exciplex and ESTTA process, respectively.

  14. Experimental results on QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics) from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, W.

    1987-09-01

    A review is given on QCD results from studying e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation with the PEP and PETRA storage rings with special emphasis on jet physics and the determination of the strong coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub s/. 92 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Positron annihilation and Moessbauer studies of neutron irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G.; Matz, W.; Liszkay, L.; Molnar, B.

    1990-11-01

    Positron annihilation (lifetime, Doppler broadening) and Moessbauer studies on unirradiated, neutron irradiated and neutron irradiated plus annealed reactor pressure vessel steels (Soviet type 15Kh2NMFA) are presented. The role of microstructural properties and the formation of irradiation-induced precipitates is discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. The Feynman fluid analogy in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, S.; Krasznovszky, S.

    1990-07-01

    An analysis of the charged particle multiplicity distributions observed in e + e - annihilation is given using the generalized Feynman fluid analogy of multiparticle production. Only the two-and three-particle integrated correlation functions are included into the scheme. It is shown that the model correctly describes the available experimental data from the TASSO and HRS collaborations. Some properties of the fluid of the analogy are computed and a prediction is made for the multiplicity distribution at √s = 91 GeV. (author) 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Comparison of muon-pair production to the quark-antiquark annihilation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, G.E.; Anderson, K.J.; Coleman, R.N.; Karhi, K.P.; McDonald, K.T.; Newman, C.B.; Pilcher, J.E.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Sanders, G.H.; Smith, A.J.S.; Thaler, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    New data on muon-pair production at 225 GeV/c by π - , π + , and proton beams are analyzed with regard to the production mechanism. The observed spin alignment of the pair and the dependence of the cross section on beam-particle type are strong indications that the production is through electromagnetic quark-antiquark annihilation

  18. On connection between coefficient functions for deep inelastic and annihilation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, G.T.; Kataev, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that the one-loop behaviour of the axial anomaly, occurring when the axial current is appropriately normalized, leads to the cancellation of the corrections of type C F N-N α s , (N≥1) in the Crewther relation for the coefficient functions of deep inelastic and annihilation processes. 11 refs

  19. Positron annihilation study on free volume of amino acid modified, starch-grafted acrylamide copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.R.; Al-Sigeny, S.; Sharshar, T.; El-Hamshary, H.

    2006-01-01

    Free volume measurements using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was performed for uncrosslinked and crosslinked starch-grafted polyacrylamide, and their modified amino acid samples including some of their iron(III) complexes. The measurements were performed at room temperature. The analysis of lifetime spectra yielded mostly three lifetime components. It was observed that the values of the short lifetime component τ 1 are slightly higher than the lifetime associated with the self-decay of para-positronium atoms in polymers. The free volume was probed using ortho-positronium pick-off annihilation lifetime parameters. The mean free volume has also been calculated from the lifetime data. The avrage value of this parameter of the crosslinked polymer were found to be higher than those of the uncrosslinked polymer

  20. Strange particle production in anti pp annihilation from 1.22 to 1.35 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, T.; Plano, R.J.; Brucker, E.B.; Koller, E.L.; Taylor, S.; Stamer, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results on antiproton-proton annihilations at 5 incident momenta in the range 1.22-1.35 GeV/c into final states with at least one visible K 1 0 meson are presented. Based on a total of 5855 events, cross sections and resonance fractions for all experimentally accessible final states are determined. The total cross section for annihilation into strange particles with at least one visible K 1 0 is 2069 +- 45 μb. Copious resonance production is observed but there is no significant evidence for the formation of a resonance in the s-channel. (Auth.)