WorldWideScience

Sample records for annihilation photons secheniya

  1. Photon correlations in positron annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Isabelle; Hawton, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The two-photon positron annihilation density matrix is found to separate into a diagonal center of energy factor implying maximally entangled momenta, and a relative factor describing decay. For unknown positron injection time, the distribution of the difference in photon arrival times is a double exponential at the para-Ps decay rate, consistent with experiment (V. D. Irby, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1799 (2004)).

  2. Apparatus for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2007-06-12

    Non-destructive testing apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention comprises a photon source. The photon source produces photons having predetermined energies and directs the photons toward a specimen being tested. The photons from the photon source result in the creation of positrons within the specimen being tested. A detector positioned adjacent the specimen being tested detects gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons with electrons. A data processing system operatively associated with the detector produces output data indicative of a lattice characteristic of the specimen being tested.

  3. On e+e- annihilation to fire photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section of electron and positron annihilation at high energy equalling 5 photons is calculated using the method of spiral amplitudes. Kinematics corresponding to the events when in the beam inertia center system the angles between photon pulses and beam axes are not small, is considered. Validation of total cross section of multiphoton annihilation of a pair at high energies are presented. Annihilation channels of orthopositronium with 3 and 5 photons are considered. Exact expression for spiral amplitudes is presented

  4. Proton-antiproton annihilation into two photons at large s

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, C

    2002-01-01

    Exclusive proton-antiproton annihilation into two photons can be viewed as the Compton process in the crossed channel. At large s (~10 GeV^2) and |t|,|u| s this process can be described by a generalized partonic picture, analogous to the 'soft mechanism' in wide-angle real Compton scattering. The two photons are emitted in the annihilation of a single fast quark and antiquark ('handbag graph'). The transition of the p-pbar system to a q-qbar pair through soft interactions is described by double distributions, which can be related to the timelike proton elastic form factors as well as, by crossing symmetry, to the usual quark--antiquark distributions in the nucleon. We estimate that this reaction should be observable with reasonable statistics at the proposed 1.5..15 GeV high-luminosity antiproton storage ring (HESR) at GSI.

  5. Two-Photon Total Annihilation of Molecular Positronium

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H

    2014-01-01

    The rate for complete two-photon annihilation of molecular positronium Ps$_{2}$ is reported. This decay channel involves a four-body collision among the fermions forming Ps$_{2}$, and two photons of 1.022 MeV, each, as the final state. The quantum electrodynamics result for the rate of this process is found to be $\\Gamma_{Ps_{2} \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma}$ = 9.0 $\\times 10^{-12}$ s$^{-1}$. This decay channel completes the most comprehensive decay chart for Ps$_{2}$ up to date.

  6. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e+e- pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e+e- pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e+e- pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e+e- plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e+e- dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  7. Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huayu

    2011-04-27

    In this thesis we study multi-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e{sup +}e{sup -} dynamics at very high density. (orig.)

  8. Annihilation photon acollinearity in PET: volunteer and phantom FDG studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Kengo [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nishikido, Fumihiko [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Toshikazu [Department of Dose Assessment, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tsuda, Tomoaki [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Inadama, Naoko [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [Department of Biophysics, Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-09-07

    Annihilation photon acollinearity is a fundamental but little investigated problem in positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, the cause of the angular deviation from 180.00{sup 0} is described as well as how to evaluate it under conditions of a spatially distributed radiation source and a limited acquisition time for the human body. A relationship between the shape of the photopeak spectrum and the angular distribution is formulated using conservation laws of momentum and energy over the pair annihilation. Then the formula is used to evaluate the acollinearity for a pool phantom and the human body with FDG injected. The angular distribution for the pool phantom agrees well with that for pure water which had been directly measured by Colombino et al in 1965 (Nuovo Cimento 38 707-23), and also with that for the human body determined in this study. Pure water can be considered as a good approximation of the human body regarding the angular deviation. The blurring coefficient to be multiplied by the ring diameter in calculations of the PET spatial resolution is experimentally determined for the first time as 0.00243 {+-} 0.00014; this is 10% larger than the value widely used by investigators.

  9. Annihilation photon acollinearity in PET: volunteer and phantom FDG studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annihilation photon acollinearity is a fundamental but little investigated problem in positron emission tomography (PET). In this paper, the cause of the angular deviation from 180.000 is described as well as how to evaluate it under conditions of a spatially distributed radiation source and a limited acquisition time for the human body. A relationship between the shape of the photopeak spectrum and the angular distribution is formulated using conservation laws of momentum and energy over the pair annihilation. Then the formula is used to evaluate the acollinearity for a pool phantom and the human body with FDG injected. The angular distribution for the pool phantom agrees well with that for pure water which had been directly measured by Colombino et al in 1965 (Nuovo Cimento 38 707-23), and also with that for the human body determined in this study. Pure water can be considered as a good approximation of the human body regarding the angular deviation. The blurring coefficient to be multiplied by the ring diameter in calculations of the PET spatial resolution is experimentally determined for the first time as 0.00243 ± 0.00014; this is 10% larger than the value widely used by investigators

  10. Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using an S-band compact electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed using an S-band compact electron linac at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). The high energy (5 photons pulse−1), and ultra-short pulse (3 ps pulse width) photon beam creates positrons throughout an entire sample via pair production. A positron lifetime spectrum can be obtained by measuring the time difference between the accelerator's RF frequency and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. The positron lifetimes for lead and yttria-stabilized zirconia samples have been successfully measured. - Highlights: ► Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer has been developed. ► Defect analysis for thick materials is possible by using our spectrometer. ► The positron lifetime for a lead and a YSZ has been successfully measured

  11. Photon-photon collisions, and other processes without annihilation, in e- e± storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    section is shown; in particular, the modification of the energy behavior, due to these cutoffs, is exhibited. In spite of the sometimes drastic reduction of the cross sections predicted, fairly high counting rates may still be expected in the experiments suggested (for A = e, μ, π, k ) with e- e± storage rings of the next generation (beam energy ≅ 1-5 GeV, luminosity ≅ 1032 cm-2 s-1). Chapter 4: We here study the creation of pseudoscalar particles (X = π0, η, η') through photon-photon collisions in e- e± storage rings. Two types of experiment are considered: In the first one, the purpose is to determine the coupling constant of the X γγ vertex, or the decay width Γ(X → γγ), where both photons are (quasi-) real. In the second one, the purpose is to measure the form factor of the X γγ vertex in the case of one highly virtual photon, the other one being (quasi-) real. Chapter 5: We here consider various virtual scattering processes in e-e- storage rings, i. e.: a) Virtual Compton scattering (processes ee' → ee' γ where one outgoing electron and the photon are detected at large angle); various angular distributions are shown, and an experiment performed at Orsay is analyzed. b) Virtual eμ and eπ scattering; an experiment is suggested with the purpose of studying the electromagnetic form factor of the pion or testing quantum electrodynamics. c) Virtual γμ and γπ scattering. Conclusion: We briefly discuss the prospects for photon-photon collisions in e- e± storage rings in the near future, and the interest of various experiments of this type. The respective merits and disadvantages of e- e+ annihilation and γγ materialization experiments are compared. (author)

  12. Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using angular correlation of compton-scattered annihilation photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bell's inequality has been experimentally tested using angular correlation of Compton-scattered photons from annihilation of positrons emitted from 22Na source. The result shows a better agreement with the quantum mechanics predictions rather than with the Bell's inequality

  13. Angular correlation of annihilation photons in ice single crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Kvajic, G.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Milosevic-Kvajic, M.

    1971-01-01

    Linear-slit angular-correlation curves were obtained at - 148 °C for the [0001], [10¯10], and [11¯20] directions in single crystals of ice. Besides the narrow central peak, pronounced narrow side peaks were also observed. They occurred at angles θ=2πℏgz/mc, where gz is the projection of reciprocal......-lattice vectors g⃗ on the direction perpendicular to the slits and the sample surface. The relative area of the central plus the side peaks was (15.2 ± 0.4)% for all curves. All the peaks are interpreted as due to parapositronium annihilation. The side peaks are explained as evidence for the positronium center...

  14. Observation of triple-photon decay in positron-electron pair annihilation: a triple coincidence setup for the undergraduate laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Elbasher, M. E. A.; Erasmus, W.; Khaleel, E. A. M.; Ndayishimye, J.; Papka, P.

    2011-01-01

    The positron-electron pair annihilation in two photons is known for its numerous applications using PET scanners. The decay of Positronium (Ps) from a standard sealed source in more than two photons is less likely but can be observed with a relatively simple setup. The main goal of this experiment was to verify momentum and total angular momentum conservation principles at subatomic level through the Ps annihilation. The two spin configurations of Ps are produced with a beta+ source. The deca...

  15. Hadronic cross sections in electron-positron annihilation with tagged photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider events with tagged photons in the process of electron-positron annihilation into hadrons. We propose to use the initial state radiation at meson factories to scan with the energy the hadronic cross section. QED radiative corrections are taken into account and the corresponding results for the total and partial cross sections are given in analytic form. Some numerical estimates are also given

  16. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy (PIPA) for defect characterization of large engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy system was set-up at FOTIA. The high energy photons produced in the nuclear reaction 19F (1H,αγ)16O were used to generate positrons in the sample. The reaction chosen has higher gamma-ray production cross section and produces high energy gamma-rays than the currently used reaction of 27Al (1H,γ)28Si. The feasibility of PIPA studies using the above reaction has been established. (author)

  17. Two photons annihilation of pions and the Compton effect off pions in hot and dense medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both processes, the two photon annihilation and the Compton scattering off pions are considered in the presence of hot and dense matter. It is shown that the σ-meson intermediate state plays an important role since at finite temperature and chemical potential as studied in heavy ion collision experiments (HIC) the threshold condition Mσ(T, μ)=2Mπ(T, μ) can be fulfilled. Quark-substructure effects in Compton scattering off pions as described by box diagrams lead to a modification of photon spectra at temperatures and chemical potentials for which the pion mass is nearly equal to the double quark mass Mπ(T, μ)=2m(T, μ) (Mott point). We propose that these effects can be studied in HIC and should show an enhancement of the two photon spectra in the invariant mass region of the two pion threshold as well as to a lowering of the maximum of the photon dispersion by 30%

  18. Labelling of the positron two-photon annihilation at the Saclay Linear Accelerator. The HE3B channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with the Saclay linear accelerator team, the photonuclear group has just completed the development of a new photon channel, the HE3B channel. In addition to what is already obtainable with the old HE3A channel (beams of bremsstrahlung or annihilation photons of positrons in flight), the new channel makes it possible to have a beam of labelled annihilation photons. Taking into account only two photon annihilation (one or three photons annihilation is disregarded), there is an emission in the mass centre of a photon to the front, the most energetic one, and which will act as projectile, and one photon to the rear. Hence, for each projectile photon, there is a control photon, so that the determination of the intensity of these is a control photon, so that the determination of the intensity of these controls amounts to measuring that of the projectiles; this is so too for knowing the energy of the projectile that is equal to the incident energy less that carried away by the control

  19. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt γ-rays produced in nuclear reactions 27Al(1H,γ)28Si and 19F(1H,αγ)16O has been examined. The reaction 19F(1H,αγ)16O is seen to provide higher photon flux (and positron yield) and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of measurements. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by γ-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

  20. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, P.K., E-mail: pujari@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Dutta, D.; Maheshwari, P.; Sharma, S.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Srivastava, D. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Krause-Rehberg, R. [Martin Luther University Halle, Dept. of Physics, 06099 Halle (Germany); Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt {gamma}-rays produced in nuclear reactions {sup 27}Al({sup 1}H,{gamma}){sup 28}Si and {sup 19}F({sup 1}H,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O has been examined. The reaction {sup 19}F({sup 1}H,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O is seen to provide higher photon flux (and positron yield) and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of measurements. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by {gamma}-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

  1. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, P. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Dutta, D.; Maheshwari, P.; Sharma, S. K.; Srivastava, D.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt γ-rays produced in nuclear reactions 27Al( 1H,γ) 28Si and 19F( 1H,αγ) 16O has been examined. The reaction 19F( 1H,αγ) 16O is seen to provide higher photon flux (and positron yield) and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of measurements. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by γ-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

  2. Photon from the annihilation process with CGC in the $pA$ collision

    CERN Document Server

    Benic, Sanjin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the photon production in the $pA$ collision in a framework of the color glass condensate (CGC). We work in a regime where the color density $\\rho_A$ of the nucleus is large enough to justify the CGC treatment, while soft gluons in the proton are dominant over quarks but do not yet belong to the CGC regime. In this semi-CGC regime for the proton, we can still perform a systematic expansion in powers of the color density $\\rho_p$ of the proton. The leading-order contributions to the photon production appear from the Bremsstrahlung and the annihilation processes involving quarks from a gluon sourced by $\\rho_p$. We analytically derive an expression for the annihilation contribution to the photon production rate and numerically find that a thermal exponential form gives the best fit with an effective temperature $\\sim 0.5Q_s$ where $Q_s$ is the saturation momentum of the nucleus.

  3. The Contribution of One-Photon Annihilation at psi(2S) in e+e- Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, P

    2003-01-01

    The continuum one-photon annihilation at psi(2S) in e+e- experiment is studied. Such contributions to the measured final state omega pi0 and pi+pi- at psi(2S) mass are estimated by phenomenological models. It is found that these contributions must be taken into account in the determination of branching ratios of psi(2S) --> omega pi0 and psi(2S) --> pi+ pi-, as well as other electromagnetic decay modes. The study reaches the conclusion that in order for BES to obtain the correct branching ratios on these decay modes, at least 10 inverse pb of data below the psi(2S) peak is needed.

  4. Search for narrow lines in photon spectra from proton-antiproton annihilations at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclusive photon spectra from annihilation of antiprotons stopped in a liquid hydrogen target were measured at LEAR (CERN) with a magnetic pair spectrometer. The FWHM energy resolution of the spectrometer in the region from 100-700 MeV was in the range from 2 to 4.5%. A total number of about 4.8.106 events with energies up to 1 GeV have been reconstructed. The photon spectra were scanned for possible lines with widths comparable to spectrometer resolution indicating the existence of bound nucleon-antinucleon states. No such structures were found with branching ratios greater than 4 to 8.10-4 at 95% confidence level. Results of former experiments could not be confirmed. (orig.)

  5. A cascade of e ‑ e + pair production by a photon with subsequent annihilation to a single photon in a strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diachenko, M. M.; Novak, O. P.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2016-06-01

    The process of electron–positron pair production by a photon with subsequent annihilation to a single photon in a strong magnetic field has been studied. The general amplitude has been calculated and the process rates have been found in a low Landau levels approximation (resonant and nonresonant cases). The comparison of resonant and nonresonant cases shows a significant excess of the resonant rate. The polarization of the final photon in a strong magnetic field has also been found. It has been shown that polarizations of the initial and final photons are independent except for the case of normal linear polarization of the initial photon.

  6. A study of photon production in hadronic events from e sup + e sup - annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzl, D.D.; Greenshaw, T.; Hagemann, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Kleinwort, C.; Kuhlen, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Schneekloth, U.; Weber, G. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). 2. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik); Allison, J.; Barlow, R.J.; Chrin, J.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Loebinger, F.K.; Macbeth, A.A.; Murphy, P.G.; Stephens, K. (Manchester Univ. (UK)); Ambrus, K.; Bethke, S.; Dieckmann, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Heintze, J.; Hellenbrand, K.H.; Komamiya, S.; Krogh, J. von; Rieseberg, H.; Smolik, L.; Spitzer, J.; Wagner, A.; Zimmer, M. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Bartel, W.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Kado, H.; Knies, G.; Krehbiel, H.; Magnussen, N.; Meinke, R.; Naroska, B.; Olsson, J.; Ramcke, R.; Schmidt, D.; Steffen, P. (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)); Bowdery, C.K.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Nye, J.M.; Walker, I.W. (Lancaster Univ. (UK)); Cartwright, S.L.; Clarke, D.; Marshall, R.; Middleton, R.P. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Ch; JADE Collaboration

    1990-03-01

    Results are presented on an investigation of photons produced in multihadronic final states from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at 35 GeV and 44 GeV center of mass energies. Scaling violation between 14 and 44 GeV is observed in inclusive photon spectra. Comparing inclusive {pi}{sup 0} spectra with charged pion spectra it is found that the average {pi}{sup 0} multiplicity exceeds the charged pion multiplicity scaled by factor of 0.5 by (16{plus minus}5)% and (21{plus minus}7)% at 35 and 44 GeV respectively. The excess can be attributed to isospin violating decays of hadrons. The {eta} multiplicity is found to be =0.64{plus minus}0.09{plus minus}0.06 at 35 GeV. With a significance of three standard deviations a signal from quark bremsstrahlung is observed. The measured charge asymmetry in hadronic final states, due to the interference between initial and final state radiation, of A=-0.141{plus minus}0.041 is in accord with QED expectations. An interference effect in the azimuth angle distribution of charged jets around the photon direction is observed for the first time. (orig.).

  7. Positronium energy levels at order m α7 : Product contributions in the two-photon-annihilation channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Gregory S.; Tran, Lam M.; Wang, Ruihan

    2016-05-01

    Ongoing improvements in the measurement of positronium transition intervals motivate the calculation of the O (m α7) corrections to these intervals. In this work we focus on corrections to the spin-singlet parapositronium energies involving virtual annihilation to two photons in an intermediate state. We have evaluated all contributions to the positronium S -state energy levels that can be written as the product of a one-loop correction on one side of the annihilation event and another one-loop correction on the other side. These effects contribute Δ E =-0.561971 (25 ) m α7/π3 to the parapositronium ground-state energy.

  8. Positronium energy levels at order $m \\alpha^7$: Product contributions in the two-photon-annihilation channel

    CERN Document Server

    Adkins, Gregory S; Wang, Ruihan

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing improvements in the measurement of positronium transition intervals motivate the calculation of the $O(m \\alpha^7)$ corrections to these intervals. In this work we focus on corrections to the spin-singlet parapositronium energies involving virtual annihilation to two photons in an intermediate state. We have evaluated all contributions to the positronium S-state energy levels that can be written as the product of a one-loop correction on one side of the annihilation event and another one-loop correction on the other side. These effects contribute $\\Delta E = -0.561971(25) m \\alpha^7/\\pi^3$ to the parapositronium ground state energy.

  9. Investigation of two photon final states in e+e- annihilation at =34.2 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two photon final states in e+e- annihilation have been analyzed at CM energies around 34 GeV. Good agreement with QED is observed. Lower limits for the QED cutoff parameters of #betta#sub(+) > 59 GeV and #betta#sub(-)> 44 GeV are determined. A search for two photons with missing energy yields an upper limit for the production of neutral particles which decay into a photon and a non-interacting particle. Constraints on the mass and the coupling strength of supersymmetric photinos are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Triplet-Triplet Annihilation Photon Upconversion in Polymer Thin Film: Sensitizer Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinpeng; Guo, Xinyan; Peng, Jiang; Zhao, Dahui; Ma, Yuguo

    2016-05-11

    Efficient visible-to-UV photon upconversion via triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) is accomplished in polyurethane (PU) films by developing new, powerful photosensitizers fully functional in the solid-state matrix. These rationally designed triplet sensitizers feature a bichromophoric scaffold comprising a tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) complex covalently tethered to a suitable organic small molecule. The very rapid intramolecular triplet energy transfer from the former to the latter is pivotal for achieving the potent sensitizing ability, because this process out-competes the radiative and nonradiative decays inherent to the metal complex and produces long-lived triplet excitons localized with the acceptor moiety readily available for intermolecular transfer and TTA. Nonetheless, compared to the solution state, the molecular diffusion is greatly limited in solid matrices, which even creates difficulty for the Dexter-type intramolecular energy transfer. This is proven by the experimental results showing that the sensitizing performance of the bichromophoric molecules strongly depends on the spatial distance separating the donor (D) and acceptor (A) units and that incorporating a longer linker between the D and A evidently curbs the TTA upconversion efficiency in PU films. Using a rationally optimized sensitizer structure in combination with 2,7-di-tert-butylpyrene as the annihilator/emitter, the doped polyurethane (PU) films demonstrate effective visible-to-UV upconverted emission signal under noncoherent-light irradiation, attaining an upconversion quantum yield of 2.6%. Such quantum efficiency is the highest value so far reported for the visible-to-UV TTA systems in solid matrices. PMID:27082767

  11. THE PAIR BEAM PRODUCTION SPECTRUM FROM PHOTON-PHOTON ANNIHILATION IN COSMIC VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly beamed relativistic e ±-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k 0 ≅ 10–7 in units of mec 2 of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k 1 ≥ 107. Using the limit k 0 1, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k 0)∝kq0exp (– k 0/Θ) soft photon distributions with total number density N 0, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances dL >> r 0 = (σ T N 0)–1 = 0.49N –10 Mpc (with Thomson cross section σ T), the implied large values of the optical depth τ0 = dL /r 0 indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [(Θln τ0)–1, τ0/Θ], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M >> Θ–1. In the case M >> Θ–1, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E ≅ Θ–1, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law ∝E –1–p up to the maximum energy E = M – (1/2).

  12. The Pair Beam Production Spectrum from Photon-Photon Annihilation in Cosmic Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Elyiv, A.; Ibscher, D.; Miniati, F.

    2012-10-01

    Highly beamed relativistic e ±-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k 0 ~= 10-7 in units of mec 2 of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k 1 >= 107. Using the limit k 0 Lt k 1, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k 0)vpropkq 0exp (- k 0/Θ) soft photon distributions with total number density N 0, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances dL Gt r 0 = (σ T N 0)-1 = 0.49N -1 0 Mpc (with Thomson cross section σ T ), the implied large values of the optical depth τ0 = dL /r 0 indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [(Θln τ0)-1, τ0/Θ], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M Gt Θ-1. In the case M Gt Θ-1, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E ~= Θ-1, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law vpropE -1 - p up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).

  13. THE PAIR BEAM PRODUCTION SPECTRUM FROM PHOTON-PHOTON ANNIHILATION IN COSMIC VOIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlickeiser, R.; Ibscher, D. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Elyiv, A. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miniati, F., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: ibscher@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: elyiv@astro.ulg.ac.be, E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, ETH-Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-20

    Highly beamed relativistic e {sup {+-}}-pair energy distributions result in double photon collisions of the beamed gamma rays from TeV blazars at cosmological distances with the isotropically distributed extragalactic background light (EBL) in the intergalactic medium. The typical energies k {sub 0} {approx_equal} 10{sup -7} in units of m{sub e}c {sup 2} of the EBL are more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than the observed gamma-ray energies k {sub 1} {>=} 10{sup 7}. Using the limit k {sub 0} << k {sub 1}, we demonstrate that the angular distribution of the generated pairs in the lab frame is highly beamed in the direction of the initial gamma-ray photons. For the astrophysically important case of power-law distributions of the emitted gamma-ray beam up to the maximum energy M interacting with Wien-type N(k {sub 0}){proportional_to}k{sup q} {sub 0}exp (- k {sub 0}/{Theta}) soft photon distributions with total number density N {sub 0}, we calculate analytical approximations for the electron production spectrum. For distant objects with luminosity distances d{sub L} >> r {sub 0} = ({sigma} {sub T} N {sub 0}){sup -1} = 0.49N {sup -1} {sub 0} Mpc (with Thomson cross section {sigma} {sub T}), the implied large values of the optical depth {tau}{sub 0} = d{sub L} /r {sub 0} indicate that the electron production spectra differ at energies inside and outside the interval [({Theta}ln {tau}{sub 0}){sup -1}, {tau}{sub 0}/{Theta}], given the maximum gamma-ray energy M >> {Theta}{sup -1}. In the case M >> {Theta}{sup -1}, the production spectrum is strongly peaked near E {approx_equal} {Theta}{sup -1}, being exponentially reduced at small energies and decreasing with the steep power law {proportional_to}E {sup -1-p} up to the maximum energy E = M - (1/2).

  14. Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using ultrashort laser-Compton-scattered gamma-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Y.; Toyokawa, H.; Kuroda, R.; Yamamoto, N.; Adachi, M.; Tanaka, S.; Katoh, M.

    2013-05-01

    High-energy ultrashort gamma-ray pulses can be generated via laser Compton scattering with 90° collisions at the UVSOR-II electron storage ring. As an applied study of ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, a new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed. Ultrashort gamma-ray pulses with a maximum energy of 6.6 MeV and pulse width of 2.2 ps created positrons throughout bulk lead via pair production. Annihilation gamma rays were detected by a BaF2 scintillator mounted on a photomultiplier tube. A positron lifetime spectrum was obtained by measuring the time difference between the RF frequency of the electron storage ring and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. We calculated the response of the BaF2 scintillator and the time jitter caused by the variation in the total path length of the ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, annihilation gamma rays, and scintillation light using a Monte Carlo simulation code. The positron lifetime for bulk lead was successfully measured.

  15. Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using ultrashort laser-Compton-scattered gamma-ray pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Y; Toyokawa, H; Kuroda, R; Yamamoto, N; Adachi, M; Tanaka, S; Katoh, M

    2013-05-01

    High-energy ultrashort gamma-ray pulses can be generated via laser Compton scattering with 90° collisions at the UVSOR-II electron storage ring. As an applied study of ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, a new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed. Ultrashort gamma-ray pulses with a maximum energy of 6.6 MeV and pulse width of 2.2 ps created positrons throughout bulk lead via pair production. Annihilation gamma rays were detected by a BaF2 scintillator mounted on a photomultiplier tube. A positron lifetime spectrum was obtained by measuring the time difference between the RF frequency of the electron storage ring and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. We calculated the response of the BaF2 scintillator and the time jitter caused by the variation in the total path length of the ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, annihilation gamma rays, and scintillation light using a Monte Carlo simulation code. The positron lifetime for bulk lead was successfully measured. PMID:23742543

  16. Hyperfine Splitting in True Muonium to $\\mathcal{O}(m_\\mu\\alpha^6)$: Two Photon Annihilation Contribution from Other Flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Yao

    2016-01-01

    The two-photon-annihilation contribution to the true muonium hyperfine splitting arising from $e$ and $\\tau$ loops is obtained analytically at order $m_\\mu\\alpha^6$. The contribution to the hyperfine splitting is $-2.031092873 m_\\mu\\alpha^6/n^3\\pi^2=-793.926988/n^3$ MHz. The contribution to the triplet true muonium decay rate has also been obtained and was found to be $9.825708266 m_\\mu\\alpha^6/n^3\\pi^2=3840.737698/n^3$ MHz. Additional results have been computed for other purely leptonic bound states.

  17. Neutrino annihilation in hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider neutrino annihilation in a heat bath, including annihilation via the photon. We show that the annihilation cross section has high and narrow peaks corresponding to a plasmon resonance. This yields an enormous enhancement factor of O(108) in the differential cross section as compared with the purely weak contribution. We also evaluate numerically the thermally averaged neutrino annihilation rate per particle in the heat bath of the early universe to be +e-)>≅2.93GF2T2. We have accounted for the final-state blocking factors as well as for the fact that the center-of-mass frame of collisions is not necessarily the rest frame of the heat bath. Despite the resonances, electromagnetic processes represent only a minor effect in the averaged annihilation rate. (orig.)

  18. Neutrino annihilation in hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider neutrino annihilation in a heat bath, including annihilation via the photon. We show that the annihilation cross section has high and narrow peaks corresponding to a plasmon resonance. This yields an enormous enhancement factor of O(108) in the differential cross section as compared with the purely weak contribution. We also evaluate numerically the thermally averaged neutrino annihilation rate per particle in the heat bath of the early Universe to be +e-)> ≅ 2.93GF2T2. We have accounted for the final state blocking factors as well as for the fact that the center-of-mass frame of collisions is not necessarily the rest frame of the heat bath. Despite the resonances, electromagnetic processes represent only a minor effect in the averaged annihilation rate. (orig.)

  19. Search for photon line-like signatures from Dark Matter annihilations with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Acero, F; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M -H; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Menzler, U; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Wouters, D; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray line signatures can be expected in the very-high-energy (VHE; E_\\gamma > 100 GeV) domain due to self-annihilation or decay of dark matter (DM) particles in space. Such a signal would be readily distinguishable from astrophysical \\gamma-ray sources that in most cases produce continuous spectra which span over several orders of magnitude in energy. Using data collected with the H.E.S.S. \\gamma-ray instrument, upper limits on line-like emission are obtained in the energy range between ~500 GeV and ~25 TeV for the central part of the Milky Way halo and for extragalactic observations, complementing recent limits obtained with the Fermi-LAT instrument at lower energies. No statistically significant signal could be found. For monochromatic \\gamma-ray line emission, flux limits of (2x10^-7 - 2x10^-5) m^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 and (1x10^-8 - 2x10^-6) m^-2 s^-1 sr^-1 are obtained for the central part of the Milky Way halo and extragalactic observations, respectively. For a DM particle mass of 1 TeV, limits on the veloc...

  20. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  1. Positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main work in the annihilation of positrons at Harwell (UK) has been the application of the technique of technological problems to do with the effects of radiation damage and mechanical phenomena, such as fatigue and creep, on the properties of materials. Three experimental techniques for studying positron annihilation in solids are documented in this article. Nuclear pulse counting methods are being used, also angular correlation and the Doppler method. The irradiation of metals and alloys with fast neutrons at high temperatures in a reactor can cause voids to develop in the material. Defects are also produced by the plastic deformation of metals and alloys. It opens up the possibility of using positron annihilation as a practical non-destructive tool to assess mechanical damage in materials. Harwell has also been able to make measurements on the inside surface of a hole in a metal sample and on variously-shaped notched and cracked test pieces, which means that it is possible to apply the technique to engineering components

  2. Sfermion production at photon colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, M

    2000-01-01

    We calculate total and differential cross sections for sfermion production in $e^+e^-$ annihilation and in photon-photon collisions with arbitrary photon polarization. The total cross section at a polarized photon collider is shown to be larger than the $e^+e^-$ annihilation cross section up to the kinematic limit of the photon collider.

  3. Annihilator-semigroup rings

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D D; Victor Camillo

    2003-01-01

    Let $ R $ be a commutative ring with 1. We define $ R $ to be an annihilator-semigroup ring if $ R $ has an annihilator-Semigroup $ S $, that is, $ (S, \\cdot) $ is a multiplicative subsemigroup of $ (R, \\cdot) $ with the property that for each $ r \\in R $ there exists a unique $ s \\in S $ with $ 0 : r = 0 : s $. In this paper we investigate annihilator-semigroups and annihilator-semigroup rings.

  4. Annihilation of Quantum Magnetic Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, W. D.

    After introducing the concepts associated with the Aharonov and Bohm effect and with the existence of a quantum of magnetic flux (QMF), we briefly discuss the Ginzburg-Landau theory that explains its origin and fundamental consequences. Also relevant observations of QMFs obtained in the laboratory using superconducting systems (vortices) are mentioned. Next, we describe processes related with the interaction of QMFs with opposite directions in terms of the gauge field geometry related to the vector potential. Then, we discuss the use of a Lagrangian density for a scalar field theory involving radiation in order to describe the annihilation of QMFs, claimed to be responsible for the emission of photons with energies corresponding to that of the annihilated magnetic fields. Finally, a possible application of these concepts to the observed variable dynamics of neutron stars is briefly mentioned.

  5. Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rat...

  6. Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal ...

  7. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. Comprehensive and accessible cov

  8. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol

  9. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying the technology instrumentation of photonics This volume discusses photonics technology and instrumentation. The topics discussed in this volume are: Communication Networks; Data Buffers; Defense and Security Applications; Detectors; Fiber Optics and Amplifiers; Green Photonics; Instrumentation and Metrology; Interferometers; Light-Harvesting Materials; Logic Devices; Optical Communications; Remote Sensing; Solar Energy; Solid-State Lighting; Wavelength Conversion Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics Emphas

  10. Photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, David L

    2015-01-01

    Discusses the basic physical principles underlying thescience and technology of nanophotonics, its materials andstructures This volume presents nanophotonic structures and Materials.Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizeslight/matter interactions on the nanoscale where researchers arediscovering new phenomena and developing techniques that go wellbeyond what is possible with conventional photonics andelectronics.The topics discussed in this volume are: CavityPhotonics; Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates; Displays;E-paper; Graphene; Integrated Photonics; Liquid Cry

  11. Photon pair production by e+e- annihilation and search for supersymmetric photinos at energies greater than 40 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section for the process e+e- -> γγ has been measured for c.m. energies 39.5 61 GeV and Asub(-) > 56 GeV (95% confidence level) have been determined. A search for two photon final states with missing energy provided lower limits on the masses of the photino and selectron. (orig.)

  12. Neutrino signals from electroweak bremsstrahlung in solar WIMP annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Brennan, Amelia J.; Jacques, Thomas D., E-mail: n.bell@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: a.brennan@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: thomas.jacques@asu.edu [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2012-10-01

    Bremsstrahlung of W and Z gauge bosons, or photons, can be an important dark matter annihilation channel. In many popular models in which the annihilation to a pair of light fermions is helicity suppressed, these bremsstrahlung processes can lift the suppression and thus become the dominant annihilation channels. The resulting dark matter annihilation products contain a large, energetic, neutrino component. We consider solar WIMP annihilation in the case where electroweak bremsstrahlung dominates, and calculate the resulting neutrino spectra. The flux consists of primary neutrinos produced in processes such as χχ→ν-bar νZ and χχ→ν-bar lW, and secondary neutrinos produced via the decays of gauge bosons and charged leptons. After dealing with the neutrino propagation and flavour evolution in the Sun, we consider the prospects for detection in neutrino experiments on Earth. We compare our signal with that for annihilation to W{sup +}W{sup −}, and show that, for a given annihilation rate, the bremsstrahlung annihilation channel produces a larger signal by a factor of a few.

  13. High Energy Photon-Photon Collisions -

    OpenAIRE

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC; Zerwas, Peter M.; DESY

    1994-01-01

    The collisions of high energy photons produced at an electron-positron collider provide a comprehensive laboratory for testing QCD, electroweak interactions, and extensions of the Standard Model. The luminosity and energy of the colliding photons produced by back-scattering laser beams is expected to be comparable to that of the primary $e^+e^-$ collisions. In this overview, we shall focus on tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation, particularly $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow W^+...

  14. Coincidence detection of photons of 511 keV from positon annihilation on a conventional gamma camera: optimization and analysis of potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of acquiring clinical oncology studies on a gamma camera designed for the imaging of low energy single photons was investigated. The first prototype used two Nal(Tl) detectors of 40 cm by 30 cm with a 3/8 inch height and the second prototype was equipped with two large Nal(Tl) detectors of 40 cm by 54 cm with a 4/8 inch height. The optimization of such devices was mainly an optimization of the count rates obtained for reconstruct an image as a function of the angular axial aperture of the projections, with and without axial collimators. This optimization was performed experimentally using an anthropomorphic whole body phantom and the noise equivalent count rate as the figure of merit. An original correction for the random coincidences was also designed in order to optimize the contrast recovery and the contrast to noise ratio of small tumors (16 mm and 19 mm diameter). Finally, the optimal dose of FDG that can be injected to the subjects for an acquisition of that machine was determined and data acquired on an ECAT HR+ were compared with those acquired on the gamma camera for five subjects. (author)

  15. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  16. On the inclusive annihilation of polarized e+e--pair with two observed hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general consideration of the inclusive annihilation of polarized e+e--pair with two observed hadrons in final state (e+e-→h1h2X) is carried out. The annihilation cross section is expressed in terms of five structure functions describing the transition γ*→h1h2X. The partial widths of the corresponding decay of a virtual photon for different polarizations of the photon are also introduced and the annihilation cross section is written through these widths. The density matrix of the virtual photon and its polarizational multipole moments are given as well

  17. Antineutron-nucleus annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E

    2001-01-01

    The n-nucleus annihilation process has been studied by the OBELIX experiment at the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) in the (50-400) MeV/c projectile momentum range on C, Al, Cu, Ag, Sn, and Pb nuclear targets. A systematic survey of the annihilation cross- section, sigma /sub alpha /(A, p/sub n/), has been performed, obtaining information on its dependence on the target mass number and on the incoming n momentum. For the first time the mass number dependence of the (inclusive) final state composition of the process has been analyzed. Production of the rho vector meson has also been examined. (13 refs).

  18. Dark Matter Annihilation in the First Galaxy Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Schon, Sarah; Avram, Cassandra A; Wyithe, J Stuart B; Barberio, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of energy released from self-annihilating dark matter on heating of gas in the small, high-redshift dark matter halos thought to host the first stars. A SUSY neutralino like particle is implemented as our dark matter candidate. The PYTHIA code is used to model the final, stable particle distributions produced during the annihilation process. We use an analytic treatment in conjunction with the code MEDEA2 to find the energy transfer and subsequent partition into heating, ionizing and Lyman alpha photon components. We consider a number of halo density models, dark matter particle masses and annihilation channels. We find that the injected energy from dark matter exceeds the binding energy of the gas within a $10^5$ - $10^6$ M$_\\odot$ halo at redshifts above 20, preventing star formation in early halos in which primordial gas would otherwise cool. Thus we find that DM annihilation could delay the formation of the first galaxies.

  19. Dark matter annihilation in the first galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, S.; Mack, K. J.; Avram, C. A.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Barberio, E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the impact of energy released from self-annihilating dark matter (DM) on heating of gas in the small, high-redshift DM haloes thought to host the first stars. A supersymmetric (SUSY)-neutralino-like particle is implemented as our DM candidate. The PYTHIA code is used to model the final, stable particle distributions produced during the annihilation process. We use an analytic treatment in conjunction with the code MEDEA2 to find the energy transfer and subsequent partition into heating, ionizing and Lyman α photon components. We consider a number of halo density models, DM particle masses and annihilation channels. We find that the injected energy from DM exceeds the binding energy of the gas within a 105-106 M⊙ halo at redshifts above 20, preventing star formation in early haloes in which primordial gas would otherwise cool. Thus we find that DM annihilation could delay the formation of the first galaxies.

  20. Positron annihilation microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, K.F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Advances in positron annihilation microprobe development are reviewed. The present resolution achievable is 3 {mu}m. The ultimate resolution is expected to be 0.1 {mu}m which will enable the positron microprobe to be a valuable tool in the development of 0.1 {mu}m scale electronic devices in the future. (author)

  1. Pseudoscalar boson production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mechanism of pseudoscalar boson production by the heavy quark-antiquark pair via one-photon exchange in e+e- annihilation is studied. The total cross sections of this reaction and energy distributions of produced p0-boson are obtained

  2. A simple formula for the thermal pair annihilation line emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Roland; Larsson, Stefan; Poutanen, Juri

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a simple and convenient fitting formula for the thermal annihilation line from pair plasmas in cosmic sources. The fitting formula is accurate to 0.04\\% and is valid at all photon energies and temperatures of interest. The commonly used Gaussian line profile is not a good approximation for broader lines.

  3. Annihilating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nicole F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    The relic abundance of particle and antiparticle dark matter (DM) need not be vastly different in thermal asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models. By considering the effect of a primordial asymmetry on the thermal Boltzmann evolution of coupled DM and anti-DM, we derive the requisite annihilation cross section. This is used in conjunction with CMB and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data to impose a limit on the number density of anti-DM particles surviving thermal freeze-out. When the extended gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center is reanalyzed in a thermal ADM framework, we find that annihilation into $\\tau$ leptons prefer anti-DM number densities 1-4$\\%$ that of DM while the $b$-quark channel prefers 50-100$\\%$.

  4. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  5. Revisiting Bremsstrahlung emission associated with Light Dark Matter annihilations

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, C; Uwer, P.

    2006-01-01

    We compute the single bremsstrahlung emission associated with the pair annihilation of spin-0 particles into electrons and positrons, via the t-channel exchange of a heavy fermion. We compare our result with the work of Beacom et al. . Unlike what is stated in the literature, we show that the Bremsstrahlung cross section is not necessarily given by the tree-level annihilation cross section (for a generalized kinematics) times a factor related to the emission of a soft photon. Such a factoriza...

  6. Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rate for direct dark matter annihilation with Sommerfeld enhancement. The effects are strongest for large dark gauge coupling and when the dark photon mass is smaller than the typical momentum of dark matter in the galaxy. As an example, we show that for thermal dark matter the Fermi gamma ray constraint is substantially increased once bound state effects are taken into account. We also find that bound state effects are not important for dark matter annihilation during the freeze out and recombination epochs.

  7. On positron annihilation in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to understand Mogensen's and Petersen's positron annihilation curves for zinc. Mijnarends approach is used as an auxiliary method of localizing inhomogeneities of the electronic density in momentum space, as defined in the paper. Evidence is found for a new effect consisting of a strong enhancement of the annihilation probability in the lenses obtained by the intersection of the Fermi surface with HMC surfaces. This effect, not the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, is the main reason for the anisotropy of the annihilation curves. (orig.)

  8. Pair production and annihilation in gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of nonlinear radiative transport calculations of relevance to gamma-ray bursts and emission from the center of our galaxy are reported. Two-photon pair production and annihilation, as well as three-photon pair annihilation, are included in the calculations; the radiation field itself acts as an absorbing medium, and the optical depth depends on the radiation field. Spherical geometry produces effective collimation of the flux. At high optical depth, the high-energy (>700keV) portion of the emergent spectrum assumes a nearly-universal form. An approximate limit is derived for the high-energy flux from a gamma-ray burst source, and the implications of this limit for the 5 March, 1979 event are briefly discussed.

  9. The Darkest Hour Before Dawn: Contributions to Cosmic Reionisation from Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongwan; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Zavala, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation or decay could have a significant impact on the ionisation and thermal history of the universe. In this paper, we study the potential contribution of dark matter annihilation ($s$-wave- or $p$-wave-dominated) or decay to cosmic reionisation, via the production of electrons, positrons and photons. We map out the possible perturbations to the ionisation and thermal histories of the universe due to dark matter processes, over a broad range of velocity-averaged annihilati...

  10. The Beaming Pattern of Doppler Boosted Thermal Annihilation Radiation: Application to MeV Blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Skibo, J. G.; Dermer, C. D.; Schlickeiser, R.

    1997-01-01

    The beaming pattern of thermal annihilation radiation is broader than the beaming pattern produced by isotropic nonthermal electrons and positrons in the jets of radio-emitting active galactic nuclei which Compton scatter photons from an external isotropic radiation field. Thus blueshifted thermal annihilation radiation can provide the dominant contribution to the high-energy radiation spectrum at observing angles theta > 1/Gamma, where Gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflowing plasm...

  11. Development of a pico-second life-time spectrometer for positron annihilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation technique is a sensitive probe to investigate various physico-chemical phenomena due to the ability to provide information about the electron momentum and density in any medium. While measurements on the Doppler broadening and angular correlation of annihilation photons provide information about the electron momentum, the electron density at the annihilation site is obtained, by the positron life-time measurement. This report describes the development, optimization and calibration of a high resolution life-time spectrometer (FWHM=230 ps), based on fast-fast coincidence technique, a relatively new concept in nuclear timing spectroscopy. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Monomer Migration and Annihilation Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; ZHUANG You-Yi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a two-species monomer migration-annihilation model, in which monomer migration reactions occur between any two aggregates of the same species and monomer annihilation reactions occur between two different species. Based on the mean-field rate equations, we investigate the evolution behaviors of the processes. For the case with an annihilation rate kernel proportional to the sizes of the reactants, the aggregation size distribution of either species approaches the modified scaling form in the symmetrical initial case, while for the asymmetrical initial case the heavy species with a large initial data scales according to the conventional form and the light one does not scale. Moreover,at most one species can survive finally. For the case with aconstant annihilation rate kernel, both species may scale according to the conventional scaling law in the symmetrical case and survive together at the end.

  13. Complete light annihilation in an ultrathin layer of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedendahl, Mikael; Johansson, Peter; Käll, Mikael

    2013-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate that an incident light beam can be completely annihilated in a single layer of randomly distributed, widely spaced gold nanoparticle antennas. Under certain conditions, each antenna dissipates more than 10 times the number of photons that enter its geometric cross-sectional area. The underlying physics can be understood in terms of a critical coupling to localized plasmons in the nanoparticles or, equivalently, in terms of destructive optical Fano interference and so-called coherent absorption. PMID:23806090

  14. Compton-backscattered annihilation radiation from the Galactic Center region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M.; Lin, R. P.; Feffer, P.; Slassi, S.; Hurley, K.; Matteson, J.; Bowman, H. B.; Pelling, R. M.; Briggs, M.; Gruber, D.

    1993-01-01

    On 1989 May 22, the High Energy X-ray and Gamma-ray Observatory for Nuclear Emissions, a balloon-borne high-resolution germanium spectrometer with an 18-deg FOV, observed the Galactic Center (GC) from 25 to 2500 keV. The GC photon spectrum is obtained from the count spectrum by a model-independent method which accounts for the effects of passive material in the instrument and scattering in the atmosphere. Besides a positron annihilation line with a flux of (10.0 +/- 2.4) x 10 exp -4 photons/sq cm s and a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (2.9 + 1.0, -1.1) keV, the spectrum shows a peak centered at (163.7 +/- 3.4) keV with a flux of (1.55 +/- 0.47) x 10 exp -3 photons/sq cm s and a FWHM of (24.4 +/- 9.2) keV. The energy range 450-507 keV shows no positronium continuum associated with the annihilation line, with a 2-sigma upper limit of 0.90 on the positronium fraction. The 164 keV feature is interpreted as Compton backscatter of broadened and redshifted annihilation radiation, possibly from the source 1E 1740.7-2942.

  15. Compton Scattering, Pair Annihilation and Pair Production in a Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishan, Vinod

    1999-01-01

    The square of the four momentum of a photon in vacuum is zero. However, in an unmagnetized plasma it is equal to the square of the plasma frequency. Further, the electron-photon coupling vertex is modified in a plasma to include the effect of the plasma medium. I calculate the cross sections of the three processes - the Compton scattering, electron-positron pair annihilation and production in a plasma. At high plasma densities, the cross sections are found to change significantly. Such high p...

  16. e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first lecture will give information on properties and limitations of storage ring machines and about the basics of experimentation. Then the results of QED tests in the purely leptonic channels are presented. In the second lecture I try to cover information on hadron production at higher energies where jet-phenomena are important with emphasis on three jet events and their relations to some basic properties of QCD. In the third lecture the recent searches for new particle thresholds are reviewed and an account is given of some of the decay properties of heavy quark antiquark resonances.Finally, (fourth lecture), the new field of photon-photon collisions where very little was known until very recently is briefly covered with discussions of C=+ resonance production and hard scattering phenomena. (orig./HSI)

  17. The Effects of Dark Matter Annihilation on Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kaurov, Alexander A; Gnedin, Nickolay Y

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the possibility of constraining the properties of dark matter (DM) by studying the epoch of cosmic reionization. Previous studies have shown that DM annihilation was unlikely to have provided a large fraction of the photons that ionized the universe, but instead played a subdominant role relative to stars and quasars. The DM, however, begins to efficiently annihilate with the formation of primordial microhalos at $z\\sim100-200$, much earlier than the formation of the first stars. Therefore, if DM annihilation ionized the universe at even the percent level over the interval $z \\sim 20-100$, it can leave a significant imprint on the global optical depth, $\\tau$. Moreover, we show that cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data and future 21 cm measurements will enable us to more directly probe the DM contribution to the optical depth. In order to compute the annihilation rate throughout the epoch of reionization, we adopt the latest results from structure formation studies and explore the im...

  18. Constraints on Dark Matter annihilation from M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clusters of galaxies and their central cD galaxies are prime targets for observing indirect signatures of dark matter annihilation owing to their huge mass concentration. The main challenge is to discriminate between high-energy emission of different origins, for example the emission from active galactic nuclei as a result of accretion of mass by the supermassive black hole at the centre of the host galaxy and the emission due to dark matter annihilation. In addition to prompt gamma rays, dark matter annihilation products can include energetic electrons and positrons which inverse Compton scatter with the cosmic microwave background or with starlight photon fields to produce potentially detectable signals going from the soft to the hard X-ray energy band. In order to constrain the dark matter annihilation emission component, a state-of-the-art radiation code for the M87 jet emission and a generic description of the prompt and secondary inverse-Compton gamma rays due to generic weakly interacting dark matter particles are employed and possibilities for identifying the signatures of dark matter in the multi-wavelength spectrum of M87 are investigated.

  19. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  20. Physics Opportunities at a Photon-Photon Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2002-01-01

    The advent of back-scattered laser beams for electron-positron colliders will allow detailed studies of a large array of high energy photon-photon and photon-electron collision processes with polarized beams. These include tests of electroweak theory in photon-photon annihilation such as $\\gamma \\gamma \\to W^+ W^-$, $\\gamma \\gamma \\to $ Higgs bosons, and higher-order loop processes, such as $\\gamma \\gamma \\to \\gamma \\gamma, Z \\gamma, H^0 Z^0$ and $Z Z.$ Methods for measuring the anomalous mag...

  1. Photon energy upconverting nanopaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Anna Justina; Busko, Dmitry; Avlasevich, Yuri; Glasser, Gunnar; Baluschev, Stanislav; Landfester, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The development of solid materials which are able to upconvert optical radiation into photons of higher energy is attractive for many applications such as photocatalytic cells and photovoltaic devices. However, to fully exploit triplet-triplet annihilation photon energy upconversion (TTA......-UC), oxygen protection is imperative because molecular oxygen is an ultimate quencher of the photon upconversion process. So far, reported solid TTA-UC materials have focused mainly on elastomeric matrices with low barrier properties because the TTA-UC efficiency generally drops significantly in glassy and...

  2. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...

  3. Momentum distribution in vanadium: Compton scattering and positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, V.; Kanhere, D. G.; Singru, R. M.

    1992-09-01

    Self-consistent, linear-combination-of-Gaussian-orbitals band-structure method is used within the independent particle model, to calculate the electron momentum distributions, ρ(p), and two-photon momentum distributions, ρ2γ(p), in metallic vanadium. We present results for ρ(p), Compton profiles, ρ2γ(p), one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation, etc. Results are compared with other calculations and with experiments wherever available. In particular, the present results for ρ2γ(p) are analyzed in terms of contributions from different sheets of Fermi surface of V, and are compared with ρ2γ(p) reconstructed from experimental two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation data sets by Pecora et al.

  4. Role of positron-electron annihilation in Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhabha scattering refers to Bhabha's original work on electron-positron scattering which was published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, London in 1936. Bhabha had published several other papers on positron interaction using Dirac's hole theory. However, the paper titled, 'The Scattering of Positron by Electrons with exchange on Dirac's Theory of Positron' was his crowning achievement, a process now is well known as Bhabha scattering which a positron has to undergo while passing through the matter before it annihilates to generate a real photon. Bhabha scattering contains three terms (i) A direct term due to positron-electron scattering (ii) An exchange term due to positron-electron annihilation followed by pair production and (iii) An interference term due to combination of both. At a time when not much was known about antiparticle, it was confusing whether such an exchange effect due to annihilation followed by pair production needs to be included in positron-electron scattering. If a positron is regarded as an independent particle that obeys Dirac equation, positron-electron scattering should not have any exchange effects. On the other hand, if the positron is regarded as the absence of an electron in the negative energy Dirac sea (hole), exchange effects can not be neglected. Both the school of thoughts will lead to different results. The experimental measurements would have resolved this ambiguity, but was not available at that time. Bhabha, however taking the clue from the Dirac's hole theory, pointed out that the exchange phenomena is an important aspect and should be taken into account in the scattering of any two particles which can annihilate each other and be created in pair. Thus, like Moller, Bhabha obtained a correct expression for Bhabha Scattering which was beautifully confirmed by experiment later on. In this talk, I will review briefly how Bhabha obtained the scattering formulae with a special emphasis on exchange effect that arises due to

  5. Antiproton annihilation in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-proton annihilation has a number of important advantages as a probe of QCD in the low energy domain. Exclusive reaction in which complete annihilation of the valance quarks occur. There are a number of exclusive and inclusive /bar p/ reactions in the intermediate momentum transfer domain which provide useful constraints on hadron wavefunctions or test novel features of QCD involving both perturbative and nonperturbative dynamics. Inclusive reactions involving antiprotons have the advantage that the parton distributions are well understood. In these lectures, I will particularly focus on lepton pair production /bar p/A → /ell//bar /ell//X as a means to understand specific nuclear features in QCD, including collision broadening, breakdown of the QCD ''target length condition''. Thus studies of low to moderate energy antiproton reactions with laboratory energies under 10 GeV could give further insights into the full structure of QCD. 112 refs., 40 figs

  6. Measuring the Photon Fragmentation Function at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ridder, A G D; Poulsen, E

    2006-01-01

    The production of final state photons in deep inelastic scattering originates from photon radiation off leptons or quarks involved in the scattering process. Photon radiation off quarks involves a contribution from the quark-to-photon fragmentation function, corresponding to the non-perturbative transition of a hadronic jet into a single, highly energetic photon accompanied by some limited hadronic activity. Up to now, this fragmentation function was measured only in electron-positron annihilation at LEP. We demonstrate by a dedicated parton-level calculation that a competitive measurement of the quark-to-photon fragmentation function can be obtained in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. Such a measurement can be obtained by studying the photon energy spectra in $\\gamma + (0+1)$-jet events, where $\\gamma$ denotes a hadronic jet containing a highly energetic photon (the photon jet). Isolated photons are then defined from the photon jet by imposing a minimal photon energy fraction. For this so-called democratic...

  7. Electron-positron Annihilation Lines and Decaying Sterile Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, M. H.; Chu, M. -C.

    2011-01-01

    If massive sterile neutrinos exist, their decays into photons and/or electron-positron pairs may give rise to observable consequences. We consider the possibility that MeV sterile neutrino decays lead to the diffuse positron annihilation line in the Milky Way center, and we thus obtain bounds on the sterile neutrino decay rate $\\Gamma_e \\ge 10^{-28}$ s$^{-1}$ from relevant astrophysical/cosmological data. Also, we expect a soft gamma flux of $1.2 \\times 10^{-4}-9.7 \\times 10^{-4}$ ph cm$^{-2}...

  8. Soft collinear effective theory for heavy WIMP annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a large class of models for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), the WIMP mass M lies far above the weak scale mW . This work identifies universal Sudakov-type logarithms ∼ α log2(2 M/mW) that spoil the naive convergence of perturbation theory for annihilation processes. An effective field theory (EFT) framework is presented, allowing the systematic resummation of these logarithms. Another impact of the large separation of scales is that a long-distance wavefunction distortion from electroweak boson exchange leads to observable modifications of the cross section. Careful accounting of momentum regions in the EFT allows the rigorous disentanglement of this so-called Sommerfeld enhancement from the short-distance hard annihilation process. In addition, the WIMP is described as a heavy-particle field, while the electroweak gauge bosons are treated as soft and collinear fields. Hard matching coefficients are computed at renormalization scale μ ∼ 2 M, then evolved down to μ ∼ mW , where electroweak symmetry breaking is incorporated and the matching onto the relevant quantum mechanical Hamiltonian is performed. The example of an SU(2)W triplet scalar dark matter candidate annihilating to line photons is used for concreteness, allowing the numerical exploration of the impact of next-to-leading order corrections and log resummation. As a result, for M ≃ 3 TeV, the resummed Sommerfeld enhanced cross section is reduced by a factor of ∼ 3 with respect to the treelevel fixed order result

  9. Gluino Pair Production in $e^+ e^-$ and Photon-Photon Collisions at CERN CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Berge, S; 10.1140/epjc/s2003-01194-4

    2003-01-01

    We confront the generally small cross sections for gluino pair production in e^+e^- annihilation with the much larger ones in photon-photon scattering at a multi-TeV linear collider like CERN CLIC. The larger rates and the steeper rise of the cross section at threshold may allow for a precise gluino mass determination in high-energy photon-photon collisions for a wide range of squark masses and post-LEP SUSY benchmark points.

  10. Final-state Interaction Effects on Inclusive Two-particle Production in Electron-positron Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang Jian Jun; Yang, Jian-Jun; Lu, Wei

    1997-01-01

    The final-state interaction effects on the inclusive two-particle production in electron-positron annihilation are investigated within the context of the one-photon annihilation approximation. Such effects are characterized by one structure function in the decomposition of the hadronic tensor. On the basis of the positivity, we derived an inequality to bound this structure function. The price to access it experimentally is to polarize longitudinally one of the initial-state beam, to say, the electron beam, and measure the corresponding single spin asymmetry. By combining the Callan-Gross relation with our positivity analysis, we obtain an upper bound for the single spin asymmetry considered.

  11. Plasmon annihilation into Kaluza-Klein gravitons: New astrophysical constraints on large extra dimensions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the large extra dimensional Kaluza-Klein (KK) scenario, where the usual standard model (SM) matter is confined to a 3+1-dimensional hypersurface called the 3-brane and gravity can propagate to the bulk (D=4+d, d being the number of extra spatial dimensions), the light graviton KK modes can be produced inside the supernova core due to the usual nucleon-nucleon bremstrahlung, electron-positron, and photon-photon annihilations. This photon inside the supernova becomes a plasmon due to the plasma effect. In this paper, we study the energy-loss rate of SN 1987A due to the KK gravitons produced from the plasmon-plasmon annihilation. We find that the SN 1987A cooling rate leads to the conservative bound MD>22.9 TeV and 1.38 TeV for the case of two and three spacelike extra dimensions.

  12. Gas Permeations Studied by Positron Annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jen-Pwu; Cao, Huimin; Jean, X.; Yang, Y. C.

    1997-03-01

    The hole volumes and fractions of PC and PET polymers are measured by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Direct correlations between the measured hole properties and gas permeabilities are observed. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to study gas transport and separation of polymeric materials will be discussed.

  13. New techniques of positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on new techniques of positron annihilation and its application to various fields are presented. First, production of slow positron and its characteristic features are described. The slow positron can be obtained from radioisotopes by using a positron moderator, proton beam bombardment on a boron target, and pair production by using an electron linear accelerator. Bright enhancement of the slow positron beam is studied. Polarized positron beam can be used for the study of the momentum distribution of an electron in ferromagnetic substances. Production of polarized positrons and measurements of polarization are discussed. Various phases of interaction between slow positrons and atoms (or molecules) are described. A comparative study of electron scavenging effects on luminescence and on positronium formation in cyclohexane is presented. The positron annihilation phenomena are applicable for the surface study. The microscopic information on the surface of porous material may be obtained. The slow positrons are also useful for the surface study. Production and application of slow muon (positive and negative) are presented in this report. (Kato, T.)

  14. Skyrmion creation and annihilation by spin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhou, E-mail: yliu062@ucr.edu; Yin, Gen; Lake, Roger K., E-mail: rlake@ece.ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Zang, Jiadong [Department of Physics and Material Science Program, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Shi, Jing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Single skyrmion creation and annihilation by spin waves in a crossbar geometry are theoretically analyzed. A critical spin-wave frequency is required both for the creation and the annihilation of a skyrmion. The minimum frequencies for creation and annihilation are similar, but the optimum frequency for creation is below the critical frequency for skyrmion annihilation. If a skyrmion already exists in the cross bar region, a spin wave below the critical frequency causes the skyrmion to circulate within the central region. A heat assisted creation process reduces the spin-wave frequency and amplitude required for creating a skyrmion. The effective field resulting from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the emergent field of the skyrmion acting on the spin wave drive the creation and annihilation processes.

  15. Fermionic Semi-Annihilating Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories with symmetries larger than Z2. We investigate two examples with multi-component dark sectors comprised of an SU(2)L singlet or triplet fermion besides a scalar singlet. These are respectively the minimal fermionic semi-annihilating model, and the minimal case for a gauge-charged fermion. We study the relevant dark matter phenomenology, including the interplay of semi-annihilation and the Sommerfeld effect. We demonstrate that semi-annihilation in the singlet model can explain the gamma ray excess from the galactic center. For the triplet model we scan the parameter space, and explore how signals and constraints are modified by semi-annihilation. We find that the entire region where the model comprises all the observed dark matter is accessible to current and planned direct and indirect searches.

  16. Nature of chemical bond through positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation is an important alternative to Compton scattering for determination of electron momentum distribution. The possibility of studying the nature of chemical bond by positron annihilation technique is reviewed in this paper. General concepts connected with momentum space and chemical bond have been outlined. Estimation of positron wavefunction at carbon and hydrogen sites and the calculation of electron momentum distribution of C-H and C-C bonds are discussed. The annihilation with sigma electrons broadens the angular correlation curve while the annihilation with π electrons narrows the curve. The most significant part of this paper is the investigation of participation of d-orbital of sulphur in chemical bonding. Whether or not ligand perturbation is necessary for d-orbital contraction and consequent participation in bonding is controversial till now. A study of angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation on organic sulphides and sulphones is a direct evidence to conclude that ligand perturbation is necessary. (author)

  17. Can the morphology of gamma-ray emission distinguish annihilating from decaying dark matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, Celine; Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The recent results from the PAMELA, ATIC, FERMI and HESS experiments have focused attention on the possible existence of high energy cosmic ray e^+ e^- that may originate from dark matter (DM) annihilations or decays in the Milky Way. Here we examine the morphology of the gamma-ray emission after propagation of the electrons generated by both annihilating and decaying dark matter models. We focus on photon energies of 1 GeV, 10 GeV, 50 GeV (relevant for the FERMI satellite) and consider different propagation parameters. Our main conclusion is that distinguishing annihilating from decaying dark matter may only be possible if the propagation parameters correspond to the most optimistic diffusion models. In addition, we point to examples where morphology can lead to an erroneous interpretation of the source injection energy.

  18. SUSY Implications from WIMP Annihilation into Scalars at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Medina, Anibal D

    2015-01-01

    An excess in $\\gamma$-rays emanating from the galactic centre has recently been observed in the Fermi-LAT data. We investigate the new exciting possibility of fitting the signal spectrum by dark matter annihilating dominantly to a Higgs-pseudoscalar pair. We show that the fit to the $\\gamma$-ray excess for the Higgs-pseudoscalar channel can be just as good as for annihilation into bottom-quark pairs. This channel arises naturally in a full model such as the next-to-minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) and we find regions where dark matter relic density, the $\\gamma$-ray signal and other experimental constraints, can all be satisfied simultaneously. Annihilation into scalar pairs allows for the possibility of detecting the Higgs or pseudoscalar decay into two photons, providing a smoking-gun signal of the model.

  19. A numerical study of the characteristics of the LEALE photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the LEALE laboratory a monochromatic photon beam with energy in the range 80/300 MeV is available. Photons are produced by positron annihilation on a liquid hydrogen target. The characteristics of the beam are calculated for various conditions (positron energy, photon collimator, target thickness), taking into account the effects contributing to the beam spreading (energy loss and multiple scattering of protons in the annihilation target, energy distribution and angular divergence of the positron beam). (author)

  20. Inverse Compton Gamma Rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, Jayashri; Duorah, H. L.; Barua, A. G.; Duorah, K.

    2016-09-01

    Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are thought to be good candidates for dark matter search due to their high mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. One of the most favored dark matter candidates is the lightest neutralino (neutral χ particle) as predicted in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). In this study, we model the gamma ray emission from dark matter annihilation coming from the nearby dSph galaxies Draco, Segue 1, Ursa Minor and Willman 1, taking into account the contribution from prompt photons and photons produced from inverse Compton scattering off starlight and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by the energetic electrons and positrons from dark matter annihilation. We also compute the energy spectra of electrons and positrons from the decay of dark matter annihilation products. Gamma ray spectra and fluxes for both prompt and inverse Compton emission have been calculated for neutralino annihilation over a range of masses and found to be in agreement with the observed data. It has been found that the ultra faint dSph galaxy Segue 1 gives the largest gamma ray flux limits while the lowest gamma ray flux limits has been obtained from Ursa Minor. It is seen that for larger M/L ratio of dwarf galaxies the intensity pattern originating from e + e - pairs scattering off CMB photons is separated by larger amount from that off the starlight photons for the same neutralino mass. As the e + e - energy spectra have an exponential cut off at high energies, this may allow to discriminate some dark matter scenarios from other astrophysical sources. Finally, some more detailed study about the effect of inverse Compton scattering may help constrain the dark matter signature in the dSph galaxies.

  1. Exclusive annihilation p pbar -> gamma gamma in a generalized parton picture

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, A; Schäfer, A; Weiss, C

    2003-01-01

    Exclusive proton-antiproton annihilation into two photons at large s (~10 GeV^2) and |t|,|u| ~ s can be described by a generalized parton picture analogous to the 'soft mechanism' in wide-angle real Compton scattering. The two photons are emitted in the annihilation of a single fast quark and antiquark. The matrix element describing the transition of the p-pbar system to a q-qbar pair can be related to the timelike proton elastic form factors as well as to the quark/antiquark distributions measured in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. The reaction could be studied with the proposed 1.5-15 GeV high-luminosity antiproton storage ring (HESR) at GSI.

  2. Positron annihilation in solid and liquid Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New techniques have been developed for the study of metals via positron annihilation which provide for the in-situ melting of the samples and subsequent measurements via Doppler broadening of positron-annihilation radiation. Here we report these metods currently in use at our laboratory; ion implantation of 58Co and the use of Al2O3 crucibles for in-situ melting followed by the decomposition of the Doppler-broadened spectrum into a parabolic and a Gaussian component. Our earliest results obtained for pure Ni in the polycrystalline solid and in the liquid state are compared. An interesting similarity is reported for the distributions of the high-momentum (Gaussian) component for positrons annihilating in vacancies at high temperatures and those annihilating in liquid Ni

  3. QCD in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise of e+e- annihilation as an ideal laboratory to test Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, has been the dominating theme in elementary particle physics during the last several years. An attempt is made to partially survey the subject in deep perturbative region in e+e- annihilation where theoretical ambiguities are minimal. Topics discussed include a review of the renormalization group methods relevant for e+e- annihilation, total hadronic cross section, jets and large-psub(T) phenomena, non-perturbative quark and gluon fragmentation effects and analysis of the jet distributions measured at DORIS, SPEAR and PETRA. My hope is to review realistic tests of QCD in e+e- annihilation - as opposed to the ultimate tests, which abound in literature. (orig.)

  4. Angular correlation of annihilation photons in frozen aqueous solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milosevic-Kvajic, M.; Mogensen, O. E.; Kvajic, G.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1972-01-01

    Linear‐slit angular correlation curves were obtained at about −140°C for frozen aqueous solutions of HF, HCl, HBr, HI, NH3, FeCl2, FeCl3, NaI, H2SO4, NHO3, MnSO4, KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, NaOH, and LiOH. We found no appreciable influence of a 4% concentration of the last seven impurities. Only halide......‐containing impurities strongly changed the form of the curves; ppm concentrations of HCl and HF could be seen. The main change was a broadening of the part of the curve where the narrow and broad components meet. This fact is interpreted as being caused by trapping of para‐positronium in holes in the structure created...

  5. CT-CT annihilation in rigid perylene end-capped pentaphenylenes

    OpenAIRE

    Fron, Eduard; Bell, Toby; Van Vooren, Antoine; Schweitzer, Gerd; Cornil, Jerome; Beljonne, David; Toele, Paulus; Jacob, Josemon; Muellen, Klaus; Hofkens, Johan; Auweraer, Mark van der; De Schryver, Frans

    2007-01-01

    The time-dependent spectral properties of a rigid, extended system consisting of three pentaphenylene units end-capped with perylene monoimide were investigated in detail by femtosecond transient absorption and single photon timing measurements. In polar solvents, the molecular system shows the occurrence of photoinduced charge transfer. Upon gradually increasing the excitation power, annihilation involving two states with charge-transfer character has been observed. Quantum-chemical calculat...

  6. Magnetic Field Effects on Triplet-Triplet Annihilation in Solutions: Modulation of Visible/NIR Luminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Vinogradov, Sergei A.

    2013-01-01

    Photon upconversion based on sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) presents interest for such areas as photovoltaics and imaging. Usually energy upconversion is observed as p-type delayed fluorescence from molecules whose triplet states are populated via energy transfer from a suitable triplet donor, followed by TTA. Magnetic field effects (MFE) on delayed fluorescence in molecular crystals are well known; however, there exist only a few examples of MFE on TTA in solutions, and all of...

  7. Positron annihilation with core and valence electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G

    2015-01-01

    $\\gamma$-ray spectra for positron annihilation with the core and valence electrons of the noble gas atoms Ar, Kr and Xe is calculated within the framework of diagrammatic many-body theory. The effect of positron-atom and short-range positron-electron correlations on the annihilation process is examined in detail. Short-range correlations, which are described through non-local corrections to the vertex of the annihilation amplitude, are found to significantly enhance the spectra for annihilation on the core orbitals. For Ar, Kr and Xe, the core contributions to the annihilation rate are found to be 0.55\\%, 1.5\\% and 2.2\\% respectively, their small values reflecting the difficulty for the positron to probe distances close to the nucleus. Importantly however, the core subshells have a broad momentum distribution and markedly contribute to the annihilation spectra at Doppler energy shifts $\\gtrsim3$\\,keV, and even dominate the spectra of Kr and Xe at shifts $\\gtrsim5$\\,keV. Their inclusion brings the theoretical ...

  8. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Hajdukovic, D; Welsch, C P; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  9. TGRS observations of positron annihilation in classical novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TGRS experiment on board the Wind spacecraft has many advantages as a sky monitor--broad field of view (∼2π centered on the south ecliptic pole), long life (1994-present), and stable low background and continuous coverage due to Wind's high altitude high eccentricity orbit. The Ge detector has sufficient energy resolution (3-4 keV at 511 keV) to resolve a cosmic positron annihilation line from the strong background annihilation line from β-decays induced by cosmic ray impacts on the instrument, if the cosmic line is Doppler-shifted by this amount. Such lines (blueshifted) are predicted from nucleosynthesis in classical novae. We have searched the entire TGRS database for 1995-1997 for this line, with negative results. In principle such a search could yield an unbiased upper limit on the highly-uncertain Galactic nova rate. We carefully examined the times around the known nova events during this period, also with negative results. The upper limit on the nova line flux in a 6-hr interval is typically -3photon cm-2 s-1 (4.6σ). We performed the same analysis for times around the outburst of Nova Vel 1999, obtaining a worse limit due to recent degradation of the detector response caused by cosmic ray induced damage

  10. Calculating the Annihilation Rate of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Vaidya, Varun

    2015-05-01

    We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial-state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double-log accuracy in terms of two initial-state partial-wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by finding the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four-fermion operator. The effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. However, for lighter WIMP masses relevant for the thermal relic scenario, leading-log resummation modifies the Sudakov factors only at the 10% level. Furthermore, given comparably sized Sommerfeld factors, the total effect of radiative corrections on the semi-inclusive photon annihilation rate is found to be percent level. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.

  11. The spatial distribution of dark matter annihilation originating from a gamma-ray line signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GeV–TeV γ-ray line signal is the smoking gun signature of dark matter annihilation or decay. The detection of such a signal is one of the main targets of some space-based telescopes, including Fermi-LAT and the upcoming missions CALET, DAMPE and Gamma-400. An important feature of γ-ray line photons that originate from dark-matter-annihilation is that they are concentrated at the center of the Galaxy. So far, no reliable γ-ray line has been detected by Fermi-LAT, and the upper limits on the cross section of annihilation into γ-rays have been reported. We use these upper limits to estimate the “maximal” number of γ-ray line photons detectable for Fermi-LAT, DAMPE and Gamma-400, and then investigate the spatial distribution of these photons. We show that the center of the distribution will usually be offset from the Galactic center (Sgr A*) due to the limited statistics. Such a result is almost independent of models of the dark matter distribution, and will render the reconstruction of the dark matter distribution with the γ-ray line signal very challenging for foreseeable space-based detectors

  12. Optimization of three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) for three-dimensional momentum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher S., E-mail: christopher.williams@afit.ed [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Burggraf, Larry W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Adamson, Paul E. [Stockpile Research, Development and Engineering Division, Office of Defense Programs, National Nuclear Security Administration, 1000 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Petrosky, James C. [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2011-02-11

    A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was characterized. 3DPASS permits determination of three-dimensional electron-positron (e{sup -}e{sup +}) momentum distributions by simultaneously measuring angles and energies for coincident two-gamma annihilation photons. 3DPASS collects a single dataset of correlated energies and positions for two coincident annihilation photons from a pair of solid-state double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs). Subpixel-interpolated positions are determined by transient charge analysis. 3DPASS performs simultaneous two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincidence Doppler-broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) measurements, which are typically collected independently. The 2D ACAR response of 3DPASS was measured for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC, with and without compensation for subpixel detection efficiency. Variation of efficiency across the width of DSSD charge collection electrodes was dominated by the event selection criteria required by the subpixel interpolation method. The DBAR resolution was optimized by adjusting the energy range of CDBAR events included in the Doppler-broadening (DB) lineshape. 2D ACAR and DBAR spectra from 3DPASS were compared to previously published results for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC. Detailed analysis of the ACAR spectra and the DB lineshapes highlighted momentum features not previously reported.

  13. Optimization of three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) for three-dimensional momentum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher S.; Burggraf, Larry W.; Adamson, Paul E.; Petrosky, James C.

    2011-02-01

    A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was characterized. 3DPASS permits determination of three-dimensional electron-positron ( e-- e+) momentum distributions by simultaneously measuring angles and energies for coincident two-gamma annihilation photons. 3DPASS collects a single dataset of correlated energies and positions for two coincident annihilation photons from a pair of solid-state double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs). Subpixel-interpolated positions are determined by transient charge analysis. 3DPASS performs simultaneous two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincidence Doppler-broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) measurements, which are typically collected independently. The 2D ACAR response of 3DPASS was measured for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC, with and without compensation for subpixel detection efficiency. Variation of efficiency across the width of DSSD charge collection electrodes was dominated by the event selection criteria required by the subpixel interpolation method. The DBAR resolution was optimized by adjusting the energy range of CDBAR events included in the Doppler-broadening (DB) lineshape. 2D ACAR and DBAR spectra from 3DPASS were compared to previously published results for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC. Detailed analysis of the ACAR spectra and the DB lineshapes highlighted momentum features not previously reported.

  14. Fermi-LAT constraints on dark matter annihilation cross section from observations of the Fornax cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze 2.8-yr data of 1–100 GeV photons for clusters of galaxies, collected with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite. By analyzing 49 nearby massive clusters located at high Galactic latitudes, we find no excess gamma-ray emission towards directions of the galaxy clusters. Using flux upper limits, we show that the Fornax cluster provides the most stringent constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section. Stacking a large sample of nearby clusters does not help improve the limit for most dark matter models. This suggests that a detailed modeling of the Fornax cluster is important for setting robust limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section based on clusters. We therefore perform the detailed mass modeling and predict the expected dark matter annihilation signals from the Fornax cluster, by taking into account effects of dark matter contraction and substructures. By modeling the mass distribution of baryons (stars and gas) around a central bright elliptical galaxy, NGC 1399, and using a modified contraction model motivated by numerical simulations, we show that the dark matter contraction boosts the annihilation signatures by a factor of 4. For dark matter masses around 10 GeV, the upper limit obtained on the annihilation cross section times relative velocity is (σν)∼−25 cm3 s−1, which is within a factor of 10 from the value required to explain the dark matter relic density. This effect is more robust than the annihilation boost due to substructure, and it is more important unless the mass of the smallest subhalos is much smaller than that of the Sun

  15. Electronic Structure of Rare-Earth Metals. II. Positron Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, R. W.; Mackintosh, Allan

    1968-01-01

    The angular correlation of the photons emitted when positrons annihilate with electrons has been studied in single crystals of the rare-earth metals Y, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, and in a single crystal of an equiatomic alloy of Ho and Er. A comparison of the results for Y with the calculations...... of Loucks shows that the independent-particle model gives a good first approximation to the angular distribution, although correlation effects probably smear out some of the structure. The angular distributions from the heavy rare-earth metals are very similar to that from Y and can be understood...... qualitatively in terms of the relativistic augmented-plane-wave calculations by Keeton and Loucks. The angular distributions in the c direction in the paramagnetic phases are characterized by a rapid drop at low angles followed by a hump, and these features are associated with rather flat regions of Fermi...

  16. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction

  17. Hydrodynamic and kinetic models for spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas: Annihilation interaction, helicity conservation, and wave dispersion in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: andreevpa@physics.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.

  18. Quark flavours and the γ-ray spectrum from halo dark matter annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indirect signature for the presence of exotic particles in the dark halo of our galaxy is the γ-ray flux produced by their annihilations. The cold dark matter (CDM) species annihilate in qanti q and τ+τ- pairs which subsequently hadronize. Using the Lund Monte Carlo, we have systematically simulated the fragmentation of back-to-back quark and antiquark jets and analyzed the resulting π0 and γ-ray spectra for various energies and flavours. Scaling of these spectra obtains for a jet energy Mχ>10 GeV. Jets involving heavy flavours give softer spectra than light quarks. We provide analytic fits of the π0 and photon spectra which may be combined with the annihilation branching ratios of any CDM candidate model to predict the halo γ-ray signal. Provided they annihilate mostly into light quarks and τ leptons, species lighter than ≅ 50 GeV may be detected by a GRO type γ-ray telescope exposed up to a month to high galactic latitudes. We finally investigate the possibility of a clumpy halo where ≅ 1% of the mass concentrates in substructures of typical scale 108 Msun. Would a 1deg angular resolution telescope detect hot spots in the γ-ray sky at high and intermediate galactic latitudes, this would be a 'smoking gun' for the presence of clumps of exotic matter inside the halo. (orig.)

  19. The Darkest Hour Before Dawn: Contributions to Cosmic Reionisation from Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hongwan; Zavala, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation or decay could have a significant impact on the ionisation and thermal history of the universe. In this paper, we study the potential contribution of dark matter annihilation ($s$-wave- or $p$-wave-dominated) or decay to cosmic reionisation, via the production of electrons, positrons and photons. We map out the possible perturbations to the ionisation and thermal histories of the universe due to dark matter processes, over a broad range of velocity-averaged annihilation cross-sections/decay lifetimes and dark matter masses. We have employed recent numerical studies of the efficiency with which annihilation/decay products induce heating and ionization in the intergalactic medium, and in this work extended them down to a redshift of $1+z = 4$ for two different reionisation scenarios. We also improve on earlier studies by using the results of detailed structure formation models of dark matter haloes and subhaloes that are consistent with up-to-date $N$-body simulations, with estimates on...

  20. Dark matter annihilations into two light fermions and one gauge boson. General analysis and antiproton constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2011-12-15

    We study in this paper the scenario where the dark matter is constituted by Majo- rana particles which couple to a light Standard Model fermion and an extra scalar via a Yukawa coupling. In this scenario, the annihilation rate into the light fermions with the mediation of the scalar particle is strongly suppressed by the mass of the fermion. Nevertheless, the helicity suppression is lifted by the associated emission of a gauge boson, yielding annihilation rates which could be large enough to allow the indirect detection of the dark matter particles. We perform a general analysis of this scenario, calculating the annihilation cross section of the processes {chi}{chi} {yields} f anti fV when the dark matter particle is a SU(2){sub L} singlet or doublet, f is a lepton or a quark, and V is a photon, a weak gauge boson or a gluon. We point out that the annihilation rate is particularly enhanced when the dark matter particle is degenerate in mass to the intermediate scalar particle, which is a scenario barely constrained by collider searches of exotic charged or colored particles. Lastly, we derive upper limits on the relevant cross sections from the non-observation of an excess in the cosmic antiproton-to-proton ratio measured by PAMELA. (orig.)

  1. Dark matter annihilations into two light fermions and one gauge boson: general analysis and antiproton constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study in this paper the scenario where the dark matter is constituted by Majorana particles which couple to a light Standard Model fermion and an extra scalar via a Yukawa coupling. In this scenario, the annihilation rate into the light fermions with the mediation of the scalar particle is strongly suppressed by the mass of the fermion. Nevertheless, the helicity suppression is lifted by the associated emission of a gauge boson, yielding annihilation rates which could be large enough to allow the indirect detection of the dark matter particles. We perform a general analysis of this scenario, calculating the annihilation cross section of the processes χχ→f f-bar V when the dark matter particle is a SU(2)L singlet or doublet, f is a lepton or a quark, and V is a photon, a weak gauge boson or a gluon. We point out that the annihilation rate is particularly enhanced when the dark matter particle is degenerate in mass to the intermediate scalar particle, which is a scenario barely constrained by collider searches of exotic charged or colored particles. Lastly, we derive upper limits on the relevant cross sections from the non-observation of an excess in the cosmic antiproton-to-proton ratio measured by PAMELA

  2. Antinucleon nucleon annihilations into two mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study two aspects of the antinucleon-nucleon annihilation into two mesons (antiNN → M1M2), starting from simple Born diagrams. On one hand, we discuss the possibility of modelling the antiNN optical potential with the box diagrams related to the M1M2 channels. We include the lightest pseudoscalar, scalar and vector mesons with effective coupling constants. Much more channels appear to be needed in order to achieve sensible results. On the other hand, we show that a simple phenomenological optical potential, successfull in reproducing antiNN elastic scattering and total annihilation data can be further used to make predictions on the antiNN → M1M2 processes, which prove to be in good agreement with experiment. We find a lower bound of 17% on the relative contribution of these reactions to the antiNN annihilation. Also, the model favours a rather small effective radius for the nucleon

  3. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels $\\chi \\chi \\rightarrow \

  4. Black Holes as Dark Matter Annihilation 'Boosters'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence and growth of Intermediate and Supermassive Black Holes modify the surrounding distribution of stars and Dark Matter, and inevitably affect the prospects for indirectly detecting Dark Matter through its annihilation products. We show here that under specific circumstances, Black Holes can act as Dark Matter annihilation 'boosters'. In particular, we show that mini-spikes, i.e. Dark Matter overdensities around Intermediate-Mass Black Holes, would be bright sources of gamma-rays, well within the reach of the space telescope GLAST, that can be discriminated from ordinary astrophysical sources thanks to their peculiar energy spectrum and spatial distribution

  5. Antiproton-proton annihilation at rest into two mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branching ratios for antiproton-proton annihilations at rest into two mesons are given. The data were obtained at LEAR by stopping antiprotons in a liquid hydrogen target. Both charged and neutral annihilation products were detected in the Crystal Barrel detector. Representative data are presented, and their bearing on the general picture of annihilation dynamics is discussed. In addition, preliminary branching ratios for two-body radiative annihilations are given. (orig.)

  6. A tentative gamma-ray line from Dark Matter annihilation at the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observation of a gamma-ray line in the cosmic-ray fluxes would be a smoking-gun signature for dark matter annihilation or decay in the Universe. We present an improved search for such signatures in the data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), concentrating on energies between 20 and 300 GeV. Besides updating to 43 months of data, we use a new data-driven technique to select optimized target regions depending on the profile of the Galactic dark matter halo. In regions close to the Galactic center, we find a 4.6σ indication for a gamma-ray line at Eγ ≈ 130 GeV. When taking into account the look-elsewhere effect the significance of the observed excess is 3.2σ. If interpreted in terms of dark matter particles annihilating into a photon pair, the observations imply a dark matter mass of mχ = 129.8±2.4 +7−13 GeV and a partial annihilation cross-section of (σv)χχ→γγ = (1.27±0.32 +0.18−0.28) × 10−27cm3s−1 when using the Einasto dark matter profile. The evidence for the signal is based on about 50 photons; it will take a few years of additional data to clarify its existence

  7. Search for gamma rays from dark matter annihilations around intermediate mass black holes with the HESS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HESS array of Cherenkov telescopes has performed, from 2004 to 2007, a survey of the inner galactic plane at photon energies above 100 GeV. About 400 hours of data have been accumulated in the region between -30 and +60 degrees in galactic longitude, and between -3 and +3 degrees in galactic latitude. Assuming that dark matter is composed of weakly interacting massive particles, we calculate here the HESS sensitivity map for dark matter annihilations, and derive the first experimental constraints on the (''minispikes'') scenario, in which a gamma-ray signal arises from dark matter annihilation around intermediate mass black holes. The data exclude the proposed scenario at a 90% confidence level for dark matter particles with velocity-weighted annihilation cross section σv above 10-28 cm3 s-1 and mass between 800 GeV and 10 TeV.

  8. Production bias and cluster annihilation: Why necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    the primary cluster density is high. Therefore, a sustained high swelling rate driven by production bias must involve the annihilation of primary clusters at sinks. A number of experimental observations which are unexplainable in terms of the conventional dislocation bias for monointerstitials is...

  9. Nanometer cavities studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positronium (Ps) is trapped in cavities in insulating solids, and the lifetime of ortho Ps is determined by the size of the cavity. The information on the properties of the cavities obtained by use of the standard slow positron beam and the 'normal' positron annihilation techniques is compared for several selected cases. (author)

  10. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1986-01-01

    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to -180.degree. C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree of ...

  11. A compact positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李道武; 刘军辉; 章志明; 王宝义; 张天保; 魏龙

    2011-01-01

    Using LYSO scintillator coupled on HAMAMATSU R9800 (a fast photomultiplier) to form the small size γ-ray detectors, a compact lifetime spectrometer has been built for the positron annihilation experiments. The system time resolution FWHM=193 ps and the co

  12. Black Holes as Dark Matter Annihilation Boosters

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia FornasaINFN Padova, IAP; Gianfranco Bertone(IAP)

    2007-01-01

    We review the consequences of the growth and evolution of Black Holes on the distribution of stars and Dark Matter (DM) around them. We focus in particular on Supermassive and Intermediate Mass Black Holes, and discuss under what circumstances they can lead to significant overdensities in the surrounding distribution of DM, thus effectively acting as DM annihilation boosters.

  13. Could the Cosmological Recombination Spectrum Help Us Understand Annihilating Dark Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Chluba, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the potential effects of DM annihilations on the cosmological recombination spectrum. With this example we want to demonstrate that the cosmological recombination spectrum in principle is sensitive to details related to possible extra energy release during recombination. We restrict ourselves to DM models which produce a negligible primordial distortion of the CMB energy spectrum. However, since during the epoch of cosmological recombination a large fraction of the deposited energy can directly go into ionizations and excitations of neutral atoms, both the cosmological recombination spectrum and ionization history can still be affected significantly. We compute the modifications to the cosmological recombination spectrum using our multi-level HI and HeI recombination code, showing that additional photons are created due to uncompensated loops of transitions which are induced by DM annihilations. As we illustrate here, the results depend on the detailed branching of the deposited energ...

  14. A fast detector for single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an intense sub-nanosecond positron pulse impinges upon a target, a pulse of γ-rays is created which can yield information concerning electron-positron pairs just prior to annihilation. Many conventional γ-ray detectors are unable to exploit the timing information contained within such pulses, and we describe here the development of a fast detector that is able to do so. Using a single-crystal PbF2 Cherenkov radiator coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube (PMT), we have produced a detector with a time response of ∼4 ns (primarily determined by the PMT response), as well as a low-efficiency detector with a sub-nanosecond response. Since 511 keV photons produce very little Cherenkov light, the problem of photomultiplier saturation is mitigated and this detector is therefore well suited to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (SSPALS) measurements

  15. Could the cosmological recombination spectrum help us understand annihilating dark matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chluba, J.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential effects of dark matter (DM) annihilations on the cosmological recombination spectrum. With this example, we want to demonstrate that the cosmological recombination spectrum in principle is sensitive to details related to possible extra energy release during recombination. We restrict ourselves to DM models which produce a negligible primordial distortion of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) energy spectrum (usually characterized as μ- and y-type distortions). However, since during the epoch of cosmological recombination (z ~ 1000) a large fraction of the deposited energy can directly go into ionizations and excitations of neutral atoms, both the cosmological recombination spectrum and ionization history can still be affected significantly. We compute the modifications to the cosmological recombination spectrum using our multilevel HI and HeI recombination code, showing that additional photons are created due to uncompensated loops of transitions which are induced by DM annihilations. As we illustrate here, the results depend on the detailed branching of the deposited energy into heating, ionizations and excitations. This dependence in principle should allow us to shed light on the nature of the underlying annihilating DM model (or more generally speaking, the mechanism leading to energy injection) when measuring the cosmological recombination spectrum. However, for current upper limits on the potential DM annihilation rate during recombination the cosmological recombination spectrum is only affected at the level of a few per cent. Nevertheless, we argue here that the cosmological recombination spectrum would provide another independent and very direct way of checking for the presence of sources of extra ionizing or exciting photons at high redshifts. This would open a new window to possible (non-standard) processes occurring before, during and between the three epochs of recombination.

  16. Current-induced spin polarization on a Pt surface: A new approach using spin-polarized positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transversely spin-polarized positrons were injected near Pt and Au surfaces under an applied electric current. The three-photon annihilation of spin-triplet positronium, which was emitted from the surfaces into vacuum, was observed. When the positron spin polarization was perpendicular to the current direction, the maximum asymmetry of the three-photon annihilation intensity was observed upon current reversal for the Pt surfaces, whereas it was significantly reduced for the Au surface. The experimental results suggest that electrons near the Pt surfaces were in-plane and transversely spin-polarized with respect to the direction of the electric current. The maximum electron spin polarization was estimated to be more than 0.01 (1%). - Highlights: • Annihilation probability of positronium emitted from the Pt surface into the vacuum under direct current exhibited asymmetry upon current reversal. • The maximum asymmetry appeared when positron spin polarization and the direct current were perpendicular to each other. • Electrons near the Pt surfaces were in-plane and transversely spin-polarized with respect to the direction of the electric current. • Spin-polarized positronium annihilation provides a unique tool for investigating spin polarization on metal surfaces

  17. PHOTON-PHOTON COLLISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, D.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of photon-photon collisions are reviewed with particular emphasis on new results reported to this conference. These include results on light meson spectroscopy and deep inelastic eγ scattering. Considerable work has now been accumulated on resonance production by γγ collisions. Preliminary high statistics studies of the photon structure function Fγ2(x,Q2) are given and comments are made on the problems that remain to be solved.

  18. Measuring the photon fragmentation function at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann-de Ridder, A.; Gehrmann, T.; Poulsen, E.

    2006-08-01

    The production of final state photons in deep inelastic scattering originates from photon radiation off leptons or quarks involved in the scattering process. Photon radiation off quarks involves a contribution from the quark-to-photon fragmentation function, corresponding to the non-perturbative transition of a hadronic jet into a single, highly energetic photon accompanied by some limited hadronic activity. Up to now, this fragmentation function was measured only in electron positron annihilation at LEP. We demonstrate by a dedicated parton-level calculation that a competitive measurement of the quark-to-photon fragmentation function can be obtained in deep inelastic scattering at HERA. Such a measurement can be obtained by studying the photon energy spectra in γ+(0+1)-jet events, where γ denotes a hadronic jet containing a highly energetic photon (the photon jet). Isolated photons are then defined from the photon jet by imposing a minimal photon energy fraction. For this so-called democratic clustering approach, we study the cross sections for isolated γ+(0+1)-jet and γ+(1+1)-jet production as well as for the inclusive isolated photon production in deep inelastic scattering.

  19. Photon-photon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1995-04-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  20. Photon-photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy

  1. A tunable gamma-ray source based on the single-quantum annihilation of positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the single-quantum annihilation (SQA) of positrons has shown that a tunable gamma-ray source (TGRS) could be built based on the phenomenon, that could provide a photon beam of energy variable from 1 MeV upwards. The photon beam could have an excellent bandwidth, of around 1 keV, and a low background level for beam energies up to several MeV, and could be made polarized. The beam is highly self-collimated. The photon yield is much larger than the tunable gamma-ray sources envisaged by other means, which also employ particle beams. In simplicity as well as features, the SQA-based tunable gamma-ray source is potentially superior to other proposed sources

  2. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e+e- annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed

  3. Heavy flavor production from photons and hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusch, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present state of the production and observation of hadrons containing heavy quarks or antiquarks as valence constituents, in reactions initiated by real and (space-like) virtual photon or by hadron beams is discussed. Heavy flavor production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which is well covered in a number of recent review papers is not discussed, and similarly, neutrino production is omitted due to the different (flavor-changing) mechanisms that are involved in those reactions. Heavy flavors from spacelike photons, heavy flavors from real photons, and heavy flavors from hadron-hadron collisions are discussed. (WHK)

  4. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of the VIIIth International Workshop on Photon-Photon Collisions are reviewed. New experimental and theoretical results were reported in virtually every area of γγ physics, particularly in exotic resonance production and tests of quantum chromodynamics where asymptotic freedom and factorization theorems provide predictions for both inclusive and exclusive γγ reactions at high momentum transfer. 73 refs., 12 figs

  5. Photon-photon colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1996-01-01

    Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et al., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention [1]. A 1990 article by V.I. Telnov describes the situation at that time [2]. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held [3]. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons—the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R&D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy.

  6. Fermi 130 GeV gamma-ray excess and dark matter annihilation in sub-haloes and in the Galactic centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze publicly available Fermi-LAT high-energy gamma-ray data and confirm the existence of clear spectral feature peaked at Eγ = 130 GeV. Scanning over the Galaxy we identify several disconnected regions where the observed excess originates from. Our best optimized fit is obtained for the central region of Galaxy with a clear peak at 130 GeV with local statistical significance 4.5σ. The observed excess is not correlated with Fermi bubbles. We compute the photon spectra induced by dark matter annihilations into two and four standard model particles, the latter via two light intermediate states, and fit the spectra with data. Since our fits indicate sharper and higher signal peak than in the previous works, data favors dark matter direct two-body annihilation channels into photons or other channels giving only line-like spectra. If Einasto halo profile correctly predicts the central cusp of Galaxy, dark matter annihilation cross-section to two photons is of order ten percent of the standard thermal freeze-out cross-section. The large dark matter two-body annihilation cross-section to photons may signal a new resonance that should be searched for at the CERN LHC experiments

  7. Electromagnetic fields, size, and copy of a single photon

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan-Liang

    2016-01-01

    We propose the expressions of electromagnetic fields of a single photon which properly describe the known characteristics of a photon, derive the relations between the photon size and wavelength on basis of the expressions, reveal the differences between a photon and its copy, and give the specific expressions of annihilation and creation operators of a photon. The results show that a photon has length of half the wavelength, and its radius is proportional to square root of the wavelength; a photon and its copy have the phase difference of {\\pi} and constitute a phase-entangled state; the N-photon phase-entangled state, which is formed by the sequential stimulated emission and corresponds to the wave train in optics, is not a coherent state, but it is the eigenstate of the number operator of photons.

  8. Positron scattering and annihilation from hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kohn variational method is used with a configuration-interaction-type wave function to determine the J=0 and J=1 phase shifts and annihilation parameter Zeff for positron-hydrogenic ion scattering. The phase shifts are within 1-2% of the best previous calculations. The values of Zeff are small and do not exceed unity for any of the momenta considered. At thermal energies Zeff is minute with a value of order 10-50 occurring for He+ at k=0.05a0-1. In addition to the variational calculations, analytic expressions for the phase shift and annihilation parameters within the Coulomb wave Born approximation are derived and used to help elucidate the dynamics of positron collisions with positive ions

  9. Shocking Signals of Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Jonathan H; Boehm, Celine; Kotera, Kumiko; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether charged particles injected by self-annihilating Dark Matter into regions undergoing Diffuse Shock Acceleration (DSA) can be accelerated to high energies. We consider three astrophysical sites where shock acceleration is supposed to occur, namely the Galactic Centre, galaxy clusters and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). For the Milky Way, we find that the acceleration of cosmic rays injected by dark matter could lead to a bump in the cosmic ray spectrum provided that the product of the efficiency of the acceleration mechanism and the concentration of DM particles is high enough. Among the various acceleration sources that we consider (namely supernova remnants (SNRs), Fermi bubbles and AGN jets), we find that the Fermi bubbles are a potentially more efficient accelerator than SNRs. However both could in principle accelerate electrons and protons injected by dark matter to very high energies. At the extragalactic level, the acceleration of dark matter annihilation products could be responsible fo...

  10. Recent development of positron annihilation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Doyama, M

    2002-01-01

    When positron comes into solid or liquid, it moves in the matter and emitted two gamma rays at the opposite direction, by pair annihilation with electron. Each gamma ray is about 511 keV. The experiments of positron annihilation has been developed by three methods such as angular correlation between two gamma rays, energy analysis of emission gamma ray and positron lifetime. The angular correlation between two gamma rays is determined by gamma ray position detector.The energy analysis was measured by S-W analysis and Coincidence Doppler Broadening (CDB) method. Positron lifetime are determined by gamma-gamma lifetime measurement method, beta sup + -gamma lifetime measurement method and other method using waveform of photomultiplier, and determination of time and frequency of gamma-ray. Positron beam is applied to positron scattering, positron diffraction, low energy positron diffraction (LEPD), PELS, LEPSD, PAES, positron re-emission imaging microscope (PRIM) and positron channeling. The example of CDB method...

  11. Microemulsion systems studied by positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of thermalized positronium atoms is greatly reduced if increasing amounts of water become solubilized in reversed micelles formed by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate in apolar solvents. Similar observations have been made if the surfactant is Triton X-100. The application of the positron annihilation technique to the study of microemulsions consisting of potassium oleate-alcohol-oil-water mixtures indicates, consistent with previous results, that microemulsion formation requires a certain water/oil ratio if the oil is a long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon such as hexadecane. This ratio is 0.4 in the case of a 1-pentanol- and 0.2 for a 1-hexanol-containing mixture. This minimum water content is strongly reduced if the oil is an aromatic hydrocarbon. The positron annihilation data also sensitively reflect structural rearrangements in these solutions occurring upon further addition of water, such as the transition of spherical aggregates to a disk-like lamellae structure

  12. Baryon production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of baryon production in high energy e+e-annihilation is described. Much can be understood in terms of mass effects. Comparisons with the rates for different flavours and spins, with momentum and transverse momentum spectra and with particle correlations are used to confront models. Diquark models give good descriptions, except for the on/off Υ(1s) rates. Areas for experimental and theoretical development are indicated. (author)

  13. Positron Annihilation Lifetimes in Compacted Iron Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been performed on iron powder as a function of compacted powder load. The ortho-positronium lifetime increases from 1.45 to 2.55 ns with compaction load increment from 30 to 50 tons. By increasing the compaction load, the ultimate stress and hardness increases and the ductlity decreases. The result shows that there is a direct correlation between the void size and the load decrement. These results will be presented and discussed

  14. Micellar systems studied by positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron annihilation technique was applied to the study of the micelle formation process in aqueous and reversed micellar systems and to the determination of the site at which solubilizates become incorporated into the micelle. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the surfactant concentration at which a cooperative effect of reverse micellar solutions becomes observable was investigated and the location of the additives in aqueous micelles determined

  15. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1986-01-01

    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to -180.degree. C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree of...... content until, for approximately 50% water, its properties resemble more those of a highly viscous fluid....

  16. On the Annihilation Rate of WIMPs

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Vaidya, Varun

    2014-01-01

    We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the WIMP annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint rep...

  17. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the investigation of all aspects connected with the annihilation of slow positrons. This work deals with the application of PAS to different problems of materials science. The first chapter is an introduction to fundamental aspects of positron annihilation, as far as they are important to the different experimental techniques of PAS. Chapter 2 is concerned with the information obtainable by PAS. The three main experimental techniques of PAS (2γ-angular correlation, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening) are explained and problems in the application of these methods are discussed. Chapter 3 contains experimental results. According to the different fields of application it was subgrouped into: 1. Investigations of crystalline solids. Detection of structural defects in Cu, estimation of defect concentrations, study of the sintering of Cu powders as well as lattice defects in V3Si. 2. Chemical investigations. Structure of mixed solvents, selective solvation of mixed solvents by electrolytes as well as the micellization of sodium dodecylsulphate in aqueous solutions. 3. Investigations of glasses. Influence of heat treatment and production technology on the preorder of X-amorphous silica glass as well as preliminary measurements of pyrocerams. 4. Investigations of metallic glasses. Demonstration of the influence of production technology on parameters measurable by PAS. Chapter 4 contains a summary as well as an outlook of further applications of PAS to surface physics, medicine, biology and astrophysics. (author)

  18. Annihilation of low energy antiprotons in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Aghion, S; Belov, A S; Bonomi, G; Bräunig, P; Bremer, J; Brusa, R S; Burghart, G; Cabaret, L; Caccia, M; Canali, C; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Cialdi, S; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Derking, J H; Di Domizio, S; Di Noto, L; Doser, M; Dudarev, A; Ferragut, R; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Gninenko, S N; Haider, S; Harasimovic, J; Huse, T; Jordan, E; Jørgensen, L V; Kaltenbacher, T; Kellerbauer, A; Knecht, A; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Magnani, A; Mariazzi, S; Matveev, V A; Moia, F; Nebbia, G; Nédélec, P; Pacifico, N; Petrácek, V; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Regenfus, C; Riccardi, C; Røhne, O; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Susa, A; Vasquez, M A Subieta; Špacek, M; Testera, G; Welsch, C P; Zavatarelli, S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN, is to measure directly the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter. To achieve this goal, the AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS collaboration will produce a pulsed, cold (100 mK) antihydrogen beam with a velocity of a few 100 m/s and measure the magnitude of the vertical deflection of the beam from a straight path. The final position of the falling antihydrogen will be detected by a position sensitive detector. This detector will consist of an active silicon part, where the annihilations take place, followed by an emulsion part. Together, they allow to achieve 1$%$ precision on the measurement of $\\bar{g}$ with about 600 reconstructed and time tagged annihilations. We present here, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct measurement of antiproton annihilation in a segmented silicon sensor, the first step towards designing a position sensitive silicon detector for the AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS experiment. We also pr...

  19. Electroweak fragmentation functions for dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroweak corrections can play a crucial role in dark matter annihilation. The emission of gauge bosons, in particular, leads to a secondary flux consisting of all Standard Model particles, and may be described by electroweak fragmentation functions. To assess the quality of the fragmentation function approximation to electroweak radiation in dark matter annihilation, we have calculated the flux of secondary particles from gauge-boson emission in models with Majorana fermion and vector dark matter, respectively. For both models, we have compared cross sections and energy spectra of positrons and antiprotons after propagation through the galactic halo in the fragmentation function approximation and in the full calculation. Fragmentation functions fail to describe the particle fluxes in the case of Majorana fermion annihilation into light fermions: the helicity suppression of the lowest-order cross section in such models cannot be lifted by the leading logarithmic contributions included in the fragmentation function approach. However, for other classes of models like vector dark matter, where the lowest-order cross section is not suppressed, electroweak fragmentation functions provide a simple, model-independent and accurate description of secondary particle fluxes

  20. Delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed annihilation of antiprotons, which was recently discovered in liquid 4He at KEK, has been studied at CERN in gas-phase 4He and 3He. The annihilation time spectra in gas 4He at various pressures were found to be similar to that for liquid 4He. The observed average lifetime in the region t > 1μsec for 3 atm 4He was about 3.2μsec, while for 3 atm 3He gas it was 2.8μsec, i.e. shorter by 15 %. The time spectra show a growth-decay type function, which is indicative of the presence of a series of metastable states. For 4He and 3He they have nearly identical shapes, differing only in the time scale by 14 ± 3 %. These observations are qualitatively consistent with the atomic model of p-bare-He++ proposed by Condo. The time spectra were found to be sensitive to the presence of small amounts (as small as 20 ppm) of H2. No evidence was seen for delayed annihilation in gaseous Ne. 36.10. (author)

  1. State-selective high-energy excitation of nuclei by resonant positron annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Belov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the annihilation of a positron with a bound atomic electron, the virtual γ photon created may excite the atomic nucleus. We put forward this effect as a spectroscopic tool for an energy-selective excitation of nuclear transitions. This scheme can efficiently populate nuclear levels of arbitrary multipolarities in the MeV regime, including giant resonances and monopole transitions. In certain cases, it may have higher cross sections than the conventionally used Coulomb excitation and it can even occur with high probability when the latter is energetically forbidden.

  2. State-selective high-energy excitation of nuclei by resonant positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Nikolay A., E-mail: belov@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Harman, Zoltán

    2015-02-04

    In the annihilation of a positron with a bound atomic electron, the virtual γ photon created may excite the atomic nucleus. We put forward this effect as a spectroscopic tool for an energy-selective excitation of nuclear transitions. This scheme can efficiently populate nuclear levels of arbitrary multipolarities in the MeV regime, including giant resonances and monopole transitions. In certain cases, it may have higher cross sections than the conventionally used Coulomb excitation and it can even occur with high probability when the latter is energetically forbidden.

  3. Indirect Dark Matter Signatures in the Cosmic Dark Ages I. Generalizing the Bound on s-wave Dark Matter Annihilation from Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Slatyer, Tracy R

    2015-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by Planck provide a sensitive probe of dark matter annihilation during the cosmic dark ages, and specifically constrain the annihilation parameter $f_\\mathrm{eff} \\langle \\sigma v \\rangle/m_\\chi$. Using new results (Paper II) for the ionization produced by particles injected at arbitrary energies, we calculate and provide $f_\\mathrm{eff}$ values for photons and $e^+e^-$ pairs injected at keV-TeV energies; the $f_\\mathrm{eff}$ value for any dark matter model can be obtained straightforwardly by weighting these results by the spectrum of annihilation products. This result allows the sensitive and robust constraints on dark matter annihilation presented by the Planck Collaboration to be applied to arbitrary dark matter models with $s$-wave annihilation. We demonstrate the validity of this approach using principal component analysis. As an example, we integrate over the spectrum of annihilation products for a range of Standard Model final s...

  4. Indirect dark matter signatures in the cosmic dark ages. I. Generalizing the bound on s -wave dark matter annihilation from Planck results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies by Planck provide a sensitive probe of dark matter annihilation during the cosmic dark ages, and specifically constrain the annihilation parameter feff⟨σ v ⟩/mχ. Using new results (paper II) for the ionization produced by particles injected at arbitrary energies, we calculate and provide feff values for photons and e+e- pairs injected at keV-TeV energies; the feff value for any dark matter model can be obtained straightforwardly by weighting these results by the spectrum of annihilation products. This result allows the sensitive and robust constraints on dark matter annihilation presented by the Planck collaboration to be applied to arbitrary dark matter models with s -wave annihilation. We demonstrate the validity of this approach using principal component analysis. As an example, we integrate over the spectrum of annihilation products for a range of Standard Model final states to determine the CMB bounds on these models as a function of dark matter mass, and demonstrate that the new limits generically exclude models proposed to explain the observed high-energy rise in the cosmic ray positron fraction. We make our results publicly available at http://nebel.rc.fas.harvard.edu/epsilon.

  5. Helium reionization in the presence of self-annihilating clumpy dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Bidisha

    2015-01-01

    The reionization of helium describes the transition from its singly ionized state to a doubly-ionized state in the intergalactic medium (IGM). This process is important for the thermal evolution of the IGM and influences the mean free path of photons with energies above $54.4$~eV. While it is well-known that helium reionization is mostly driven by the contribution of energetic quasars at $z<6$, we study here how helium reionization proceeds if there is an additional contribution due to the annihilation of dark matter. We explore the effects of different dark matter profiles for the dark matter clumping factor, which can significantly enhance the annihilation rate at late times. We find that the presence of dark matter annihilation enhances the He$^{++}$ abundance at early stages where it would be zero within the standard model, and it can further increase during structure formation, reflecting the increase of the dark matter clumping factor. The latter is, however, degenerate with the build-up of the quasa...

  6. Modeling momentum distributions of positron annihilation radiation in solids

    OpenAIRE

    Makkonen, Ilja

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a materials characterization method especially applicable for studying vacancy defects in solids. In typical crystal lattices positrons get trapped at vacancy-type defects. By measuring positron lifetimes and momentum distributions of positron annihilation radiation one obtains information about the open volumes and the chemical environments of the defects. Computational tools can be used in the analysis of positron annihilation experiments. Calculate...

  7. Symmetry and QED tests in rare annihilation modes of positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments on positronium annihilation have confirmed QED calculations at high orders of alpha and tested discrete fundamental symmetries. These measurements search for rare modes of annihilation which are distinguished from backgrounds by their specific decay signatures. New developments in beyond Standard Model theory provide motivation for new measurements of such decays. A brief history of searches for rare annihilation modes of Ps is given. Recent experimental and theoretical developments are reviewed. Experiments currently being planned are discussed

  8. Entanglement-annihilating and entanglement-breaking channels

    OpenAIRE

    Moravčíková, Lenka; Ziman, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and investigate a family of entanglement-annihilating channels. These channels are capable of destroying any quantum entanglement within the system they act on. We show that they are not necessarily entanglement breaking. In order to achieve this result we analyze the subset of locally entanglement-annihilating channels. In this case, the same local noise applied on each subsystem individually is less entanglement annihilating (with respect to multi-partite entanglement) as the n...

  9. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, Andrei; /Hampton U. /Jefferson Lab; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Carlson, Carl E.; /William-Mary Coll.; Mukherjee, Asmita; /Indian Inst. Tech., Mumbai

    2009-03-31

    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS) {gamma}* {yields} H{bar H}{gamma} in the timelike t = (p{sub H} + p{sub {bar H}}){sup 2} > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} H{bar H}{gamma}. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H{bar H} hadron pairs such as {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K{sup +}K{sup -}, and D{bar D} as well as p{bar p}. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C = - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C = + timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e{sup +} {leftrightarrow} e{sup -} asymmetry. The J = 0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  10. Timelike Virtual Compton Scattering from Electron-Positron Radiative Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanaciev,Andrei Afanasev, Stanley J. Brodsky, Carl E. Carlson, Asmita Mukherjee

    2010-02-01

    We propose measurements of the deeply virtual Compton amplitude (DVCS), gamma* to H H-bar gamma, in the timelike t = (p_{H} + p_{H-bar})^2 > 0 kinematic domain which is accessible at electron-positron colliders via the radiative annihilation process e+ e- to H H-bar gamma. These processes allow the measurement of timelike deeply virtual Compton scattering for a variety of H H-bar hadron pairs such as pi+ pi-, K+ K-, and D D-bar as well as p p-bar. As in the conventional spacelike DVCS, there are interfering coherent amplitudes contributing to the timelike processes involving C= - form factors. The interference between the amplitudes measures the phase of the C=+ timelike DVCS amplitude relative to the phase of the timelike form factors and can be isolated by considering the forward-backward e+ \\leftrightarrow e- asymmetry. The J=0 fixed pole contribution which arises from the local coupling of the two photons to the quark current plays a special role. As an example we present a simple model.

  11. Branching-rate expansion around annihilating random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Federico; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2012-07-01

    We present some exact results for branching and annihilating random walks. We compute the nonuniversal threshold value of the annihilation rate for having a phase transition in the simplest reaction-diffusion system belonging to the directed percolation universality class. Also, we show that the accepted scenario for the appearance of a phase transition in the parity conserving universality class must be improved. In order to obtain these results we perform an expansion in the branching rate around pure annihilation, a theory without branching. This expansion is possible because we manage to solve pure annihilation exactly in any dimension. PMID:23005353

  12. Constraints on dark matter annihilation in clusters of galaxies with the Fermi large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearby clusters and groups of galaxies are potentially bright sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission resulting from the pair-annihilation of dark matter particles. However, no significant gamma-ray emission has been detected so far from clusters in the first 11 months of observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We interpret this non-detection in terms of constraints on dark matter particle properties. In particular for leptonic annihilation final states and particle masses greater than ∼ 200 GeV, gamma-ray emission from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons is expected to dominate the dark matter annihilation signal from clusters, and our gamma-ray limits exclude large regions of the parameter space that would give a good fit to the recent anomalous Pamela and Fermi-LAT electron-positron measurements. We also present constraints on the annihilation of more standard dark matter candidates, such as the lightest neutralino of supersymmetric models. The constraints are particularly strong when including the fact that clusters are known to contain substructure at least on galaxy scales, increasing the expected gamma-ray flux by a factor of ∼ 5 over a smooth-halo assumption. We also explore the effect of uncertainties in cluster dark matter density profiles, finding a systematic uncertainty in the constraints of roughly a factor of two, but similar overall conclusions. In this work, we focus on deriving limits on dark matter models; a more general consideration of the Fermi-LAT data on clusters and clusters as gamma-ray sources is forthcoming

  13. Photon-photon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of ..cap alpha../sub s/ and ..lambda../sup ms/ from the ..gamma..*..gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/ form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub ..gamma gamma../ from exclusive channels at low W/sub ..gamma gamma../, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z/sup 0/ and W/sup + -/ beams from e ..-->.. eZ/sup 0/ and e ..-->.. nu W will become important. 44 references.

  14. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status, both theoretical and experimental, of two photon collision physics is reviewed with special emphasis on recent experimental results from e+e- storage rings. After a complete presentation of the helicity amplitude formalism for the general process e+e- → Xe+e-, various approximations (transverse photon, Weisaecker Williams) are discussed. Beam polarisation effects and radiative corrections are also briefly considered. A number of specific processes, for which experimental results are now available, are then described. In each case existing theoretical prediction are confronted with experimental results. The processes described include single resonance production, lepton and hadron pair production, the structure functions of the photon, the production of high Psub(T) jets and the total photon photon cross section. In the last part of the review the current status of the subject is summarised and some comments are made on future prospects. These include both extrapolations of current research to higher energy machines (LEP, HERA) as well as a brief mention of both the technical realisation and the physics interest of the real γγ and eγ collisions which may be possible using linear electron colliders in the 1 TeV energy range

  15. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Timothy Ryan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  16. Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-01-01

    An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. Here we instead examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2 2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1 2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.

  17. Deuteron production in e+e--annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that in e+e--annihilation (including υ-decay) deuteron production should be given by the overlap of the deuteron wave function with the wave function of a pn-pair. The production rate depends sensitively upon the size of the production region. Taking into account the strong correlation between protons and neutrons, experimental results for υ-decay are consistent with the size expected in the Lund string fragmentation model. A prediction is given for the deuteron production in Z-decay

  18. Positron annihilation in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defects in different types of crystalline and fused quartz have been studied by conventional coincidence positron annihilation and optical absorption technique before and after 60Co gamma irradiation with 500 krad, 2 Mrad and 15.8 Mrad. Samples of synthetic powdered quartz (SPQ), natural quartz (NQ), low-OH synthetic monocrystal quartz (LSMQ), high-OH-fused quartz (HFQ) and low-OH fused quartz (LFQ) have been investigated. Two- and three-component analysis of the positron lifetime spectra have been applied. Data on lifetime (τ), intensities (I) and mean lifetimes have been obtained by exponential fitting of spectra. In non-irradiated SPQ and LSMQ big differences in the values of I2 (1.53% vs. 16.0%) and τ2 (1460 ps vs. 478 ps) have been noticed. This is explained by an increased number of dislocations in the synthetic quartz. The τ2 is interpreted as apparent mixed lifetime of two pick-off annihilation of oPs and positron annihilation in micro cracks. The values of τ1 in HFQ (178 ps) and in LHQ (173 ps) are attributed to positron annihilation in small crystalline areas in the glass. Because of the sharp increase in Ps formation probability in amorphous state, the longest component intensity I3 in these samples is of the order of 50%. After gamma irradiation, a creation of coloured centres has been observed only in SPQ and LFQ., which is connected with Al substitutional impurity. The newly detected diffused band at 215 nm in UV-spectra of irradiated LFQ is attributed to a positively charged oxygen vacancy (E'1 centre) which explains the lack of difference between the parameters of irradiated and non irradiated LFQ. The increased mean positron lifetime of irradiated HFQ is ascribed to creation of negatively charged defects able to trap positrons. Except for HFQ, all samples have surprisingly shown a decrease, although slight, in their mean positron lifetime values after low dose irradiation. The authors ascribe this to possible self-annealing of some defects due

  19. Pair Production of Majorana Neutrinos by Annihilation of Charged Particles in High Energy Collision

    CERN Document Server

    Goh, Young Moon; Paeng, Won-Gi; Yoon, Yongsung

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that neutrinos have non-vanishing magnetic moments, we discuss the possibility of pair production through annihilation of charged fermions in high-energy collisions. Adopting the Pauli interaction for photon-neutrino coupling, we calculate the neutrino pair production cross section in the photon channel and compare the result with the standard model in $ Z^{0} $ channel. we demonstrated that the enhancement of the production rate for Majorana neutrino pairs over the standard model rate can be possible at the center-of-mass energy of $10 - 100$ TeV for the Large Hadron Collider or the ultra-high-energy cosmic Ray when the transition magnetic moment is not smaller than $10^{-9} - 10^{-10} \\mu_B$.

  20. Preorganized Chromophores Facilitate Triplet Energy Migration, Annihilation and Upconverted Singlet Energy Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Prasenjit; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Sindoro, Melinda; Granick, Steve; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2016-05-25

    Photon upconversion (UC) based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) has the potential to enhance significantly photovoltaic and photocatalytic efficiencies by harnessing sub-bandgap photons, but the progress of this field is held back by the chemistry problem of how to preorganize multiple chromophores for efficient UC under weak solar irradiance. Recently, the first maximization of UC quantum yield at solar irradiance was achieved using fast triplet energy migration (TEM) in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with ordered acceptor arrays, but at the same time, a trade-off between fast TEM and high fluorescence efficiency was also found. Here, we provide a solution for this trade-off issue by developing a new strategy, triplet energy migration, annihilation and upconverted singlet energy collection (TEM-UPCON). The porous structure of acceptor-based MOF crystals allows triplet donor molecules to be accommodated without aggregation. The surface of donor-doped MOF nanocrystals is modified with highly fluorescent energy collectors through coordination bond formation. Thanks to the higher fluorescence quantum yield of surface-bound collectors than parent MOFs, the implementation of the energy collector greatly improves the total UC quantum yield. The UC quantum yield maximization behavior at ultralow excitation intensity was retained because the TTA events take place only in the MOF acceptors. The TEM-UPCON concept may be generalized to collectors with various functions and would lead to quantitative harvesting of upconverted energy, which is difficult to achieve in common molecular diffusion-based systems. PMID:27163784

  1. Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation in chiral soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate annihilation process of nucleons in chiral soliton model by path integral method. Soliton-antisoliton pair is shown to decay into pions at range of order of about 1 fm, defined by SS-bar potential. Contribution of annihilation channel into elastic scattering is discussed. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  2. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  3. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Kawasaki; Kazunori Nakayama; Toyokazu Sekiguchi

    2016-01-01

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  4. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from...... advantages of the use of PAS are pointed out. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  5. CMB Constraint on Dark Matter Annihilation after Planck 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  6. Cohomology of projective schemes: From annihilators to vanishing

    OpenAIRE

    Chardin, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We provide bounds on the Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity in terms of ``defining equations'' by using elements that annihilates some cohomology modules, inspired by works of Miyazaki, Nagel, Schenzel and Vogel. The elements in these annihilators are provided either by liaison or by tight closure theories. Our results hold in any characteristic.

  7. Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation in chiral soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate annihilation process of nucleons in the chiral soliton model by the path integral method. A soliton-antisoliton pair is shown to decay into mesons at range of about 1fm, defined by the S bar S potential. Contribution of the annihilation channel to the elastic scattering is discussed

  8. Direct evidence for positron annihilation from shallow traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Hidalgo, C.

    1987-01-01

    For deformed Ag the temperature dependence of the positron lifetime parameters is followed between 12 and 300 K. Clear direct evidence for positron trapping and annihilation at shallow traps, with a positron binding energy of 9±2 meV and annihilation characteristics very similar to those in the...

  9. Impact of dark matter decays and annihilations on structure formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We derived the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by different decaying (or annihilating) dark matter (DM) candidates. Heavy annihilating DM particles (with mass larger than a few GeV) have no influence on reionization and heating, even if we assume that a

  10. Precipitation Study in Inconel 625 Alloy by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Ahmad; W. Ahmad; M.A.Shaikh; Mahmud Ahmad; M.U. Rajput

    2003-01-01

    Precipitation in Inconel 625 alloy has been studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The observeddependence of annihilation characteristics on aging time is attributed to the change of the positron state due to the increaseand decrease of the density and size of the γ″ precipitates. Hardness measurements and lifetime measurements are in goodagreement.

  11. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2016-05-01

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  12. First star formation with dark matter annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Ripamonti, E; Ferrara, A; Schneider, R; Bressan, A; Marigo, P

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of WIMP Dark Matter Annihilations (DMAs) on the evolution of primordial gas clouds hosting the first stars. We follow the collapse of gas and DM within a 1e6 Msun halo virializing at redshift z=20, from z=1000 to slightly before the formation of a hydrostatic core, properly including gas heating/cooling and chemistry processes induced by DMAs, and exploring the dependency of the results on different parameters (DM particle mass, self-annihilation cross section, gas opacity, feedback strength). Independently of such parameters, when the central baryon density, n_c, is lower than the critical density, n_crit ~1e9-1e13 #/cm^3, corresponding to a model-dependent balance between DMA energy input and gas cooling rate, DMA ionizations catalyze an increase in the H2 abundance by a factor ~100. The increased cooling moderately reduces the temperature (by ~30%) but does not significantly reduce the fragmentation mass scale. For n_c > n_crit, the DMA energy injection exceeds the cooling, with the ex...

  13. Dark matter annihilation from intermediate-mass black holes: Contribution to the extragalactic gamma-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) due to neutralino dark matter (DM) pair-annihilation into photons, from DM density enhancements (minispikes) surrounding intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We focus on two IMBH formation scenarios; our conservative scenario where IMBHs are remnants of Population-III stars, and our optimistic scenario where IMBHs are formed in protogalactic disks. In both scenarios, their formation in pregalactic halos at high redshift lead to the formation of minispikes that are bright sources of gamma-ray photons. Taking into account minispike depletion processes, we only sum contributions from a cosmological distribution of IMBHs with maintained minispikes. Our conservative scenario (BH mass 102M· with a r-3/2 minispike) predicts gamma-ray fluxes that are an order larger than the equivalent flux, using the same DM parameters (mass 100 GeV and annihilation cross section 3x10-26 cm3 s-1), from the host halo without IMBH minispikes. Our optimistic scenario (BH mass 105M· with a r-7/3 minispike) predicts fluxes that are three orders larger, that can reach current EGB observations taken by EGRET (DM parameters as above). This fact may serve interesting consequences for constraining DM parameters and elucidating the true nature of IMBHs. Additionally, we determine the spectra of DM annihilation into monochromatic gamma rays, and show that its flux can be within observational range of GLAST, providing a potential 'smoking-gun' signature of DM

  14. Search for Gamma-rays from Dark Matter annihilations around Intermediate Mass Black Holes with the H.E.S.S. experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Barresde Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bernlhr, K; Bertone, G; Boisson, C; Bochow, A; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brucker, J; Brun, P; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Chounet, L M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; Domainko, W; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Frster, A; Fontaine, G; Fuling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Grard, L; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khlifi, B; Keogh, D; Komin, N; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Lenain, J P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J P; de Ona Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schock, F M; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Skilton, J L; Sol, oH; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2008-01-01

    The H.E.S.S. array of Cherenkov telescopes has performed, from 2004 to 2007, a survey of the inner Galactic plane at photon energies above 100 GeV. About 400 hours of data have been accumulated in the region between -30 and +60 degrees in Galactic longitude, and between -3 and +3 degrees in Galactic latitude. Assuming that dark matter is composed of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, we calculate here the H.E.S.S. sensitivity map for dark matter annihilations, and derive the first experimental constraints on the ''mini-spikes'' scenario, in which a gamma-ray signal arises from dark matter annihilation around Intermediate Mass Black Holes. The data exclude the proposed scenario at a 90% confidence level for dark matter particles with velocity-weighted annihilation cross section sigma v above 10^28 cm3s^-1 and mass between 800 GeV and 10 TeV.

  15. Search for ψ(2S) production in e+e- annihilations at 4.03GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search is performed for the production of the ψ(2S) in e+e- annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 4.03 GeV using the BES detector operated at the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). The kinematic features of the reconstructed ψ(2S) signal are consistent with its being produced only in association with an energetic photon resulting from initial state radiation (ISR). Limits are placed on ψ(2S) production from the decay of unknown charmonia or metastable hybrids that might be produced in e+e- annihilations at 4.03GeV. Under the assumption that the observed cross section for ψ(2S) production is due entirely to ISR, the partial width Γee of the ψ(2S) is measured to be 2.07±0.32keV. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Photon-added and photon-subtracted displaced Fock states and their non-classical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Kun; Zhang Miao; Jia Huan-Yu

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of quantum optical state, photon-added and -subtracted displaced Fock states, is introduced by applying the inverse of bosonic creation and annihilation operators to displaced Fock states. The quantum statistical properties of these states are investigated by numerical methods. Numerical results indicate that these states reveal some interesting non-classical properties, such as anti-bunching effects, sub-Poisson distributions and negativities of their Wigner functions.

  18. D-brane scattering and annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of parallel brane-brane and brane-antibrane scattering in string theory in flat spacetime, focusing on the pair production of open strings that stretch between the branes. We are particularly interested in the case of scattering at small impact parameter $b < l_s$, where there is a tachyon in the spectrum when a brane and an antibrane approach within a string length. Our conclusion is that despite the tachyon, branes and antibranes can pass through each other with only a very small probability of annihilating, so long as $g_s$ is small and the relative velocity $v$ is neither too small nor too close to 1. Our analysis is relevant also to the case of charged open string production in world-volume electric fields, and we make use of this T-dual scenario in our analysis. We briefly discuss the application of our results to a stringy model of inflation involving moving branes.

  19. Positron annihilation studies of organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron lifetimes of two organic superconductors, κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 and κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, are measured as a function of temperature across Tc. A drop of positron lifetime below Tc is observed. Positron-electron momentum densities are measured by using 2D-ACAR to search for the Fermi surface in κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. Positron density distributions and positron-electron overlaps are calculated by using the orthogonalized linear combination atomic orbital (OLCAO) method to interprete the temperature dependence due to the local charge transfer which is inferred to relate to the superconducting transition. 2D-ACAR results in κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br are compared with theoretical band calculations based on a first-principles local density approximation. Importance of performing accurate band calculations for the interpretation of positron annihilation data is emphasized

  20. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  1. e+e- Plasma Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, Ed P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    This note addresses the idea of a photon source that is based on an e+e- plasma created by co-propagating beams of e+ and e-. The plasma has a well-defined temperature, and the thermal distribution of the charged particles is used to average over the relative velocity cross section multiplied by the relative velocity. Two relevant cross sections are the direct “free-free” annihilation of e+e- pairs in the plasma, and the radiative recombination of e+e- pairs into positronium (Ps) which subsequently undergoes annihilation.

  2. Minimal semi-annihilating ZN scalar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dark matter from an inert doublet and a complex scalar singlet stabilized by ZN symmetries. This field content is the minimal one that allows dimensionless semi-annihilation couplings for N > 2. We consider explicitly the Z3 and Z4 cases and take into account constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, vacuum stability, necessity for the electroweak ZN preserving vacuum to be the global minimum, electroweak precision tests, upper limits from direct detection and properties of the Higgs boson. Co-annihilation and semi-annihilation of dark sector particles as well as dark matter conversion significantly modify the cosmic abundance and direct detection phenomenology

  3. Minimal semi-annihilating ℤN scalar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dark matter from an inert doublet and a complex scalar singlet stabilized by ℤN symmetries. This field content is the minimal one that allows dimensionless semi-annihilation couplings for N>2. We consider explicitly the ℤ3 and ℤ4 cases and take into account constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, vacuum stability, necessity for the electroweak ℤN preserving vacuum to be the global minimum, electroweak precision tests, upper limits from direct detection and properties of the Higgs boson. Co-annihilation and semi-annihilation of dark sector particles as well as dark matter conversion significantly modify the cosmic abundance and direct detection phenomenology

  4. Microwave Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    A J Seeds; Liu, C. P.; Ismail, T; Fice, M. J.; Pozzi, F.; Steed, R. J.; Rouvalis, E.; Renaud, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    Microwave photonics is the use of photonic techniques for the generation, transmission, processing and reception of signals having spectral components at microwave frequencies. This tutorial reviews the technologies used and gives applications examples.

  5. Polychromatic photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A review is given of the space-time wave mechanics of single photons, a subject with an almost century long history. The Landau-Peierls photon wave function, which is related nonlocally to the electromagnetic field is first described, and thereafter the so-called energy wave function, based on the...... positive-frequency Riemann-Silberstein vectors, is discussed. Recent attempts to understand the birth process of a photon emerging from a single atom are summarized. The polychromatic photon concept is introduced, and it is indicated how the wave mechanics of polychromatic photons can be upgraded to wave...... train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted in a...

  6. Photon Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Grindhammer, Guenter

    2001-01-01

    Large pT processes at HERA, initiated by almost real and by virtual photons, provide information on the structure of the photon. We report on the latest measurements of dijets and large pT particle production with the H1 detector. This includes a leading order determination of an effective virtual photon parton density, of the gluon density of the photon, and comparisons with models.

  7. Positron-molecule interactions: resonant attachment, annihilation, and bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Gribakin, G F; Surko, C M; 10.1103/RevModPhys.82.2557

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of current understanding of the interaction of low-energy positrons with molecules with emphasis on resonances, positron attachment and annihilation. Annihilation rates measured as a function of positron energy reveal the presence of vibrational Feshbach resonances (VFR) for many polyatomic molecules. These resonances lead to strong enhancement of the annihilation rates. They also provide evidence that positrons bind to many molecular species. A quantitative theory of VFR-mediated attachment to small molecules is presented. It is tested successfully for selected molecules (e.g., methyl halides and methanol) where all modes couple to the positron continuum. Combination and overtone resonances are observed and their role is elucidated. In larger molecules, annihilation rates from VFR far exceed those explicable on the basis of single-mode resonances. These enhancements increase rapidly with the number of vibrational degrees of freedom. While the details are as yet unclear, intr...

  8. Baryon production in $e^{+}e^{-}$-annihilation at PETRA

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Wulfrin; Dittmann, P; Eichler, R; Felst, R; Haidt, Dieter; Krehbiel, H; Meier, K; Naroska, Beate; O'Neill, L H; Steffen, P; Wenninger, Horst; Zhang, Y; Elsen, E E; Helm, M; Petersen, A; Warming, P; Weber, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Drumm, H; Heintze, J; Heinzelmann, G; Hellenbrand, K H; Heuer, R D; Von Krogh, J; Lennert, P; Kawabata, S; Matsumura, H; Nozaki, T; Olsson, J; Rieseberg, H; Wagner, A; Bell, A; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Wriedt, H; Allison, J; Ball, A H; Bamford, G; Barlow, R; Bowdery, C K; Duerdoth, I P; Hassard, J F; King, B T; Loebinger, F K; MacBeth, A A; McCann, H; Mills, H E; Murphy, P G; Prosper, H B; Stephens, K; Clarke, D; Goddard, M C; Marshall, R; Pearce, G F; Kobayashi, T; Komamiya, S; Koshiba, M; Minowa, M; Nozaki, M; Orito, S; Sato, A; Suda, T; Takeda, H; Totsuka, Y; Watanabe, Y; Yamada, S; Yanagisawa, C

    1981-01-01

    Data on p and Lambda production by e/sup +/e/sup -/-annihilation at CM energies between 30 and 36 GeV are presented. Indication for an angular anticorrelation in events with baryon-antibaryon pairs is seen.

  9. Semi-Annihilating Wino-Like Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Spray, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories with symmetries larger than Z_2. We explore a model based on a Z_4-symmetric dark sector comprised of a scalar singlet and a "wino"-like fermion SU(2)_L triplet. This is the minimal example of semi-annihilation with a gauge-charged fermion. We study the interplay of the Sommerfeld effect in both annihilation and semi-annihilation channels. The modifications to the relic density allow otherwise-forbidden regions of parameter space and can substantially weaken indirect detection constraints. We perform a parameter scan and find that the entire region where the model comprises all the observed dark matter is accessible to current and planned direct and indirect searches.

  10. Black Hole Window into p-Wave Dark Matter Annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jessie; Shapiro, Stuart L; Fields, Brian D

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross sections potentially visible in γ-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi Large Area Telescope is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC. PMID:26684108

  11. Coincidence Doppler Broadening of Positron Annihilation Radiation in Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, E.; Vanin, V. R.; Maidana, N. L.; Helene, O.

    2013-06-01

    We measured the Doppler broadening annihilation radiation spectrum in Fe, using 22NaCl as a positron source, and two Ge detectors in coincidence arrangement. The two-dimensional coincidence energy spectrum was fitted using a model function that included positron annihilation with the conduction band and 3d electrons, 3s and 3p electrons, and in-flight positron annihilation. Detectors response functions included backscattering and a combination of Compton and pulse pileup, ballistic deficit and shaping effects. The core electrons annihilation intensity was measured as 16.4(3) %, with almost all the remainder assigned to the less bound electrons. The obtained results are in agreement with published theoretical values.

  12. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from dark matter annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, R.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Kolb, E. W.

    2002-01-01

    Annihilation of clumped superheavy dark matter provides an interesting explanation for the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The predicted anisotropy signal provides a unique signature for this scenario.

  13. Baryon production in e+e--annihilation at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on anti p and anti Λ production by e+e--annihilation at CM energies between 30 and 36 GeV are presented. Indication for an angular anticorrelation in events with baryon antibaryon pairs is seen. (orig.)

  14. Polymerization of epoxy resins studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymerization process of epoxy resins (bisphenol-A dicyanate) was studied using positron-annihilation spectroscopy. The polymerization from monomer to polymer through a polymerization reaction was followed by positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy measurements. Resins kept at curing temperatures (120, 150 and 200 oC) changed form from of powder to a solid through a liquid. The size of the intermolecular spaces of the solid samples increased along with the progress of polymerization. (author)

  15. Rescattering effects in antiproton deuteron annihilation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper higher order corrections to the single scattering term for antiproton deuteron annihilation are evaluated. As dominant corrections the initial state interaction of the antiprotons and the rescattering of pions are considered. For low spectator momenta, these corrections cause a strong modulation of the distribution in the invariant mass of the annihilation pions, which could modify the parameters of the resonant baryonium states

  16. Breit-Wigner Enhancement of Dark Matter Annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, Masahiro; /SLAC; Murayama, Hitoshi; /Tokyo U., IPMU /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley; Yanagida, T.T.; /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U., IPMU

    2009-06-19

    We point out that annihilation of dark matter in the galactic halo can be enhanced relative to that in the early universe due to a Breit-Wigner tail, if the dark matter annihilates through a pole just below the threshold. This provides a new explanation to the 'boost factor' which is suggested by the recent data of the PAMELA, ATIC and PPB-BETS cosmic-ray experiments.

  17. Proton-antiproton reactions via double annihilation of quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exclusive baryon production in low energy panti p reactions is analysed within an internal double annihilation model using SU(6) wave functions. The annihilation is parametrised by intermediate gluon or meson states. We are able to predict several total cross sections for the reactions panti p→Banti B' which are of relevance for future experiments at LEAR. By examining the already existing data we show that the exchanged particle must be of vector type. (orig.)

  18. The Distribution and Annihilation of Dark Matter Around Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    We use a Monte Carlo code to calculate the geodesic orbits of test particles around Kerr black holes, generating a distribution function of both bound and unbound populations of dark matter particles. From this distribution function, we calculate annihilation rates and observable gamma-ray spectra for a few simple dark matter models. The features of these spectra are sensitive to the black hole spin, observer inclination, and detailed properties of the dark matter annihilation cross section a...

  19. Dark Matter Annihilation and the PAMELA, FERMI and ATIC Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    El-Zant, A. A.; Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-01-01

    If dark matter (DM) annihilation accounts for the tantalizing excess of cosmic ray electron/positrons, as reported by the PAMELA, ATIC, HESS and FERMI observatories, then the implied annihilation cross section must be relatively large. This results, in the context of standard cosmological models, in very small relic DM abundances that are incompatible with astrophysical observations. We explore possible resolutions to this apparent conflict in terms of non-standard cosmological scenarios; pla...

  20. Irradiation-induced voids in alumina single crystal studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) has been measured on α-alumina single crystals irradiated with fast neutrons to a dose of 3x1024 n/m2 at about 470 K. After post-irradiation annealing above 900 K, remarkable narrowing in ACAR curves has been observed. These ACAR curves can be decomposed into three Gaussian components: a narrow (N), an intermediate (M) and a broad (B) component, with FWHM of 2-5, about 6 and 11 mrad, respectively. The N and M components are attributed to positrons trapped in the voids. A magnetic quenching effect is observed for the N component but not for the M component. This shows that the N component is due to two photon self-annihilation of positronium (Ps) formed in voids. The FWHM of the N component indicates, through the momentum of zero-point motion of Ps, that the average void diameter is 0.6 nm after annealing at 1000 K and 1.7 nm after annealing at 1525 K. Striking similarity of the M component to a void-surface trapping component in metallic Al, together with nearly the same lifetime as that of voids in Al, suggests the existence of metallic surface-conduction-electron states in the voids in α-alumina. ((orig.))

  1. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures of dark matter annihilations into pseudo-Goldstone bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a model where the dark matter particle is a chiral fermion field charged under a global U(1) symmetry which is assumed to be spontaneously broken, leading to a pseudo-Goldstone boson (PGB). We argue that the dark matter annihilation into PGBs determine the dark matter relic abundance. Besides, we also note that experimental searches for PGBs allow either for a very long lived PGB, with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe, or a relatively short lived PGB, with a lifetime shorter than one minute. Hence, two different scenarios arise, producing very different signatures. In the long lived PGB scenario, the PGB might contribute significantly to the radiation energy density of the Universe. On the other hand, in the short lived PGB scenario, and since the decay length is shorter than one parsec, the s-wave annihilation into a PGB and a CP even dark scalar in the Galactic center might lead to an intense box feature in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, provided the PGB decay branching ratio into two photons is sizable. We also analyze the constraints on these two scenarios from thermal production, the Higgs invisible decay width and direct dark matter searches

  2. Positron annihilation studies on SmS and Smsub(0.85)Ysub(0.15)S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distribution of annihilation photons has been measured in SmS and Smsub(0.85) Ysub(0.15)S. The distribution curves show that SmS is ionic at NTP and Smsub(0.85) Ysub(0.15)S is metallic with an intermediate valence of 2.73 for samarium ion. The large density of states due to the f-level appears around 3 mrad in the momentum density distribution. The results are in agreement with the available Mossbauer and lattice constant data. (author)

  3. Annihilation of the electron-positron pairs in the positronium ion Ps$^-$ and bi-positronium Ps$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov, Alexei M.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of the two-, three-, four- and five-photon annihilations of the electron-positron pairs are determined numerically for the three-body positronium ion Ps$^-$ ($e^- e^+ e^-$) and four-body bi-positronium `molecule' Ps$_2$ ($e^- e^+ e^- e^+$). The values obtained in our computations are $\\Gamma_{2 \\gamma}($Ps$^-) \\approx$ 2.08048530525$\\cdot 10^{9}$ $sec^{-1}$, $\\Gamma_{3 \\gamma}($Ps$^-) \\approx$ 5.6364151550$\\cdot 10^{6}$ $sec^{-1}$, $\\Gamma_{4 \\gamma}($Ps$^-) \\approx$ 3.075$\\cdot 10^{3}$...

  4. On the Annihilation Rate of WIMPs

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew; Vaidya, Varun

    2014-01-01

    We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the WIMP annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed the order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double log accuracy in terms of two initial state partial wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by calculating the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four fermion operator. We find that the effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.

  5. Antimatter annihilation detection with AEgIS

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorova, Angela

    2015-01-01

    AE ̄ gIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is an antimatter exper- iment based at CERN, whose primary goal is to carry out the first direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antimatter. A precise measurement of antimatter gravity would be the first precision test of the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter. The principle of the experiment is based on the formation of antihydrogen through a charge exchange reaction between laser excited (Rydberg) positronium and ultra-cold antiprotons. The antihydrogen atoms will be accelerated by an inhomogeneous electric field (Stark acceleration) to form a pulsed cold beam. The free fall of the antihydrogen due to Earth’s gravity will be measured using a moiré de- flectometer and a hybrid position detector. This detector is foreseen to consist of an active silicon part, where the annihilation of antihydrogen takes place, followed by an emulsion part coupled to a fiber time-of-flight detector. This overview prese...

  6. Positron annihilation in medical substances of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positrons lifetimes were measured in medical substances of insulin (human and animal), differing as far as the degree of purity and time of their activity in the organism are concerned. In all of the cases the spectrum of positron lifetime was distributed into three components, with the long-life component ranging from 1.8 to 2.08 ns and the intensity taking on values from 18% to 24%. Making use of Tao-Eldrup model, the average radius of the free volume, in which o-Ps annihilated, and the degree of filling in the volume were determined. It was found that the value of the long-life component for human insulin is higher than that of animal insulin. Moreover, the value of this component clearly depends on the manner of purification of the insulin. It was also noticed that there occurs a correlation between the value of this component and the time after which it begins to be active in the organism, as well as the total time of its activity. (author)

  7. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible

  8. Nonabelian dark matter with resonant annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a model based on an extra gauge symmetry, SU(2)X×U(1)B−L, which can provide gauge bosons to serve as weakly-interacting massive particle dark matter. The stability of the dark matter is naturally guaranteed by a discrete Z2 symmetry that is a subgroup of SU(2)X. The dark matter interacts with standard model fermions by exchanging gauge bosons which are linear combinations of SU(2)X×U(1)B−L gauge bosons. With the appropriate choice of representation for the new scalar multiplet whose vacuum expectation value spontaneously breaks the SU(2)X symmetry, the relation between the new gauge boson masses can naturally lead to resonant pair annihilation of the dark matter. After exploring the parameter space of the new gauge couplings subject to constraints from collider data and the observed relic density, we use the results to evaluate the cross section of the dark matter scattering off nucleons and compare it with data from the latest direct detection experiments. We find allowed parameter regions that can be probed by future direct searches for dark matter and LHC searches for new particles

  9. Positron Annihilation in Medical Substances of Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, R.; Szatanik, R.

    2005-05-01

    Positrons lifetimes were measured in medical substances of insulin (human and animal), differing as far as the degree of purity and time of their activity in the organism are concerned. In all of the cases the spectrum of positron lifetime was distributed into three components, with the long-life component ranging from 1.8 to 2.08 ns and the intensity taking on values from 18 to 24%. Making use of Tao-Eldrup model, the average radius of the free volume, in which o-Ps annihilated, and the degree of filling in the volume were determined. It was found that the value of the long-life component for human insulin is higher than that of animal insulin. Moreover, the value of this component clearly depends on the manner of purification of the insulin. It was also noticed that there occurs a correlation between the value of this component and the time after which it begins to be active in the organism, as well as the total time of its activity.

  10. Charm production in antiproton-proton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Haidenbauer, J

    2010-01-01

    We study the production of charmed mesons (D) and baryons (Lambda_c) in antiproton-proton (app) annihilation close to their respective production thresholds. The elementary charm production process is described by either baryon/meson exchange or by quark/gluon dynamics. Effects of the interactions in the initial and final states are taken into account rigorously. The calculations are performed in close analogy to our earlier study on app -> antiLambda-Lambda and app -> antiK-K by connecting the processes via SU(4) flavor symmetry. Our predictions for the antiLambda_c-Lambda_c production cross section are in the order of 1 to 7 mb, i.e. a factor of around 10-70 smaller than the corresponding cross sections for antiLambda-Lambda However, they are 100 to 1000 times larger than predictions of other model calculations in the literature. On the other hand, the resulting cross sections for antiD-D production are found to be in the order of 10^{-2} -- 10^{-1} microbarn and they turned out to be comparable to those ob...

  11. Constraints on cosmological dark matter annihilation from the Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first published Fermi large area telescope (Fermi-LAT) measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission is in good agreement with a single power law, and is not showing any signature of a dominant contribution from dark matter sources in the energy range from 20 to 100 GeV. We use the absolute size and spectral shape of this measured flux to derive cross section limits on three types of generic dark matter candidates: annihilating into quarks, charged leptons and monochromatic photons. Predicted gamma-ray fluxes from annihilating dark matter are strongly affected by the underlying distribution of dark matter, and by using different available results of matter structure formation we assess these uncertainties. We also quantify how the dark matter constraints depend on the assumed conventional backgrounds and on the Universe's transparency to high-energy gamma-rays. In reasonable background and dark matter structure scenarios (but not in all scenarios we consider) it is possible to exclude models proposed to explain the excess of electrons and positrons measured by the Fermi-LAT and PAMELA experiments. Derived limits also start to probe cross sections expected from thermally produced relics (e. g. in minimal supersymmetry models) annihilating predominantly into quarks. For the monochromatic gamma-ray signature, the current measurement constrains only dark matter scenarios with very strong signals. (authors)

  12. Exciton-exciton annihilation and biexciton stimulated emission in graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soavi, Giancarlo; Dal Conte, Stefano; Manzoni, Cristian; Viola, Daniele; Narita, Akimitsu; Hu, Yunbin; Feng, Xinliang; Hohenester, Ulrich; Molinari, Elisa; Prezzi, Deborah; Müllen, Klaus; Cerullo, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    Graphene nanoribbons display extraordinary optical properties due to one-dimensional quantum-confinement, such as width-dependent bandgap and strong electron-hole interactions, responsible for the formation of excitons with extremely high binding energies. Here we use femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to explore the ultrafast optical properties of ultranarrow, structurally well-defined graphene nanoribbons as a function of the excitation fluence, and the impact of enhanced Coulomb interaction on their excited states dynamics. We show that in the high-excitation regime biexcitons are formed by nonlinear exciton-exciton annihilation, and that they radiatively recombine via stimulated emission. We obtain a biexciton binding energy of ~250 meV, in very good agreement with theoretical results from quantum Monte Carlo simulations. These observations pave the way for the application of graphene nanoribbons in photonics and optoelectronics.

  13. Exciton–exciton annihilation and biexciton stimulated emission in graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soavi, Giancarlo; Dal Conte, Stefano; Manzoni, Cristian; Viola, Daniele; Narita, Akimitsu; Hu, Yunbin; Feng, Xinliang; Hohenester, Ulrich; Molinari, Elisa; Prezzi, Deborah; Müllen, Klaus; Cerullo, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons display extraordinary optical properties due to one-dimensional quantum-confinement, such as width-dependent bandgap and strong electron–hole interactions, responsible for the formation of excitons with extremely high binding energies. Here we use femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to explore the ultrafast optical properties of ultranarrow, structurally well-defined graphene nanoribbons as a function of the excitation fluence, and the impact of enhanced Coulomb interaction on their excited states dynamics. We show that in the high-excitation regime biexcitons are formed by nonlinear exciton–exciton annihilation, and that they radiatively recombine via stimulated emission. We obtain a biexciton binding energy of ≈250 meV, in very good agreement with theoretical results from quantum Monte Carlo simulations. These observations pave the way for the application of graphene nanoribbons in photonics and optoelectronics. PMID:26984281

  14. Annihilation assisted upconversion: all-organic, flexible and transparent multicolour display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first all-organic, transparent, flexible, versatile colour displays based upon triplet-triplet annihilation assisted photon energy upconversion in viscous polymeric matrix. The devices work with ultra-low excitation intensities down to 20 mW cm-2 red or near-IR light. The displays are based on metallated-porphyrin sensitizers in combination with emitters dispersed in a transparent polymeric matrix and are driven by galvo-scanned laser diodes. The displays have external quantum yield as high as 3.2%. The response time can be adjusted to specific application requirements-up to 80 μs allowing kHz-refreshment rate of the displayed information. It is possible to easily tune the optical density of the screens in order to obtain a desired transmittance for the excitation beam. We demonstrate the ability to achieve multicolour emission, using only one excitation source. There are practically no display size limitations.

  15. A study of heavy flavoured meson fragmentation functions in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare QCD theoretical predictions for heavy flavoured mesons fragmentation spectra in e+e- annihilation with data from CLEO, BELLE and LEP. We include several effects in our calculation: next-to-leading order initial conditions, evolution and coefficient functions. Soft-gluon effects are resummed at next-to-leading-log accuracy. A matching condition for the crossing of the bottom threshold in evolution is also implemented at next-to-leading order accuracy. Important initial-state electromagnetic radiation effects in the CLEO and BELLE data are accounted for. We find that, with reasonably simple choices of a non-perturbative correction to the fixed-order initial condition for the evolution, the data from CLEO and BELLE can be fitted with remarkable accuracy. The fitted fragmentation function, when evolved to LEP energies, does not however represent fairly the D* fragmentation spectrum measured by ALEPH. Large non-perturbative corrections to the coefficient functions of the meson spectrum are needed in order to reconcile CLEO/BELLE and ALEPH results. Non-perturbative parameters extracted from the fits to e+e- fragmentation data for D/D* and B mesons are tabulated. They can be employed in the theoretical predictions for the production of charmed and bottomed mesons in hadron-hadron, photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions

  16. Photonic Lantern

    CERN Document Server

    Leon-Saval, Sergio; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2015-01-01

    Photonic lanterns allow for a low-loss transformation of a multimode waveguide into a discrete number of single-mode waveguides and vice versa, thus, enabling the use of single-mode photonic technologies in multimode systems. In this review, we will discuss the theory and function of the photonic lantern, along with several different variants of the technology. We will also discuss some of its applications in more detail.

  17. Creating quanta with an 'annihilation' operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asymmetric nature of the boson 'destruction' operator a-circumflex and its 'creation' partner a-circumflex dagger is made apparent by applying them to a quantum state vertical bar ψ > different from the Fock state vertical bar n >. We show that it is possible to increase (by many times or by any quantity) the mean number of quanta in the new 'photon-subtracted' state a-circumflex vertical bar ψ >. Moreover, for certain 'hyper-Poissonian' states vertical bar ψ > the mean number of quanta in the (normalized) state a-circumflex vertical bar ψ > can be much greater than in the 'photon-added' state a-circumflex † vertical bar ψ >. The explanation of this 'paradox' is given and some examples elucidating the meaning of Mandel's q-parameter and the exponential phase operators are considered. (author)

  18. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  19. Photonic glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Fuxi

    2006-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental mechanism of photonic glasses - the linear and nonlinear optical effects in glass under intense light irradiation: phot-induced absorption, refraction, polarization, frequency, coherence and monochromaticity changes. Emphasis is placed on new developments in the structure, spectroscopy and physics of new glassy materials for photonics applications, such as optical communication, optical data storage, new lasers and new photonic components and devices. The book presents the research results of the authors in new glasses for photonics over the last decade. Sa

  20. The influence of antioxidant on positron annihilation in polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to check the influence of the carbonyl groups (CG), created by oxygen naturally dissolved in a polymer matrix and by the source irradiation, on annihilation characteristics of free positrons using the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). Positron annihilation in a pure polypropylene (PP) and in an antioxidant-containing polypropylene (PPA) sample at room and low temperatures has been studied by CDBS. PALS has been used as an o-Ps (orth-positronium) formation monitor. The momentum density distributions of electrons obtained by CDBS at the beginning of measurements have been compared to that at the o-Ps intensity saturation level. It has been shown that the initial concentration of carbonyl groups in a PP sample is high, while for an antioxidant-containing sample, PPA, carbonyl groups are not detected by CDBS. CDBS spectra for a PP can be explained by annihilation of free positrons with the oxygen contained in the carbonyl groups. For a PPA sample, no significant contribution of annihilation with oxygen core electrons can be concluded. (Y. Kazumata)

  1. CMB Constraints On The Thermal WIMP Annihilation Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    Steigman, Gary

    2015-01-01

    A thermal relic, often referred to as a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP),is a particle produced during the early evolution of the Universe whose relic abundance (e.g., at present) depends only on its mass and its thermally averaged annihilation cross section (annihilation rate factor) sigma*v_ann. Late time WIMP annihilation has the potential to affect the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum. Current observational constraints on the absence of such effects provide bounds on the mass and the annihilation cross section of relic particles that may, but need not be dark matter candidates. For a WIMP that is a dark matter candidate, the CMB constraint sets an upper bound to the annihilation cross section, leading to a lower bound to their mass that depends on whether or not the WIMP is its own antiparticle. For a self-conjugate WIMP, m_min = 50f GeV, where f is an electromagnetic energy efficiency factor. For a non self-conjugate WIMP, the minimum mass is a factor of two larger. For a WIMP t...

  2. The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Belikov, Alexander V. [Institut d' Astrophysique (France); Jeltema, Tesla E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Linden, Tim [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Profumo, Stefano [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.

  3. Dipole Moment Bounds on Scalar Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Fukushima, Keita

    2013-01-01

    We consider a scalar dark matter annihilations to light leptons mediated by charged exotic fermions. The interaction of this model also adds a correction to dipole moments of light leptons. In the simplified model, these processes will depend upon the same coupling constants. The tight experimental bounds on the dipole moments of light leptons will constrain the coupling constants. Consequently, this bound will then limit the annihilations. We will produce this dipole moment bounds on the annihilation. From this analysis, we report that the bound on annihilation to the electrons is $4.0\\times10^{-7}\\pb$ (g-2) + $8.8\\times 10^{-15}\\pb$ (EDM) and the muons is $5.6\\times 10^{-4}\\pb$ (g-2) + $180\\pb$ (EDM), in the limit where the mediator is much heavier than dark matter. The parentheses indicate the dipole moment used to obtain the values. We note that only the annihilation to muons through a CP-violating (EDM) coupling is not excluded from indirect detection experiments.

  4. Processes related to photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of processes, related to photon-photon collisions, are considered: deep inelastic Compton scattering, and photon pair production. The relevant theoretical and experimental literature is reviewed

  5. Spin annihilations of and spin sifters for transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves in co- and counter-rotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-In Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated.

  6. Description of a tagged photon program at Saclay Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experiments of photon total absorption by γ+N→every possible channel are envisaged. In view of the very low cross section, the signal/noise ratio is very small and a great accuracy is required; furthermore, a study of the energy dependence of the cross section needs the energy and intensity of the incident beam to be known. The in-flight annihilation of the positon gives a 'soft photon' (backwards in the c. of m. system) whose energy only depends, in practice, on the detection angle and is used to tag the 'hard photon' (forwards in the c. of m. system) emitted in coincidence, and used for the total absorption experiments. A good energy resolution of the hard photon beam need a precise location of the soft photon. The system of positon transport is described, together with the annihilation target, the soft photon detector (plastic scintillators) the electromagnetic shower detector (a series of modules comprising a lead detector and a plastic scintillator), and the detector for the hadronic reaction products (an INa annular crystal, associated with some blocks of plastic scintillators)

  7. Spin Polarized Photons from Axially Charged Plasma at Weak Coupling: Complete Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Mamo, Kiminad A

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin-aligned, which is a unique P- and CP-odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this "P-odd photon emission rate" in weak coupling regime at high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P-even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of P-odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: 1) Compton and Pair Annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, 2) soft t- and u-channel contributions with Hard Thermal Loop re-summation, 3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) re-summation of collinear Bremstrahlung and Pair Annihilation. We present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P-odd photon emission rate observable.

  8. Spin polarized photons from an axially charged plasma at weak coupling: Complete leading order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.; Yee, Ho-Ung

    2016-03-01

    In the presence of (approximately conserved) axial charge in the QCD plasma at finite temperature, the emitted photons are spin aligned, which is a unique P - and C P -odd signature of axial charge in the photon emission observables. We compute this "P -odd photon emission rate" in a weak coupling regime at a high temperature limit to complete leading order in the QCD coupling constant: the leading log as well as the constant under the log. As in the P -even total emission rate in the literature, the computation of the P -odd emission rate at leading order consists of three parts: (1) Compton and pair annihilation processes with hard momentum exchange, (2) soft t - and u -channel contributions with hard thermal loop resummation, (3) Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal resummation of collinear bremsstrahlung and pair annihilation. We present analytical and numerical evaluations of these contributions to our P -odd photon emission rate observable.

  9. Dark matter annihilation with s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jason; Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, Danny

    2016-08-01

    We study the scenario of fermionic dark matter that annihilates to standard model fermions through an s-channel axial vector mediator. We point out that the well-known chirality suppression of the annihilation cross section can be alleviated by s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung. The shapes of the cosmic ray spectra are identical to that of t-channel internal Higgsstrahlung in the limit of a heavy mediating particle. Unlike the general case of t-channel bremsstrahlung, s-channel Higgsstrahlung can be the dominant annihilation process even for Dirac dark matter. Since the s-channel mediator can be a standard model singlet, collider searches for the mediator are easily circumvented.

  10. Positron annihilation spectroscopy applied to silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, J W

    2000-01-01

    deposition on silicon substrates has been examined. The systematic correlations observed between the nitrogen content of the films and both the fitted Doppler parameters and the positron diffusion lengths are discussed in detail. Profiling measurements of silicon nitride films deposited on silicon substrates and subsequently implanted with silicon ions at a range of fluences were also performed. For higher implantation doses, damage was seen to extend beyond the film layers and into the silicon substrates. Subsequent annealing of two of the samples was seen to have a significant influence on the nature of the films. Positron annihilation spectroscopy, in conjunction with a variable-energy positron beam, has been employed to probe non-destructively the surface and near-surface regions of a selection of technologically important silicon-based samples. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation lineshape, information on the positrons' microenvironment prior to annihilation may be obtained. T...

  11. A Critical Reevaluation of Radio Constraints on Annihilating Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Linden, Tim [Chicago U., KICP

    2015-04-03

    A number of groups have employed radio observations of the Galactic center to derive stringent constraints on the annihilation cross section of weakly interacting dark matter. In this paper, we show that electron energy losses in this region are likely to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering on the interstellar radiation field, rather than by synchrotron, considerably relaxing the constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section compared to previous works. Strong convective winds, which are well motivated by recent observations, may also significantly weaken synchrotron constraints. After taking these factors into account, we find that radio constraints on annihilating dark matter are orders of magnitude less stringent than previously reported, and are generally weaker than those derived from current gamma-ray observations.

  12. Solvable Aggregation-Migration-Annihilation Processes of a Multispecies System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; CHEN Xiao-Shuang

    2006-01-01

    An aggregation-migration-annihilation model is proposed for a two-species-group system. In the system,aggregation reactions occur between any two aggregates of the same species and migration reactions between two different species in the same group and joint annihilation reactions between two species from different groups. The kinetics of the system is then investigated in the framework of the mean-field theory. It is found that the scaling solutions of the aggregate size distributions depend crucially on the ratios of the equivalent aggregation rates of species groups to the annihilation rates. Each species always scales according to a conventional or modified scaling form; moreover, the governing scaling exponents are nonuniversal and dependent on the reaction details for most cases.

  13. Dark matter annihilation with s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Jason; Marfatia, Danny

    2016-01-01

    We study the scenario of fermionic dark matter that annihilates to standard model fermions through an s-channel axial vector mediator. We point out that the well-known chirality suppression of the annihilation cross section can be alleviated by s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung. The shapes of the cosmic ray spectra are identical to that of t-channel internal Higgsstrahlung in the limit of a heavy mediating particle. Unlike the general case of t-channel bremsstrahlung, s-channel Higgsstrahlung can be the dominant annihilation process even for Dirac dark matter. Since the s-channel mediator can be a standard model singlet, collider searches for the mediator are easily circumvented.

  14. Extensions of the Cube Attack Based on Low Degree Annihilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aileen; Lim, Chu-Wee; Khoo, Khoongming; Wei, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef

    At Crypto 2008, Shamir introduced a new algebraic attack called the cube attack, which allows us to solve black-box polynomials if we are able to tweak the inputs by varying an initialization vector. In a stream cipher setting where the filter function is known, we can extend it to the cube attack with annihilators: By applying the cube attack to Boolean functions for which we can find low-degree multiples (equivalently annihilators), the attack complexity can be improved. When the size of the filter function is smaller than the LFSR, we can improve the attack complexity further by considering a sliding window version of the cube attack with annihilators. Finally, we extend the cube attack to vectorial Boolean functions by finding implicit relations with low-degree polynomials.

  15. Simulation of structure and annihilation of screw dislocation dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Vegge, Tejs; Leffers, Torben; Pedersen, O. B.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2000-01-01

    . The equilibrium splitting width of the screw dislocations decreases with decreasing dipole height, as expected from elasticity theory. The energy barriers, and corresponding transition states for annihilation of stable dipoles are determined for straight and for flexible dislocations for dipole......Large scale atomistic simulations are used to investigate the properties of screw dislocation dipoles in copper. Spontaneous annihilation is observed for dipole heights less than 1 nm. Equilibrated dipoles of heights larger than 1 nm adopt a skew configuration due to the elastic anisotropy of Cu...... heights up to 5.2 nm. In both cases the annihilation is initiated by cross-slip of one of the dislocations. For straight dislocations the activation energy shows a linear dependence on the inverse dipole height, and for flexible dislocations the dependence is roughly linear for the dipoles investigated....

  16. Applications of positron annihilation to dermatology and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guang; Chen, Hongmin; Chakka, Lakshmi [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 and Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States); Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li (China)

    2007-07-01

    Positronium annihilation lifetime experiments have been performed to investigate the interaction between skin cancer and positronium for human skin samples. Positronium annihilation lifetime is found to be shorter and intensity is found to be less for the samples with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma than the normal skin samples. These results indicate a reduction of free volume in the molecular level for the skin with cancer with respect to the skin without cancer. Positron annihilation spectroscopy may be potentially developed as a new noninvasive and external method for dermatology clinics, early detection of cancer, and nano-PET technology in the future. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. High energy photon production in strong colliding laser beams

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiev, Michael; Ingham, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The collision of two intense, low-frequency laser beams is considered. The $e^-e^+$ pairs created in this field are shown to exhibit recollisions, which take place at high energy accumulated due to the wiggling of fermions. The resulting $e^-e^+$ annihilation produces high energy photons, or heavy particles. The coherent nature of the laser field provides strong enhancement of the probability of these events. Analytical and numerical results are outlined.

  18. Measurement of inclusive γ and π0 spectra and a comparison of the neutral and charged components in hadronic events in e+e- annihilation at 34 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photonic part of multihadronic e+e- annihilation events has been analyzed at c.m. energy of 34 GeV. The photonic energy fraction per event is determined to be f=0.25+-0.003 (stat.)+-0.04 (syste). The neutral and charged components of the events are analyzed separately revealing close similarity in thrust axis directions and momentum distributions in agreement with the hypothesis that most photons result from π0 decay. π0sup(.) s are reconstructed separately and used to determine the inclusive cross section. Comparing these cross sections with lower energy, data from SPEAR we find some indication for scaling violation. (orig.)

  19. Unparticle effects in photon-photon scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chun-Fu; Cheung, Kingman; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Elastic photon-photon scattering can only occur via loop diagrams in the standard model and is naturally suppressed. Unparticle can induce tree-level photon-photon scattering through the operator F_{\\mu\

  20. The half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb a positron-annihilation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of NiMnSb is investigated by means of spin-polarized measurements of the angular correlation of annihilation radiation. NiMnSb is predicted to be a half metallic ferromagnet: the electrons of one spin direction are metallic, whereas the electrons of the opposite spin direction are semiconducting. The key question underlying this thesis was whether this is indeed true. After a general introduction the angular correlation set-up is described. The measurements are performed in a two-dimensional geometry, so that both angles in the angular correlation could be resolved. The measured distributions correspond to once-integrated two-photon momentum densities. By making use of the inherent partial polarization of the position beam and by aligning the electron-spin populations in the sample by means of an external magnetic field spin-polarized results can be obtained. After a short summary of the treatment of the (raw) angular-correlation data. The application of the Knorringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) formalism to the calculation of the two-photon momentum density is discussed. To interpret the NiMnSb data, the electronic structure, the Fermi surface and the two-photon momentum densities have been obtained once integrated along three different directions inimpulse space. The difference distributions show a clear impression of the majority-spin Fermi surface. A good quantitative overall agreement between theory and experiment is established. From this analysis a value for the three-photon difference effect in NiMnSb has been obtained. To test the half-metallic nature of the band structure the experimental distributions are compared with theoretical ones obtained from modelled band structures in which small numbers of electrons near the Fermi level are transported from one spin population to the other. 167 refs.; 27 figs.; 7 tabs

  1. Determination of molecular weight in polyvinylmethylsiloxane by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a linear relation between the life time of positron annihilation and molecular weight of weight average in polyvinylmethylsiloxane is simple deduced according to S.Y. Chuang's hypothesis. The experiment results with polyvinylmethylsiloxane show that there is a linear relation between the life time of positron annihilation and molecular weight of weight average. The molecular weight of the polyvinylmethylsiloxane is determined by this linear relation. The result is compared with other results obtained by the viscosimetry method. The difference between them is less than 3.7%. The experimental results is discussed and the authors put forward the method to determine molecular weight

  2. On the effective operators for Dark Matter annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider effective operators describing Dark Matter (DM) interactions with Standard Model fermions. In the non-relativistic limit of the DM field, the operators can be organized according to their mass dimension and their velocity behaviour, i.e. whether they describe s- or p-wave annihilations. The analysis is carried out for self-conjugate DM (real scalar or Majorana fermion). In this case, the helicity suppression at work in the annihilation into fermions is lifted by electroweak bremsstrahlung. We construct and study all dimension-8 operators encoding such an effect. These results are of interest in indirect DM searches

  3. Simulation of structure and annihilation of screw dislocation dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Vegge, Tejs; Leffers, Torben; Pedersen, O. B.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2000-01-01

    Large scale atomistic simulations are used to investigate the properties of screw dislocation dipoles in copper. Spontaneous annihilation is observed for dipole heights less than 1 nm. Equilibrated dipoles of heights larger than 1 nm adopt a skew configuration due to the elastic anisotropy of Cu....... The equilibrium splitting width of the screw dislocations decreases with decreasing dipole height, as expected from elasticity theory. The energy barriers, and corresponding transition states for annihilation of stable dipoles are determined for straight and for flexible dislocations for dipole...

  4. Modeling of positron states and annihilation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models and computational aspects to describe positron states and to predict positron annihilation characteristics in solids are discussed. The comparison of the calculated positron lifetimes, core annihilation lineshapes, and two-dimensional angular correlation maps with experimental results are used in identifying the structure (including the chemical composition) of vacancy-type defects and their development e.g. during thermal annealing. The basis of the modeling is the two-component density-functional theory. The ensuing approximations and the state-of-the-art electronic-structure computation methods enable practical schemes with a quantitative predicting power. (author)

  5. Dark matter annihilation with s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Kumar(Univ. of Hawaii); Jiajun Liao; Danny Marfatia

    2016-01-01

    We study the scenario of fermionic dark matter that annihilates to standard model fermions through an s-channel axial vector mediator. We point out that the well-known chirality suppression of the annihilation cross section can be alleviated by s-channel internal Higgsstrahlung. The shapes of the cosmic ray spectra are identical to that of t-channel internal Higgsstrahlung in the limit of a heavy mediating particle. Unlike the general case of t-channel bremsstrahlung, s-channel Higgsstrahlung...

  6. Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmic-ray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.

  7. On the Direct Detection of Dark Matter Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... cross sections has already been reached in a class of models. Moreover, the compatibility of dark matter direct detection experiments can be compared directly in $E_{{\\rm min}}$ space without making assumptions about DM astrophysics, mass, or scattering form factors. Lastly, when DM has direct couplings...

  8. Relativistic hydrodynamics, heavy ion reactions and antiproton annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of relativistic hydrodynamics to relativistic heavy ions and antiproton annihilation is summarized. Conditions for validity of hydrodynamics are presented. Theoretical results for inclusive particle spectra, pion production and flow analysis are given for medium energy heavy ions. The two-fluid model is introduced and results presented for reactions from 800 MeV per nucleon to 15 GeV on 15 GeV per nucleon. Temperatures and densities attained in antiproton annihilation are given. Finally, signals which might indicate the presence of a quark-gluon plasma are briefly surveyed

  9. Pion production on exotic nuclei by antiproton annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pion production by antiproton annihilation on neutron- or proton-rich nuclei is studied in a fully quantum mechanical description of the reaction process in terms of a distorted wave approach. The elementary elastic N-bar N and the N-bar N → nπ annihilation vertices are obtained from a t-matrix accounting for coupled channels effects. The theoretical amplitudes are used to derive a microscopic N-bar A optical model potential and the meson production vertices. Nuclear structure effects are taken into account microscopically. Results for meson production cross sections are presented.

  10. Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Wigner Function and Phase Probability Distribution of q-Analogueof Squeezed One-Photon State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Shu; MENG Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Xiang-Ping; WANG Ji-Suo; LIANG Bao-Long

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, in terms of the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators and the properties of the inverses of q-deformed annihilation and creation operators, normalizable q-analogue of the squeezed one-photon state, which is quite different from one introduced by Song and Fan [Int. 3. Theor. Phys. 41 (2002) 695], is constructed. Moreover, the Wigner function and phase probability distribution of q-analogue of the squeezed one-photon state are examined.

  12. Antiproton annihilation physics annihilation physics in the Monte Carlo particle transport code particle transport code SHIELD-HIT12A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taasti, Vicki Trier; Knudsen, Helge; Holzscheiter, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    experimental depth dose curve obtained by the AD-4/ACE collaboration was compared with an earlier version of SHIELD-HIT, but since then inelastic annihilation cross sections for antiprotons have been updated and a more detailed geometric model of the AD-4/ACE experiment was applied. Furthermore, the Fermi...... cross sections, which restores the agreement, but some small deviations still remain. Best agreement is achieved by using the most recent antiproton collision cross sections and the Fermi–Teller Z-law, even if experimental data conclude that the Z-law is inadequately describing annihilation on compounds....... We conclude that more experimental cross section data are needed in the lower energy range in order to resolve this contradiction, ideally combined with more rigorous models for annihilation on compounds....

  13. Origin and annihilation physics of positrons in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gamma radiation at 511 keV is observed since the early 1970's toward the Galactic bulge region. This emission is the signature of a large number of electron-positron annihilations, the positron being the electron's antiparticle. Unfortunately, the origin of the positrons responsible for this emission is still a mystery. Many positron-source candidates have been suggested but none of them can account for the galactic annihilation emission. The spatial distribution of this emission is indeed very atypical. Since 2002, the SPI spectrometer onboard the INTEGRAL space laboratory revealed an emission strongly concentrated toward the galactic bulge and a weaker emission from the galactic disk. This morphology is unusual because it does not correspond to any of the known galactic astrophysical-object or interstellar-matter distributions. The assumption that positrons annihilate close to their sources (i.e. the spatial distribution of the annihilation emission reflects the spatial distribution of the sources) has consequently been called into question. Recent studies suggest that positrons could propagate far away from their sources before annihilating. This physical aspect could be the key point to solve the riddle of the galactic positron origin. This thesis is devoted to the modelling of the propagation and annihilation of positrons in the Galaxy, in order to compare simulated spatial models of the annihilation emission with recent measurements provided by SPI/INTEGRAL. This method allows to put constraints on the origin of galactic positrons. We therefore developed a propagation Monte-Carlo code of positrons within the Galaxy in which we implemented all the theoretical and observational knowledge about positron physics (sources, transport modes, energy losses, annihilation modes) and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy (interstellar gas distributions, galactic magnetic fields, structures of the gaseous phases). Due to uncertainties in several physical parameters

  14. Photon Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, H. -J.; Homann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss numerical solutions of Einstein's field equation describing static, spherically symmetric conglomerations of a photon gas. These equations imply a back reaction of the metric on the energy density of the photon gas according to Tolman's equation. The 3-fold of solutions corresponds to a class of physically different solutions which is parameterized by only two quantities, e.g. mass and surface temperature. The energy density is typically concentrated on a shell because the center c...

  15. Photonic Nanojets

    OpenAIRE

    Heifetz, Alexander; Kong, Soon-Cheol; Alan V. Sahakian; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the substantial body of literature emerging since 2004 concerning photonic nanojets. The photonic nanojet is a narrow, high-intensity, non-evanescent light beam that can propagate over a distance longer than the wavelength λ after emerging from the shadow-side surface of an illuminated lossless dielectric microcylinder or microsphere of diameter larger than λ. The nanojet’s minimum beamwidth can be smaller than the classical diffraction limit, in fact as small as ~λ/3 for m...

  16. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  17. Lattices of Annihilators in Commutative Algebras Over Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzebska M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Let K be any field and L be any lattice. In this note we show that L is a sublattice of annihilators in an associative and commutative K-algebra. If L is finite, then our algebra will be finite dimensional over K.

  18. New Limits on Thermally annihilating Dark Matter from Neutrino Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, José

    2016-01-01

    We used a consistent and robust solar model to obtain upper limits placed by neutrino telescopes, such as Ice- Cube and Super-Kamiokande, on the Dark Matter-nucleon scattering cross-section, for a general model of Dark Matter with a velocity dependent (p-wave) thermally averaged cross-section. In this picture, the Boltzmann equation for the Dark Matter abundance is numerically solved satisfying the Dark Matter density measured from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We show that for lower cross-sections and higher masses, the Dark Matter annihilation rate drops sharply, resulting in upper bounds on the scattering cross-section one order of magnitude above those derived from a velocity independent (s-wave) annihilation cross-section. Our results show that upper limits on the scattering cross-section obtained from Dark Matter annihilating in the Sun are sensible to the uncertainty in current standard solar models, fluctuating a maximum of 20 % depending on the annihilation channel.

  19. Characteristics of the positron annihilation process in the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the positrons annihilation spectroscopy, as a method for the matter study is described. The interaction of positrons of high as well as thermal energies are discussed and different models of mentioned interactions are presented. Special attention is paid for positrons interaction with crystal lattice and its defects. The influence of positron beams characteristics on measured values are also discussed

  20. The many faces of brane-flux annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Van Riet, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fluxes can decay via the nucleation of Brown-Teitelboim bubbles, but when the decaying fluxes induce D-brane charges this process must be accompanied with an annihilation of D-branes. This occurs via dynamics inside the bubble wall as was well described for (anti-)D3 branes branes annihilating against 3-form fluxes. In this paper we extend this to the other Dp branes with p smaller than seven. Generically there are two decay channels: one for the RR flux and one for the NSNS flux. The RR channel is accompanied by brane annihilation that can be understood from the Dp branes polarising into D(p+2) branes, whereas the NSNS channel corresponds to Dp branes polarising into NS5 branes or KK5 branes. We illustrate this with the decay of antibranes probing local toroidal throat geometries obtained from T-duality of the D6 solution in massive type IIA. We show that anti-Dp branes are metastable against annihilation in these backgrounds, at least at the probe level.

  1. Vector leptoquark pair production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section for vector leptoquark pair production in e+e-annihilation is calculated for the case of finite anomalous gauge boson couplings κγ,Z and λγ,Z. The minimal cross section is found to behave ∝ β7, leading to weaker mass bounds in the threshold range than in models studied previously. (orig.)

  2. Detection of positron-atom bound states through resonant annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A; Gribakin, G F

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for detecting positron-atom bound states by observing Feshbach resonances in positron annihilation at electron volt energies. The method is applicable to a range of open-shell transition metal atoms which are likely to bind the positron: Si, Fe, Co, Ni, Ge, Tc, Ru, Rh, Sn, Sb, Ta, W, Os, Ir, and Pt.

  3. The SIRI stochastic model with creation and annihilation operators

    OpenAIRE

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Aguiar, Maira

    2008-01-01

    We generalize the well known formulation of the susceptibles, infected, susceptibles (SIS) spatial epidemics with creation and annihilation operators to the reinfection model including recovered which can be reinfected, the SIRI model, using ladder operators constructed from the Gell-Mann matrices known in quantum chromodynamics.

  4. Precise tests of QCD in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pedagogical review is given of precise tests of QCD in electron-positron annihilation. Emphasis is placed on measurements that have served to establish QCD as the correct theory of strong interactions, as well as measurements of the coupling parameter αs. An outlook is given for future important tests at a high-energy e+e- collider

  5. Annihilation amplitudes and factorization in B to phi Kstar

    CERN Document Server

    Epele, L N; Szynkman, A

    2003-01-01

    We study the decay $B^\\pm\\to \\phi K^{\\ast\\pm}$, followed by the decay of the outgoing vector mesons into two pseudoscalars. The analysis of angular distributions of the decay products is shown to provide useful information about the annihilation contributions and possible tests of factorization.

  6. Looking for dark matter annihilations in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, F.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the flux of high energy gamma-rays from annihilation of neutralino dark matter in the centre of the Milky Way and the three nearest dwarf spheroidals (Sagittarius, Draco and Canis Major), using realistic models of the dark matter distribution.

  7. Nuclear excitation in positron-K-electron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliman, Z.; Pisk, K.; Logan, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    We have calculated the cross section for nuclear excitation during positron-K-electron annihilation. The calculations allow for the effect of the nuclear Coulomb field and for relativistic effects. The results are compared to earlier predictions which were derived using the Born approximation, and to renormalized Born approximation predictions. Our calculated cross sections are well below the available experimental values.

  8. Chemical application of positron annihilation through triple coincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the work on the application of triple coincidence measurement of annihilation radiation for providing chemical state information; the observations have been corroborated by angular correlation and Doppler broadening measurements and supplemented by the magnetic quenching in the angular correlation and peak-to-valley ratio in the Ge(Li) singles spectrum for the 511 keV line. (author)

  9. Study of wino pair production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss wino pair production in e+e- annihilation and subsequent leptonic wino decay for various types of supersymmetric or supergravity models. Phenomenological predictions on this process depend considerably on a specific model. We analyze the energy distribution, forward-backward asymmetry and angular distribution of a charged lepton in the final state. (Author shortened by G.Q.)

  10. On the Direct Detection of Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection experiments is controlled by relativistic kinematics. This results in a distinctive recoil spectrum, a non-standard and or even {\\it absent} annual modulation, and the ability to probe DM masses as low as a $\\sim$10 MeV. We use current LUX data to show that experimental sensitivity to thermal relic annihilation cross sections has already been reached in a class of models. Moreover, the compatibility of dark matter direct detection experiments can be compared directly in $E_{min}$ space without making assumptions about DM astrophysics. Lastly, when DM has direct couplings to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional non-relativistic direct detect...

  11. Parton description of soft p-barp annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parton description of soft, high-energy p-barp annihilation is presented in a three-chain model based on the dual topological unitarization scheme. With this model, full, quantitative, zero-parameter predictions are made for inclusive single-particle rapidity distributions and their energy dependence, which are testable in forthcoming p-barp experiments

  12. QED at fifth order in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the cross-section for the production of e+e-γγγ in e+e- annihilation. The results are in agreement with the first observation of such a process by the ASP experiment at SLAC. The calculation also provides another example of the power of 'spinor techniques' in calculating Feynman amplitudes. (author)

  13. Production of new particles in electron-positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of areas are reviewed where there is important progress in the production of new particles in electron--positron annihilation, but of a more detailed quantitative nature. Charmonium states, charmed mesons, and evidence for a charged heavy lepton are covered. 50 references

  14. Positron Annihilation in a Rubber Modified Epoxy Resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Jacobsen, F. M.; Pethrick, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Positron annihilation data is reported on a rubber-modified epoxy resin. Studies of the temperature dependence of the o-positronium lifetime indicated the existence of three distinct regions; the associated transition temperatures by comparison with dilatometric data can be ascribed respectively ...... be glass transition of the epoxy phase and to that of a mixed acrylonitrile—epoxy—butadiene interfacial region....

  15. Remote forcing annihilates barrier layer in southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    is annihilated later in May by up- welling, and by the in ow of high-salinity waters from the north and by mixing due to stronger winds, which deepen the mixed layer. We present evidence from satellite data and arguments based on existing theories to show...

  16. A QCD analysis of jets in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jets in e+e- annihilation are discussed in the context of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. Topics discussed include higher twist contribution, effects of quark masses and fragmentation on the 3 and 4 jet rates and some distributions bearing on the experimental verification of 4 jet events at the PETRA/PEP energies. (orig./HSI)

  17. Delta-Isobar Production in Antiproton Annihilation on the Deuteron

    OpenAIRE

    Lykasov, G. I.; Bussa, M. P.; Valacca, L.

    1997-01-01

    The annihilation of antiprotons on deuterons at rest are investigated for the case when pion-nucleon and pion-delta-isobar pairs are produced. The two-step mechanism is investigated by analysing these processes when either neutral particles and charged ones are produced. Some predictions for the branching ratios are presented.

  18. Contribution from S and P waves in pp annihilation at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Bendiscioli, G; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Cesari, N S; Spighi, R; Vecchi, S; Vagnoni, V M; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Bianconi, A; Bonomi, G; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zenoni, A; Cicalò, C; De Falco, A; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Usai, G L; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Petrascu, C; Kudryavtsev, A E; Balestra, F; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Denisov, O Yu; Ferrero, L; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Tosello, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Calvo, D; Costa, S; D'Isep, D; Feliciello, A; Filippi, A; Marcello, S; Mirfakhraee, N; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Tessaro, S

    2001-01-01

    The annihilation frequencies of 19 pp annihilation reactions at rest obtained in different target densities are analysed in order to determine the values of the P-wave annihilation percentage at each target density and the average hadronic branching ratios from P- and S-states. Both the assumptions of linear dependence of the annihilation frequencies on the P-wave annihilation percentage of the protonium state and the approach with the enhancement factors of Batty (1989) are considered. Furthermore the cases of incompatible measurements are discussed. (55 refs).

  19. Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, R. E-mail: r-suzuki@aist.go.jp; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Shioya, Y.; Ishimaru, T

    2003-11-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films has been investigated by means of measurement techniques with a monoenergetic pulsed positron beam. The age-momentum correlation study revealed that positron annihilation in thermally grown SiO{sub 2} is basically the same as that in bulk amorphous SiO{sub 2} while o-Ps in the PECVD grown SiCOH film predominantly annihilate with electrons of C and H at the microvoid surfaces. We also discuss time-dependent three-gamma annihilation in porous low-k films by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  20. Detector for high-energy photon backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Michael D.; Erker, Joseph W.; Duncan, Michael Z.; Hartford, Thomas J.; Sivers, E. A.; Hopkinson, James F.

    1993-12-01

    High energy photon backscatter uses pair production to probe deep beneath surfaces with single side accessibility or to image thick, radiographically opaque objects. At the higher photon energies needed to penetrate thick and/or highly attenuating objects, Compton backscatter becomes strongly forward peaked with relatively little backscatter flux. Furthermore, the downward energy shift of the backscattered photon makes it more susceptible to attenuation on its outbound path. Above 1.022 MeV, pair production is possible; at about 10 MeV, pari production crosses over Compton scatter as the dominant x-ray interaction mechanism. The backscattered photons can be hard x rays from the bremsstrahlung of the electrons and positrons or 0.511 MeV photons from the annihilation of the positron. Monte Carlo computer simulations of such a backscatter system were done to characterize the output signals and to optimize a high energy detector design. This paper touches on the physics of high energy backscatter imaging and describes at some length the detector design for tomographic and radiographic imaging.

  1. Photon time-of-flight-assisted positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In positron emission tomography (PET), the annihilation radiation is usually detected as a coincidence occurrence that localizes the position of the annihilation event to a straight line joining the detectors. The measure of the difference between the time of flight (TOF) of the annihilation photons between their inception and their detection permits the localization of the position of the annihilation event along the coincidence line. The incorporation of TOF information into the PET reconstruction process improves the signal-to-noise ratio in the image obtained. The utilization of scintillation detectors utilizing cesium fluoride scintillators, fast photomultiplier tubes, and fast timing circuits allows sub-nanosecond coincidence timing resolution needed for the effective use of TOF in PET. Mathematical considerations and pilot experiments show that with state-of-the-art electronic components and through the application of proper reconstruction algorithms, the combination of TOF and PET positional data improves severalfold the signal-to-noise ratio with respect to conventional PET image reconstruction at the cost of increasing the amount of data to be processed. The construction of a TOF-assisted PET device is within the capability of state-of-the-art technology

  2. Search for Compton-backscattered annihilation radiation from the galactic center with the OSSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M.; Leventhal, M.; Gehrels, N.; Tueller, J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M . S.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Purcell, W. R.

    1995-01-01

    An emission feature near 170 keV, interpreted as Compton-backscattered 511 keV positron-annihilation radiation, has been reported twice by balloon-borne germanium spectrometers from within approximately 15 deg of the Galactic center (Leventhal, MacCallum, & Stang 1978; Smith et al. 1993). Upper limits on this feature set by HEAO 3 (Mahoney, Ling, & Wheaton 1993) and other instruments indicate that it must be transient. We have searched data from the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) for this feature, using daily spectral accumulations from all pointings near the Galactic center up to 1993 August, and covering most of the region viewed by the balloon instruments. We find no evidence for backscatter emission. Under the hypothesis that the source is 1E 1740.7-2942, the OSSE data set (186 days) disagrees with the balloon measurements with 99.3% confidence. The average daily 3 sigma OSSE upper limit on bakscatter flux from 1E 1740.7-2942 is 6.8 x 10(exp -4) photons/sq cm/s, compared to the 1.3 x 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm reported by the balloon observations. We also saw no evidence in 186 days for linelike emission from the point source EXS 1737.9-2952 recently discovered by Grindlay, Covault, & Manandhar (1993). This source exhibited bright emission from 83-111 keV, which has been interpreted as doubly backscattered 511 keV radiation. The average daily 3 sigma upper limit from OSSE for this line is 9.8 x 10(exp -4) photons/sq cm/s, or approximately 8% of the reported flux.

  3. The half-metallic ferromagnet NiMnSb; a positron-annihilation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic structure of NiMnSb is investigated by means of spin-polarized measurements of the angular correlation of annihilation radiation. NiMnSb is predicted to be a half-metallic ferromagnet. The experimental set-up and the application of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method to the calculation of the two-photon momentum density are discussed. To interpret the experimental data, the electronic structure, the Fermi surface and the two-photon momentum density have been calculated according to the KKR method. The calculations, based on self-consistent potentials evaluated according to the augmented-spherical-wave method, were performed scalar-relativistically. From the measured distribution the sum and difference of the spin-dependent momentum densities are obtained once integrated along three different directions in p(over→) space, namely , and . The distributions show a clear impression of the majority-spin Fermi-surface. A good quantitative agreement between theory and experiment is established. From this analysis a value for the 'three-photon-difference effect' in NiMnSb is established of (8.4±0.1).10-3. To test in particular the half-metallic nature of the band structure the experimental distributions are compared with theoretical ones obtained from modelled band structures in which small numbers of electrons near the Fermi level are transferred from one spin population to the other. The best agreement is obtained for a band occupation in which no electrons are transferred, i.e. for the half-metallic state

  4. Testing QCD in Photon-Photon Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Soldner-Rembold, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    At high energies photon-photon interactions are dominated by quantum fluctuations of the photons into fermion-antifermion pairs and into vector mesons. This is called photon structure. Electron-positron collisions at LEP are an ideal laboratory for studying photon structure and for testing QCD.

  5. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  6. Vesicle Photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Scott, E. A.; Roke, Sylvie; Hubbell, J. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-04-03

    Thin membranes, under appropriate boundary conditions, can self-assemble into vesicles, nanoscale bubbles that encapsulate and hence protect or transport molecular payloads. In this paper, we review the types and applications of light fields interacting with vesicles. By encapsulating light-emitting molecules (e.g. dyes, fluorescent proteins, or quantum dots), vesicles can act as particles and imaging agents. Vesicle imaging can take place also under second harmonic generation from vesicle membrane, as well as employing mass spectrometry. Light fields can also be employed to transport vesicles using optical tweezers (photon momentum) or directly pertrurbe the stability of vesicles and hence trigger the delivery of the encapsulated payload (photon energy).

  7. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  8. Photon Structure in Photon Proton Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vossebeld, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    Photoproduction of jets at HERA provides information on the partonic structure of the photon. We report on the latest dijet photoproduction results, for real photons and for photons at low virtualities, measured with the ZEUS detector.

  9. Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny;

    2007-01-01

    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation of...

  10. Photon differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Revall Frisvad, Jeppe; Erleben, Kenny;

    2007-01-01

    illumination features. This is often not desirable as these may lose clarity or vanish altogether. We present an accurate method for reconstruction of indirect illumination with photon mapping. Instead of reconstructing illumination using classic density estimation on finite points, we use the correlation of...

  11. Appearance of a Minimal Length in e+e- Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data reveal with a 5σ significance the existence of a characteristic minimal length le=1.57×10-17 cm at the scale E=1.253 TeV in the annihilation reaction e+e-→γγ(γ). Nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to gravity and satisfying the weak energy condition predicts, for an arbitrary gauge invariant Lagrangian, the existence of spinning charged electromagnetic soliton asymptotically Kerr-Newman for a distant observer with the gyromagnetic ratio g=2. Its internal structure includes a rotating equatorial disk of de Sitter vacuum which has properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic, displays superconducting behavior, supplies a particle with the finite positive electromagnetic mass related to breaking of space-time symmetry, and gives some idea about the physical origin of a minimal length in annihilation

  12. Strong CMB Constraint On P-Wave Annihilating Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of this suppression. In this letter we show that dark matter annihilation to bound states occurs through the S-wave and hence there is a constraint on the parameter space of the model from the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  13. Self-annihilation of magnetic islands in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the magnetic island which is induced by the resonant deformation by external currents in helical systems (such as LHD) is analyzed. The defect of the bootstrap current, caused by the magnetic island, has a parity which reduces the size of the magnetic island, if the bootstrap current enhances the vacuum rotational transform. The width of the externally-driven magnetic island can be suppressed to the level of ion banana width if the pressure gradient exceeds a threshold value. This island annihilation is self-sustained. That is, the annihilation continues, for fixed beta-value, until the external drive for island generation exceeds a threshold. Effects of the reversal of the direction of the bootstrap current and of the sign of radial electric field are also investigated. The possibility of the neoclassical tearing mode in the LHD-like plasma is discussed. (author)

  14. Dark Stars and Boosted Dark Matter Annihilation Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Ilie, Cosmin; Spolyar, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Dark Stars (DS) may constitute the first phase of stellar evolution, powered by dark matter (DM) annihilation. We will investigate here the properties of DS assuming the DM particle has the required properties to explain the excess positron and elec- tron signals in the cosmic rays detected by the PAMELA and FERMI satellites. Any possible DM interpretation of these signals requires exotic DM candidates, with an- nihilation cross sections a few orders of magnitude higher than the canonical value required for correct thermal relic abundance for Weakly Interacting Dark Matter can- didates; additionally in most models the annihilation must be preferentially to lep- tons. Secondly, we study the dependence of DS properties on the concentration pa- rameter of the initial DM density profile of the halos where the first stars are formed. We restrict our study to the DM in the star due to simple (vs. extended) adiabatic contraction and minimal (vs. extended) capture; this simple study is sufficient to illustrate depend...

  15. High nuclear temperatures by antimatter-matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested that the quark-gluon phase be created through the use of antiproton or antideuteron beams. The first advantage to this method, using higher energy antiprotons than 1.5 GeV/c, is that the higher momenta antiprotons penetrate more deeply so that mesons produced are more nearly contained within the nucleus. Another advantage is that the annihilation products are very forward-peaked and tend to form a beam of mesons so that the energy density does not disperse very rapidly. Calculations were performed using the intranuclear cascade to try to follow the process of annihilation in some detail. The intranuclear cascade type calculation method is compared to the hydrodynamic approach. 8 refs., 8 figs

  16. High nuclear temperatures by antimatter-matter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Strottman, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that the quark-gluon phase be created through the use of antiproton or antideuteron beams. The first advantage to this method, using higher energy antiprotons than 1.5 GeV/c, is that the higher momenta antiprotons penetrate more deeply so that mesons produced are more nearly contained within the nucleus. Another advantage is that the annihilation products are very forward-peaked and tend to form a beam of mesons so that the energy density does not disperse very rapidly. Calculations were performed using the intranuclear cascade to try to follow the process of annihilation in some detail. The intranuclear cascade type calculation method is compared to the hydrodynamic approach. 8 refs., 8 figs. (LEW)

  17. Positron Annihilation Studies of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation has been used to study the mesoporous silica MCM-41. Lifetime spectra of evacuated MCM-41 indicate a significant contribution from 3γ annihilation events with τ4 = 116 ns and I4 = 24.5 %. This is supported by measurements of the full energy distribution, where MCM-41 shows enhanced counts in the low energy region (below 511 keV) relative to a pure 2γ sample. MCM-41 was also studied under air and oxygen atmospheres. The presence of atmosphere has a significant effect on both the lifetime and Doppler patterns, with both the lifetime data (τ4 and I4) and the 3γ-fraction decreasing with increasing oxygen concentration. This is indicative of paramagnetic quenching of o-Ps by oxygen.

  18. A Comprehensive Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Walker, Matthew G

    2014-01-01

    We present a new formalism designed to discover dark matter annihilation occurring in the Milky Way's dwarf galaxies. The statistical framework extracts all available information in the data by simultaneously combining observations of all the dwarf galaxies and incorporating the impact of particle physics properties, the distribution of dark matter in the dwarfs, and the detector response. The method performs maximally powerful frequentist searches and produces confidence limits on particle physics parameters. Probability distributions of test statistics under various hypotheses are constructed exactly, without relying on large sample approximations. The derived limits have proper coverage by construction and claims of detection are not biased by imperfect background modeling. We implement this formalism using data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for an annihilation signal in the complete sample of Milky Way dwarfs whose dark matter distributions can be reliably determined. We find that the...

  19. Fields annihilation and particles creation in DBI inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a model of DBI inflation where two stacks of mobile branes are moving ultra relativistically in a warped throat. The stack closer to the tip of the throat is annihilated with the background anti-branes while inflation proceeds by the second stack. The effects of branes annihilation and particles creation during DBI inflation on the curvature perturbations power spectrum and the scalar spectral index are studied. We show that for super-horizon scales, modes which are outside the sound horizon at the time of branes collision, the spectral index has a shift to blue spectrum compared to the standard DBI inflation. For small scales the power spectrum approaches to its background DBI inflation value with the decaying superimposed oscillatory modulations

  20. Antiprotons from dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy: astrophysical uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Evoli, Carmelo; Grasso, Dario; Maccione, Luca; Ullio, Piero

    2011-01-01

    The latest years have seen steady progresses in WIMP dark matter (DM) searches, with hints of possible signals suggested by both direct and indirect detection experiments. Antiprotons can play a key role validating those interpretations since they are copiously produced by WIMP annihilations in the Galactic halo, and the secondary antiproton background produced by Cosmic Ray (CR) interactions is predicted with fair accuracy and matches the observed spectrum very well. Using the publicly available numerical DRAGON code, we reconsider antiprotons as a tool to constrain DM models discussing its power and limitations. We provide updated constraints on a wide class of annihilating DM models by comparing our predictions against the most up-to-date ap measurements, taking also into account the latest spectral information on the p, He and other CR nuclei fluxes. Doing that, we probe carefully the uncertainties associated to both secondary and DM originated antiprotons, by using a variety of distinctively different as...

  1. Annihilation Mechanism of Dilepton Emission from Finite Fireball

    CERN Document Server

    Anchishkin, D V; Naryshkin, R; Ruuskanen, P V

    2004-01-01

    Medium-induced modifications of the pion and quark-antiquark annihilation mechanisms of dilepton production during relativistic heavy ion collisions are considered. Due to the dense hadron environment, the pions produced during a collision are effectively confined in a finite volume, in which they live for a finite time which is scaled as the lifetime of a fireball. Our results indicate that, due to the space-time finiteness of the pion system which generates the corresponding quantum randomization, the dilepton rates are finite in the invariant low-mass region M<2m_\\pi. It is found that the spatial finiteness of quark wave functions and the finiteness of the lifetime of excited states result in the same effect for the quark-antiquark annihilation to dileptons. The breaking of the detailed energy-momentum conservation due to the broken translation invariance is discussed.

  2. Rapid thermal co-annihilation through bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seyong

    2016-01-01

    The co-annihilation rate of heavy particles close to thermal equilibrium, which plays a role in many classic dark matter scenarios, can be "simulated" in QCD by considering the pair annihilation rate of a heavy quark and antiquark at a temperature of a few hundred MeV. We show that the so-called Sommerfeld factors, parameterizing the rate, can be defined and measured non-perturbatively within the NRQCD framework. Lattice measurements indicate a modest suppression in the octet channel, in reasonable agreement with perturbation theory, and a large enhancement in the singlet channel, much above the perturbative prediction. We suggest that the additional enhancement originates from bound state formation and subsequent decay, omitted in previous estimates of thermal Sommerfeld factors, which were based on Boltzmann equations governing single-particle phase space distributions.

  3. On thermal corrections to near-threshold co-annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seyong

    2016-01-01

    We consider non-relativistic "dark" particles interacting through gauge boson exchange. At finite temperature, gauge exchange is modified in many ways: virtual corrections lead to Debye screening; real corrections amount to frequent scatterings of the heavy particles on light plasma constituents; mixing angles change. In a certain temperature and energy range, these effects are of order unity. Taking them into account in a resummed form, we estimate the near-threshold spectrum of kinetically equilibrated co-annihilating TeV scale particles. Weakly bound states are shown to "melt" below freeze-out, whereas with attractive strong interactions, relevant e.g. for gluinos, bound states boost the co-annihilation rate by a factor 4...80 with respect to the Sommerfeld estimate, thereby perhaps helping to avoid overclosure of the universe. Modestly non-degenerate dark sector masses and a way to combine the contributions of channels with different gauge and spin structures are also discussed.

  4. Dark matter distribution and annihilation at the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu N.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a promising method for measuring the total dark matter mass near a supermassive black hole at the Galactic center based on observations of nonrelativistic precession of the orbits of fast S0 stars. An analytical expression for the precession angle has been obtained under the assumption of a power-law profile of the dark matter density. The awaited weighing of the dark matter at the Galactic center provides the strong constraints on the annihilation signal from the neuralino dark matter particle candidate. The mass of the dark matter necessary for the explanation of the observed excess of gamma-radiation owing to the annihilation of the dark matter particles has been calculated with allowance for the Sommerfeld effect.

  5. Positron annihilation studies of some charge transfer molecular complexes

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, A; Boraei, A A A

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetimes were measured for some solid charge transfer (CT) molecular complexes of quinoline compounds (2,6-dimethylquinoline, 6-methoxyquinoline, quinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 3-bromoquinoline and 2-chloro-4-methylquinoline) as electron donor and picric acid as an electron acceptor. The infrared spectra (IR) of the solid complexes clearly indicated the formation of the hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes. The annihilation spectra were analyzed into two lifetime components using PATFIT program. The values of the average and bulk lifetimes divide the complexes into two groups according to the non-bonding ionization potential of the donor (electron donating power) and the molecular weight of the complexes. Also, it is found that the ionization potential of the donors and molecular weight of the complexes have a conspicuous effect on the average and bulk lifetime values. The bulk lifetime values of the complexes are consistent with the formation of stable hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes as inferred...

  6. Fields Annihilation and Particles Creation in DBI inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model of DBI inflation where two stacks of mobile branes are moving ultra relativistically in a warped throat. The stack closer to the tip of the throat is annihilated with the background anti-branes while inflation proceeds by the second stack. The effects of branes annihilation and particles creation during DBI inflation on the curvature perturbations power spectrum and the scalar spectral index are studied. We show that for super-horizon scales, modes which are outside the sound horizon at the time of branes collision, the spectral index has a shift to blue spectrum compared to the standard DBI inflation. For small scales the power spectrum approaches to its background DBI inflation value with the decaying superimposed oscillatory modulations.

  7. Two-Photon Processes and Photon Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Schienbein, I.

    2002-01-01

    In this article aspects of photon-photon physics related to the structure of real and virtual photons are reviewed. A re-calculation of the virtual photon-photon box is performed and some discrepancies in the literature are clarified. A useful compilation of various relevant limits derived from the most general expressions is provided. Furthermore, structure functions of spin-averaged, transverse and longitudinal virtual target photons are defined and discussed. Finally, the factorization of ...

  8. Unified treatment of hadronic annihilation and protonium formation in slow collisions of antiprotons with hydrogen atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, Kazuhiro

    2013-07-01

    Antiproton (p¯) collisions with hydrogen atoms, resulting in the hadronic process of particle-antiparticle annihilation and the atomic process of protonium (p¯p) formation (or p¯ capture), are investigated theoretically. As the collision energy decreases, the collision time required for the p¯ capture becomes necessarily longer. Then, there is the possibility that the p¯-p annihilation occurs significantly before the p¯ capture process completes. In such a case, one can no longer consider the annihilation decay separately from the p¯ capture process. The present study develops a rigorous unified quantum-mechanical treatment of the annihilation and p¯ capture processes. For this purpose, an R-matrix approach for atomic collisions is extended to have complex-valued R-matrix elements allowing for the hadronic annihilation. Detailed calculations are carried out at low collision energies ranging from 10-8 to 10-1 eV, and the annihilation and the p¯ capture (total and product-state selected) cross sections are reported. Consideration is given to the difference between the direct annihilation occurring during the collision and the annihilation of p¯p occurring after the p¯ capture. The present annihilation process is also compared with the annihilation in two-body p¯+p collisions.

  9. Role of combination vibrations in resonant positron annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Young, J A; Gribakin, Gleb; Lee, C. M. R.; Surko, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Positrons can attach to molecules via vibrational Feshbach resonances, leading to very large annihilation rates. The predictions of a recent theory for this process are validated for deuterated methyl halides where all modes are dipole coupled to the incident positron. Data and analysis are presented for methanol and ethylene, demonstrating the importance of combination and overtone resonances and the ability of the theory to account for these features. The mechanism for these resonances and ...

  10. Precision Measurements in Electron-Positron Annihilation: Theory and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chetyrkin, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Theory results on precision measurements in electron-positron annihilation at low and high energies are collected. These cover pure QCD calculations as well as mixed electroweak and QCD results, involving light and heavy quarks. The impact of QCD corrections on the $W$-boson mass is discussed and, last not least, the status and the perspectives for the Higgs boson decay rate into $b\\bar b$, $c\\bar c$ and into two gluons.

  11. A positron annihilation study on the hydration of cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy experiments were carried out in various ordinary Portland cement pastes, in an attempt to monitor the porosity of the pastes. It is found that positronium intensity is well correlated to the time evolution of the total porosity and it is influenced by the water-to-cement ratio. This parameter is also sensitive to the delayed hydration process induced by adding methanol to the water-cement mixture

  12. Comments on charm production in electron positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The circumstances are discussed in which the production of D anti D: DD*: D* anti D* in electron positron annihilation is expected to be in the ratio 1:4:7 suggested by counting the available spin states. The physical significance of the requisite assumptions is discussed. The importance of taking into account the finite detector acceptance is stressed and tests for a possible 3D1 component in the D* are proposed. (author)

  13. A Comprehensive Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Walker, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new formalism designed to discover dark matter annihilation occurring in the Milky Way's dwarf galaxies. The statistical framework extracts all available information in the data by simultaneously combining observations of all the dwarf galaxies and incorporating the impact of particle physics properties, the distribution of dark matter in the dwarfs, and the detector response. The method performs maximally powerful frequentist searches and produces confidence limits on particle p...

  14. Gamma Rays from Top-Mediated Dark Matter Annihilations

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C.B.(Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA); Servant, Géraldine; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tim M.P. Tait; Taoso, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Lines in the energy spectrum of gamma rays are a fascinating experimental signal, which are often considered "smoking gun" evidence of dark matter annihilation. The current generation of gamma ray observatories are currently closing in on parameter space of great interest in the context of dark matter which is a thermal relic. We consider theories in which the dark matter's primary connection to the Standard Model is via the top quark, realizing strong gamma ray lines consistent with a therma...

  15. Structural defects in electrodeposited Ni studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural investigation of electrodeposited Ni was carried out by positron annihilation (PA) technique. Additional Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements were also performed. The samples were produced under different plating conditions resulting in stress in the range -100 to +600 N/mm2. From the positron lifetime measurements it seems that the defect pattern of electrodeposited Ni samples might be substantially different from sample to sample with different deposition and plating conditions. (Auth.)

  16. Study of plasma sprayed copper alloy using positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A positron annihilation technique has been employed to study the microdefects of copper alloy sprayed on a steel substrate by plasma after being compressed in different thickness. The positron lifetime in the alloy is varied with different amount of compression. It is found that the positron lifetime decreases with increasing of the compression deformation. On the contrary, the positron lifetime is increased for normal alloy after deformation

  17. Dark Matter Annihilations in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Gondolo, P.

    1993-01-01

    The flat rotation curve obtained for the outer star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud is suggestive of an LMC dark matter halo. From the composite HI and star cluster rotation curve, I estimate the parameters of an isothermal dark matter halo added to a `maximum disk.' I then examine the possibility of detecting high energy gamma-rays from non-baryonic dark matter annihilations in the central region of the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  18. Dynamics of Annihilation I : Linearized Boltzmann Equation and Hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    de Soria, M. I. Garcia; Maynar, P.; Schehr, G.; Barrat, A.; Trizac, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of a system of freely moving particles, in which binary encounters lead either to an elastic collision or to the disappearance of the pair. Such a system of {\\em ballistic annihilation} therefore constantly looses particles. The dynamics of perturbations around the free decay regime is investigated from the spectral properties of the linearized Boltzmann operator, that characterize linear excitations on all time scales. The linearized Boltzma...

  19. Rapid Coarsening of Ion Beam Ripple Patterns by Defect Annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripple patterns formed on Pt(111) through grazing incidence ion beam erosion coarsen rapidly. At and below 450 K coarsening of the patterns is athermal and kinetic, unrelated to diffusion and surface free energy. Similar to the situation for sand dunes, coarsening takes place through annihilation reactions of mobile defects in the pattern. The defect velocity derived on the basis of a simple model agrees quantitatively with the velocity of monatomic steps illuminated by the ion beam

  20. Semi-inclusive wino and higgsino annihilation to LL ′

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Matthew; Vaidya, Varun

    2016-01-01

    We systematically compute the annihilation rate for winos and higgsinos into the final state relevant for indirect detection experiments, gamma + X. The radiative corrections to this process receive enhancement from the large Bloch-Nordsieck-Violating Sudakov logarithm, log(2 M_chi/M_W). We resum the double logs and include single logs to fixed order using a formalism that combines nonrelativistic and soft-collinear effective field theories. For the wino case, we update an earlier exclusion a...

  1. Experimental limit on monojet production in e+e--annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have searched for monojet production in e+e--annihilation with the CELLO detector operating at the highest PETRA energies. No events were found, which makes it unlikely that the recently observed monojets in panti p collisions originate from unusual Z0 decays. The upper limits on monojet cross sections are compared with various models, thus yielding upper limits on the production cross sections of Higgs bosons and higgsinos. (orig.)

  2. Nonresonant multibody production by e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of nonresonant multibody production by e+e- annihilation are reviewed. At high energies the ratio of the hadronic cross section to the μ pair production cross section is consistent with being constant; inclusive distributions show approximate Bjorken scaling; and there is strong evidence for jet-like structure. The jets are produced with an angular distribution characteristic of that of pairs of spin 1/2 particles

  3. Experimental study of jets in electron-positron-annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on hadron production by e+e--annihilation at c.m. energies between 30 GeV and 36 GeV are presented and compared with two models both based on first order QCD but using different schemes for the fragmentation of quarks and gluons into hadrons. In one model the fragmentation proceeds along the parton momenta, in the other along the colour-anticolour axes. The data are reproduced better by fragmentation along the colour axes. (orig.)

  4. Enhanced lines and box-shaped features in the gamma-ray spectrum from annihilating dark matter in the NMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Cerdeno, D G; Robles, S

    2015-01-01

    We study spectral features in the gamma-ray emission from dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with either neutralino or right-handed (RH) sneutrino DM. We perform a series of scans over the NMSSM parameter space, compute the DM annihilation cross section into two photons and the contribution of box-shaped features, and compare them with the limits derived from the Fermi-LAT search for gamma-ray lines using the latest Pass 8 data. We implement the LHC bounds on the Higgs sector and on the masses of supersymmetric particles as well as the constraints on low-energy observables. We also consider the recent upper limits from the Fermi-LAT satellite on the continuum gamma-ray emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We show that in the case of the RH sneutrino the constraint on gamma-ray spectral features can be more stringent than the dSphs bounds. This is due to the Breit-Wigner enhancement near the ubiquitous resonances with a CP even Higgs and the ...

  5. On the morphology of $\\gamma-$ray emission induced by $e^{\\pm}$ from annihilating self-interacting dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Ming-Yang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-01-01

    With the Fermi-LAT data quite a few research groups have reported a spatially extended GeV $\\gamma$-ray excess surrounding the Galactic Center (GC). The physical origin of such a GeV excess is still unclear and one interesting possibility is the inverse Compton scattering of the electrons/positrons from annihilation of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) particles with the interstellar optical photons. In this work we calculate the morphology of such a kind of $\\gamma$-ray emission. For the annihilation channel of $\\bar{\\chi}\\chi\\rightarrow \\phi\\phi\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}e^{+}e^{-}$, the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) dominates over the bremsstrahlung on producing the GeV $\\gamma$-ray emission. For the SIDM particles with a rest mass $m_\\chi \\sim $ tens GeV that may be favored by the modeling of the Galactic GeV excess, the ICS radiation at GeV energies concentrates along the Galactic plane. The degrees of asymmetry high up to $\\geq 0.3$ are found in some regions of interest, which in turn proposes a plausib...

  6. Extending Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. Limits on Gamma-ray Lines from Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Profumo, Stefano; Yaguna, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray lines from dark matter annihilation ($\\chi\\chi\\to \\gamma X$, where $X=\\gamma,h,Z$) are always accompanied, at lower energies, by a continuum gamma-ray spectrum stemming both from radiative corrections ($X=\\gamma$) and from the decay debris of the second particle possibly present in the final state ($X=h,Z$). This model-independent gamma-ray emission can be exploited to derive novel limits on gamma-ray lines that do not rely on the line-feature. Although such limits are not expected to be as stringent, they can be used to probe the existence of $\\gamma$-ray lines for dark matter masses beyond the largest energies accessible to current telescopes. Here, we use continuous gamma-ray searches from Fermi-LAT observations of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies and from H.E.S.S. observations of the Galactic Halo to extend the limits on the annihilation cross sections into monochromatic photons to dark matter masses well beyond 500 GeV (Fermi-LAT) and 20 TeV (H.E.S.S.). In this large mass regime, our results...

  7. Constraints on Cosmological Dark Matter Annihilation from the Fermi-LAT Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Carrigan, S; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Elik, O C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Raino, S; Rando, R; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sander, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgro, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Torres, D F; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Zaharijas, G; Ziegle, M

    2010-01-01

    The first published Fermi large area telescope (Fermi-LAT) measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission is in good agreement with a single power law, and is not showing any signature of a dominant contribution from dark matter sources in the energy range from 20 to 100 GeV. We use the absolute size and spectral shape of this measured flux to derive cross section limits on three types of generic dark matter candidates: annihilating into quarks, charged leptons and monochromatic photons. Predicted gamma-ray fluxes from annihilating dark matter are strongly affected by the underlying distribution of dark matter, and by using different available results of matter structure formation we assess these uncertainties. We also quantify how the dark matter constraints depend on the assumed conventional backgrounds and on the Universe's transparency to high-energy gamma-rays. In reasonable background and dark matter structure scenarios (but not in all scenarios we consider) it is possible to exclude models pro...

  8. Positron annihilation lifetime study of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsjak, V.; Szaraz, Z.; Hähner, P.

    2012-09-01

    A comparative positron annihilation lifetime study has been performed on various commercial ferritic and ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. Both as-extruded and recrystallized materials were investigated. In the materials with recrystallized coarse-grained microstructures, only the positron trapping at small vacancy clusters and yttria nanofeatures was observed. Materials which had not undergone recrystallization treatment clearly showed additional positron trapping which is associated with dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated from a two-component decomposition of the positron lifetime spectra by assuming the first component to be a superposition of the bulk controlled annihilation rate and the dislocation controlled trapping rate. The second component (which translates into lifetimes of 240-260 ps) was found to be well separated in all those ODS materials. This paper presents the potentialities and limitations of the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and discusses the results of the experimental determination of the defect concentrations and sensitivity of this technique to the material degradation due to thermally induced precipitation of chromium-rich α' phases.

  9. Defect motion and annihilation in block copolymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Marcus; Li, Weihua

    2015-03-01

    Using self-consistent field theory and computer simulation of a soft, coarse-grained particle model we study defect motion and annihilation in thin films of lamella-forming block copolymers on neutral and chemically patterned substrates. By virtue of the strain-field mediated interactions, dislocation defects with opposite orientation move towards each other. This motion depends both on the thermodynamic, strain-field mediated driving force and the single-chain dynamics that is required to alter the morphology and reduce the distance between the defect cores. This interplay results in a qualitative dependence of the time evolution on the topology of the defect morphology. Upon collision of the defects, they either spontaneously annihilate or form a metastable, tight defect pair. In the latter case, a free-energy barrier has to be overcome to finally produce a defect-free structure. Computing the minimum free-energy path within self-consistent field theory we investigate the dependence of the free-energy barriers of defect motion and annihilation on incompatibility, strength of the chemical surface pattern, and defect morphology. European Union FP7 / GA No. 619793 CoLiSA.MMP.

  10. Dark matter annihilation via Higgs and gamma-ray channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ho

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies show that the GeV gamma-ray excess signal from the Milky Way center can be best explained by ˜ 40 GeV dark matter annihilating via bbar{b} channel. However, the recent observations of the nearby Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies by Fermi-LAT and the radio observations of the Milky Way center and the M31 galaxy tend to rule out this proposal. In this article, we discuss the possibility of the dark matter interpretation of the GeV gamma-ray excess by proposing 130 GeV dark matter annihilating via both Higgs and gamma-ray channels. Recent analyses show that dark matter annihilating via Higgs channel can satisfactorily explain the Milky Way GeV gamma-ray excess observed. We show that this model can satisfy the upper limits of the gamma-ray constraint of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies and the constraint from the radio observations of the M31 galaxy.

  11. Antiproton constraints on dark matter annihilations from internal electroweak bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion, annihilations into two fermions and one gauge boson could have, for some choices of the parameters of the model, a non-negligible cross-section. Using a toy model of leptophilic dark matter, we calculate the constraints on the annihilation cross-section into two electrons and one weak gauge boson from the PAMELA measurements of the cosmic antiproton-to-proton flux ratio. Furthermore, we calculate the maximal astrophysical boost factor allowed in the Milky Way under the assumption that the leptophilic dark matter particle is the dominant component of dark matter in our Universe. These constraints constitute very conservative estimates on the boost factor for more realistic models where the dark matter particle also couples to quarks and weak gauge bosons, such as the lightest neutralino which we also analyze for some concrete benchmark points. The limits on the astrophysical boost factors presented here could be used to evaluate the prospects to detect a gamma-ray signal from dark matter annihilations at currently operating IACTs as well as in the projected CTA

  12. Performance of three-photon PET imaging: Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kacperski, K; Kacperski, Krzysztof; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently introduced the idea of making use of three-photon positron annihilations in positron emission tomography. In this paper the basic characteristics of the three-gamma imaging in PET are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical computations. Two typical configurations of human and small animal scanners are considered. Three-photon imaging requires high energy resolution detectors. Parameters currently attainable by CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, the technology of choice for the future development of radiation imaging, are assumed. Spatial resolution is calculated as a function of detector energy resolution and size, position in the field of view, scanner size, and the energies of the three gamma annihilation photons. Possible ways to improve the spatial resolution obtained for nominal parameters: 1.5 cm and 3.2 mm FWHM for human and small animal scanners, respectively, are indicated. Counting rates of true and random three-photon events for typical human and small animal scann...

  13. Performance of three-photon PET imaging: Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacperski, Krzysztof; Spyrou, Nicholas M.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently introduced the idea of making use of three-photon positron annihilations in positron emission tomography. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the three-gamma imaging in PET are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and analytical computations. Two typical configurations of human and small animal scanners are considered. Three-photon imaging requires high-energy resolution detectors. Parameters currently attainable by CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, the technology of choice for the future development of radiation imaging, are assumed. Spatial resolution is calculated as a function of detector energy resolution and size, position in the field of view, scanner size and the energies of the three-gamma annihilation photons. Possible ways to improve the spatial resolution obtained for nominal parameters, 1.5 cm and 3.2 mm FWHM for human and small animal scanners, respectively, are indicated. Counting rates of true and random three-photon events for typical human and small animal scanning configurations are assessed. A simple formula for minimum size of lesions detectable in the three-gamma based images is derived. Depending on the contrast and total number of registered counts, lesions of a few mm size for human and sub mm for small animal scanners can be detected.

  14. A position-sensitive scintillation detector for two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation using metal-package position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have constructed and tested a prototype of a new position sensitive γ-ray detector which consists of an array of 2.6x2.6x18 mm3 BGO scintillator blocks, a light guide, and four metal-package position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (R5900-00-C8) recently developed by Hamamatsu Photonics Co. Ltd. Scalability of the detector of this type makes it possible to construct a larger detector using many PS-PMTs, which will be useful for the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation apparatus

  15. A position-sensitive scintillation detector for two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation using metal-package position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, K; Saito, H; Nagashima, Y; Hyodo, T; Muramatsu, S; Nagai, S

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a prototype of a new position sensitive gamma-ray detector which consists of an array of 2.6x2.6x18 mm sup 3 BGO scintillator blocks, a light guide, and four metal-package position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (R5900-00-C8) recently developed by Hamamatsu Photonics Co. Ltd. Scalability of the detector of this type makes it possible to construct a larger detector using many PS-PMTs, which will be useful for the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation apparatus.

  16. Development and Testing of a New Positron Identification by Coincident Annihilation Photons (PICAP) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed research is to develop and test a prototype of an innovative and simple detector technique to identify moderate energy (a few MeV)...

  17. Electronic Properties of Tin and Bismuth from Angular Correlation of Annihilation Photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.E.; Trumpy, Georg

    1969-01-01

    liquid-metal curves are smaller and of another form than the tails of polycrystalline curves; no Gaussian with only one adjustable constant factor can give a fit to both tails. No useful method for interpreting liquid-metal angular-correlation curves seems to exist. Two deformed bismuth samples gave......A linear slit setup has been used to obtain results of angular-correlation measurements in (a) tin single crystals in three orientations: [001], [100], and [110], (b) bismuth single crystals in four orientations: [111], [100], [1¯10], and [2¯1¯1], (c) solid and liquid tin and bismuth, and (d......) deformed bismuth. For both metals, the single-crystal angular-correlation curves lie near to the free-electron parabola. The tin curves show more anisotropy than the bismuth curves. An important result is the clear anisotropy found in the high-momentum part of the curves—the tails—for both metals. Little...

  18. ISR Hadron Production in e+e- Annihilations and Meson-Photon Transition Form Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, David

    2011-01-01

    We present several recent results from the BaBar collaboration in the areas of initial state radiation physics and transition form factors. An updated study of the processes e+e- -> K+K-pi+pi- and e+e- -> K+K-pi0pi0 provides an improved understanding of the Y(2175) meson. A very precise study of the process e+e- -> pi+pi- improves the precision on the calculated anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and provides by far the best information on excited rho states. Our previous measurements of t...

  19. Photon-Photon Interaction in a Photon Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Markus H.

    2000-01-01

    Using the effective Lagrangian for the low energy photon-photon interaction the lowest order photon self energy at finite temperature and in non-equilibrium is calculated within the real time formalism. The Debye mass, the dispersion relation, the dielectric tensor, and the velocity of light following from the photon self energy are discussed. As an application we consider the interaction of photons with the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  20. Photon-Photon Scattering at the Photon Linear Collider

    OpenAIRE

    Jikia, G.; Tkabladze, A.

    1993-01-01

    Photon-photon scattering at the Photon Linear Collider is considered. Explicit formulas for helicity amplitudes due to $W$ boson loops are presented. It is shown that photon-photon scattering should be easily observable at PLC and separation of the $W$ loop contribution (which dominates at high energies) will be possible at $e^+e^-$ c.m. energy of 500~GeV or higher.

  1. Rapidity distribution of photons from an anisotropic Quark-Gluon-Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Lusaka

    2009-01-01

    We calculate rapidity distribution of photons due to Compton and annihilation processes from {\\em Quark Gluon Plasma} with pre-equilibrium momentum-space anisotropy. A phenomenological model has been used for the time evolution of hard momentum scale $p_{\\rm hard}(\\tau)$ and anisotropy parameter $\\xi(\\tau)$. As a result of pre-equilibrium momentum-space anisotropy we find significant modification of medium photons rapidity distribution. For example, with {\\em fixed initial condition} (FIC) pre-equilibrium anisotropy we predict significant enhancement of photon rapidity density in the low rapidity region and suppression in the high rapidity region, whereas for pre-equilibrium anisotropy with {\\em fixed final multiplicity} (FFM) suppression of photon rapidity density is observed. Therefore any deviation of photon rapidity density of experimentally observed photons from the corresponding hydrodynamic predictions not only indicates towards the momentum-space anisotropy but also distinguishes between FIC and FFM.

  2. Photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF2 windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission

  3. Photon locking

    OpenAIRE

    Sleva, E. T.; Xavier, I. M., Jr.; Zewail, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    A novel observation of photon locking—the optical analog of spin locking—is reported, demonstrating the applicability of phase-coherent pulse sequences. The experiments are reported for the optical transition of iodine gas at 589.7 nm using the pulse sequence XYX-XYX̄. Locking decay rates are presented as a function of pressure and compared with optical dephasing (echo-decay) rates.

  4. Photon findings

    OpenAIRE

    Urbina, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments were made using a microwave generator, which sent a narrow beam, through a metallic plate with horizontal movement. At the other end a horn antenna coupled to a field-strength detector. In linear polarization double cycloids paths were found and in circular polarization spiral paths were found. These experiments suggested that the photon is composed by two particles in dynamic equilibrium. The description of this model is given later as well as its parameters.

  5. Photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  6. Nanowire photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J. Pauzauskie; Peidong Yang

    2006-01-01

    The development of integrated electronic circuitry ranks among the most disruptive and transformative technologies of the 20th century. Even though integrated circuits are ubiquitous in modern life, both fundamental and technical constraints will eventually test the limits of Moore's law. Nanowire photonic circuitry constructed from myriad one-dimensional building blocks offers numerous opportunities for the development of next-generation optical information processors and spectroscopy. Howev...

  7. Topological photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ling; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2014-01-01

    The application of topology, the mathematics of conserved properties under continuous deformations, is creating a range of new opportunities throughout photonics. This field was inspired by the discovery of topological insulators, in which interfacial electrons transport without dissipation, even in the presence of impurities. Similarly, the use of carefully designed wavevector-space topologies allows the creation of interfaces that support new states of light with useful and interesting prop...

  8. Sommerfeld enhancement of invisible dark matter annihilation in galaxies and galaxy clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Man Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that core-like dark matter structures exist in many galaxies, while numerical simulations reveal a singular dark matter density profile at the center. In this article, I show that if the annihilation of dark matter particles gives invisible sterile neutrinos, the Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation cross-section can give a sufficiently large annihilation rate to solve the core-cusp problem. The resultant core density, core radius, and their scaling relation...

  9. Anti-proton and positron Cosmic Rays from Dark Matter annihilation around Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Lavalle, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are candidates to seed the Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs), and some could still wander in the Galaxy. In the context of annihilating dark matter (DM), they are expected to drive huge annihilation rates, and could therefore significantly enhance the primary cosmic rays (CRs) expected from annihilation of the DM of the Galactic halo. In this proceeding (the original paper is Brun et al. 2007), we briefly explain the method to derive estimates of such exot...

  10. Positron and gamma-ray signatures of dark matter annihilation and big-bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron excess observed by the PAMELA experiment may come from dark matter annihilation, if the annihilation cross section is large enough. We show that the dark matter annihilation scenarios to explain the positron excess may also be compatible with the discrepancy of the cosmic lithium abundances between theory and observations. The winolike neutralino in the supersymmetric standard model is a good example for it. This scenario may be confirmed by Fermi satellite experiments.

  11. Enhanced lines and box-shaped features in the gamma-ray spectrum from annihilating dark matter in the NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeño, D. G.; Peiró, M.; Robles, S.

    2016-04-01

    We study spectral features in the gamma-ray emission from dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with either neutralino or right-handed (RH) sneutrino DM . We perform a series of scans over the NMSSM parameter space, compute the DM annihilation cross section into two photons and the contribution of box-shaped features, and compare them with the limits derived from the Fermi-LAT search for gamma-ray lines using the latest Pass 8 data. We implement the LHC bounds on the Higgs sector and on the masses of supersymmetric particles as well as the constraints on low-energy observables. We also consider the recent upper limits from the Fermi-LAT satellite on the continuum gamma-ray emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We show that in the case of the RH sneutrino the constraint on gamma-ray spectral features can be more stringent than the dSph bounds. This is due to the Breit-Wigner enhancement near the ubiquitous resonances with a CP even Higgs and the contribution of scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs final states to box-shaped features. By contrast, for neutralino DM, the di-photon final state is only enhanced in the resonance with a Z boson and box-shaped features are even more suppressed. Therefore, the observation of spectral features could constitute a discriminating factor between both models. In addition, we compare our results with direct DM searches, including the SuperCDMS and LUX limits on the elastic DM-nucleus scattering cross section and show that some of these scenarios would be accessible to next generation experiments. Thus, our findings strengthen the idea of complementarity among distinct DM search strategies.

  12. A search for gamma-ray imprints of annihilating dark matter in the galaxy, and the astrophysical implications of ultra-light fundamental vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    matter velocity-averaged self-annihilation cross section, the sensitivity of CTA corresponds to values below 3 x 10-26 cm3 s-1 for WIMPs lighter than 200 GeV. Standard Model extensions predict the existence of hidden sector U(1) gauge bosons (hidden photons). It is shown how ultra-light hidden photons with masses below 10-14 eV can modify broad-band spectra of compact radio sources. The sensitivity of current and planned radio astronomical facilities is investigated. Radio observations are capable of probing mixing angles down to 10-3 in a mass range between 10-17 eV and 10-12 eV.

  13. Calibration processes for photon-photon colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Bartos, E.; Dubnickova, A. -Z.; Galynskii, M. V.; Kuraev, E. A.

    2003-01-01

    Processes with creation of a pair charged particles with emission of hard photon and two pairs of charged particles are considered for colliding partially polarized photon photon beams. The effects of circular and linear polarization of the initial photons are discussed in more details.

  14. Calibration processes for photon-photon colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, E; Galynsky, M V; Kuraev, E A

    2004-01-01

    Processes with creation of a pair charged particles with emission of hard photon and two pairs of charged particles are considered for colliding partially polarized photon photon beams. The effects of circular and linear polarization of the initial photons are discussed in more detail.

  15. Calculations of gamma-ray spectral profiles of linear alkanes in the positron annihilation process

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, X G

    2014-01-01

    The positron-electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of linear alkanes CnH2n+2 (n=1-12) have been studied systematically. A profile quality (PQ) parameter, is introduced to assess the agreement between the obtained theoretical profiles and the experimental measurements in the entire region of energy shift of the spectra. Together with the Doppler shift of the gamma-ray spectra, the two parameters,PQ and Doppler shift, are able to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the calculated gamma-ray spectra with respect to available experiment. Applying the recently developed docking model, the present study determines the positrophilic electrons for individual alkanes from which the gamma-ray spectral profiles are calculated. The results achieve an excellent agreement with experiment, not only with respect to the Doppler shift, but also with respect to the gamma-ray profiles in the photon energy region up to 5 keV. The study further calculates the gamma-ray spectra of other linear alkanes in the series without ...

  16. Fragmentation of quarks and gluons, tests of QCD in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers the topics of fragmentation of quarks and gluons and tests of QCD in e+e- annihilation and is a summary of a rapporteur talk given at the 1983 International Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies. New data on the general characteristics of the e+e- environment at the UPSILON and at PETRA and PEP are discussed. For the first time there is a lot of data on resonance production - eta, K*, rho, phi, Ψ. There is more data on c quark fragmentation from tagged D/sup *+-/ and direct observation of D+ and D0. There are four experiments using high P/sub t/ leptons to measure the b quark fragmentation function - agreement amongst the experiments is very good. All these measurements can usefully be incorporated in the Monte Carlo simulation models. QCD tests are discussed. α3 has been measured using the energy dependence of the total hadronic cross section. Unfortunately this method is not very precise. Other measurements of α3 from shape analyses and energy-energy correlations have been done including the effects of all second order QCD diagrams. The results seem to depend both on the procedure and the models used to extract α3. The evidence for differences in gluon and quark fragmentation are reviewed. There is now evidence that baryon conservation occurs locally in a jet rather than globally in an event. Multiplicity and jet mass correlations are presented as well as data on KNO scaling. 46 references

  17. Study of the e+e- annihilation reaction into four leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental study presented in this thesis has been carried out within the CELLO collaboration. The detector was located at the electron positron storage ring PETRA. The aim of this analysis is to provide an accurate test of Quantum Electrodynamics to fourth order in perturbation theory, making use of the electron-positron annihilation into four leptons. The thesis is subdivided into three chapters. In the first chapter, a theorical description of the processes is given. It is shown that the standard description of the single tag reaction in terms of photon-photon collision is not satisfactory. A more precise expression of the differential cross-section is given. The expression involves on the one hand three structure functions and on the other hand a correction term accounting for the non-multiperipheral diagrams, in particular. The second chapter is devoted to a preliminary analysis of the performances of the detector and to a determination of the integrated luminosity accumulated by the experiment. In the third chapter the results of the four-lepton final state anaysis are presented. This analysis is divided into two main parts. In the first part single tag events are considered. The contributions of the three above-mentioned structure functions and, in particular, the azimuthal dependence of the cross-section are measured at the percent level. The role of the non-multiperipheral diagrams is demonstrated. In the second part the analysis of events where all four particles are detected at large angle is presented. The excellent agreement observed between data and theory, in all the kinematical configurations which have been considered, provides a new and accurate test of Quantum Electrodynamics

  18. Determination and applications of enhancement factors for positron and ortho-positronium annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-positron annihilation rates calculated directly from the electron and positron densities are known to underestimate the true annihilation rate. A correction factor, known as the enhancement factor, allows for the local increase of the electron density around the positron caused by the attractive electron-positron interaction. Enhancement factors are given for positrons annihilating with the 1s electron in H, He+, He, Li2+, and Li+. The enhancement factor for a free positron annihilating with He+ and He is found to be close to that of ortho-positronium (i.e., Ps in its triplet state) annihilating with these atoms. The enhancement factor for Ps-He scattering is used in conjunction with the known annihilation rate for pickoff annihilation to derive a scattering length of 1.47a0 for Ps-He scattering. Further, enhancement factors for e+-Ne and e+-Ar annihilation are used in conjunction with the pickoff annihilation rate to estimate scattering lengths of 1.46a0 for Ps-Ne scattering and 1.75a0 for Ps-Ar scattering

  19. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Nonuniversal self-similarity in a coagulation-annihilation model with constant kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large time dynamics of a two-species coagulation-annihilation system with constant coagulation and annihilation rates is studied analytically when annihilation is complete. A scaling behaviour is observed which varies with the parameter coupling, the annihilation of the two species and which is nonuniversal in the sense that it varies, in some cases, with the initial conditions as well. The latter actually occurs when either the coupling parameter is equal to one, or the initial number of particles is the same for the two species.

  1. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons; Modelisation de l'emission d'annihilation des positrons Galactiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, W

    2008-01-15

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  2. Virtual photon-photon scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Hoferichter, Martin; Colangelo, Gilberto; Procura, Massimiliano; Stoffer, Peter(Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, Bern, CH-3012, Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Based on analyticity, unitarity, and Lorentz invariance the contribution from hadronic vacuum polarization to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is directly related to the cross section of e+e− → hadrons. We review the main difficulties that impede such an approach for light-by-light scattering and identify the required ingredients from experiment. Amongst those, the most critical one is the scattering of two virtual photons into meson pairs. We analyze the analytic structure of the pr...

  3. Virtual photon-photon scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Hoferichter, Martin; Colangelo, Gilberto; Procura, Massimiliano; Stoffer, Peter(Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, Bern, CH-3012, Switzerland)

    2013-01-01

    Based on analyticity, unitarity, and Lorentz invariance the contribution from hadronic vacuum polarization to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is directly related to the cross section of e^+e^- --> hadrons. We review the main difficulties that impede such an approach for light-by-light scattering and identify the required ingredients from experiment. Amongst those, the most critical one is the scattering of two virtual photons into meson pairs. We analyze the analytic structure of th...

  4. Study of direct photons produced in hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis studies direct photons produced by π+, π- and proton beams of 200 GeV/c, momentum interacting with a carbon target. QCD predicts that direct photons are produced either by the quark-antiquark annihilation qantiq → gγ, or by gluon scattering gq → qγ. The experiment was performed at CERN and used the NA3 spectrometer. Photons are converted within 10% conversion length, and resulting e+e- are detected by the trigger system which requires a minimum transverse momentum of 2.5 GeV/c. Electrons tracks are detected by the spectrometer, while energy and position of photons are measured by an electromagnetic calorimeter and a shower chamber. Direct photon's signal is obtained only statistically, after correcting the ''single photons'' candidats for the π0 and eta0 contribution. This correction is obtained only from a sophisticated Monte Carlo, in which electromagnetic shower simulation is difficult. We have observed a significant direct photon signal and we measured the cross section. The γ/π0 ratio at psub(t) = 4.5 GeV/c is about 10% and seems to grow as a function of transverse momentum. Systematic errors, which are important, limit the precision on the gluon's structure function measurement

  5. Nanowire photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Pauzauskie

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of integrated electronic circuitry ranks among the most disruptive and transformative technologies of the 20th century. Even though integrated circuits are ubiquitous in modern life, both fundamental and technical constraints will eventually test the limits of Moore's law. Nanowire photonic circuitry constructed from myriad one-dimensional building blocks offers numerous opportunities for the development of next-generation optical information processors and spectroscopy. However, several challenges remain before the potential of nanowire building blocks is fully realized. We cover recent advances in nanowire synthesis, characterization, lasing, integration, and the eventual application to relevant technical and scientific questions.

  6. The Reasonable Explanation of Annihilation (fanā in Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulfazel Kiashemshaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Para mistikus melampaui tahap-tahap (derajat kesempurnaan mistik dan maqam spiritual dalam perjalanan mereka menuju Allah yang sulit dimengerti oleh non-mistikus. Karena itu, sebagian besar kalangan reflektif berusaha mengandalkan prinsip-prinsip intelektual dan teoritis mereka untuk memperoleh penjelasan atas pengalaman mistis dan ekstasi. Namun, keberhasilan penjelasannya sepenuhnya berada di bawah kuasa dan kekuatan dari prinsip-prinsip tersebut. (Fanā atau kesirnaan adalah salah satu tahap mistis atau keadaan yang sulit dimengerti oleh non-mistikus sehingga memunculkan berbagai teori yang berbeda untuk menjelaskannya. Pencapaian prestasi ilmiah dan filosofis merupakan penjelasan yang tepat atas fanā. Bagaimanapun upaya yang dilakukan dalam artikel ini membuktikan bahwa satu-satunya penjelasan yang sukses adalah penjelasan yang didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip teosofi transendental dan mistisisme teoritis.Kata kunci : Fanā, Mistisisme, Penjelasan rasional, Mistisisme teoretis, Filsafat transendentalAbstract : Mystics are passing through stages (degrees of mystic perfection and esoteric abodes (spiritual stations in their spiritual journey to Allah which is difficult for unmystics to understand. Because of this, most of the reflective people are trying to rely on their intellectual and theoretical principles to obtain an understandable explanation of mystical experiences and ecstasy. However the success of such explanation completely lies in the power and strength of the above mentioned principles. (Fanā or annihilation is one of the mystical stages or states which unmystics find very difficult to reasonably understand, hence various and different theories have been provided for its explanation. Various scientific and philosophical achievements are appropriate explanations of annihilation (fanā which is valuable in its place; however effort had been made in this article to prove that the only successful explanation is an

  7. Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in Draco with STACEE

    CERN Document Server

    Driscoll, D D; Carson, J E; Covault, C E; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Hanna, D S; Jarvis, A; Kildea, J; Lindner, T; Müller, C; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J

    2007-01-01

    For some time, the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy has garnered interest as a possible source for the indirect detection of dark matter. Its large mass-to-light ratio and relative proximity to the Earth provide favorable conditions for the production of detectable gamma rays from dark matter self-annihilation in its core. The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is an air-shower Cherenkov telescope located in Albuquerque, NM capable of detecting gamma rays at energies above 100 GeV. We present the results of the STACEE observations of Draco during the 2005-2006 observing season totaling 10 hours of livetime after cuts.

  8. Collimation of the $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilation event

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, K

    1997-01-01

    The collimation $C$ of a hadronic event in the e^+e^- annihilation is defined as the average of $\\cos\\theta$, $C=$, where $\\theta$ is the angle of each hadron measured from the thrust axis, and the average is over all the hadrons produced in an event. It is an infrared-stable event-shape parameter. $1-\\bar C$, the difference between the unity and the average collimation at a given energy, is proportional to the anomalous dimension of the hadron multiplicity at the leading order in MLLA. Its next-to-leading order corrections are calculated.

  9. Positrons from dark matter annihilation in the galactic halo: uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Fornengo, N; Lineros, R; Donato, F; Salati, P

    2007-01-01

    Indirect detection signals from dark matter annihilation are studied in the positron channel. We discuss in detail the positron propagation inside the galactic medium: we present novel solutions of the diffusion and propagation equations and we focus on the determination of the astrophysical uncertainties which affect the positron dark matter signal. We show that, especially in the low energy tail of the positron spectra at Earth, the uncertainty is sizeable and we quantify the effect. Comparison of our predictions with current available and foreseen experimental data are derived.

  10. Hadron production in e+e- annihilation. QCD and hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on hadron production in e+e- annihilation are summarized. The topics included are: (1) inclusive hadron production, (2) comparison of light (u,d,s) and heavy (c,b) quark jets; (3) p - anti p correlations; (4) gluon vs. quark jets; (5) analysis of 3 jet events; (6) measurement of the strong coupling constant α/sub s/; and (7) forward-backward asymmetries of quarks and leptons. Experimental data are compared with predictions of several models to reveal underlying physics. 62 refs., 22 figs

  11. Investigation of density inhomogeneities in liquids by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of positronium diffusion and annihilation in micellar solutions as well as in liquid normal alkanes is discussed. The traps are assumed to be the structural sparse density regions in these liquids. The traps in micellar solutions are the micelles, in alkanes they are found around the terminal -CH3 groups. The surface tension inside the micellar core (one of the basic parameters of micellization) is determined around the site of o-Ps solubilization. The o-Ps diffusivity parameters are determined in both systems. (K.A.) 48 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Strong CMB Constraint On P-Wave Annihilating Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.)

    2016-01-01

    We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of t...

  13. Study of anti-neutron annihilations at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a total cross section measurement for the reactions anti np and anti pn are plotted. These results indicate that the annihilation amplitudes are predominantly I = 1 at low energy. The S-wave unitarity limit is shown, and the data support the conclusion drawn from anti pp data that even at the lowest momenta P-wave and higher waves are very important. The technique of using antineutrons to study very low energy antineutrons to study very low energy antinucleon interactions is demonstrated to be feasible

  14. First study of rapidity gaps in e+e- annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Ahn, C J; Akagi, T; Allen, N J; Ash, William W; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barakat, M B; Baranko, G J; Bardon, O; Barklow, Timothy L; Bazarko, A O; Ben-David, R; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bienz, T; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bolton, T; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Busza, W; Calcaterra, A; Caldwell, D O; Calloway, D H; Camanzi, B; Carpinelli, M; Cassell, R; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Church, E; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Cook, V; Cotton, R; Cowan, R F; Coyne, D G; de Oliveira, A; Damerell, C J S; Daoudi, M; De Sangro, R; De Simone, P; Dell'Orso, R; Dima, M; Du, P Y C; Dubois, R; Eisenstein, B I; Elia, R; Falciai, D; Fero, M J; Frey, R; Furuno, K; Gillman, T; Gladding, G E; González, S; Hallewell, G D; Hart, E L; Hasegawa, Y; Hedges, S J; Hertzbach, S S; Hildreth, M D; Huber, J; Huffer, M E; Hughes, E W; Hwang, H; Iwasaki, Y; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Johnson, R A; Junk, T R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M S; Kang, H J; Karliner, I; Kawahara, H; Kendall, H W; Kim, Y; King, M E; King, R; Kofler, R R; Krishna, N M; Kroeger, R S; Labs, J F; Langston, M; Lath, A; Lauber, J A; Leith, D W G S; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Loreti, M; Lu, A; Lynch, H L; Ma, J; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S L; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; Massetti, R; Masuda, H; Mattison, T S; Mazzucato, E; McKemey, A K; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Mockett, P M; Moffeit, K C; Mours, B; Müller, G; Müller, D; Nagamine, T; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H A; Nussbaum, M; Ohnishi, Y; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, H; Pavel, T J; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pieroni, E; Pitts, K T; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Punkar, G D; Quigley, J; Ratcliff, B N; Reeves, T W; Reidy, J; Rensing, P E; Rochester, L S; Rothberg, J E; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T L; Schindler, R H; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Sen, S; Serbo, V V; Saevitz, M H; Shank, J T; Shapiro, G; Shapiro, S L; Sherden, D J; Shmakov, K D; Simopoulos, C; Sinev, N B; Smith, S R; Snyder, J A; Stamer, P E; Steiner, H; Steiner, R; Strauss, M G; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Swartz, M; Szumilo, A; Takahashi, T; Taylor, F E; Torrence, E; Turk, J; Usher, T; Vavra, J; Vannini, C; Vella, E N; Venuti, J P; Verdier, R; Verdini, P G; Wagner, S R; Waite, A P; Watts, S J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; White, S L; Wickens, F J; Williams, D A; Williams, D C; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Woods, M; Word, G B; Wyss, J; Yamamoto, R K; Yamartino, J M; Yang, X; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H; Zapalac, G H; Zdarko, R W; Zeitlin, C; Zhou, J

    1996-01-01

    We present the first study of rapidity gaps in e+e- annihilations using Z0 decays collected by the SLD experiment at SLAC. Our measured rapidity gap spectra all exponentially with increasing gap size over five decades, and we observe no anomalous class of events containing large gaps. This supports the interpretation of the large-gap events measured in pp and ep collisions in terms of exchange of color-singlet objects. The presence of heavy flavors or additional jets does not affect these conclusions.

  15. Geant4 Simulation of Annihilation and excitation of Positronium

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the work done during the summer of 2016 (18/6- 26/8) as a part of the CERN Summer Student Programme. The work has been done at the AEgIS (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) collaboration under the supervision of Lillian Smestad and Michael Doser. The goal of the project was to create a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4, of Positronium annihilation and excitation in the positron test chamber of the AEgIs experiment.

  16. Inclusive Production Λ c in the e + e - - Annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osati, T.; Movlanaei, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the quark-diquark model of baryons, Λ c can be considered as constituent c quark and ud diquark. In hadronizasion process baryon Λ c can be produced from ud scalar diquark and c quark fragmentation. So in this work, in the lowest order of perturbative QCD, fragmentation functions c → Λ c and ud → Λ c are calculated and finally in the electron-positron annihilation in LEP, the inclusive cross section production of Λ c is calculated about pole of z 0.

  17. Annihilating dark matter and the galactic positron excess

    OpenAIRE

    Maor, Irit

    2006-01-01

    The possibility that the Galactic dark matter is composed of neutralinos that are just above half the $Z^o$ mass is examined, in the context of the Galactic positron excess. In particular, we check if the anomalous bump in the cosmic ray positron to electron ratio at $10~GeV$ can be explained with the ``decay'' of virtual $Z^o$ bosons produced when the neutralinos annihilate. We find that the low energy behaviour of our prediction fits well the existing data. Assuming the neutralinos annihila...

  18. Calculations of gamma-ray spectral profiles of linear alkanes in the positron annihilation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiaoguang [Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Ludong University, Shandong, Yantai, 264025 (China); Wang, Feng, E-mail: fwang@swin.edu.au [Molecular Model Discovery Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Science, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria, 3122 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The study calculates gamma-ray profiles for linear alkanes (n up to 12) quantum mechanically;. • “Profile quality” has been defined as the root-mean square deviation (RMSD) between the theoretical and the experimental results in the entire region of the profile. • Excellent agreement with measurements suggests that the theory model is applicable to predict other alkanes such as heptane (C{sub 7}H{sub 16}) etc. • The study suggested that gamma-ray spectra may be more sensitive to study smaller alkanes (and their isomers), rather than larger alkanes (i.e., n > 12). - Abstract: The positron–electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of linear alkanes C{sub n}H{sub 2n+2} (n = 1–12) have been studied systematically. A profile quality (PQ) parameter, χ, is introduced to assess the agreement between the obtained theoretical profiles and the experimental measurements in the entire region of energy shift of the spectra. Together with the Doppler shift (Δε) of the gamma-ray spectra, the two parameters, χ and Δε, are able to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the calculated gamma-ray spectra with respect to available experiment. Applying the recently developed docking model, the present study determines the positrophilic electrons for individual alkanes from which the gamma-ray spectral profiles are calculated. The results achieve an excellent agreement with experiment, not only with respect to the Doppler shift, but also with respect to the gamma-ray profiles in the photon energy region up to 5 keV. The study further calculates the gamma-ray spectra of other linear alkanes in the series without available experimental measurements, such as heptane (C{sub 7}H{sub 16}), octane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}), decane (C{sub 10}H{sub 22}) and undecane (C{sub 11}H{sub 24}). The results obtained show a dominance of the positrophilic electrons in the lowest occupied valence orbital (LOVO) in the positron–electron annihilation process, in agreement with

  19. A Position Annihilation Study of Defect Recovery in Electron-Irradiated alpha-Zr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, G. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Mogensen, O. E.

    The presence of vacancy defects in α-Zr, irradiated at 320 > T > 290 K with 1.5 MeV electrons, has been indicated by positron annihilation measurements. It was found that positron lifetimes associated with annihilation in well-annealed α-Zr, fell in the range 173 to 181 psec, with no obvious depe...

  20. Optical-vortex pair creation and annihilation and helical astigmatism of a nonplanar ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creation and annihilation of pairs of optical vortices have been studied in transitions between patterns produced in a photorefractive oscillator. Smooth metamorphosis between stable patterns occurs through pair creation or annihilation but can be modeled using superposition of modes taking into account lifting of degeneracy of helical modes by helical astigmatism of the resonator. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Investigation of Scale Exponents of Complete and Incomplete Aggregation-Annihilation Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bi-Hua; LIU Cui-Mei; YANG Zhan-Ru

    2004-01-01

    The complete and incomplete aggregation-annihilation processes are investigated with the method of generating function, and the scale exponents are obtained exactly. We find that the scale exponents of incomplete aggregation-annihilation process are different from the previous exponents obtained by different methods. The time dependence of the total number of clusters and the total mass of clusters are analytically obtained.

  2. Positron annihilation studies in solid 2-aminopyridine, 3-aminopyridine, 4-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, A. Marques; Bicalho, S. M. C. M.; Filgueiras, Ca. L.; Machado, J. C.

    1985-09-01

    Positron annihilation lifetimes and Doppler-broadened annihilation lines have been measured in solid 2-aminopyridine (2-APY), 3-aminopyridine (3-APY), 4-aminopyridine (4-APY) and 2-aminopyrimidine (2-APYM). The results point to the formation of positronium in the solid pyridines and the yields are discussed in terms of the structures and the electron donation character of the compounds.

  3. CMB bounds on dark matter annihilation: Nucleon energy losses after recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Weniger; P.D. Serpico; F. Iocco; G. Bertone

    2013-01-01

    We consider the propagation and energy losses of protons and antiprotons produced by dark matter annihilation at redshifts 100annihilations into quarks, gluons and weak gauge bosons, protons and antiprotons carry about 20% of the energy injected into e± and γ’s, b

  4. The dark matter annihilation boost from low-temperature reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickcek, Adrienne L.

    2015-11-01

    The evolution of the Universe between inflation and the onset of big bang nucleosynthesis is difficult to probe and largely unconstrained. This ignorance profoundly limits our understanding of dark matter: we cannot calculate its thermal relic abundance without knowing when the Universe became radiation dominated. Fortunately, small-scale density perturbations provide a probe of the early Universe that could break this degeneracy. If dark matter is a thermal relic, density perturbations that enter the horizon during an early matter-dominated era grow linearly with the scale factor prior to reheating. The resulting abundance of substructure boosts the annihilation rate by several orders of magnitude, which can compensate for the smaller annihilation cross sections that are required to generate the observed dark matter density in these scenarios. In particular, thermal relics with masses less than a TeV that thermally and kinetically decouple prior to reheating may already be ruled out by Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Although these constraints are subject to uncertainties regarding the internal structure of the microhalos that form from the enhanced perturbations, they open up the possibility of using gamma-ray observations to learn about the reheating of the Universe.

  5. Fear of the mind. The annihilating power of the gaze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Carlo

    2008-06-01

    The concern for the annihilating power of the gaze is not part of the Freudian discourse, but represents one of the most valuable contributions of phenomenology to psychoanalysis. When clear boundaries between the self and the others are not yet established, the gaze is experienced as a disembodied force that radiates from the eyes and can dangerously penetrate into the mind. In this regard, the body or parts of it can be used as a shelter. If the external body is not sufficiently cathected, its sheltering function is also decreased, to the point that the body is experienced as transparent, and the most intimate feelings and thoughts become dangerously available to the others. In primitive societies this situation is experienced as the danger of losing the soul. The unconscious fantasy of obstructing the sight can be used to neutralize the annihilating power of the gaze by introducing an artificial barrier between the minds. In dreams and in other expressions of the unconscious, the black color might hint at such an artificial barrier. What is then blackened are moments of the meeting of the mind that cannot be introjected. Blind spots in the perception of the mind of the other as well as in the perception of the self are a specific consequence of this kind of defense. PMID:18509371

  6. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νbar nu, τ+τ-, bbar b, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νbar nu and τ+τ- channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νbar nu channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νbar nu or τ+τ- channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  7. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ→νν-bar,τ+τ−,bb-bar, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ+τ− channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV. If the νν-bar or τ+τ− channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions

  8. SUSY dark matter annihilation in the Galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Erohenko, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Neutralino annihilation in the Galactic halo is the most definite observational signature proposed for indirect registration of the SUSY Dark Matter (DM) candidate particles. The corresponding annihilation signal (in the form of gamma-rays, positrons and antiprotons) may be boosted for one or three orders of magnitude due to the clustering of cold DM particles into the small-scale and very dense self-gravitating clumps. We discuss the formation of these clumps from the initial density perturbations and their successive fate in the Galactic halo. Only a small fraction of these clumps, $\\sim0.1$%, in each logarithmic mass interval $\\Delta\\log M\\sim1$ survives the stage of hierarchical clustering. We calculate the probability of surviving the remnants of dark matter clumps in the Galaxy by modelling the tidal destruction of the small-scale clumps by the Galactic disk and stars. It is demonstrated that a substantial fraction of clump remnants may survive through the tidal destruction during the lifetime of the Ga...

  9. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wan-Lei [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-01-21

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ→νν-bar,τ{sup +}τ{sup −},bb-bar, we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV. If the νν-bar or τ{sup +}τ{sup −} channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions.

  10. Kinetic Behavior of Aggregation—Fragmentation Process with Annihilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEJian-Hong; LINZhen-Quan

    2002-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of an aggregation-fragmentation-annihilation system with two distinct species is studied.We propose that the aggretation reaction occurs only between two clusters of the same species,and the irreversible annihilation reaction occurs only between two clusters of different species,meanwhile there exists the fragmentation reaction of a cluster into two smaller clusters for either species.Based on the mean-field theory,we investigate the rate equations of the process with constant reaction rates and obtain the asymptotic descriptions of the cluster-mass distribution.In the case of the same initial concentrations of two species,the scaling descriptions for the cluster-mass distributions of the two species are found to break down completely.It is also observed that the kinetic behaviors of distinct species are quite complicated for the case of different initial concentrations of the two species.The clusters of harger initial concentration species(heavy species) possess peculiar scaling properties,while the cluster-mass distribution of light species has not scaling behavior.The exponents describing the scaling behavior for heavy species strongly depend on its fragmentation rate and initial monomer concentrations of two kinds of reactants.

  11. General features of jets in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many facts have been gathered during the last years at PETRA and recently also at PEP. Jets occur in other types of reactions as pp/panti p-collisions or deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering as well. However e+e--annihilation has the special advantage that (a) no hadronic matter exists in the initial state that can influence quark fragmentation, and (b) the kinds of partons in the first stage of fragmentation are unique - all jets originate from quarks, no gluons or diquarks are around at the very first stage. One important result is that the c.m. energy W effective in the partonic reaction is uniquely known. Data on fragmentation in e+e--annihilations have by now been accumulated at several energies W with rather high statistics allowing not only a thorough analysis of jet properties at fixed W but also of their variation with W. Most of the data presented in the following sections are corrected for detector effects and experimental cuts. (orig.)

  12. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference experiment of two independent heralded single photon sources in an optical fiber with birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianyi; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong; Cui, Xiaowei; Lu, Mingquan; Feng, Zhenming

    2012-11-01

    Single photon sources (SPSs) play important roles in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in optical fibers provides a promising way to realize practical heralded single photon sources (HSPSs), since it is compatible with current techniques of optical communications. In this paper, two independent HSPSs at 1.5μm band are realized in one polarization maintaining dispersion shifted fiber (PM-DSF) utilizing its large birefringence. When pulsed pump light passes through an optical fiber, two kinds of SFWM will take place simultaneously. One is scalar processes, in which two annihilated pump photons and generated photon pair are all polarized along the same fiber polarization axis. The other is vector processes, in which two annihilated pump photons are polarized along different fiber polarization axes, either for the two photons of the generated pair. In the PM-DSF, the large birefringence generates obvious walk-off effect on the two pump polarization components, which leads to an effective suppression of the vector processes. Hence, by proper pump polarization, correlated photon pairs (CPPs) with different polarization directions can be generated independently by the two scalar processes, which can be used to realize two independent HSPSs. The indistinguishability of the heralded photons generated by the two independent sources is demonstrated by an experiment of Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference. Using a fiber coupler as the beam splitter, a visibility of HOM dip of 76% is achieved, showing their potential on quantum information.

  13. Photon mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Nečas, Ondřej

    2009-01-01

    V rámci této práce byla provedena praktická implementace algoritmu photon mapping. Pro dosažení kvalitnějšího výstupu byly zkoumány některé základní a pokročilejší metody globálního osvětlení. Tyto náročné algoritmy jsou často prakticky nepoužitelné a je nutná jejich optimalizace. Základem praktické implementace je optimalizace raytraceru. Vzorky nepřímého difuzního osvětlení počítané metodou Monte Carlo je možné mezi sebou interpolovat s použitím vhodné techniky....

  14. Two photon production of charm states - a charmonium calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparison of the nonrelativistic multichannel calculation with the double Rutherford process shows that duality is satisfied, in the sense that if one averages the actual cross sections for a wide enough range of W one gets the same result as for nonstrongly interacting point like quarks. It has been shown for the case of e+e- annihilation that duality in this sense follows from nonrelativistic potential models; and it has been verified that this proof can be extended to two-photon processes

  15. CMB data constraint on self-annihilation of dark matter particles

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jaiseung

    2010-01-01

    Recently, self-annihilation of dark matter particles is proposed to explain the "WMAP Haze" and excess of energetic positrons and electrons in ATIC and PAMELA results. If self-annihilation of dark matter occurs around the recombination of cosmic plasma, energy release from self-annihilation of dark matter delays the recombination, and hence affects CMB anisotropy. By using the recent CMB data, we have investigated the self-annihilation of dark matter particles. In this investigation, we do not find statistically significant evidence, and impose an upper bound on /m_{\\chi}. The upcoming data from Planck surveyor and the Fermi Gamma-ray telescope will allow us to break some of parameter degeneracy and improve constraints on self-annihilation of dark matter particles.

  16. High Statistics Study of $p\\bar$p Annihilation Physics at the EHS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform an experiment to study antiproton-proton annihilations at 50 GeV/c, using the EHS facility.\\\\ \\\\ We will study in detail annihilation processes in terms of the underlying quark structure, and to compare our results with the predictions of the three principal models: quark fusion, fragmentation and recombination.\\\\ \\\\ These models achieved satisfactory results for pion and non-strange resonance production but failed for strange particle production. In fact a study of the production of strange particles could lead to valuable dues in understanding the annihilation mechanisms. A possible explanation of their production is that fast gluons materialize as strange quark pairs in the annihilation process. \\\\ \\\\ We expect to obtain 35 K, well identified, annihilation events.

  17. Positron Annihilation 3-D Momentum Spectrometry by Synchronous 2D-ACAR and DBAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraf, Larry W.; Bonavita, Angelo M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Fagan-Kelly, Stefan B.; Jimenez, Stephen M.

    2015-05-01

    A positron annihilation spectroscopy system capable of determining 3D electron-positron (e--e+) momentum densities has been constructed and tested. In this technique two opposed HPGe strip detectors measure angular coincidence of annihilation radiation (ACAR) and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) in coincidence to produce 3D momentum datasets in which the parallel momentum component obtained from the DBAR measurement can be selected for annihilation events that possess a particular perpendicular momentum component observed in the 2D ACAR spectrum. A true 3D momentum distribution can also be produced. Measurement of 3-D momentum spectra in oxide materials has been demonstrated including O-atom defects in 6H SiC and silver atom substitution in lithium tetraborate crystals. Integration of the 3-D momentum spectrometer with a slow positron beam for future surface resonant annihilation spectrometry measurements will be described. Sponsorship from Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  18. Characterization of the melting process of PTFE using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the lifetime of ortho-positronium(o-Ps) is known to be able to be separated into two components due to annihilation in the crystal region and in the amorphous region. The melting process of PTFE was investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that volume expansion with an increase of temperature is dominantly due to the expansion of the amorphous region and a Ps bubble is formed at melting in both regions. The o-Ps relating to the crystal region definitely remains on the surface of crystal at the time of annihilation. The production of lower energy electrons at melting was deduced by the analysis of the Doppler broadened annihilation photopeak, and the increase in the number of such electrons was found to have great influence on the formation of the o-Ps and annihilation processes of positron and o-Ps.

  19. The 21 cm signal and the interplay between dark matter annihilations and astrophysical processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Honorez, Laura; Moliné, Ángeles; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Vincent, Aaron C

    2016-01-01

    Future dedicated radio interferometers, including HERA and SKA, are very promising tools that aim to study the epoch of reionization and beyond via measurements of the 21 cm signal from neutral hydrogen. Dark matter (DM) annihilations into charged particles change the thermal history of the Universe and, as a consequence, affect the 21 cm signal. Accurately predicting the effect of DM strongly relies on the modeling of annihilations inside halos. In this work, we use up-to-date computations of the energy deposition rates by the products from DM annihilations, a proper treatment of the contribution from DM annihilations in halos, as well as values of the annihilation cross section allowed by the most recent cosmological measurements from the Planck satellite. Given current uncertainties on the description of the astrophysical processes driving the epochs of reionization, X-ray heating and Lyman-$\\alpha$ pumping, we find that disentangling DM signatures from purely astrophysical effects, related to early-time s...

  20. Dark matter annihilation near a black hole: Plateau versus weak cusp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dark matter annihilation in so-called spikes near black holes is believed to be an important method of indirect dark matter detection. In the case of circular particle orbits, the density profile of dark matter has a plateau at small radii, the maximal density being limited by the annihilation cross section. However, in the general case of arbitrary velocity anisotropy the situation is different. Particularly, for isotropic velocity distribution the density profile cannot be shallower than r-1/2 in the very center. Indeed, a detailed study reveals that in many cases the term ''annihilation plateau'' is misleading, as the density actually continues to rise towards small radii and forms a weak cusp, ρ∝r-(β+1/2), where β is the anisotropy coefficient. The annihilation flux, however, does not change much in the latter case, if averaged over an area larger than the annihilation radius

  1. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Liu Gaung [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhang Junjie [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 {mu}m depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  2. Physics at high energy photon photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I review the physic prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking

  3. Photon Aided and Inhibited Tunneling of Photons

    CERN Document Server

    liu, xuele

    2013-01-01

    In the light of the interest in the transport of single photons in arrays of waveguides, fiber couplers, photonic crystals, etc., we consider the quantum mechanical process of the tunneling of photons through evanescently or otherwise coupled structures. We specifically examine the issue of tunneling between two structures when one structure already contains few photons. We demonstrate the possibility of both photon aided and inhibited tunneling of photons. The Bosonic nature of photons enhances the tunneling probability. We also show how the multiphoton tunneling probability can be either enhanced or inhibited due to the presence of photons. We find similar results for the higher order tunneling. Finally, we show that the presence of a squeezed field changes the nature of tunneling considerably.

  4. Physics at High Energy Photon Photon Colliders

    OpenAIRE

    Chanowitz, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    I review the physics prospects for high energy photon photon colliders, emphasizing results presented at the LBL Gamma Gamma Collider Workshop. Advantages and difficulties are reported for studies of QCD, the electroweak gauge sector, supersymmetry, and electroweak symmetry breaking.

  5. Polarization precession in photon-photon encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, R. F.

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the rate of precession of the direction of polarization of a photon traversing a sea of plane-polarized photons moving in the opposed direction, where the interaction is the one-loop "vacuum" Heisenberg-Euler coupling of four fields. Substantial precession can take place in a distance many orders of magnitude shorter than the free path for photon-photon scattering, mediated by the same interaction. We consider briefly the possibility of some interesting collective effects in the ...

  6. Jets in Photon-Photon Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Fontannaz, M.

    1994-01-01

    We study jet production in photon-photon reactions at the next-to-leading logarithm accuracy. The discussion of the theoretical uncertainties and the role of the quark and gluon distributions in the photon is emphasized. The phenomenology at TRISTAN energies is discussed and predictions are made for LEP 200.

  7. Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Lobino, M; Xiong, C; Clark, A S; Bonneau, D; Natarajan, C M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Dorenbos, S N; Zijlstra, T; Zwiller, V; Marangoni, M; Ramponi, R; Thompson, M G; Eggleton, B J; O'Brien, J L

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate photon-pair generation in a reverse proton exchanged waveguide fabricated on a periodically poled magnesium doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate substrate. Detected pairs are generated via a cascaded second order nonlinear process where a pump laser at wavelength of 1.55 $\\mu$m is first doubled in frequency by second harmonic generation and subsequently downconverted around the same spectral region. Pairs are detected at a rate of 42 per second with a coincidence to accidental ratio of 0.7. This cascaded pair generation process is similar to four-wave-mixing where two pump photons annihilate and create a correlated photon pair.

  8. Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds

  9. Positron and Positronium Annihilation Lifetime, and Free Volume in Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhibin

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements were carried out for six polycarbonates of different structures and four polystyrenes of different molecular weight over a wide temperature range covering the glass transition region. The o-Ps mean lifetime is very sensitive to the changes of free volume in those polymers which occur due to change of molecular structure, chain length, and temperature. The influence of the unavoidable e^{+} irradiation and physical aging on the mean lifetime and the intensity of o-Ps annihilation were studied by conducting time dependent measurements on both very aged and rejuvenated samples. Both irradiation and physical aging reduce the formation of positronium, but have no effect on the mean lifetime of Ps atoms. The free volume fraction h obtained from the positron lifetime measurements was compared with the prediction of the statistical mechanical theory of Simha and Somcynsky; good agreement was found in the melt state though clear deviations were observed in the glassy state. A free volume quantity, computed from the bulk volume, which is in a good numerical agreement with the Simha-Somcynsky h-function in the melt, gives improved agreement with the h value calculated from the positron lifetime measurements. To investigate certain anomalies observed in the computer analysis of the positron annihilation lifetime spectra on polymers, we developed a computer simulation of the experimental data, which then was used to test the accuracy of the fitting results in the different circumstances. The influence caused by a possible distribution of the o-Ps mean lifetimes and the width of the spectrometer time resolution function were studied. The theoretical connection between the o-Ps mean lifetime and the free volume hole size was reviewed based on a finite spherical potential well model, and the status of the localized Ps atom in polymers was evaluated by calculation of the barrier transmission probability and the escaping probability of the

  10. Intrinsic spatial resolution limitations due to differences between positron emission position and annihilation detection localization; Limitacoes da resolucao espacial intrinseca devido as diferencas entre a posicao da emissao do positron e a deteccao da localizacao de aniquilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Pedro; Malano, Francisco; Valente, Mauro, E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Fac. de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF)

    2012-07-01

    Since its successful implementation for clinical diagnostic, positron emission tomography (PET) represents the most promising medical imaging technique. The recent major growth of PET imaging is mainly due to its ability to trace the biologic pathways of different compounds in the patient's body, assuming the patient can be labeled with some PET isotope. Regardless of the type of isotope, the PET imaging method is based on the detection of two 511-keV gamma photons being emitted in opposite directions, with almost 180 deg between them, as a consequence of electron-positron annihilation. Therefore, this imaging method is intrinsically limited by random uncertainties in spatial resolutions, related with differences between the actual position of positron emission and the location of the detected annihilation. This study presents an approach with the Monte Carlo method to analyze the influence of this effect on different isotopes of potential implementation in PET. (author)

  11. RR photons

    CERN Document Server

    Camara, Pablo G; Marchesano, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Type II string compactifications to 4d generically contain massless Ramond-Ramond U(1) gauge symmetries. However there is no massless matter charged under these U(1)'s, which makes a priori difficult to measure any physical consequences of their existence. There is however a window of opportunity if these RR U(1)'s mix with the hypercharge $U(1)_Y$ (hence with the photon). In this paper we study in detail different avenues by which $U(1)_{RR}$ bosons may mix with D-brane U(1)'s. We concentrate on Type IIA orientifolds and their M-theory lift, and provide geometric criteria for the existence of such mixing, which may occur either via standard kinetic mixing or via the mass terms induced by St\\"uckelberg couplings. The latter case is particularly interesting, and appears whenever D-branes wrap torsional $p$-cycles in the compactification manifold. We also show that in the presence of torsional cycles discrete gauge symmetries and Aharanov-Bohm strings and particles appear in the 4d effective action, and that ty...

  12. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave-mixing between photons and phonons and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong nonlocal effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a novel multi-cavity optomechanical device: a "photon see-saw", in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of the see-saw, are modulated anti-symmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other...

  13. Photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions in ALICE

    OpenAIRE

    Schicker, R.

    2015-01-01

    A review is given on photon-hadron and photon-photon collisions in the ALICE experiment. The physics motivation for studying such reactions is outlined, and the results obtained in proton-lead and lead-lead collisions in Run 1 of the LHC are discussed. The improvement in detector rapidity coverage due to a newly added detector system is presented. The ALICE perspectives for data taking in LHC Run II are summarised.

  14. Quasinuclear resonances and annihilation in nucleon-antinucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author sketches some of the current problems of the N-anti N system, both in experiment and theory and investigates the general properties like levels, cross sections and amplitudes near the N-anti N threshold given a one boson exchange interaction and using a G-parity transformed non-static potential. A multi-channel N/D formalism is used to calculate the levels and amplitudes and a thorough description of the pole structure near the N-anti N threshold is presented. Based on the results of the model for the N-anti N system, the annihilation of the e+-e- pairs into hadrons is considered and the antipd system is described. (Auth./C.F.)

  15. Gamma and pizero production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclusive cross sections of γ's and π0 mesons in hadronic events produced by electron-positron annihilation for the center-of-mass energy range 4.9 to 7.4 GeV are presented. Scale invariance of the inclusive spectra is exhibited in this energy range, and their normalization and shape are seen to be consistent with those of spectra arising from the decay of the π0. The fraction of center-of-mass energy carried away by the γ's at high energies is found to be = 0.24 +- 0.01. The π0 inclusive cross section is seen to be consistent in normalization and shape with half the charged-π cross section between x = 0.15 and 0.75, with an integrated inclusive cross-section ratio of sigma(π0)/[sigma(π+) + sigma(π-)] = 0.48 +- 0.05. 60 figures, 7 tables

  16. Positron annihilation investigations on poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadened annihilation radiation were measured for seven different samples of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature in vacuum. The polymerisation of methyl methacrylate was carried out as a bulk polymerisation in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effect of the amount of the initiator on the viscosity-average molecular weight was studied. It was found that the viscosity-average molecular weight decreased with increasing amount of the initiator. The average lifetime and intensity of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) increased with increasing viscosity-average molecular weight up to 6.85x104 and remained constant after that. The S-parameter showed a similar behaviour as that of the o-Ps intensity.

  17. Positron annihilation lifetime study of low temperature irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1997-11-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements have been made for electron and neutron irradiated Fe, Fe-Cr, Fe-Cu, Fe-Si, Fe-16Cr-17Ni specimens, and isochronal annealing behaviors were obtained for these metals and alloys. It was found that vacancies start to migrate at about 200 K in Fe and form microvoids, but by the addition of small amount of alloying elements this behavior was changed depending on the alloying elements. Positron lifetime calculations were made to explain the experimental results using EAM (embedded atom method) type potential for the lattice relaxation and the atomic superposition method for the lifetime calculation. Fairly good agreements were obtained for the positron lifetime in a vacancy in Fe and other alloys. (author)

  18. A study of multijet events in e+e--annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multijet analysis of hadronic final states from e+e--annihilation in the energy range 27 GeV < sub(cm) < 32 GeV is presented. The analysis uses a cluster method to identify the jets in a hadronic event. The distribution of the number of jets per event is compared with several models. From the number of identified coplanar 3-jet events the strong coupling constant is determined to be αs = 0.15 +- 0.03 (stat. error) +- 0.02 (syst. error). The inferred energy distribution of the most energetic parton is in good agreement with the first order QCD prediction. A scalar gluon model is strongly disfavoured. Higher twist contributions to the 3-jet sample are found to be small. (orig.)

  19. The temperature dependence of positron annihilation in α-Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doppler-broadening of the positron annihilation photopeak has been measured for α-Hf (6.8 at% Zr) in the interval 298-1945 K. The data, in terms of peak (L) and wing (W) line-shape parameters, show three regions of behaviour. Region I, 298-750 K, shows a complex temperature response of W and S: it is associated with positron interactions with impurity-related defects. Region II, 750-1750 K, shows a linear temperature dependence of S and W, it is associated with thermal expansion effects. Region III, 1750-1945 K, shows an increasing temperature dependence indicative of positron-interactions with equilibrium vacancies. The vacancy formation energy deduced from the data is 2.5 eV. (orig.)

  20. Study of intermittency in electron-positron annihilation into hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermittency effects have been studied directly for the first time in e+e- annihilation, using 37509 hadronic events at an average CM energy of =35 GeV. The factorial moments F2, F3 and F4 are given for the rapidity distribution and for the two-dimensional distributions in rapidity and azimuthal angle. The effects of cuts in sphericity and particle momentum are large. Comparison with several fragmentation models are made; some models like the Lund model with O(αs2) matrix element give a qualitative description of the phenomena. The importance of detector effects is demonstrated. The results are discussed in terms of various suggested interpretations of this effect. (orig.)

  1. Positron annihilation: the ACAR method measures electron momentum distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a positron annihilates with an electron, the energy is dissipated preferentially in the form of antiparallel 0.5 MeV γ-rays, whose angle and Doppler shift correlates with electron momentum density. The Geneva group has built a system which permits the precise and efficient measurement of the ACAR radiation. In ordinary metals, where independent particles methods (IPM) apply, there is often satisfactory agreement between measured and calculated Two Particle Momentum Distributions (TPMD). The same is true for the Fermi Surfaces which can be constructed from TPMD. The effect of correlations can be handled as perturbation. In the case of oxides we found so far no convincing agreement between theory and experiment. We are working to improve apparatus, experiment and theory and hope to understand also our results in High Temperature Superconductors (High Tc Sc)

  2. Positron-annihilation spectroscopy of defects in metals: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has made significant contributions to our knowledge regarding lattice defects in metals in two areas: (i) the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and (ii) the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation of post-quench annealing. The application of PAS to the study of defects in metals is selectively reviewed and critically assessed within the context of other available techniques for such investigations. Possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the structure of atomic defects are discussed. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals are considered relative to other available techniques. 92 references, 20 figures

  3. Work station for low temperature positron annihilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the automation implemented in the low temperature Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy studies system. Temperature programmer and controller (Lakeshore 330) is interfaced to PC-AT through an IEEE-488 add-on card. Through this data can be read and written to the temperature controller and it can be handled remotely. The PC- AT also houses the PCA-II card. Software (TEMP330.EXE) was developed to communicate with the temperature controller. A master software is also developed under which TEMP330.EXE and PCAII.EXE should run. Another program DATASEG.EXE creates a user file to store the temperature points given by user over which data acquisition is required. This has not only widened the scope of the positron research, but also helps achieve result with better precision. (author)

  4. Neutrinos from dark matter annihilations at the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the prospects for detection of high energy neutrinos from dark matter (DM) annihilation at the galactic center (GC). Despite the large uncertainties associated with our poor knowledge of the distribution of dark matter in the innermost regions of the Galaxy, we determine an upper limit on the neutrino flux by requiring that the associated gamma-ray emission does not exceed the observed flux. We conclude that a neutrino flux from the GC will not be observable by Antares if dark matter is made of neutralinos with mass smaller than 650 GeV, while for heavier neutralinos, corresponding to models that will soon be probed by HESS (high energy stereoscopic system), the upper limit on the neutrino flux is barely above the Antares sensitivity. The detection of a larger flux would either require an alternative explanation, in terms of astrophysical processes, or the adoption of other dark matter candidates, disfavouring the case for neutralinos

  5. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign

  6. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of proton irradiated single crystal BCC iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuniewski, Maria A. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 103 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: okuniews@uiuc.edu; Wells, Doug P. [Department of Physics, Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Campus Box 8263, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Selim, Farida A. [Department of Physics, Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Campus Box 8263, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Maloy, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, D-5, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 103 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Deo, Chaitanya S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Baskes, Michael I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to analyze the open-volume defects created in single crystal, body-centered cubic iron irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The effects of irradiation dose and temperature were investigated. A novel technique utilizing a Bremsstrahlung beam to activate and induce positron decay in the bulk specimens, followed by Doppler broadening spectroscopy, was employed. No open-volume defects were detected in the 0.03 dpa irradiated specimens. However, the 0.3 dpa specimens exhibited an increase in the S parameter when compared to the 0.03 dpa specimens at 723 K. The 0.3 dpa specimen at 723 K indicated an increase in open-volume defects, as the radiation temperature increased compared to the 573 K, 0.3 dpa specimen. This was thought to be a consequence of the void and dislocation loop density decreasing while the void and dislocation loop diameter was increasing.

  7. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of proton irradiated single crystal BCC iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to analyze the open-volume defects created in single crystal, body-centered cubic iron irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The effects of irradiation dose and temperature were investigated. A novel technique utilizing a Bremsstrahlung beam to activate and induce positron decay in the bulk specimens, followed by Doppler broadening spectroscopy, was employed. No open-volume defects were detected in the 0.03 dpa irradiated specimens. However, the 0.3 dpa specimens exhibited an increase in the S parameter when compared to the 0.03 dpa specimens at 723 K. The 0.3 dpa specimen at 723 K indicated an increase in open-volume defects, as the radiation temperature increased compared to the 573 K, 0.3 dpa specimen. This was thought to be a consequence of the void and dislocation loop density decreasing while the void and dislocation loop diameter was increasing

  8. Higgs shifts from electron-positron annihilations near neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, Gary A. [Dartmouth College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hanover, NH (United States); Onofrio, Roberto [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' Galileo Galilei' , Padova (Italy); ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the potential for using neutron stars to determine bounds on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling by looking at peculiar shifts in gamma-ray spectroscopic features. In particular, we reanalyze multiple lines observed in GRB781119 detected by two gamma-ray spectrometers, and derive an upper bound on the Higgs-Kretschmann coupling that is much more constraining than the one recently obtained from white dwarfs. This calls for targeted analyses of spectra of gamma-ray bursts from more recent observatories, dedicated searches for differential shifts on electron-positron and proton-antiproton annihilation spectra in proximity of compact sources, and signals of electron and proton cyclotron lines from the same neutron star. (orig.)

  9. Semi-inclusive wino and higgsino annihilation to LL'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Vaidya, Varun

    2016-03-01

    We systematically compute the annihilation rate for winos and higgsinos into the final state relevant for indirect detection experiments, γ + X. The radiative corrections to this process receive enhancement from the large Bloch-Nordsieck-Violating Sudakov logarithm, log(2 M χ /M W ). We resum the double logs and include single logs to fixed order using a formalism that combines nonrelativistic and soft-collinear effective field theories. For the wino case, we update an earlier exclusion adapting results of the HESS experiment. At the thermal relic mass of 3 TeV, LL' corrections result in a ˜30% reduction in rate relative to LL. Nonetheless, single logs do not save the wino, and it is still excluded by an order of magnitude. Experimental cuts produce an endpoint region which, our results show, significantly effects the higgsino rate at its thermal-relic mass near 1 TeV and is deserving of further study.

  10. Dynamics of annihilation. I. Linearized Boltzmann equation and hydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Soria, María Isabel; Maynar, Pablo; Schehr, Grégory; Barrat, Alain; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2008-05-01

    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a system of freely moving particles, in which binary encounters lead either to an elastic collision or to the disappearance of the pair. Such a system of ballistic annihilation therefore constantly loses particles. The dynamics of perturbations around the free decay regime is investigated using the spectral properties of the linearized Boltzmann operator, which characterize linear excitations on all time scales. The linearized Boltzmann equation is solved in the hydrodynamic limit by a projection technique, which yields the evolution equations for the relevant coarse-grained fields and expressions for the transport coefficients. We finally present the results of molecular dynamics simulations that validate the theoretical predictions. PMID:18643046

  11. Semi-Inclusive Wino and Higgsino Annihilation to LL'

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We systematically compute the annihilation rate for winos and higgsinos into the final state relevant for indirect detection experiments, gamma + X. The radiative corrections to this process receive enhancement from the large Bloch-Nordsieck-Violating Sudakov logarithm, log(2 M_chi/M_W). We resum the double logs and include single logs to fixed order using a formalism that combines nonrelativistic and soft-collinear effective field theories. For the wino case, we update an earlier exclusion adapting results of the HESS experiment. At the thermal relic mass of 3 TeV, LL' corrections result in a ~30% reduction in rate relative to LL. Nonetheless, single logs do not save the wino, and it is still excluded by an order of magnitude. Experimental cuts produce an endpoint region which, our results show, significantly effects the higgsino rate at its thermal-relic mass near 1 TeV and is deserving of further study.

  12. Signature of crystal symmetry in positron annihilation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the technique of two-dimensional angular correlation of the electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) yields data in a reference frame related to detectors, data interpretation is made in a reference frame related to the crystal. The paper shows that consistent reformulation of the 2D-ACAR data in the crystal frame can be obtained from the knowledge of the signature of crystal symmetry (SCS) in the data. Derivation of the SCS over variations M-Umklapp areas of the reciprocal lattice from a rigorous definition also results in an improved a posteriori criterion concerning the twinned or untwinned nature of the crystal under investigation. The analysis of a c-projected 2D-ACAR spectrum on Y Ba2Cu3O7-δ, accurately establishes the untwinned nature of the used crystals and yields better resolved Fermi surface ridge signatures at 2- and 3- Umklapp processes. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Search for new particles in e+e-annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results for new particle searches in e+e- annihilation have been reviewed. Results are from PETRA (CELLO, JADE, MARK-J, PLUTO, TASSO), PEP (ASP, HRS, MAC, MARK-II, PEP-14, TPC), CESR (CLEO, CUSB), DORIS-II (ARGUS, CRYSTAL BALL). The topics covered are the following: (I) Particles expected in the (extended) standard model. (I.1) Quarks (top, fourth generation, free quarks). (I.2) Leptons (fourth generation charged and neutral leptons). (I.3) Higgs (minimal Higgs, non-minimal neutral and charged Higgs). (II) Supersymmetry. (II.1) Partner of matter fermions (e, q tilde). (II.2) Gauginos (W tilde, H, g tilde, unstable γ tilde). (III) Compositeness. (III.1) Excited leptons (esup(*), μsup(*), tausup(*)). (III.2) Coloured leptons (e8, μ8, ν8). (III.3) Preon mass scale (contact interaction). (orig./HSI)

  14. Single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with LYSO scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Deller, A.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-08-01

    We have evaluated the application of a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) based detector to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. We compare this detector directly with a similarly configured PbWO4 scintillator, which is the usual choice for such measurements. We find that the signal to noise ratio obtained using LYSO is around three times higher than that obtained using PbWO4 for measurements of Ps excited to longer-lived (Rydberg) levels, or when they are ionized soon after production. This is due to the much higher light output for LYSO (75% and 1% of NaI for LYSO and PbWO4 respectively). We conclude that LYSO is an ideal scintillator for single-shot measurements of positronium production and excitation performed using a low-intensity pulsed positron beam.

  15. Origin of the annihilation effect of martensite aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The martensite stabilization and rubber-like behavior (RLB) found a simple and general explanation by a recently proposed symmetry-conforming short range ordering (SC-SRO) mechanism (X. Ren, and K. Otsuka, (1997)). However, there exists another puzzling phenomenon called annihilation effect of martensite aging, which seems difficult to explain. It refers to that the martensite aging effect disappears, once the aged martensite experiences a reverse-transformation into the parent phase. This phenomenon has been ascribed to the faster diffusion in the parent phase, which removes the aging effect acquired during previous martensite aging. In the present paper, we provided clear experimental evidence to show that diffusion in parent phase is not the major reason for this effect. Based on the SC-SRO mechanism of martensite aging, we showed that this phenomenon arises from a general feature of martensitic transformation, i.e., martensite twin pattern after a martensitic transformation cannot reproduce the twin pattern before the transformation. (orig.)

  16. γ-irradiation of polyethylene studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the third positron lifetime component in γ-irradiated polyethylene samples the influence of different irradiation conditons (absorbed doses of 1, 10, 100, and 1000 KGy and dose rates of 0.1 and 12.5 KGy/h, respectively) on the properties of polyethylene in air has been tested by Doppler broadening and positron lifetime measurements. The effect of different radiation-induced reactions such as oxidic degradation, cross-linking, positronium formation and others has been discussed. It can be concluded that radiation-induced changes in the properties of polyethylene are demonstrable by positron annihilation and the influence of independent irradiation parameters as dose and dose rate can be described by logarithmic functions

  17. Defect identification in semiconductors with positron annihilation: experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a very powerful technique for the detection, identification and quantification of vacancy-type defects in semiconductors. In the past decades, it has been used to reveal the relationship between opto-electronic properties and specific defects in a wide variety of materials - examples include parasitic yellow luminescence in GaN, dominant acceptor defects in ZnO and broad-band absorption causing brown coloration in natural diamond. In typical binary compound semiconductors, the selective sensitivity of the technique is rather strongly limited to cation vacancies that possess significant open volume and suitable charge (negative of neutral). On the other hand, oxygen vacancies in oxide semiconductors are a widely debated topic. The properties attributed to oxygen vacancies include the inherent n-type conduction, poor p-type dopability, coloration (absorption), deep level luminescence and non-radiative recombination, while the only direct experimental evidence of their existence has been obtained on the crystal surface. We will present recent advances in combining state-of-the-art positron annihilation experiments and ab initio computational approaches. The latter can be used to model both the positron lifetime and the electron-positron momentum distribution - quantities that can be directly compared with experimental results. We have applied these methods to study vacancy-type defects in III-nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN) and oxides such as ZnO, SnO2, In2O3andGa2O3. We will show that cation-vacancy-related defects are important compensating centers in all these materials when they are n-type. In addition, we will show that anion (N, O) vacancies can be detected when they appear as complexes with cation vacancies.

  18. Application of positron annihilation techniques in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The investigation of the material damage state is very important for industrial application. Most mechanical damage starts with a change in the microstructure of the material. Positron annihilation techniques are very sensitive probes for detecting defects and damage on an atomic scale in materials, which are of great concern in the engineering applications. Additionally they are apparatus of non-destruction, high-sensitivity and easy-use. Purpose: Our goal is to develop a system to exploit new non-destructive testing (NDT) methods using positron annihilation spectroscopy, a powerful tool to detect vacancy-type defects and their chemical environment. Methods: A positron NDT system was designed and constructed by modifying the 'sandwich structure' of sample-source-sample in conventional Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectrometers. Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectra of a single sample can be measured and analyzed by subtracting the contribution of a reference sample. Results: The feasibility and reliability of positron NDT system have been tested by analyzing nondestructively deformation and damage caused by mechanical treatment or by irradiation of metal alloys. This system can be used for detecting defects and damage in thick or large-size samples, as well as for measuring the two-dimension distribution of defects in portable, sensitive, fast way. Conclusion: Positron NDT measurement shows changes in real atomic-scale defects prior to changes in the mechanical properties, which are detectable by other methods of NDT, such as ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. This system can be developed for use in both the laboratory and field in the future. (authors)

  19. Antiprotons from dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy. Astrophysical uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evoli, Carmelo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatories; Cholis, Ilias; Ullio, Piero [SISSA, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Grasso, Dario [INFN, Sezione di Pisa (Italy); Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The latest years have seen steady progresses in WIMP dark matter (DM) searches, with hints of possible signals suggested by both direct and indirect detection experiments. Antiprotons can play a key role validating those interpretations since they are copiously produced by WIMP annihilations in the Galactic halo, and the secondary antiproton background produced by Cosmic Ray (CR) interactions is predicted with fair accuracy and matches the observed spectrum very well. Using the publicly available numerical DRAGON code, we reconsider antiprotons as a tool to constrain DM models discussing its power and limitations. We provide updated constraints on a wide class of annihilating DM models by comparing our predictions against the most up-to-date anti p measurements, taking also into account the latest spectral information on the p, He and other CR nuclei fluxes. Doing that, we probe carefully the uncertainties associated to both secondary and DM originated antiprotons, by using a variety of distinctively different assumptions for the propagation of CRs and for the DM distribution in the Galaxy. We find that the impact of the astrophysical uncertainties on constraining the DM properties can be much stronger, up to a factor of {proportional_to}50, than the one due to uncertainties on the DM distribution ({proportional_to}2-6). Remarkably, even reducing the uncertainties on the propagation parameters derived by local observables, non-local effects can still change DM model constraints even by 50%. Nevertheless, current anti p data place tight constraints on DM models, excluding some of those suggested in connection with indirect and direct searches. Finally we discuss the power of upcoming CR spectral data from the AMS-02 observatory to drastically reduce the uncertainties discussed in this paper and estimate the expected sensitivity of this instrument to some sets of DM models. (orig.)

  20. Constraint on the velocity dependent dark matter annihilation cross section from Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Jia, Huan-Yu; Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Feng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The γ -ray observation of dwarf spheroidal satellites (dSph's) is an ideal approach for probing the dark matter (DM) annihilation signature. The latest Fermi-LAT dSph searches have set stringent constraints on the velocity independent annihilation cross section in the small DM mass range, which gives very strong constraints on the scenario to explain the AMS-02 positron excess by DM annihilation. However, the dSph constraints would change in the velocity dependent annihilation scenarios, because the velocity dispersion in the dSph's varies from that in the Milky Way. In this work, we use a likelihood map method to set constraints on the velocity dependent annihilation cross section from the Fermi-LAT observation of six dSph's. We consider three typical forms of the annihilation cross section, i.e. p-wave annihilation, Sommerfeld enhancement, and Breit-Wigner resonance. For the p-wave annihilation and Sommerfeld enhancement, the dSph limits would become much weaker and stronger compared with those for the velocity independent annihilation, respectively. For the Breit-Wigner annihilation, the dSph limits would vary depending on the model parameters. We show that the scenario to explain the AMS-02 positron excess by DM annihilation is still viable in the velocity dependent cases.

  1. Weak annihilation cusp inside the dark matter spike about a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    We reinvestigate the effect of annihilations on the distribution of collisionless dark matter (DM) in a spherical density spike around a massive black hole. We first construct a very simple, pedagogic, analytic model for an isotropic phase space distribution function that accounts for annihilation and reproduces the "weak cusp" found by Vasiliev for DM deep within the spike and away from its boundaries. The DM density in the cusp varies as $r^{-1/2}$ for $s$-wave annihilation, where $r$ is th...

  2. Positron annihilation as a non-destructive monitor of radiation damage in reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of positron annihilation measurements in the investigation of neutron irradiation effects in pure metals provides strong motivation to use the technique to study irradiated reactor materials. In particular, the non-destructive nature and high sensitivity of positron annihilation suggest that it may be useful in continued monitoring of test specimens as a function of irradiation time and may provide an early warning for incipient material failure. In order to investigate this area of application, positron annihilation angular correlation measurements were performed on unirradiated and irradiated A302-B reactor pressure vessel steel samples. (Auth.)

  3. Quark versus hadron degrees of freedom in antiproton-proton annihilation's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on antiproton-proton annihilation at rest into two mesons are presented with special emphasis on the importance of dynamical selection rules. These selection rules reduce the frequency of some annihilation rates for otherwise allowed annihilation modes by one order of magnitude. It is shown that SU(3) breaking cannot be held responsible for such large effects. This fact motivates an analysis of anti-pp branching ratios by SU(3) amplitudes. Different SU(3) coupling schemes and their interpretation are presented. A coupling scheme tracing the quark flux from the initial to the final state gives the best interpretation of the data and of the dynamical selection rules. (author)

  4. Pure annihilation type $ D\\to PP(V)$ decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Zhi-Tian; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2013-01-01

    The annihilation type diagrams are difficult to calculate in any kind of models or method. Encouraged by the the successful calculation of pure annihilation type B decays in the perturbative QCD factorization approach, we calculate the pure annihilation type $D\\to PP(V)$ decays in the perturbative QCD approach based on the $k_T$ factorization. Although the expansion parameter $1/m_D$ is not very small, our leading order numerical results agree with the existing experiment data for most channels. We expect the more accurate observation from experiments, which can help us learn about the dynamics of $D$ meson weak decays.

  5. The role of CP violating annihilations in baryogenesis - case study of the neutron portal

    CERN Document Server

    Baldes, Iason; Millar, Alexander; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-01-01

    Many baryogenesis scenarios invoke the charge parity (CP) violating out-of-equilibrium decay of a heavy particle in order to explain the baryon asymmetry. Such scenarios will in general also allow CP violating annihilations. We study the effect of these CP violating annihilations on the final asymmetry in a neutron portal scenario. We solve the Boltzmann equations governing the evolution of the baryon number numerically and show that the CP violating annihilations play a dominant role in a significant portion of the parameter space.

  6. Pure annihilation type D→PP(V) decays in the perturbative QCD approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zhi-Tian; LI Cheng; L(U) Cai-Dian

    2013-01-01

    The annihilation type diagrams are difficult to calculate in any kind of model or method.Encouraged by the successful calculation of pure annihilation type B decays in the perturbative QCD factorization approach,we calculate the pure annihilation type D→ PP(V) decays in the perturbative QCD approach based on the kT factorization.Although the expansion parameter 1/mD is not very small,our leading order numerical results agree with the existing experimental data for most channels.We expect more accurate observation from experiments,which can help us learn about the dynamics of D meson weak decays.

  7. p-barp annihilation in the dual parton model and perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of perturbative QCD the contribution to the annihilation cross section resulting from exchange of two gluons in the colour decuplet state is calculated. The result depends essentially on the diquark radius, and is equal to 1-2 mb. This contribution slightly varies with energy and dominates the annihilation cross section in the asymptotics. The preasymptotical mechanism of annihilation is also considered which causes fast decrease in the cross section with energy (∼ 1/√E) at the intermediate energies E < 12 GeV

  8. Revisiting big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints on dark-matter annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of dark-matter annihilation during the epoch of big-bang nucleosynthesis on the primordial abundances of light elements. We improve the calculation of the light-element abundances by taking into account the effects of anti-nucleons emitted by the annihilation of dark matter and the interconversion reactions of neutron and proton at inelastic scatterings of energetic nucleons. Comparing the theoretical prediction of the primordial light-element abundances with the latest observational constraints, we derive upper bounds on the dark-matter pair-annihilation cross section. Implication to some of particle-physics models are also discussed.

  9. Fast magnetic field annihilation driven by two laser pulses in underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast magnetic annihilation is investigated by using 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of two parallel ultra-short petawatt laser pulses co-propagating in underdense plasma. The magnetic field generated by the laser pulses annihilates in a current sheet formed between the pulses. Magnetic field energy is converted to an inductive longitudinal electric field, which efficiently accelerates the electrons of the current sheet. This new regime of collisionless relativistic magnetic field annihilation with a timescale of tens of femtoseconds can be extended to near-critical and overdense plasma with the ultra-high intensity femtosecond laser pulses

  10. Creation and annihilation operators for SU(3) in an SO(6,2) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creation and annihilation operators are defined which are Wigner operators (tensor shift operators) for SU(3). While the annihilation operators are simply boson operators, the creation operators are cubic polynomials in boson operators. Together they generate under commutation the Lie algebra of SO(6,2). A model for SU(3) is defined. The different SU(3) irreducible representations appear explicitly as manifestly covariant, irreducible tensors, whose orthogonality and normalisation properties are examined. Other Wigner operators for SU(3) can be constructed simply as products of the new creation and annihilation operators, or sums of such products. (author)

  11. Confronting Galactic center and dwarf spheroidal gamma-ray observations with cascade annihilation models

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Tathagata; Strigari, Louis E

    2015-01-01

    Many particle dark matter models predict that the dark matter undergoes cascade annihilations, i.e. the annihilation products are 4-body final states. In the context of model-independent cascade annihilation models, we study the compatibility of the dark matter interpretation of the Fermi- LAT Galactic center gamma-ray emission with null detections from dwarf spheroidal galaxies. For canonical values of the Milky Way density profile and the local dark matter density, we find that the dark matter interpretation to the Galactic center emission is strongly constrained. However, uncertainties in the dark matter distribution weaken the constraints and leave open dark matter interpretations over a wide range of mass scales.

  12. Revisiting big-bang nucleosynthesis constraints on dark-matter annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kohri, Kazunori; Moroi, Takeo; Takaesu, Yoshitaro

    2015-12-01

    We study the effects of dark-matter annihilation during the epoch of big-bang nucleosynthesis on the primordial abundances of light elements. We improve the calculation of the light-element abundances by taking into account the effects of anti-nucleons emitted by the annihilation of dark matter and the interconversion reactions of neutron and proton at inelastic scatterings of energetic nucleons. Comparing the theoretical prediction of the primordial light-element abundances with the latest observational constraints, we derive upper bounds on the dark-matter pair-annihilation cross section. Implication to some of particle-physics models are also discussed.

  13. Positrons in Cosmic Rays from Dark Matter Annihilations for Uplifted Higgs Regions in MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Kadota, Kenji; Gondolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We point out that there are regions in the MSSM parameter space which successfully provide a dark matter (DM) annihilation explanation for observed positron excess (e.g. PAMELA), while still remaining in agreement with all other data sets. Such regions (e.g. the uplifted Higgs region) can realize an enhanced neutralino DM annihilation dominantly into leptons via a Breit-Wigner resonance through the CP-odd Higgs channel. Such regions can give the proper thermal relic DM abundance, and the DM annihilation products are compatible with current antiproton and gamma ray observations. This scenario can succeed without introducing any additional degrees of freedom beyond those already in the MSSM.

  14. Sommerfeld enhancement of invisible dark matter annihilation in galaxies and galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Man Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations indicate that core-like dark matter structures exist in many galaxies, while numerical simulations reveal a singular dark matter density profile at the center. In this article, I show that if the annihilation of dark matter particles gives invisible sterile neutrinos, the Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation cross-section can give a sufficiently large annihilation rate to solve the core-cusp problem. The resultant core density, core radius, and their scaling relation generally agree with recent empirical fits from observations. Also, this model predicts that the resultant core-like structures in dwarf galaxies can be easily observed, but not for large normal galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  15. Sommerfeld enhancement of invisible dark matter annihilation in galaxies and galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Ho

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations indicate that core-like dark matter structures exist in many galaxies, while numerical simulations reveal a singular dark matter density profile at the center. In this article, I show that if the annihilation of dark matter particles gives invisible sterile neutrinos, the Sommerfeld enhancement of the annihilation cross-section can give a sufficiently large annihilation rate to solve the core-cusp problem. The resultant core density, core radius, and their scaling relation generally agree with recent empirical fits from observations. Also, this model predicts that the resultant core-like structures in dwarf galaxies can be easily observed, but not for large normal galaxies and galaxy clusters.

  16. Short-range dislocation interactions using molecular dynamics: Annihilation of screw dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of a large-scale atomistic study of the annihilation of oppositely signed screw dislocations in an fcc metal using molecular dynamics (MD) and an Embedded-Atom-Method (EAM) potential for Cu. The mechanisms of the annihilation process are studied in detail. From the simulation results, we determined the interaction energy between the dislocations as a function of separation. These results are compared with predictions from linear elasticity to examine the onset of non-linear-elastic interactions. The applicability of heuristic models for annihilation of dislocations in large-scale dislocation dynamics simulations is discussed in the light of these results. copyright 1998 Materials Research Society

  17. Positron annihilation study of Fesub(1-x)-Bsub(x) crystalline binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fesub(1-x)-Bsub(x) system with x=0, 0.025, 0.099, 0.150, 0.185, 0.307, 0.333, 0.500 and 1.00 was studied by measuring positron angular correlation and Doppler broadening of annihilation γ-line energy. The dependence of the h parameter indicates a tendency for a preferred annihilation of positron at a B atomic site in the concentration range x <= 0.333. The S parameter obtained from the energy distribution of the annihilation line gives the same conclusion as does the dependence of the h parameter. (author)

  18. Resolved Photon Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Drees, Manuel; Godbole, Rohini M.(Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science, 560012, Bangalore, India)

    1995-01-01

    We review the present level of knowledge of the hadronic structure of the photon, as revealed in interactions involving quarks and gluons ``in" the photon. The concept of photon structure functions is introduced in the description of deep--inelastic $e \\gamma$ scattering, and existing parametrizations of the parton densities in the photon are reviewed. We then turn to hard \\gamp\\ and \\gaga\\ collisions, where we treat the production of jets, heavy quarks, hard (direct) photons, \\jpsi\\ mesons, ...

  19. Resolved Photon Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Godbole, RM

    1998-01-01

    After giving a very brief introduction to the resolved photon processes, I will summarise the latest experimental information from HERA, on resolved photon contribution to large pt jet production as well as to direct photon production. I will point out the interesting role that resolved photon processes can play in increasing our understanding of the dynamics of the Quarkonium production. I will then discuss the newer information on the parton content of virtual photons as well as the kt dist...

  20. Dark Sunshine: Detecting Dark Matter through Dark Photons from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jonathan L; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter may interact with the Standard Model through the kinetic mixing of dark photons, $A'$, with Standard Model photons. Such dark matter will accumulate in the Sun and annihilate into dark photons. The dark photons may then leave the Sun and decay into pairs of charged Standard Model particles that can be detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. The directionality of this "dark sunshine" is distinct from all astrophysical backgrounds, providing an opportunity for unambiguous dark matter discovery by AMS. We perform a complete analysis of this scenario including Sommerfeld enhancements of dark matter annihilation and the effect of the Sun's magnetic field on the signal, and we define a set of cuts to optimize the signal probability. With the three years of data already collected, AMS may discover dark matter with mass 1 TeV $\\lesssim m_X \\lesssim$ 10 TeV, dark photon masses $m_{A'} \\sim \\mathcal O(100)$ MeV, and kinetic mixing parameters $10^{-11} \\lesssim \\varepsilon \\lesssim 10^{-8}$. The propose...

  1. Nuclear photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max Planck Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-09

    With the planned new {gamma}-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 10{sup 13}{gamma}/s and a band width of {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -3}, a new era of {gamma} beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University (USA) with 10{sup 8}{gamma}/s and {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 3 Dot-Operator 10{sup -2}. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for {gamma} beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused {gamma} beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the {gamma} beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for {gamma} beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for {gamma} beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the {gamma}-beam facility, the {gamma}-beam optics and {gamma} detectors. We can trade {gamma} intensity for band width, going down to {Delta}E{gamma}/E{gamma} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -6} and address individual nuclear levels. The term 'nuclear photonics' stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with {gamma}-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, {gamma} beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to {mu}m resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of

  2. Polarized photon production in non-central heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strong angular momentum in non-central heavy-ion collisions can lead to global quark polarization in a quark gluon plasma (QGP) through spin-orbit coupling. The global quark polarization can be transferred to a polarization of massive secondary particles like the Λ-hyperon. So far only an upper bound for the Λ-hyperon polarization PΛ, anti Λ≤0.02 has been found, but its result is affected by all stages of the collision to an unknown degree. Photons on the other hand are likely to leave the QGP without further interaction and thus provide a primary probe for thermodynamic properties of the QGP. In this work we study the possibility to detect global quark polarization using photons emitted from the QGP through Compton scattering of quarks (antiquarks) and gluons, qg→qγ(anti qg→anti qγ), and annihilation of quarks and antiquarks, q anti q→gγ. We calculate the visibility of the photon polarization for various degrees of momentum anisotropy of the QGP that naturally arise due to the anisotropic expansion of the QGP itself. We find that especially for anisotropies compressed along the beam axis and higher photon energies, global quark polarization is transferred efficiently to circular polarization of photons

  3. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid-state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as a cage for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale thus paves the way to the realisation of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This should contribute toward meeting the demands for a greater miniaturisation that the processing of an ever increasing number of data requires. Photonic Crystals intends at providing students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background needed for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found applications. As such, it aims at building brid...

  4. Photonic Crystals Towards Nanoscale Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lourtioz, Jean-Michel; Berger, Vincent; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Maystre, Daniel; Tchelnokov, Alexei; Pagnoux, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Just like the periodical crystalline potential in solid state crystals determines their properties for the conduction of electrons, the periodical structuring of photonic crystals leads to envisioning the possibility of achieving a control of the photon flux in dielectric and metallic materials. The use of photonic crystals as cages for storing, filtering or guiding light at the wavelength scale paves the way to the realization of optical and optoelectronic devices with ultimate properties and dimensions. This will contribute towards meeting the demands for greater miniaturization imposed by the processing of an ever increasing number of data. Photonic Crystals will provide students and researchers from different fields with the theoretical background required for modelling photonic crystals and their optical properties, while at the same time presenting the large variety of devices, ranging from optics to microwaves, where photonic crystals have found application. As such, it aims at building bridges between...

  5. Photon-photon scattering: a tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yi; Czarnecki, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Long-established results for the low-energy photon-photon scattering, gamma gamma --> gamma gamma, have recently been questioned. We analyze that claim and demonstrate that it is inconsistent with experience. We demonstrate that the mistake originates from an erroneous manipulation of divergent integrals and discuss the connection with another recent claim about the Higgs decay into two photons. We show a simple way of correctly computing the low-energy gamma gamma scattering.

  6. Azimuthal Correlations in Photon-Photon Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Arteaga, N.; Carimalo, C.; Kessler, P.; Ong, S.; Panella, O.

    1995-01-01

    Using the general helicity formula for $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ collisions, we are showing that it should be possible to determine a number of independent ``structure functions'', i.e. linear combinations of elements of the two-photon helicity tensor, through azimuthal correlations in two-body or quasi two-body reactions induced by the photon-photon interaction, provided certain experimental conditions are satisfied. Numerical results of our computations are presented for some particular processes...

  7. Aspherical Photon and Anti-Photon Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbons, G W

    2016-01-01

    In this note we identify photon surfaces and anti-photon surfaces in some physically interesting spacetimes, which are not spherically symmetric. All of our examples solve physically reasonable field equations, including for some cases the vacuum Einstein equations, albeit they are not asymptotically flat. Our examples include the vacuum C-metric, the Melvin solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory and generalisations including dilaton fields. The (anti-)photon surfaces are not round spheres, and the lapse function is not always constant.

  8. Photonic Eigenmodes in a Photonic Crystal Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    E. Ya. Glushko; O. E. Glushko; L. A. Karachevtseva

    2012-01-01

    Photonic membranes are the most widely used kind of 2D photonic crystals in signal processing. Nevertheless, some important aspects of electromagnetic field behavior in membrane like photonic crystals (MPCs) need detail investigation. We develop the approach close to resonant coupling modes method which unites both external and intrinsic problems, in-plane and out-of-plane geometries, and resonator properties of MPC. The resonator standing modes are excited by an external source through the s...

  9. Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischhauer, Michael; Pohl, Thomas; Gorshkov, Alexey Vyacheslavovich; Otterbach, Johannes; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-phot...

  10. Photon statistics of intense entangled photon pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Schlawin, F.; Mukamel, S

    2013-01-01

    Time- and frequency-gated two-photon counting is given by a four-time correlation function of the electric field. This reduces to two times with purely time gating. We calculate this function for entangled photon pulses generated by parametric down-conversion. At low intensity, the pulses consist of well-separated photon pairs, and crossover to squeezed light as the intensity is increased. This is illustrated by the two-photon absorption signal of a three-level model, which scales linearly fo...

  11. Effect of positron-atom interactions on the annihilation gamma spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G; Wang, F; Gribakin, G F; Surko, C M

    2012-01-01

    Calculations of gamma spectra for positron annihilation on a selection of molecules, including methane and its fluoro-substitutes, ethane, propane, butane and benzene are presented. The annihilation gamma spectra characterise the momentum distribution of the electron-positron pair at the instant of annihilation. The contribution to the gamma spectra from individual molecular orbitals is obtained from electron momentum densities calculated using modern computational quantum chemistry density functional theory tools. The calculation, in its simplest form, effectively treats the low-energy (thermalised, room-temperature) positron as a plane wave and gives annihilation gamma spectra that are about 40% broader than experiment, although the main chemical trends are reproduced. We show that this effective "narrowing" of the experimental spectra is due to the action of the molecular potential on the positron, chiefly, due to the positron repulsion from the nuclei. It leads to a suppression of the contribution of smal...

  12. Multiplicity distributions in e+e- annihilation into hadrons and the extended modified negative binomial

    OpenAIRE

    Tchikilev, O. G.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that simple extension of the modified negative binomial distribution describes negatively charged particle multiplicity distributions in e+e- annihilation, measured in the whole phase space, as well as the modified negative binomial.

  13. Prospects of detecting gamma-ray emission from galaxy clusters: cosmic rays and dark matter annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Pinzke, Anders; Bergstrom, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We study the possibility for detecting gamma-ray emission in galaxy clusters. We consider 1) cosmic ray (CR) induced pion decay which is thought to dominate the astrophysical signal from clusters, 2) different representative benchmark models of supersymmetric dark matter (DM), and 3) leptophilic models of DM annihilation that include a Sommerfeld enhancement (SFE). To model DM annihilation, we consider hadronization of annihilating neutralinos, internal bremsstrahlung, and inverse Compton emission from the cosmic microwave background as well as from a realistic spatial and spectral distribution of dust and stellar light. We predict the Virgo and Fornax clusters to be the brightest DM sources and find a particularly low CR induced background for Fornax. For a minimum substructure mass given by the DM free-streaming scale, we find a substructure boost factor of more than 1000. Since the annihilation flux of substructures is mostly contributed by the regions around the virial radius, the resulting surface bright...

  14. Constraints on Dark Matter Annihilation/Decay from the Isotropic Gamma-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei; Lin, Su-Jie; Yin, Peng-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the constraints on dark matter (DM) annihilation/decay from the Fermi-LAT Isotropic Gamma-Ray Background (IGRB) observation. We consider the contributions from both extragalactic and galactic DM components. For DM annihilation, the evolutions of extragalactic DM halos are taken into account. We find that the IGRB constraints under some DM subhalo models can be comparable to those derived from the observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We also use the IGRB results to constrain the parameter regions accounting for the latest AMS-02 electron-positron anomaly. We find that the majority of DM annihilation/decay channels are strongly disfavored by the latest Fermi-LAT IGRB observation; only DM annihilation/decay to $\\mu^+\\mu^-$ may be valid.

  15. Kinetic behaviour of two-species-group aggregation process with complete annihilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯见洪; 林振权; 王向红

    2003-01-01

    We propose a two-species-group aggregation-annihilation model in which an irreversible aggregation reaction occurs between any two clusters of the same species, and an irreversible joint annihilation reaction occurs between two distinct species groups. Based on the mean-field theory, we have investigated the rate equations of the process with constant reaction rates to obtain the asymptotic descriptions of the cluster-mass distributions. The results indicate that for the symmetrical initial cases the kinetic behaviour of the system depends crucially on the ratio of the equivalent aggregation rate to the annihilation rate. The cluster-mass distribution of each species always obeys a conventional or modified scaling law in each individual case. Moreover, all the species cannot finally survive except for the cases in which at least one equivalent aggregation rate is less than twice the annihilation rate.

  16. Kinetic behaviour of two—species—group aggregation process with complete annihilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KeJian-Hong; LinZhen-Quan; WangXiang-Hong

    2003-01-01

    We propose a two-species-group aggregation-annihilation model in which an irreversible aggregation reaction occurs between any two clusters of the same species, and an irreversible joint annihilation reaction occurs between two distinct species groups. Based on the mean-field theory, we have investigated the rate equations of the process with constant reaction rates to obtain the asymptotic descriptions of the cluster-mass distributions. The results indicate that for the symmetrical initial cases the kinetic behaviour of the system depends crucially on the ratio of the equivalent aggregation rate to the annihilation rate. The cluster-mass distribution of each species always obeys a conventional or modified scaling law in each individual case. Moreover, all the species cannot finally survive except for the cases in which at least one equivalent aggregation rate is less than twice the annihilation rate.

  17. The dominant contributions of the inner valence electrons to the positron annihilation process in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron–electron annihilation gamma-ray spectra of methanol have been studied in the present work. The contributions of the bound electrons to the Doppler-shift of gamma-ray spectra have been analysed as well. These bound electrons are divided into three groups: core, inner valence and outer valence rather than the conventional two groups: core and valence in the positron annihilation process in the present work. The results obtained show a dominance of the inner valence electrons of methanol rather than the electrons occupied in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in the positron–electron annihilation process. These inner valence electrons occupied in 3a′ and 4a′ orbitals consist of over 80% outermost atomic 2s electrons in oxygen and carbon atoms. That the positron prefers to annihilate with these outermost s electrons in atoms is suggested.

  18. Monochromatic neutrinos from massive fourth generation neutrino annihilation in the Sun and Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation inside the Earth and Sun of heavy (with the mass of 50 GeV) primordial neutrinos and antineutrinos of the fourth generation and their successive annihilation is considered. The minimal estimations of annihilational fluxes of monochromatic e, μ, τ neutrinos (neutrinos and antineutrinos) with the energy of 50 GeV are 4.1·10-6cm-2·s-1 from the Earth core and 1.1·10-7cm-2·s-1 from the Sun core. That makes the analysis of underground neutrino observatory data the additional source of information on the existence of massive stable 4th generation neutrino. It is shown that due to the kinetic equilibrium between the influx of the neutrinos and their annihilation the existence of new U(1)-gauge interaction of the 4th generation neutrino does not virtually influence the estimations of annihilational e-, μ-, τ-neutrino fluxes

  19. Jets in e+e- annihilation and in reactions with high transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of jet production in annihilation e+e-→hadrons with an introduction to the phenomenology of reactions with high transverse momentum are presented. Cases of forward and backward jets are examined

  20. Investigation of the crystal lattice defects by means of the positrons annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the positrons annihilation methods as a tool for the crystal defects studies is presented. The short description of the positron - crystal interactions and different positron capture models are discussed. 192 refs, 67 figs, 6 tabs