WorldWideScience

Sample records for annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

  1. Single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy with LYSO scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Deller, A.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-08-01

    We have evaluated the application of a lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) based detector to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. We compare this detector directly with a similarly configured PbWO4 scintillator, which is the usual choice for such measurements. We find that the signal to noise ratio obtained using LYSO is around three times higher than that obtained using PbWO4 for measurements of Ps excited to longer-lived (Rydberg) levels, or when they are ionized soon after production. This is due to the much higher light output for LYSO (75% and 1% of NaI for LYSO and PbWO4 respectively). We conclude that LYSO is an ideal scintillator for single-shot measurements of positronium production and excitation performed using a low-intensity pulsed positron beam.

  2. A positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study of porous silicon using a continuous lifetime fitting algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work we report on a positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) investigation of porous silicon using a continuous lifetime fitting algorithm. Our motivation lies in the underlying disadvantage in discrete lifetime fitting algorithms where the number of components must initially be assumed since in general a realistic spectrum does not uniquely determine this number. This becomes particularly apparent when looking at highly disordered systems where the notion of a discrete spectrum may be invalid and indeed crucial to an understanding of the optical absorption and photo-luminescence properties. Using the PALS data collected from different porous silicon samples in conjunction with other methods of characterisation, we have extended the findings of previous work. In particular we resolve three rather than two ortho-positronium components, suggesting that there may be an additional intermediary scale of porosity in which ortho-positronium annihilates. We also establish the existence of a very weak ortho-positronium component in the pre-anodised wafers at a time scale approximately equal to the longest time ortho-positronium component seen in porous silicon, suggesting that irregularities of a particular magnitude exist before anodisation and that these may, in part, be the catalyst for the initial pore formation process

  3. Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using an S-band compact electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed using an S-band compact electron linac at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). The high energy (5 photons pulse−1), and ultra-short pulse (3 ps pulse width) photon beam creates positrons throughout an entire sample via pair production. A positron lifetime spectrum can be obtained by measuring the time difference between the accelerator's RF frequency and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. The positron lifetimes for lead and yttria-stabilized zirconia samples have been successfully measured. - Highlights: ► Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer has been developed. ► Defect analysis for thick materials is possible by using our spectrometer. ► The positron lifetime for a lead and a YSZ has been successfully measured

  4. A Review of Studies of Polymeric Membranes by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A review is presented of studies of polymeric membranes by applying positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). PALS has been used to study subnanometer-sized holes, to determine their size distribution and free-volume fractions, and to probe molecular-sized vacancies in glassy polymers. At present, PALS is believed to be a highly effective physical method for the examination of polymeric membranes.

  5. Investigation on the porosity of zeolite NU-88 by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven well characterized zeolites were investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The lifetime spectra were analysed in four discrete components. The third one was associated with ortho-positronium annihilation in the channels, framed in terms of infinite cylinders. Differences between the radii determined from the positron annihilation technique and X-ray diffraction data were found and explained in terms of the physical structure of the channel. An analogous study on a high-silica NU-88 zeolite gave a value of 0.33 nm for the corresponding radius, in agreement with Ar and N2 adsorption data as well as with the catalytic behaviour of this zeolite in several acid catalyzed reactions. The longest lifetime component in NU-88 reveals the existence of mesopores, with average radius of about 1.8 nm, which could explain the importance of hydrogen transfer reactions in this zeolite.

  6. Study of PRIMAVERA steel samples by positron annihilation spectroscopy technique II – Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present article, a positron annihilation lifetime technique was used for the study of VVER-440/230 weld materials, manufactured in the frame of the international PRIMAVERA project on microstructural investigation of the irradiated WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel steel. The present results complement our previous report of positron angular correlation experiments and provide in-depth characterization of vacancy type defects behavior under irradiation and thermal treatment. The results give new insight into the previously published atom probe tomography and angular correlation of annihilation radiation studies. The measurements do not show any association of phosphorus or its segregation to the open volume defects investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The embrittlement effects related to the phosphorus seem to be effectively annealed-out during 475 °C thermal treatment and the post annealing microstructure and mechanical properties of the material are consequently affected mostly by agglomerations of vacancy clusters coarsened during thermal treatment.

  7. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study of thermal processing and rehydration of dry leek (Allium porrum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to development of food processing techniques is tested. Dehydrated leeks were an object of the study. Three experiments were performed consisting of evacuating air and volatile compounds from the sample, applying thermal treatment and rehydrating the sample. Distinct changes in positron lifetime spectra allowed the monitoring of alterations in the sample structure. The most likely origin of the particular components present in the spectra was able to be proposed from these data. Changes of the components were ascribed to the various processes occurring in the samples. (authors)

  8. The physical ageing mechanism in glassy polycarbonate studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is used to compare the free volume behaviour in as-extruded and aged polycarbonate. The lifetime and intensity of the orthoPositronium pickoff annihilation component are interpreted to represent mean free volume cavity size and free volume concentration, respectively. The PALS results indicate a lower mean free volume cavity size and quasi-equilibrium free volume concentration in the aged material than in the as-extruded polycarbonate. The physical ageing mechanism is discussed in terms of PALS studies and related studies of physical ageing by other researchers investigating secondary relaxations, local ordering phenomena and partial de-ageing phenomena in glassy polymers. A phenomenological description of the mechanism for physical ageing is developed based on the PALS results and literature survey. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Nanoscopic properties of silica filled polydimethylsiloxane by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, P.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Maurer, F.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was performed on a series of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/fumed silicon dioxide (SiO2) composites at temperatures between -185 and 100degreesC to study the effect of filler content and filler particle size on the free volume properties and the...... positron annihilation characteristics. The glass transition behavior of the PDMS/SiO2 composites was determined with differential scanning calorimetry. A clear influence on the o-Ps lifetime (73) in the polymer upon addition of nano-sized fumed SiO2 was observed at all temperatures. The observed o...... behavior of ordinary molecular liquids was observed in this temperature region. The o-Ps yield was strongly reduced in the crystallization region and by addition Of SiO2. The reduction due to filler addition did, however, in the case of nano-sized SiO2 not follow a linear relationship with filler weight...

  10. Digitized detection of gamma-ray signals concentrated in narrow time windows for transient positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed slow-positron beam generated by an electron linear accelerator was directly used for positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy without any positron storage devices. A waveform digitizer was introduced to simultaneously capture multiple gamma-ray signals originating from positron annihilation events during a single accelerator pulse. The positron pulse was chopped and bunched with the chopper signals also sent to the waveform digitizer. Time differences between the annihilation gamma-ray and chopper peaks were calculated and accumulated as lifetime spectra in a computer. The developed technique indicated that positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy can be performed in a 20 μs time window at a pulse repetition rate synchronous with the linear accelerator. Lifetime spectra of a Kapton sheet and a thermally grown SiO2 layer on Si were successfully measured. Synchronization of positron lifetime measurements with pulsed ion irradiation was demonstrated by this technique

  11. Free volumes studies in Thymoquinone and Carvone β-cyclodextrin nanoparticles by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is used to study free volume in β-cyclodextrin with the encapsulation of thymoquinone and S-carvone, in samples covering the guest to host fraction range from 1:0.1 to 1:1. The results clearly indicate the presence of long lifetime components related to Ps-formation. Although the behavior of the two guests is different, in both cases the results indicate the formation of 1:1 cyclodextrin inclusion compounds. Data show that the addition of carvone to β-cyclodextrin results in a decrease of the o-Ps lifetime corresponding to a reduction of the average radius of cavities from 2.41 Å to 2.29 Å, whereas the addition of thymoquine decreases the radius from 2.57 Å to 2.35 Å. In turn, the intensity varied from 20.55 to 19.20% and from 20.83 to 0.41%, respectively.

  12. A fast detector for single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an intense sub-nanosecond positron pulse impinges upon a target, a pulse of γ-rays is created which can yield information concerning electron-positron pairs just prior to annihilation. Many conventional γ-ray detectors are unable to exploit the timing information contained within such pulses, and we describe here the development of a fast detector that is able to do so. Using a single-crystal PbF2 Cherenkov radiator coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube (PMT), we have produced a detector with a time response of ∼4 ns (primarily determined by the PMT response), as well as a low-efficiency detector with a sub-nanosecond response. Since 511 keV photons produce very little Cherenkov light, the problem of photomultiplier saturation is mitigated and this detector is therefore well suited to single-shot positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (SSPALS) measurements

  13. Nanoporosity in a self-assembled drug delivery system detected by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We present a new drug carrier system that consists of silica hybrid gels having organic side groups. A major difference to existing formulations is that the matrix is generated in the presence of the drug molecule in a self-assembling process. The critical role of pore architecture (size and accessibility) in the tailored drug release is clearly revealed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), while the classical nitrogen adsorption technique (BET method) is not suitable here to indicate the internal void structure. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  14. Structural studies of spinel manganite ceramics with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new transition-metal manganite Cu0.1Ni0.8Co0.2Mn1.9O4 ceramics for temperature sensors with improved functional reliability are first proposed. It is established that the amount of additional NiO phase in these ceramics extracted during sintering play a decisive role. This effect is well revealed only in ceramics having a character fine-grain microstructure, while the monolithization of ceramics caused by great amount of transferred thermal energy reveals an opposite influence. The process of monolitization from the position of evolution of grain-pore structure was studied in these ceramics using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  15. Characterization of control mesoporous glasses (CPGs) using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis has two main goals. Firstly and for the first time, the positron annihilation lifetime technique (PALS) is used to characterize the control porous glasses (CPGs) media. All the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) investigations have been interested in the commercial Vycor glass media of pores size ≤ 4 nm. Therefore, the PALS is used to establish basic correlations between the important physical properties of the CPG (pore size, surface area, and porosity) and the orthopositronium (o-Ps) lifetime. The second goal is to use these correlations to verify the validity of some suggested models and theories to discover possible deviations from the expected behaviour and to discuss the physical point of view for these deviations. Chapter 1 presents an overview of positron, positronium and their interaction with solid materials. Chapter 2 of this thesis is concerned with characterization of porous glass materials. This chapter discusses in detail the preparation methods of porous glasses specially control porous glass and Vycor glass. The gas adsorption phenomenon in porous glass and the related definitions are discussed. The most important terms of the porous glass such as pore size, shape, volume, pore size distribution, surface area, and porosity are discussed. Chapter 3 presents in detail the well known models and the derived equations which correlate between the lifetime of the o-Ps long-lived component and the pore size, pore shape and the temperature dependence of the porous media. Chapter 4 presents an overview of the main experimental techniques used in this thesis, namely positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Chapter 5 explains the sample preparation for the measurements. The chapter represents also the experimental data for the correlation between the o-Ps lifetime and pore sizes for a system of CPG media (from 1 nm to 64 nm). I also studied the temperature dependence of the o-Ps long-lived component in different pore sizes. In this

  16. Characterization of control mesoporous glasses (CPGs) using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed Ahmed, Essmat Mahmoud Hassan

    2008-01-30

    This thesis has two main goals. Firstly and for the first time, the positron annihilation lifetime technique (PALS) is used to characterize the control porous glasses (CPGs) media. All the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) investigations have been interested in the commercial Vycor glass media of pores size {<=} 4 nm. Therefore, the PALS is used to establish basic correlations between the important physical properties of the CPG (pore size, surface area, and porosity) and the orthopositronium (o-Ps) lifetime. The second goal is to use these correlations to verify the validity of some suggested models and theories to discover possible deviations from the expected behaviour and to discuss the physical point of view for these deviations. Chapter 1 presents an overview of positron, positronium and their interaction with solid materials. Chapter 2 of this thesis is concerned with characterization of porous glass materials. This chapter discusses in detail the preparation methods of porous glasses specially control porous glass and Vycor glass. The gas adsorption phenomenon in porous glass and the related definitions are discussed. The most important terms of the porous glass such as pore size, shape, volume, pore size distribution, surface area, and porosity are discussed. Chapter 3 presents in detail the well known models and the derived equations which correlate between the lifetime of the o-Ps long-lived component and the pore size, pore shape and the temperature dependence of the porous media. Chapter 4 presents an overview of the main experimental techniques used in this thesis, namely positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Chapter 5 explains the sample preparation for the measurements. The chapter represents also the experimental data for the correlation between the o-Ps lifetime and pore sizes for a system of CPG media (from 1 nm to 64 nm). I also studied the temperature dependence of the o-Ps long-lived component in different pore sizes. In this

  17. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy of carbon black- and silica-filled rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetime spectroscopy has been used to investigate different grades of carbon black (CB) and silica mixed into a variety of rubbers as a function of CB or silica loading. The spectra were analyzed into three lifetimes. The results show that: (1) The longest observed lifetime, τ3, attributed to ortho positronium formation depends on the rubber but not on filter loading or type of CB. The free volume size in the rubber is not affected by the addition of the filler. (2) The intensity, I3, of ortho positronium formation depends both on the loading and on the type of CB, but is less dependent on loading in the case of silica. (3) The intermediate lifetime, τ2, depends both on the loading of the filler and on the type of CB. For CB, this indicates that τ2 is not simply the additive result of bulk annihilation in the rubber and CB. Rather the CB loading creates new trapping sites at the CB-rubber interface that depend on the type of CB. (orig.)

  18. Structural studies of spinel manganite ceramics with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klym, H; Shpotyuk, O; Hadzaman, I [Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, 79031 (Ukraine); Ingram, A [Opole University of Technology, 75 Ozimska str., Opole, 45370 (Poland); Filipecki, J, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua, E-mail: klymha@yahoo.com [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 Armii Krajowei, 42201, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2011-04-01

    The new transition-metal manganite Cu{sub 0.1}Ni{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 1.9}O{sub 4} ceramics for temperature sensors with improved functional reliability are first proposed. It is established that the amount of additional NiO phase in these ceramics extracted during sintering play a decisive role. This effect is well revealed only in ceramics having a character fine-grain microstructure, while the monolithization of ceramics caused by great amount of transferred thermal energy reveals an opposite influence. The process of monolitization from the position of evolution of grain-pore structure was studied in these ceramics using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  19. Nanoporous Structure in Low-Dielectric Films with Positronium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yi-Fan; SUN Jia-Ning; D. W. Gidley

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate nano-porous structures in thin low-dielectric films, i.e. the pore sizes, distributions, and interconnectivity, by using depth profiled positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). It is found that PALS has good sensitivity to probe both interconnected and closed pores in the range from 0.3nm to 30nm, even in the film buried beneath a diffusion barrier. A series of low dielectric constant films of organosilicon-silsequioxane with different weight percentages of porogen have been comparatively investigated. The PALS technique can be used to distinguish the open porosity from the closed one, to determine the pore size, and to detect the percolation threshold with the increasing porosity that represents the transition from closed pores to interconnected pores.Furthermore, the pore percolation length can be derived.

  20. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) application in metal barrier layer integrity for porous low- k materials

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Lin; Gidley, D W; Wetzel, J T; Monnig, K A; Ryan, E T; Simon, Jang; Douglas, Yu; Liang, M S; En, W G; Jones, E C; Sturm, J C; Chan, M J; Tiwari, S C; Hirose, M

    2002-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a useful tool to pre-screen metal barrier integrity for Si-based porous low-k dielectrics. Pore size of low-k, thickness of metal barrier Ta, positronium (Ps) leakage from PALS, trench sidewall morphology, electrical test from one level metal (1LM) pattern wafer and Cu diffusion analysis were all correlated. Macro-porous low-k (pore size >=200 AA) and large scale meso-porous low-k (>50~200 AA) encounter both Ps leakage and Cu diffusion into low-k dielectric in the 0.25 mu mL/0.3 mu mS structures when using SEMATECH in-house PVD Ta 250 AA as barrier layer. For small scale meso-porous (>20~50 AA) and micro- porous (<=20 AA) low-k, no Ps leakage and no Cu diffusion into low-k were observed even with PVD Ta 50 AA, which is proved also owing to sidewall densification to seal all sidewall pores due to plasma etch and ash. For future technology, smaller pore size of porous Si-based low-k (=<50 AA) will be preferential for dense low-k like trench sidewall to...

  1. On irradiated poly(ethylene naphthalate) studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ethylene naphthalate), PEN, irradiated by γ-rays has been studied by positron annihilation lifetime (PAL). The PAL measurements were performed in the temperature range between 25 to 150 C for three samples (non-, 1 and 5 Mrad γ-irradiated). The ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime, τ3, is varying depending upon the phase of the polymer. The data clearly revealed the glass transition temperature, Tg, which is shifted toward lower values upon irradiation 5 Mrad, which could be attributed to the decrease in the degree of crystallinity. This is in consistent with the wide-angle X-ray scattering data. The thermal expansion coefficient values for the three samples indicate decrease in the crystallinity with increasing irradiation. To our knowledge no positron annihilation studies on PEN exist in the literature, so the results reported here may be considered new and important. (orig.)

  2. Study of PRIMAVERA Steel Samples by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy Technique II – Lifetime Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    KRSJAK VLADIMIR; GRAFUTIN V.; O.V. Ilyukhina; BURCL Rudolf; BALLESTEROS AVILA ANTONIO; Haehner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the present article, a positron annihilation lifetime technique was used for the study of VVER-440/230 weld materials, manufactured in the frame of the international PRIMAVERA project on microstructural investigation of the irradiated WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel steel. The present results complement our previous report of positron angular correlation experiments and provide in-depth characterization of vacancy type defects behavior under irradiation and thermal treatment. The results ...

  3. Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using ultrashort laser-Compton-scattered gamma-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Y.; Toyokawa, H.; Kuroda, R.; Yamamoto, N.; Adachi, M.; Tanaka, S.; Katoh, M.

    2013-05-01

    High-energy ultrashort gamma-ray pulses can be generated via laser Compton scattering with 90° collisions at the UVSOR-II electron storage ring. As an applied study of ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, a new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed. Ultrashort gamma-ray pulses with a maximum energy of 6.6 MeV and pulse width of 2.2 ps created positrons throughout bulk lead via pair production. Annihilation gamma rays were detected by a BaF2 scintillator mounted on a photomultiplier tube. A positron lifetime spectrum was obtained by measuring the time difference between the RF frequency of the electron storage ring and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. We calculated the response of the BaF2 scintillator and the time jitter caused by the variation in the total path length of the ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, annihilation gamma rays, and scintillation light using a Monte Carlo simulation code. The positron lifetime for bulk lead was successfully measured.

  4. Photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy using ultrashort laser-Compton-scattered gamma-ray pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Y; Toyokawa, H; Kuroda, R; Yamamoto, N; Adachi, M; Tanaka, S; Katoh, M

    2013-05-01

    High-energy ultrashort gamma-ray pulses can be generated via laser Compton scattering with 90° collisions at the UVSOR-II electron storage ring. As an applied study of ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, a new photon-induced positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy approach has been developed. Ultrashort gamma-ray pulses with a maximum energy of 6.6 MeV and pulse width of 2.2 ps created positrons throughout bulk lead via pair production. Annihilation gamma rays were detected by a BaF2 scintillator mounted on a photomultiplier tube. A positron lifetime spectrum was obtained by measuring the time difference between the RF frequency of the electron storage ring and the detection time of the annihilation gamma rays. We calculated the response of the BaF2 scintillator and the time jitter caused by the variation in the total path length of the ultrashort gamma-ray pulses, annihilation gamma rays, and scintillation light using a Monte Carlo simulation code. The positron lifetime for bulk lead was successfully measured. PMID:23742543

  5. Study of poly(methyl methacrylate) via positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    positron annihilation lifetimes (PAL) were measured for two different viscosity average molecular weight of poly(methyl methacrylate). PMMA. samples as a function of temperature. The measurements were performed under vacuum in the temperature range from 22 to 150 degree C with interval of 10 degrees. The lifetime spectra were analyzed using two methods; 1) average results of the ortho-positronium (o-ps) lifetime and its intensity obtained by PATFIT program, and 2) the p-ps lifetime and o-ps hole volume distributions given by bayes theorem and the maximum entropy principle using MELT program. The o-ps lifetime decreases by increasing the viscosity-average molecular weight while it increases with increasing temperature. On the hand, the o-ps intensity as well as the relative fractional of the o-ps hole volume shows behavior in contrast to the o-ps lifetime with the viscosity-average molecular weight weight . Within the temperature range, two different transitions are observed. The first transition temperature is due to the reduction of non equilibrium states that are frozen below this temperature. The other one is in accordance with the glass transition temperature of PMMA

  6. Permeability of gases in polyacetylenes and free volume obtained by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra (PALS) of nine substituted polyacetylenes in vacuum and in air were analysed with aim to determine free volume and influence of the atmosphere. Studied glassy polymers in wide variation of permeability showed bimodal distribution of free volume elements. Good correlation between long-live component(s) of PALS spectra of trialkylsilyl-, denyl- and adamantyl-substituted polyacetylenes and permeability of oxygen and nitrogen is suitable for quickly and non-destructive evaluation of free volume of the polymers and for their screening of membranes. (author)

  7. Positron Annihilation Lifetimes in Compacted Iron Powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been performed on iron powder as a function of compacted powder load. The ortho-positronium lifetime increases from 1.45 to 2.55 ns with compaction load increment from 30 to 50 tons. By increasing the compaction load, the ultimate stress and hardness increases and the ductlity decreases. The result shows that there is a direct correlation between the void size and the load decrement. These results will be presented and discussed

  8. Probing Cu Diffusion Barrier Layers on Porous Low-Dielectric-Constant Films by Posireonium Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yi-Fan; SUN Jia-Ning; Gidley D.W.

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two kinds of Cu diffusion barrier layers, sealedfilms and capped fi1ms, on nanoporous low-dielectric-constant filmsare investigated by positronium annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). We have found that the minimumthickness of Ta to form an effective diffusion barrier is affected by the pore size. The films with large poresrequire thick barrier layers to form effective diffusion barriers. In addition, a possible ultra-thin diffusion barrier,i.e. a plasma-induced densification layer, has also been investigated. The PALS data confirm that a porouslow-dielectric-constant thin film can be shrunk by exposure to plasma. This shrinkage is confined to a surfacelayer of collapsed pores and forms a dense layer. The dense layer tends to behave as Ps (positronium) diffusionbarriers. Indeed, the controlled thin "skin" layer could prevent Cu diffusion into the underlying dielectrics.

  9. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M., E-mail: ccma@che.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tan, Chung-Sung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsun-Tien [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ{sub 1}) and 753.6 h (ζ{sub 2}) at 55 °C. The ζ{sub 1} of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ{sub 2} can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids.

  10. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ1) and 753.6 h (ζ2) at 55 °C. The ζ1 of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ2 can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids

  11. The assessment of pore connectivity in hierarchical zeolites using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy: instrumental and morphological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Boltz, Marilyne; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Gidley, David; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Mitchell, Sharon

    2016-03-23

    Recent studies demonstrated the power of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to characterise the connectivity and corresponding effectiveness of hierarchical pore networks in zeolites. This was based on the fractional escape of ortho-positronium (Ps), formed within the micropore framework, to vacuum. To further develop this technique, here we assess the impact of the positron implantation energy and of the zeolite crystal size and the particle morphology. Conventional measurements using fast positrons and beam measurements applying moderated positrons both readily distinguish purely microporous ZSM-5 zeolites comprised of single crystals or crystal aggregates. Unlike beam measurements, however, conventional measurements fail to discriminate model hierarchical zeolites with open or constricted mesopore architectures. Several steps are taken to rationalise these observations. The dominant contribution of Ps diffusion to the PALS response is confirmed by capping the external surface of the zeolite crystals with tetraethylorthosilicate, which greatly enhances the sensitivity to the micropore network. A one-dimensional model is constructed to predict the out-diffusion of Ps from a zeolite crystal, which is validated experimentally by comparing coffin-shaped single crystals of varying size. Calculation of the trends expected on the application of fast or moderated positrons indicates that the distinctions in the initial distribution of Ps at the crystal level cannot explain the limited sensitivity of the former to the mesopore architecture. Instead, we propose that the greater penetration of fast positrons within the sample increases the probability of Ps re-entry from intercrystalline voids into mesopores connected with the external surface of zeolite crystals, thereby reducing their fractional escape. PMID:26975204

  12. Design, simulation and performance of a slow positron beam with secondary electron tagging for positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, H. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Djourelov, N., E-mail: nikdjour@inrne.bas.bg [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nédélec, P. [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire IPNL, UCB Lyon 1, Bâtiment Paul Dirac, 4 rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Petrov, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-21

    A positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer using a magnetically guided continuous positron beam and the signal from secondary electrons (SE) emitted from the sample is presented. The positron and secondary electrons trajectories as well as the physics of SE were simulated using GEANT4 program. A special attention was paid to the consequences of positron backscattering, in particular on the shape of the lifetime spectrum. A very good agreement was obtained between simulation and measurements concerning the time resolution (∼300–400 ps FWHM) for the studied range of incident positron energies. Due to the complex shape of the resolution function, the present design of the spectrometer is not suited to study of short lifetimes, but can be used for depth profiling porosimetry of materials with Ps formation with the an excellent peak to background ratio of ∼10{sup 5}.

  13. Investigations into the free-volume changes within starch/plasticizer/nanoclay systems using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Huihua, E-mail: h.liu@federation.edu.au [School of Health Sciences, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Vic (Australia); Chaudhary, Deeptangshu, E-mail: deepc@ers.com.au [ERS Environmental Risk Solutions PTY LTD, Perth, WA (Australia); Campbell, Colin, E-mail: colin.campbell@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Roberts, Jason, E-mail: jxr107@physics.anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Buckman, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Sullivan, James, E-mail: james.sullivan@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Antimatter-Matter Studies (CAMS), Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-11-14

    The free-volume of a matrix is a fundamental parameter that relates to its molecular and bulk characteristics, such as crystalline change and glass transition behavior. In starch-based bionanocomposite, we investigated the effect of the addition of montmorillonite nanoclay (MMT) and food plasticizers (glycerol and sorbitol) on changes of molecular pore size (including pore volume and pore distribution) using the Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) method. The results demonstrated counter-intuitive impact of MMT on the total free-volume where the total free-volume increased within the polymeric matrix. When compared to the pure matrix free-volume, the addition of MMT also resulted in the appearance of a broader distribution of the void sizes. The plasticizers, on the other hand, apparently occupied the void spaces, and therefore decreased the free-volume of the matrix. Further, together with the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, we concluded that this is a result of interplay between the plasticizer-plasticizer interactions and the polymer–plasticizer interactions. For example, in the starch/glycerol/MMT system, the pore radii slightly decrease upon the increasing of glycerol amount (OG210 = O.27 nm and OG220 = 0.26 nm), but the relative weight did increase with the increasing glycerol concentration. However, increasing the sorbitol amount increased the pore size from 0.23 nm(OS210) to 0.28 nm(OS220). Furthermore, the addition MMT in the OS010 system, promote the emergence of a new dateable pore radius(0.90 nm), and the total weight significantly increased from 13.70 (OS010) to 19.5% (OS210). We suggest that the pore variation (size and distribution) due to the MMT and plasticizers are reflected in the polymer glass transition and crystallinity because ultimately, the, total free-volume is a reflection of level of interactions existing within the bulk of these nanocomposites. - Highlights: • PALS is applied to explore the

  14. Positron annihilation spectroscopy - a non-destructive method for lifetime prediction in the field of dynamical material testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatigue behavior of iron-based materials has been investigated by rotating bending testing, employing positron annihilation spectroscopy to probe defects on the atomic level. Positron annihilation spectra have been recorded at various stages of material fatigue. The defect density has been determined by analysing the line shape of the Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation in the photo peak. The line shape parameter (S parameter), a measure of the defect density, showed a linear relation to the logarithm of the number of loadings, thus from only a small number of loadings it is possible to determine the remaining useful life of the sample. Furthermore, along the longitudinal sample axis spatially resolved line-scans are taken using the Bonn Positron Microprobe. Due to the special sample geometry, the stress gradient allows to obtain the S parameter for different values of the applied load using the very same sample. This leads to a way to determine a complete Woehler diagram using a non-destructive method for just one sample. (orig.)

  15. A compact positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李道武; 刘军辉; 章志明; 王宝义; 张天保; 魏龙

    2011-01-01

    Using LYSO scintillator coupled on HAMAMATSU R9800 (a fast photomultiplier) to form the small size γ-ray detectors, a compact lifetime spectrometer has been built for the positron annihilation experiments. The system time resolution FWHM=193 ps and the co

  16. Location and size of nanoscale free-volume holes in crosslinked- polytetrafluoroethylene-based graft-type polymer electrolyte membranes determined by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The location and size of nanoscale free-volume holes (nanoholes) in graft-type polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), which were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization (grafting) of styrene into crosslinked-polytetrafluoroethylene (cPTFE) films and subsequent sulfonation, were investigated using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy. The PAL spectra of the PEMs indicated the existence of two types of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) species, corresponding to nanoholes with volumes of 0.11 and 0.38 nm3. A comparison of the PAL data of the PEMs with that of the precursor original cPTFE and polystyrene-grafted films demonstrated the probability that the smaller holes were located in both the PTFE crystalline phases and the poly(styrene sulfonic acid) graft regions, whereas the larger holes are potentially localized in the PTFE amorphous phases. Taking into account both the size and the location of the nanoholes, it was concluded that gas transport through the larger holes in the amorphous PTFE phases was dominant over permeation through the smaller holes in the PTFE crystals and grafted regions. - Highlights: ► Positron annihilation lifetime measurement of graft-type electrolyte membrane. ► There were two types of free-volume holes with different sizes. ► The smaller holes were located in the PTFE crystalline phases and grafted regions. ► The larger holes were located in the PTFE amorphous phases

  17. Positron annihilation lifetime study of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krsjak, V.; Szaraz, Z.; Hähner, P.

    2012-09-01

    A comparative positron annihilation lifetime study has been performed on various commercial ferritic and ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. Both as-extruded and recrystallized materials were investigated. In the materials with recrystallized coarse-grained microstructures, only the positron trapping at small vacancy clusters and yttria nanofeatures was observed. Materials which had not undergone recrystallization treatment clearly showed additional positron trapping which is associated with dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated from a two-component decomposition of the positron lifetime spectra by assuming the first component to be a superposition of the bulk controlled annihilation rate and the dislocation controlled trapping rate. The second component (which translates into lifetimes of 240-260 ps) was found to be well separated in all those ODS materials. This paper presents the potentialities and limitations of the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and discusses the results of the experimental determination of the defect concentrations and sensitivity of this technique to the material degradation due to thermally induced precipitation of chromium-rich α' phases.

  18. Precipitation Study in Inconel 625 Alloy by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Ahmad; W. Ahmad; M.A.Shaikh; Mahmud Ahmad; M.U. Rajput

    2003-01-01

    Precipitation in Inconel 625 alloy has been studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The observeddependence of annihilation characteristics on aging time is attributed to the change of the positron state due to the increaseand decrease of the density and size of the γ″ precipitates. Hardness measurements and lifetime measurements are in goodagreement.

  19. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy Study of Neutron Irradiated High Temperature Superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-δ for Application in Fusion Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterníková, J.; Chudý, M.; Slugeň, V.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Hinca, R.; Degmová, J.; Sabelová, V.

    2012-02-01

    This study focuses on the crystallographic defects introduced by neutron irradiation and the resulting changes of the superconducting properties in the high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This material is considered to be most promising for magnet systems in future fusion reactors. Two different bulk samples, pure non-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) and multi-seed YBa2Cu3O7-δ doped by platinum (MS2F) were studied prior to and after irradiation in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Vienna. Neutron irradiation is responsible for a significant enhancement of the critical current densities as well as for a reduction in critical temperature. The accumulation of small open volume defects (<0.5 nm) partially causes those changes. These defects were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at room temperature. A high concentration of Cu-O di-vacancies was found in both samples, which increased with neutron fluence. The defect concentration was significantly reduced after a heat treatment.

  20. Development of a pico-second life-time spectrometer for positron annihilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation technique is a sensitive probe to investigate various physico-chemical phenomena due to the ability to provide information about the electron momentum and density in any medium. While measurements on the Doppler broadening and angular correlation of annihilation photons provide information about the electron momentum, the electron density at the annihilation site is obtained, by the positron life-time measurement. This report describes the development, optimization and calibration of a high resolution life-time spectrometer (FWHM=230 ps), based on fast-fast coincidence technique, a relatively new concept in nuclear timing spectroscopy. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. Variation of free volume size and content of shape memory polymer -polyurethane - upon temperature studied by positron annihilation lifetime techniques and infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurement and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry were applied to the study of temperature dependencies of free volume parameters and hydrogen bonds in segmented polyurethane, specially fabricated as a shape memory polymer. The variation of free volumes in amorphous region were correlated to that of hydrogen bonding and the shape memory mechanism of polyurethane is elucidated from a microscopic point of view. The relationship between free volume contents and the formation of hydrogen bonds significantly suggests that the shape memory occurs due to the configurational recovery of the microscopic regulation around urethane bundles of hard segment and consequent restoration of soft-segment in polyurethane. (author)

  2. Positron annihilation spectroscopy in condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the investigation of all aspects connected with the annihilation of slow positrons. This work deals with the application of PAS to different problems of materials science. The first chapter is an introduction to fundamental aspects of positron annihilation, as far as they are important to the different experimental techniques of PAS. Chapter 2 is concerned with the information obtainable by PAS. The three main experimental techniques of PAS (2γ-angular correlation, positron lifetime and Doppler broadening) are explained and problems in the application of these methods are discussed. Chapter 3 contains experimental results. According to the different fields of application it was subgrouped into: 1. Investigations of crystalline solids. Detection of structural defects in Cu, estimation of defect concentrations, study of the sintering of Cu powders as well as lattice defects in V3Si. 2. Chemical investigations. Structure of mixed solvents, selective solvation of mixed solvents by electrolytes as well as the micellization of sodium dodecylsulphate in aqueous solutions. 3. Investigations of glasses. Influence of heat treatment and production technology on the preorder of X-amorphous silica glass as well as preliminary measurements of pyrocerams. 4. Investigations of metallic glasses. Demonstration of the influence of production technology on parameters measurable by PAS. Chapter 4 contains a summary as well as an outlook of further applications of PAS to surface physics, medicine, biology and astrophysics. (author)

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime study of radiation-damaged natural zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Gaugliardo, P.; Farnan, I.; Zhang, M.; Vance, E. R.; Davis, J.; Karatchevtseva, I.; Knott, R. B.; Mudie, S.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    Zircons are a well-known candidate waste form for actinides and their radiation damage behaviour has been widely studied by a range of techniques. In this study, well-characterised natural single crystal zircons have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). In some, but not all, of the crystals that had incurred at least half of the alpha-event damage of ∼1019 α/g required to render them structurally amorphous, PALS spectra displayed long lifetimes corresponding to voids of ∼0.5 nm in diameter. The long lifetimes corresponded to expectations from published Small-Angle X-ray Scattering data on similar samples. However, the non-observation by PALS of such voids in some of the heavily damaged samples may reflect large size variations among the voids such that no singular size can be distinguished or. Characterisation of a range of samples was also performed using scanning electron microscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, Raman scattering and X-ray scattering/diffraction, with the degree of alpha damage being inferred mainly from the Raman technique and X-ray diffraction. The observed void diameters and intensities of the long lifetime components were changed somewhat by annealing at 700 °C; annealing at 1200 °C removed the voids entirely. The voids themselves may derive from He gas bubbles or voids created by the inclusion of small quantities of organic and hydrous matter, notwithstanding the observation that no voidage was evidenced by PALS in two samples containing hydrous and organic matter.

  4. Positron annihilation lifetime study of polyvinylpyrrolidone for nanoparticle-stabilizing pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, O; Bujňáková, Z; Baláž, P; Ingram, A; Shpotyuk, Y

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied to characterize free-volume structure of polyvinylpyrrolidone used as nonionic stabilizer in the production of many nanocomposite pharmaceuticals. The polymer samples with an average molecular weight of 40,000 g mol(-1) were pelletized in a single-punch tableting machine under an applied pressure of 0.7 GPa. Strong mixing in channels of positron and positronium trapping were revealed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone pellets. The positron lifetime spectra accumulated under normal measuring statistics were analysed in terms of unconstrained three- and four-term decomposition, the latter being also realized under fixed 0.125 ns lifetime proper to para-positronium self-annihilation in a vacuum. It was shown that average positron lifetime extracted from each decomposition was primary defined by long-lived ortho-positronium component. The positron lifetime spectra treated within unconstrained three-term fitting were in obvious preference, giving third positron lifetime dominated by ortho-positronium pick-off annihilation in a polymer matrix. This fitting procedure was most meaningful, when analysing expected positron trapping sites in polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized nanocomposite pharmaceuticals. PMID:26444751

  5. Positron annihilation lifetime study of Ag-ion exchanged and heat treated soda lime glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabs of soda lime silica glass (15% Na2O) were subjected to Ag+/Na+ ion exchange process and subsequent heat treatment. The change in glass structure and Ag states accompanied with these processes were studied using the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed with a fast-fast coincidence spectrometer employing a multi-parameter acquisition system. The lifetime parameters showed that the Ag+ ion reduction process takes place through two processes; the oxidation reduction reaction with Fe2+ impurities in the glass at heat treatment temperatures <500 deg. C, whereas at heat treatment ≥500 deg. C the reduction takes place through the polymerization reaction. The results also indicated that the heat treatment at 600 deg. C enhanced the formation of Ag metal nanoparticle crystals through the structural relaxation revealed by the free volume defects

  6. Positron annihilation lifetime study of low temperature irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1997-11-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements have been made for electron and neutron irradiated Fe, Fe-Cr, Fe-Cu, Fe-Si, Fe-16Cr-17Ni specimens, and isochronal annealing behaviors were obtained for these metals and alloys. It was found that vacancies start to migrate at about 200 K in Fe and form microvoids, but by the addition of small amount of alloying elements this behavior was changed depending on the alloying elements. Positron lifetime calculations were made to explain the experimental results using EAM (embedded atom method) type potential for the lattice relaxation and the atomic superposition method for the lifetime calculation. Fairly good agreements were obtained for the positron lifetime in a vacancy in Fe and other alloys. (author)

  7. Positron and Positronium Annihilation Lifetime, and Free Volume in Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhibin

    1995-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements were carried out for six polycarbonates of different structures and four polystyrenes of different molecular weight over a wide temperature range covering the glass transition region. The o-Ps mean lifetime is very sensitive to the changes of free volume in those polymers which occur due to change of molecular structure, chain length, and temperature. The influence of the unavoidable e^{+} irradiation and physical aging on the mean lifetime and the intensity of o-Ps annihilation were studied by conducting time dependent measurements on both very aged and rejuvenated samples. Both irradiation and physical aging reduce the formation of positronium, but have no effect on the mean lifetime of Ps atoms. The free volume fraction h obtained from the positron lifetime measurements was compared with the prediction of the statistical mechanical theory of Simha and Somcynsky; good agreement was found in the melt state though clear deviations were observed in the glassy state. A free volume quantity, computed from the bulk volume, which is in a good numerical agreement with the Simha-Somcynsky h-function in the melt, gives improved agreement with the h value calculated from the positron lifetime measurements. To investigate certain anomalies observed in the computer analysis of the positron annihilation lifetime spectra on polymers, we developed a computer simulation of the experimental data, which then was used to test the accuracy of the fitting results in the different circumstances. The influence caused by a possible distribution of the o-Ps mean lifetimes and the width of the spectrometer time resolution function were studied. The theoretical connection between the o-Ps mean lifetime and the free volume hole size was reviewed based on a finite spherical potential well model, and the status of the localized Ps atom in polymers was evaluated by calculation of the barrier transmission probability and the escaping probability of the

  8. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of neon ion irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and Coincidence Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (CDBS) were carried out on Neon ion irradiated MgB2 superconductor. CDBS of unirradiated sample shows similarity to boron spectrum. In contrast, the spectrum of the irradiated sample shows similarity to Mg spectrum. The PALS spectra show that there is decrease in the lifetime of positron in irradiated sample. The decrease in the lifetime is due to neon ion implantation. (author)

  9. Application of positron annihilation lifetime technique for {gamma}-irradiation stresses study in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A. [Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 20279031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Physics Institute, Pedagogical University, Al. Armii Krajowej 13/1542201 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2002-08-01

    The influence of {gamma}-irradiation on the positron annihilation lifetime spectra in chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of As-Ge-S system has been analysed. The correlations between lifetime data, structural features and chemical compositions of glasses have been discussed. The observed lifetime components are connected with bulk positron annihilation and positron annihilation on various native and {gamma}-induced open volume defects. It is concluded that after {gamma}-irradiation of investigated materials the {gamma}-induced microvoids based on S{sub 1}{sup -}, As{sub 2}{sup -}, and Ge{sub 3}{sup -} coordination defects play the major role in positron annihilation processes. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Positron annihilation lifetime study of extended defects in semiconductor glasses and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of atomic shrinkage in network-forming solids initiated by external influences are tested using technique of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at the example of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of arsenic sulphide type and acrylic polymers for dental application. Two state positron trapping is shown to be responsible for atomic shrinkage in chalcogenide glasses, while mixed trapping and ortho-positronium decaying is character for volumetric densification and stress propagation in acrylic dental polymers. At the basis of the obtained results it is concluded that correct analysis of externally-induced shrinkage in polymer networks under consideration can be developed by using original positron lifetime data treatment algorithms to compensate defect-free bulk annihilation channel within two-state positron trapping model and account for an interbalance between simultaneously co-existing positron trapping and orth-positronium related decaying channels within mixed three-state positron annihilation model (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Positron annihilation lifetime study of extended defects in semiconductor glasses and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyko, Olha [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University, Pekarska str. 69, 79010 Lviv (Ukraine); Shpotyuk, Yaroslav [Department of Optoelectronics and Information Technologies, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Dragomanova str. 50, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials, Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Stryjska str. 202, 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Filipecki, Jacek [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej al. 13/15, 42200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    The processes of atomic shrinkage in network-forming solids initiated by external influences are tested using technique of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at the example of chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors of arsenic sulphide type and acrylic polymers for dental application. Two state positron trapping is shown to be responsible for atomic shrinkage in chalcogenide glasses, while mixed trapping and ortho-positronium decaying is character for volumetric densification and stress propagation in acrylic dental polymers. At the basis of the obtained results it is concluded that correct analysis of externally-induced shrinkage in polymer networks under consideration can be developed by using original positron lifetime data treatment algorithms to compensate defect-free bulk annihilation channel within two-state positron trapping model and account for an interbalance between simultaneously co-existing positron trapping and orth-positronium related decaying channels within mixed three-state positron annihilation model (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Characterization of the melting process of PTFE using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2015-06-01

    Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the lifetime of ortho-positronium(o-Ps) is known to be able to be separated into two components due to annihilation in the crystal region and in the amorphous region. The melting process of PTFE was investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that volume expansion with an increase of temperature is dominantly due to the expansion of the amorphous region and a Ps bubble is formed at melting in both regions. The o-Ps relating to the crystal region definitely remains on the surface of crystal at the time of annihilation. The production of lower energy electrons at melting was deduced by the analysis of the Doppler broadened annihilation photopeak, and the increase in the number of such electrons was found to have great influence on the formation of the o-Ps and annihilation processes of positron and o-Ps.

  13. High resolution time positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ORTEC conventional positron lifetime spectrometer (PLS) with 12.9 cm3 plastic scintillation detector (BC-148), mounted with photo-multiplier (8850PMT), CFD discriminator (583) has been installed at the laboratory of physics of Center for Nuclear Techniques (Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission). The technical features of this system were investigated. The results show that the resolution time is better than 195 ps, and peak to background ratio in the spectrum measured with 10 μCi Na-22 is greater than 4000 of this conventional positron lifetime spectroscopy. The results of research using this spectrometer to study the porosity of materials are presented. The positronium formation in the medium of meso- and macro-pores, the correlation of macro pore size, porosity and positron lifetime characteristics will be discussed. The application of the PLS for the purpose of research and training are also proposed. (author)

  14. Studies on microdomain structure in segmented polyether polyurethaneureas by positron annihilation lifetime and small—angle X—ray scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YinChuan-Yuan; GuQing-Chao; 等

    1997-01-01

    The microdomain structure of segmented polyether polyurethaneureas is investigated by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy,small-angle X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry.The experimental results show that the decrease in the domain volume and free volume results from the increase in the hard segment (polyurethaneurea segment)contents as the number-average molecular weight Mn of the soft segments (polyethylene glycol segments)is the same,and that the increase in domain volume and free volume result from the increase in the Mn of the soft segments when the hard segment content is the same or nearly the same.These results demonstrate that positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is a sensitive technique to probe the microdomain structure in polymers.

  15. Positron annihilation lifetime study of interfaces in ternary polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghala, D.; Ramya, P.; Pasang, T.; Raj, J. M.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Williams, J. F.

    2013-06-01

    A new method based on positron lifetime spectroscopy is developed to characterize individual interfaces in ternary polymer blends and hence determine the composition dependent miscibility level. The method owes its origin to the Kirkwood-Risemann-Zimm (KRZ) model for the evaluation of the hydrodynamic interaction parameters (αij) which was used successfully for a binary blend with a single interface. The model was revised for the present work for ternary polymer blends to account for three interfaces. The efficacy of this method is shown for two ternary blends namely poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly (ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and polycaprolactone /poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PCL/SAN/PVC) at different compositions. An effective hydrodynamic interaction parameter, αeff, was introduced to predict the overall miscibility of ternary blends.

  16. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from...... advantages of the use of PAS are pointed out. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  17. Irradiation-induced defects in ZnO studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the point defects induced by 2 MeV electron irradiation (fluence 6 x 1017 cm-2) in single crystal n-type ZnO samples. The positron lifetime measurements have shown that the zinc vacancies in their doubly negative charge state, which act as dominant compensating centers in the as-grown material, are produced in the irradiation and their contribution to the electrical compensation is important. The lifetime measurements reveal also the presence of competing positron traps with low binding energy and lifetime close to that of the bulk lattice. The analysis of the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line indicates that these defects can be identified as neutral oxygen vacancies. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Utility of positron annihilation lifetime technique for the assessment of spectroscopic data of some charge-transfer complexes derived from N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S; Adam, Abdel Majid A; Sharshar, T; Saad, Hosam A; Eldaroti, Hala H

    2014-03-25

    In this work, structural, thermal, morphological, pharmacological screening and positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed on the interactions between a N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NEDA·2HCl) donor and three types of acceptors to characterize these CT complexes. The three types of acceptors include π-acceptors (quinol and picric acid), σ-acceptors (iodine) and vacant orbital acceptors (tin(IV) tetrachloride and zinc chloride). The positron annihilation lifetime parameters were found to be dependent on the structure, electronic configuration, the power of acceptors and molecular weight of the CT complexes. The positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy can be used as a probe for the formation of charge-transfer (CT) complexes. PMID:24291622

  19. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (VCu, VO) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V−Cu - V+O complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  20. Semi-empirical formula for large pore-size estimation from o-Ps annihilation lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The o-Ps annihilation rate in large pore was investigated by the semi-classical approach. The semi-empirical formula that simply correlates between the pore size and the o-Ps lifetime was proposed. The calculated results agree well with experiment in the range from some angstroms to several ten nanometers size of pore. (author)

  1. Surfaces of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals probed by thin-film positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and positron-electron momentum density (PEMD) studies on multilayers of PbSe nanocrystals (NCs), supported by transmission electron microscopy, show that positrons are strongly trapped at NC surfaces, where they provide insight into the surface composition and electronic structure of PbSe NCs. Our analysis indicates abundant annihilation of positrons with Se electrons at the NC surfaces and with O electrons of the oleic ligands bound to Pb ad-atoms at the NC surfaces, which demonstrates that positrons can be used as a sensitive probe to investigate the surface physics and chemistry of nanocrystals inside multilayers. Ab initio electronic structure calculations provide detailed insight in the valence and semi-core electron contributions to the positron-electron momentum density of PbSe. Both lifetime and PEMD are found to correlate with changes in the particle morphology characteristic of partial ligand removal

  2. The study of defects in metallic alloys by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has become in a very useful non destructive testing to the study of condensed matter. Specially, in the last two decades, with the advent of solid state detectors and high-resolution time spectrometers. The basic information obtained with PAS in solid-state physics is on electronic structure in free defect materials. However, positron annihilation techniques (lifetime, angular correlation and Doppler broadening) have been succesfully applied to study crystal lattice defects with lower-than-average electron density, such as vacancies, small vacancy clusters, etc.. In this sense, information about: vacancy formation and migration energies, dislocations, grain boundaries, solid-solid phase transformation and radiation damage was obtained. In this work the application of the positron lifetime technique to study the thermal effects on a fine-grained superplastic Al-Ca-Zn alloy and the quenched-in defects in monocrystals of β Cu-Zn-Al alloy for several quenching temperatures is shown. (Author)

  3. Surfaces of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals probed by thin-film positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and positron-electron momentum density (PEMD studies on multilayers of PbSe nanocrystals (NCs, supported by transmission electron microscopy, show that positrons are strongly trapped at NC surfaces, where they provide insight into the surface composition and electronic structure of PbSe NCs. Our analysis indicates abundant annihilation of positrons with Se electrons at the NC surfaces and with O electrons of the oleic ligands bound to Pb ad-atoms at the NC surfaces, which demonstrates that positrons can be used as a sensitive probe to investigate the surface physics and chemistry of nanocrystals inside multilayers. Ab initio electronic structure calculations provide detailed insight in the valence and semi-core electron contributions to the positron-electron momentum density of PbSe. Both lifetime and PEMD are found to correlate with changes in the particle morphology characteristic of partial ligand removal.

  4. Free volume investigation of imidazolium ionic liquids from positron lifetime spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; Bejan, Dana; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    In this work, relationships between the free volume and various fundamental physical properties (density, surface tension and transport properties) of ionic liquids were investigated. Two imidazolium ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluoro phosphate ([C4MIM][FAP]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[bis(pentafluoroethyl)phosphinyl]imide ([C4MIM][FPI]) were measured by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Changes of the ortho-positronium lifetim...

  5. Optical and microstructural characterization of porous silicon using photoluminescence, SEM and positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C K [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Nahid, F [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C C [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Beling, C D [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Fung, S [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Ling, C C [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Djurisic, A B [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Pramanik, C [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Saha, H [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Sarkar, C K [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2007-12-05

    We have studied the dependence of porous silicon morphology and porosity on fabrication conditions. N-type (100) silicon wafers with resistivity of 2-5 {omega} cm were electrochemically etched at various current densities and anodization times. Surface morphology and the thickness of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Detailed information of the porous silicon layer morphology with variation of preparation conditions was obtained by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS): the depth-defect profile and open pore interconnectivity on the sample surface has been studied using a slow positron beam. Coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) was used to study the chemical environment of the samples. The presence of silicon micropores with diameter varying from 1.37 to 1.51 nm was determined by positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Visible luminescence from the samples was observed, which is considered to be a combination effect of quantum confinement and the effect of Si = O double bond formation near the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface according to the results from photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. The work shows that the study of the positronium formed when a positron is implanted into the porous surface provides valuable information on the pore distribution and open pore interconnectivity, which suggests that positron annihilation spectroscopy is a useful tool in the porous silicon micropores' characterization.

  6. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of High Performance Polymer Films under CO2 Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A. Quarles; John R. Klaehn; Eric S. Peterson; Jagoda M. Urban-Klaehn

    2010-08-01

    Positron annihilation Lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements are reported for six polymer films as a function of carbon dioxide absolute pressure ranging from 0 to 45 psi. Since the polymer films were thin and did not absorb all positrons, corrections were made in the lifetime analysis for the absorption of positrons in the positron source and sample holder using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. Different polymers are found to behave differently. Some polymers studied form positronium and some, such as the polyimide structures, do not. For those samples that form positronium an interpretation in terms of free volume is possible; for those that don’t form positronium, further work is needed to determine how best to describe the behavior in terms of the bulk positron annihilation parameters. Some polymers exhibit changes in positron lifetime and intensity under CO2 pressure which may be described by the Henry or Langmuir sorption models, while the positron response of other polymers is rather insensitive to the CO2 pressure. The results demonstrate the usefulness of positron annihilation spectroscopy in investigating the sorption of CO2 into various polymers at pressures up to about 3 atm.

  7. Study the effect of radiations on poly(ethylene naphthalate) using positron annihilation lifetime technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(ethylene naphthalate), PEN, irradiated by gamma-rays has been by positron annihilation lifetime (PAL). The PAL measurements were performed in the temperature range between 25 to 150 degree C for three samples (non-, 1 and 5 Mrad gamma-irradiated). The ortho-positronium (o-ps) lifetime, T3, is varying depending upon the phase of the polymer. The data clearly revealed the glass transition temperature, Tg, which is shifted toward lower values upon irradiation with 5 mrad, which could be attributed to the decrease in the degree of crystallinity. This is in consistent with the wide angle X-ray scattering data. The thermal expansion coefficient values for the three samples indicate decrease in the crystallinity with increasing irradiation. To our knowledge no positron annihilation studies on PEN exist in the literature, so the results reported here may be considered new and important

  8. Thermal Stability of MgyTi1-y Thin Films Investigated by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopol, A.; Eijt, S. W. H.; Schut, H.; Mulder, F. M.; Plazaola, F.; Dam, B.

    Mg-Ti compounds are attractive candidates as hydrogen storage materials for their fast sorption kinetics and high storage capacity. In this context, an investigation of their thermal stability is of great importance. The thermal stability of MgyTi1-y thin films was investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy. Despite the positive enthalpy of mixing of Mg and Ti, positron Doppler Broadening of Annihilation Radiation (DBAR) depth profiling showed that Mg0.9Ti0.1 films are stable up to 300°C. However, for Mg0.7Ti0.3 films, segregation of Mg and Ti was observed at 300oC by the appearance of a clear Ti signature in the S-W diagrams and in the Doppler broadening depth profiles analyzed using VEPFIT. The thickness of the 250-300 nm thin films remained unchanged during the heating treatments. We further present ab-initio calculations of positron lifetimes of the corresponding metal and metal hydride phases for comparison to our previous positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) study.

  9. Positron annihilation spectroscopy applied to silicon-based materials

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, J W

    2000-01-01

    deposition on silicon substrates has been examined. The systematic correlations observed between the nitrogen content of the films and both the fitted Doppler parameters and the positron diffusion lengths are discussed in detail. Profiling measurements of silicon nitride films deposited on silicon substrates and subsequently implanted with silicon ions at a range of fluences were also performed. For higher implantation doses, damage was seen to extend beyond the film layers and into the silicon substrates. Subsequent annealing of two of the samples was seen to have a significant influence on the nature of the films. Positron annihilation spectroscopy, in conjunction with a variable-energy positron beam, has been employed to probe non-destructively the surface and near-surface regions of a selection of technologically important silicon-based samples. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation lineshape, information on the positrons' microenvironment prior to annihilation may be obtained. T...

  10. Positron Annihilation Lifetime Study of Pure and Doped Polyvinyl Chloride with Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime of pure and doped polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with Al2O3 reflect the effect of concentration as well as temperature on free volume. Therefore, variations of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity have been correlated with changes in the dielectric properties of the pure and doped PVC. The o-Ps lifetime and its intensity show a linear dependence with a discontinuity at 20 % concentration of Al2O3. The size and the fractional of the o-Ps hole volume were estimated from the positron annihilation parameters. Therefore, the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and the positron annihilation parameters on pure and doped PVC with 20 % Al2O3 were studied in the range from 20 to 140 degree C. The shift of the glass transition temperature to lower temperature for the 20 % Al2O3 doped PVC might explain the increase in the electrical conductivity with the concentration of the additive

  11. TiCrV hydrogen storage alloy studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the structural changes of Ti24Cr36V40 alloy prepared by arc-melting using positron annihilation spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as functions of the number of hydrogen pressure swing cycles and degassing temperature. As the hydrogen storage capacity decreased with the number of pressure swing cycles, both positron lifetime and XRD peak width increased. Upon hydriding, the crystal structure changed from bcc to bct with increased lattice constants. The increase in positron lifetime is due to the volume expansion caused by hydride formation. After degassing at 500 deg. C, the hydrogen storage capacity recovered to 95% of the initial level, and the XRD peak width and the lattice constants nearly completely returned to their initial values. However, the positron lifetime was still longer than the initial level suggesting the survival of dislocations. The degradation of hydrogen storage capacity is probably caused by both hydride formation and the generation of dislocations.

  12. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and specific heat study of Neon ion irradiated MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talapatra, A. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bandyopadhyay, S.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)], E-mail: skband@veccal.ernet.in; Nambissan, P.M.G. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sen, Pintu [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)

    2008-02-25

    Specific heat studies under magnetic field and positron annihilation spectroscopy were carried out on 160 MeV Ne ion irradiated polycrystalline MgB{sub 2} samples. There is an unusual decrease in positron lifetime in the irradiated sample which may be due to neon ion implantation. This was also indicated by change in cell volume. Coincidence Doppler Broadening Spectra of Mg, B, irradiated and unirradiated MgB{sub 2} show that positrons primarily annihilate in boron sublattice in the unirradiated sample whereas there is some similarity of the spectrum of the irradiated sample with that of Mg. There is Mg deficiency in the unirradiated sample whereas predominantly boron vacancies exist in Ne ion irradiated MgB{sub 2} sample. Specific heat measurements show that there is a small increase in electronic part of the specific heat and electron-phonon coupling constant.

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and specific heat study of Neon ion irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific heat studies under magnetic field and positron annihilation spectroscopy were carried out on 160 MeV Ne ion irradiated polycrystalline MgB2 samples. There is an unusual decrease in positron lifetime in the irradiated sample which may be due to neon ion implantation. This was also indicated by change in cell volume. Coincidence Doppler Broadening Spectra of Mg, B, irradiated and unirradiated MgB2 show that positrons primarily annihilate in boron sublattice in the unirradiated sample whereas there is some similarity of the spectrum of the irradiated sample with that of Mg. There is Mg deficiency in the unirradiated sample whereas predominantly boron vacancies exist in Ne ion irradiated MgB2 sample. Specific heat measurements show that there is a small increase in electronic part of the specific heat and electron-phonon coupling constant

  14. Polymeric coating degradation in accelerated weathering investigated by using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photo-degradation of a polyurethane-based topcoat induced by accelerated Xe-lamp irradiation is studied using Doppler broadened energy spectra (DBES) and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy coupled with slow positron technique. Significant and similar variations of S-parameter and ortho-positronium intensity (I3) on the coating are observed as functions of depth and of exposure time. Cross-link densities have been measured by the solvent-swelling method. A correlation between the increase of crosslink density and a reduction of free-volume and hole fraction during the degradation is observed. (orig.)

  15. Positron lifetime spectroscopy of vitreous B2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made of the structural data obtained by positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS) for vitreous B2O3 (v-B2O3) and crystalline B2O3 (c-B2O3). Samples of v-B2O3 were dried by holding the melt at 1350K to reduce residual OH groups. Fast quenching and slow cooling were used to obtain glasses having different fictive structures. According to the literature, B3O6 rings are thought to be formed during slow cooling of v-B2O3. PLS measurements show that both the intensity value and the long lifetime component (t3) associated with positron decay in cavities and lifetime component (t1) associated with the positron annihilation in the bulk are different for v-B2O3 and c-B2O3. The low intensity of t3 for c-B2O3 and its high value for v-B2O3 is argued to be due to the presence of different structural units in the two states of B2O3

  16. Positron annihilation lifetime in Fe-Rh alloys deformed by high-speed compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuzumi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai (Japan); Hori, F.; Oshima, R. [Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai (Japan); Komatsu, M.; Kiritani, M. [Research Center for Ultra-High-Speed Plastic Deformation, Hiroshima Inst. of Tech., Saekiku (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In order to examine the role of structural vacancies in the stress-induced phase transitions of B2-type FeRh alloys, Fe-40, 45 and 50 at%Rh specimens were deformed at room temperature with a high-speed compression machine and were studied by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and positron annihilation measurements. It was found from the positron lifetime results that vacancies or vacancy clusters were introduced into the alloy by deformation. The longer lifetime ({tau}{sub 2}) components were changed with the deformation momenta and Rh concentrations. In the case of Fe-50 at%Rh, they were 188 ps and 254 ps after deformation with small or large momenta, respectively. Taking the X-ray results into consideration, it is concluded that an atom movement mechanism forming large vacancy clusters is associated with the B2-A1 transition. The short lifetime ({tau}{sub 1}) of the alloy is accounted for by bulk annihilation in the transformed phases and a high density of dislocations. (orig.)

  17. Positron annihilation spectroscopy study on annealing effect of CuO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianjian; Wang, Jiaheng; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Zhejie; Wu, Yichu, E-mail: ycwu@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Nuclear Solid State Physics, Wuhan University (WHU), Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The microstructure and defects of CuO nanoparticles under isochronal annealing were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD and SEM results indicated that the average grain sizes of CuO nanoparticles grew slowly below 800 °C, and then increased rapidly with the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C. Positron lifetime analysis exhibited that positrons were mainly annihilated in mono-vacancies (V{sub Cu}, V{sub O}) and vacancy clusters when annealing from 200 to 800 °C. Furthermore, W-S plot of Doppler broadening spectra at different annealing temperatures found that the (W, S) points distributed on two different defect species, which suggested that V{sup −}{sub Cu} - V{sup +}{sub O} complexes were produced when the grains grew to bigger size after annealing above 800 °C, and positrons might annihilate at these complexes. (author)

  18. Free-volume mean sizes of polymers probed by positron annihilation spectroscopy: a correlation of results obtained by PAL and by ACAR methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has been developed to analyze the microstructure of polymers. Both positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (ACAR) measurements give direct information about the mean hole sizes of free-volume holes in amorhpous materials. Parallel experiments of PAL and ACAR have been performed in an epoxy polymer as a function of temperature. The free-volume mean hole radii ranging from 2.3 to 3.2 A are obtained. The results obtained by PAL and ACAR agree with each other very well. A correlation of mean free-volume hole sizes obtained by these two methods is established. (orig.)

  19. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of proton irradiated single crystal BCC iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuniewski, Maria A. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 103 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)]. E-mail: okuniews@uiuc.edu; Wells, Doug P. [Department of Physics, Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Campus Box 8263, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Selim, Farida A. [Department of Physics, Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, Campus Box 8263, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Maloy, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, D-5, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 103 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Deo, Chaitanya S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Srivilliputhur, Srinivasan G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Baskes, Michael I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to analyze the open-volume defects created in single crystal, body-centered cubic iron irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The effects of irradiation dose and temperature were investigated. A novel technique utilizing a Bremsstrahlung beam to activate and induce positron decay in the bulk specimens, followed by Doppler broadening spectroscopy, was employed. No open-volume defects were detected in the 0.03 dpa irradiated specimens. However, the 0.3 dpa specimens exhibited an increase in the S parameter when compared to the 0.03 dpa specimens at 723 K. The 0.3 dpa specimen at 723 K indicated an increase in open-volume defects, as the radiation temperature increased compared to the 573 K, 0.3 dpa specimen. This was thought to be a consequence of the void and dislocation loop density decreasing while the void and dislocation loop diameter was increasing.

  20. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of proton irradiated single crystal BCC iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to analyze the open-volume defects created in single crystal, body-centered cubic iron irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The effects of irradiation dose and temperature were investigated. A novel technique utilizing a Bremsstrahlung beam to activate and induce positron decay in the bulk specimens, followed by Doppler broadening spectroscopy, was employed. No open-volume defects were detected in the 0.03 dpa irradiated specimens. However, the 0.3 dpa specimens exhibited an increase in the S parameter when compared to the 0.03 dpa specimens at 723 K. The 0.3 dpa specimen at 723 K indicated an increase in open-volume defects, as the radiation temperature increased compared to the 573 K, 0.3 dpa specimen. This was thought to be a consequence of the void and dislocation loop density decreasing while the void and dislocation loop diameter was increasing

  1. Change of free volume in polymer gels as studied by positron annihilation lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations of free volume size of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel and a polyacrylamide gel during a volume phase transition induced by a change of external environment - temperature, solvent composition, pH, and ion strength is described. The free volume size is probed by positron annihilation lifetime technique. Variations of the free volume size suggest that nanoscopic environment of the gels is affected by the free volume of the solvent phase and an interaction between the polymer chain and the solvent molecule in the swollen state, and by the aggregation of the polymer chain and a balance of the interaction among the polymer chain and the solvent molecules in the collapsed state. It is revealed that the free volume size reflects the essential change of the nanoscopic environment in the gels which could induce the macroscopic volume phase transition. (author)

  2. Estimation of free volumes of elastomer (polymerized siloxane rubber) by positron annihilation lifetime techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to correlate size and content of free volumes present in amorphous region of these polymers and the mechanical and dynamical properties of elastomers, positron annihilation peak profile analysis and lifetime measurements were carried out from 30 K up to melting temperature for several poly(methyl-vinyl-siloxane) containing silica glass powders. S parameter and mean lifetime were adopted as a perspective measure for the rough estimation of the multiplied size and content of free volumes and proved that these parameters worked as a simple measure of the over-all free volumes. The free volume diameters of poly(methyl-vinyl-siloxane) (KE-931-B and KE-931) and poly(methyl-vinyl-siloxane) (KE-951 and KE-971) increased with the elevation of temperature from about 0.63 nm (30 K) to about 0.82 nm (Tm: 225 K) and from about 0.52 nm (30 K) to about 0.80 nm (Tm: 225 K), respectively. The free volume content (I3) of poly(methyl-vinyl-siloxane) (KE-951 and KE-971) is constant from 30 K (20.5% and 26.5%) to 150 K (Tg) and increased to about 29% and 37% at melting point (225 K), respectively, whereas those of poly(methyl-vinyl-siloxane) (KE-931-B and KE-931) increased from 28% and 20.5% (30 K) to 54% and 43% (225 K) monotonously. The presence of pseudo cross-linkage among silanol groups at the interface of elastomers and silica powders was suggested because both size and content of free volume were reduced by the increase of silica powder concentration in the elastomers. The Laplace inversion was applied to positron annihilation decay curve and obtained size distribution of free volume. (author)

  3. Positron-annihilation spectroscopy of defects in metals: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) has made significant contributions to our knowledge regarding lattice defects in metals in two areas: (i) the determination of atomic defect properties, particularly those of monovacancies, and (ii) the monitoring and characterization of vacancy-like microstructure development during post-irradiation of post-quench annealing. The application of PAS to the study of defects in metals is selectively reviewed and critically assessed within the context of other available techniques for such investigations. Possibilities for using the positron as a localized probe of the structure of atomic defects are discussed. Finally, the present status and future potential of PAS as a tool for the study of defects in metals are considered relative to other available techniques. 92 references, 20 figures

  4. Investigation Of Helium Implanted Fe-Cr Alloys By Means Of X-Ray Diffraction And Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Patrik; Gokhman, Aleksandr; Dobročka, Edmund; Bokor, Jozef; Pecko, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been used for the characterization of the two binary alloys Fe-Cr with Cr content 2.36 and 8.39 wt%. The influence of ion implantation on these alloys was studied. Different implantation doses of helium, up to 0.5 C/cm2, were used to simulate neutron-induced damage in a sub-surface region. To characterize the damage, a lattice parameter, coherent domain size, residual stress and a crystallographic texture have been studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). It was found out that these parameters showed a similar dependence on the implantation dose as the positron lifetime determined by positron annihilation spectroscopy.

  5. Influence of high pressure torsion on precipitation in Al-Cu-Mg alloys studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Wolfgang; Puff, Werner; Wuerschum, Roland [Institut fuer Materialphysik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Zehetbauer, Michael; Schafler, Erhard [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Forschungsgruppe Physik Nanostrukturierter Materialien, Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, Universitaet Wien, 1090 Wien (Austria)

    2008-07-01

    High pressure torsion (HPT) may open up an efficient way to refine precipations of supersaturated solutions. In the present work, the influence of HPT on the precipitation in Al-Cu-Mg alloys and on the evolution of the precipitates with subsequent annealing is studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy. HPT is observed to give rise to a fragmentation of metastable nanoscaled precipitates which have formed upon pre-annealing at 200 C (3 hours). Positron lifetime spectroscopy in combination with coincident Doppler broadening of the positron-electron annihilation enables a specific and chemical sensitive distinction between interfacial vacancy-type defects associated with precipitates and the vacancy-type lattice defects formed upon high pressure torsion. Different aging behaviour is observed for undeformed and HPT-deformed samples.

  6. Study on positron annihilation lifetime spectrum of polysilicone rubber after proton radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron annihilation lifetime spectrum (PALS) method was employed to study the effect of proton radiation on microstructure of the space grade KH-L-Y polysilicone rubber. The results show that both τ3 of I3 of the longest lifetime component and the free volume Vf decrease with the increasing of the radiation fluence at the beginning and become level off after 1015 cm-2 radiation fluence. The proton radiation causes decrease in both the free volume of polysilicone rubber, and the distance between the molecules when the radiation fluence is less than 1015 cm-2. However, the proton radiation makes the free volume of silicon rubber increase when the radiation fluence is greater than 1015 cm-2. Both the experimental results of the cross-linking density and DMA indicate that the cross-linking effect due to the proton radiation is predominant in the range of small proton radiation fluence, while the radiation degradation become superior when the proton radiation fluence is larger

  7. Characterization of defect accumulation in neutron-irradiated Mo by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Li, Meimei; Snead, L.L.;

    2008-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy measurements were performed on neutron-irradiated low carbon arc cast Mo. Irradiation took place in the high flux isotope reactor, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at a temperature of 80 +/- 10 degrees C. Neutron fluences ranged from 2 x 10(21) to 8 x 10......(24) n/m(2) (E > 0.1 MeV), corresponding to displacement damage levels in the range from 7.2 x 10(-5) to 2.8 x 10(-1) displacements per atom (dpa). A high density of submicroscopic cavities was observed in the neutron-irradiated Mo and their size distributions were estimated. Cavities were detected even...

  8. Gas Permeations Studied by Positron Annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jen-Pwu; Cao, Huimin; Jean, X.; Yang, Y. C.

    1997-03-01

    The hole volumes and fractions of PC and PET polymers are measured by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Direct correlations between the measured hole properties and gas permeabilities are observed. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to study gas transport and separation of polymeric materials will be discussed.

  9. Bulk-volume behavior of pressure-densified amorphous polymers and free-volume behavior by positron annihilation lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the nature of amorphous polymers, the free volume contribution on the bulk volume change was investigated on the basis of the relationship between the bulk volume behavior by PVT (pressure-volume-temperature) measurement and the free volume behavior by PALS (positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy) measurement. A densified glass, prepared by cooling at constant rate from the melt state temperature to room temperature under 200 MPa, showed smaller bulk volume and free volume than non-densified glass. And the densified glass showed not only the same glass transition temperature (Tg) as non-densified glass but also another transition at lower temperature around (Tg-30 C). In this glass-glass transition, both the bulk volume and free volume of densified glass recovered to those of non-densified glass. Moreover the densified glass showed different thermal behavior from the glass which was enthalpy-relaxed under atmospheric pressure. From those results, it was considered that the free volume behavior largely related to the behavior of amorphous polymers. (orig.)

  10. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt γ-rays produced in nuclear reactions 27Al(1H,γ)28Si and 19F(1H,αγ)16O has been examined. The reaction 19F(1H,αγ)16O is seen to provide higher photon flux (and positron yield) and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of measurements. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by γ-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

  11. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujari, P.K., E-mail: pujari@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Dutta, D.; Maheshwari, P.; Sharma, S.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Srivastava, D. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Krause-Rehberg, R. [Martin Luther University Halle, Dept. of Physics, 06099 Halle (Germany); Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt {gamma}-rays produced in nuclear reactions {sup 27}Al({sup 1}H,{gamma}){sup 28}Si and {sup 19}F({sup 1}H,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O has been examined. The reaction {sup 19}F({sup 1}H,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O is seen to provide higher photon flux (and positron yield) and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of measurements. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by {gamma}-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

  12. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy: A nondestructive method for assay of defects in large engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, P. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Tripathi, R.; Dutta, D.; Maheshwari, P.; Sharma, S. K.; Srivastava, D.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Butterling, M.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology for volumetric assay of defects in large engineering materials nondestructively. It utilizes high energy photons produced by nuclear reaction to create positrons in situ whose fate is followed using conventional positron spectroscopic techniques. The photon induced positron annihilation (PIPA) spectroscopy system has been set-up using a Folded Tandem Ion Accelerator (FOTIA). Possibility of using prompt γ-rays produced in nuclear reactions 27Al( 1H,γ) 28Si and 19F( 1H,αγ) 16O has been examined. The reaction 19F( 1H,αγ) 16O is seen to provide higher photon flux (and positron yield) and measurements have been carried out in large samples of metals and polymers. We could establish good sensitivity of the technique as well as reproducibility in a number of measurements. This technique has been used to carry out defect studies in cold worked zircaloy-2 plates. The measured S-parameter, indicative of defect concentration, was seen to correlate well with the measured residual stress using X-ray technique. The results were validated by γ-induced positron annihilation lifetime measurements at ELBE LINAC based GiPS facility.

  13. Positron annihilation spectroscopy as a tool to develop self healing in aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopy have been applied to probe the free volume generation (vacancies, dislocations and nano-cracks) during plastic deformation of a commercial aluminium AA2024 (T3) alloy. Aim of the total program is to study how solute atoms can be driven to the areas where initial cracking may occur in order to prevent the failure of the specimen. The phenomenon of closing the nano-crack is called Self Healing, and can provide extra strength and ductility to the alloy under some loading conditions. Plastic deformation of over-aged aluminum alloy at room temperature increases the average positron lifetime from initial value of 190 ps to 203 ps. The low momentum parameter S increases in agreement with the increase of open volume defects. The elastic deformation of the sample does not have a recordable effect on the positron annihilation data. It is also shown that the induced damage does not recover after loading the sample, i.e. the AA2024 in the T3 state is non self healing material, as expected, providing important first state result in the research of self healing Al alloys. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Study of microstructure of modified polyethylene films with acrylic and methacrylic acids, by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was preirradiated with γ -rays and after some contact time with the monomers AA and MAA, suitable graft copolymers were obtained at different grafting grades. After their physical-chemistry characterization, the copolymers were studied using the Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). Owing to its sensitive and non-destructive nature PALS has proven to be very useful in studying free-volume properties -at the molecular level- during phase transitions in molecular solids, such as the graft copolymers of LDPE/AA and LDPE/MAA. Using PALS it was possible to detect the changes in the melting point of the LDPE as a function of the grafting degree, obtaining thus, valuable information about the microstructure of this kind of copolymers. The increase in the values of the o-Ps lifetime, was interpreted as suggesting that the melting transition is followed by a free-volume cavity expansion as the temperature increased. The o-Ps intensity of formation behavior is in accord with the distortions occurring in the electronic density surrounding the o-Ps as well as the changes in the number of cavities available to the formation of o-Ps. (Author)

  15. Radiation-induced defects in tungsten and evolution in temperature: a positron annihilation spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In the future International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), tungsten, due to its physical intrinsic properties, such as low sputtering yield with light elements and good thermo-mechanical behaviour, is a potential divertor candidate. The divertor, as a plasma-facing component, will be subjected to intense irradiations at high temperature. In the specific case of fusion reactor, high 14 MeV neutrons flux will cause the continuous production of both H and He by (n,p) and (n,a) nuclear reactions, and of irradiation-induced defects by recoils. Thus, it appears of crucial interest to study the He and H interaction with the irradiation-induced defects. Obviously, this first requires to accurately characterise these defects. To address this issue, positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques were implemented, namely Doppler Broadening measurements with the use of a slow positron beam, and lifetime measurements with fast positrons. The presented results deal with the characterisation of irradiation-induced defects in tungsten, and also with its evolution during thermal treatment. Polycrystalline tungsten samples were first thermally annealed in order to eliminate most of the pre-existing defects so that detection of radiation-induced defects becomes possible. Then, specimens were irradiated with 12 MeV H at a 4x1016 cm-2 fluence or with 800 keV 3He at different fluences, ranging from 1014 to 1017 cm-2. The positron annihilation characteristics, namely low and high annihilation fractions and lifetimes, were determined in the annealed and irradiated samples. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the SRIM code to evaluate the radiation damage. Results allowed to identify the radiation-induced defects as mono-vacancies. Besides, it is shown that the defects nature does not change with increasing fluence, but their concentration increases. The evolution of the defects nature and concentration after thermal annealings

  16. A study of dye molecule diffusion in human hair using positron lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrashekara, M.N.; Ranganathaiah, C. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore (India)

    2009-11-15

    The diffusion behavior of a commercial permanent liquid hair dye in human hair has been investigated using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and gravimetric sorption method. The o-Ps lifetime parameters {tau}{sub 3} and I{sub 3} decrease rapidly during the first 60 minutes of sorption time. This is understood in terms of dye molecules filling the free volume cavities in hair. The sorption results suggest that the dye molecule diffusion is essentially a Fickian process. In the latter part of the sorption, where positron parameters remain almost constant, mass increase might be due to surface adhesion. These two stages of sorption are well separated by the positron technique. The study shows that the free volume theory and positron technique, widely used in polymer research, may expediently be used to understand hair properties, more importantly diffusion of dye molecules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Laser spectroscopy of the antiprotonic helium atom – its energy levels and state lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hidetoshi, Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    The antiprotonic atom is a three-body exotic system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus. Its surprising longevity was found and has been studied for more than 10 years. In this work, transition energies and lifetimes of this exotic atom were systematically studied by using the antiproton beam of AD(Antiproton Decelerator) facility at CERN, with an RFQ antiproton decelerator, a narrow-bandwidth laser, Cerenkov counters with fast-response photomultiplier tubes, and cryogenic helium target systems. Thirteen transition energies were determined with precisions of better than 200 ppb by a laser spectroscopy method, together with the elimination of the shift effect caused by collisions with surrounding atoms. Fifteen lifetimes (decay rates) of short-lived states were determined from the time distributions of the antiproton-annihilation signals and the resonance widths of the atomic spectral lines. The relation between the magnitude of the decay rates and the transition multipolarity was inv...

  18. Miscibility and crystallization behavior of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (ethylene glycol) blends studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation Lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of PEG concentrations on the free volume properties of PHB. The data revealed that the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime τPs increases with 20% increase in concentration, decrease as the concentration increases to 40%, then rapid increase at 50% concentration of PEG. The o-Ps intensity, I3, shows a linear dependence as the concentration increases with a discontinuity at 20% concentration of PEG. Furthermore, the results presented and discussed in this work show that the PHB and PEG are miscible up to 40% of PEG but greater than 40%, the blend is immiscible. In addition, the mechanical properties of PHB are well improved by the addition of PEG with a low concentration up to 20%, while at higher concentration the blend becomes waxy.

  19. Miscibility and crystallization behavior of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (ethylene glycol) blends studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E; Abdel-Hamed, M O; Hammam, A M, E-mail: esamhady@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    2011-01-01

    Positron annihilation Lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of PEG concentrations on the free volume properties of PHB. The data revealed that the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime {tau}{sub Ps} increases with 20% increase in concentration, decrease as the concentration increases to 40%, then rapid increase at 50% concentration of PEG. The o-Ps intensity, I{sub 3}, shows a linear dependence as the concentration increases with a discontinuity at 20% concentration of PEG. Furthermore, the results presented and discussed in this work show that the PHB and PEG are miscible up to 40% of PEG but greater than 40%, the blend is immiscible. In addition, the mechanical properties of PHB are well improved by the addition of PEG with a low concentration up to 20%, while at higher concentration the blend becomes waxy.

  20. Miscibility and crystallization behavior of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (ethylene glycol) blends studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hady, E. E.; Abdel-Hamed, M. O.; Hammam, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Positron annihilation Lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of PEG concentrations on the free volume properties of PHB. The data revealed that the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime τPs increases with 20% increase in concentration, decrease as the concentration increases to 40%, then rapid increase at 50% concentration of PEG. The o-Ps intensity, I3, shows a linear dependence as the concentration increases with a discontinuity at 20% concentration of PEG. Furthermore, the results presented and discussed in this work show that the PHB and PEG are miscible up to 40% of PEG but greater than 40%, the blend is immiscible. In addition, the mechanical properties of PHB are well improved by the addition of PEG with a low concentration up to 20%, while at higher concentration the blend becomes waxy.

  1. Digital positron lifetime spectroscopy at EPOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the digital equipment to measure positron lifetimes gets cheaper and more widely used, it is decided that EPOS, the ELBE positron source will sample the signals from the photomultipliers directly and evaluate it online or offline by digital means. Still using isotope sources, the EPOS lifetime spectrometer results in a timing resolution of around 170 ps (with 60Co), which compares good to analog equipment. A distinct improvement is expected when a coincidence setup will be used at ELBE. However, also the software needs further improvement: while one of the goals is of course to achieve the best time resolution, there is also the aspect of runtime and expandability. Results of evaluations will be presented and compared with results from other groups

  2. Size of nanoobjects in oil and gas species and materials with positron annihilation spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Grafutin, V. I.; Prokopev, E. P.; Elnikova, L. V.

    2012-01-01

    The analytical method to determine geometry and size of nano-scale defects in oil and gas species and materials is proposed. The modeling is carried out with the parameters of the positron spectra in the angular distribution method of positron annihilation spectroscopy, and is based on the 'free electron' approximation. From the annihilation decay kinetics, it is possible to express the trapping velocity of parapositronium in pores via intensities of the positronium components and to define t...

  3. Gadolinium substitution induced defect restructuring in multiferroic BiFeO3: case study by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) comprising of the measurements of positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening spectra has been carried out to understand and monitor the evolution of the vacancy-type defects arising from the ionic deficiencies at lattice points of the multiferroic perovskite bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) doped with 1, 5 and 10 at% gadolinium (Gd3+) ions. Negatively charged defects in the form of Bi3+ monovacancies (VBi3−) were present in the undoped nanocrystallites, which strongly trapped positrons. During the successive doping by Gd3+ ions, the positron trapping efficiency decreased while the doped ions combined with the vacancies to form complexes, which became neutral. A fraction of the positrons got annihilated at the crystallite surfaces too, being evident from the very large positron lifetimes obtained and confirming the nano-size-specific characteristics of the samples. Further, the intercrystallite regions provided favourable sites for orthopositronium formation, although in minute concentrations. The dopant ion-complex formation was also depicted clearly by the defect characteristic S–W plot. Also, the large change of electrical resistivity with Gd concentration has been explained nicely by invoking the defect information from the PAS study. The study has demonstrated the usefulness of an excellent method of defect identification in such a novel material system, which is vital information for exploiting them for further technological applications. (paper)

  4. Positron annihilation lifetime characterization of oxygen ion irradiated rutile TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Homnath; Sarkar, A.; Chakrabarti, Mahuya; Chattopadhyay, S.; Asokan, K.; Sanyal, D.

    2016-07-01

    Ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature has been induced in rutile phase of TiO2 polycrystalline sample by O ion irradiation. 96 MeV O ion induced defects in rutile TiO2 sample has been characterized by positron annihilation spectroscopic techniques. Positron annihilation results indicate the formation of cation vacancy (VTi, Ti vacancy) in these irradiated TiO2 samples. Ab initio density functional theoretical calculations indicate that in TiO2 magnetic moment can be induced either by creating Ti or O vacancies.

  5. Combined fiber probe for fluorescence lifetime and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochow, Sebastian; Ma, Dinglong; Latka, Ines; Bocklitz, Thomas; Hartl, Brad; Bec, Julien; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Marple, Eric; Urmey, Kirk; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Schmitt, Michael; Marcu, Laura; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present a dual modality fiber optic probe combining fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) and Raman spectroscopy for in vivo endoscopic applications. The presented multi-spectroscopy probe enables efficient excitation and collection of fluorescence lifetime signals for FLIm in the UV/visible wavelength region, as well as of Raman spectra in the near-IR for simultaneous Raman/FLIm imaging. The probe was characterized in terms of its lateral resolution and distance dependency of the Raman and FLIm signals. In addition, the feasibility of the probe for in vivo FLIm and Raman spectral characterization of tissue was demonstrated. PMID:26093843

  6. A study of annealing stages in commercial pure Cu using mechanical measurements and positron annihilation lifetime technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical property measurements, positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements and metallographic observations, have been performed to study the isochronal annealing of commercial pure Cu in the temperature range from 25 up to 850 deg. C. A positive correlation has been found between positron lifetime (τ) and both the tensile strain (ΔL/L0) and Vicker's microhardness (Hv). This correlation shows the presence of three annealing stages in commercial pure Cu which are attributed to recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. These different stages were studied by both pure tensile and combined torsion-tension deformation for samples pre-annealed at the different annealing stages. Plastic instability behavior is observed in the case of combined torsion-tension deformation. It is observed that the onset and disappearance of this instability depend on some parameters such as mode of deformation, applied axial tensile stress and pre-annealing temperature. The activation energy is found to be 0.5 eV for the recovery stage which is attributed to the energy for dislocation annihilation by glide or cross-slip. The recrystallization stage is a multi-energy stage (1.35, 1.6, and 1.71 eV) which is attributed to lattice diffusion or boundary diffusion.

  7. The Effect of Temperature on the Free Volume in Polytetrafluoroethylene Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron annihilation techniques have been applied to investigate the free volume holes in pure and doped polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with glass as a function of temperature. The measurements were performed from room temperature up to 250 degree C. The lifetime spectra were analyzed using two methods; 1) Finite-term analysis to determine the average values of the orthopositronium (o-Ps) lifetime and its intensity using PATFIT program, 2) Continuous lifetime analysis to obtain the o-Ps lifetime and o-Ps hole volume distributions using MELT program. The ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetimes, (T3 and T4) are found to be vary depending upon the phase of the polymer. Within the temperature range two transitions can be observed. The first one is related to the glass transition temperature, Tg (at 130 degree C for pure PTFE and at 110 degree C for doped PTFE with glass). The second one is the crystalline temperature at 210 degree C for the two samples. It was found that, Tg is shifted toward the lower values (110 degree C) for doped PTFE with glass, which could be attributed to the increase in the degree of crystallinity. This is in consistent with the wide-angle x-ray scattering data. A correlation between the positron annihilation parameters and the electrical conductivity was achieved

  8. Review of positron annihilation spectroscopy studies of rubber with carbon black filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra have been measured for rubber polymers with carbon black (CB) fillers as a function of temperature, sulfur concentration, type of CB fillers and type of polymer. The purpose of the study is to understand how the CB fillers and other components of the vulcanized composite affect the positron lifetime in polymer materials. The polymer samples to be studied include natural rubber (NR) with different sulfur concentration, Sn-SSBR either unloaded or loaded with CB N115 or N762, both vulcanized and unvulcanized Duradene 706 samples. The results show that CB fillers have no effect on the ortho-positronium lifetime but decrease the intensity of ortho-positronium; and the decrease in intensity depends on the type of CB. On the other hand both ortho-positronium lifetime and intensity decrease as a function of sulfur concentration

  9. Early Amyloidogenic Oligomerization Studied through Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Orte

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidogenic protein aggregation is a persistent biomedical problem. Despite active research in disease-related aggregation, the need for multidisciplinary approaches to the problem is evident. Recent advances in single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy are valuable for examining heterogenic biomolecular systems. In this work, we have explored the initial stages of amyloidogenic aggregation by employing fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (FLCS, an advanced modification of conventional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS that utilizes time-resolved information. FLCS provides size distributions and kinetics for the oligomer growth of the SH3 domain of α-spectrin, whose N47A mutant forms amyloid fibrils at pH 3.2 and 37 °C in the presence of salt. The combination of FCS with additional fluorescence lifetime information provides an exciting approach to focus on the initial aggregation stages, allowing a better understanding of the fibrillization process, by providing multidimensional information, valuable in combination with other conventional methodologies.

  10. Size of nanoobjects in oil and gas species and materials with positron annihilation spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Grafutin, V I; Elnikova, L V

    2012-01-01

    The analytical method to determine geometry and size of nano-scale defects in oil and gas species and materials is proposed. The modeling is carried out with the parameters of the positron spectra in the angular distribution method of positron annihilation spectroscopy, and is based on the 'free electron' approximation. From the annihilation decay kinetics, it is possible to express the trapping velocity of parapositronium in pores via intensities of the positronium components and to define the concentration and radii of pores in a porous layer. As the result, size and the concentration of micro-porous cylindrical nano-objects in the silicon samples are estimated.

  11. Life science research using positron annihilation spectroscopy: UV-irradiated mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States); Liu Guang [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110-2499 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is applied to study mouse skin under different UV irradiations as a function of positron incident energy (0-30 keV). Significant variations in the depth profile of S parameter are observed in a period of hours and of days for UVA and UVB exposures, respectively. The high sensitivity of positron annihilation signals responding to UV irradiation shows that PAS may be developed as a new noninvasive technique for the detection of molecular damage in life science research.

  12. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements of vanadium alloy and F82H irradiated with fission and fusion neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V-4Cr-4Ti, F82H, Ni and Cu were irradiated with fission and fusion neutrons at room temperature and 473 K. Defect structures were analyzed and compared using positron annihilation lifetime measurement, and microstructural evolution was discussed. The mean lifetime of positrons (the total amount of residual defects) increased with the irradiation dose. The effect of cascade impact was detected in Ni at room temperature. The size and the number of vacancy clusters were not affected by the displacement rate in the fission neutron irradiation at 473 K for the metals studied. The vacancy clusters were not formed in V-4Cr-4Ti irradiated at 473 K in the range of 10-6-10-3 dpa. In F82H irradiated at 473 K, the defect evolution was prevented by pre-existing defects. The mean lifetime of positrons in fission neutron irradiation was longer than that in fusion neutron irradiation in V-4Cr-4Ti at 473 K. It was interpreted that more closely situated subcascades were formed in the fusion neutron irradiation and subcascades interacted with each other, and consequently the vacancy clusters did not grow larger.

  13. Free volume investigation of imidazolium ionic liquids from positron lifetime spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    In this work, relationships between the free volume and various fundamental physical properties (density, surface tension and transport properties) of ionic liquids were investigated. Two imidazolium ionic liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluoro phosphate ([C4MIM][FAP]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[bis(pentafluoroethyl)phosphinyl]imide ([C4MIM][FPI]) were measured by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Changes of the ortho-positronium lifetime (o-Ps) with different states (amorphous and crystalline) were depicted as completely as possible. The mean local free (hole) volume was calculated from the o-Ps lifetime in amorphous state for the samples. Comparison between and specific volume obtained from the temperature dependent mass density gave the specific hole densities Nf and the occupied volumes Vocc. Thermal expansion of hole volume was compared with molecular volume VM of [C4MIM][FAP] and [C4MIM][FPI] as well as five other ionic liquids from our previous ...

  14. Positron lifetime spectroscopy of vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivachev, B.L.; Kashchieva, E.P.; Dimitriev, Y.B. [Department of Physics, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kliment Ohridsky Blvd, 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Mincov, I.P.; Troev, T. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BAS, 72, Tsarigradsko Shaussee Blvd, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Smith, R. [US Borax Inc., 26877 Tourney Road, Valencia, CA 91355-1847 (United States)

    2004-10-15

    A comparison is made of the structural data obtained by positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS) for vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and crystalline B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (c-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Samples of v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} were dried by holding the melt at 1350K to reduce residual OH groups. Fast quenching and slow cooling were used to obtain glasses having different fictive structures. According to the literature, B{sub 3}O{sub 6} rings are thought to be formed during slow cooling of v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. PLS measurements show that both the intensity value and the long lifetime component (t{sub 3}) associated with positron decay in cavities and lifetime component (t{sub 1}) associated with the positron annihilation in the bulk are different for v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and c-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The low intensity of t{sub 3} for c-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its high value for v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} is argued to be due to the presence of different structural units in the two states of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  15. Per-fluorinated sulfonic acid/PTFE copolymer studied by positron annihilation lifetime and gas permeation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hamdy F. M.; Abdel-Hady, E. E.; Ohira, A.

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of gas permeation in per-fluorinated sulfonic acid/PTFE copolymer Fumapem® membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells has been investigated from the viewpoint of free volume. Three different samples, Fumapem® F-950, F-1050 and F-14100 membranes with ion exchange capacity (IEC) = 1.05, 0.95 and 0.71 meq/g, respectively were used after drying. Free volume was quantified using the positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) technique and gas permeabilities were measured for O2 and H2 as function of temperature. Good linear correlation between the logarithm of the permeabilities at different temperatures and reciprocal free volume indicate that gas permeation in dry Fumapem® is governed by the free volume. Nevertheless permeabilities are much smaller than the corresponding flexible chain polymer with a similar free volume size due to stiff chains of the perfluoroethylene backbone.

  16. Determinations of phase transitions in nylon 6-12, nylon-6, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the phase transitions, mainly the glass transition, of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), Nylon-6,12, Nylon-6, poly(ethylene terephthalate) during the thermal treatment of these polymers. The longest lived component lifetime and intensity, indicative of ortho-Positronium pick-off exhibit thermal dependencies that can be attributed to the anticipated free volume changes associated with structural transitions. Positron lifetime measurements were performed using an E G and G Ortec standard fast-fast coincidence system. Three spectra were collected at each temperature, each consisting of a peak height of approximately 25000 counts. The resulting spectra were consistently modeled with a three component fit using the computer program PATFIT. For nylon-6,12, nylon-6, PVC systems three transitions were obtained in both tau-3 and I-3 as a function of temperature. Changes in the slope of the curves appear for both parameters, these could be attributed to Tg1, Tg2 and Tc, respectively. In the case of PET analysis two transitions were obtained as is shown by the variations of tau-3 as a function of the heating temperature. These transitions can be attributed to Tg1 and Tg2. Similar changes can be observed for I-3 in relation with temperature. Glass transition behavior was evident in the lifetime behavior of polymers. Increases in slope of the lifetime temperature plots were interpreted free-volume cavity expansion as temperature is increased. The intensity responses in the vicinity of the upper glass transition were consistent with the association of this transition with the reduction of crystalline constraint of segmental mobility in the amorphous phase. (Author)

  17. Dependence of alpha particle track diameter on the free volume holes size using positron annihilation lifetime technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gamal, S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11711 Cairo (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering, Najran University, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-Hady, E.E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, BO 61519, Minia (Egypt)

    2015-09-15

    The alpha particle track diameter dependence of the free volume holes size (V{sub f}) in DAM–ADC and CR-39 nuclear track detectors was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime technique. The effect of temperature on the alpha particle track diameter and free volume were also investigated in the T-range (RT-130 °C). The obtained results revealed that the values of ortho-positronium lifetime τ{sub 3} and V{sub f} increases while I{sub 3} slightly increases as T increases for the two detectors. The values of τ{sub 3}, V{sub f} and I{sub 3} are higher in CR-39 than DAM–ADC. The interpretation of obtained results is based on the fact that increasing T leads to significant enhancement of thermal expansion of the polymer matrix and consequently V{sub f} increases. The track diameter increases as T increases. This can be explained by the fact that the increase in T increases the crystal size and V{sub f} in the polymer. A relationship between V{sub f} and the alpha particle track diameter was obtained. Moreover results of detector irradiation, along with free volume evaluation are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  18. Dependence of alpha particle track diameter on the free volume holes size using positron annihilation lifetime technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha particle track diameter dependence of the free volume holes size (Vf) in DAM–ADC and CR-39 nuclear track detectors was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime technique. The effect of temperature on the alpha particle track diameter and free volume were also investigated in the T-range (RT-130 °C). The obtained results revealed that the values of ortho-positronium lifetime τ3 and Vf increases while I3 slightly increases as T increases for the two detectors. The values of τ3, Vf and I3 are higher in CR-39 than DAM–ADC. The interpretation of obtained results is based on the fact that increasing T leads to significant enhancement of thermal expansion of the polymer matrix and consequently Vf increases. The track diameter increases as T increases. This can be explained by the fact that the increase in T increases the crystal size and Vf in the polymer. A relationship between Vf and the alpha particle track diameter was obtained. Moreover results of detector irradiation, along with free volume evaluation are addressed and thoroughly discussed

  19. Evaluation of actinic cheilitis using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Cosci, Alessandro; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Takahama, Ademar; Souza Azevedo, Rebeca; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant disorder that mostly affects the vermilion border of the lower lip and can lead to squamous cell carcinoma. Because of its heterogeneous clinical aspect, it is difficult to indicate representative biopsy area. Late diagnosis is a limiting factor of therapeutic possibilities available to treat oral cancer. The diagnosis of actinic cheilitis is mainly based on clinical and histopathological analysis and it is a time consuming procedure to get the results. Information about the organization and chemical composition of the tissues can be obtained using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy techniques without the need for biopsy. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and allow a quick and non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries and to help clinicians with the early diagnosis of actinic cheilitis. This study aims to evaluate the fluorescence lifetime parameters at the discrimination of three degrees of epithelial dysplasia, the most important predictor of malignant development, described in up to 100% of actinic cheilitis cases.

  20. Modeling momentum distributions of positron annihilation radiation in solids

    OpenAIRE

    Makkonen, Ilja

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a materials characterization method especially applicable for studying vacancy defects in solids. In typical crystal lattices positrons get trapped at vacancy-type defects. By measuring positron lifetimes and momentum distributions of positron annihilation radiation one obtains information about the open volumes and the chemical environments of the defects. Computational tools can be used in the analysis of positron annihilation experiments. Calculate...

  1. Monovacancy–As complexes in proton-irradiated Ge studied by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy to study the proton-irradiation-induced defects in germanium and its annealing behavior. The n-doped Ge ([As] = 9 × 1017 cm−3) samples were irradiated at room temperature with a proton energy of 15 MeV at a dose of 1015 cm−2. We distinguished a complex containing a vacancy and arsenic atoms. In addition, we observed shallow positron traps, which are ascribed to the impurities in a Ge lattice crystal. Isochronal annealing experiments were carried out in the temperature interval 300–820 K. Temperature-dependent positron lifetime measurements were performed after each annealing step. During isochronal annealing of the proton-irradiated Ge, a vacancy–As complex was found to dissociate to its constituents and the single monovacancies eventually anneal out. Two annealing stages were observed: the first, at ∼450 K, was attributed to the dissociation of complexes and the second annealing stage, at 650 K, was assigned to annealing of vacancies. Shallow positron traps anneal in the temperature range 540–660 K

  2. Application of fast-digitizer card Acqiris DP-240 in positron lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriska, Martin; Slugen, Vladimir; Krsjak, Vladimir; Sojak, Stanislav [Slovak University of Technology, FEI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Zeman, Andrej; Debarberis, Luigi [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-11-15

    Based on the available knowledge base in positron annihilation measurements, new software for digital positron lifetime spectrometry has been designed within the frame of joint activity between STU Bratislava and JRC Petten. The tests of the new positron digital-life time setup have been carried out. Detectors with BaF{sub 2} scintillators and fast-dynode outputs were chosen for such studies. As the digitiser unit, the card Acqiris DP240 was fully tested. Originally, start and stop timing signals were sampled to digital waveforms separately at a rate of 1 GS/s in 8 bit resolution. However, due to limited quality of collected waveforms which significantly affected post-processing of data, the joined delayed channel mode with 2 GS/s sampling rate was applied for further studies. The full setup was benchmarked by a series of calibration measurements of two high purity materials, specifically Si and Ni. The inter-comparison of conventional analogue- and digital-based processing are discussed in detail. Further, the optimisation of main parameters for waveform-processing are analysed too. Such a new approach in the digital life-time spectroscopy will help to improve the resolution of existing methodology which might enhance the capabilities of this technique for further applications, especially in materials science. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Atomic lifetime measurements by beam-gas-dye laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoranzer, H.; Volz, U.

    1993-01-01

    Beam-gas-dye laser spectroscopy as a precise, cascade-free and collision-free method for measuring atomic lifetimes and individual oscillator strengths is described. Its recent application to fine-structure levels of the KrI 5p configuration is reported. The experimental uncertainty is reduced by one order of magnitude, with respect to previous work, down to 0.3% (1σ). The discussion of these results in comparison with experimental and theoretical ones from the literature underlines the precision of the method and its potential to guide future theoretical developments.

  4. Prediction of free-volume-type correlations in glassy chalcogenides from positron annihilation lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Decisive role of specific chemical environment in free-volume correlations in glass. • Realistic free volumes in As–S/Se glass are defined by newly modified τ2-R formula. • Overestimated void sizes in chalcogenide glass as compared with molecular polymers. - Abstract: A newly modified correlation equation between defect-related positron lifetime determined within two-state trapping model and radius of corresponding free-volume-type defects was proposed to describe compositional variations in atomic-deficient structure of covalent-bonded chalcogenides like binary As–S/Se glasses. Specific chemical environment of free-volume voids around neighboring network-forming polyhedrons was shown to play a decisive role in this correlation, leading to systematically enhanced volumes in comparison with typical molecular substrates, such as polymers

  5. Prediction of free-volume-type correlations in glassy chalcogenides from positron annihilation lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O., E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua [Institute of Materials of SRC “Carat”, 212 Stryjska Str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestcochowa 42200 (Poland); Ingram, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75 Ozimska Str., Opole 45370 (Poland); Shpotyuk, M. [Institute of Materials of SRC “Carat”, 212 Stryjska Str., Lviv 79031 (Ukraine); Lviv Polytechnic National University, 12 Bandery Str., Lviv 79013 (Ukraine); Filipecki, J. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestcochowa 42200 (Poland)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • Decisive role of specific chemical environment in free-volume correlations in glass. • Realistic free volumes in As–S/Se glass are defined by newly modified τ{sub 2}-R formula. • Overestimated void sizes in chalcogenide glass as compared with molecular polymers. - Abstract: A newly modified correlation equation between defect-related positron lifetime determined within two-state trapping model and radius of corresponding free-volume-type defects was proposed to describe compositional variations in atomic-deficient structure of covalent-bonded chalcogenides like binary As–S/Se glasses. Specific chemical environment of free-volume voids around neighboring network-forming polyhedrons was shown to play a decisive role in this correlation, leading to systematically enhanced volumes in comparison with typical molecular substrates, such as polymers.

  6. Study of PRIMAVERA steel samples by a positron annihilation spectroscopy technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafutin, V.; Ilyukhina, O. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Krsjak, V., E-mail: vladimir.krsjak@ec.europa.e [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Burcl, R.; Haehner, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Erak, D. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zeman, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, P.O. Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    In the present article, a positron annihilation spectroscopy investigation of VVER-440/230 weld materials is discussed. Important characteristics of metals such as Fermi energy, concentration of electrons in the conduction band, size and concentration of defects were experimentally determined for three model materials with higher level of copper (0.16 wt.%) and phosphorus (0.027-0.038 wt.%). The impact of neutron irradiation and subsequent annealing on crystal lattice parameters was investigated. The experiments with the angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (ACAR) complement the published positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) studies of the radiation treated VVER materials as well as previous experiments on PRIMAVERA materials. The availability of the experimental reactor to prepare strong {sup 64}Cu positron sources provided for unique experimental conditions, such as good resolution of spectra (0.4 mrad) and reasonable short time of measurement (36 h). The present paper aims to contribute to further understanding of RPV (reactor pressure vessel) steels behaviour under irradiation conditions as well as annealing recovery procedures, which have already been applied at several VVER NPP units in Europe.

  7. Vacancy identification in Co+ doped rutile TiO2 crystal with positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Room temperature Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor (DMS) is a critical path in the study of spin-electronic devices, but there are many disputes in the intrinsic properties and origin of the room temperature ferromagnetism. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful technique for evaluating vacancy-type defects. Purpose: We aim to establish the relationship between the defect structure and ferromagnetism of the materials by analyzing the parameters of positron annihilation. Methods: Co-doped rutile TiO2 films were synthesized by ion implantation and extensively studied by variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements with variable energy slow positron beam for identification of the vacancies. Results: The results of DBS showed that a newly formed type of vacancy could be concluded by the S-W plot and the CDB results indicated that the oxygen vacancy (Vo) complex Ti-Co-Vo and/or Ti-Vo were formed with Co ions implantation and the vacancy concentration increased with increasing dopant dose. Conclusion: We identify that the generation of Ti-Vo and/or Ti-Co-Vo vacancy complex are induced by the existence of excess Ti 3d electrons around the oxygen vacancy. (authors)

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy analysis of surfactant affected FePt spintronic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chun, E-mail: fengchun@ustb.edu.cn [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Xujing; Liu, Fen; Wang, Qiang [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Meiyin [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); The Center for Micromagnetics and Information Technologies (MINT) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, 200 Union St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Zhao, Chongjun [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Gong, Kui [Centre for the Physics of Materials and Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 Canada (Canada); Zhang, Peng; Wang, Bao-Yi; Cao, Xing-Zhong [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analysis Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Guanghua [Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports the effects of surfactant Bi atomic diffusion on the microstructure evolution and resulted property manipulation in FePt spintronic films by the quantitative studies of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The defect density in the FePt layer, which was tunable by varying the thermal treatment temperatures, was found to be remarkably enhanced correlated with the Bi atomic diffusion behavior. The observed defect density evolution substantially favors Fe(Pt) atomic migrations and lowers the energy barrier for atomic ordering transition, resulting in a great improvement of hard magnet property of the films.

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy analysis of surfactant affected FePt spintronic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the effects of surfactant Bi atomic diffusion on the microstructure evolution and resulted property manipulation in FePt spintronic films by the quantitative studies of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy. The defect density in the FePt layer, which was tunable by varying the thermal treatment temperatures, was found to be remarkably enhanced correlated with the Bi atomic diffusion behavior. The observed defect density evolution substantially favors Fe(Pt) atomic migrations and lowers the energy barrier for atomic ordering transition, resulting in a great improvement of hard magnet property of the films.

  10. Characterization of point defects in CdTe by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, M. R. M.; Kanda, G. S.; Abdel-Hady, E. E.; Keeble, D. J.

    2016-06-01

    Positron lifetime measurements on CdTe 0.15% Zn-doped by weight are presented, trapping to monovacancy defects is observed. At low temperatures, localization at shallow binding energy positron traps dominates. To aid defect identification density functional theory, calculated positron lifetimes and momentum distributions are obtained using relaxed geometry configurations of the monovacancy defects and the Te antisite. These calculations provide evidence that combined positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler spectroscopy measurements have the capability to identify neutral or negative charge states of the monovacancies, the Te antisite, A-centers, and divacancy defects in CdTe.

  11. Studies of iron exposed to heavy ion implantation using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodek, P.; Dryzek, J.; Skuratov, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Variable energy positron beam and positron lifetime spectroscopy were used to study pure iron exposed to irradiation with 167 MeV Xe26+ heavy ions with different doses of 1012, 1013, 5×1013, 1014 ions/cm2. The positron lifetime spectroscopy revealed the presence of large cluster of about 15-27 vacancies and dislocations. The dislocations are distributed at the depth of about 18 μm i.e. almost twice deeper than the ion implantation range from the surface exposed to the heavy ions implantation. Possible explanation is the long-range effect attributed to the ion implantation into materials.

  12. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS): Concepts, Applications and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Peter; Macháň, Radek; Benda, Aleš; Hof, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy (FLCS) is a variant of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which uses differences in fluorescence intensity decays to separate contributions of different fluorophore populations to FCS signal. Besides which, FLCS is a powerful tool to improve quality of FCS data by removing noise and distortion caused by scattered excitation light, detector thermal noise and detector after pulsing. We are providing an overview of, to our knowledge, all published applications of FLCS. Although these are not numerous so far, they illustrate possibilities for the technique and the research topics in which FLCS has the potential to become widespread. Furthermore, we are addressing some questions which may be asked by a beginner user of FLCS. The last part of the text reviews other techniques closely related to FLCS. The generalization of the idea of FLCS paves the way for further promising application of the principle of statistical filtering of signals. Specifically, the idea of fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy is here outlined. PMID:23202928

  13. Positron lifetime measurements and positron-annihilation induced auger electron spectroscpy using slow positron beams; Teisoku yodenshi bimu wo mochiita yodenshi jumyo sokutei oyobi yodenshi shometsu reiki oje denshi bunko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, R. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-02-20

    Slow positron beam with less than several eV can be controlled freely such as accelerating, throttling the beam size, shortening the pulse or making pulse with short time width and so forth. These low positron beams are applied to various measurements like Doppler broadening measurement of annihilation {gamma} rays or lifetime measurement of positron, and secondary particle measurements using positron microscope, positron electron ray diffraction, flight time method and so forth. In particular, these recent years, high intensity slow positron beams were possible using accelerators like electron linac and its application is increasing. In this report, pulse shortening method for high intensity slow positron beam, and incidence energy variable positron lifetime measurement method using this slow pulsed beam and flight time type positron-annihilation-induced auger electron spectroscopy are outlined. In future, these measurements can be possible to carry out with high resolution and also with high counting rate if higher intensity monochromatic excellent positron beam than present one is produced. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Positron annihilation spectroscopy: a new frontier for understanding nanoparticle-loaded polymer brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido; Aghion, Stefano; Soliveri, Guido; Consolati, Giovanni; Ferragut, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-loaded polymer brushes are powerful tools for the development of innovative devices. However, their characterization is challenging and arrays of different techniques are typically required to gain sufficient insight. Here we demonstrate for the first time the suitability of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to investigate, with unprecedented detail and without making the least damage to samples, the physico-chemical changes experienced by pH-responsive polymer brushes after protonation and after loading of silver nanoparticles. One of the most important findings is the depth profiling of silver nanoparticles inside the brushes. These results open up a completely new way to understand the structure and behavior of such complex systems.

  15. Application of the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy for Chromium Effect Investigation in Binary Fe-Cr Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojak, S.; Krsjak, V.; Slugen, V.; Stancek, S.; Petriska, M.; Vitazek, K.; Stacho, M. [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2008-07-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is one of the non-destructive techniques applied with advantage for evaluation of the radiation treated materials microstructure. In this work, the PAS was used for study of different Fe-Cr alloys implanted by ions of helium. Investigation was focused on the chromium effect and the radiation defects resistance. In particular, the vacancy type defects (mono-vacancies, vacancy clusters) have been studied. The results show that the specific content of chromium has important influence on the size and distribution of induced defects. (authors)

  16. Characterization of silicon implanted SiO{sub 2} layers using positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Szeles, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bottani, C.E. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Bertoni, S.; Cerofolini, G.F.; Meda, L. [Montedison SpA, Novara (Italy). Ist. di Ricerche G. Donegani

    1995-08-01

    Silicon implanted thermal SiO{sub 2} layers were studied using depth-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM observations show the presence of silicon nanocrystals (Si{sub nc}) in the region between 200 nm and 200 nm. The defect annealing behavior is studied by means of PAS. For 1000{degrees}C annealed samples at a depth for which Si{sub nc} are observed, a distinctive PAS signal is detected and ascribed to the Si{sub nc}/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  17. Photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy (PIPA) for defect characterization of large engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photon induced positron annihilation spectroscopy system was set-up at FOTIA. The high energy photons produced in the nuclear reaction 19F (1H,αγ)16O were used to generate positrons in the sample. The reaction chosen has higher gamma-ray production cross section and produces high energy gamma-rays than the currently used reaction of 27Al (1H,γ)28Si. The feasibility of PIPA studies using the above reaction has been established. (author)

  18. Lifetime measurements and decay spectroscopy of 132I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-lying states of odd-odd 132I, the 3p-3h nucleus with respect to the doubly magic 132Sn, have been characterized from decay spectroscopy. The neutron rich Iodine and Tellurium isotopes have been produced as fission product of alpha-induced fission of 235U and radiochemically separated. The life-time of the first excited state of 132I have been precisely measured using LaBr3(Ce scintillators from the decay of 132Te. The IT decay of the high spin isomer (8- in 132I has been measured with a Low Energy Photon Spectrometer (LEPS of segmented planar Ge detector.

  19. Miscibility and Crystallization Behavior of Poly (3- Hydroxybutyrate) and Poly (Ethylene Glycol) Blends Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is linear stereo regular aliphatic polyester synthesized by some bacteria as a store of carbon and energy. Because of its high biocompatibility and the ability to be fully biodegraded, PHB is of special interest in medicine. To improve the physiochemical properties of PHB, Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used for modifications of PHB. By using the chloroform as co-solvent a series of (PHB/PEG) blend with different ratio ranging from 100:0.0 (wt %) to 50:50 (wt %) was prepared by solution casting-technique. Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) technique has been applied to study the effect of addition PEG on the structure of PHB. The positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed with a conventional fast-fast coincidence system. The lifetime parameter, ι3 which represents the ortho-positronium atom (o-Ps) lifetime and I3 which reflects the (o-Ps) intensity, give indication of the free-volume size and concentration respectively. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements showed that, ι3 increases by increasing PEG ratio until the concentration (80:20 wt %) then start to decrease by increasing PEG ratio. The obtained results are in agreement with the results of X-ray diffraction.

  20. Polymerization of epoxy resins studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymerization process of epoxy resins (bisphenol-A dicyanate) was studied using positron-annihilation spectroscopy. The polymerization from monomer to polymer through a polymerization reaction was followed by positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy measurements. Resins kept at curing temperatures (120, 150 and 200 oC) changed form from of powder to a solid through a liquid. The size of the intermolecular spaces of the solid samples increased along with the progress of polymerization. (author)

  1. Variable Energy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of GaN Grown on Sapphire Substrates with MOCVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yi-Fan; C.D. Beling; S. Fung

    2005-01-01

    @@ Depth profiled Doppler broadening of positron annihilation spectroscopy (DBPAS), which is also called the variable energy positron annihilation spectroscopy (VEPAS), is used in characterization of GaN grown on sapphire substrates with metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The GaN film and the film/substrate interface are investigated. The VEPFIT (variable energy positron fit) software was used for analysing the data,and the positron diffusion length of the sapphire is obtained. The results suggest that there is a highly defected region near the GaN/sapphire interface. This thin dislocated region is generated at the film/substrate interface to relieve the strain. Effects of implantation dose on defect formation, for the GaN/Sapphire samples, which implanted by Al+ ions, are also investigated. Studies on Al+ implanted GaN films (not including the interface and sapphire) have revealed that there are two different regions of implantation damage. For the low Al+ implantation dose samples, in the region close to the surface, defects are mainly composed of vacancy pairs with small amount of vacancy clusters, and in the interior region of the film the positron traps are vacancy clusters without micro-voids. For the highest dose sample, however, some positron trap centres are in the form of micro-voids in the second region.

  2. Defect dynamics in P+ implanted 6H-SiC studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study P+-implanted 6H-SiC samples by means of a variable energy slow positron beam. In as-grown samples we observe a slow fall of the annihilation S-parameter from the surface to the bulk value, indicating a long diffusion length, i.e. absence of positron-trapping defects. This result is also confirmed by positron-lifetime measurements yielding essentially a single-component lifetime of 148 ps. In the implanted samples we detect a wide flat region of slightly risen defectiveness. However, we note that, in order to reproduce reasonably well the depth of the damaged layer, one has to assume the presence of strong electric fields in the implanted region. With annealing, S-curves show a rising maximum, moving towards surface - probably, in as-implanted samples the defects are decorated by P+ ions and do not trap positrons in effective way. After the highest temperature annealing a highly defected region extends for the first 50 nm depth. We perform also atomic force microscopy to monitor the evolution of the surface defects. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Bounds on Cross-sections and Lifetimes for Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay into Charged Leptons from Gamma-ray Observations of Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essig, Rouven; /SLAC; Sehgal, Neelima; Strigari, Louis E.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2009-06-19

    We provide conservative bounds on the dark matter cross-section and lifetime from final state radiation produced by annihilation or decay into charged leptons, either directly or via an intermediate particle {phi}. Our analysis utilizes the experimental gamma-ray flux upper limits from four Milky Way dwarf satellites: HESS observations of Sagittarius and VERITAS observations of Draco, Ursa Minor, and Willman 1. Using 90% confidence level lower limits on the integrals over the dark matter distributions, we find that these constraints are largely unable to rule out dark matter annihilations or decays as an explanation of the PAMELA and ATIC/PPB-BETS excesses. However, if there is an additional Sommerfeld enhancement in dwarfs, which have a velocity dispersion {approx} 10 to 20 times lower than that of the local Galactic halo, then the cross-sections for dark matter annihilating through {phi}'s required to explain the excesses are very close to the cross-section upper bounds from Willman 1. Dark matter annihilation directly into {tau}'s is also marginally ruled out by Willman 1 as an explanation of the excesses, and the required cross-section is only a factor of a few below the upper bound from Draco. Finally, we make predictions for the gamma-ray flux expected from the dwarf galaxy Segue 1 for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We find that for a sizeable fraction of the parameter space in which dark matter annihilation into charged leptons explains the PAMELA excess, Fermi has good prospects for detecting a gamma-ray signal from Segue 1 after one year of observation.

  4. Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films studied by a pulsed positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, R. E-mail: r-suzuki@aist.go.jp; Ohdaira, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Shioya, Y.; Ishimaru, T

    2003-11-01

    Positron and positronium annihilation in silica-based thin films has been investigated by means of measurement techniques with a monoenergetic pulsed positron beam. The age-momentum correlation study revealed that positron annihilation in thermally grown SiO{sub 2} is basically the same as that in bulk amorphous SiO{sub 2} while o-Ps in the PECVD grown SiCOH film predominantly annihilate with electrons of C and H at the microvoid surfaces. We also discuss time-dependent three-gamma annihilation in porous low-k films by two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  5. Digital Set-Ups for Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy at PAS Laboratory Fei Stu Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current status of the digitization in Positron Lifetime and Coincidence Doppler Broadening spectroscopy set-ups at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava is described in this paper. In PALS set-ups two digitizer cards Acqiris DP-240 and Ztec ZT4612 with different parameters and abilities were tested. The first results from the Coincidence Doppler Broadening set-up using Adlink PCI-9820 digitizer card are presented. (author)

  6. Rectifying barrier at GaN/SiC hetero-junction studied with positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yi-Fan; Beling C D

    2005-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy on GaN films grown on SiC substrate with MBE are presented. It is shown that the GaN/SiC interface is rectifying towards positrons, such that positrons can only travel from SiC to GaN and not vice versa. Potential steps seen by the positron at the GaN/SiC interface are calculated from experimental values of electron and positron work function. This "rectifying" effect has been successfully mimicked by inserting a thin region of very high electric field in the Variable Energy Positron Fit (VEPF) analysis. The built-in electric field is attributed to different positron affinities, dislocation and/or interface defects at the GaN/SiC interface.

  7. Optimization of three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) for three-dimensional momentum measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher S., E-mail: christopher.williams@afit.ed [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Burggraf, Larry W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Adamson, Paul E. [Stockpile Research, Development and Engineering Division, Office of Defense Programs, National Nuclear Security Administration, 1000 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20585 (United States); Petrosky, James C. [Air Force Institute of Technology, AFIT/ENP, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2011-02-11

    A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was characterized. 3DPASS permits determination of three-dimensional electron-positron (e{sup -}e{sup +}) momentum distributions by simultaneously measuring angles and energies for coincident two-gamma annihilation photons. 3DPASS collects a single dataset of correlated energies and positions for two coincident annihilation photons from a pair of solid-state double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs). Subpixel-interpolated positions are determined by transient charge analysis. 3DPASS performs simultaneous two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincidence Doppler-broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) measurements, which are typically collected independently. The 2D ACAR response of 3DPASS was measured for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC, with and without compensation for subpixel detection efficiency. Variation of efficiency across the width of DSSD charge collection electrodes was dominated by the event selection criteria required by the subpixel interpolation method. The DBAR resolution was optimized by adjusting the energy range of CDBAR events included in the Doppler-broadening (DB) lineshape. 2D ACAR and DBAR spectra from 3DPASS were compared to previously published results for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC. Detailed analysis of the ACAR spectra and the DB lineshapes highlighted momentum features not previously reported.

  8. Optimization of three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) for three-dimensional momentum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher S.; Burggraf, Larry W.; Adamson, Paul E.; Petrosky, James C.

    2011-02-01

    A three-dimensional positron annihilation spectroscopy system (3DPASS) was characterized. 3DPASS permits determination of three-dimensional electron-positron ( e-- e+) momentum distributions by simultaneously measuring angles and energies for coincident two-gamma annihilation photons. 3DPASS collects a single dataset of correlated energies and positions for two coincident annihilation photons from a pair of solid-state double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs). Subpixel-interpolated positions are determined by transient charge analysis. 3DPASS performs simultaneous two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) and two-detector coincidence Doppler-broadening of annihilation radiation (CDBAR) measurements, which are typically collected independently. The 2D ACAR response of 3DPASS was measured for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC, with and without compensation for subpixel detection efficiency. Variation of efficiency across the width of DSSD charge collection electrodes was dominated by the event selection criteria required by the subpixel interpolation method. The DBAR resolution was optimized by adjusting the energy range of CDBAR events included in the Doppler-broadening (DB) lineshape. 2D ACAR and DBAR spectra from 3DPASS were compared to previously published results for single-crystal Cu and 6H-SiC. Detailed analysis of the ACAR spectra and the DB lineshapes highlighted momentum features not previously reported.

  9. Multiplexed fluorescence lifetime measurements by frequency-sweeping Fourier spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ming; Peng, Leilei

    2010-01-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of fluorescence lifetimes at multiple excitation wavelengths with a Fourier transform frequency domain fluorescence lifetime spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a Michelson interferometer with its differential optical path length scanning at 22,000 Hz scan rate. The scan speed of the optical delay varies linearly during each scan and creates interference modulations that sweep from −150 to 150 MHz in 45.5 μs. The frequency-sweeping modulation allows nanosec...

  10. Determination of deep trapping lifetime in organic semiconductors using impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Kenichiro; Nagase, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Naito, Hiroyoshi, E-mail: naito@pe.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Electronics, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    A method for determining deep trapping lifetime in semiconductors using an impedance spectroscopy is proposed. A unique feature of the method is the simultaneous determination of the drift mobility and deep trapping lifetime in thin-film electronic devices. The validity of the proposed method is examined by numerical calculation. Simultaneous determinations of the drift mobility and deep trapping lifetime using this method are demonstrated in prototypical hole transporting organic semiconductors.

  11. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigating deuterium decorated voids in neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. N.; Shimada, M.; Merrill, B. J.; Akers, D. W.; Hatano, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900 °C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined.

  12. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigating deuterium decorated voids in neutron-irradiated tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900 °C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined

  13. Microstructural evolution of RPV steels under proton and ion irradiation studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Y. C.; Liu, X. B.; Wang, R. S.; Nagai, Y.; Inoue, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Toyama, T.

    2015-03-01

    The microstructural evolution of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels induced by proton and heavy ion irradiation at low temperature (∼373 K) has been investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), atom probe tomography (APT), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation. The PAS results indicated that both proton and heavy ion irradiation produce a large number of matrix defects, which contain small-size defects such as vacancies, vacancy-solute complexes, dislocation loops, and large-size vacancy clusters. In proton irradiated RPV steels, the size and number density of vacancy cluster defects increased rapidly with increasing dose due to the migration and agglomeration of vacancies. In contrast, for Fe ion irradiated steels, high density, larger size vacancy clusters can be easily induced at low dose, showing saturation in PAS response with increasing dose. No clear precipitates, solute-enriched clusters or other forms of solute segregation were observed by APT. Furthermore, dislocation loops were observed by TEM after 1.0 dpa, 240 keV proton irradiation, and an increase of the average nanoindentation hardness was found. It is suggested that ion irradiation produces many point defects and vacancy cluster defects, which induce the formation of dislocation loops and the increase of nanoindentation hardness.

  14. Determination of the activation enthalpy for migration of dislocations in plastically deformed 8006 Al-alloy by positron annihilation lifetime technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Mohammed; Abdel-Rahman, M.; Badawi, Emad A.; Abdel-Rahman, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The activation enthalpy for migration of dislocations of plastically deformed 8006 Al-alloy was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime technique. Plastic deformation using a hydraulic press produces mainly dislocations and may produce point defects. The type of defect was studied by isochronal annealing which determines the temperature range of recovery of each type. Only one type of defect (dislocations) was observed for the investigated sample and was found to be recovered within the range 455-700 K. Isothermal annealing by slow cooling was performed through this range and used in determination of the activation enthalpy of migration of dislocations which was found to be 0.26 ± 0.01 eV.

  15. Precise atomic radiative lifetime via photoassociative spectroscopy of ultracold lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained spectra of the high-lying vibrational levels of the 13Σ+g state of 6Li2 via photoassociation of ultracold 6Li atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap. The 13Σ+g state of the diatomic molecule correlates to a 2S1/2 state atom plus a 2P1/2 state atom. The long-range part of the molecular interaction potential for this state depends on the 2P atomic radiative lifetime. By calculating the energy eigenvalues of a model potential for the 13Σ+g state and fitting them to the experimentally measured vibrational levels, we have extracted a value for the 2P lifetime of 26.99±0.16 ns. The precision is currently limited by the accuracy of a region of the model potential provided by ab initio calculations

  16. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of vacancy-related defects in CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe:Ge at different stoichiometry deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedivý, L.; Čížek, J.; Belas, E.; Grill, R.; Melikhova, O.

    2016-02-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) was used to examine the effect of defined Cd-rich and Te-rich annealing on point defects in Cl-doped CdTe and Ge-doped CdZnTe semi-insulating single crystals. The as-grown crystals contain open-volume defects connected with Cd vacancies . It was found that the Cd vacancies agglomerate into clusters coupled with Cl in CdTe:Cl, and in CdZnTe:Ge they are coupled with Ge donors. While annealing in Cd pressure reduces of the density, subsequent annealing in Te pressure restores . The CdTe:Cl contains negatively-charged shallow traps interpreted as Rydberg states of A-centres and representing the major positron trapping sites at low temperature. Positrons confined in the shallow traps exhibit lifetime, which is shorter than the CdTe bulk lifetime. Interpretation of the PAS data was successfully combined with electrical resistivity, Hall effect measurements and chemical analysis, and allowed us to determine the principal point defect densities.

  17. Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy combined with lifetime tuning: New perspectives in supported phospholipid bilayer research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, Aleš; Fagulová, Veronika; Deyneka, Alexander; Enderlain, J.; Hof, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 23 (2006), s. 9580-9585. ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/2308; GA MŠk LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : spectroscopy * fluorescence * FLCS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2006

  18. Microstructural changes and effect of variation of lattice strain on positron annihilation lifetime parameters of zinc ferrite nanocomposites prepared by high enegy ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn-ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by mechanical alloying the stoichiometric (1:1 mol% mixture of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 powder under open air. Formation of both normal and inverse spinel ferrite phases was noticed after 30 minutes and 2.5 hours ball milling respectively and the content of inverse spinel phase increased with increasing milling time. The phase transformation kinetics towards formation of ferrite phases and microstructure characterization of ball milled ZnFe2O4 phases was primarily investigated by X-ray powder diffraction pattern analysis. The relative phase abundances of different phases, crystallite size, r.m.s. strain, lattice parameter change etc. were estimated from the Rietveld powder structure refinement analysis of XRD data. Positron annihilation lifetime spectra of all ball milled samples were deconvoluted with three lifetime parameters and their variation with milling time duration was explained with microstructural changes and formation of different phases with increase of milling time duration.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy beyond the core-hole lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique to overcome the core-hole lifetime broadening in x-ray absorption spectroscopy is presented. It utilizes a high resolution fluorescence spectrometer which can be used to analyze the fluorescence photon energy with better resolution than the natural lifetime width. Furthermore, the high resolution spectrometer can also be used to select the final state in the fluorescence process which can offer spin selectivity even without long range magnetic order in the sample

  20. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Liu Gaung [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhang Junjie [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 {mu}m depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  1. Atomic Oscillator Strengths by Emission Spectroscopy and Lifetime Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, W. L.; Griesmann, U.; Kling, R.; Musielok, J.

    2002-11-01

    Over the last seven years, we have carried out numerous oscillator strength measurements for some light and medium heavy elements (Musielok et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000; Veres & Wiese 1996; Griesmann et al. 1997; Bridges & Wiese 1998; Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Gries- mann 2000; Bridges & Wiese to be published). Most recently we have determined numerous transitions of Mu II (Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Griesmann 2000) and are now working on Cl I (Bridges & Wiese to be published). See the summary statement at the end of the text. For the emission measurements, we have applied either a high-current wall-stabilized arc (described for example, in Musielok et al. (1999)), or a high-current hollow cathode, or a Penning discharge. The latter two sources were used for branching ratio measurements from common upper 1ev- els, while the wall-stabilized arc was operated at atmospheric pressure under the condition of partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, which allows the measurement of relative transition probabilities. Absolute data were obtained by combining the emission results with lifetime data measured by other research groups, especially the University of Hannover, with which we have closely collaborated. This group uses the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. Our emission spectra were recorded for the light elements with a 2 m grating spectrometer, or, for Mu II, with an FT 700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. The radiometric calibration was carried out with a tungsten strip lamp for the visible part of the spectrum and with a deuterium lamp for the ultraviolet. All measurements were made under optically thin conditions, which was checked by doubling the path length with a focusing mirror setup. Typical uncertainties of the measured oscillator strengths are estimated to be in the range 15%-20% (one-standard deviation). However, discrepancies with advanced atomic structure theories are sometimes much larger. In Tables 1-3 and Fig. 1, we

  2. Assessing the photoaging process at sun exposed and non-exposed skin using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    Photoaging is the skin premature aging due to exposure to ultraviolet light, which damage the collagen, elastin and can induce alterations on the skin cells DNA, and, then, it may evolve to precancerous lesions, which are widely investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and lifetime. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis has been presented as a technique of great potential for biological tissue characterization at optical diagnostics. The main targeted fluorophores are NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide), which have free and bound states, each one with different average lifetimes. The average lifetimes for free and bound NADH and FAD change according to tissue metabolic alterations and may contribute to a non-invasive clinical investigation of injuries such as skin lesions. These lesions and the possible areas where they may develop can be interrogated using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy taking into account the variability of skin phototypes and the changes related to melanin, collagen and elastin, endogenous fluorophores which have emissions that spectrally overlap to the NADH and FAD emission. The objective of this study is to assess the variation on fluorescence lifetimes of normal skin at sun exposed and non-exposed areas and associate this variation to the photoaging process.

  3. Modification of the mesoscopic structure in neutron irradiated EPDM viewed through positron annihilation spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article focuses on the study of the mesoscopic structure in neutron irradiated EPDM both from experimental and theoretical points of view. In this work we reveal completely the modification of the mesostructure of the EPDM due to neutron irradiation, resolving volume fraction, size and distribution of the crystalline zones as a function of the irradiation dose. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis techniques are applied and the results are discussed by means of new theoretical results for describing the interaction process between the crystals and amorphous zones in EPDM.

  4. Development of pore interconnectivity/morphology in porous silica films investigated by cyclic voltammetry and slow positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Porous silica films were studied by cyclic voltammetry and positron annihilation. •Highly interconnected pores were formed in the film fabricated with more CTAB. •Aligned nanochannels were observed in the porous flim prepared with 25 wt.% CTAB. •I− and Ps diffusion in the films was governed by pore interconnectivity/morphology. •Cyclic voltammetry is feasible to explore pore interconnectivity/morphology. -- Abstract: Cyclic voltammetry and positronium (Ps) 3γ-annihilation spectroscopy were applied to investigate pore interconnectivity/morphology of porous silica films fabricated with various loading of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). With increasing the ratio of CTAB up to 15 wt.%, the total charge Q, resulted from I− diffusion across the silica films, increased remarkably, indicative of formation of highly interconnected pores in the films prepared with more porogen. However, it decreased dramatically with further loading CTAB of 25 wt.%. Interestingly, 3γ-annihilation fraction I3γ due to a triplet-state Ps (ortho-positronium, o-Ps) emission from the silica films showed a similar behavior as a function of CTAB loading. The abnormal decrement in Q and I3γ in the film fabricated with 25 wt.% CTAB was well explained by formation of long nanochannels aligning parallel to the film surface. The results indicated that the total charge Q and Ps 3γ-annihilation fraction were closely associated with I− and Ps diffusion governed by the pore interconnectivity/morphology of the silica films, which made cyclic voltammetry possible to be a feasible tool to characterize pore interconnectivity/morphology of porous thin films

  5. Advances in Contactless Silicon Defect and Impurity Diagnostics Based on Lifetime Spectroscopy and Infrared Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of some recent developments in the field of contactless silicon wafer characterization techniques based on lifetime spectroscopy and infrared imaging. In the first part of the contribution, we outline the status of different lifetime spectroscopy approaches suitable for the identification of impurities in silicon and discuss—in more detail—the technique of temperature- and injection-dependent lifetime spectroscopy. The second part of the paper focuses on the application of infrared cameras to analyze spatial inhomogeneities in silicon wafers. By measuring the infrared signal absorbed or emitted from light-generated free excess carriers, high-resolution recombination lifetime mappings can be generated within seconds to minutes. In addition, mappings of non-recombination-active trapping centers can be deduced from injection-dependent infrared lifetime images. The trap density has been demonstrated to be an important additional parameter in the characterization and assessment of solar-grade multicrystalline silicon wafers, as areas of increased trap density tend to deteriorate during solar cell processing.

  6. Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy for precise concentration detection in vivo by background subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Maria; Mütze, Jörg; Ohrt, Thomas; Schwille, Petra

    2009-07-01

    In vivo studies of single molecule dynamics by means of Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can suffer from high background. Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy provides a tool to distinguish between signal and unwanted contributions via lifetime separation. By studying the motion of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) within two compartments of a human cell, the nucleus and the cytoplasm, we observed clear differences in concentration as well as mobility of the protein complex between those two locations. Especially in the nucleus, where the fluorescence signal is very weak, a correction for background is crucial to provide reliable results of the particle number. Utilizing the fluorescent lifetime of the different contributions, we show that it is possible to distinguish between the fluorescent signal and the autofluorescent background in vivo in a single measurement.

  7. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PALS) the effect of crosslinking on free volume size in poly-methyl-methacrylate

    CERN Document Server

    Atevikj, A

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation Spectroscopy (PALS) is used for analyzing the samples of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) with different contents of crosslinks. The measurements are performed at room temperature. The times of life (tau sub 1 , tau sub 2 , tau sub 3) and the intensities (I sub I , I sub 2 , 1 sub 3) of para-positronium, the free positrons and the orto-positrons are calculated for each type of polymer, but only (tau sub 3) and (I sub 3) are of interest because we can calculate the size of free volume. It is shown that the radius of free volume is proportional to the crosslinking density. Defects of sizes in the range of 0.1 to 1 nm are detected with Positron Spectroscopy, while other techniques do not give results. (Original)

  8. Generation and recombination lifetime measurement in silicon wafers using impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minority carrier lifetime in silicon wafers has been measured by applying an impedance spectroscopy technique (IST). Induced p+–p and p–n junctions were formed on both sides of the silicon wafer by thermally evaporating semitransparent metal layers of palladium and aluminium respectively. As such, no thermal treatment was given to the device, and therefore there is no diffusion of impurities inside the semiconductor and the two junctions are induced in the form of accumulation and depletion regions of charge carriers respectively. Both generation and recombination lifetimes applicable under the reverse and forward bias conditions respectively have been measured. The generation lifetime was estimated to be around 73 µs, whereas the recombination lifetime has been found to be about 11 µs. It is shown that the effective recombination lifetime is determined mainly by surface recombination velocity at the silicon–palladium interface. The effective minority carrier lifetime as measured by the microwave-detected photoconductive decay method on the same sample is 12 µs which is close to the measured recombination value by the IST. This shows that impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure effective lifetime of the wafer using an induced junction structure prior to the formation of an actual device like the solar cell. Moreover, the series resistance (Rs), diode ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Vbi) obtained from C–V (using the IST) data as well as the I–V measurement of the device show agreement with the expected device parameters. Thus, the IST can be effectively employed as a tool in extracting many relevant characteristic parameters of the material and the device

  9. Applications of positron annihilation to dermatology and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guang; Chen, Hongmin; Chakka, Lakshmi [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 and Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States); Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li (China)

    2007-07-01

    Positronium annihilation lifetime experiments have been performed to investigate the interaction between skin cancer and positronium for human skin samples. Positronium annihilation lifetime is found to be shorter and intensity is found to be less for the samples with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma than the normal skin samples. These results indicate a reduction of free volume in the molecular level for the skin with cancer with respect to the skin without cancer. Positron annihilation spectroscopy may be potentially developed as a new noninvasive and external method for dermatology clinics, early detection of cancer, and nano-PET technology in the future. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Study on positron annihilation spectroscopy of methanol synthesis catalyst CuO/ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method was developed for determining the solid solubility of a metal oxide series prepared by precipitation using the positron lifetime parameters. The positron lifetime spectra of a series of CuO/ZnO catalysts prepared by precipitation were measured, in which the CuO at % contents were different before and after reducing. The relations between the solid solubility of the catalysts and the positron lifetime parameters were obtained, from which a result of solid solubility of 12 CuO at% after reducing had been found. The viewpoint that the Cu+ ion acted as the active centre in the CuO/ZnO catalyst was supported

  11. Photo-degradation of Lexan polycarbonate studied using positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free volume properties of pristine and UV irradiated Lexan polycarbonate have been investigated using Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS). The decrease in o-Ps life time and free volume size of irradiated sample is attributed to free volume modification and formation of more stable free radicals. These free radicals are formed due to the breakage of C-O bonds in Lexan polycarbonate after irradiation. This is also supported by the decrease in the intensity of C-O bond after exposure to UV-radiation as studied from Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and it also shows that benzene ring does not undergo any changes after irradiation.

  12. Characterization of radiation-induced defects in ZnO probed by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we discuss the microstructural changes after electron and proton irradiation and the thermal evolution of the radiation induced defects during isochronal annealing of single crystals irradiated either with 3 MeV protons or with 1 or 2 MeV electrons, respectively. The investigations were performed with positron lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements. The differently grown ZnO single crystals show positron bulk lifetimes in the range of 159-173 ps. (orig.)

  13. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiple-scattering environments: an application to biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio

    1999-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been significant research activity devoted to the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to strongly scattering media, where photons propagate diffusely. Much of this activity focused on fluorescence as a source of contrast enhancement in optical tomography. Our efforts have emphasized the quantitative recovery of fluorescence parameters for spectroscopy. Using a frequency-domain diffusion-based model, we have successfully recovered the lifetime, the absolute quantum yield, the fluorophore concentration, and the emission spectrum of the fluorophore, as well as the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients at the emission wavelength of the medium in different measurements. In this contribution, we present a sensitive monitor of the binding between ethidium bromide and bovine cells in fresh milk. The spectroscopic contrast was the approximately tenfold increase in the ethidium bromide lifetime upon binding to DNA. The measurement clearly demonstrated that we could quantitatively measure the density of cells in the milk, which is an application vital to the tremendous economic burden of bovine subclinical mastitis detection. Furthermore, we may in principle use the spirit of this technique as a quantitative monitor of the binding of fluorescent drugs inside tissues. This is a first step towards lifetime spectroscopy in tissues.

  14. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of vacancy-type defects hierarchy in submicrocrystalline nickel during annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel V., E-mail: kpv@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Mironov, Yuri P., E-mail: myp@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: tolmach@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: rakhmatulina.tanya@gmail.com; Tolmachev, Aleksey I., E-mail: myp@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: tolmach@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: rakhmatulina.tanya@gmail.com; Rakhmatulina, Tanzilya V., E-mail: myp@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: tolmach@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: rakhmatulina.tanya@gmail.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Bordulev, Yuri S., E-mail: bordulev@gmail.com, E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com, E-mail: lider@tpu.ru; Laptev, Roman S., E-mail: bordulev@gmail.com, E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com, E-mail: lider@tpu.ru; Lider, Andrey M., E-mail: bordulev@gmail.com, E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com, E-mail: lider@tpu.ru; Mikhailov, Andrey A., E-mail: bordulev@gmail.com, E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com, E-mail: lider@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Korznikov, Alexander V., E-mail: korznikov@imsp.ru [Institute for Metals Superplasticity Problems RAS, Ufa, 450001 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    Positron annihilation and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to study submicrocrystalline nickel samples prepared by equal channel angular pressing. In the as-prepared samples the positrons are trapped at dislocation-type defects and in vacancy clusters that can include up to 5 vacancies. The study has revealed that the main positron trap centers at the annealing temperature of ΔT= 20°C-180°C are low-angle boundaries enriched by impurities. At ΔT = 180°C-360°C, the trap centers are low-angle boundaries providing the grain growth due to recrystallization in-situ.

  15. Post irradiated microstructural characterization of Zr–1Nb alloy by X-ray diffraction technique and positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P S Chowdhury; P Mukherjee; N Gayathri; M Bhattacharya; A Chatterjee; P Barat; P M G Nambissan

    2011-06-01

    Zr–1Nb samples were irradiated with 116 MeV O5+ ions at different doses ranging from 5 × 1017 to 8 × 1018 O5+/m2. X-ray diffraction line profile analysis was performed to characterize the microstructural parameters of these samples. Average domain size, microstrain and dislocation density were estimated as a function of dose. An anomaly was observed in the values of these parameters at a dose of 2 × 1018 O5+/m2. Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to determine the existence and nature of vacancy clusters in the samples. Isochronal annealing was carried out for a sample to study the evolution of defect clusters.

  16. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of Positron Annihilation in the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Siegert, Thomas; Khachatryan, Gerasim; Krause, Martin G H; Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; Greiner, Jochen; Strong, Andrew W; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    The annihilation of positrons in the Galaxy's interstellar medium produces characteristic gamma-rays with a line at 511 keV. This emission has been observed with the spectrometer SPI on INTEGRAL, confirming a puzzling morphology with bright emission from an extended bulge-like region, and faint disk emission. Most plausible sources of positrons are believed to be distributed throughout the disk of the Galaxy. We aim to constrain characteristic spectral shapes for different spatial components in the disk and bulge with the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer SPI, based on a new instrumental background method and detailed multi-component sky model fitting. We confirm the detection of the main extended components of characteristic annihilation gamma-ray signatures at 58$\\sigma$ significance in the line. The total Galactic line intensity amounts to $(2.7\\pm0.3)\\times10^{-3}~\\mathrm{ph~cm^{-2}~s^{-1}}$ for our assumed spatial model. We derive spectra for the bulge and disk, and a central point-like and at the p...

  17. Solid state diffusion of NaCl into NaY zeolite studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of samples, prepared from mechanical mixtures of NaCl with NaY zeolite and resulting in the dispersion of NaCl in NaY, was studied by position annihilation spectroscopy. We measured the positron lifetime spectroscopy as a function of the weight ratio of the NaCl-NaY zeolite heated at 500 degree C for 1 h, as a function of the heating temperature held for 1 h, and as a function of the heating duration at 500 degree C for NaCl/NaY (15%). All the lifetime spectra were resolved into five components, in which the third, fourth and fifth components are related to the positron annihilation in β cage, supercage and interface void respectively. The experimental results showed that position annihilation spectroscopy is sensitive to the change of the dispersion of NaCl in NaY zeolite

  18. Assembly and characterization of a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for skin lesions diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito Nogueira, Marcelo; Texiera Rosa, Ramon Gabriel; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; D´Almeida, Camila de Paula; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime analysis in biological tissues has been presented as a technique of a great potential for tissue characterization for diagnostic purposes. The objective of this study is to assemble and characterize a fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy system for diagnostic of clinically similar skin lesions in vivo. The fluorescence lifetime measurements were performed using the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (Becker & Hickl, Berlin, Germany) technique. Two lasers, one emitting at 378 nm and another at 445 nm, are used for excitation with 20, 50 and 80 MHz repetition rate. A bifurcated optical fiber probe conducts the excitation light to the sample, the collected light is transmitted through bandpass filters and delivered to a hybrid photomultiplier tube detector. The fluorescence spectra were obtained by using a portable spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB-2000-FLG) with the same excitation sources. An instrument response function of about 300 ps was obtained and the spectrum and fluorescence lifetime of a standard fluorescent molecule (Rhodamine 6G) was measured for the calibration of the system ((4.1 +/- 0.3) ns). The assembled system was considered robust, well calibrated and will be used for clinical measurements of skin lesions.

  19. Radiative lifetime measurements for some levels in Mn I and Ni I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radiative lifetimes for 32 excited levels of Mn I and for 17 excited levels of Ni I were measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) spectroscopy in laser-induced plasma. The energy regions are from 45,754.27 to 54,950.81 cm−1 for Mn I and from 28,578.018 to 50,851.199 cm−1 for Ni I. The uncertainties of all lifetime results are within 10%. To our best knowledge, 26 lifetime results of Mn I and 9 lifetime results of Ni I are reported for the first time. - Highlights: • The experimental lifetimes of some Mn I and Ni I levels were obtained by time-resolved laser induced fluorescence method. • Radiative lifetimes of 26 energy levels in Mn I were reported for the first time. • Radiative lifetimes of 9 energy levels in Ni I were reported for the first time

  20. Defects in fine-grained and porous materials characterized by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the annihilation parameters (lifetimes and intensities) for positrons becoming trapped at grain boundaries and at inner surfaces (pores), examining fine-grained nickel powder compacts (effective powder particle size 1 - 10 μm with grains in or even below the micron size). Furthermore, we can monitor grain growth and sintering (volume shrinkage) during successive heat treatment of powder compacts. To reach this aim, we correlate the annihilation parameters with results of a Monte-Carlo simulation and analytical solutions of the positron diffusion. We find that it is possible to determine an effective average powder particle size as well as grain sizes by positron lifetime spectroscopy. (author)

  1. Correlations between Positron Annihilation Parameters and Macroscopic Properties in Copolymers Belonging to Elastomers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, K.; Kansy, J.

    2008-05-01

    The positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was used to study correlations between positron annihilation parameters and macroscopic properties in two kinds of polymers from elastomers group. Two kinds of material were investigated: three samples of ethylene octane copolymers (commercial name engage) of different densities and six samples of polybutylene terephtalate-polyether glycol copolymers (hytrel) having different densities. A correlation between intensity of ortho-positronium component and the density (d) of samples was observed for both kinds of material. From the ortho-positronium pick-off lifetime the mean radii (R) of free volume centers were determined. A good linear correlation between R and d was found.

  2. Simulation and Characterization of Single Photon Detectors for Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopy and Gamma-ray Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Benetti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray and Fluorescence Lifetime Spectroscopies are driving the development of non-imaging silicon photon sensors and, in this context, Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM)s are leading the starring role. They are 2D array of optical diodes called Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD)s, and are normally fabricated with a dedicated silicon process. SPADs amplify the charge produced by the single absorbed photon in a way that recalls the avalanche amplification exploited in Photo-Multiplier Tube...

  3. Application and Development of Methods of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy for Definition of the Nature, Concentration and Size of Nanoobjects in Materials and Nanomaterials on Basis of Silicon and Iron. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Grafutin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that one of the effective methods for determining the size of nanoobjects (vacancies, vacancies clusters, vacant cavities, empty spaces, concentration of chemical composition in annihilation of porous materials is the method of positron annihilation spectroscopy. The article features a brief look at experimental researches of nanodefects in porous silicium, quartz irradiated by proton.

  4. Transient Fluorescence Spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence lifetimes of terbium doped dipicolinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoui, Anali

    We have investigated the use of deep UV laser induced fluorescence for the sensitive detection and spectroscopic lifetime studies of terbium doped dipicolinic acid (DPA-Tb) and used this to study the optical characteristics of DPA which is a chemical surrounding most bacterial spores. Background absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, and Excitation Emission Matrix (EEM) spectra were made of the DPA-Tb complex, using both fixed 266 nm wavelength and tunable (220 nm--280 nm) UV laser excitations. Of importance, the fluorescence lifetimes of the four main fluorescence peaks (488 nm, 543 nm, 581 nm, and 618 nm) of the DPA-Tb complex have been measured for the first time to our knowledge. The lifetimes of all the fluorescing lines have been measured as a function of DPA-Tb concentration, solvent pH, and solvent composition, including that for the weakest fluorescing line of DPA-Tb at 618 nm. In addition, a new spectroscopic lifetime measurement technique, which we call "Transient Fluorescence Spectroscopy", was developed. In this technique, a weak, quasi-CW, amplitude modulated UV laser (8.5 kHz) was used to measure the lifetimes of the fluorescence lines, and yields insight into energy transfer and excitation lifetimes within the system. This technique is especially useful when a high power laser is not either available or not suitable. In the latter case, this would be when a high power pulsed deep-UV laser could produce bleaching or destruction of the biological specimen. In addition, this technique simulated the excitation and fluorescence emission of the DPA-Tb using a 4-level energy model, and solved the dynamic transient rate equations to predict the temporal behavior of the DPA-Tb emitted fluorescence. Excellent agreement between the experiments and the simulation were found. This technique has the potential to provide a more accurate value for the fluorescence lifetime values. In addition, with the use of asymmetric excitation waveforms, the dynamic

  5. A positron annihilation study on the hydration of cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy experiments were carried out in various ordinary Portland cement pastes, in an attempt to monitor the porosity of the pastes. It is found that positronium intensity is well correlated to the time evolution of the total porosity and it is influenced by the water-to-cement ratio. This parameter is also sensitive to the delayed hydration process induced by adding methanol to the water-cement mixture

  6. Positron annihilation investigation of BaSrFBr:Eu by X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical property of the BaSrFBr:Eu phosphor layer of X-ray image plates was investigated by using resolution (LP/mm) and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) positron annihilation as well as positron annihilation lifetime (PAL). The image plate samples of BaSrFBr:Eu phosphors in this experiment were irradiated by using hospital X-rays. The LP/mm values of the irradiated BaSrFBr:Eu image plates varied from 3.35 to 1.25 for up to 20,000 exposures. CDB positron annihilation and lifetime spectroscopy were used to analyze defect structures in the phosphor layer. Even when the LP/mm values were greatly decreased due to exposures, the S parameter and the lifetime ( τ 1, τ 2) values were almost constant with increasing number of exposures. A positive relationship existed between the SEM images and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). According to the SEM images and the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) results, measurements of the defects with PAS indicate that the image-plate phosphor can be safely used for hospital X-rays in the course of diagnostic radiography at an average rate of 20,000 times for one year.

  7. Free-volume studies in polyurethane thin films by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free-volume parameters in various urethane/urea thin films obtained by varying the ratio of the structural constituents, polypropylene oxide and polybutadiene, were studied by positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements. On bi-soft segment thin films, a correlation was found between the composition of thin films, the normalized free volume, the radii of the holes and gas permeability. However, the correlation is not clear when PU data are also considered, indicating that other features must also play an important role in the permeation mechanism

  8. Characterization of zeolite Y pastilles for the ortho-positronium annihilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the characterization of zeolite Y pastilles prior to their study by the Positronium Annihilation Lifetimes Spectroscopy. The characterization is the estimation of porosity, the determination of its purity and crystal size for X-ray diffraction, the determination of its morphology and particle size by scanning electron microscopy and its specific area by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Presenting the first lifetimes measurements of positronium in zeolites LTA and Y. (Author)

  9. Microstructure characterization of rapidly solidified Al-Fe-Cr-Ce alloy by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michalcová, A.; Vojtěch, D.; Čízek, J.; Procházka, I.; Drahokoupil, Jan; Novák, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 509, č. 7 (2011), s. 3211-3218. ISSN 0925-8388 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : metals and alloys * nanostructured materials * rapid solidification * positron spectroscopies * transmission electron microscopy * x-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.289, year: 2011

  10. Positron annihilation in transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, P.; Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Selim, F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent ceramics are emerging as excellent candidates for many photonic applications including laser, scintillation and illumination. However achieving perfect transparency is essential in these applications and requires high technology processing and complete understanding for the ceramic microstructure and its effect on the optical properties. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is the perfect tool to study porosity and defects. It has been applied to investigate many ceramic structures; and transparent ceramics field may be greatly advanced by applying PAS. In this work positron lifetime (PLT) measurements were carried out in parallel with optical studies on yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics in order to gain an understanding for their structure at the atomic level and its effect on the transparency and light scattering. The study confirmed that PAS can provide useful information on their microstructure and guide the technology of manufacturing and advancing transparent ceramics.

  11. A comparative study on ferromagnetic C/O-implanted GaN films by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juping; Li, Qiang; Liu, Jiandang; Ye, Bangjiao

    2016-05-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in both C- and O-implanted GaN films, which were irradiated by 80 keV C/O-ions with respective dose of 5 × 1016 and 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to explore the magnetic origin and the correlation between the magnetism and structural features. The results reveal that carbon-ions play an important role in the stable ferromagnetism in C-implanted GaN films, while oxygen has no effect on the magnetic properties, even than a weak hysteresis loop was observed in O-implanted sample. This weak ferromagnetism is demonstrated as originated from Ga-related vacancies which induced by implantation. With first-principle calculations, we confirmed that substitutional C-ion at N-site can introduce magnetic moment for 0.8 μB and stabilize ferromagnetic coupling with adjacent Ga-vacancy at room temperature. Moreover, the effect of O-ions was clearly ruled out. Our discussion gives an experimental and theoretical insight of the different origin of ferromagnetism between acceptor and donor non-metal-doped GaN materials.

  12. The influence of antioxidant on positron annihilation in polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to check the influence of the carbonyl groups (CG), created by oxygen naturally dissolved in a polymer matrix and by the source irradiation, on annihilation characteristics of free positrons using the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy (CDBS). Positron annihilation in a pure polypropylene (PP) and in an antioxidant-containing polypropylene (PPA) sample at room and low temperatures has been studied by CDBS. PALS has been used as an o-Ps (orth-positronium) formation monitor. The momentum density distributions of electrons obtained by CDBS at the beginning of measurements have been compared to that at the o-Ps intensity saturation level. It has been shown that the initial concentration of carbonyl groups in a PP sample is high, while for an antioxidant-containing sample, PPA, carbonyl groups are not detected by CDBS. CDBS spectra for a PP can be explained by annihilation of free positrons with the oxygen contained in the carbonyl groups. For a PPA sample, no significant contribution of annihilation with oxygen core electrons can be concluded. (Y. Kazumata)

  13. Lifetime-resolved photoacoustic (LPA) spectroscopy for monitoring oxygen change and photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Janggun; Lee, Chang Heon; Kopelman, Raoul; Wang, Xueding

    2016-03-01

    The Methylene Blue loaded Polyacrylamide Nanoparticles (MB-PAA NPs) are used for oxygen sensing and Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a promising therapeutic modality employed for various tumors, with distinct advantages of delivery of biomedical agents and protection from other bio-molecules overcoming inherent limitations of molecular dyes. Lifetime-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy using quenched-phosphorescence method is applied with MB-PAA NPs so as to sense oxygen, while the same light source is used for PDT. The dye is excited by absorbing 650 nm wavelength light from a pump laser to reach triplet state. The probe laser at 810 nm wavelength is used to excite the first triplet state at certain delayed time to measure the dye lifetime which indicates oxygen concentration. The 9L cells (106 cells/ml) incubated with MB-PAA NP solution are used for monitoring oxygen level change during PDT in situ test. The oxygen level and PDT efficacy are confirmed with a commercial oximeter, and fluorescence microscope imaging and flow cytometry results. This technique with the MB-PAA NPs allowed us to demonstrate a potential non-invasive theragnostic operation, by monitoring oxygen depletion during PDT in situ, without the addition of secondary probes. Here, we demonstrate this theragnostic operation, in vitro, performing PDT while monitoring oxygen depletion. We also show the correlation between O2 depletion and cell death.

  14. Natural Lifetimes of Excited-states of Neutral Nitrogen Determined By Time-resolved Laser Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, G. J; Larsson, Jörgen; Svanberg, Sune; Wang, D. D

    1992-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes were determined for three quartet states of neutral nitrogen, and sequences of Rydberg states were studied using depletion spectroscopy. Free nitrogen atoms were generated by photodissociation of N2O using frequency-tripled dye-laser radiation that was two-photon resonant with the 2p(2)3p 4S or 4D states. Further quartet states were reached by a subsequent single-photon absorption. We obtain tau(2p(2)3p 4D7/2) = 44(2) ns, tau(2p(2)3p 4S3/2) = 26.0(1.5) ns, and tau(2p(2)6s4...

  15. On mechanism of intermediate-sized circular DNA compaction mediated by spermine: Contribution of fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humpolíčková, Jana; Štěpánek, M.; Kral, Teresa; Benda, Aleš; Procházka, K.; Hof, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3-4 (2008), s. 679-684. ISSN 1053-0509 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400621; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : DNA compaction * fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy * dynamic light scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2008

  16. Evolution of microstructure of epoxy coating during UV degradation progress studied by slow positron annihilation spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Decrements in S value and water uptake coefficient confirm the post-cure process. • Molecular chain scission leads to the formation of microporous structure. • The formation of an aged layer with high density is verified by EIS. - Abstract: Evolution of chemical functional groups, microstructure and water barrier properties of a polyamide-cured epoxy (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin, DGEBA) coating during ultraviolet A (UV-A) photo-oxidative aging is systematically investigated. At the early stage of aging, decrements of S parameter and water uptake coefficient indicate the formation of a more compact structure induced by the post-curing process. After 208 hours (h) of UV irradiation, a novel time constant at relatively high frequency (3.5 × 102 Hz) appears in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra suggesting that a microporous layer generates near the surface of DGEBA film. With the increase in irradiation time, overlap of two time constants at frequencies around 18 Hz and 3.7 × 103 Hz is observed after 1.33 h of immersion, indicating that the micropores grow towards the bulk and form more characteristic layers with microporous structures. After irradiation for 399 h, a low S parameter region near the sample surface is observed, which implies that a surface layer with low free volume may have formed. With longer exposure, EIS results also reveal that the water barrier property of the coating can be improved, which confirms the formation of the denser surface layer near the surface as a result of radical recombination during UV-A treatment

  17. Multiphoton microscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging and optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Melissa Caroline

    2007-12-01

    Cancer morbidity and mortality is greatly reduced when the disease is diagnosed and treated early in its development. Tissue biopsies are the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, and an accurate diagnosis requires a biopsy from the malignant portion of an organ. Light, guided through a fiber optic probe, could be used to inspect regions of interest and provide real-time feedback to determine the optimal tissue site for biopsy. This approach could increase the diagnostic accuracy of current biopsy procedures. The studies in this thesis have characterized changes in tissue optical signals with carcinogenesis, increasing our understanding of the sensitivity of optical techniques for cancer detection. All in vivo studies were conducted on the dimethylbenz[alpha]anthracene treated hamster cheek pouch model of epithelial carcinogenesis. Multiphoton microscopy studies in the near infrared wavelength region quantified changes in tissue morphology and fluorescence with carcinogenesis in vivo. Statistically significant morphological changes with precancer included increased epithelial thickness, loss of stratification in the epithelium, and increased nuclear diameter. Fluorescence changes included a statistically significant decrease in the epithelial fluorescence intensity per voxel at 780 nm excitation, a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, an electron donor in oxidative phosphorylation), and an increase in the fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, an electron acceptor in oxidative phosphorylation) with precancer. The redox ratio (fluorescence intensity of FAD/NADH, a measure of the cellular oxidation-reduction state) did not significantly change with precancer. Cell culture experiments (MCF10A cells) indicated that the decrease in protein-bound NADH with precancer could be due to increased levels of glycolysis. Point measurements of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectra in

  18. Atomic structure of the amorphous state of TiC-modified Nd2Fe14B as revealed by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy utilizing the Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation (DBAR) method was performed on stoichiometric Nd2Fe14B ribbons containing 0, 2, and 6 wt% Ti - C that were melt spun to the x-ray amorphous state at a wheel speed of 40 m/s. DBAR data indicate that the as-spun samples are very homogeneous. It is found that an increase in the concentration of alloying additions promotes an increase in the shape parameter (open-quotes S parameterclose quotes) of the symmetric Doppler-broadened positron - electron annihilation peak. This increase in the S parameter may be interpreted as an increase in the amount of open volume in the quenched glass. The presence of increased open volume is concurrent with an increased stability of the glass against crystallization. However, at the present time it is not clear if the increased thermal stability is a direct product of the increased open volume, or if stereochemical considerations determine the stability of the glass. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  19. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of vacancy-related defects in CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe:Ge at different stoichiometry deviations

    OpenAIRE

    L. Šedivý; J. Čížek; Belas, E.; Grill, R.; Melikhova, O.

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) was used to examine the effect of defined Cd-rich and Te-rich annealing on point defects in Cl-doped CdTe and Ge-doped CdZnTe semi-insulating single crystals. The as-grown crystals contain open-volume defects connected with Cd vacancies . It was found that the Cd vacancies agglomerate into clusters coupled with Cl in CdTe:Cl, and in CdZnTe:Ge they are coupled with Ge donors. While annealing in Cd pressure reduces of the density, subsequent annealing in...

  20. Current-induced spin polarization on a Pt surface: A new approach using spin-polarized positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transversely spin-polarized positrons were injected near Pt and Au surfaces under an applied electric current. The three-photon annihilation of spin-triplet positronium, which was emitted from the surfaces into vacuum, was observed. When the positron spin polarization was perpendicular to the current direction, the maximum asymmetry of the three-photon annihilation intensity was observed upon current reversal for the Pt surfaces, whereas it was significantly reduced for the Au surface. The experimental results suggest that electrons near the Pt surfaces were in-plane and transversely spin-polarized with respect to the direction of the electric current. The maximum electron spin polarization was estimated to be more than 0.01 (1%). - Highlights: • Annihilation probability of positronium emitted from the Pt surface into the vacuum under direct current exhibited asymmetry upon current reversal. • The maximum asymmetry appeared when positron spin polarization and the direct current were perpendicular to each other. • Electrons near the Pt surfaces were in-plane and transversely spin-polarized with respect to the direction of the electric current. • Spin-polarized positronium annihilation provides a unique tool for investigating spin polarization on metal surfaces

  1. Positron annihilation studies of Eu and Dy doped α'-Sr2SiO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Sharma, S. K.; Pujari, P. K.; Natarajan, V.

    2015-06-01

    Sr2SiO4 is an important inorganic host for lanthanide doped white light emitting diodes (LEDs). Strontium silicate (Sr2SiO4) samples doped with 1.0 mol% of Eu3+ and Dy3+ content were prepared via sol-gel route and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The concentration of the dopant ion and the temperature of annealing were optimized for maximum luminescence intensity. The positron annihilation lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements indicated that the local environment around the positron annihilation site is different in Eu+3 doped and Dy+3 doped samples. The results could be explained based on the different local site occupancy of Eu+3 and Dy+3 in the matrix.

  2. Positron lifetime as a probe for the investigation of conducting polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is applied to study the microstructure and conducting mechanism of polystyrene conducting polymer. The positron lifetime spectra and electrical conductivity of the sample were measured as a function of temperature (30-145 C). The data clearly revealed the phase transition at about 62 C and the glass transition temperature (Tg) around 95 C. The dependence of the size and relative fractional of the ortho-positronium hole volume on the electrical conductivity has been obtained. (orig.)

  3. Microstructural analysis of impurity segregation around β-Nb precipitates in Zr–Nb alloy using positron annihilation spectroscopy and atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Fe segregation are evident at the interface between β-Nb precipitates and α-Zr matrix by atom probe tomography (APT). Defects are observed at the interface by positron annihilation spectroscopy. It is also suggested that Fe was segregated to a concentration of several tens of percent at a local region at the interface, which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than APT and difficult to observe directly even using APT. - Abstract: Impurity segregation at the interface between β-Nb precipitates and α-Zr matrix in Zr-2.5 wt.%Nb alloy was investigated by complementary analysis with positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and atom probe tomography (APT). Fe segregation and Fe-decorated defects were found at the interface. PAS also suggested that Fe was segregated to a concentration of several tens of percent at a local region at the interface, which is approximately one order of magnitude higher than APT and difficult to observe directly even using APT

  4. Moessbauer and positron annihilation studies of structural modifications of hemoglobin in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural modifications of human adult oxyhemoglobin in concentrated solution were studied by Moessbauer and positron life-time spectroscopies. The effects of non-sterile degradation and irradiation by γ-rays were compared by both techniques. It was found that positron annihilation parameters were sensitive to the structural modifications of hemoglobin molecules in solution and could be related with the conformational states of hemoglobin. (author)15 refs.; 3 tabs

  5. Study of defects in electron irradiated CuInSe2 by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CuInSe2 was studied in the as-grown state and after low-temperature (4 K) 2 MeV electron irradiation. The positron bulk lifetime of 235 ps was measured for the unirradiated sample. The positron bulk lifetime was theoretically calculated and is in good agreement with the experimental value. In addition, the defect-related lifetimes for mono-, di-, and trivacancies are theoretically determined. An increased average positron lifetime indicated after electron irradiation the appearance of open-volume defects, most probably of divacancy type. The disappearance of this defect was observed during annealing below 250 K. Other defects were formed leading to a divacancy signal at least stable up to 600 K in the temperature range above 450 K. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  6. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  7. Structural transition of partially Ba-filled thermoelectric CoSb3 investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructure of unfilled and Ba-filled CoSb3 has been studied by positron lifetime measurements together with theoretical calculation. Positron trapping in intrinsic voids is observed in the CoSb3, which contributes a positron lifetime of 263 ± 2 ps. After filling Ba atoms with content up to x = 0.4, the positron lifetime shows continuous increase. By comparing the experimental results with calculation following the phase diagram of BaxCo4Sb12 with x in the range of 0–0.5, it is found that when the Ba content is lower than 0.16, the filling of Ba atoms is in a phase of solid solution. At x = 0.2, γ phase is formed, which is mixed with solid solution. At x > 0.25, transition from γ phase to a mixture of γ and α phases is confirmed

  8. Vacancy-like defects in doped Pb(Zr60Ti40)O3 observed by positron lifetime and coincident Doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferroelectric Pb(Zr60Ti40)O3 ceramics sintered for 6 hours at 1050 C in air and doped with La or Nb in the range 0.5 to 6 mol% have been investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy and two-dimensional coincident Doppler measurements. The undoped samples show two lifetime components with a defect lifetime of about 250 ps. After doping this defect lifetime increases to about 295 ps. The influence of the doping on the Doppler spectra is extremely small. Additional XRD pattern show a significant correlation between doping and lattice structure. (orig.)

  9. Constitutional and/or thermal vacancies in some B2 intermetallic compounds studied by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constitutional vacancies have been observed in some B2 intermetallics such as NiAl, CoAl, NiGa and CoGa by using positron lifetime spectroscopy. A large amount of non-thermal vacancies have been found not only on transition-element-poor compositions but also on transition-element-rich compositions of these intermetallics. B2 CuZn does not have such constitutional vacancies, but has a very low vacancy formation enthalpy. Intermetallic compounds with B2 structure are quite unique in the manner of vacancy formation. (orig.)

  10. Positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main work in the annihilation of positrons at Harwell (UK) has been the application of the technique of technological problems to do with the effects of radiation damage and mechanical phenomena, such as fatigue and creep, on the properties of materials. Three experimental techniques for studying positron annihilation in solids are documented in this article. Nuclear pulse counting methods are being used, also angular correlation and the Doppler method. The irradiation of metals and alloys with fast neutrons at high temperatures in a reactor can cause voids to develop in the material. Defects are also produced by the plastic deformation of metals and alloys. It opens up the possibility of using positron annihilation as a practical non-destructive tool to assess mechanical damage in materials. Harwell has also been able to make measurements on the inside surface of a hole in a metal sample and on variously-shaped notched and cracked test pieces, which means that it is possible to apply the technique to engineering components

  11. Hydrogen-bond lifetime measured by time-resolved 2D-IR spectroscopy: N-methylacetamide in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, S.; Mu, Y.; Stock, G.; Hamm, P.

    2001-05-01

    2D vibrational spectroscopy is applied to investigate the equilibrium dynamics of hydrogen bonding of N-methylacetamide (NMA) dissolved in methanol- d4. For this particular solute-solvent system, roughly equal populations are found for two conformers of the solute-solvent complex, one of which forms a hydrogen bond from the CO group of NMA to the surrounding solvent, and one of which does not. Using time-resolved 2D-IR spectroscopy on the amide I band of NMA, the exchange between both conformers is resolved. Equilibration of each conformer is completed after 4.5 ps, while the formation and breaking of the hydrogen bond occurs on a slower, 10-15 ps time scale. This interpretation is supported by classical molecular-dynamics simulations of NMA in methanol. The calculations predict a 64% population of the hydrogen-bonded conformer and an average hydrogen-bond lifetime of ≈12 ps.

  12. AC quantum efficiency harmonic analysis of exciton annihilation in organic light emitting diodes (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-10-01

    Exciton annihilation processes impact both the lifetime and efficiency roll-off of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), however it is notoriously difficult to identify the dominant mode of annihilation in operating devices (exciton-exciton vs. exciton-charge carrier) and subsequently to disentangle its magnitude from competing roll-off processes such as charge imbalance. Here, we introduce a simple analytical method to directly identify and extract OLED annihilation rates from standard light-current-voltage (LIV) measurement data. The foundation of this approach lies in a frequency domain EQE analysis and is most easily understood in analogy to impedance spectroscopy, where in this case both the current (J) and electroluminescence intensity (L) are measured using a lock-in amplifier at different harmonics of the sinusoidal dither superimposed on the DC device bias. In the presence of annihilation, the relationship between recombination current and light output (proportional to exciton density) becomes nonlinear, thereby mixing the different EQE harmonics in a manner that depends uniquely on the type and magnitude of annihilation. We derive simple expressions to extract different annihilation rate coefficients and apply this technique to a variety of OLEDs. For example, in devices dominated by triplet-triplet annihilation, the annihilation rate coefficient, K_TT, is obtained directly from the linear slope that results from plotting EQE_DC-EQE_1ω versus L_DC (2EQE_1ω-EQE_DC). We go on to show that, in certain cases it is sufficient to calculate EQE_1ω directly from the slope of the DC light versus current curve [i.e. via (dL_DC)/(dJ_DC )], thus enabling this analysis to be conducted solely from common LIV measurement data.

  13. Two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging and spectroscopy of melanins in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Stringari, Chiara; Liu, Feng; Sun, Chung-Ho; Kong, Yu; Balu, Mihaela; Meyskens, Frank L.; Gratton, Enrico; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2013-03-01

    Changes in the amounts of cellular eumelanin and pheomelanin have been associated with carcinogenesis. The goal of this work is to develop methods based on two-photon-excited-fluorescence (TPEF) for measuring relative concentrations of these compounds. We acquire TPEF emission spectra (λex=1000 nm) of melanin in vitro from melanoma cells, hair specimens, and in vivo from healthy volunteers. We find that the pheomelanin emission peaks at approximately 615 to 625 nm and eumelanin exhibits a broad maximum at 640 to 680 nm. Based on these data we define an optical melanin index (OMI) as the ratio of fluorescence intensities at 645 and 615 nm. The measured OMI for the MNT-1 melanoma cell line is 1.6±0.22 while the Mc1R gene knockdown lines MNT-46 and MNT-62 show substantially greater pheomelanin production (OMI=0.5±0.05 and 0.17±0.03, respectively). The measured values are in good agreement with chemistry-based melanin extraction methods. In order to better separate melanin fluorescence from other intrinsic fluorophores, we perform fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy of in vitro specimens. The relative concentrations of keratin, eumelanin, and pheomelanin components are resolved using a phasor approach for analyzing lifetime data. Our results suggest that a noninvasive TPEF index based on spectra and lifetime could potentially be used for rapid melanin ratio characterization both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Structural transition of partially Ba-filled thermoelectric CoSb{sub 3} investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Li, X. F.; Chen, Z. Q., E-mail: chenzq@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhou, K. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Su, X. L.; Tang, X. F., E-mail: tangxf@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-07

    Microstructure of unfilled and Ba-filled CoSb{sub 3} has been studied by positron lifetime measurements together with theoretical calculation. Positron trapping in intrinsic voids is observed in the CoSb{sub 3}, which contributes a positron lifetime of 263 ± 2 ps. After filling Ba atoms with content up to x = 0.4, the positron lifetime shows continuous increase. By comparing the experimental results with calculation following the phase diagram of Ba{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} with x in the range of 0–0.5, it is found that when the Ba content is lower than 0.16, the filling of Ba atoms is in a phase of solid solution. At x = 0.2, γ phase is formed, which is mixed with solid solution. At x > 0.25, transition from γ phase to a mixture of γ and α phases is confirmed.

  15. Thermal treatment of the Fe78 Si9 B13 alloy and the analysis of it magnetic properties through Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positronium annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is divided in five chapters. In the first one a general vision of the amorphous alloys is given from antecedents, structure, obtaining methods, properties and problems that at the moment, focusing us in a certain moment to the iron base alloys and the anomalous problem of hardness that it presents the alloy Fe78Si9B13 like previously mention us. The second chapter tries on the basic theory of the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation spectroscopy, used for the characterization of our alloy as well as the complementary technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe that the amorphous phase was even studying. The third chapter describes the experimental conditions that were used to study the alloy Fe78Si9B13 in each one of their thermal treatments. In the fourth chapter the obtained results and their discussion are presented. In the fifth chapter the conclusions to which were arrived after analyzing the results are presented. (Author)

  16. Positron annihilation and magnetic properties studies of copper substituted nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Z.; Asgarian, S. M.; Mozaffari, M.

    2016-05-01

    Single phase copper substituted nickel ferrite Ni1-xCuxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. TEM images of the samples confirm formation of nano-sized particles. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that lattice constant increase with increase in copper content from 8.331 for x = 0.0 to 8.355 Å in x = 0.5. Cation distribution of samples has been determined by the occupancy factor, using Rietveld refinement. The positron lifetime spectra of the samples were convoluted into three lifetime components. The shortest lifetime is due to the positrons that do not get trapped by the vacancy defects. The second lifetime is ascribed to annihilation of positrons in tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites in spinel structure. It is seen that for x = 0.1 and 0.3 samples, positron trapped within vacancies in A sites, but for x = 0.0 and 0.5, the positrons trapped and annihilated within occupied B sites. The longest lifetime component attributed to annihilation of positrons in the free volume between nanoparticles. The obtained results from coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) confirmed the results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and also showed that the vacancy clusters concentration for x = 0.3 is more than those in other samples. Average defect density in the samples, determined from mean lifetime of annihilated positrons reflects that the vacancy concentration for x = 0.3 is maximum. The magnetic measurements showed that the saturation magnetization for x = 0.3 is maximum that can be explained by Néel's theory. The coercivity in nanoparticles increased with increase in copper content. This increase is ascribed to the change in anisotropy constant because of increase of the average defect density due to the substitution of Cu2+ cations and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Cu2+ cations. Curie temperature of the samples reduces with increase in copper content which

  17. Study of Pd--Ta on Si(100) using Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and variable energy positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Kolk, G.J.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Duchateau, J.P.W.B.; Willemsen, M.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1989-05-01

    The applicability of Pd/sub x/Ta/sub 1-//sub x/ as a diffusion barrier on Si has been investigated. For this purpose Pd/sub x/Ta/sub 1-//sub x/ films of 200-nm thickness (x ranges from 0 to 1) were deposited on Si(100), and the reaction between overlayer and substrate was studied as a function of temperature. Interaction was found to occur at temperatures increasing with the Ta content. The as-deposited Pd/sub x/Ta/sub 1-//sub x/ films with 0.2less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6 were found to be amorphous. The amorphous phase had a higher reaction temperature than the crystalline one, causing a discontinuous step in the reaction temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed that for the Pd-rich compositions, first a stoichiometric Pd/sub 2/Si layer formed underneath a pure Ta layer. At higher temperatures TaSi/sub 2/ formed at the surface. For Ta-rich compositions Pd/sub 2/Si formed first as well; however, the reaction temperature was so high that Pd/sub 2/Si grains formed in a Si matrix. The defect density of the Ta layer, which remained after outdiffusion of Pd, was investigated using variable energy positron annihilation. The defect concentration is very high, as deduced from the trapped positron fraction. A model is presented that describes the composition dependence of the reaction temperature.

  18. Speciation of U and Am in sol-gel derived borosilicate glasses by photoluminescence lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borosilicate glasses are intended to be the barrier in between the high level nuclear waste and the geosphere. The oxidation state and the coordination geometry of a particular element in the glass influences its solubility, migration and complexation behavior, which in turn influences its long term leaching behavior. In this context, uranium and americium containing barium borosilicate glasses were prepared by sol-gel route and the speciation studies of U and Am in the glasses were carried out using photoluminescence lifetime spectroscopic technique. It was observed that in the matrix the uranium is stabilised as (UO6)6- and the americium as Am3+. (author)

  19. Positron annihilation as a tool in structural chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The paper will demonstrate that the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is an excellent tool to follow the structural changes in chemical species. After the presentation of the physical background and the techniques of the measurements of PAS we show four examples of applications. The sizes of defects in electrodeposited chromium layers were studied and estimated on the basis of positron lifetime spectra decomposed into two components. Vacancies, divacancies and vacancy-clusters could be identified in the electrodeposites. Positron lifetime measurements were performed to study the swelling dynamics of an amphiphilic polymer network (APN). Lifetime spectroscopy proved to be suitable to investigate APNs. Very quick structural changes were indicated by lifetime parameters at very low swelling ratios. On the basis of the results a possible mechanism is proposed for the hydration of the investigated materials. The ortho-para conversion of ortho-Ps was used to follow the partial spin-crossover in [Fe(1-alkyl-1H-tetrazole)6](BR4)2. If there are structural free volumes large enough (as for [Fe(1-ethyl-1H-tetrazole)6](BF4)2 and [Fe(1-propyl-1H-tetrazole)6](BF4)2), there is a significant intensity of positronium (Ps) and the lifetime of o-Ps is a detector of spin-crossover. A conformal structural transformation was found in [Zn(1-propyl-1H-tetrazole)6(BF4)2 between 170 and 90 K by positronium lifetime measurement and the role of (BF4)2- anion, in this transformation was proved by 19F NMR spectroscopy

  20. Early Stages of Precipitation Process in Al-(Mn-)Sc-Zr Alloy Characterized by Positron Annihilation

    KAUST Repository

    Vlach, Martin

    2015-01-29

    Thermal effects on the precipitation stages in as-cast Al-0.70 at. pct Mn-0.15 at. pct Sc-0.05 at. pct Zr alloy were studied. The role of lattice defects was elucidated by positron annihilation spectroscopy (lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening) enabling investigation of solutes clustering at the atomic scale. This technique has never been used in the Al-Sc- and/or Al-Zr-based alloys so far. Studies by positron annihilation were combined with resistometry, hardness measurements, and microstructure observations. Positrons trapped at defects are preferentially annihilated by Sc electrons. Lifetime of trapped positrons indicates that Sc atoms segregate at dislocations. Maximum fraction of positrons annihilated by Sc electrons occurring at 453 K (180 °C) suggests that clustering of Sc bound with vacancies takes place. It is followed by peak of this fraction at 573 K (300 °C). A rise of the contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Zr electrons starting at 513 K (240 °C) and attaining maximum also at 573 K (300 °C) confirms that Zr participates in precipitation of the Al3Sc particles already at these temperatures. The pronounced hardening at 573 K (300 °C) has its nature in the precipitation of the Al3Sc particles with a Zr-rich shell. The contribution of trapped positrons annihilated by Mn electrons was found to be negligible. © 2015, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  1. Spectroscopy of 96-98Ru and neighboring nuclei: shell model calculations and lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Spin states in 94,95Mo, 94-96Tc, 96-98Ru and 97,98Rh were populated via the 65Cu(36S,xpyn) reactions at 142 MeV. Level schemes of these nuclei have been extended up to a spin of J ∼ 20ℎ and an excitation energy of Ex∼12 -14 MeV. Information on the high spin structure for 96Tc and 98Rh has been obtained for the first time. Spherical shell model calculations have been performed and compared with the experimental excitation energies. The level structures of the N=51, 52 isotones exhibit single-particle nature even at the highest spins and excitation energies. A fragmentation of intensity into several branches after breaking of the N = 50 core has been observed. There are indications for the onset of collectivity around neutron number N = 53 in this mass region. A sequence of E2 transitions, reminiscent of vibrational degree of freedom, were observed in 98Ru at spins just above the observed N = 50 core breaking. RDM lifetime measurements have been performed to ascertain the intrinsic structures of these level sequences. (author)

  2. Spectroscopy and lifetime measurements of states in $^{76}$Kr populated in $^{76}$Rb decay

    CERN Document Server

    Giannatiempo, A; Perego, A; Sona, P; Mach, H; Fogelberg, B; García-Borge, M J; Tengblad, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Aas, A J; Gulda, K; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the excited states of $^{76}$Kr, populated in the decay of $^{76}$Rb produced at ISOLDE isotopic separator, have been investigated by using K-conversion electron, $\\gamma$-ray, and $\\gamma\\gamma$ coincidence measurements. The lifetimes of several levels have been measured by means of the Advanced Time-Delayed $\\beta\\gamma\\gamma (t)$ method. The identification of 19 new levels and 55 transitions and the information deduced on spin and/or parity of the observed states from K-conversion coefficients, log ft values and decay properties have led to an improved knowledge of the level scheme. In particular, six 1$^-$ states have been definitely identified and $J^{\\pi} =2^{-}$ has been assigned to the 2227 keV level, on which a band proposed to have negative-parity and even-spin had been previously observed. The strengths of the $E$0 and $E$2 transitions de-exciting the 0$^{+}_{2}$ and 0$^{+}_{3}$ states (the latter is here identified with the state at 1598 keV) have been measured. The experimental ...

  3. Electron beam and gamma irradiation effects on conducting polystyrene studied by positron annihilation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of electron beam and gamma irradiation on microscopic structure of a conducting polystyrene (polystyrene + 15% carbon black) have been studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction profiles for non-irradiated and irradiated conducting polystyrene are performed to investigate the structural nature of the samples. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with doses ranging from 30 up to 1500 kGy. The observed lifetime spectra were resolved into three components and the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime component was associated with the pick-off annihilation of positronium trapped by the free volume. After gamma irradiation no detectable changes are observed in the o-Ps lifetime. In contrast, the intensity of the o-Ps component, I3, decreases with the dose, up to about 540 kGy, followed by a much smooth decrease up to 1200 kGy then it levels off up to 1500 kGy. Meanwhile, after electron irradiation, the intensity of the o-Ps lifetime component as the dose increases exhibits two different regions may be identified as a rapid drop, followed by a smooth increase, then, it levels off and remains constant. The back increase in the electron curve seems to be absent in the case of gamma irradiation. These results are discussed on the basis of the free volume model

  4. Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy To Probe the Interaction of Bovine Serum Albumin with Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Roy, Arpita; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2015-12-29

    The interaction of graphene oxide (GO) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous buffer solution has been investigated with various spectroscopic and imaging techniques. At single molecular resolution this interaction has been performed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) techniques. The conformational dynamics of BSA on GO's influence have been explored by FCS and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. For the FCS studies BSA was labeled covalently by a fluorophore, Alexa Fluor 488. On the addition of GO in phosphate buffer of 10 mM at pH 7.4 the diffusion time (τD) and the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of BSA increase due to adsorption of BSA. Conformational relaxation time components of native BSA drastically vary with the addition of GO, signifying the change of conformational dynamics of BSA after addition of GO. The adsorption isotherm also indicates significant adsorption of BSA on the GO surface. Adsorption of BSA on the GO surface has shown in direct images of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FLIM. Fluorescence quenching study of BSA with addition of GO also indicates that there is strong interaction between BSA and GO. PMID:26646418

  5. Direct evidence for positron annihilation from shallow traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Hidalgo, C.

    1987-01-01

    For deformed Ag the temperature dependence of the positron lifetime parameters is followed between 12 and 300 K. Clear direct evidence for positron trapping and annihilation at shallow traps, with a positron binding energy of 9±2 meV and annihilation characteristics very similar to those in the...

  6. Recent development of positron annihilation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Doyama, M

    2002-01-01

    When positron comes into solid or liquid, it moves in the matter and emitted two gamma rays at the opposite direction, by pair annihilation with electron. Each gamma ray is about 511 keV. The experiments of positron annihilation has been developed by three methods such as angular correlation between two gamma rays, energy analysis of emission gamma ray and positron lifetime. The angular correlation between two gamma rays is determined by gamma ray position detector.The energy analysis was measured by S-W analysis and Coincidence Doppler Broadening (CDB) method. Positron lifetime are determined by gamma-gamma lifetime measurement method, beta sup + -gamma lifetime measurement method and other method using waveform of photomultiplier, and determination of time and frequency of gamma-ray. Positron beam is applied to positron scattering, positron diffraction, low energy positron diffraction (LEPD), PELS, LEPSD, PAES, positron re-emission imaging microscope (PRIM) and positron channeling. The example of CDB method...

  7. The kinetics of formation and growth of TiC precipitates in Ti-modified stainless steel studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation and growth of TiC precipitates in Ti-modified austenitic stainless steel (D-9 alloy) is monitored by positron lifetime spectroscopy. From isochronal annealing studies various recovery stages are identified. TiC precipitates are found to be more stable in 20% cold worked alloy than in a 17.5% cold worked sample. From the isothermal annealing studies, it is found that TiC precipitation is controlled by dislocations. The limited temperature dependence of dislocation controlled TiC precipitation is governed by an apparent activation energy of 1.6 eV. In 20% cold worked alloy, TiC precipitates are found to be stable against growth even after 1000 h of annealing at 923 K. For higher annealing temperatures, TiC precipitate coarsening occurs due to recrystallisation. (orig.)

  8. Nanometer cavities studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positronium (Ps) is trapped in cavities in insulating solids, and the lifetime of ortho Ps is determined by the size of the cavity. The information on the properties of the cavities obtained by use of the standard slow positron beam and the 'normal' positron annihilation techniques is compared for several selected cases. (author)

  9. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1986-01-01

    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to -180.degree. C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree of ...

  10. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of γ-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge23.5Sb11.8S64.7 glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Positron annihilation in the hydrogenated granular superconductor of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, C. C.; Shao, L. W.; Jin, X.; Chen, W. M.; Xiong, H. Q.; Feng, J.; Qi, S. R.; Hung, K. C.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper, we have used the sputtering neutral-particles mass spectroscopy (SNMS) and positron-annihilation technique to investigate the effect of hydrogenation on the physical properties of different oxygenated YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ superconductors. Under the same of hydrogenation treatment, the hydrogenation effects on the superconductors are compared to the non-superconductors. It was shown that the hydrogen concentration in the superconductors is about eight times of the non-superconductor's. It was proven that the long lifetime of positrons in the annihilation process is determined by the variation of the concentrations of monovacancies and microvoids, which takes place in both of intragrain and intergrain samples. The hydrogenation effect can be classified into four stages. At the first stage, the hydrogen atoms fill both monovacancy and microvoid. At the end of the first stage, the long lifetime τ2 reaches the maximum value which is determined by the lifetime of the positron in the monovacancy-free and nearly microvoid-exhausted YBCO sample. In the second stage, the hydrogen charging will lead to creation of new monovacancies; this will make the long lifetime τ2 drop monotonically to its minimum value. In the third stage, further hydrogen charging promotes the formation of microvoids, and leads to an increasing τ2 up to a saturation value, which indicates the equilibrium concentrations of monovacancy and microvoid at that temperature.

  12. Annihilator-semigroup rings

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D D; Victor Camillo

    2003-01-01

    Let $ R $ be a commutative ring with 1. We define $ R $ to be an annihilator-semigroup ring if $ R $ has an annihilator-Semigroup $ S $, that is, $ (S, \\cdot) $ is a multiplicative subsemigroup of $ (R, \\cdot) $ with the property that for each $ r \\in R $ there exists a unique $ s \\in S $ with $ 0 : r = 0 : s $. In this paper we investigate annihilator-semigroups and annihilator-semigroup rings.

  13. Direct Vpr-Vpr Interaction in Cells monitored by two Photon Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mély Yves

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 encodes several regulatory proteins, notably Vpr which influences the survival of the infected cells by causing a G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Such an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 disease progression has fuelled a large number of studies, from its 3D structure to the characterization of specific cellular partners. However, no direct imaging and quantification of Vpr-Vpr interaction in living cells has yet been reported. To address this issue, eGFP- and mCherry proteins were tagged by Vpr, expressed in HeLa cells and their interaction was studied by two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Results Results show that Vpr forms homo-oligomers at or close to the nuclear envelope. Moreover, Vpr dimers and trimers were found in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Point mutations in the three α helices of Vpr drastically impaired Vpr oligomerization and localization at the nuclear envelope while point mutations outside the helical regions had no effect. Theoretical structures of Vpr mutants reveal that mutations within the α-helices could perturb the leucine zipper like motifs. The ΔQ44 mutation has the most drastic effect since it likely disrupts the second helix. Finally, all Vpr point mutants caused cell apoptosis suggesting that Vpr-mediated apoptosis functions independently from Vpr oligomerization. Conclusion We report that Vpr oligomerization in HeLa cells relies on the hydrophobic core formed by the three α helices. This oligomerization is required for Vpr localization at the nuclear envelope but not for Vpr-mediated apoptosis.

  14. Characterization of a potentially axially symmetric europium(III) complex of a tetraacetate,tetraaza, macrocyclic ligand by luminescence excitation, emission and lifetime spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Michael; de, William; Horrocks, W., Jr.; Liotta, Frank J.

    1982-01-01

    The Eu(III) complex of the octadentate macrocyclic ligand, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N''' -tetraacetate, DOTA, has been examined by luminescence excitation, emission, and lifetime spectroscopy using pulsed dye laser techniques. The results confirm the expected axially symmetric nature of the major component in solution and reveal that 1.2 ± 0.4 water molecules arc coordinatcd to the Eu(III) ion in the complex.

  15. Positron annihilation studies of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryzek, E; Juszyńska, E; Zaleski, R; Jasińska, B; Gorgol, M; Massalska-Arodź, M

    2013-08-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements were performed between 93 and 293 K in order to study the supercooled smectic-E (Sm-E) phase of 4-n-butyl-4'-isothiocyanato-1,1'-biphenyl (4TCB), the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB, and the phase transition between the Sm-E phase and the ordered molecular crystal of 4TCB. The phase transition was well reflected in the abrupt increase of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and intensity. The value of the o-Ps lifetime in the Sm-E liquid crystalline phase of 4TCB, i.e., 2.21 ns at room temperature, was explained by the formation of bubbles induced by Ps atoms, which are created due to a liquidlike state of the butyl chains of 4TCB molecules in the Sm-E phase. The temperature dependence of the o-Ps intensity for the supercooled Sm-E phase can be explained by thermal generation of sites where bubbles are formed; an activation energy equal to 0.30±0.02 eV was estimated. This value was compared with the activation energies of molecular motions. The o-Ps lifetime in the ordered molecular crystal was interpreted as originating from the annihilation of o-Ps confined in molecular vacancy-type imperfections in the crystal lattice. The value of the o-Ps pickoff annihilation between 1.8 and 1.9 ns is in accordance with the size of the molecular vacancy for the 4TCB crystal lattice. Its intensity is lower than 5%. The isothermal crystallization of the 4TCB Sm-E phase was observed by PALS. The low-dimensional crystal growth was concluded from the Avrami equation fitted to the time dependence of the o-Ps intensity, which resulted in an Avrami exponent equal to 1.73. PMID:24032853

  16. Positron annihilation in cardo-based polymer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Kazama, Shingo; Inoue, K; Toyama, T; Nagai, Y; Haraya, K; Mohamed, Hamdy F M; O'Rouke, B E; Oshima, N; Kinomura, A; Suzuki, R

    2014-06-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is applied to a series of bis(aniline)fluorene and bis(xylidine)fluorene-based cardo polyimide and bis(phenol)fluorene-based polysulfone membranes. It was found that favorable amounts of positronium (Ps, the positron-electron bound state) form in cardo polyimides with the 2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA) moiety and bis(phenol)fluorene-based cardo polysulfone, but no Ps forms in most of the polyimides with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) moieties. A bis(xylidine)fluorene-based polyimide membrane containing PMDA and BTDA moieties exhibits a little Ps formation but the ortho-positronium (o-Ps, the triplet state of Ps) lifetime of this membrane anomalously shortens with increasing temperature, which we attribute to chemical reaction of o-Ps. Correlation between the hole size (V(h)) deduced from the o-Ps lifetime and diffusion coefficients of O2 and N2 for polyimides with the 6FDA moiety and cardo polysulfone showing favorable Ps formation is discussed based on free volume theory of gas diffusion. It is suggested that o-Ps has a strong tendency to probe larger holes in rigid chain polymers with wide hole size distributions such as those containing cardo moieties, resulting in deviations from the previously reported correlations for common polymers such as polystyrene, polycarbonate, polysulfone, and so forth. PMID:24815092

  17. Positronium lifetime in porous VP-DVB copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleski, Radoslaw [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Goworek, Jacek; Maciejewska, Malgorzata [Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland)

    2009-11-15

    Porous 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-divinylbenzene copolymer was studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. A set of spectra measured at various temperatures was analysed using two methods: model parameters fitting and quantified maximum entropy. Similarity of the results obtained by entirely different methods ensure that distortion of the results arisen from inappropriate data processing was minimized. Temperature dependence of the experimental ortho-positronium lifetimes was compared to predictions of the Extended Tao-Eldrup model. Very good agreement in whole temperature range was found for empirical parameter {delta}=0.15 nm. Basing on PALS data and the Extended Tao-Eldrup model the distribution of free volume sizes was derived. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Study of plasma sprayed copper alloy using positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A positron annihilation technique has been employed to study the microdefects of copper alloy sprayed on a steel substrate by plasma after being compressed in different thickness. The positron lifetime in the alloy is varied with different amount of compression. It is found that the positron lifetime decreases with increasing of the compression deformation. On the contrary, the positron lifetime is increased for normal alloy after deformation

  19. A positron lifetime study of lanthanum and niobium doped Pb(Zr0.6Ti0.4)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of vacancy-related defects in lanthanum and niobium doped PbZr0.6Ti0.4O3 with dopant concentrations of 0-6 and 0-4 mol%, respectively has been performed using positron annihilation spectroscopy X-ray diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopy. Positron lifetime as well as coincidence annihilation radiation Doppler line broadening measurements were carried out. It was found that the samples exhibit vacancylike defects that act as positron traps. Two main defect lifetime components were found in both sample sets one at ≅150 ps and one at ≅300 ps. These defect trapping sites can be attributed to single oxygen vacancies and A-site vacancies, respectively. Doppler line broadening measurements, however, do not show significant changes as a function of dopant concentrations in terms of shape S and wing W parameters

  20. A positron annihilation study of hydrated DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warman, J. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1986-01-01

    Positron annihilation measurements are reported for hydrated DNA as a function of water content and as a function of temperature (20 to -180.degree. C) for samples containing 10 and 50% wt of water. The ortho-positronium mean lifetime and its intensity show distinct variations with the degree of...... content until, for approximately 50% water, its properties resemble more those of a highly viscous fluid....

  1. Application of positron annihilation techniques in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The investigation of the material damage state is very important for industrial application. Most mechanical damage starts with a change in the microstructure of the material. Positron annihilation techniques are very sensitive probes for detecting defects and damage on an atomic scale in materials, which are of great concern in the engineering applications. Additionally they are apparatus of non-destruction, high-sensitivity and easy-use. Purpose: Our goal is to develop a system to exploit new non-destructive testing (NDT) methods using positron annihilation spectroscopy, a powerful tool to detect vacancy-type defects and their chemical environment. Methods: A positron NDT system was designed and constructed by modifying the 'sandwich structure' of sample-source-sample in conventional Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectrometers. Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectra of a single sample can be measured and analyzed by subtracting the contribution of a reference sample. Results: The feasibility and reliability of positron NDT system have been tested by analyzing nondestructively deformation and damage caused by mechanical treatment or by irradiation of metal alloys. This system can be used for detecting defects and damage in thick or large-size samples, as well as for measuring the two-dimension distribution of defects in portable, sensitive, fast way. Conclusion: Positron NDT measurement shows changes in real atomic-scale defects prior to changes in the mechanical properties, which are detectable by other methods of NDT, such as ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. This system can be developed for use in both the laboratory and field in the future. (authors)

  2. The Structure of the Free Volume in Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) from Positron Lifetime and Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT) Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Dlubek, Gunter; Bondarenko, Vladimir; Al-Qaradawi, Ilham Y.; Kilburn, Duncan; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The structure of the free volume and its temperature dependence between 25 and 190 °C of copolymers of styrene with acrylonitrile, SAN (0 to 50 mol-% AN), is studied by pressure volume temperature (PVT) experiments and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). In this second part of the work, PALS data are reported from which the temperature dependence of the mean size and size distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes) is analysed. The mean hole volume, v...

  3. Positron annihilation studies of some charge transfer molecular complexes

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, A; Boraei, A A A

    2000-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetimes were measured for some solid charge transfer (CT) molecular complexes of quinoline compounds (2,6-dimethylquinoline, 6-methoxyquinoline, quinoline, 6-methylquinoline, 3-bromoquinoline and 2-chloro-4-methylquinoline) as electron donor and picric acid as an electron acceptor. The infrared spectra (IR) of the solid complexes clearly indicated the formation of the hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes. The annihilation spectra were analyzed into two lifetime components using PATFIT program. The values of the average and bulk lifetimes divide the complexes into two groups according to the non-bonding ionization potential of the donor (electron donating power) and the molecular weight of the complexes. Also, it is found that the ionization potential of the donors and molecular weight of the complexes have a conspicuous effect on the average and bulk lifetime values. The bulk lifetime values of the complexes are consistent with the formation of stable hydrogen-bonding CT-complexes as inferred...

  4. Vacancy-type defects and hardness of helium implanted CLAM steel studied by positron-annihilation spectroscopy and nano-indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Helium implantation is performed to CLAM steel at different temperatures. ► Positron annihilation is used to investigate vacancy-type defects. ► Nano-hardness is investigated to study irradiation induced hardening. ► Vacancy–helium complexes are main defects after implantation. ► Both helium–vacancy clusters and helium bubbles contribute to hardening. - Abstract: China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel was implanted with helium up to 1e + 16/cm2 at 300–873 K using 140 keV helium ions. Vacancy-type defects induced by implantation were investigated with positron beam Doppler broadening technique, and then nano-hardness measurements were performed to investigate helium-induced hardening effect. He implantation produced a large number of vacancy-type defects in CLAM steel, and the concentration of vacancy-type defects decreased with increasing temperature. Vacancy–helium complexes were main defects at different temperatures. Irradiation induced hardening was observed at all irradiation temperatures, and the peak value of hardness was at 473 K. The result suggested that both vacancy–helium complexes and helium bubbles had contribution to irradiation induced hardening. The decomposition and annihilation of irradiation-induced defects became more and more significant with increasing temperature, which induced the increment of hardness became more and more small.

  5. Probing electronic lifetimes and phonon anharmonicities in high-quality chemical vapor deposited graphene by magneto-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Christoph; Halpaap, Donatus; Reichardt, Sven; Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Beschoten, Bernd; Stampfer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    We present a magneto-Raman study on high-quality single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that is fully encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride by a dry transfer technique. By analyzing the Raman D, G, and 2D peaks, we find that the structural quality of the samples is comparable with state-of-the-art exfoliated graphene flakes. From B-field dependent Raman measurements, we extract the broadening and associated lifetime of the G peak due to anharmonic effects. Furthermore, we determine the decay width and lifetime of Landau level (LL) transitions from magneto-phonon resonances as a function of laser power. At low laser power, we find a minimal decay width of 140 cm-1 highlighting the high electronic quality of the CVD-grown graphene. At higher laser power, we observe an increase of the LL decay width leading to a saturation, with the corresponding lifetime saturating at a minimal value of 18 fs.

  6. Probing electronic lifetimes and phonon anharmonicities in high-quality chemical vapor deposited graphene by magneto-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Christoph, E-mail: cneumann@physik.rwth-aachen.de; Stampfer, Christoph [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Halpaap, Donatus; Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Beschoten, Bernd [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Reichardt, Sven [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Physics and Materials Science Research Unit, Université du Luxembourg, 1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    We present a magneto-Raman study on high-quality single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that is fully encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride by a dry transfer technique. By analyzing the Raman D, G, and 2D peaks, we find that the structural quality of the samples is comparable with state-of-the-art exfoliated graphene flakes. From B-field dependent Raman measurements, we extract the broadening and associated lifetime of the G peak due to anharmonic effects. Furthermore, we determine the decay width and lifetime of Landau level (LL) transitions from magneto-phonon resonances as a function of laser power. At low laser power, we find a minimal decay width of 140 cm{sup −1} highlighting the high electronic quality of the CVD-grown graphene. At higher laser power, we observe an increase of the LL decay width leading to a saturation, with the corresponding lifetime saturating at a minimal value of 18 fs.

  7. Probing electronic lifetimes and phonon anharmonicities in high-quality chemical vapor deposited graphene by magneto-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a magneto-Raman study on high-quality single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) that is fully encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride by a dry transfer technique. By analyzing the Raman D, G, and 2D peaks, we find that the structural quality of the samples is comparable with state-of-the-art exfoliated graphene flakes. From B-field dependent Raman measurements, we extract the broadening and associated lifetime of the G peak due to anharmonic effects. Furthermore, we determine the decay width and lifetime of Landau level (LL) transitions from magneto-phonon resonances as a function of laser power. At low laser power, we find a minimal decay width of 140 cm−1 highlighting the high electronic quality of the CVD-grown graphene. At higher laser power, we observe an increase of the LL decay width leading to a saturation, with the corresponding lifetime saturating at a minimal value of 18 fs

  8. A Position Annihilation Study of Defect Recovery in Electron-Irradiated alpha-Zr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, G. M.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Mogensen, O. E.

    The presence of vacancy defects in α-Zr, irradiated at 320 > T > 290 K with 1.5 MeV electrons, has been indicated by positron annihilation measurements. It was found that positron lifetimes associated with annihilation in well-annealed α-Zr, fell in the range 173 to 181 psec, with no obvious depe...

  9. Positron annihilation studies in solid 2-aminopyridine, 3-aminopyridine, 4-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, A. Marques; Bicalho, S. M. C. M.; Filgueiras, Ca. L.; Machado, J. C.

    1985-09-01

    Positron annihilation lifetimes and Doppler-broadened annihilation lines have been measured in solid 2-aminopyridine (2-APY), 3-aminopyridine (3-APY), 4-aminopyridine (4-APY) and 2-aminopyrimidine (2-APYM). The results point to the formation of positronium in the solid pyridines and the yields are discussed in terms of the structures and the electron donation character of the compounds.

  10. Positron annihilation in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defects in different types of crystalline and fused quartz have been studied by conventional coincidence positron annihilation and optical absorption technique before and after 60Co gamma irradiation with 500 krad, 2 Mrad and 15.8 Mrad. Samples of synthetic powdered quartz (SPQ), natural quartz (NQ), low-OH synthetic monocrystal quartz (LSMQ), high-OH-fused quartz (HFQ) and low-OH fused quartz (LFQ) have been investigated. Two- and three-component analysis of the positron lifetime spectra have been applied. Data on lifetime (τ), intensities (I) and mean lifetimes have been obtained by exponential fitting of spectra. In non-irradiated SPQ and LSMQ big differences in the values of I2 (1.53% vs. 16.0%) and τ2 (1460 ps vs. 478 ps) have been noticed. This is explained by an increased number of dislocations in the synthetic quartz. The τ2 is interpreted as apparent mixed lifetime of two pick-off annihilation of oPs and positron annihilation in micro cracks. The values of τ1 in HFQ (178 ps) and in LHQ (173 ps) are attributed to positron annihilation in small crystalline areas in the glass. Because of the sharp increase in Ps formation probability in amorphous state, the longest component intensity I3 in these samples is of the order of 50%. After gamma irradiation, a creation of coloured centres has been observed only in SPQ and LFQ., which is connected with Al substitutional impurity. The newly detected diffused band at 215 nm in UV-spectra of irradiated LFQ is attributed to a positively charged oxygen vacancy (E'1 centre) which explains the lack of difference between the parameters of irradiated and non irradiated LFQ. The increased mean positron lifetime of irradiated HFQ is ascribed to creation of negatively charged defects able to trap positrons. Except for HFQ, all samples have surprisingly shown a decrease, although slight, in their mean positron lifetime values after low dose irradiation. The authors ascribe this to possible self-annealing of some defects due

  11. Study of the ionic transport in polymer electrolyte using positron lifetime distribution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z. L.; Itoh, Y.; Li, S. Q.; Wang, S. J.

    1996-09-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy has been applied to measure the free-volume hole distribution in poly(ether urethane) as a function of temperature. The hole radius distribution determined from orthopositronium lifetime distribution is found to shift to a larger values with increasing temperature. This result, combined with the variation of ionic conductivity, suggests that carrier ions do not migrate naked but are bound to polymer segments through ion-dipole interaction forces, and the ion migration is controlled primarily by segmental motion of the polymer.

  12. Positron lifetime study of polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) blends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Motyčka, V.; Procházka, I.; Ilavský, Michal; Kolařík, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 363, č. 3 (2001), s. 340-342. ISSN 0255-5476. [International Conference on Positron Annihilation /12./. Munchen, 06.08.2000-12.08.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/98/0700; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : partial miscibility of polymers * polycarbonate/poly(styrene-co- acrylonitrile ) blends * positron lifetime spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2001

  13. Mesopore quality determines the lifetime of hierarchically structured zeolite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milina, Maria; Mitchell, Sharon; Crivelli, Paolo; Cooke, David; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Deactivation due to coking limits the lifetime of zeolite catalysts in the production of chemicals and fuels. Superior performance can be achieved through hierarchically structuring the zeolite porosity, yet no relation has been established between the mesopore architecture and the catalyst lifetime. Here we introduce a top-down demetallation strategy to locate mesopores in different regions of MFI-type crystals with identical bulk porous and acidic properties. In contrast, well-established bottom-up strategies as carbon templating and seed silanization fail to yield materials with matching characteristics. Advanced characterization tools capable of accurately discriminating the mesopore size, distribution and connectivity are applied to corroborate the concept of mesopore quality. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy proves powerful to quantify the global connectivity of the intracrystalline pore network, which, as demonstrated in the conversions of methanol or of propanal to hydrocarbons, is closely linked to the lifetime of zeolite catalysts. The findings emphasize the need to aptly tailor hierarchical materials for maximal catalytic advantage.

  14. Measurement of Charm Meson Lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report measurements of the D0 , D+ , and D+s meson lifetimes using 3.7 fb-1 of e+e- annihilation data collected near the Υ(4S) resonance with the CLEO detector. The measured lifetimes of the D0 , D+ , and D+s mesons are 408.5±4.1+3.5-3.4 fs , 1033.6±22.1+9.9-12.7 fs , and 486.3±15.0+4.9-5.1 fs . The precision of these lifetimes are comparable to those of the best previous measurements, and the systematic errors are very different. In a single experiment we find that the ratio of the D+s and D0 lifetimes is 1.19±0.04 . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. Study of Defects in GaAs by 2D-ACAR Positron Annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, A; Ambigapathy, R.; Hautojärvi, P.; Saarinen, K.; Corbel, C.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the two dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) method and show that it can be advantageously used to study the electronic structure of defects, in addition to standard positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements. Using annihilation fractions determined by lifetime measurements, we separate 2D-ACAR distributions for negatively charged and neutral arsenic vacancies in n-type GaAs. In electron-irradiated semi-insulating GaAs, we present...

  16. Time-resolved fluorescence correlation spectroscopy combined with lifetime tuning: New perspectives in supported phospholipid bilayers´ research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, Aleš; Fagulová, Veronika; Deineka, Alexander; Enderlein, J.; Hof, Martin

    Berlin : Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 2006 - (Cardoso, M.). s. 46 [International Symposium Optical Analysis of Biomolecular Machines. 13.07.2006-16.07.2006, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy * phospholipid bilayers research * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. Positron annihilation study of aluminum, titanium, and iron alloys surface after shot peening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shot peening influence on alloys based on iron, aluminum, and titanium was studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and residual stress measurements. The PALS spectra were analyzed assuming two lifetime components. While the residual stresses change in a similar way in all the samples, the PALS results show an opposite tendency of a component relative intensities change with the time of shot peening for the Ti alloy as compared to steel or the Al alloy. A comparison between the depth profiles of positron implantation and the residual stress distribution reveals that the positron range covers a whole depth where residual stress is observed only in the Ti alloy. Based on this observation, the evolution of the defect concentration is presumed, consisting in migration of large defects away from the surface, while only smaller ones remain close to the surface. Furthermore, the positron lifetime distribution in the Al alloy was determined using the MELT program. The results showed that the initial single, wide distribution of lifetime splits into two narrower ones with increasing shot peening time. (orig.)

  18. Positron Annihilation in a Rubber Modified Epoxy Resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Jacobsen, F. M.; Pethrick, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Positron annihilation data is reported on a rubber-modified epoxy resin. Studies of the temperature dependence of the o-positronium lifetime indicated the existence of three distinct regions; the associated transition temperatures by comparison with dilatometric data can be ascribed respectively ...... be glass transition of the epoxy phase and to that of a mixed acrylonitrile—epoxy—butadiene interfacial region....

  19. Observation of a charge delocalization from Se vacancies in Bi2Se3 : A positron annihilation study of native defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta, I.; Zabala, N.; Marín-Borrás, V.; Muñoz-Sanjosé, V.; García, J. A.; Plazaola, F.

    2016-07-01

    By means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, we have investigated the native defects present in Bi2Se3 , which belongs to the family of topological insulators. We experimentally demonstrate that selenium vacancy defects (VSe1) are present in Bi2Se3 as-grown samples, and that their charge is delocalized as temperature increases. At least from 100 K up to room temperature both VSe10 and VSe1+ charge states coexist. The observed charge delocalization determines the contribution of VSe1 defects to the n -type conductivity of Bi2Se3 . These findings are supported by theoretical calculations, which show that vacancies of nonequivalent Se1 and Se2 selenium atoms are clearly differentiated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, enabling us to directly detect and quantify the most favorable type of selenium vacancy. In addition to open-volume defects, experimental data indicate the presence of defects that act as shallow traps, suggesting that more than one type of native defects coexist in Bi2Se3 . As will be discussed, the presence of a dislocation density around 1010cm-2 could be the source of the detected shallow traps. Understanding the one-dimensional defects and the origin of the charge delocalization that leads Bi2Se3 to be an n -type semiconductor will help in the development of high-quality topological insulators based on this material.

  20. Comparison of the Free Volume of LiCl-Added SPPO Membrane and SPPO-PES Blend Membrane by Positron Annihilation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Htwe Htwe YIN; HUANG Huan; MA Qingli; TANG Shibiao

    2007-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is a powerful technique for the study of free volume in polymers. The lifetime of ortho-positronium (o-Ps), a bound state of an electron and a positron, can be used to assess the pore size, while the intensity can be used to characterize the number of pores. Based on the values of the long-lived o-Ps components in the lifetime spectra, the radii and fractional free volumes of sulfonated poly (2,6-dimethyl-l,4-phenyleneoxide) (SPPO) membranes with added LiCl and SPPO-PES (Polyethersulfone) blend were compared. Free volume radii in both kinds of membranes are discussed.

  1. Defect identification in semiconductors with positron annihilation: experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy is a very powerful technique for the detection, identification and quantification of vacancy-type defects in semiconductors. In the past decades, it has been used to reveal the relationship between opto-electronic properties and specific defects in a wide variety of materials - examples include parasitic yellow luminescence in GaN, dominant acceptor defects in ZnO and broad-band absorption causing brown coloration in natural diamond. In typical binary compound semiconductors, the selective sensitivity of the technique is rather strongly limited to cation vacancies that possess significant open volume and suitable charge (negative of neutral). On the other hand, oxygen vacancies in oxide semiconductors are a widely debated topic. The properties attributed to oxygen vacancies include the inherent n-type conduction, poor p-type dopability, coloration (absorption), deep level luminescence and non-radiative recombination, while the only direct experimental evidence of their existence has been obtained on the crystal surface. We will present recent advances in combining state-of-the-art positron annihilation experiments and ab initio computational approaches. The latter can be used to model both the positron lifetime and the electron-positron momentum distribution - quantities that can be directly compared with experimental results. We have applied these methods to study vacancy-type defects in III-nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN) and oxides such as ZnO, SnO2, In2O3andGa2O3. We will show that cation-vacancy-related defects are important compensating centers in all these materials when they are n-type. In addition, we will show that anion (N, O) vacancies can be detected when they appear as complexes with cation vacancies.

  2. Antineutron-nucleus annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E

    2001-01-01

    The n-nucleus annihilation process has been studied by the OBELIX experiment at the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) in the (50-400) MeV/c projectile momentum range on C, Al, Cu, Ag, Sn, and Pb nuclear targets. A systematic survey of the annihilation cross- section, sigma /sub alpha /(A, p/sub n/), has been performed, obtaining information on its dependence on the target mass number and on the incoming n momentum. For the first time the mass number dependence of the (inclusive) final state composition of the process has been analyzed. Production of the rho vector meson has also been examined. (13 refs).

  3. Whole-Pattern Fitting and Positron Annihilation Studies of Magnetic PVA/α-Fe2O3 Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, K. S.; Mahesh, S. S.; Prakash, M. B. Nanda; Ningaraju, S.; Ravikumar, H. B.; Somashekar, R.; Nagabhushana, B. M.

    2016-03-01

    A low-temperature solution combustion method was used to synthesize α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/α-Fe2O3/NaCl nanocomposites were prepared by solvent cast method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results are in confirmation with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicating the formation of nanocomposites. The microcrystalline parameters, crystallite size (), lattice strain (g in %), stacking faults (α d ), and twin faults (β) of prepared polymer nanocomposites were evaluated by whole-pattern fitting technique. The refinement was carried out using the computed microstructural parameters in which the twin faults and stacking faults did not vary much and statistical deviation was less than 5 %. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used for microstructural characterization. PALS results show that the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime (τ3) increases gradually as a function of nanoparticle concentration and about 219 ps increase observed from1.50 to1.71 ns at 3 wt%. This indicates the increase of free volume hole size (V f ) from 54.47 to 72.18 Å3. The o-Ps intensities (I 3) decrease indicating the inhibition of o-Ps formation upon incorporation of nanoparticles into PVA. The increase in I 2 values suggests the increased annihilation at the interface region. Positron lifetime parameters, viz., o-Ps lifetime, and its intensities indicate the effect of quenching and inhibition upon incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles and inorganic salt into PVA.

  4. In-beam spectroscopy of low energy conversion electrons with a recoil shadow method - a new possibility for subnanosecond lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron spectrometer consisting of an electron transport system with normal conducting solenoidal coils and a Si(Li)-detector as the energy dispersive element is described. It can be used for in beam spectroscopy of electrons in three different modes. The first one is the usual broad range mode with a low energy cut off of the transmission performed by a tantalum disk between target and detector. The second one is the lens spectrometer mode. An envelope baffle system permits electron detection in a momentum band Δp/p = 0.12 . To cover a large energy range the magnet current is sweeped. In the third mode - the recoil shadow method - a longitudinal semicylindrical baffle between target and Si(Li)-detector allows spectroscopy of delayed electrons emitted from recoil nuclei in flight. Special features of this method are high transmission, and strong suppression of the prompt delta-electron background. Lifetime measurements based on the detection of conversion electrons are possible by variation of the target position. This was tested with the 152Sm(16O,xn)sup(168-x)Yb compound nuclear reaction at a recoil velocity vsub(r) = 0.01 c, where half lives between 0.1 ns and 1 ns were determined. (orig.)

  5. Development of instrumentation and methods for positron spectroscopy of defects in semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Nissilä, Jaani

    2001-01-01

    Instrumentation and methods for positron annihilation spectroscopy of point defects in semiconductors have been developed. In particular, techniques to enhance the stability of positron lifetime spectrometers have been investigated. The ageing of the photomultiplier tubes (PMT) of the scintillation detectors can be slowed down by lowering the operating voltages over the PMTs and by compensating the lower gain with fast preamplifiers. The timing characteristics of the apparatus are preserved i...

  6. Positron annihilation microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, K.F. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Advances in positron annihilation microprobe development are reviewed. The present resolution achievable is 3 {mu}m. The ultimate resolution is expected to be 0.1 {mu}m which will enable the positron microprobe to be a valuable tool in the development of 0.1 {mu}m scale electronic devices in the future. (author)

  7. Positron Annihilation Studies of Mesoporous Silica MCM-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation has been used to study the mesoporous silica MCM-41. Lifetime spectra of evacuated MCM-41 indicate a significant contribution from 3γ annihilation events with τ4 = 116 ns and I4 = 24.5 %. This is supported by measurements of the full energy distribution, where MCM-41 shows enhanced counts in the low energy region (below 511 keV) relative to a pure 2γ sample. MCM-41 was also studied under air and oxygen atmospheres. The presence of atmosphere has a significant effect on both the lifetime and Doppler patterns, with both the lifetime data (τ4 and I4) and the 3γ-fraction decreasing with increasing oxygen concentration. This is indicative of paramagnetic quenching of o-Ps by oxygen.

  8. Characterisation of Ion Implantation-induced Defects in Certain Technologically Important Materials by Positron Annihilation (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.G. Nambissan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of positron annihilation spectroscopy for the studies of defects produced by different types of charged particles and ions in a variety of materials is discussed with specific examples. The ability to detect and quantify the information through the characteristic parameters of the annihilation radiation in a totally non-destructive method has made the fundamental process of electron-positron annihilation a powerful spectroscopic probe for investigating the structure and properties of materials. Ion implantation produces defects in the structure of solids and the latter can be recovered from the defects by annealing at high temperatures. Here the annealing is done in sequential steps so that the different stages of evolution of defects and their interaction with impurity atoms can be studied systematically. Defects produced by irradiation by particles like protons, alpha, boron and neon ions in materials ranging from simple metals to binary alloys are discussed.A detailed evaluation of the positron lifetimes in terms of the popular positron trapping models is also presented. Further as a special case, the method of extraction of values of several useful physical parameters of inert gas bubbles inside a metal matrix is explained with the help of a model analysis.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.329-341, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1531

  9. Design, construction, and validation of a multimodal intravascular diagnostic catheter combining IVUS and fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy detection channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph; Marcu, Laura

    2011-03-01

    We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter that enables bi-modal interrogation of arterial pathologies based on fast-frame time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). The catheter is based on a parallel design that allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In current configuration, the two channels consist of a) a standard 8 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (15 MHz) and b) a side-viewing UV-grade silica/silica fiber optic (400 μm core). The catheter is terminated by a small (0.82 mm internal diameter) polyimide tube to keep the fiber stable within the sheath. To clear the field of view from blood, a saline solution can be flushed in a sheath channel, concentric with the fiber optic, through the tube and in a radial opening aligned with the fiber's optical beam. The flushing function was optimized with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model pursued in a parallel study. The ability of the catheter to operate in intraluminal setting in blood flow, the effect of probe-to-tissue distance on optical signal and ability to generate co-registered TRFS and IVUS data were demonstrated in blood vessel phantoms. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the described catheter for parallel interrogation of vessel walls based on TRFS and IVUS and to generate robust TRFS data. These results facilitate further development of a bi-modal TRFS-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques.

  10. Delayed annihilation of antiprotons in helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed annihilation of antiprotons, which was recently discovered in liquid 4He at KEK, has been studied at CERN in gas-phase 4He and 3He. The annihilation time spectra in gas 4He at various pressures were found to be similar to that for liquid 4He. The observed average lifetime in the region t > 1μsec for 3 atm 4He was about 3.2μsec, while for 3 atm 3He gas it was 2.8μsec, i.e. shorter by 15 %. The time spectra show a growth-decay type function, which is indicative of the presence of a series of metastable states. For 4He and 3He they have nearly identical shapes, differing only in the time scale by 14 ± 3 %. These observations are qualitatively consistent with the atomic model of p-bare-He++ proposed by Condo. The time spectra were found to be sensitive to the presence of small amounts (as small as 20 ppm) of H2. No evidence was seen for delayed annihilation in gaseous Ne. 36.10. (author)

  11. Modeling of positron states and annihilation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models and computational aspects to describe positron states and to predict positron annihilation characteristics in solids are discussed. The comparison of the calculated positron lifetimes, core annihilation lineshapes, and two-dimensional angular correlation maps with experimental results are used in identifying the structure (including the chemical composition) of vacancy-type defects and their development e.g. during thermal annealing. The basis of the modeling is the two-component density-functional theory. The ensuing approximations and the state-of-the-art electronic-structure computation methods enable practical schemes with a quantitative predicting power. (author)

  12. Positron annihilation studies of organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron lifetimes of two organic superconductors, κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 and κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, are measured as a function of temperature across Tc. A drop of positron lifetime below Tc is observed. Positron-electron momentum densities are measured by using 2D-ACAR to search for the Fermi surface in κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br. Positron density distributions and positron-electron overlaps are calculated by using the orthogonalized linear combination atomic orbital (OLCAO) method to interprete the temperature dependence due to the local charge transfer which is inferred to relate to the superconducting transition. 2D-ACAR results in κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br are compared with theoretical band calculations based on a first-principles local density approximation. Importance of performing accurate band calculations for the interpretation of positron annihilation data is emphasized

  13. Radiation-induced defects in chalcogenide glasses characterized by combined optical spectroscopy, XPS and PALS methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, O. [Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa 42201 (Poland); Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A.; Jain, H. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Golovchak, R. [Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Avenue, Bethlehem, PA 18015-3195 (United States); Lviv Institute of Materials of SRC ' ' Carat' ' , 202, Stryjska str., 79031 Lviv (Ukraine); Zurawska, A. [Opole University of Technology, 75, Ozimska str., Opole 45370 (Poland)

    2007-03-15

    Temperature-dependent optical absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and positron annihilation lifetimes spectroscopy are utilized to understand radiation-induced changes in Ge-Sb-S chalcogenide glasses. Theoretically predicted topological scheme of {gamma}-induced coordination defect formation in stoichiometric Ge{sub 23.5}Sb{sub 11.8}S{sub 64.7} glass composition is supported by these measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Positron annihilation studies of mesoporous silica films using a slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra were measured for mesoporous silica films, which were synthesized using triblock copolymer (EO106PO70EO106) as a structure-directing agent. Different positron lifetime spectra for the deposited and calcined films indicated the formation of meso-structure after calcination, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation. Open porosity or pore interconnectivity of a silica film might be evaluated by a two-dimensional positron annihilation lifetime spectrum of an uncapped film. Pore sizes and their distributions in the silica films were found to be affected by thermal treatments

  15. KENO lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When performing k-eigenvalue solutions with KENO-V.a, two different prompt neutron lifetimes are estimated - a system lifetime and a neutron generation time. The meaning of these two lifetimes has been ascertained by comparing values of various neutron lifespans/lifetimes predicted by MCNP and DANTSYS based on the neutron-balance theory. The system lifetime in KENO-Va corresponds to the unweighted removal lifetime calculated by both MCNP and DANTSYS. The unweighted removal lifetime is the average time between removal events resulting from a neutron absorption or a neutron leakage. The generation time in KENO-V.a corresponds to the fission lifespan calculated by MCNP, where the fission lifespan in MCNP represents the average time for a newly born neutron to cause another fission. As such, the generation time in KENO-Va does not represent the generation time that appears in the point kinetic model. The generation time in the point kinetic model is the adjoint-weighted removal lifetime divided by keff, which is identically equal to the adjoint-weighted neutron production rate. In small bare systems operating in the vicinity of delayed critical, the difference between the adjoint-weighted neutron generation time and the fission lifespan can be as small as a few percent. However, in reflected systems, the difference between these two quantities can be several orders of magnitude. In conclusion, the prompt neutron generation time predicted by KENO-Va corresponds to the fission lifespan of a prompt neutron in a given system. The fission lifespan is the average time from birth-to-fission and, in general, is not a good approximation for the adjoint-weighted neutron generation time that appears in the point-kinetic model

  16. Low-temperature positron annihilation study of B+-ion implanted PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature dependent positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements in the range of 50-300 K are carried out to study positronium formation in 40 keV B+-ion implanted polymethylmethacrylate(B:PMMA) with two ion doses of 3.13·1015 and 3.75·1016 ions/cm2. The investigated samples show the various temperature trends of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime τ3 and intensity I3 in PMMA before and after ion implantation. Two transitions in the vicinity of ∼150 and ∼250 K, ascribed to γ and β transitions, respectively, are observed in the PMMA and B:PMMA samples in consistent with reference data for pristine sample. The obtained results are compared with room temperature PALS study of PMMA with different molecular weight (Mw) which known from literature. It is found that B+-ion implantation leads to decreasing Mw in PMMA at lower ion dose. At higher ion dose the local destruction of polymeric structure follows to broadening of lifetime distribution (hole size distribution)

  17. Annihilating Asymmetric Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nicole F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    The relic abundance of particle and antiparticle dark matter (DM) need not be vastly different in thermal asymmetric dark matter (ADM) models. By considering the effect of a primordial asymmetry on the thermal Boltzmann evolution of coupled DM and anti-DM, we derive the requisite annihilation cross section. This is used in conjunction with CMB and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data to impose a limit on the number density of anti-DM particles surviving thermal freeze-out. When the extended gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center is reanalyzed in a thermal ADM framework, we find that annihilation into $\\tau$ leptons prefer anti-DM number densities 1-4$\\%$ that of DM while the $b$-quark channel prefers 50-100$\\%$.

  18. Bubble chamber: antiproton annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    These images show real particle tracks from the annihilation of an antiproton in the 80 cm Saclay liquid hydrogen bubble chamber. A negative kaon and a neutral kaon are produced in this process, as well as a positive pion. The invention of bubble chambers in 1952 revolutionized the field of particle physics, allowing real tracks left by particles to be seen and photographed by expanding liquid that had been heated to boiling point.

  19. Characterization of 6H-SiC surfaces after ion implantation and annealing using positron annihilation spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Brandstetter, S.; Teichert, C.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS) and atomic force microscopy studies of various 6H-SiC samples are presented to clarify the role of conductivity type, crystal quality, ion implantation (B+,Al+, and N+), and annealing (1.650 °C) in the formation of continuous long furrows running in one direction across the wafer surface. It is found that the observed changes in surface morphology are primarily the result of step bunching during thermal activation and thus occur regardless of conductivity type, crystal quality, and type of ion implantation. On terraces separating the step bunches, stripelike islands with a discrete height in the nanometer range have been observed which may have some link with the ion implantation chosen. SPIS results clearly indicate the formation of vacancy clusters in n-type material which are connected with the mobility of nitrogen in the samples at elevated temperatures. It is found that defect profiling by SPIS is not influenced by the changes in surface morphology observed due to annealing.

  20. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  1. Annihilation Mechanism of Dilepton Emission from Finite Fireball

    CERN Document Server

    Anchishkin, D V; Naryshkin, R; Ruuskanen, P V

    2004-01-01

    Medium-induced modifications of the pion and quark-antiquark annihilation mechanisms of dilepton production during relativistic heavy ion collisions are considered. Due to the dense hadron environment, the pions produced during a collision are effectively confined in a finite volume, in which they live for a finite time which is scaled as the lifetime of a fireball. Our results indicate that, due to the space-time finiteness of the pion system which generates the corresponding quantum randomization, the dilepton rates are finite in the invariant low-mass region M<2m_\\pi. It is found that the spatial finiteness of quark wave functions and the finiteness of the lifetime of excited states result in the same effect for the quark-antiquark annihilation to dileptons. The breaking of the detailed energy-momentum conservation due to the broken translation invariance is discussed.

  2. Study of Neutron Induced Defects in Ceramics with Positron Annihilation Technique using the GiPS Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an increased interest in defects within structural materials motivated by future fission and fusion reactor needs. While reactor steels are extensively studied, much more research effort is needed in order to understand radiation damage in ceramic materials and its effect on the macroscopic characteristics of these materials (1). Sapphire – the single crystal of Al2O3, presents a rather simple system where defects are trapped without grain boundaries, which might allow annealing procedures. The family of ceramics that contains Boron is another interesting group of materials for the nuclear industry, mainly due to high cross sections for thermal neutron capture in Boron, which produce helium inside the material. The much higher neutron flux expected in future reactors can cause swelling of materials and macroscopic cracks formation. Helium is also considered to be one of the most interesting challenges for fusion reactors, due to alpha particles production in the D-T reaction. Materials that will be used as first wall, matrices for Li, or coating materials, will suffer from high radiation damage. The sensitivity of Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) methods to point defects as small as mono-vacancies, in concentrations as low as 1 appm, make them perfect tools to study radiation damage in its first stages of creation. Especially, Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is sensitive to size and concentration of the point defects and Coincidence Doppler Broadening (CDB) can probe changes in defect characteristics as well as in electron momenta in the lattice

  3. Structural defects in electrodeposited Ni studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural investigation of electrodeposited Ni was carried out by positron annihilation (PA) technique. Additional Moessbauer effect and X-ray diffraction measurements were also performed. The samples were produced under different plating conditions resulting in stress in the range -100 to +600 N/mm2. From the positron lifetime measurements it seems that the defect pattern of electrodeposited Ni samples might be substantially different from sample to sample with different deposition and plating conditions. (Auth.)

  4. Neutrino annihilation in hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider neutrino annihilation in a heat bath, including annihilation via the photon. We show that the annihilation cross section has high and narrow peaks corresponding to a plasmon resonance. This yields an enormous enhancement factor of O(108) in the differential cross section as compared with the purely weak contribution. We also evaluate numerically the thermally averaged neutrino annihilation rate per particle in the heat bath of the early universe to be +e-)>≅2.93GF2T2. We have accounted for the final-state blocking factors as well as for the fact that the center-of-mass frame of collisions is not necessarily the rest frame of the heat bath. Despite the resonances, electromagnetic processes represent only a minor effect in the averaged annihilation rate. (orig.)

  5. Neutrino annihilation in hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider neutrino annihilation in a heat bath, including annihilation via the photon. We show that the annihilation cross section has high and narrow peaks corresponding to a plasmon resonance. This yields an enormous enhancement factor of O(108) in the differential cross section as compared with the purely weak contribution. We also evaluate numerically the thermally averaged neutrino annihilation rate per particle in the heat bath of the early Universe to be +e-)> ≅ 2.93GF2T2. We have accounted for the final state blocking factors as well as for the fact that the center-of-mass frame of collisions is not necessarily the rest frame of the heat bath. Despite the resonances, electromagnetic processes represent only a minor effect in the averaged annihilation rate. (orig.)

  6. Characteristics of the positron annihilation process in the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the positrons annihilation spectroscopy, as a method for the matter study is described. The interaction of positrons of high as well as thermal energies are discussed and different models of mentioned interactions are presented. Special attention is paid for positrons interaction with crystal lattice and its defects. The influence of positron beams characteristics on measured values are also discussed

  7. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-01-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60–70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5–1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process include...

  8. Measurement of the B0-meson lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a measurement of the lifetime of the B0 meson based upon 29-GeV e+e- annihilation data taken with the Mark II detector at the SLAC storage ring PEP. The B0 mesons are tagged by their decays into D*-e+ν and D*-μ+ν, where the D*- is tagged by its decay into π-bar D0. We reconstruct the decay vertices of 15 B0-meson candidates and measure the B0 lifetime to be 1.20+0.52-0.36+0.160.14 psec

  9. On the atomistic origin of radiation-structural relaxation in chalcogenide glasses: the results of positron annihilation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instability effects caused by high-energy γ-irradiation are studied in (As2S3)1-x(Sb2S3)xglasses (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the results being treated within two-state trapping model in both normal and high-measurement statistics. The observed decrease in positron trapping rate of the glasses tested just after γ-irradiation was explained due to renovation of destroyed covalent chemical bonds. This process was governed by monomolecular single-exponential relaxation kinetics agreed well with corresponding changes in the fundamental optical absorption edge. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. On the atomistic origin of radiation-structural relaxation in chalcogenide glasses: the results of positron annihilation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shpotyuk, Ya. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Faculty of Electronics, Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Materials of Scientific Research Company ' ' Carat' ' , Lviv (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland); Ingram, A. [Institute of Physics, Mathematics and Chemistry, Opole Technical University (Poland); Filipecki, J.; Hyla, M. [Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2011-11-15

    Instability effects caused by high-energy {gamma}-irradiation are studied in (As{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-x}(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x}glasses (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, the results being treated within two-state trapping model in both normal and high-measurement statistics. The observed decrease in positron trapping rate of the glasses tested just after {gamma}-irradiation was explained due to renovation of destroyed covalent chemical bonds. This process was governed by monomolecular single-exponential relaxation kinetics agreed well with corresponding changes in the fundamental optical absorption edge. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. 3D-AP and positron annihilation study of precipitation behavior in Cu-Cr-Zr alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatakeyama, M.; Toyama, T.; Yang, J.;

    2009-01-01

    . Probably the strain induced by the incoherency between BCC Cr precipitates with the matrix FCC Cu is relaxed by the enrichment of Zr, Si and Fe. Positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening experiments suggest that vacancy-like defects form and associate with Cr atoms around the interfaces between......Precipitation behavior in a Cu-0.78%Cr-0.13%Zr alloy during aging and reaging has been studied by laser-assisted local electrode three-dimensional atom probe (Laser-LEAP) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). After the prime aging at 460 degrees C, Cr clusters enriched with Zr were observed....... Further reaging at 600 degrees C caused the clusters to grow to almost spherical (I h) and thick platelets (4 h) Cr precipitates. Zr and impurities of Si and Fe were concentrated around the Cr precipitates, resulting in almost pure Cr cores sandwiched with interface regions enriched with Zr, Si and Fe...

  12. On positron annihilation in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to understand Mogensen's and Petersen's positron annihilation curves for zinc. Mijnarends approach is used as an auxiliary method of localizing inhomogeneities of the electronic density in momentum space, as defined in the paper. Evidence is found for a new effect consisting of a strong enhancement of the annihilation probability in the lenses obtained by the intersection of the Fermi surface with HMC surfaces. This effect, not the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, is the main reason for the anisotropy of the annihilation curves. (orig.)

  13. Positron annihilation study of iron oxide nanoparticles in mesoporous silica MCM-41 template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of investigation were the samples obtained by impregnation of MCM-41 template with an aqueous solution prepared from Fe(NO3)3·9H2O. As a result of such a procedure, iron oxides deposits on MCM-41 were formed. The Moessbauer studies revealed an occurrence of Fe3O4 nanocrystallites in the both ferri- and superparamagnetic states. Almost 80% small particles exist in a paramagnetic state. The positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) spectra were measured in air or in vacuum. The long-lived ortho-positronium (o-Ps) components and their intensities are time dependent due to air molecules interaction with iron oxide nanocrystallites and silica walls surfaces. The adsorption of air on the nanocrystallites surface causes a total screening of their surface and a raise of the o-Ps lifetime values. Observed anti-quenching effect is a result of competition of two phenomena: practically switching off a pick-off mechanism related to interaction of o-Ps with magnetite nanoparticles and considerably weaker usual quenching by paramagnetic oxygen molecules. (authors)

  14. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-12-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying. PMID:26956602

  15. A Study On Positron - Electron Annihilation In Multi-Wall Carbon Nabitan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation in multi-wall carbon nanotube is studied using positron lifetime measurements and positron diffusion theory in nano material. Experimental measurements of positron lifetime were performed on multi-wall carbon nanotube samples having various average radiuses. A closed correlation between positron lifetime on tube surface and tube radius was found, which indicates that positron lifetime measurement could become a useful means for investigating average diameter of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, in this work the positron diffusion theory in nano material modifying from positron diffusion model in nanofilament was used for studying effects of rate of positron runaway k from a nanotube to positron annihilation characteristics. Result shows a strong influence of nanotube radius to the rate of positron runaway and positron lifetime. Beside, value of shape coefficient α for positron diffusion in multi-wall carbon nanotubes also was calculated from experimental data. A quite good agreement between experimental and calculated values of positron annihilation probability on tube surface was result of using average shape coefficient α. Results of study demonstrate that modified positron diffusion model in nanofilament can well apply for researching positron annihilation in multi-wall carbon nanotubes. (author)

  16. Monomer Migration and Annihilation Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Jian-Hong; LIN Zhen-Quan; ZHUANG You-Yi

    2005-01-01

    We propose a two-species monomer migration-annihilation model, in which monomer migration reactions occur between any two aggregates of the same species and monomer annihilation reactions occur between two different species. Based on the mean-field rate equations, we investigate the evolution behaviors of the processes. For the case with an annihilation rate kernel proportional to the sizes of the reactants, the aggregation size distribution of either species approaches the modified scaling form in the symmetrical initial case, while for the asymmetrical initial case the heavy species with a large initial data scales according to the conventional form and the light one does not scale. Moreover,at most one species can survive finally. For the case with aconstant annihilation rate kernel, both species may scale according to the conventional scaling law in the symmetrical case and survive together at the end.

  17. Evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel steels by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparison of commercially used German and Russian reactor pressure vessel steels from the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) point of view, having in mind knowledge obtained also from other techniques from the last decades. The second generation of Russian RPV steels seems to be fully comparable with German steels and their quality allows prolongation of NPP operating lifetime over projected 40 years. The embrittlement of CrMoV steels is relatively low due to effect of higher temperature which implies partial in situ annealing of primary microstructural point defects and therefore delays the degradation processes caused by neutron irradiation. PAS techniques can be effectively applied for evaluation of microstructural changes caused by extreme external loads (characterized by high dpa values) by proton implantation, with aim to simulate irradiation and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of post-irradiation thermal treatments. We used our actual and previous results, collected during last 20 years from measurements of different RPV-steels in “as received”, irradiated and post-irradiation annealed state and compare them with the aim to contribute to general knowledge based on experimental PAS data. Actual results from irradiated German and Russian steels confirmed that no large voids or vacancy clusters were formed at defined irradiation conditions stated according to the real operational conditions at nuclear power plants. This indicate the fact that vacancy type defects bear hardly any responsibility for radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels and does not affect significantly the long-term operation of nuclear power plants from safety point of view

  18. Evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel steels by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugeň, V., E-mail: Vladimir.Slugen@elf.stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Hein, H. [AREVA NP GmbH, Paul Gossen Strasse 100, 91 001 Erlangen (Germany); Sojak, S.; Simeg Veterníková, J.; Petriska, M.; Sabelová, V.; Pavúk, M.; Hinca, R.; Stacho, M. [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 81219 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-11-15

    This paper presents a comparison of commercially used German and Russian reactor pressure vessel steels from the positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) point of view, having in mind knowledge obtained also from other techniques from the last decades. The second generation of Russian RPV steels seems to be fully comparable with German steels and their quality allows prolongation of NPP operating lifetime over projected 40 years. The embrittlement of CrMoV steels is relatively low due to effect of higher temperature which implies partial in situ annealing of primary microstructural point defects and therefore delays the degradation processes caused by neutron irradiation. PAS techniques can be effectively applied for evaluation of microstructural changes caused by extreme external loads (characterized by high dpa values) by proton implantation, with aim to simulate irradiation and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of post-irradiation thermal treatments. We used our actual and previous results, collected during last 20 years from measurements of different RPV-steels in “as received”, irradiated and post-irradiation annealed state and compare them with the aim to contribute to general knowledge based on experimental PAS data. Actual results from irradiated German and Russian steels confirmed that no large voids or vacancy clusters were formed at defined irradiation conditions stated according to the real operational conditions at nuclear power plants. This indicate the fact that vacancy type defects bear hardly any responsibility for radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels and does not affect significantly the long-term operation of nuclear power plants from safety point of view.

  19. Positron Annihilation 3-D Momentum Spectrometry by Synchronous 2D-ACAR and DBAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraf, Larry W.; Bonavita, Angelo M.; Williams, Christopher S.; Fagan-Kelly, Stefan B.; Jimenez, Stephen M.

    2015-05-01

    A positron annihilation spectroscopy system capable of determining 3D electron-positron (e--e+) momentum densities has been constructed and tested. In this technique two opposed HPGe strip detectors measure angular coincidence of annihilation radiation (ACAR) and Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) in coincidence to produce 3D momentum datasets in which the parallel momentum component obtained from the DBAR measurement can be selected for annihilation events that possess a particular perpendicular momentum component observed in the 2D ACAR spectrum. A true 3D momentum distribution can also be produced. Measurement of 3-D momentum spectra in oxide materials has been demonstrated including O-atom defects in 6H SiC and silver atom substitution in lithium tetraborate crystals. Integration of the 3-D momentum spectrometer with a slow positron beam for future surface resonant annihilation spectrometry measurements will be described. Sponsorship from Air Force Office of Scientific Research

  20. Improved maximum entropy method for the analysis of fluorescence spectroscopy data: evaluating zero-time shift and assessing its effect on the determination of fluorescence lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Rosario; Mensitieri, Giuseppe; de Nicola, Sergio

    2015-12-21

    A new algorithm based on the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) is proposed for recovering both the lifetime distribution and the zero-time shift from time-resolved fluorescence decay intensities. The developed algorithm allows the analysis of complex time decays through an iterative scheme based on entropy maximization and the Brent method to determine the minimum of the reduced chi-squared value as a function of the zero-time shift. The accuracy of this algorithm has been assessed through comparisons with simulated fluorescence decays both of multi-exponential and broad lifetime distributions for different values of the zero-time shift. The method is capable of recovering the zero-time shift with an accuracy greater than 0.2% over a time range of 2000 ps. The center and the width of the lifetime distributions are retrieved with relative discrepancies that are lower than 0.1% and 1% for the multi-exponential and continuous lifetime distributions, respectively. The MEM algorithm is experimentally validated by applying the method to fluorescence measurements of the time decays of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). PMID:26541293

  1. Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses spectroscopy, the study of absorption of radiation by matter, including X-ray, gamma-ray, microwave, mass spectroscopy, as well as others. Spectroscopy has produced more fundamental information to the study of the detailed structure of matter than any other tools.

  2. Measurement of hydrodynamic interaction parameter for miscibility test of polymer blends by positron lifetime method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy is used to determine the free volume content in the blends of SAN/PMMA and PS/PVC. Though the free volume data indicate the miscible/immiscible nature of the blends, the extent of miscibility for different weight compositions is not forthcoming. Therefore the hydrodynamic interaction parameter α which accounts for the excess friction between the constituents of the blend system is evaluated for this purpose. The SAN/PMMA system produces a maximum α of -209 at 20% of PMMA concentration while PS/PVC almost zero. It appears sound that hydrodynamic interaction parameter, α, is a suitable parameter to understand the composition dependent miscibility level in polymer blends. (author)

  3. Positron annihilation in medical substances of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positrons lifetimes were measured in medical substances of insulin (human and animal), differing as far as the degree of purity and time of their activity in the organism are concerned. In all of the cases the spectrum of positron lifetime was distributed into three components, with the long-life component ranging from 1.8 to 2.08 ns and the intensity taking on values from 18% to 24%. Making use of Tao-Eldrup model, the average radius of the free volume, in which o-Ps annihilated, and the degree of filling in the volume were determined. It was found that the value of the long-life component for human insulin is higher than that of animal insulin. Moreover, the value of this component clearly depends on the manner of purification of the insulin. It was also noticed that there occurs a correlation between the value of this component and the time after which it begins to be active in the organism, as well as the total time of its activity. (author)

  4. Positron Annihilation in Medical Substances of Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, R.; Szatanik, R.

    2005-05-01

    Positrons lifetimes were measured in medical substances of insulin (human and animal), differing as far as the degree of purity and time of their activity in the organism are concerned. In all of the cases the spectrum of positron lifetime was distributed into three components, with the long-life component ranging from 1.8 to 2.08 ns and the intensity taking on values from 18 to 24%. Making use of Tao-Eldrup model, the average radius of the free volume, in which o-Ps annihilated, and the degree of filling in the volume were determined. It was found that the value of the long-life component for human insulin is higher than that of animal insulin. Moreover, the value of this component clearly depends on the manner of purification of the insulin. It was also noticed that there occurs a correlation between the value of this component and the time after which it begins to be active in the organism, as well as the total time of its activity.

  5. Material evaluation technology by positron annihilation measurement and micro/nano-scopic stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two kinds of next generation nanotechnologies, positron annihilation measurement and micro/nano-scopic stress measurement are explained. The positron annihilation measurement is able to detect nano- or sub nanometer scale local structure such as atomic vacancy, void, dislocation, grain boundary and nanolack. The positron annihilation measurement method and some examples of measurement; fatigue of steel, creep behavior of heat-resistance steel and positron annihilation lifetime of polymer are stated. On the micro/nano-scopic stress measurement, the principle of method and measurement examples such as the emission and stress of sapphire (Cr3+), the stress distribution surrounding of crack and the crosslinking effect of Al2O3 compound materials and the stress of semiconductor SiC thin film base and the its future are ascribed. (S.Y.)

  6. Radiative lifetimes of neutral samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes of 120 odd-parity levels of neutral samarium, ranging in energy from 17 190 to 33 507 cm−1, are measured using the technique of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam. This work is part of an ongoing study of radiative properties of rare earth neutral atoms, and is motivated by research needs in astrophysics and lighting technology. This set of Sm i lifetimes substantially increases the available published lifetime data, with 49 of the 120 level lifetimes measured for the first time. These data, most of which are accurate to ±5%, will be combined with branching fractions determined from Fourier transform spectroscopy to produce a large set of measured Sm i transition probabilities. (paper)

  7. Possible presence of hydrophilic SO3H nanoclusters on the surface of dry ultrathin Nafion® films: a positron annihilation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hamdy F M; Kuroda, S; Kobayashi, Y; Oshima, N; Suzuki, R; Ohira, A

    2013-02-01

    Solutions of Nafion® with an ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 0.91 meq g(-1), which are on the verge of the formation of SO(3)H nanoclusters, were spin coated on silicon (Si), glassy carbon (GC) and platinum/silicon (Pt/Si) substrates to form films of up to 256 nm thickness. Nanostructure of the films was studied using Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR), positron annihilation lifetime (PAL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Contact angles as low as 10 degrees indicate that the surface of dry ultrathin Nafion® films on Si is highly hydrophilic. XPS data of 10 nm thick, ultrathin film on Si show that oxygen concentration is enhanced and the SO(3)H group concentration, in other words, IEC on the surface is much higher than other films. The S parameter measured by DBAR of an ultrathin Nafion® film on Si is much higher than that of the films on the other substrates. We consider that a large number of hydrophilic, reversed micelle like SO(3)H groups are on the surface of the ultrathin Nafion® film on Si but not on the surface of other films. Positrons implanted into the film are trapped by the SO(3)H clusters, annihilating with the electrons of oxygen and exhibit the high S parameter. The SO(3)H concentration on the surface of thin Nafion® films on GC and Pt/Si substrates may not be so high as the threshold for the formation of a large number of SO(3)H clusters. Positrons implanted into the films annihilate mostly with fluorine atoms, resulting in a low S parameter. The film-substrate interaction plays an essential role in nanostructuring of Nafion® thin films, which may also be the case for Nafion® on the catalysts of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PMID:23238425

  8. Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, S

    1976-01-01

    The three volumes of Spectroscopy constitute the one comprehensive text available on the principles, practice and applications of spectroscopy. By giving full accounts of those spectroscopic techniques only recently introduced into student courses - such as Mössbauer spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy - in addition to those techniques long recognised as being essential in chemistry teaching - sucha as e.s.r. and infrared spectroscopy - the book caters for the complete requirements of undergraduate students and at the same time provides a sound introduction to special topics for graduate students.

  9. Study on the effect of atmospheric gases adsorbed in MnFe2O4/MCM-41 nanocomposite on ortho-positronium annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiertel Marek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS studies of MnFe2O4/MCM-41 nanocomposites in N2 and O2 atmosphere have been presented. In particular, the influence of manganese ferrite loading and gas filling on pick-off ortho-positronium (o-Ps annihilation processes in the investigated samples was a point of interest. Disappearance of the longest-lived o-Ps component with τ5 present in the PAL spectrum of initial MCM-41 mesoporous material in the PAL spectra of MnFe2O4-impregnated MCM-41 measured in vacuum is a result of either a strong chemical o-Ps quenching or the Ps inhibition effects. The intensity I4 of the medium-lived component initially increases, reaching a maximum value for the sample with minimum manganese ferrite content, and then decreases monotonically. Analogous dependence for the intensity I3 of the shortest-lived component shows a maximum at higher MnFe2O4 content. Filling of open pores present in the studied nanocomposites by N2 or O2 at ambient pressure causes partial reappearance of the τ4 and τ5 components, except a sample with maximum ferrite content. The lifetimes of these components measured in O2 are shortened in comparison to that observed in N2 because of paramagnetic quenching. Anti-inhibition and anti-quenching effects of atmospheric gases observed in the MnFe2O4/MCM-41 samples are a result of neutralization of some surface active centers acting as inhibitors and weakening of pick-off annihilation mechanism, respectively.

  10. Positron annihilation study on Y-Ba-Cu-O high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First positron annihilation measurements are reported on high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x. The lifetime and Doppler broadening spectra show a slight but significant change about 240K suggesting a deviation from the normal structure far above 90K where the resistance falls to zero. (author)

  11. Hyperfine structure and lifetime measurements in the 4s2nd 2D3/2 Rydberg sequence of Ga I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunqing; Tian, Yanshan; Yu, Qi; Bai, Wanshuang; Wang, Xinghao; Wang, Chong; Dai, Zhenwen

    2016-05-01

    The hyperfine structure (HFS) constants of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=6-18) Rydberg sequence and the 4s26p 2P3/2 level for two isotopes of 69Ga and 71Ga atoms were measured by means of the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TR-LIF) technique and the quantum beat method. The observed hyperfine quantum beat spectra were analyzed and the magnetic-dipole HFS constants A as well as the electric-quadrupole HFS constants B of these levels were obtained by Fourier transform and a program for multiple regression analysis. Also using TR-LIF method radiative lifetimes of the above sequence states were determined at room temperature. The measured lifetime values range from 69 to 2279 ns with uncertainties no more than 10%. To our knowledge, the HFS constants of this Rydberg sequence and the lifetimes of the 4s2nd 2D3/2 (n=10-18) levels are reported for the first time. Good agreement between our results and the previous is achieved.

  12. Measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement of the average lifetime of hadrons containing bottom quarks is presented. The b hadrons are produced in e+e- annihilation at 29 GeV, and the lifetime is determined from the impact parameters of high-transverse-momentum electrons produced in the decay of the b hadrons. A b lifetime of tau/sub b/ = 1.17/sup +0.27//sub -0.22/(stat)/sup +0.17//sub 0.16/(sys) psec is determined from a maximum-likelihood fit to the impact parameters. Particular care has been taken to describe the experimental resolution correctly in the fit

  13. Calculation of the D and B meson lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the expansions of the heavy meson decay widths in the heavy quark mass and QCD sum rules for estimates of corresponding matrix elements the D±,O,S decay widths and the B±,O,S lifetime differences are calculated. The results for D mesons are in agreement with the data, while it is predicted that [Γ(BO)-Γ(B-)]/ΓB≅4%, and the lifetime difference of the BO and BS mesons is even smaller. The role of the weak annihilation and Pauli interference contributions to the lifetime differences are described in detail. 55 refs.; 10 figs

  14. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  15. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...

  16. Cold rolling induced amorphization and nanocrystallization processes studied by positron lifetime and 2-dimensional Doppler broadening measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to contribute to an atomistic understanding of the interfacial structure and processes during amorphization and nanocrystallization, the present work deals with studies of interfacial free volumes by means of positron-annihilation-spectroscopy. In addition to positron lifetime spectroscopy, coincident Doppler broadening of the positron-electron annihilation photons is applied as novel technique for studying the chemistry of interfaces. To study the amorphization process, pure foils of Cu and Zr with a nominal composition of Cu60Zr40 were mechanically intermixed by cold rolling. Starting from the constituent pure metals, a nanoscale multilayer structure of elemental layers and amorphous interlayers develops in an intermediate state of folding and rolling, where free volumes with a Zr-rich environment occur that are presumably located in the hetero-interfaces between the various layers or in grain boundaries of the Cu-layers. To analyze the nanocrystallization reaction that occurs in marginal glass formers, pure foils of Al and Sm with a composition of Al92Sm8 were produced by the abovementioned synthesis route. Specific modifications of free volumes and their chemical environment could be observed for various strain levels

  17. Study of the ortho-positron annihilation process in zeolite Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For several years a great interest has existed for the study of the natural and synthetic zeolites due to its properties. The porosity, one of their main characteristics allows that these materials are used as molecular sieves, catalysts, gases drying, etc. In order to investigating the porosity and other zeolite properties one carries out the study of the process of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (Pals). This is a technique that provides information about the size and the pores form since is highly sensitive to the free volume and the superficial area of those porous materials as the zeolites. The study began with the elaboration of zeolite Y tablets in a hydraulic press where different pressures (from 0 to 1.26 GPa) and masses (70, 80 and 100 mg) were proven to obtain the estimate porosity of each tablet. A graph was elaborated and the effect of the mass and pressure with regard to the zeolite porosity was analyzed. Later on, the powder and tablets of 70 mg were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (the glass size, interplanar distance, length and the volume of the unitary cell); scanning electron microscopy (the particles size and morphology); thermo gravimetric analysis (dehydration temperature and the stability up to 700 C) and the Brunauer Emmett Teller method (specific area). After the zeolite Y tablets characterization was carried out the positron annihilation process by means of Pals where its free volume of zeolite Y was analyzed, which includes to the structural cavities and the interparticle volume. The powdered zeolite was analyzed to different experimental conditions (preparation of the sample and the Pals equipment) to obtain the optimal conditions (a window with a time of 400 ns and a enlarged energy window) of analysis. On the other hand, the tablets were analyzed under optimal conditions to obtain the four components of time and intensity (τ, Ι), result of the different ways of positrons annihilation in the zeolite. These

  18. Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules.......This introductory booklet covers the basics of molecular spectroscopy, infrared and Raman methods, instrumental considerations, symmetry analysis of molecules, group theory and selection rules, as well as assignments of fundamental vibrational modes in molecules....

  19. PAL spectroscopy of rare-earth doped Ga-Ge-Te/Se glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Shpotyuk, Ya.; Ingram, A; Shpotyuk, O.

    2016-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to study free-volume void evolution in chalcogenide glasses of Ga-Ge-Te/Se cut-section exemplified by glassy Ga10Ge15Te75 and Ga10Ge15Te72Se3 doped with 500 ppm of Tb3+ or Pr3+. The collected PAL spectra reconstructed within two-state trapping model reveal decaying tendency in positron trapping efficiency in these glasses under rare-earth doping. This effect results in unchanged or slightly increased defect-relat...

  20. Probing Sub-atomistic Free-Volume Imperfections in Dry-Milled Nanoarsenicals with PAL Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Shpotyuk, Oleh; Ingram, Adam; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Yaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Structural transformations caused by coarse-grained powdering and fine-grained mechanochemical milling in a dry mode were probed in high-temperature modification of tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide known as β-As4S4. In respect to X-ray diffraction analysis, the characteristic sizes of β-As4S4 crystallites in these coarse- and fine-grained powdered pellets were 90 and 40 nm, respectively. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was employed to characterize transformations occurred in free-volum...

  1. p -wave annihilating dark matter from a decaying predecessor and the Galactic Center excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Jeremie; Cline, James M.; Cornell, Jonathan M.

    2016-07-01

    Dark matter (DM) annihilations have been widely studied as a possible explanation of excess gamma rays from the Galactic Center seen by Fermi/LAT. However most such models are in conflict with constraints from dwarf spheroidals. Motivated by this tension, we show that p -wave annihilating dark matter can easily accommodate both sets of observations due to the lower DM velocity dispersion in dwarf galaxies. Explaining the DM relic abundance is then challenging. We outline a scenario in which the usual thermal abundance is obtained through s -wave annihilations of a metastable particle, that eventually decays into the p -wave annihilating DM of the present epoch. The couplings and lifetime of the decaying particle are constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and direct detection, but significant regions of parameter space are viable. A sufficiently large p -wave cross section can be found by annihilation into light mediators, that also give rise to Sommerfeld enhancement. A prediction of the scenario is enhanced annihilations in galaxy clusters.

  2. Radiative-lifetime and Lande-factor measurements of the Se I 4p35s5S2 level using pulsed laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First laser spectroscopic investigations on atomic selenium are reported. Natural selenium was thermally dissociated in a quartz resonance cell keeping the background pressure of abundant selenium molecules low by differential heating. The 4p35s5S2 level was excited by frequency-tripled pulsed-dye laser radiation at 207 nm. From time-resolved recordings of the fluorescence decay at 216 nm a natural radiative lifetime of 493(15) ns was determined, while quantum-beat and optical double-resonance measurements in an external magnetic field yielded gJ=2.0004(10) for the Lande factor. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data. (orig.)

  3. AC Dielectric Properties and Positron Annihilation Study on Co and Ti Substitution Effect on Ca-Sr M-Hexaferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K. R.; Eraky, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The dependence of AC conductivity σ AC, dielectric constant έ, and dielectric loss tangent tan δ on frequency and composition have been investigated at room temperature for polycrystalline Ca0.5Sr0.5Co x Ti x Fe12 - 2 x O19 (where 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) hexaferrites. It was found that the parameters σ AC, ɛ ', and tan δ have maximum values at x = 0.4 of the Co and Ti substitution. The behavior of σ AC, ɛ ', and tan δ with frequency and composition was explained on the basis of the hopping conduction mechanism and the Koops model. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the defects and changes in electron density for hexaferrite samples. The PAL parameters ( τ 1, I 1, τ 2, I 2, and mean lifetime) show that altering the doping percentage of the Co and Ti ions affects the size and concentration of defects. The results reveal that there are some large voids in the studied samples. The obtained results indicate the high sensitivity of the PALS technique to the enhanced structure changes with changing composition of the investigated samples and correlate the results with the measured electrical parameters.

  4. Positron annihilation study of ageing and creep on inconel X750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation of positron annihilation characteristics with microstructrual changes occurring in a Ni-base alloy is experimentally studied using lifetime and angular-correlation methods. The samples are examined at room temperature after various ageing phases and after creep rupture; their structure is also investigated by differential chemical analysis, by electron microscopy and by small-angle neutron scattering. The comparison of the results obtained with the various techniques shows the field of applicability of the positron annihilation technique for material testing in cases of technological interest. (author)

  5. Positron annihilation investigations on poly(methyl methacrylate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadened annihilation radiation were measured for seven different samples of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature in vacuum. The polymerisation of methyl methacrylate was carried out as a bulk polymerisation in the presence of benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The effect of the amount of the initiator on the viscosity-average molecular weight was studied. It was found that the viscosity-average molecular weight decreased with increasing amount of the initiator. The average lifetime and intensity of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) increased with increasing viscosity-average molecular weight up to 6.85x104 and remained constant after that. The S-parameter showed a similar behaviour as that of the o-Ps intensity.

  6. γ-irradiation of polyethylene studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the third positron lifetime component in γ-irradiated polyethylene samples the influence of different irradiation conditons (absorbed doses of 1, 10, 100, and 1000 KGy and dose rates of 0.1 and 12.5 KGy/h, respectively) on the properties of polyethylene in air has been tested by Doppler broadening and positron lifetime measurements. The effect of different radiation-induced reactions such as oxidic degradation, cross-linking, positronium formation and others has been discussed. It can be concluded that radiation-induced changes in the properties of polyethylene are demonstrable by positron annihilation and the influence of independent irradiation parameters as dose and dose rate can be described by logarithmic functions

  7. Positron Annihilation Study on Nickel and Iron Nano-Particles in Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad H. Aly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effect of Ni and Fe nano-particles as a filler on the free volume properties Of Natural Rubber (NR was studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS. Approach: The PAL measurements revealed that the free volume properties are strongly affected by the amount and type of filler. Results: Particularly speaking, the free volume fraction dramatically decreased by increasing the filler content. Besides, the addition of nano-prticles created new positron trapping sites at filler-rubber interfaces. Furthermore, correlations were made between the free volume hole sizes (Vh and each of the mechanical and electrical properties successively. A negative correlation was observed between Vh and hardness in the Ni-rubber composites while a positive counterpart was found in the case of Fe-rubber composites. Finally, the polarity of the fillers, being higher than that of the rubber itself, leads to an increase in electrical parameters and an inhibition of o-Ps formation. Conclusion: These results indicate that the investigated composites are considered to be insulating materials as their conductivity values are in the order of an insulator range.

  8. Positron annihilation method for α self radiation effect studies in doped actinide UO2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards disposal problematic, fine understanding of the α aging of UO2 and (U, Pu)O2 remains a fundamental challenge for the prediction of the potential increase of the radionuclide source terms with presence of water. The intrinsic evolution of the matrix is closely related to the behavior of radiogenic helium produced by actinide decay. Interactions between helium atoms and vacancy defects are involved in these mechanisms. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy is also an appropriated method owing to its sensitivity to the vacancy type defects in solid materials. It is a non destructive technique with a remote acquiring data possibility. Because positron implanted in the material is sensitive to the electronic density, the positron lifetime method allows the characterization of the vacancy defects, namely size and concentration. Such equipment has been implemented in the L30 laboratory of the DHA facility in Atalante and will be applied on doped actinides samples, simulating α aging. This article presents, the analytical protocols and validation results on depleted UO2 samples and highlights the perspectives on (U, Pu)O2 for the investigation of different stages of self irradiation matrices and helium behavior. (authors)

  9. Point defects in YBa2Cu3O7-x studied using positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudy, Michal; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Veterníková, J.; Sojak, S.; Slugeň, V.

    2012-07-01

    Fast neutron irradiation is a powerful technique for introducing additional pinning centers into high temperature superconductors. The spherical defects with sizes of a few nanometers are considered to be effective pinning centers, enhancing Jc. Their morphology is well-known and has already been investigated by several authors in great detail. However, only very little is known about the nature and density of smaller and point defects, which are invisible in transmission electron microscopy. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied to investigate the nature and the concentration of small point-like defects. In this work, the influence of small point defects, such as vacancies and vacancy clusters, on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x bulks was studied; these were introduced by irradiation in the TRIGA Mark II reactor in Vienna. Jc and Tc measurements were performed prior to and after each irradiation step. The samples were irradiated up to a fast neutron ( > 0.1 MeV) fluence of 6 × 1021 m-2. The two kinds of defects—the large collision cascades and the small point-like defects—contribute to the decrease of Tc as well as to the Jc enhancement in astonishingly similar ways.

  10. Detection of the opening of the bundle crossing in KcsA with fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy reveals the existence of two gates for ion conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunck, Rikard; Cordero-Morales, Julio F; Cuello, Luis G; Perozo, Eduardo; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2006-11-01

    The closed KcsA channel structure revealed a crossing of the cytosolic ends of the transmembrane helices blocking the permeation pathway. It is generally agreed that during channel opening this helical bundle crossing has to widen in order to enable access to the inner cavity. Here, we address the question of whether the opening of the inner gate is sufficient for ion conduction, or if a second gate, located elsewhere, may interrupt the ion flow. We used fluorescence lifetime measurements on KcsA channels labeled with tetramethylrhodamine at residues in the C-terminal end of TM2 to report on the opening of the lower pore region. We found two populations of channels with different fluorescence lifetimes, whose relative distribution agrees with the open probability of the channel. The absolute fraction of channels found with an open bundle crossing is too high to explain the low open probability of the KcsA-WT channel. We found the same distribution as in the WT channel between open and closed bundle crossing for two KcsA mutants, A73E and E71A, which significantly increase open probability at low pH. These two results strongly suggest that a second gate in the ion permeation pathway exists. The location of the mutations A73E and E71A suggests that the second gate may be the selectivity filter, which resides in an inactivated state under steady-state conditions. Since the long closed times observed in KcsA-WT are not present in KcsA-A73E or -E71A, we propose that KcsA-WT remains predominantly in a state with an open bundle crossing but closed (inactivated) second gate, while the mutations A73E and E71A sharply decrease the tendency to enter in the inactivated state, and as a consequence, the second gate is predominantly open at steady state. The ability to monitor the opening of the bundle crossing optically enables the direct recording of the movement of the pore helices while the channel is functioning. PMID:17043150

  11. Annihilation of Quantum Magnetic Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, W. D.

    After introducing the concepts associated with the Aharonov and Bohm effect and with the existence of a quantum of magnetic flux (QMF), we briefly discuss the Ginzburg-Landau theory that explains its origin and fundamental consequences. Also relevant observations of QMFs obtained in the laboratory using superconducting systems (vortices) are mentioned. Next, we describe processes related with the interaction of QMFs with opposite directions in terms of the gauge field geometry related to the vector potential. Then, we discuss the use of a Lagrangian density for a scalar field theory involving radiation in order to describe the annihilation of QMFs, claimed to be responsible for the emission of photons with energies corresponding to that of the annihilated magnetic fields. Finally, a possible application of these concepts to the observed variable dynamics of neutron stars is briefly mentioned.

  12. Antiproton annihilation in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-proton annihilation has a number of important advantages as a probe of QCD in the low energy domain. Exclusive reaction in which complete annihilation of the valance quarks occur. There are a number of exclusive and inclusive /bar p/ reactions in the intermediate momentum transfer domain which provide useful constraints on hadron wavefunctions or test novel features of QCD involving both perturbative and nonperturbative dynamics. Inclusive reactions involving antiprotons have the advantage that the parton distributions are well understood. In these lectures, I will particularly focus on lepton pair production /bar p/A → /ell//bar /ell//X as a means to understand specific nuclear features in QCD, including collision broadening, breakdown of the QCD ''target length condition''. Thus studies of low to moderate energy antiproton reactions with laboratory energies under 10 GeV could give further insights into the full structure of QCD. 112 refs., 40 figs

  13. Photon correlations in positron annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Isabelle; Hawton, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The two-photon positron annihilation density matrix is found to separate into a diagonal center of energy factor implying maximally entangled momenta, and a relative factor describing decay. For unknown positron injection time, the distribution of the difference in photon arrival times is a double exponential at the para-Ps decay rate, consistent with experiment (V. D. Irby, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1799 (2004)).

  14. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section B; Microstructural Characterization of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Pater, Ruth H.; Eftekhari, Abe

    1998-01-01

    Thermoset and thermoplastic polyimides have complementary physical/mechanical properties. Whereas thermoset polyimides are brittle and generally easier to process, thermoplastic polyimides are tough but harder to process. It is expected that a combination of these two types of polyimides may help produce polymers more suitable for aerospace applications. Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (S-IPNs) of thermoset LaRC(Trademark)-RP46 and thermoplastic LARC(Trademark)-IA polyimides were prepared in weight percent ratios ranging from 100:0 to 0: 100. Positron lifetime measurements were made in these samples to correlate their free volume features with physical/mechanical properties. As expected, positronium atoms are not formed in these samples. The second life time component has been used to infer the positron trap dimensions. The "free volume" goes through a minimum at about 50:50 ratio, suggesting that S-IPN samples are not merely solid solutions of the two polymers. These data and related structural properties of the S-IPN samples have been discussed in this paper.

  15. Different emissive states in the bulk and at the surface of methylammonium lead bromide perovskite revealed by two-photon micro-spectroscopy and lifetime measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhang, Wei; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2016-07-01

    Two photon photoluminescence (2PPL) from single crystals of methyl ammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3, MAPbBr3) is studied. We observe two components in the 2PPL spectra, which we assign to the photoluminescence (PL) from the carrier recombination at the band edge and the recombination due to self-trapping of excitons. The PL Stokes shift of self-trapped excitons is about 100 meV from the band-gap energy. Our measurements show that about 15% of the total PL from regions about 40 μm deep inside the crystal is due to the emission from self-trapped exciton. This contribution increases to about 20% in the PL from the regions close to the surface. Time resolved measurements of 2PPL show that the PL due to band-edge recombination has a life time of about 8 ns while the PL lifetime of self-trapped excitons is in the order of 100 ns. Quantification of self-trapped excitons in the materials used in photovoltaics is important as such excitons hinder charge separation. As our results also show that an appreciable fraction of photo-generated carriers get trapped, the results are important in rational design of photovoltaics. On the other hand, our results also show that the self-trapped excitons broaden the emission spectrum, which may be useful in designing broadband light emitting devices.

  16. Minor groove hydration of DNA in aqueous solution: sequence-dependent next neighbor effect of the hydration lifetimes in d(TTAA)2 segments measured by NMR spectroscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jacobson; Leupin, W; Liepinsh, E; Otting, F

    1996-01-01

    The hydration in the minor groove of double stranded DNA fragments containing the sequences 5'-dTTAAT, 5'-dTTAAC, 5'-dTTAAA and 5'-dTTAAG was investigated by studying the decanucleotide duplex d(GCATTAATGC)2 and the singly cross-linked decameric duplexes 5'-d(GCATTAACGC)-3'-linker-5'-d(GCGTTAATGC)-3' and 5'-d(GCCTTAAAGC)-3'-linker-5'-d(GCTTTAAGGC)-3' by NMR spectroscopy. The linker employed consisted of six ethyleneglycol units. The hydration water was detected by NOEs between water and DNA p...

  17. Thermal treatment of the Fe{sub 78} Si{sub 9} B{sub 13} alloy and the analysis of it magnetic properties through Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positronium annihilation; Tratamiento termico de la aleacion Fe{sub 78} Si{sub 9} B{sub 13} y el analisis de sus propiedades magneticas mediante Espectroscopia de Moessbauer y Aniquilacion de positronio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, A

    2005-07-01

    The present work is divided in five chapters. In the first one a general vision of the amorphous alloys is given from antecedents, structure, obtaining methods, properties and problems that at the moment, focusing us in a certain moment to the iron base alloys and the anomalous problem of hardness that it presents the alloy Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} like previously mention us. The second chapter tries on the basic theory of the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation spectroscopy, used for the characterization of our alloy as well as the complementary technique of X-ray diffraction (XRD) to observe that the amorphous phase was even studying. The third chapter describes the experimental conditions that were used to study the alloy Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} in each one of their thermal treatments. In the fourth chapter the obtained results and their discussion are presented. In the fifth chapter the conclusions to which were arrived after analyzing the results are presented. (Author)

  18. Laser Spectroscopy of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %PS205 %title\\\\ \\\\Following the discovery of metastable antiprotonic helium atoms ($\\overline{p}He^{+} $) at KEK in 1991, systematic studies of their properties were made at LEAR from 1991 to 1996. In the first two years the lifetime of $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ in liquid and gaseous helium at various temperatures and pressures was measured and the effect of foreign gases on the lifetime of these atoms was investigated. Effects were also discovered which gave the antiproton a 14\\% longer lifetime in $^4$He than in $^3$He, and resulted in important differences in the shape of the annihilation time spectra in the two isotopes.\\\\ \\\\Since 1993 laser spectroscopy of the metastable $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atoms became the main focus of PS205. Transitions were stimulated between metastable and non-metastable states of the $\\overline{p}He^{+}$ atom by firing a pulsed dye laser beam into the helium target every time an identified metastable atom was present (Figure 1). If the laser frequency matched the transition energy, the...

  19. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on the structure of natural rubber latex by positron annihilation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present research, were studied the changes in natural rubber latex structure, due to electron beam by a 3 MeV, 25 m A Dynamitron electron accelerator. The natural rubber latex was irradiated at 30, 40 and 50 kGy/s dose rate, over a total dose range from 150 to 250 kGy, for each dose rate used. From natural rubber latex irradiated films were prepared by casting with 0.7 mm. thickness. In the main part, the study was made by positron annihilation lifetime (PAL), this technique is unique in the determination of free-volume properties due to the fact that positronium atom (Ps) is found to be preferentially localized in the free-volume region of polymeric materials. The positron lifetime measurements were performing using a gamma-gamma coincidence system. These results were analyzed by PATFIT-88 program computer into three components, the long-lived component for orthopositronium (o-Ps) with parameters lifetime (τ3) and formation intensity (I3), were plotted and analyzed for each dose rate and total dose used. Besides with τ3 were calculated the mean free-volume size based on the spherical model for the free-volume bubble, found that the free-volume decrease slightly with the total dose due to the crosslinking of natural rubber latex. Besides was studied the effect of dose rate on tensile strength, the tensile strength is increased with the total dose although there was not a clear effect due to the dose rate. Also the films were subjected to aging in order to determined the thermal stability of natural rubber latex irradiated, the results show that the films have good stability. Besides was used the infrared spectroscopy to determine the changes due to the crosslinking by variations in the characteristically absorption bands for cis 1,4-polyisoprene. (Author)

  20. Study of Hg vacancies in (Hg,Cd)Te after THM growth and post-growth annealing by positron annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, R.; Klimakow, A.; Kießling, F. M.; Polity, A.; Gille, Peter; Schenk, M.

    1990-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements have been performed to study vacancy defects in Hg0.78Cd0.22Te. Post-growth annealing under various Hg vapour pressure conditions have been used to create a well-defined number of Hg vacancies. The sensitivity range of the positron annihilation method was found to be 1015 < cHgvac

  1. Calculation of the D and B Meson Lifetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyak, Victor

    1994-01-01

    Using the expansions of the heavy meson decay widths in the heavy quark mass and QCD sum rules for estimates of corresponding matrix elements,\\, we calculate the $D^{\\pm,o,s}$ decay widths and the $B^{\\pm,o,s}$ lifetime differences. The results for D mesons are in agreement with the data,\\, while it is predicted that $[\\Gamma (B^o)-\\Gamma (B^-)]/\\Gamma_B\\se 4\\%\\,,$ and the lifetime difference of the $B^o$ and $B_s$ mesons is even smaller. The role of the weak annihilation and Pauli interferen...

  2. Micellar effects on positronium lifetime in aqueous SDS solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron lifetime measurements have been performed in aqueous SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate) solutions. The lifetime distributions measured by fast-slow coincidence technique have been found to be influenced by surfactant concentration, which varied in the range of 1.25x10-3 - 3.2x10-1 mol/dm3 (i.e. 2.27x10-5 - 5.82x10-3 mole fractions). The lifetime of the long living component connected to positronium formation and decay increases with increasing surfactant concentration. Lifetime data suggest that a direct positronium-micelle electron-exchange reaction leading to pick-off annihilation is contraindicated. (author)

  3. P-wave Annihilating Dark Matter from a Decaying Predecessor and the Galactic Center Excess

    CERN Document Server

    Choquette, Jeremie; Cornell, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter (DM) annihilations have been widely studied as a possible explanation of excess gamma rays from the galactic center seen by Fermi/LAT. However most such models are in conflict with constraints from dwarf spheroidals. Motivated by this tension, we show that p-wave annihilating dark matter can easily accommodate both sets of observations due to the lower DM velocity dispersion in dwarf galaxies. Explaining the DM relic abundance is then challenging. We outline a scenario in which the usual thermal abundance is obtained through s-wave annihilations of a metastable particle, that eventually decays into the p-wave annihilating DM of the present epoch. The couplings and lifetime of the decaying particle are constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and direct detection, but significant regions of parameter space are viable. A sufficiently large p-wave cross section can be found by annihilation into light mediators, that also give rise to Sommerfeld enhancement. A predictio...

  4. Electrochemical and positron annihilation studies of semicarbazones and thiosemicarbazones derived from ferrocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of six ferrocene derivates containing a semicarbazone or thiosemicarbazone side chain was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and positron annihilation lifetime measurements. Both the redox and the electron capture processes took place on the Fe atom. Correlations between the two methods were proposed. taking into account the substituents on the side chain of the compounds, their redox potentials and the probabilities of o-positronium (o-Ps), formation. (author)

  5. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  6. New techniques of positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on new techniques of positron annihilation and its application to various fields are presented. First, production of slow positron and its characteristic features are described. The slow positron can be obtained from radioisotopes by using a positron moderator, proton beam bombardment on a boron target, and pair production by using an electron linear accelerator. Bright enhancement of the slow positron beam is studied. Polarized positron beam can be used for the study of the momentum distribution of an electron in ferromagnetic substances. Production of polarized positrons and measurements of polarization are discussed. Various phases of interaction between slow positrons and atoms (or molecules) are described. A comparative study of electron scavenging effects on luminescence and on positronium formation in cyclohexane is presented. The positron annihilation phenomena are applicable for the surface study. The microscopic information on the surface of porous material may be obtained. The slow positrons are also useful for the surface study. Production and application of slow muon (positive and negative) are presented in this report. (Kato, T.)

  7. Antimatter annihilation detection with AEgIS

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorova, Angela

    2015-01-01

    AE ̄ gIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) is an antimatter exper- iment based at CERN, whose primary goal is to carry out the first direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antimatter. A precise measurement of antimatter gravity would be the first precision test of the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter. The principle of the experiment is based on the formation of antihydrogen through a charge exchange reaction between laser excited (Rydberg) positronium and ultra-cold antiprotons. The antihydrogen atoms will be accelerated by an inhomogeneous electric field (Stark acceleration) to form a pulsed cold beam. The free fall of the antihydrogen due to Earth’s gravity will be measured using a moiré de- flectometer and a hybrid position detector. This detector is foreseen to consist of an active silicon part, where the annihilation of antihydrogen takes place, followed by an emulsion part coupled to a fiber time-of-flight detector. This overview prese...

  8. Geant4 Simulation of Annihilation and excitation of Positronium

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the work done during the summer of 2016 (18/6- 26/8) as a part of the CERN Summer Student Programme. The work has been done at the AEgIS (Antihydrogen Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) collaboration under the supervision of Lillian Smestad and Michael Doser. The goal of the project was to create a Monte Carlo simulation in Geant4, of Positronium annihilation and excitation in the positron test chamber of the AEgIs experiment.

  9. Positron annihilation and thermally stimulated current of electron beam irradiated polyetheretherketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Shinyama, Katsuyoshi; Baba, Makoto [Hachinohe Inst. of Tech., Hachinohe, Aomori (Japan); Suzuki, Takenori

    1997-03-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were applied to electron beam irradiated poly(ether-ether-ketone). The lifetime, {tau}{sub 3}, of the ortho-positronium of unirradiated and 5 MGy irradiated specimen became rapidly longer above about 150degC. {tau}{sub 3} of 50 MGy and 100 MGy irradiated specimen was shorter than that of unirradiated one. Thermally stimulated current (TSC) decreased with increasing the dose before voltage application. In the case of voltage application, a TSC peak appeared and the peak value decreased with increased the dose. The correlation between the results of positron annihilation and TSC was investigated. (author)

  10. Positron annihilation study of Y-Ba-Cu-O high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed positron annihilation measurements are reported on high-T/sub c/ superconductors YBa2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub x/. The lifetime and Doppler-broadening spectra show a significant change at about 240 K indicating a structural change in the sample far above 90 K where the resistance falls to zero. An analysis of the lifetime spectra shows positron trapping without any sign of saturation, indicating low specific trapping rates. On this basis, the charge states of Cu-O structures and a possible local charge decomposition are discussed

  11. Skyrmion creation and annihilation by spin waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yizhou, E-mail: yliu062@ucr.edu; Yin, Gen; Lake, Roger K., E-mail: rlake@ece.ucr.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Zang, Jiadong [Department of Physics and Material Science Program, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States); Shi, Jing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Single skyrmion creation and annihilation by spin waves in a crossbar geometry are theoretically analyzed. A critical spin-wave frequency is required both for the creation and the annihilation of a skyrmion. The minimum frequencies for creation and annihilation are similar, but the optimum frequency for creation is below the critical frequency for skyrmion annihilation. If a skyrmion already exists in the cross bar region, a spin wave below the critical frequency causes the skyrmion to circulate within the central region. A heat assisted creation process reduces the spin-wave frequency and amplitude required for creating a skyrmion. The effective field resulting from the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and the emergent field of the skyrmion acting on the spin wave drive the creation and annihilation processes.

  12. Fermionic Semi-Annihilating Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories with symmetries larger than Z2. We investigate two examples with multi-component dark sectors comprised of an SU(2)L singlet or triplet fermion besides a scalar singlet. These are respectively the minimal fermionic semi-annihilating model, and the minimal case for a gauge-charged fermion. We study the relevant dark matter phenomenology, including the interplay of semi-annihilation and the Sommerfeld effect. We demonstrate that semi-annihilation in the singlet model can explain the gamma ray excess from the galactic center. For the triplet model we scan the parameter space, and explore how signals and constraints are modified by semi-annihilation. We find that the entire region where the model comprises all the observed dark matter is accessible to current and planned direct and indirect searches.

  13. Nature of chemical bond through positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation is an important alternative to Compton scattering for determination of electron momentum distribution. The possibility of studying the nature of chemical bond by positron annihilation technique is reviewed in this paper. General concepts connected with momentum space and chemical bond have been outlined. Estimation of positron wavefunction at carbon and hydrogen sites and the calculation of electron momentum distribution of C-H and C-C bonds are discussed. The annihilation with sigma electrons broadens the angular correlation curve while the annihilation with π electrons narrows the curve. The most significant part of this paper is the investigation of participation of d-orbital of sulphur in chemical bonding. Whether or not ligand perturbation is necessary for d-orbital contraction and consequent participation in bonding is controversial till now. A study of angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation on organic sulphides and sulphones is a direct evidence to conclude that ligand perturbation is necessary. (author)

  14. Study of silica aerogel by the measurement of lifetime-momentum correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifetime-momentum correlation measurements were applied to separate electron momentum distribution due to the first layer atoms at the surface of vacant space from that due to bulk in silica aerogel fine particles. Positroniums (Ps) solely interacted with the first layer atoms, and the momentum distribution of the electrons of the first layer atoms was obtained from the Doppler broadening of γ-rays due to the pickoff annihilation of orthopositroniums. The electron distribution of the bulk, on the other hand, was deduced from the annihilation γ-rays of positrons. The momentum of electron · positron pair was measured by a high purity Ge detector, and a β+-γ coincidence method was used for the lifetime measurements. Another coincidence method using photo-multiplier tubes was also applied to yield higher time resolution. The lifetime spectrum due to annihilation γ-rays in time range from 50 to 150 ns was attributed to the pickoff annihilation of orthopositroniums in the vacant spaces in the silica aerogel, and the spectrum in the time range from 0.7 to 2.2 ns was yielded from positrons without forming positroniums. The change of the pickoff annihilation spectrum after annealing above 200 degC for the aerogel was ascribed to the change from -OCH3 radicals to -OH radicals at the surface from the reference of measurements by infrared absorption. (Y. K.)

  15. PAL spectroscopy of rare-earth doped Ga-Ge-Te/Se glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, Ya.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2016-04-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to study free-volume void evolution in chalcogenide glasses of Ga-Ge-Te/Se cut-section exemplified by glassy Ga10Ge15Te75 and Ga10Ge15Te72Se3 doped with 500 ppm of Tb3+ or Pr3+. The collected PAL spectra reconstructed within two-state trapping model reveal decaying tendency in positron trapping efficiency in these glasses under rare-earth doping. This effect results in unchanged or slightly increased defect-related lifetimes τ2 at the cost of more strong decrease in I2 intensities, as well as reduced positron trapping rate in defects and fraction of trapped positrons. Observed changes are ascribed to rare-earth activated elimination of intrinsic free volumes associated mainly with negatively-charged states of chalcogen atoms especially those neighboring with Ga-based polyhedrons.

  16. SUSY dark matter annihilation in the Galactic halo

    CERN Document Server

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Erohenko, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Neutralino annihilation in the Galactic halo is the most definite observational signature proposed for indirect registration of the SUSY Dark Matter (DM) candidate particles. The corresponding annihilation signal (in the form of gamma-rays, positrons and antiprotons) may be boosted for one or three orders of magnitude due to the clustering of cold DM particles into the small-scale and very dense self-gravitating clumps. We discuss the formation of these clumps from the initial density perturbations and their successive fate in the Galactic halo. Only a small fraction of these clumps, $\\sim0.1$%, in each logarithmic mass interval $\\Delta\\log M\\sim1$ survives the stage of hierarchical clustering. We calculate the probability of surviving the remnants of dark matter clumps in the Galaxy by modelling the tidal destruction of the small-scale clumps by the Galactic disk and stars. It is demonstrated that a substantial fraction of clump remnants may survive through the tidal destruction during the lifetime of the Ga...

  17. Positron lifetime study of native vacancy-like defects in chalcogenide glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified model for positron annihilation in vitreous chalcogenide semiconductors is developed to explain a number of previously obtained results on positron lifetime measurements in glassy As-Ge-S of stoichiometric As2S3-GeS2 and non-stoichiometric As2S3-Ge2S3 cut-sections

  18. Positron Annihilation Technique is a Powerful Nuclear Technique in Material Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Annihilation Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (PADPS) is a nondestructive technique used in material science. Electrical measurements are one of the oldest techniques used also in material science. This paper aimed to discuss the availability of using both PADPS and electrical measurements as diagnostic techniques to detect the defects in a set of plastically deformed 5454 wrought aluminum alloy. The results of the positron annihilation measurements and the electrical measurements were analyzed in terms of the two-state trapping model. This model can be used to investigate both defect and dislocation densities of the samples under investigation. Results obtained by both nuclear and electrical techniques have been reported

  19. Graphene networks and their influence on free-volume properties of graphene-epoxidized natural rubber composites with a segregated structure: rheological and positron annihilation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Canzhong; She, Xiaodong; Peng, Zheng; Zhong, Jieping; Liao, Shuangquan; Gong, Wei; Liao, Jianhe; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-05-14

    Epoxidized natural rubber-graphene (ENR-GE) composites with segregated GE networks were successfully fabricated using the latex mixing combined in situ reduced technology. The rheological behavior and electrical conductivity of ENR-GE composites were investigated. At low frequencies, the storage modulus (G') became frequency-independent suggesting a solid-like rheological behavior and the formation of GE networks. According to the percolation theory, the rheological threshold of ENR-GE composites was calculated to be 0.17 vol%, which was lower than the electrical threshold of 0.23 vol%. Both percolation thresholds depended on the evolution of the GE networks in the composites. At low GE concentrations (polymer-bridged GE network" was constructed in the composites when GE concentrations exceeded 0.17 vol%. Finally, a "three-dimensional GE network" with percolation conductive paths was formed with a GE concentration of 0.23 vol%, where a remarkable increase in the conductivity of ENR-GE composites was observed. The effect of GE on the atom scale free-volume properties of composites was further studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and positron age momentum correlation measurements. The motion of ENR chains was retarded by the geometric confinement of "GE networks", producing a high-density interfacial region in the vicinity of GE nanoplatelets, which led to a lower ortho-positronium lifetime intensity and smaller free-volume hole size. PMID:25881784

  20. Application of positron annihilation method for the study of radiation defects and defects formed in other ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation effects in ionic crystals (LiF, CaF2, BaF2 and AgC1) were studied using three positron annihilation techniques: Doppler broadening, life-time measurements and three-gamma annihilation. The irradiation with determined doses of gamma-rays was performed at controlled temperatures, and following specified annealing conditions. The measurements were also made at different temperatures. Different behaviour was observed for ionic crystals of different composition. The results were compared with observations made by other techniques, and with theoretical models. 55 refs, 61 figs, 11 tabs

  1. Probing dark matter decay and annihilation with Fermi LAT observations of nearby galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaoyuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatories; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Vertongen, Gilles [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Weniger, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Galaxy clusters are promising targets for indirect dark matter searches. Gamma-ray signatures from the decay or annihilation of dark matter particles inside these clusters could be observable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on three years of Fermi LAT gamma-ray data, we analyze the flux coming from eight nearby clusters individually as well as in a combined likelihood analysis. Concentrating mostly on signals from dark matter decay, we take into account uncertainties of the cluster masses as determined by X-ray observations and model the cluster emission with extended sources. We do not find significant emission from any of the considered clusters and present limits on the dark matter lifetime and annihilation cross-section. We compare our lifetime limits derived from cluster observations with the limits that can be obtained from the extragalactic gamma-ray background, and find that in case of hadronic decay the cluster limits become competitive at dark matter masses below a few hundred GeV. Finally, we show that in presence of dark matter substructures down to 10{sup -6} solar masses the limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section could improve by a factor of a few hundred, possibly going down to the thermal cross-section of 3 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} for dark matter masses annihilation into b anti b. As a direct application of our results, we derive limits on the lifetime of gravitino dark matter in scenarios with R-parity violation. Implications of these limits for the possible observation of long-lived superparticles at the LHC are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Accounting for the lack of nano-effect in a thermoset/clay nanocomposite: A positron annihilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, S. K.; Sudarshan, K.; Patri, M.; Pujari, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of nanoclay dispersion on the thermo-mechanical properties of an unsaturated polyester thermoset resin was studied by flexural and dynamic mechanical property measurements. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed intercalated clay dispersion morphology in the nanocomposites. The thermomechanical measurements showed a steady decrease in the flexural strength and a relaxation temperature, with only moderate increase in the storage modulus at 1% clay loading, followed by a drop at higher clay loadings. In order to understand the absence of nano-effect in this case, free volume measurements were carried out by using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. A bimodal distribution of o-Ps life times was observed. Nanoclay loading resulted in the increase of the o-Ps intensity corresponding to the longest life time as well as free volume fraction suggesting diminished chain packing efficiency in the nanocomposites. We posit that nanoclay induced decreased chain packing efficiency and the presence of higher free volume size elements might cause deterioration in mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.

  3. Lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren A.

    2015-01-01

    tests. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor lifetimes was performed by means of the o-diagram, which constitutes the initial steps towards establishing a method for predicting the lifetime of an organic photovoltaic device under real operational conditions based on a selection of accelerated indoor...

  4. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2007-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  5. Positron annihilation studies of high-manganese steel deformed by rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryzek Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS has been used to study the annealing behavior of cold rolled Fe – 21 wt% Mn steel with 0.05 wt% C. After the initial annealing of defects shown by Doppler broadening of the annihilation line, a slight increase in the annihilation line shape parameter, i.e., the so-called S parameter and then its decrease in the temperature range between 225°C and 450°C indicates generation of new defects and their subsequent annealing. This temperature range coincides with X-ray diffraction measurements, which indicate reversion of deformation-induced ε-martensite. However, for annealing in this temperature range with slow cooling of the sample, the formation of ferrite already starts. The results are compared with our previous results for deformed austenitic stainless steel 1.4301 (EN where only reversion of deformation-induced α′-martensite was detected.

  6. Positron annihilation in solid and liquid Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New techniques have been developed for the study of metals via positron annihilation which provide for the in-situ melting of the samples and subsequent measurements via Doppler broadening of positron-annihilation radiation. Here we report these metods currently in use at our laboratory; ion implantation of 58Co and the use of Al2O3 crucibles for in-situ melting followed by the decomposition of the Doppler-broadened spectrum into a parabolic and a Gaussian component. Our earliest results obtained for pure Ni in the polycrystalline solid and in the liquid state are compared. An interesting similarity is reported for the distributions of the high-momentum (Gaussian) component for positrons annihilating in vacancies at high temperatures and those annihilating in liquid Ni

  7. QCD in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise of e+e- annihilation as an ideal laboratory to test Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD, has been the dominating theme in elementary particle physics during the last several years. An attempt is made to partially survey the subject in deep perturbative region in e+e- annihilation where theoretical ambiguities are minimal. Topics discussed include a review of the renormalization group methods relevant for e+e- annihilation, total hadronic cross section, jets and large-psub(T) phenomena, non-perturbative quark and gluon fragmentation effects and analysis of the jet distributions measured at DORIS, SPEAR and PETRA. My hope is to review realistic tests of QCD in e+e- annihilation - as opposed to the ultimate tests, which abound in literature. (orig.)

  8. Positron annihilation study of neutron irradiated pure Fe and Fe-Cu binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hardening and embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels is of great concern in the actual nuclear power plant life assessment. This embrittlement is caused by irradiation-induced damage, like vacancies, interstitials, solutes and their clusters. Fe-Cu binary alloys are often used to mimic the behaviour of such steels. Their study allows identifying some of the defects responsible of the hardening, especially when compared to pure iron or C-micro-alloyed iron. Owing to their self-seeking and selective trapping, positrons are used to determine the nature of these defects. Recently, at SCK.CEN, a new Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) setup has been built, calibrated and optimized to measure the Coincidence Doppler Broadening (CDB) and Lifetime (LT) of neutron irradiated materials. This set-up has been used to measure the CDB and LT of n-irradiated pure Fe and Fe-Cu alloys. It is found that the clustering of Cu take place at the very early stages of irradiation using the CDB while LT measurement are showing much more vacancy clustering for low Cu alloys than in the higher ones. Increasing the neutron dose up to 1.3 x 1020 n/m2, allows the follow up of the kinetic of Cu and V-clustering especially in Fe-Cu alloys. It is found that both copper and carbon decrease the size of vacancy-cluster, when added to iron. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Positron annihilation study of graphite, glassy carbon and C60/C70 fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ACAR (Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation) and positron lifetime measurements have been made on, HOPG (Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite), isotropic fine-grained graphite, glassy carbons and C60/C70 powder. HOPG showed marked bimodality along the c-axis and anisotropy in ACAR momentum distribution, which stem from characteristic annihilation between 'interlayer' positrons and π-electrons in graphite. ACAR curves of the isotropic graphite and glassy carbons are even narrower than that of HOPG perpendicular to the c-axis. Positron lifetime of 420 and 390 - 480 psec, much longer than that of 221 psec in HOPG, were observed for the isotropic graphite and glassy carbons respectively, which are due to positron trapping in structural voids in them. Positron lifetime and ACAR width (FWHM) can be well correlated to void sizes (1.7 to 5.0 nm) of glassy carbons which have been determined by small angle neutron (SAN) scattering measurements. ACAR curves and positron lifetime of C60/C70 powder agree well with those of glassy carbons. This shows that positron wave functions extend, as in the voids of glassy carbons, much wider than open spaces of the octahedral interstices of the face-centered cubic (FCC) structure of C60 crystal and strongly suggests positron trapping in the 'soccer ball' vacancy. Possible positron states in the carbon materials are discussed with a simple model of void volume-trapping. Preliminary results on neutron irradiation damage in HOPG are also presented. (author)

  10. Positron annihilation with core and valence electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Green, D G

    2015-01-01

    $\\gamma$-ray spectra for positron annihilation with the core and valence electrons of the noble gas atoms Ar, Kr and Xe is calculated within the framework of diagrammatic many-body theory. The effect of positron-atom and short-range positron-electron correlations on the annihilation process is examined in detail. Short-range correlations, which are described through non-local corrections to the vertex of the annihilation amplitude, are found to significantly enhance the spectra for annihilation on the core orbitals. For Ar, Kr and Xe, the core contributions to the annihilation rate are found to be 0.55\\%, 1.5\\% and 2.2\\% respectively, their small values reflecting the difficulty for the positron to probe distances close to the nucleus. Importantly however, the core subshells have a broad momentum distribution and markedly contribute to the annihilation spectra at Doppler energy shifts $\\gtrsim3$\\,keV, and even dominate the spectra of Kr and Xe at shifts $\\gtrsim5$\\,keV. Their inclusion brings the theoretical ...

  11. Study by the positron annihilation technique of Graft copolimerization of methyl methacrylate in polyethylene induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation initiated grafting is a very broad field which has attracted considerable interest over the last two decades. Graft copolymers may combine suitable properties of two polymeric components. Radiation methods are particulary appropiate for the production of a large variety of graft copolymers having interesting properties. Ionizing radiation has provided a convenient and clean method to activate a sustrate polymer and undoubtedly, it has added impetus to this field of research. In the present work, graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) was carried out. The effect of gamma ray irradiation dose on the grafting degree was investigated for two different methods: direct and preirradiation. The best method to prepare the copolymer for the LDPE film thickness studied: 0.05 and 0.2 mm., was direct method. In both polyethylene thickness, the grafting degree increased as a function of the reaction time. However, grafting for LDPE 0.2 mm. it is better, because the copolymer with that thickness conserve the main physical-chemistry properties of the LDPE along the different grafting degrees obtained, which it is important for practical purposes. Infrared spectroscopy was used to probe the changes ocurred in the LDPE structure with the graft of MMA, first spectrum showed typical bands for LDPE structure, while in the second spectrum new bands appeared which corresponded to PMMA structure grafted onto LDPE. Positron annihilation lifetime technique was applied to study the copolymer microstructure according to increase of grafting degree. O-PS lifetime and intensity tend to decrease. This behavior could be due to the diminution of free volume in the original LDPE matrix as grafting proceeds. Copolymer morphology was observed using optical microscopy (Author)

  12. The Darkest Hour Before Dawn: Contributions to Cosmic Reionisation from Dark Matter Annihilation and Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hongwan; Zavala, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation or decay could have a significant impact on the ionisation and thermal history of the universe. In this paper, we study the potential contribution of dark matter annihilation ($s$-wave- or $p$-wave-dominated) or decay to cosmic reionisation, via the production of electrons, positrons and photons. We map out the possible perturbations to the ionisation and thermal histories of the universe due to dark matter processes, over a broad range of velocity-averaged annihilation cross-sections/decay lifetimes and dark matter masses. We have employed recent numerical studies of the efficiency with which annihilation/decay products induce heating and ionization in the intergalactic medium, and in this work extended them down to a redshift of $1+z = 4$ for two different reionisation scenarios. We also improve on earlier studies by using the results of detailed structure formation models of dark matter haloes and subhaloes that are consistent with up-to-date $N$-body simulations, with estimates on...

  13. Constraining dark matter late-time energy injection: decays and p-wave annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations to provide updated constraints on the dark matter lifetime as well as on p-wave suppressed annihilation cross sections in the 1 MeV to 1 TeV mass range. In contrast to scenarios with an s-wave dominated annihilation cross section, which mainly affect the CMB close to the last scattering surface, signatures associated with these scenarios essentially appear at low redshifts (z∼<50) when structure began to form, and thus manifest at lower multipoles in the CMB power spectrum. We use data from Planck, WMAP9, SPT and ACT, as well as Lyman–α measurements of the matter temperature at z ∼ 4 to set a 95% confidence level lower bound on the dark matter lifetime of ∼ 4 × 1025 s for mχ = 100 MeV. This bound becomes lower by an order of magnitude at mχ = 1 TeV due to inefficient energy deposition into the intergalactic medium. We also show that structure formation can enhance the effect of p-wave suppressed annihilation cross sections by many orders of magnitude with respect to the background cosmological rate, although even with this enhancement, CMB constraints are not yet strong enough to reach the thermal relic value of the cross section

  14. Theory of Beauty Lifetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Matthias(PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institut for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099, Mainz, Germany)

    1997-01-01

    A critical review of the theoretical understanding of the lifetimes of beauty hadrons is given. A model-independent analysis using the heavy-quark expansion allows for a description of the lifetime ratios tau(B-)/tau(B0) and tau(Lambda_b)/tau(B0) in a small region of parameter space. It is demonstrated that the lifetime ratio tau(B-)/tau(B0) cannot be used to extract the decay constant of the B meson. Implications for the semileptonic branching ratio and charm yield in B decays are pointed out.

  15. Customer Lifetime Value Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Borle; Siddharth S. Singh; Dipak C. Jain

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of customer lifetime value is important because it is used as a metric in evaluating decisions in the context of customer relationship management. For a firm, it is important to form some expectations as to the lifetime value of each customer at the time a customer starts doing business with the firm, and at each purchase by the customer. In this paper, we use a hierarchical Bayes approach to estimate the lifetime value of each customer at each purchase occasion by jointly mod...

  16. Defect study on electron irradiated GaAs by means of positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the positron lifetime and Doppler-broadened annihilation-radiation have been performed in electron-irradiated GaAs. The positron lifetime at the irradiation induced defects was ∝0.250 ns at 300 K. The defect clustering stage was found to occur at around 520-620 K, and the coarsening and annealing stage is believed to be above 620 K. Similar annealing stages were also observed in GaAs lightly doped with Si(0.2x1018 cm-3). Both the lifetime and the S-parameter in the irradiated GaAs were found to decrease with temperature from 300 K to 100 K, suggesting the coexistence of shallow traps in electron irradiated GaAs. (orig.)

  17. Positronium formation and annihilation in BHDC/water/benzene microemulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron lifetime measurements have been made on BHDC/water/benzene microemulsions, at different water to surfactant molar ratios (w0) and different surfactant concentrations (CBHDC). Recently, a model has been proposed to explain the positronium formation and annihilation in AOT/water/isooctane microemulsions, which states that the majority of positronium formation occurs in the aqueous cores of the reverse micelles, and the o-Ps there formed diffuses out of the aqueous cores into the organic solvent bulk. The BHDC based microemulsion system has been chosen in order to study the influence of the cationic head group and of the chloride counterion present in the aqueous pseudophase on the Ps formation probability and on the o-Ps diffusion out of the aqueous cores. The results of this study are satisfactorily explained by the referred model. The radii of the aqueous cores for different w0 values and calculated from the o-Ps lifetime measurements, are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. The measured o-Ps intensities in both the aqueous pseudophase and the organic phase were found to be in agreement with those calculated by taking into account the partial inhibition due to the chloride counterions present in the aqueous cores. (orig.)

  18. Effect of positron source irradiation on positronium annihilation in fine powdered alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. W.; Chen, Z. Q.

    2016-09-01

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening of positron annihilation radiation were measured as a function of time to study the irradiation effect by 22Na positron source in fine powdered alumina. The γ-Al2O3 samples were put in a vacuum chamber with a pressure of about 10-6 Torr and were cooled down to 10 K by a closed-cycle helium gas refrigerator. The irradiation of γ-Al2O3 samples by positron source was taken for a duration of about two days immediately after the sample was cooled down. After that, the sample was subjected to a warm up process from 10 K to 300 K with a step of 10 K. Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectra were measured simultaneously during these processes. Two long lifetime components corresponding to ortho-positronium annihilation were observed. A significant shortening of these long lifetime components and a large increase in S parameter is observed during irradiation. It is supposed that positron source irradiation creates a large number of paramagnetic centers on the surface of the γ-Al2O3 grains, which induce spin conversion quenching of positronium. The irradiation induced paramagnetic centers are unstable above 70 K and are nearly annealed out when the temperature rises to 190 K. After warming up of the sample to room temperature, the positron lifetime spectrum is identical to that before irradiation. It was also found that after irradiation, a medium long lifetime component of about 5 ns appears, of which the intensity increases with increasing irradiation time. This may be originated from the formation of the surface o-Ps state. This surface o-Ps state is also inhibited at elevated temperatures. Our results indicate that positronium is a very sensitive probe for the surface defects in porous materials.

  19. The application of artificial neural networks to the inversion of the positron lifetime spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of processing positron annihilation lifetime spectra is proposed. It is based on an artificial neural network (ANN)-back propagation network (BPN). By using data from simulated positron lifetime spectra which are generated by a simulation program and tested by other analysis programs, the BPN can be trained to extract lifetime and intensity from a positron annihilation lifetime spectrum as an input. In principle, the method has the potential to unfold an unknown number of lifetimes and their intensities from a measured spectrum. So far, only a proof-of-principle type preliminary investigation was made by unfolding three or four discrete lifetimes. The present study aims to design the network. Besides, the performance of this method requires both the accurate design of the BPN structure and a long training time. In addition, the performance of the method in practical applications is dependent on the quality of the simulation model. However, the chances of satisfying the above criteria appear to be high. When appropriately developed, a trained network could be a very efficient alternative to the existing methods, with a very short identification time. We have used the artificial neural network codes to analyze data such as the positron lifetime spectra for single crystal materials and monocrystalline silicon. Some meaningful results are obtained

  20. Investigation of transitions and relaxation processes in polystyrene by using positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glass transition and relaxation processes in polystyrene resins with the number average molecular weight ranging from 7.0 x 102 to 9.8 x 104 were studied with the positron annihilation technique. The pick-off annihilation lifetime of ortho-positronium (τ3) and its intensity (Ι3) were measured in the temperature range from 20 to 430 K. The glass transition temperature (Τg) was determined as an onset temperature coefficient of τ3 x Τg shows the molecular weight dependence in these samples. Below Τg, local motions were detected by measurements of Ι3. The local motions could be observed above 100 K in this experiment. Ι3 show the minimum at around 250 K and it does not show molecular weight dependence. (author)

  1. Determination of phase transitions in a lyotropic liquid crystal by Positron Annihilation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation technique was used to determine the phase transitions in a lyotropic liquid crystal, as a function of temperature. Seven different concentrations of the surfactant cetyldimethylethylammonium bromide, were studied. The liquid crystal studied consisted of a binary system, formed by the surfactant and water. Positron annihilation technique has a very high sensitivity toward changes in the microestructure, in condensed matter, this is useful in order to detect the temperatures at which phase transitions occur and the number of these, in a liquid crystalline system. Thus, phase transitions are related with changes occurred in the ortho-positronium parameters: lifetime (τ3) and intensity of formation (I3). Six different kinds of phases were detected in the system studied in a temperature range of 35 to 140 Centigrade degrees, those phases were: hexagonal, hexagonal-lamellae, lamellae, lamellae-cubic, nematic and anisotropic. Using optical microscopic the textures of these phases were assigned. (Author)

  2. Modification of steel surfaces induced by turning: non-destructive characterization using Barkhausen noise and positron annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čížek, J.; Neslušan, M.; Čilliková, M.; Mičietová, A.; Melikhova, O.

    2014-11-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of sub-surface damage caused by the machining of 100Cr6 roll bearing steel. The samples turned using tools with variable flank wears were characterized by two non-destructive techniques sensitive to defects introduced by plastic deformation: magnetic Barkhausen noise and positron annihilation. These techniques were combined with light and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and microhardness testing. The results of the experiment showed that damage in the sub-surface region increases with increasing flank wear, but from a certain critical value dynamic recovery takes place. The intensity of Barkhausen noise strongly decreases with increasing flank wear due to the increasing density of the dislocations pinning the Bloch walls and suppressing their motion. This was confirmed by positron annihilation spectroscopy, which enables the determination of the dislocation density directly. Hence, a good correlation between Barkhausen noise emission and positron annihilation spectroscopy was found.

  3. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented. (GHT)

  4. Symposium on atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered by the conference include: fast beam spectroscopy; astrophysical and other spectra; highly ionized spectroscopy; complex spectra; rydberg levels; fine structure, hyperfine structure and isotope shift; lineshapes; lifetimes, oscillator strengths and Einstein coefficients; and spectroscopy with lasers. Abstracts of the conference papers are presented

  5. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  6. Antinucleon nucleon annihilations into two mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study two aspects of the antinucleon-nucleon annihilation into two mesons (antiNN → M1M2), starting from simple Born diagrams. On one hand, we discuss the possibility of modelling the antiNN optical potential with the box diagrams related to the M1M2 channels. We include the lightest pseudoscalar, scalar and vector mesons with effective coupling constants. Much more channels appear to be needed in order to achieve sensible results. On the other hand, we show that a simple phenomenological optical potential, successfull in reproducing antiNN elastic scattering and total annihilation data can be further used to make predictions on the antiNN → M1M2 processes, which prove to be in good agreement with experiment. We find a lower bound of 17% on the relative contribution of these reactions to the antiNN annihilation. Also, the model favours a rather small effective radius for the nucleon

  7. Probing Sub-atomistic Free-Volume Imperfections in Dry-Milled Nanoarsenicals with PAL Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpotyuk, Oleh; Ingram, Adam; Bujňáková, Zdenka; Baláž, Peter; Shpotyuk, Yaroslav

    2016-12-01

    Structural transformations caused by coarse-grained powdering and fine-grained mechanochemical milling in a dry mode were probed in high-temperature modification of tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide known as β-As4S4. In respect to X-ray diffraction analysis, the characteristic sizes of β-As4S4 crystallites in these coarse- and fine-grained powdered pellets were 90 and 40 nm, respectively. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was employed to characterize transformations occurred in free-volume structure of these nanoarsenicals. Experimentally measured positron lifetime spectra were parameterized in respect to three- or two-term fitting procedures and respectively compared with those accumulated for single crystalline realgar α-As4S4 polymorph. The effect of coarse-grained powdering was found to result in generation of large amount of positron and positronium Ps trapping sites inside arsenicals in addition to existing ones. In fine-grained powdered β-As4S4 pellets, the positron trapping sites with characteristic free volumes close to bi- and tri-atomic vacancies were evidently dominated. These defects were supposed to originate from grain boundary regions and interfacial free volumes near aggregated β-As4S4 crystallites. Thus, the cumulative production of different positron traps with lifetimes close to defect-related lifetimes in realgar α-As4S4 polymorph was detected in fine-grained milled samples. PMID:26754936

  8. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels $\\chi \\chi \\rightarrow \

  9. Black Holes as Dark Matter Annihilation 'Boosters'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence and growth of Intermediate and Supermassive Black Holes modify the surrounding distribution of stars and Dark Matter, and inevitably affect the prospects for indirectly detecting Dark Matter through its annihilation products. We show here that under specific circumstances, Black Holes can act as Dark Matter annihilation 'boosters'. In particular, we show that mini-spikes, i.e. Dark Matter overdensities around Intermediate-Mass Black Holes, would be bright sources of gamma-rays, well within the reach of the space telescope GLAST, that can be discriminated from ordinary astrophysical sources thanks to their peculiar energy spectrum and spatial distribution

  10. Radiative lifetimes of Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Fedchak, J. A.; Lawler, J. E.

    2001-06-01

    Radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence are reported for 40 odd-parity levels and 36 even-parity levels of singly ionized terbium. The odd-parity levels range in energy from 29000 to 40000 cm{minus}1 and those of even-parity from 21000 to 37000 cm{minus}1. These lifetimes, with one exception, are accurate to {+-}5%. They will provide an absolute scale for accurate atomic-transition probabilities in Tb II (the second spectrum of terbium). {copyright} 2001 Optical Society of America

  11. Radiative lifetimes of Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence are reported for 40 odd-parity levels and 36 even-parity levels of singly ionized terbium. The odd-parity levels range in energy from 29000 to 40000 cm-1 and those of even-parity from 21000 to 37000 cm-1. These lifetimes, with one exception, are accurate to ±5%. They will provide an absolute scale for accurate atomic-transition probabilities in Tb II (the second spectrum of terbium). [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  12. Work station for low temperature positron annihilation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the automation implemented in the low temperature Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy studies system. Temperature programmer and controller (Lakeshore 330) is interfaced to PC-AT through an IEEE-488 add-on card. Through this data can be read and written to the temperature controller and it can be handled remotely. The PC- AT also houses the PCA-II card. Software (TEMP330.EXE) was developed to communicate with the temperature controller. A master software is also developed under which TEMP330.EXE and PCAII.EXE should run. Another program DATASEG.EXE creates a user file to store the temperature points given by user over which data acquisition is required. This has not only widened the scope of the positron research, but also helps achieve result with better precision. (author)

  13. Antiproton-proton annihilation at rest into two mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branching ratios for antiproton-proton annihilations at rest into two mesons are given. The data were obtained at LEAR by stopping antiprotons in a liquid hydrogen target. Both charged and neutral annihilation products were detected in the Crystal Barrel detector. Representative data are presented, and their bearing on the general picture of annihilation dynamics is discussed. In addition, preliminary branching ratios for two-body radiative annihilations are given. (orig.)

  14. Nano-crystallization of amorphous Fe75.5Cu1Nb3Si12.5B8 studied by the positron lifetime technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization process of amorphous Fe75.5Cu1Nb3Si12.5B8 into a nano-crystalline structure is investigated by the positron annihilation lifetime technique. Samples have been isothermally annealed at 643 K for times varying between 600 and 105 seconds. The positron lifetime spectra have been analyzed allowing for three lifetimes. The shortest and the longest lifetime, τ1 = 150 ± 2 ps and τ3 = 1500-2000 ps, respectively, are attributed to annihilation of positrons in the amorphous phase and to the formation and annihilation of ortho-positronium at the surface of the stacked foils and did not change significantly upon the annealing. The intermediate positron lifetime τ2 increased from 324 ps to 387 ps. The intensity of this component increased from 5 to 15%. Comparison with resistivity measurements indicates that the change of this lifetime component occurs at an early stage in the crystallisation process, i.e. when the fraction of crystalline material is on the order of 10-3. The increase of τ2 is attributed to positrons annihilating in a region with lower average density surrounding the small crystallite. (orig.)

  15. Positron annihilation studies of neutron irradiated and thermally treated reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements using the pulsed low energy positron system (PLEPS) were applied for the first time for the investigation of defects of irradiated and thermally treated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. PLEPS results showed that the changes in the microstructure of the RPV-steel properties caused by neutron irradiation and post-irradiation thermal treatment can be detected. The samples originated from the Russian 15Kh2MFA and Sv10KhMFT steels, commercially used at WWER-440 reactors, were irradiated near the core at NPP Bohunice (Slovakia) to neutron fluences in the range from 7.8x1023 to 2.5x1024 m-2

  16. Positron lifetime technique with applications in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the positron lifetime technique as a method to measure extremely low concentrations of extremely small cavities in materials. The method is based upon the fact that the positron lieftime decreases as the electron density increases and upon the fact that a positron preferably annihilates in cavity-like defects in lattices. The theory of positron behaviour in materials and technical aspects of measuring positron liefetimes are described in ch.'s 2 and 3 respectively. Three methods for increasing the time resolution are discussed and some positron sources are described (ch.4). Some applications of the positron lifetime technique and experimental results are shown in chapter 5. 125 refs.; 61 figs.; 18 tabs

  17. Production bias and cluster annihilation: Why necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    the primary cluster density is high. Therefore, a sustained high swelling rate driven by production bias must involve the annihilation of primary clusters at sinks. A number of experimental observations which are unexplainable in terms of the conventional dislocation bias for monointerstitials is...

  18. Black Holes as Dark Matter Annihilation Boosters

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia FornasaINFN Padova, IAP; Gianfranco Bertone(IAP)

    2007-01-01

    We review the consequences of the growth and evolution of Black Holes on the distribution of stars and Dark Matter (DM) around them. We focus in particular on Supermassive and Intermediate Mass Black Holes, and discuss under what circumstances they can lead to significant overdensities in the surrounding distribution of DM, thus effectively acting as DM annihilation boosters.

  19. Study of the ortho-positron annihilation process in zeolite Y; Estudio del proceso de aniquilacion de ortopositronio en zeolita Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado D, M. E.

    2010-07-01

    For several years a great interest has existed for the study of the natural and synthetic zeolites due to its properties. The porosity, one of their main characteristics allows that these materials are used as molecular sieves, catalysts, gases drying, etc. In order to investigating the porosity and other zeolite properties one carries out the study of the process of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (Pals). This is a technique that provides information about the size and the pores form since is highly sensitive to the free volume and the superficial area of those porous materials as the zeolites. The study began with the elaboration of zeolite Y tablets in a hydraulic press where different pressures (from 0 to 1.26 GPa) and masses (70, 80 and 100 mg) were proven to obtain the estimate porosity of each tablet. A graph was elaborated and the effect of the mass and pressure with regard to the zeolite porosity was analyzed. Later on, the powder and tablets of 70 mg were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (the glass size, interplanar distance, length and the volume of the unitary cell); scanning electron microscopy (the particles size and morphology); thermo gravimetric analysis (dehydration temperature and the stability up to 700 C) and the Brunauer Emmett Teller method (specific area). After the zeolite Y tablets characterization was carried out the positron annihilation process by means of Pals where its free volume of zeolite Y was analyzed, which includes to the structural cavities and the interparticle volume. The powdered zeolite was analyzed to different experimental conditions (preparation of the sample and the Pals equipment) to obtain the optimal conditions (a window with a time of 400 ns and a enlarged energy window) of analysis. On the other hand, the tablets were analyzed under optimal conditions to obtain the four components of time and intensity ({tau}, {Iota}), result of the different ways of positrons annihilation in the zeolite

  20. Determination of the 3\\gamma fraction from positron annihilation in mesoporous materials for symmetry violation experiment with J-PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Jasińska, B; Wiertel, M; Zaleski, R; Alfs, D; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Dulski, K; Gajos, A; Głowacz, B; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Korcyl, G; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Mohammed, M; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Rundel, O; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wiślicki, W; Zgardzińska, B; Zieliński, M; Moskal, P

    2016-01-01

    Various mesoporous materials were investigated to choose the best material for experiments requiring high yield of long-lived positronium. We found that the fraction of 3\\gamma annihilation determined using \\gamma-ray energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime spectra (PAL) changed from 20% to 25%. The 3gamma fraction and o-Ps formation probability in the polymer XAD-4 is found to be the largest. Elemental analysis performed using scanning electron microscop (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscop EDS show high purity of the investigated materials.

  1. Search for Neutrinos from Annihilating Dark Matter in the Direction of the Galactic Center with the 40-String IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; Uiterweerd, G de Vries; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hülß, J -P; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    A search for muon neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Galactic Center region has been performed with the 40-string configuration of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory using data collected in 367 days of live-time starting in April 2008. The observed fluxes were consistent with the atmospheric background expectations. Upper limits on the self-annihilation cross-section are obtained for dark matter particle masses ranging from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. In the case of decaying dark matter, lower limits on the lifetime have been determined for masses between 200 GeV and 20 TeV.

  2. Positron annihilation in some barium borate glasses containing transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of positron lifetime and angular correlation measurements for the glass series xMsub(s)Osub(r):(1-x)(0.4BaO:0.6B2O3) are presented (Msub(s)Osub(r) equivalent to V2O5;Fe2O3 and CuO). All glasses exhibit two or three component lifetime spectra, tau1 approximately 200 ps; tau2 approximately 300-400 ps and tau3 approximately 780 ps. tau1 is attributed to a mixture of pPs and bulk state annihilation, tau2 to a trapped or bound state and tau3 to oPs pick-off. Supporting evidence for these assignments is found in the angular correlation results. (Auth.)

  3. Muon lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple experimental setup to measure the muon lifetime is presented. The muon detector consists of a sealed container with liquid scintillator coupled to a 2.5'' photomultiplier (PMT). A home-made electronics module controlled by the parallel port of a personal computer (PC) digitizes the time interval between two consecutive PMT pulses in a time window of 25.6 μs. The muon lifetime is obtained by analysing thousands of double-pulse events in which the first pulse corresponds to a cosmic ray muon that stops inside the detector and the second to the decay electron coming from the weak decay of the muon. The background noise comes from random coincidences of pulses due to muons crossing the detector within the same time window. The PC is used as the data adquisition (DAQ) and data analysis computer. In addition to the muon lifetime, the charge ratio of cosmic ray muons and the capture rate of negative muons by carbon nuclei can be measured if the number of events is sufficiently high

  4. Free volume in imidazolium triflimide ([C3MIM][NTf2]) ionic liquid from positron lifetime: amorphous, crystalline, and liquid states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, G; Yu, Yang; Krause-Rehberg, R; Beichel, W; Bulut, S; Pogodina, N; Krossing, I; Friedrich, Ch

    2010-09-28

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is used to study the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C(3)MIM][NTf(2)] in the temperature range between 150 and 320 K. The positron decay spectra are analyzed using the routine LifeTime-9.0 and the size distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer-size holes) is calculated. This distribution is in good agreement with Fürth's classical hole theory of liquids when taking into account Fürth's hole coalescence hypothesis. During cooling, the liquid sample remains in a supercooled, amorphous state and shows the glass transition in the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime at 187 K. The mean hole volume varies between 70 Å(3) at 150 K and 250 Å(3) at 265-300 K. From a comparison with the macroscopic volume, the hole density is estimated to be constant at 0.20×10(21) g(-1) corresponding to 0.30 nm(-3) at 265 K. The hole free volume fraction varies from 0.023 at 185 K to 0.073 at T(m)+12 K=265 K and can be estimated to be 0.17 at 430 K. It is shown that the viscosity follows perfectly the Cohen-Turnbull free volume theory when using the free volume determined here. The heating run clearly shows crystallization at 200 K by an abrupt decrease in the mean and standard deviation σ(3) of the o-Ps lifetime distribution and an increase in the o-Ps intensity I(3). The parameters of the second lifetime component and σ(2) behave parallel to the o-Ps parameters, which also shows the positron's (e(+)) response to structural changes. During melting at 253 K, all lifetime parameters recover to the initial values of the liquid. An abrupt decrease in I(3) is attributed to the solvation of e(-) and e(+) particles. Different possible interpretations of the o-Ps lifetime in the crystalline state are briefly discussed. PMID:20886945

  5. Free volume in imidazolium triflimide ([C3MIM][NTf2]) ionic liquid from positron lifetime: Amorphous, crystalline, and liquid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is used to study the ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [C3MIM][NTf2] in the temperature range between 150 and 320 K. The positron decay spectra are analyzed using the routine LifeTime-9.0 and the size distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer-size holes) is calculated. This distribution is in good agreement with Fuerth's classical hole theory of liquids when taking into account Fuerth's hole coalescence hypothesis. During cooling, the liquid sample remains in a supercooled, amorphous state and shows the glass transition in the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime at 187 K. The mean hole volume varies between 70 A3 at 150 K and 250 A3 at 265-300 K. From a comparison with the macroscopic volume, the hole density is estimated to be constant at 0.20x1021 g-1 corresponding to 0.30 nm-3 at 265 K. The hole free volume fraction varies from 0.023 at 185 K to 0.073 at Tm+12 K=265 K and can be estimated to be 0.17 at 430 K. It is shown that the viscosity follows perfectly the Cohen-Turnbull free volume theory when using the free volume determined here. The heating run clearly shows crystallization at 200 K by an abrupt decrease in the mean 3> and standard deviation σ3 of the o-Ps lifetime distribution and an increase in the o-Ps intensity I3. The parameters of the second lifetime component 2> and σ2 behave parallel to the o-Ps parameters, which also shows the positron's (e+) response to structural changes. During melting at 253 K, all lifetime parameters recover to the initial values of the liquid. An abrupt decrease in I3 is attributed to the solvation of e- and e+ particles. Different possible interpretations of the o-Ps lifetime in the crystalline state are briefly discussed.

  6. Positron lifetime study of native vacancy-like defects in chalcogenide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipecki, J.; Shpotyuk, O.I. E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua; Kozdras, A.; Kovalskiy, A.P

    2003-11-01

    Modified model for positron annihilation in vitreous chalcogenide semiconductors is developed to explain a number of previously obtained results on positron lifetime measurements in glassy As-Ge-S of stoichiometric As{sub 2}S{sub 3}-GeS{sub 2} and non-stoichiometric As{sub 2}S{sub 3}-Ge{sub 2}S{sub 3} cut-sections.

  7. Study of vacancy-type defects by positron annihilation in ultrafine-grained aluminum severely deformed at room and cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial-purity aluminum was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at room temperature (RT-ECAP) and cryogenic temperature (CT-ECAP) with liquid nitrogen cooling between two successive passes. It was found that the RT-ECAPed samples showed equiaxed microstructure after 4 and 8 ECAP passes, while the CT-ECAPed samples displayed slightly elongated microstructure and slightly smaller grain size. Moreover, the CT-ECAPed samples had higher hardness values than the RT-ECAPed samples subjected to the same amount of deformation. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the evolution of vacancy-type defects during the ECAP deformation process. The results showed that three types of defects existed in the ECAPed samples: vacancies associated with dislocations, bulk monovacancies and bulk divacancies. The CT-ECAPed samples had a higher fraction of monovacancies and divacancies. These two types of defects are the major vacancy-type defects that can work as dislocation pinning centers and induce hardening, resulting in higher hardness values in the CT-ECAPed samples. A quantitative relationship between material hardness and the defect concentration and defect diffusion coefficient has been established.

  8. Positron annihilation in polyvinylalcohol doped with CuCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectra were measured for polyvinylalcohol (PVA) doped with CuCl2 (0.5 to 0.5 wt%) at temperature range from room temperature to 160 deg C. For a fresh pure PVA (without annealing) τ3 below Τg was larger in the heating runs than in the cooling runs, but above Τg, τ3 was the same for both runs. The larger τ3 values in the heating run were considered to be due to be existence of strain brought forth in the process of preparation. For annealed pure PVA τ3 was the same for the heating and the cooling runs and Τg was shifted to lower temperature, 88 and 80 deg C for fresh and annealed samples, respectively. This shift was attributed to loss of H-bonded water in the annealed pure PVA by heating above 100 deg C. Both Ι30 and τ3 were decreased by the added CuCl2, being interpreted as the result of inhibition and quenching, respectively. The results show that both the inhibition coefficient α and the quenching rate constant k were smaller that the corresponding values in liquids. The small diffusion constant of ο-Ps estimated from k implies that ο-Ps is not very mobile in the polymer. (author)

  9. Temperature variations of average o-Ps lifetime in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Goworek, T; Jasinska, B; Wawryszczuk, J

    2000-01-01

    Modification of the Tao-Eldrup model is proposed in order to extend its usefulness to the case of porous media. The modification consists in the transition from spherical to capillary geometry and in inclusion of pick-off annihilation from the excited states of a particle in the well. Approximated equations for pick-off constant in these states are given. The model was tested by observing the temperature dependences of o-Ps lifetime in various media. In the case of silica gels and Vycor glass with narrow pores, the model seems to work well, while for larger pores in Vycor unexpectedly long lifetimes appear in the range of lowest temperatures.

  10. Identification of effective exciton-exciton annihilation in squaraine-squaraine copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hader, Kilian; May, Volkhard; Lambert, Christoph; Engel, Volker

    2016-05-11

    Ultrafast time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy is able to monitor the fate of the excited state population in molecular aggregates or polymers. Due to many competing decay processes, the identification of exciton-exciton annihilation (EEA) is difficult. Here, we use a microscopic model to describe exciton annihilation processes in squaraine-squaraine copolymers. Transient absorption time traces measured at different laser powers exhibit an unusual time-dependence. The analysis points towards dynamics taking place on three time-scales. Immediately after laser-excitation a localization of excitons takes place within the femtosecond time-regime. This is followed by exciton-exciton annihilation which is responsible for a fast decay of the exciton population. At later times, excitations being localized on units which are not directly connected remain so that diffusion dominates the dynamics and leads to a slower decay. We thus provide evidence for EEA tracked by time-resolved spectroscopy which has not been reported that clearly before. PMID:27120976

  11. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Vibrational Lifetimes in Water and Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woutersen, Sander; Emmerichs, Uli; Nienhuys, Han-Kwang; Bakker, Huib J.

    1998-08-01

    We have used femtosecond two-color midinfrared spectroscopy to determine the temperature dependence of the OH-stretching lifetime in dilute HDO:D2O solution, both in the liquid and solid (ice Ih) state. Like many other properties of water, the vibrational lifetime shows a remarkable temperature dependence: In liquid water the vibrational relaxation of the OH-stretching mode is twice as slow as in ice, and becomes even slower with increasing temperature.

  12. Radiative lifetimes of odd-parity levels in Nb I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes are reported for 37 odd-parity energy levels of neutral niobium (Nb I), out of which 33 have been measured for the first time. The levels belong to electronic configurations 4d35s5p and 4d45p between 18,790 and 35,730 cm−1. The time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique was employed. The Nb atoms were generated in a free-jet by laser vaporization of niobium metal. Lifetime values reported in this work fall in the range 12–340 ns and are accurate to ±10%. - Highlights: • Lifetime in Nb I using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence in free-jet. • Radiative lifetimes reported in 37 odd-parity energy levels of Nb I. • Lifetimes for 33 energy levels reported for the first time

  13. Lifetime measurements in 123Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work was to measure the mean lifetimes of the excited states in the bands, which can be useful in understanding the shape co-existence phenomenon. The deformation parameter can be extracted from the mean lifetime of the excited states. The Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) technique is used for the lifetime measurements

  14. Positron scattering and annihilation from hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kohn variational method is used with a configuration-interaction-type wave function to determine the J=0 and J=1 phase shifts and annihilation parameter Zeff for positron-hydrogenic ion scattering. The phase shifts are within 1-2% of the best previous calculations. The values of Zeff are small and do not exceed unity for any of the momenta considered. At thermal energies Zeff is minute with a value of order 10-50 occurring for He+ at k=0.05a0-1. In addition to the variational calculations, analytic expressions for the phase shift and annihilation parameters within the Coulomb wave Born approximation are derived and used to help elucidate the dynamics of positron collisions with positive ions

  15. Shocking Signals of Dark Matter Annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Jonathan H; Boehm, Celine; Kotera, Kumiko; Norman, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether charged particles injected by self-annihilating Dark Matter into regions undergoing Diffuse Shock Acceleration (DSA) can be accelerated to high energies. We consider three astrophysical sites where shock acceleration is supposed to occur, namely the Galactic Centre, galaxy clusters and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). For the Milky Way, we find that the acceleration of cosmic rays injected by dark matter could lead to a bump in the cosmic ray spectrum provided that the product of the efficiency of the acceleration mechanism and the concentration of DM particles is high enough. Among the various acceleration sources that we consider (namely supernova remnants (SNRs), Fermi bubbles and AGN jets), we find that the Fermi bubbles are a potentially more efficient accelerator than SNRs. However both could in principle accelerate electrons and protons injected by dark matter to very high energies. At the extragalactic level, the acceleration of dark matter annihilation products could be responsible fo...

  16. Microemulsion systems studied by positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of thermalized positronium atoms is greatly reduced if increasing amounts of water become solubilized in reversed micelles formed by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate in apolar solvents. Similar observations have been made if the surfactant is Triton X-100. The application of the positron annihilation technique to the study of microemulsions consisting of potassium oleate-alcohol-oil-water mixtures indicates, consistent with previous results, that microemulsion formation requires a certain water/oil ratio if the oil is a long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbon such as hexadecane. This ratio is 0.4 in the case of a 1-pentanol- and 0.2 for a 1-hexanol-containing mixture. This minimum water content is strongly reduced if the oil is an aromatic hydrocarbon. The positron annihilation data also sensitively reflect structural rearrangements in these solutions occurring upon further addition of water, such as the transition of spherical aggregates to a disk-like lamellae structure

  17. Isotope Effects on Delayed Annihilation Time Spectra of Antiprotonic Helium Atoms in Low-Temperature Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Ketzer, B; Daniel, H; Von Egidy, T; Niestroj, A; Schmid, S; Schmid, W; Yamazaki, T; Sugai, I; Nakayoshi, K; Hayano, R S; Maas, F E; Torii, H A; Ishikawa, T; Tamura, H; Morita, N; Horváth, D; Eades, John; Widmann, E

    1996-01-01

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low temperature ^3He and ^4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8~K and 400~mbar are very similar in shape except for i) a small difference in the time scale and ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of ^3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R = T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{4}He})/T_{\\mathrm{trap}}(\\mbox{^{3}He}), has been determined to be 1.144 \\pm 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R = [(M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{4}He})/ M^*(\\mbox{\\overline{ \\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He})]^2=1.14, where M^* denotes the reduced mass of the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{He^{++}}\\ system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of (0.154\\pm 0.007)\\ \\mbox{\\mus} in the case of \\mbox{^{3}He}\\ suggests that the \\mbox{\\overline{\\mathrm{p}}}\\mbox{^{3}He^{+}}\\ atom has a state of in...

  18. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures of dark matter annihilations into pseudo-Goldstone bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a model where the dark matter particle is a chiral fermion field charged under a global $U(1)$ symmetry which is assumed to be spontaneously broken, leading to a pseudo-Goldstone boson (PGB). We argue that the dark matter annihilation into PGBs determine the dark matter relic abundance. Besides, we also note that experimental searches for PGBs allow either for a very long lived PGB, with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe, or a relatively short lived PGB, with a lifetime shorter than one minute. Hence, two different scenarios arise, producing very different signatures. In the long lived PGB scenario, the PGB might contribute significantly to the radiation energy density of the Universe. On the other hand, in the short lived PGB scenario, and since the decay length is shorter than one parsec, the s-wave annihilation into a PGB and a $CP$ even dark scalar in the Galactic center might lead to an intense box feature in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, provided the PGB decay branching...

  19. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures of dark matter annihilations into pseudo-Goldstone bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate a model where the dark matter particle is a chiral fermion field charged under a global U(1) symmetry which is assumed to be spontaneously broken, leading to a pseudo-Goldstone boson (PGB). We argue that the dark matter annihilation into PGBs determine the dark matter relic abundance. Besides, we also note that experimental searches for PGBs allow either for a very long lived PGB, with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe, or a relatively short lived PGB, with a lifetime shorter than one minute. Hence, two different scenarios arise, producing very different signatures. In the long lived PGB scenario, the PGB might contribute significantly to the radiation energy density of the Universe. On the other hand, in the short lived PGB scenario, and since the decay length is shorter than one parsec, the s-wave annihilation into a PGB and a CP even dark scalar in the Galactic center might lead to an intense box feature in the gamma-ray energy spectrum, provided the PGB decay branching ratio into two photons is sizable. We also analyze the constraints on these two scenarios from thermal production, the Higgs invisible decay width and direct dark matter searches

  20. Baryon production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenology of baryon production in high energy e+e-annihilation is described. Much can be understood in terms of mass effects. Comparisons with the rates for different flavours and spins, with momentum and transverse momentum spectra and with particle correlations are used to confront models. Diquark models give good descriptions, except for the on/off Υ(1s) rates. Areas for experimental and theoretical development are indicated. (author)

  1. Micellar systems studied by positron annihilation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron annihilation technique was applied to the study of the micelle formation process in aqueous and reversed micellar systems and to the determination of the site at which solubilizates become incorporated into the micelle. Furthermore, the effect of additives on the surfactant concentration at which a cooperative effect of reverse micellar solutions becomes observable was investigated and the location of the additives in aqueous micelles determined

  2. On the Annihilation Rate of WIMPs

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Vaidya, Varun

    2014-01-01

    We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the WIMP annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint rep...

  3. Application of Positron Annihilation (PA) methods, together with conventional ones, to study the structural changes in some environmentally friendly polymers upon ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the present research co-ordination program, PALS and microhardness methods have been applied for studying the changes of free volume content of isotactic polypropylene (iPP), sindiotactic polypropylene (sPP), and a few nanocomposites of sPP with organically modified montmorillonite. Biodegradable poly(l-lactide), poly(dl-lactide), poly(l-lactide-co-dl-lactide), and poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide), before and after gamma irradiation were also studied. Clear inverse effect in iPP response to gamma irradiation is observed. The degree of crystallization, Vickers microhardness and melting temperature all sharply change their behaviour at about 100 kGy. The doping leads to decreasing of free volume hole (fvh) sizes, while after gamma irradiation the fvh sizes increase in studied biodegradable materials. The fvh sizes in unirradiated sPP and its nanocomposites are the same (125±1) A3. The electron irradiation leads to a noticeable increase of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime. The intensity of o-Ps decreases with ca. 8 %, mainly due to the presence of carbonyl groups, created during irradiation. In collaboration with Turkish group, Molecularly Imprinted Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate Based Polymers have been studied. Obtained results suggests that control of free volume based on template molecule by changing parameters of imprinting system is feasible in nano scale by means of positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique. In collaboration with Czech group, Degradation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polyimide(PI) and poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), irradiated with Ar+ and He+ ions have also been studied by PALS. In the latter case, slow positron beam has been used. The PALS results show the escape of H, O and light chain fragments from polymer during ion-implantation. (author)

  4. A positron annihilation study of damage distribution in C+6 irradiated nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation technique (PAT) is able to give a good quantitative result for both extended defects and simple defects. The sample thickness must fulfil the special requirement in positron annihilation measurement thus applications of PAT to study of damage distribution induced by heavy ion irradiation are seriously restricted. An attempt to tackle this problem has been made. A stack of samples of pure nickel was irradiated at ambient temperature under a vacuum of 1.33 x 10-4 Pa with 42.5 MeV/A C+6 ions at the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL). The total dose was 1.33 x 1015 cm-2 at a current density of 2 x 109 cm-2s-1. Four adjacent samples as a grou whose thickness meets the requirement of PAT were successively taken out in the order of stacking and measured with a fast-fast coincidence system which had a resolution of 240 ps. By analysing the lifetime spectra with computer code, POSITRONFIT-EXTENDED, the distribution of reduced trapping rate, k, and mean lifetime, τ-bar, along the penetration depth of incident ions were obtained. The theoretical calculation of damage distribution was carried out with a computer program, HEDEP-1, that considered the nuclear force and extended the energy range of EDEP-1 to 100 MeV/A. The distribution of k, τ-bar, and calculated damage energy present similar trend but experimental damage peak was obviously widened. Furthermore the peak position is slightly shifted towards the incident direction of ions. These phenomena may be attributed to the average effect of four samples in positron annihilation measurement and some complicated factors introduced by irradiation with ions of such high energy in defect production

  5. Annihilation of low energy antiprotons in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Aghion, S; Belov, A S; Bonomi, G; Bräunig, P; Bremer, J; Brusa, R S; Burghart, G; Cabaret, L; Caccia, M; Canali, C; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Cialdi, S; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Derking, J H; Di Domizio, S; Di Noto, L; Doser, M; Dudarev, A; Ferragut, R; Fontana, A; Genova, P; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Gninenko, S N; Haider, S; Harasimovic, J; Huse, T; Jordan, E; Jørgensen, L V; Kaltenbacher, T; Kellerbauer, A; Knecht, A; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Magnani, A; Mariazzi, S; Matveev, V A; Moia, F; Nebbia, G; Nédélec, P; Pacifico, N; Petrácek, V; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Regenfus, C; Riccardi, C; Røhne, O; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Susa, A; Vasquez, M A Subieta; Špacek, M; Testera, G; Welsch, C P; Zavatarelli, S

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN, is to measure directly the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antimatter. To achieve this goal, the AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS collaboration will produce a pulsed, cold (100 mK) antihydrogen beam with a velocity of a few 100 m/s and measure the magnitude of the vertical deflection of the beam from a straight path. The final position of the falling antihydrogen will be detected by a position sensitive detector. This detector will consist of an active silicon part, where the annihilations take place, followed by an emulsion part. Together, they allow to achieve 1$%$ precision on the measurement of $\\bar{g}$ with about 600 reconstructed and time tagged annihilations. We present here, to the best of our knowledge, the first direct measurement of antiproton annihilation in a segmented silicon sensor, the first step towards designing a position sensitive silicon detector for the AE$\\mathrm{\\bar{g}}$IS experiment. We also pr...

  6. Electroweak fragmentation functions for dark matter annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroweak corrections can play a crucial role in dark matter annihilation. The emission of gauge bosons, in particular, leads to a secondary flux consisting of all Standard Model particles, and may be described by electroweak fragmentation functions. To assess the quality of the fragmentation function approximation to electroweak radiation in dark matter annihilation, we have calculated the flux of secondary particles from gauge-boson emission in models with Majorana fermion and vector dark matter, respectively. For both models, we have compared cross sections and energy spectra of positrons and antiprotons after propagation through the galactic halo in the fragmentation function approximation and in the full calculation. Fragmentation functions fail to describe the particle fluxes in the case of Majorana fermion annihilation into light fermions: the helicity suppression of the lowest-order cross section in such models cannot be lifted by the leading logarithmic contributions included in the fragmentation function approach. However, for other classes of models like vector dark matter, where the lowest-order cross section is not suppressed, electroweak fragmentation functions provide a simple, model-independent and accurate description of secondary particle fluxes

  7. Lifetimes, branching ratios, and transition probabilities in Co ii

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, S.; Lawler, J. E.; Whaling, W.

    1985-01-01

    The radiative lifetime of 14 levels in the z^5F, z^5D, and z^5G terms of Co ii have been measured with use of time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy with a Co+-ion beam. Our lifetime values are shorter by 15–50 % than earlier results from beam-foil time-of-flight measurements. The lifetimes were converted to 41 individual transition probabilities with use of branching ratios measured on spectra recorded with the 1-m Fourier-transform spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. ...

  8. Beam Diagnostics for Measurements of Antiproton Annihilation Cross Sections at Ultra-low Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todoroki K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons collaboration of CERN is currently attempting to measure the antiproton-nucleus in-flight annihilation cross sections on thin target foils of C, Pd, and Pt at 130 keV of kinetic energy. The low-energy antiprotons were supplied by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD and a radio-frequency quadrupole decelerator. For this measurement, a beam profile monitor based on secondary electron emission was developed. Data from this monitor was used to ensure that antiprotons were precisely tuned to the position of an 80-mm-diameter experimental target, by measuring the spatial profile of 200-ns-long beam pulses containing 105 − 106 antiprotons with an active area of 40 mm × 40 mm and a spatial resolution of 4 mm. By using this monitor, we succeeded in finely tuning antiproton beams on the target, and observed some annihilation events originating from the target.

  9. Lifetimes of charmed mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we have measured the lifetimes of the D0, D+ and Ds+ mesons. We find τsub(D0) = (4.8±0.4±0.3)x10-13 s, τsub(D+) = (10.5±0.8±0.7)x10-13 s and τsub(Ds+) = (5.6-1.2+1.3±0.8)x10.13s. (orig.)

  10. Application of the Positron Annihilation Technique to the study of vapors absorption process in polyethylene (LDPE) and in imide polymer (6FDA-TMPD PI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well recognized that positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectra in polymers have a long-lived component that can be ascribed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The lifetime, τ3, is considered to be a measure of the size of the micro-vacancies in which o-Ps is trapped and is annihilated through pick-off annihilation with the rate which depends on the size of the vacancy. Positron lifetime measurements were performed for two different kinds of polymers (low density polyethylene and a polyimide (6FDA-TMPD) during sorption of various vapors (hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, water and oxygen). The vapor sorption affected the long-lived component (ortho-positronium component) in a systematic way regardless of the kind of the vapor molecules, i.e. for the polyethylene both the lifetime and the intensity of the long-lived component were enhanced, while for the polyimide they were decreased significantly. These different effects are interpreted in terms of different states of sorbed molecules in rubbery (the polyethylene) and in glassy (the polyimide) polymers. (Author)

  11. Determination of properties of high temperature superconductors and amorphous metallic alloys using positron annihilation techniques. Final report for the period 15 January 1992 - 15 July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The positron lifetime results obtained on amorphous thermally treated Ni25Zr55Al20 alloy indicate that positrons annihilate at places with different properties. The observed shifts of positron lifetime distribution were analyzed in the terms of a relaxation of free-volume, i.e. chemical (CSRO) and topological (TSRO) short range ordering. The upper limit of the activation energy of CSRO and TSRO relaxation was determined to be 2.2eV and 2.6eV, respectively. Positron lifetime τ and Doppler broadening of the annihilation line measurements on very pure C60 sample as a function of temperature between 120 and 300 K have been reported. A rapid change of τ was observed between 240 and 250 K. This results indicate that the lattice from C60 molecules is undergoing a phase transition and the phases coexist over an ∼ 10K range. The annihilation of positrons in amorphous tetramethylpoly-carbonate has been investigated in the temperature range from 30 to 300 K. The observed dependences of the mean lifetime of oPs and its relative intensity 1 on temperature were interpreted within the framework of the microstructural free-volume concept. The man radius of free space (hole) was deduced to be around 3,1.10-10m. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Positron annihilation and XRD studies on deformed Al-alloys with low concentrations of Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawi, E.; Abdel-Rahman, M.A.; Mahmoud, S.A. [Physics Dept., El-Minia Univ. (Egypt); Ramadan, A.A. [Physics Dept., Helwan Univ. (Egypt)

    2001-07-01

    The behaviour of positron in grain boundaries, is characterized by their bulk diffusibility D, their bulk (free) lifetime {tau}{sub f}, and their trapped lifetime {tau}{sub t} ({tau}{sub t} > {tau}{sub f}). Al-Mg{sub x} samples(x=0-1.4 at%) have been homogenized at 573 K for 12 hours. The obtained mean lifetime results showed a good fitting with Sigmodel giving {tau}{sub t} = 180.664 ps and {tau}{sub f} = 163.9 ps. The mean lifetime was found to vary exponentially with degree of deformation. XRD study showed that preferred orientation occurred at degree of deformation > 32%, whereas the peak intensity then increases with sample deformation. Recrystallization is also followed by XRD. Peak intensities decrease with increasing annealing time which is attributed to recrystallization, but it does not completely reverse to the origin condition. For all cases, no peaks of Mg were revealed indicating the positron annihilation as a sensitive technique for detecting low concentrations in alloys. (orig.)

  13. On e+e- annihilation to fire photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section of electron and positron annihilation at high energy equalling 5 photons is calculated using the method of spiral amplitudes. Kinematics corresponding to the events when in the beam inertia center system the angles between photon pulses and beam axes are not small, is considered. Validation of total cross section of multiphoton annihilation of a pair at high energies are presented. Annihilation channels of orthopositronium with 3 and 5 photons are considered. Exact expression for spiral amplitudes is presented

  14. Symmetry and QED tests in rare annihilation modes of positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments on positronium annihilation have confirmed QED calculations at high orders of alpha and tested discrete fundamental symmetries. These measurements search for rare modes of annihilation which are distinguished from backgrounds by their specific decay signatures. New developments in beyond Standard Model theory provide motivation for new measurements of such decays. A brief history of searches for rare annihilation modes of Ps is given. Recent experimental and theoretical developments are reviewed. Experiments currently being planned are discussed

  15. Entanglement-annihilating and entanglement-breaking channels

    OpenAIRE

    Moravčíková, Lenka; Ziman, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and investigate a family of entanglement-annihilating channels. These channels are capable of destroying any quantum entanglement within the system they act on. We show that they are not necessarily entanglement breaking. In order to achieve this result we analyze the subset of locally entanglement-annihilating channels. In this case, the same local noise applied on each subsystem individually is less entanglement annihilating (with respect to multi-partite entanglement) as the n...

  16. Branching-rate expansion around annihilating random walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Federico; Wschebor, Nicolás

    2012-07-01

    We present some exact results for branching and annihilating random walks. We compute the nonuniversal threshold value of the annihilation rate for having a phase transition in the simplest reaction-diffusion system belonging to the directed percolation universality class. Also, we show that the accepted scenario for the appearance of a phase transition in the parity conserving universality class must be improved. In order to obtain these results we perform an expansion in the branching rate around pure annihilation, a theory without branching. This expansion is possible because we manage to solve pure annihilation exactly in any dimension. PMID:23005353

  17. Positron annihilation study of vacancy-type defects in Al single crystal foils with the tweed structures across the surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel, E-mail: kpv@ispms.tsc.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Cizek, Jacub, E-mail: jcizek@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz; Hruska, Petr [Charles University in Prague, Praha, CZ-18000 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Anwad, Wolfgang [Institut für Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, D-01314 Germany (Germany); Bordulev, Yuri; Lider, Andrei; Laptev, Roman [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Mironov, Yuri [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The vacancy-type defects in the aluminum single crystal foils after a series of the cyclic tensions were studied using positron annihilation. Two components were identified in the positron lifetime spectra associated with the annihilation of free positrons and positrons trapped by dislocations. With increasing number of cycles the dislocation density firstly increases and reaches a maximum value at N = 10 000 cycles but then it gradually decreases and at N = 70 000 cycles falls down to the level typical for the virgin samples. The direct evidence on the formation of a two-phase system “defective near-surface layer/base Al crystal” in aluminum foils at cyclic tension was obtained using a positron beam with the variable energy.

  18. Positron annihilation study of vacancy-type defects in Al single crystal foils with the tweed structures across the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacancy-type defects in the aluminum single crystal foils after a series of the cyclic tensions were studied using positron annihilation. Two components were identified in the positron lifetime spectra associated with the annihilation of free positrons and positrons trapped by dislocations. With increasing number of cycles the dislocation density firstly increases and reaches a maximum value at N = 10 000 cycles but then it gradually decreases and at N = 70 000 cycles falls down to the level typical for the virgin samples. The direct evidence on the formation of a two-phase system “defective near-surface layer/base Al crystal” in aluminum foils at cyclic tension was obtained using a positron beam with the variable energy

  19. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Timothy Ryan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  20. Particle-antiparticle asymmetries from annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi; Volkas, Raymond R

    2014-01-01

    An extensively studied mechanism to create particle-antiparticle asymmetries is the out-of-equilibrium and CP violating decay of a heavy particle. Here we instead examine how asymmetries can arise purely from 2 2 annihilations rather than from the usual 1 2 decays and inverse decays. We review the general conditions on the reaction rates that arise from S-matrix unitarity and CPT invariance, and show how these are implemented in the context of a simple toy model. We formulate the Boltzmann equations for this model, and present an example solution.

  1. Apparatus for photon activation positron annihilation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2007-06-12

    Non-destructive testing apparatus according to one embodiment of the invention comprises a photon source. The photon source produces photons having predetermined energies and directs the photons toward a specimen being tested. The photons from the photon source result in the creation of positrons within the specimen being tested. A detector positioned adjacent the specimen being tested detects gamma rays produced by annihilation of positrons with electrons. A data processing system operatively associated with the detector produces output data indicative of a lattice characteristic of the specimen being tested.

  2. Deuteron production in e+e--annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We argue that in e+e--annihilation (including υ-decay) deuteron production should be given by the overlap of the deuteron wave function with the wave function of a pn-pair. The production rate depends sensitively upon the size of the production region. Taking into account the strong correlation between protons and neutrons, experimental results for υ-decay are consistent with the size expected in the Lund string fragmentation model. A prediction is given for the deuteron production in Z-decay

  3. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  4. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger Gare - Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-02-15

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Copulas Between Wealth and Lifetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Dongyan

    2009-01-01

    The life insurance industry is very interested in how a person's lifetime is related to his wealth with financial advisors interested in how even a person's portfolio choice affects his lifetime. This paper presents a statistical analysis combined with intuitive relationships between lifetime and wealth. Key properties of this relationship are given and then various copulas are analyzed to see whether they have these properties. Other advantages and disadvantages of these copulas for describing the dependence are stated. The results show that some copulas are not appropriate for relating lifetime and wealth, including the Gaussian family.

  7. Fluorescence lifetime heterogeneity in aggregates of LHCII revealed by time-resolved microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzda, V; de Grauw, C J; Vroom, J; Kleima, F J; van Grondelle, R; van Amerongen, H; Gerritsen, H C

    2001-01-01

    Two-photon excitation, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the fluorescence quenching mechanisms in aggregates of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b pigment protein complexes of photosystem II from green plants (LHCII). Time-gated microscopy images show the presence of large heterogeneity in fluorescence lifetimes not only for different LHCII aggregates, but also within a single aggregate. Thus, the fluorescence decay traces obtained from macroscopic measurements reflect an average over a large distribution of local fluorescence kinetics. This opens the possibility to resolve spatially different structural/functional units in chloroplasts and other heterogeneous photosynthetic systems in vivo, and gives the opportunity to investigate individually the excited states dynamics of each unit. We show that the lifetime distribution is sensitive to the concentration of quenchers contained in the system. Triplets, which are generated at high pulse repetition rates of excitation (>1 MHz), preferentially quench domains with initially shorter fluorescence lifetimes. This proves our previous prediction from singlet-singlet annihilation investigations (Barzda, V., V. Gulbinas, R. Kananavicius, V. Cervinskas, H. van Amerongen, R. van Grondelle, and L. Valkunas. 2001. Biophys. J. 80:2409-2421) that shorter fluorescence lifetimes originate from larger domains in LHCII aggregates. We found that singlet-singlet annihilation has a strong effect in time-resolved fluorescence microscopy of connective systems and has to be taken into consideration. Despite that, clear differences in fluorescence decays can be detected that can also qualitatively be understood. PMID:11423435

  8. Positron annihilation and Moessbauer effect studies of In-Pb and Cu-Ni binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alloy systems Insub(1-x)Pbsub(x) with x=0.00, 0.05, 0.20, 0.50, 0.80, 1.00 and Cusub(1-x)Nisub(x) with x=0.00, 0.10, 0.15, 0.17, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80 and 1.00 were studied using the positron annihilation method. Moeesbauer spectroscopy was used for the In-Pb system studies. The composition dependence of the h parameter obtained from the angular distribution curves indicates a preferred annihilation of positron at the Pb atomic site in In-Pb alloys and at the Ni atomic site in Cu-Ni alloys. Additionally, temperature dependent measurements were carried out on In-20% Pb in order to evaluate the vacancy formation energy. The obtained value was 0.48+-0.03 eV. The low momentum component (attributed to the contribution of the conduction electrons in the annihilation process) observed from the momentum distribution was correlated with the isomer shift obtained from the Moessbauer effect studies. (author)

  9. Isotope effects on delayed annihilation time spectra of antiprotonic helium atoms in a low-temperature gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low-temperature 3He and 4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8 K and 400 mbar are very similar in shape except for (i) a small difference in the time scale and (ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of 3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R=Ttrap(4He)/Ttrap(3He), has been determined to be 1.144 ± 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R=[M*(bar p4He)/ M*(bar p3He)]2=1.14, where M* denotes the reduced mass of the bar pHe2+system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of 0.154±0.007μs in the case of 3He suggests that the bar p3He+atom has a state of intermediate lifetime on the border between a metastable zone and an Auger-dominated short-lived zone. The fraction of antiprotons trapped in metastable states at 5.8 K and 400 mbar is lower by 22.2(4)% for 3Hethan for 4He. All the data can be fitted fairly well with simple three-level and four-level cascade models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Isotope effects on delayed annihilation time spectra of antiprotonic helium atoms in a low-temperature gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzer, B.; Hartmann, F. J.; Daniel, H.; von Egidy, T.; Niestroj, A.; Schmid, S.; Schmid, W.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugai, I.; Nakayoshi, K.; Hayano, R. S.; Maas, F. E.; Torii, H. A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Morita, N.; Horváth, D.; Eades, J.; Widmann, E.

    1996-04-01

    The delayed annihilation time spectra (DATS) of antiprotonic helium atoms have been studied in isotopically pure low-temperature 3He and 4He gas at various densities. The DATS taken at 5.8 K and 400 mbar are very similar in shape except for (i) a small difference in the time scale and (ii) the presence of a distinct fast decay component in the case of 3He. The ratio of overall trapping times (mean lifetimes against annihilation), R=Ttrap(4He)/Ttrap(3He), has been determined to be 1.144 +/- 0.009, which is in good agreement with a theoretical estimate yielding R=[M*(p¯ 4He)/ M*(p¯ 3He)]2=1.14, where M* denotes the reduced mass of the p¯He2+system. The presence of a short-lived component with a lifetime of 0.154+/-0.007 μs in the case of 3He suggests that the p¯ 3He+atom has a state of intermediate lifetime on the border between a metastable zone and an Auger-dominated short-lived zone. The fraction of antiprotons trapped in metastable states at 5.8 K and 400 mbar is lower by 22.2(4)% for 3than for 4He. All the data can be fitted fairly well with simple three-level and four-level cascade models.

  11. Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation in chiral soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate annihilation process of nucleons in chiral soliton model by path integral method. Soliton-antisoliton pair is shown to decay into pions at range of order of about 1 fm, defined by SS-bar potential. Contribution of annihilation channel into elastic scattering is discussed. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  12. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kawasaki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  13. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Kawasaki; Kazunori Nakayama; Toyokazu Sekiguchi

    2016-01-01

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  14. CMB Constraint on Dark Matter Annihilation after Planck 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2015-01-01

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  15. Cohomology of projective schemes: From annihilators to vanishing

    OpenAIRE

    Chardin, Marc

    2002-01-01

    We provide bounds on the Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity in terms of ``defining equations'' by using elements that annihilates some cohomology modules, inspired by works of Miyazaki, Nagel, Schenzel and Vogel. The elements in these annihilators are provided either by liaison or by tight closure theories. Our results hold in any characteristic.

  16. Nucleon-antinucleon annihilation in chiral soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate annihilation process of nucleons in the chiral soliton model by the path integral method. A soliton-antisoliton pair is shown to decay into mesons at range of about 1fm, defined by the S bar S potential. Contribution of the annihilation channel to the elastic scattering is discussed

  17. Impact of dark matter decays and annihilations on structure formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Ripamonti, E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: We derived the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by different decaying (or annihilating) dark matter (DM) candidates. Heavy annihilating DM particles (with mass larger than a few GeV) have no influence on reionization and heating, even if we assume that a

  18. Neutrino signals from electroweak bremsstrahlung in solar WIMP annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Brennan, Amelia J.; Jacques, Thomas D., E-mail: n.bell@unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: a.brennan@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: thomas.jacques@asu.edu [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2012-10-01

    Bremsstrahlung of W and Z gauge bosons, or photons, can be an important dark matter annihilation channel. In many popular models in which the annihilation to a pair of light fermions is helicity suppressed, these bremsstrahlung processes can lift the suppression and thus become the dominant annihilation channels. The resulting dark matter annihilation products contain a large, energetic, neutrino component. We consider solar WIMP annihilation in the case where electroweak bremsstrahlung dominates, and calculate the resulting neutrino spectra. The flux consists of primary neutrinos produced in processes such as χχ→ν-bar νZ and χχ→ν-bar lW, and secondary neutrinos produced via the decays of gauge bosons and charged leptons. After dealing with the neutrino propagation and flavour evolution in the Sun, we consider the prospects for detection in neutrino experiments on Earth. We compare our signal with that for annihilation to W{sup +}W{sup −}, and show that, for a given annihilation rate, the bremsstrahlung annihilation channel produces a larger signal by a factor of a few.

  19. CMB constraint on dark matter annihilation after Planck 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu

    2016-05-01

    We update the constraint on the dark matter annihilation cross section by using the recent measurements of the CMB anisotropy by the Planck satellite. We fully calculate the cascade of dark matter annihilation products and their effects on ionization, heating and excitation of the hydrogen, hence do not rely on any assumption on the energy fractions that cause these effects.

  20. First star formation with dark matter annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Ripamonti, E; Ferrara, A; Schneider, R; Bressan, A; Marigo, P

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of WIMP Dark Matter Annihilations (DMAs) on the evolution of primordial gas clouds hosting the first stars. We follow the collapse of gas and DM within a 1e6 Msun halo virializing at redshift z=20, from z=1000 to slightly before the formation of a hydrostatic core, properly including gas heating/cooling and chemistry processes induced by DMAs, and exploring the dependency of the results on different parameters (DM particle mass, self-annihilation cross section, gas opacity, feedback strength). Independently of such parameters, when the central baryon density, n_c, is lower than the critical density, n_crit ~1e9-1e13 #/cm^3, corresponding to a model-dependent balance between DMA energy input and gas cooling rate, DMA ionizations catalyze an increase in the H2 abundance by a factor ~100. The increased cooling moderately reduces the temperature (by ~30%) but does not significantly reduce the fragmentation mass scale. For n_c > n_crit, the DMA energy injection exceeds the cooling, with the ex...

  1. Excess carrier lifetimes in Ge layers on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, R., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch; Sigg, H., E-mail: richard.geiger@psi.ch, E-mail: hans.sigg@psi.ch [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frigerio, J.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Dipartimento di Fisica del Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Süess, M. J. [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Scientific Center for Optical and Electron Microscopy (SCOPEM), ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Spolenak, R. [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, Department of Materials Science, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Faist, J. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-10

    The excess charge carrier lifetimes in Ge layers grown on Si or germanium-on-insulator are measured by synchrotron based pump-probe transmission spectroscopy. We observe that the lifetimes do not strongly depend on growth parameters and annealing procedure, but on the doping profile. The defect layer at the Ge/Si interface is found to be the main non-radiative recombination channel. Therefore, the longest lifetimes in Ge/Si (2.6 ns) are achieved in sufficiently thick Ge layers with a built-in field, which repels electrons from the Ge/Si interface. Longer lifetimes (5.3 ns) are obtained in overgrown germanium-on-insulator due to the absence of the defective interface.

  2. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  3. Positron states and annihilation in nanometric semiconducting superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekkal, Nadir, E-mail: nsekkal@yahoo.f [Departement de Physique-Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure de l' Enseignement Technologique, BP 1523, El M' Naouer, 31000 Oran (Algeria); Arutyunov, N.Yu. [Institute of Electronics, UAS, 700170 Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2009-12-15

    The electron and positron states in the band structure of GaAs-AlAs, (GaAs){sub m}((AlAs){sub 1-x}(vacancy/pore){sub x}){sub n} and (GaAs){sub m}((AlAs){sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}){sub n} superlattices have been analyzed on the basis of empirical pseudopotential method of calculations. When possible, the validity of results has been checked by comparing them with the data obtained for relevant constituents of the superlattices with the help of the angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) spectroscopy. The most important finding is that positron is capable of being selectively confined in the superlattices even when they are defect-free. In the presence of defects of a vacancy-type, the regime of confinement may be changed to the one of trapping of positron. Being 'fingerprints' of certain types of defects, the ACAR spectra may be used for non-destructive characterization of superlattices. The question of sensitivity of the positron particle microprobe for studying electron structure of superlattices is discussed.

  4. Positron lifetime studies in vinyl polymers of medical importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyl polymers used as artificial lens implants in ophthalmology were investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy. The structure of these polymers with free volumes offers the possibility of charging them with anti-inflammatory drugs for sustained release. A correlation between the amount of normalised free volume and the ratio of the methyl methacrylate to ethyl-hexyl-acrylate, used as polymerisation monomers, was found

  5. Positron lifetime studies in vinyl polymers of medical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, M. F. Ferreira; Gordo, P. M.; Gil, C. Lopes; Kajcsos, Zs.; Gil, M. H.; Mariz, M. J.; Lima, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl polymers used as artificial lens implants in ophthalmology were investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy. The structure of these polymers with free volumes offers the possibility of charging them with anti-inflammatory drugs for sustained release. A correlation between the amount of normalised free volume and the ratio of the methyl methacrylate to ethyl-hexyl-acrylate, used as polymerisation monomers, was found.

  6. Precision lifetime measurements of Ar II 4p doublet levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetimes of the Ar II 4p doublet fine-structure levels 4p 2D05/2, 4p' 2F05/2 and 4p' 2F07/2 were measured by beam-dye laser spectroscopy. The experimental uncertainty was reduced to below 1%. (orig.)

  7. Studies of the subsurface zone created in aluminium and its alloys by means of positron annihilation and complementary methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are presented the results of the studies of the subsurface zone created in aluminium and its alloys during sliding or other surface modification treatments. The application of the positron annihilation techniques due to their high sensitivity to crystal lattice defects enabled to determine defects profiles in the subsurface zone. The positron annihilation studies were correlated with other conventional measurements applied in tribology, i.e. microhardness measurements, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and in a special case stress distribution calculated theoretically. It was shown that the positron annihilation spectroscopy is a useful tool for profiling of the subsurface zone created during sliding even for light metals their alloys and composites. The total range of the subsurface zone detected by the positron annihilation extends from 50 μm to 450 μm depending on the material studied and surface modification treatment. Additionally, the type of the main defects can be determined. The studies of the pure aluminium samples after dry sliding enabled to find the defect concentration of vacancy type in the depth less then 1 μm and to correlate its value with the size of crystallites. It supports the conclusion on recovery processes taking place in this layer. There was made the attempt to apply the Doppler broadening coincidence spectroscopy to the studies of aluminium alloy and composite. In view of the interdisciplinary character the present thesis enclose also the review of the basic issues of tribology, measurement methods applied to the subsurface zone studies and positron annihilation experimental techniques. (author)

  8. A new positron lifetime spectrometer using a fast digital oscilloscope and BaF2 scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new positron lifetime spectrometer has been constructed and tested. It consists of a state-of-the-art digital oscilloscope (LeCroy Wavepro 960) and scintillation detectors based on Hamamatsu H3378 (R2083Q) photomultiplier tubes and BaF2 scintillators. A very good time resolution is obtained with scintillators of commonly used sizes (28 mm in diameter, 10-20 mm thick) and wide energy window settings (40-50%). The time resolution of 144 ps full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) is achieved for the positron lifetime measurement, in which time differences are measured between the arrivals of a 1.27 MeV γ-ray from 22Na and one of the two positron annihilation γ-rays of 0.511 MeV. The time resolution is further improved with a 'double-stop' setup, where timing information carried by the positron annihilation γ-ray pair is combined to determine the time of the annihilation. The time resolution with this setup is 119 ps FWHM. This improvement is interpreted in terms of the energy deposit in the scintillation detectors by γ-rays. Applications of the new spectrometer to other scintillation timing measurements are also described

  9. Lifetime-based tomographic multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Scott B.; Boas, David A.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Kumar, Anand T. N.

    2010-07-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence tomography of multiple fluorophores has previously been limited by the bandwidth of the NIR spectral regime and the broad emission spectra of most NIR fluorophores. We describe in vivo tomography of three spectrally overlapping fluorophores using fluorescence lifetime-based separation. Time-domain images are acquired using a voltage-gated, intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) in free-space transmission geometry with 750 nm Ti:sapphire laser excitation. Lifetime components are fit from the asymptotic portion of fluorescence decay curve and reconstructed separately with a lifetime-adjusted forward model. We use this system to test the in vivo lifetime multiplexing suitability of commercially available fluorophores, and demonstrate lifetime multiplexing in solution mixtures and in nude mice. All of the fluorophores tested exhibit nearly monoexponential decays, with narrow in vivo lifetime distributions suitable for lifetime multiplexing. Quantitative separation of two fluorophores with lifetimes of 1.1 and 1.37 ns is demonstrated for relative concentrations of 1:5. Finally, we demonstrate tomographic imaging of two and three fluorophores in nude mice with fluorophores that localize to distinct organ systems. This technique should be widely applicable to imaging multiple NIR fluorophores in 3-D.

  10. Measurement of the lifetimes of the neutral and charged D mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented on the use of a high-resolution drift chamber in the Mark II Detector at PEP to measure the lifetimes of D0 and D+- mesons produced in e+e- annihilations at 29 GeV. Based on a sample of 74 events for the D0 mesons and 23 events for the D+- mesons, the lifetimes are found to be tau/sub D0 = 4.7/sub -0.8//sup +0.9/ +- 0.5 x 10-13 s; tau/sub D+-/ = 8.9/sub -2.7//sup +3.8/ +- 1.3 x 10-13 s. The ratio of these lifetimes, tau/sub D0//tau/sub D+-/ = 1.9/sub -0.7//sup +0.9/ +- 0.3, indicates that the decays of these mesons cannot be explained by the simple spectator model of charmed particle decay

  11. D-brane scattering and annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Kleban, Matthew; Schillo, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of parallel brane-brane and brane-antibrane scattering in string theory in flat spacetime, focusing on the pair production of open strings that stretch between the branes. We are particularly interested in the case of scattering at small impact parameter $b < l_s$, where there is a tachyon in the spectrum when a brane and an antibrane approach within a string length. Our conclusion is that despite the tachyon, branes and antibranes can pass through each other with only a very small probability of annihilating, so long as $g_s$ is small and the relative velocity $v$ is neither too small nor too close to 1. Our analysis is relevant also to the case of charged open string production in world-volume electric fields, and we make use of this T-dual scenario in our analysis. We briefly discuss the application of our results to a stringy model of inflation involving moving branes.

  12. Gamma Irradiation Effect on Biodegradable Poly (Hydroxybutyrate) Studied by Positron Annihilation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -Bacterial polyesters have attracted much attention as biodegradable polymers. An ecofriendly alternative to this biodegradable material is poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) which has attracted industrial attention as an environmentally degradable plastic for a wide range of medical applications. Free volume holes in polymers play a crucial role in determining its physical properties. The Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) technique has been established as a powerful probe for microstructures of polymers, in particular, angstrom-sized free volume holes. The PHB samples were irradiated using 60Co source at room temperature with doss ranging from 5 to 300 kGy. The PAL spectra for all the samples have been measured at room temperature as a function of gamma-irradiation dose. The free volume hole size decreases with increasing the irradiation dose up to 25 kGy followed by slowly increases up to 200 kGy, then decreases at higher doses. On the other hand, the free volume content decreases with increasing the gamma-irradiation dose which is due to the increase of the degree of crystallinity. The variations in the free volume with the irradiation dose will be discussed in the frame of free volume model. A correlation between the macroscopic mechanical properties Hv and positron annihilation parameters has been done

  13. Irradiation-induced voids in alumina single crystal studied by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR) has been measured on α-alumina single crystals irradiated with fast neutrons to a dose of 3x1024 n/m2 at about 470 K. After post-irradiation annealing above 900 K, remarkable narrowing in ACAR curves has been observed. These ACAR curves can be decomposed into three Gaussian components: a narrow (N), an intermediate (M) and a broad (B) component, with FWHM of 2-5, about 6 and 11 mrad, respectively. The N and M components are attributed to positrons trapped in the voids. A magnetic quenching effect is observed for the N component but not for the M component. This shows that the N component is due to two photon self-annihilation of positronium (Ps) formed in voids. The FWHM of the N component indicates, through the momentum of zero-point motion of Ps, that the average void diameter is 0.6 nm after annealing at 1000 K and 1.7 nm after annealing at 1525 K. Striking similarity of the M component to a void-surface trapping component in metallic Al, together with nearly the same lifetime as that of voids in Al, suggests the existence of metallic surface-conduction-electron states in the voids in α-alumina. ((orig.))

  14. Simulation of the annihilation emission of galactic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positrons annihilate in the central region of our Galaxy. This has been known since the detection of a strong emission line centered on an energy of 511 keV in the direction of the Galactic center. This gamma-ray line is emitted during the annihilation of positrons with electrons from the interstellar medium. The spectrometer SPI, onboard the INTEGRAL observatory, performed spatial and spectral analyses of the positron annihilation emission. This thesis presents a study of the Galactic positron annihilation emission based on models of the different interactions undergone by positrons in the interstellar medium. The models are relied on our present knowledge of the properties of the interstellar medium in the Galactic bulge, where most of the positrons annihilate, and of the physics of positrons (production, propagation and annihilation processes). In order to obtain constraints on the positrons sources and physical characteristics of the annihilation medium, we compared the results of the models to measurements provided by the SPI spectrometer. (author)

  15. Testing Fluorescence Lifetime Standards using Two-Photon Excitation and Time-Domain Instrumentation: Rhodamine B, Coumarin 6 and Lucifer Yellow

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffersen, Arne Skodvin; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Frette, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Having good information about fluorescence lifetime standards is essential for anyone performing lifetime experiments. Using lifetime standards in fluorescence spectroscopy is often regarded as a straightforward process, however, many earlier reports are limited in terms of lifetime concentration dependency, solvents and other technical aspects. We have investigated the suitability of the fluorescent dyes rhodamine B, coumarin 6, and lucifer yellow as lifetime standards, especially to be used...

  16. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht;

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... The population analyzed was retrieved from the Danish Cerebral Palsy Register, which covers the eastern part of the country and has registered about half of the Danish population of individuals with CP since 1950. For this study we analyzed 2367 individuals with CP, who were born in 1930 to 2000 and...

  17. Study of the effect of electric field on positron annihilation parameters in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements have been performed to study the effect of an external electric field in several polymers. The application of the electric field on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) noticeably decreased the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) intensity. The o-Ps intensity increased with increasing electric field strength in the poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, poly(ethylene naphthalate), PEN, and poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone), PEEK samples. The data are consistent with a hypothesis that nonpolar polymers (PTFE and UHMWPE) show a decrease in the o-Ps intensity with increasing electric field, while the effect seems to be opposite in polar polymers (PEN, PET and PEEK)

  18. Minimal semi-annihilating ZN scalar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dark matter from an inert doublet and a complex scalar singlet stabilized by ZN symmetries. This field content is the minimal one that allows dimensionless semi-annihilation couplings for N > 2. We consider explicitly the Z3 and Z4 cases and take into account constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, vacuum stability, necessity for the electroweak ZN preserving vacuum to be the global minimum, electroweak precision tests, upper limits from direct detection and properties of the Higgs boson. Co-annihilation and semi-annihilation of dark sector particles as well as dark matter conversion significantly modify the cosmic abundance and direct detection phenomenology

  19. Minimal semi-annihilating ℤN scalar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dark matter from an inert doublet and a complex scalar singlet stabilized by ℤN symmetries. This field content is the minimal one that allows dimensionless semi-annihilation couplings for N>2. We consider explicitly the ℤ3 and ℤ4 cases and take into account constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, vacuum stability, necessity for the electroweak ℤN preserving vacuum to be the global minimum, electroweak precision tests, upper limits from direct detection and properties of the Higgs boson. Co-annihilation and semi-annihilation of dark sector particles as well as dark matter conversion significantly modify the cosmic abundance and direct detection phenomenology

  20. Radiative lifetimes of neutral erbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E A; Chisholm, J P; Lawler, J E, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.ed, E-mail: chisholm@astro.wisc.ed, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.ed [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-08-14

    Radiative lifetimes have been measured for 123 levels of neutral erbium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow beam of erbium atoms. Of the 123 levels, 56 are even parity and range in energy from 26 993 to 40 440 cm{sup -1} and 67 are odd parity ranging from 16 070 to 38 401 cm{sup -1}. This set of Er i lifetimes is much more extensive than others published to date, with 90 of the 123 level lifetimes measured for the first time. These lifetimes will provide the absolute calibration for a large set of measured Er i transition probabilities. Spectroscopic studies of rare earth elements including erbium are motivated by research needs in both the astrophysics and lighting communities.

  1. Radiative lifetimes of neutral erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiative lifetimes have been measured for 123 levels of neutral erbium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow beam of erbium atoms. Of the 123 levels, 56 are even parity and range in energy from 26 993 to 40 440 cm-1 and 67 are odd parity ranging from 16 070 to 38 401 cm-1. This set of Er i lifetimes is much more extensive than others published to date, with 90 of the 123 level lifetimes measured for the first time. These lifetimes will provide the absolute calibration for a large set of measured Er i transition probabilities. Spectroscopic studies of rare earth elements including erbium are motivated by research needs in both the astrophysics and lighting communities.

  2. Radiative lifetimes of neutral gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E A; Bilty, K A; Lawler, J E, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: biltyka@uwec.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-03-14

    The current work is part of an ongoing study of radiative properties of rare earth neutral atoms motivated by research needs in several disparate fields including astrophysics, laser chemistry and lighting technology. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam has been used to measure radiative lifetimes, accurate to {+-}5%, for 136 levels of neutral gadolinium. Of the 136 levels, 6 are odd parity ranging in energy from 32 929 to 36 654 cm{sup -1}, and the remaining 130 are even parity ranging from 17 750 to 34 175 cm{sup -1}. This set of Gd i lifetimes represents a significant extension to the available published data, with 93 of the 136 level lifetimes measured for the first time. These lifetimes will provide the absolute normalization for a large set of measured Gd i transition probabilities.

  3. Radiative lifetimes of neutral gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current work is part of an ongoing study of radiative properties of rare earth neutral atoms motivated by research needs in several disparate fields including astrophysics, laser chemistry and lighting technology. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam has been used to measure radiative lifetimes, accurate to ±5%, for 136 levels of neutral gadolinium. Of the 136 levels, 6 are odd parity ranging in energy from 32 929 to 36 654 cm-1, and the remaining 130 are even parity ranging from 17 750 to 34 175 cm-1. This set of Gd i lifetimes represents a significant extension to the available published data, with 93 of the 136 level lifetimes measured for the first time. These lifetimes will provide the absolute normalization for a large set of measured Gd i transition probabilities.

  4. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-22

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications. PMID:26849582

  5. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Speckhard, Eric G; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming and proposed experiments will make significant improvements. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  6. Study of local structure in hyper-eutectic Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys by positron annihilation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, T.; Ishii, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Konno, T. J.; Iwase, A.; Hori, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy (BG) alloy, which has amorphous structure, possesses various properties such as high strength and toughness with compositional dependence. In the present study, density, positron annihilation lifetime and coincidence Doppler Broadening measurement have been performed for various compositional hyper-eutectic Zr-Cu-Al BG alloys. The density of hyper-eutectic Zr-Cu-Al BG alloys increases with decreasing of Zr fraction. In contrast, positron lifetime for all compositional alloys is almost constant about 165 psec. In addition, the CDB ratio profile is almost the same for hyper-eutectic alloys. This unchanging trend of CDB ratio profile is quite different from that of hypo-eutectic BG alloys. These results reveal that different internal structure exists in hyper and hypo-eutectic BG alloys.

  7. Irradiation-induced defects in silica glass studied by positron annihilation, ESR and optical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fused and Synthetic silica glass samples were irradiated with fast neutrons up to a dose of 8.6 x 1018 n/cm2. Before and after irradiation, positron lifetime, angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (ACAR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical absorption with photon energy ranging from 2 to 6.6 eV were measured. Positron lifetime spectra were decomposed into three components with the time constant τi (i=1,2,3) and their relative intensities Ii (I1+I2+I3=1). After irradiation, two kinds of defects which trap positrons were suggested by positron lifetime spectra: the type-1 defect gives a positron lifetime of about 0.3 ns for the τ1 component, while the type 2 gives about 0.5 ns of the τ2 lifetime. In ESR spectra of the irradiated samples, three kinds of paramagnetic defects were observed.: E' centers, peroxy radicals (POR) and non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC). In optical absorption spectra, absorption bands around 4.8, 5.0, 5.4 and 5.8 eV were resolved. Photo-bleaching effects of ultraviolet rays with energy of 4.9 eV on E' center and POR in ESR spectra and on the 5.0, 5.4 and 5.8 absorption bands were observed, but no change was detected in the 4.8 band. No photo-bleaching effect, however, was obtained in the positron lifetime spectra. Positron lifetime and ESR measurements were also made after post-irradiation isochronal annealing. Detailed results from the photo-bleaching and the annealing experiments strongly suggest that the type 2 defect is not detected by ESR and hence a diamagnetic defect, while that the type 1 defect is a paramagnetic defect, possibly NBOHC. Both kinds of the defects, however, gave nearly the same ACAR momentum distribution, which reveals that the two kind defects are associated with the same valence electrons of oxygen related centers. (author)

  8. SIMP Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hochberg, Yonit; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    We study the interactions between strongly interacting massive particle dark matter and the Standard Model via a massive vector boson that is kinetically mixed with the hypercharge gauge boson. The relic abundance is set by 3-to-2 self-interactions of the dark matter, while the interactions with the vector mediator enable kinetic equilibrium between the dark and visible sectors. We show that a wide range of parameters is phenomenologically viable and can be probed in various ways. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints are evaded due to the p-wave nature of dark matter annihilation into visible particles, while direct detection methods using electron recoils can be sensitive to parts of the parameter space. In addition, we propose performing spectroscopy of the strongly coupled dark sector at e+e- colliders, where the energy of a mono-photon can track the resonance structure of the dark sector. Alternatively, some resonances may decay back into Standard Model leptons or jets, realizing `hidden valley' phe...

  9. Lifetime management and lifetime extension at PAKS nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paks Nuclear Power Plant strategy is to extend the operational lifetime of the plant and renew the operational licence for 20 years over the designed and licensed lifetime. At Paks NPP the systematic ageing management activities were started eight years ago. It is now a deliberate and programmatic activity, which ensures the plant safety. The programme started with selection of equipment important from both lifetime and safety point of view. The systematic ageing management includes the definition of ageing processes, identification of sensitive parts of the components and the dominant ageing processes, and their control and monitoring. A computerized monitoring system supports the ageing management activity of the plant. The feasibility of plant lifetime extension has been investigated. The study includes a detailed plant assessment, ageing and lifetime prognosis of representative set of structures, systems and components, definition of necessary reconstructions and detailed business analysis. It has been found that a 20 years extension of operation is feasible from both technical and business point of view. Basic results of plant assessment and business analysis are discussed in the paper. A project has been launched by NPP Paks for preparation of plant life extension and licence renewal. The project tasks and conditions of success are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  10. Positron-molecule interactions: resonant attachment, annihilation, and bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Gribakin, G F; Surko, C M; 10.1103/RevModPhys.82.2557

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of current understanding of the interaction of low-energy positrons with molecules with emphasis on resonances, positron attachment and annihilation. Annihilation rates measured as a function of positron energy reveal the presence of vibrational Feshbach resonances (VFR) for many polyatomic molecules. These resonances lead to strong enhancement of the annihilation rates. They also provide evidence that positrons bind to many molecular species. A quantitative theory of VFR-mediated attachment to small molecules is presented. It is tested successfully for selected molecules (e.g., methyl halides and methanol) where all modes couple to the positron continuum. Combination and overtone resonances are observed and their role is elucidated. In larger molecules, annihilation rates from VFR far exceed those explicable on the basis of single-mode resonances. These enhancements increase rapidly with the number of vibrational degrees of freedom. While the details are as yet unclear, intr...

  11. Baryon production in $e^{+}e^{-}$-annihilation at PETRA

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Wulfrin; Dittmann, P; Eichler, R; Felst, R; Haidt, Dieter; Krehbiel, H; Meier, K; Naroska, Beate; O'Neill, L H; Steffen, P; Wenninger, Horst; Zhang, Y; Elsen, E E; Helm, M; Petersen, A; Warming, P; Weber, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Drumm, H; Heintze, J; Heinzelmann, G; Hellenbrand, K H; Heuer, R D; Von Krogh, J; Lennert, P; Kawabata, S; Matsumura, H; Nozaki, T; Olsson, J; Rieseberg, H; Wagner, A; Bell, A; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Wriedt, H; Allison, J; Ball, A H; Bamford, G; Barlow, R; Bowdery, C K; Duerdoth, I P; Hassard, J F; King, B T; Loebinger, F K; MacBeth, A A; McCann, H; Mills, H E; Murphy, P G; Prosper, H B; Stephens, K; Clarke, D; Goddard, M C; Marshall, R; Pearce, G F; Kobayashi, T; Komamiya, S; Koshiba, M; Minowa, M; Nozaki, M; Orito, S; Sato, A; Suda, T; Takeda, H; Totsuka, Y; Watanabe, Y; Yamada, S; Yanagisawa, C

    1981-01-01

    Data on p and Lambda production by e/sup +/e/sup -/-annihilation at CM energies between 30 and 36 GeV are presented. Indication for an angular anticorrelation in events with baryon-antibaryon pairs is seen.

  12. Semi-Annihilating Wino-Like Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Spray, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Semi-annihilation is a generic feature of dark matter theories with symmetries larger than Z_2. We explore a model based on a Z_4-symmetric dark sector comprised of a scalar singlet and a "wino"-like fermion SU(2)_L triplet. This is the minimal example of semi-annihilation with a gauge-charged fermion. We study the interplay of the Sommerfeld effect in both annihilation and semi-annihilation channels. The modifications to the relic density allow otherwise-forbidden regions of parameter space and can substantially weaken indirect detection constraints. We perform a parameter scan and find that the entire region where the model comprises all the observed dark matter is accessible to current and planned direct and indirect searches.

  13. Black Hole Window into p-Wave Dark Matter Annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jessie; Shapiro, Stuart L; Fields, Brian D

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross sections potentially visible in γ-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi Large Area Telescope is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC. PMID:26684108

  14. Dark Matter Annihilation in the First Galaxy Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Schon, Sarah; Avram, Cassandra A; Wyithe, J Stuart B; Barberio, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of energy released from self-annihilating dark matter on heating of gas in the small, high-redshift dark matter halos thought to host the first stars. A SUSY neutralino like particle is implemented as our dark matter candidate. The PYTHIA code is used to model the final, stable particle distributions produced during the annihilation process. We use an analytic treatment in conjunction with the code MEDEA2 to find the energy transfer and subsequent partition into heating, ionizing and Lyman alpha photon components. We consider a number of halo density models, dark matter particle masses and annihilation channels. We find that the injected energy from dark matter exceeds the binding energy of the gas within a $10^5$ - $10^6$ M$_\\odot$ halo at redshifts above 20, preventing star formation in early halos in which primordial gas would otherwise cool. Thus we find that DM annihilation could delay the formation of the first galaxies.

  15. Coincidence Doppler Broadening of Positron Annihilation Radiation in Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, E.; Vanin, V. R.; Maidana, N. L.; Helene, O.

    2013-06-01

    We measured the Doppler broadening annihilation radiation spectrum in Fe, using 22NaCl as a positron source, and two Ge detectors in coincidence arrangement. The two-dimensional coincidence energy spectrum was fitted using a model function that included positron annihilation with the conduction band and 3d electrons, 3s and 3p electrons, and in-flight positron annihilation. Detectors response functions included backscattering and a combination of Compton and pulse pileup, ballistic deficit and shaping effects. The core electrons annihilation intensity was measured as 16.4(3) %, with almost all the remainder assigned to the less bound electrons. The obtained results are in agreement with published theoretical values.

  16. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from dark matter annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, R.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Kolb, E. W.

    2002-01-01

    Annihilation of clumped superheavy dark matter provides an interesting explanation for the origin of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. The predicted anisotropy signal provides a unique signature for this scenario.

  17. Baryon production in e+e--annihilation at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on anti p and anti Λ production by e+e--annihilation at CM energies between 30 and 36 GeV are presented. Indication for an angular anticorrelation in events with baryon antibaryon pairs is seen. (orig.)

  18. Dark matter annihilation in the first galaxy haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön, S.; Mack, K. J.; Avram, C. A.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Barberio, E.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the impact of energy released from self-annihilating dark matter (DM) on heating of gas in the small, high-redshift DM haloes thought to host the first stars. A supersymmetric (SUSY)-neutralino-like particle is implemented as our DM candidate. The PYTHIA code is used to model the final, stable particle distributions produced during the annihilation process. We use an analytic treatment in conjunction with the code MEDEA2 to find the energy transfer and subsequent partition into heating, ionizing and Lyman α photon components. We consider a number of halo density models, DM particle masses and annihilation channels. We find that the injected energy from DM exceeds the binding energy of the gas within a 105-106 M⊙ halo at redshifts above 20, preventing star formation in early haloes in which primordial gas would otherwise cool. Thus we find that DM annihilation could delay the formation of the first galaxies.

  19. Singlet oxygen lifetime dependence on photosensitizer concentration in lipid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that lipids substantially influence singlet oxygen lifetime. Question arises whether photosensitizers triplet states and excitation energy transfer to oxygen are also affected by lipids. In this contribution, the influence of lipids on excitation energy transfer from lipophilic photosensitizer tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) to oxygen was investigated in bulk lipids and dry lipid films. Two components of TPP triplets decays were identified: quenching by oxygen which does not depend on TPP concentration and triplet-triplet annihilation. Rather long lifetimes of the TPP triplets around 1.1μs are due to low solubility and diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the lipid. They are also reflected in low signal of singlet oxygen luminescence. Kinetics of the singlet oxygen luminescence follow convolutions of two exponential decays: rise-time independent on concentration and well corresponding to the short component of TPP triplet decay and decay time decreasing from 14 to 8μs with increasing TPP concentration due to quenching of singlet oxygen by TPP.

  20. Effects of Bound States on Dark Matter Annihilation

    OpenAIRE

    An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of bound state formation on dark matter annihilation rates in models where dark matter interacts via a light mediator, the dark photon. We derive the general cross section for radiative capture into all possible bound states, and point out its non-trivial dependence on the dark matter velocity and the dark photon mass. For indirect detection, our result shows that dark matter annihilation inside bound states can play an important role in enhancing signal rates over the rat...