Sample records for annelida

  1. Lista dos Anelídeos (Annelida)


    Paulo A V Borges


    A diversidade das minhocas (Annelida) é aqui compilada, em adição aos grupos de animais terrestres listados em detalhe noutros capítulos deste livro (Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata). Com base na recente lista de espécies animais terrestres da Europa, projecto “Fauna Europaea” (http://, listam-se 21 espécies de anelí deos terrestres. É apresentada a distribuição das espécies ou subespécies nas nove ilhas dos Açores, usando-se a seguinte simbologia: ...

  2. Syllidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Aguado, M Teresa; Murray, Anna; Hutchings, Pat


    Thirty species of the family Syllidae (Annelida, Phyllodocida) from Lizard Island have been identified. Three subfamilies (Eusyllinae, Exogoninae and Syllinae) are represented, as well as the currently unassigned genera Amblyosyllis and Westheidesyllis. The genus Trypanobia (Imajima & Hartman 1964), formerly considered a subgenus of Trypanosyllis, is elevated to genus rank. Seventeen species are new reports for Queensland and two are new species. Odontosyllis robustus n. sp. is characterized by a robust body and distinct colour pattern in live specimens consisting of lateral reddish-brown pigmentation on several segments, and bidentate, short and distally broad falcigers. Trypanobia cryptica n. sp. is found in association with sponges and characterized by a distinctive bright red colouration in live specimens, and one kind of simple chaeta with a short basal spur.

  3. Lista preliminar dos Nematoda, Annelida e Chordata terrestres dos Açores


    Paulo A V Borges


    Apresenta-se uma lista preliminar dos Filos Nematoda, Annelida e Chordata terrestres dos Açores. Com base na recente lista de espécies animais terrestres da Europa, projecto “Fauna Europaea” (, listam-se 80 espécies de nemátodos e 21 espécies de anelídeos terrestres. As cerca de 49 espécies de vertebrados (Chordata) listados correspondem às espécies que se reproduzem nos Açores. ABSTRACT: A preliminary list of the Phyla Nematoda, Annelida and Chordata was compiled. ...

  4. Phylogeny and systematics of Protodrilidae (Annelida) inferred with total evidence analyses

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    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Rouse, Greg W.;


    Protodrilidae is a group of small, superficially simple-looking annelids, lacking chaetae and appendages, except for two prostomial palps. Originally considered to be one of the primitive "archiannelid" families, its affinity within Annelida is still highly debated. Protodrilids are found worldwi...

  5. Diversity and distribution of Tubificidae, Naididae, and Lumbriculidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) in the Netherlands: an evaluation of twenty years of monitoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, R.C.; Wetzel, M.J.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.


    Data from 24 water management districts and the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands were used to study geographical distribution, relative occurrence, and environmental requirements of 76 aquatic oligochaetes (families Tubificidae, Naididae, and Lumbriculidae) (Annelida, Clitellata). Approxima

  6. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

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    Bartolomaeus Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  7. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

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    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph


    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  8. Orbiniidae (Annelida: Errantia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia with notes on orbiniid phylogeny. (United States)

    Zhadan, Anna; Stupnikova, Alexandra; Neretina, Tatiana


    The fauna of Orbiniidae (Annelida: Errantia) from the Lizard Island has been studied. Five species were found and each was redescribed and illustrated using light microscopy and SEM. Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991 and Scoloplos dayi Hartmann-Schröder, 1980 collected for the first time since their original descriptions and confirmed through re-examination of their type materials. Molecular analyses were carried out using nuclear 18S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA and CO1 gene sequences with evolutionary distances and the Neighbor-Joining Method. The molecular analyses did not support the monophyly of the genera Scoloplos, Leitoscoloplos, Leodamas, and Naineris, and its results are incongruent with morphological data.

  9. Six genetically distinct clades of Palola (Eunicidae, Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Schulze, Anja


    A total of 36 lots of Palola spp. (Eunicidae, Annelida) were collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Of these, 21 specimens were sequenced for a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. These sequences were analysed in conjunction with existing sequences of Palola spp. from other geographic regions. The samples from Lizard Island form six distinct clades, although none of them can clearly be assigned to any of the nominal species. Four of the six Lizard Island clades fall into species group A and the remaining two into species group B (which also includes the type species, Palola viridis). All sequenced specimens were characterized morphologically as far as possible and a dichotomous key was assembled. Based on this key, the remaining samples were identified as belonging to one of the clades.

  10. Interactions between sediment chemistry and frenulate pogonophores (Annelida) in the north-east Atlantic (United States)

    Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.; Lamont, P.; Harvey, R.


    The small frenulate pogonophores (Annelida: Pogonophora a.k.a. Siboglinidae) typically inhabit muddy sediments on the continental slope, although a few species occur near hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. We present data on the distribution and habitat characteristics of several species on the European continental shelf and slope from 48°N to 75°N and show how the animals interact with the chemistry of the sediments. The environments inhabited include: shallow (30 m), organic-rich, fjord sediments; slope sediments (1000-2200 m) and methane seeps at 330 m depth. All the species studied obtain nutrition from endosymbiotic bacteria. They take up reduced sulphur species, or in one case, methane, through the posterior parts of their tubes buried in the anoxic sediment. We conclude that most species undertake sulphide 'mining', a mechanism previously demonstrated in the bivalves Lucinoma borealis and Thyasira sarsi. These pogonophores participate in the sulphur cycle and effectively lower the sulphide content of the sediments. Our results show that the abundance of frenulate pogonophores increases with increasing sedimentation and with decreasing abundance of other benthos, particularly bioturbating organisms. The maximum sustainable carrying capacity of non-seep sediments for frenulate pogonophores is limited by the rate of sulphate reduction.

  11. Distribution of Iospilidae (Annelida along the eastern Brazilian coast (from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro

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    Bruna Tovar-Faro


    Full Text Available We present the spatial distribution and abundance of the holoplanktonic family Iospilidae (Annelida, Polychaeta, along part of the eastern Brazilian coast, and its relation to environmental variables in the region. Samples were obtained from two collections made in 1998 and 2000 between 13°-25°S, and 28°-42°W, on the Brazilian coast, between the Bay of Todos os Santos (BA to Cape São Tomé (RJ. 216 stations were selected, covering the continental shelf, slope and oceanic regions, where plankton samples were collected for water and nutrient analysis. We analyzed environmental variables: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, silicate and chlorophyll-a. 363 individuals were collected, identifying two species, viz., Phalacrophorus uniformis and Phalacrophorus pictus, the first being the most abundant, with 354 individuals, while only nine specimens of P. pictus were found. Both species are mainly distributed in the oceanic region stations. The distribution of P. uniformis was related to the concentration of phosphate and nitrate. Significant differences between samples and between sectors of the continental shelf and oceanic region were found.


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    Conrad eHelm


    Full Text Available Sphaerodoridae is a group of benthic marine worms (Annelida characterized by the presence of spherical tubercles covering their whole surface. They are commonly considered as belonging to Phyllodocida although sistergroup relationships are still far from being understood. Primary homology assessment of their morphological features are lacking, hindering the appraisal of evolutionary relationships between taxa. Therefore, our detailed morphological investigation focuses on different Sphaerodoridae as well as on other members of Phyllodocida using an integrative approach combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well as immunohistochemistry with standard neuronal (anti-5-HT and muscular (phalloidin-rhodamine markers and subsequent CLSM analysis of whole mounts and sections. Furthermore, we provide histological (HES and light microscopical data to shed light on the structures and hypothetical function of sphaerodorid key morphological features. We provide fundamental details into the sphaerodorid morphology supporting a Phyllodocida ancestry of these enigmatic worms. However, the muscular arrangement and the presence of an axial muscular pharynx is similar to conditions observed in other members of the Errantia too. Furthermore, nervous system and muscle staining as well as SEM and histological observations of different types of tubercles indicate a homology of the so called microtubercles, present in the long-bodied sphaerodorids, to the dorsal cirri of other Errantia. The macrotubercles seem to represent a sphaerodorid autapomorphy based on our investigations. Therefore, our results allow comparisons concerning morphological patterns between Sphaerodoridae and other Phyllodocida and constitute a starting point for further comparative investigations to reveal the evolution of the remarkable Sphaerodoridae.

  13. Biodiversidad de poliquetos capitélidos (annelida:polychaeta de las costas mexicanas

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    María Elena García Garza


    Full Text Available Los poliquetos pertenecen al Phylum Annelida, se encuentran entre los organismos marinos más frecuentes y abundantes en todos los ambientes marinos, desde la zona de entre mareas hasta las profundidades abisales. Los capitélidos generalmente viven enterrados en la arena o lodo, con hábitos similares a los de las lombrices de tierra. Se alimentan de materia orgánica adherida al sedimento, y son a menudo componentes dominantes de la infauna, especialmente en aquellos sedimentos enriquecidos orgánicamente. Debido a esto, son considerados los mejores indicadores del grado de contaminación orgánica, por tener la capacidad de reproducirse y establecerse en condiciones muy adversas. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar la biodiversidad y el estatus taxonómico de los capitélidos en las costas del Pacífico mexicano y el Golfo de México, realizando una revisión taxonómica de las especies descritas para estas zonas, examinando material tipo y no tipo de diversas colecciones nacionales e internacionales. El material biológico examinado, proviene de 3 fuentes, material tipo, material no tipo, y material de las campañas de muestreo. Se examinó material tipo y no tipo perteneciente a 22 géneros y 62 especies, 11 de estas potencialmente nuevas para la ciencia, del género Notomastus 5 especies, Notodasus con 3 especies, Dasybranchethus y Leiochrides con una nueva especie respectivamente y Capitella con un complejo de 7 morfotipos. Los especímenes analizados fueron corroborados con material tipo de diferentes museos.

  14. Nereis virens (Annelida: Polychaeta) is not an adequate sentinel species to assess the genotoxic risk (comet assay) of PAH exposure to the environment


    Boeck, M.; Kirsch-Volders, M.


    Polychaetes, because of their bioturbation capacity, play an important role in the distribution of anthropogenic contaminants (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) throughout the sediments. In this work the use of Nereis virens (Annelida: Polychaeta) as a bioindicator to assess the genotoxic risk of PAH exposure for the environment was evaluated. For this purpose the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis [comet] assay was applied on the coelomocytes of in vivo exposed Nereis ...

  15. Guide and keys for the identification of Syllidae (Annelida, Phyllodocida) from the British Isles (reported and expected species) (United States)

    San Martín, Guillermo; Worsfold, Tim M.


    Abstract In November 2012, a workshop was carried out on the taxonomy and systematics of the family Syllidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) at the Dove Marine Laboratory, Cullercoats, Tynemouth, UK for the National Marine Biological Analytical Quality Control (NMBAQC) Scheme. Illustrated keys for subfamilies, genera and species found in British and Irish waters were provided for participants from the major national agencies and consultancies involved in benthic sample processing. After the workshop, we prepared updates to these keys, to include some additional species provided by participants, and some species reported from nearby areas. In this paper, we provide the revised keys to enable rapid identification of Syllidae from the seas around Britain and Ireland. One new combination, Palposyllis propeweismanni, is proposed. PMID:25878521

  16. A close phylogenetic relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida evidenced from the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta

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    Ren Jianfeng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many advantages to the application of complete mitochondrial (mt genomes in the accurate reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in Metazoa. Although over one thousand metazoan genomes have been sequenced, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased, left with many phyla without a single representative of complete mitochondrial genome. Sipuncula (peanut worms or star worms is a small taxon of worm-like marine organisms with an uncertain phylogenetic position. In this report, we present the mitochondrial genome sequence of Phascolosoma esculenta, the first complete mitochondrial genome of the phylum. Results The mitochondrial genome of P.esculenta is 15,494 bp in length. The coding strand consists of 32.1% A, 21.5% C, 13.0% G, and 33.4% T bases (AT = 65.5%; AT skew = -0.019; GC skew = -0.248. It contains thirteen protein-coding genes (PCGs with 3,709 codons in total, twenty-two transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region (AT = 74.2%. All of the 37 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. Compared with the typical set of metazoan mt genomes, sipunculid lacks trnR but has an additional trnM. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. Conclusion This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome as a representative within the phylum Sipuncula. It shares many more similar features with the four known annelid and one echiuran mtDNAs. Firstly, sipunculans and annelids share quite similar gene order in the mitochondrial genome, with all 37 genes located on the same strand; secondly, phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated protein sequences also strongly support the sipunculan + annelid

  17. Lista preliminar dos platelmintes e anelídeos (Platyhelminthes e Annelida) terrestres dos arquipélagos da madeira e das selvagens


    Paulo A V Borges


    Apresenta -se uma lista preliminar dos filos Platyhelminthes e Annelida terrestres dos arquipélagos da Madeira e Selvagens. Com base na recente lista de espécies animais terrestres da Europa, projecto “Fauna Europaea” (, listam -se sete espécies de platelmintes e 36 espécies de anelídeos terrestres. Em adição aos grupos de animais listados em detalhe em outros capítulos deste livro (Nematoda, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata), a diversidade de dois outros grupos de anima...

  18. New species of Rhyacodrilus (Annelida: Clitellata: Rhyacodrilinae) of North America, with re-description of R. sodalis (Eisen, 1879) (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pilar; Fend, Steven V.


    Six new Nearctic species of the aquatic oligochaete genus Rhyacodrilus (Annelida, Clitellata, Rhyacodrilinae), are de-scribed, five (R. saelonae sp. n., R. quileuticus sp. n., R. clio sp. n., R. alcyoneus sp. n. and R. longichaeta sp. n.) from western and one (R. propiporus sp. n.) from eastern North America. The taxonomy of the most common Rhyacodrilus species reported in the Nearctic region has been based largely on chaetal characters, which has generated certain confu-sion. The new species give a new perspective on the genus Rhyacodrilus in North America, suggesting a much higher diversity than previously expected. The description of R. longichaeta sp. n. questions the taxonomic status of R. montana (Brinkhurst), which is here regarded as species inquirenda. The taxonomic status of R. sodalis (Eisen) is discussed based on characters of the reproductive system, the existing Lake Tahoe neotype series is invalidated, and a neotype is described from Eisen's type locality. Based on the discussion of the characters of the genus Rhyacodrilus, the genus Stochidrilus Martínez-Ansemil et al. is proposed as a junior synonym of that genus. The presence of the widely reported species R. coccineus has not been confirmed in the study collections, although the species requires a sound revision. A key to the species bearing hair chaetae is provided, based mainly on features of the reproductive system.

  19. Comparative Mitogenomics of Leeches (Annelida: Clitellata): Genome Conservation and Placobdella-Specific trnD Gene Duplication (United States)

    Moya, Andrés; Siddall, Mark E.; Latorre, Amparo


    Mitochondrial DNA sequences, often in combination with nuclear markers and morphological data, are frequently used to unravel the phylogenetic relationships, population dynamics and biogeographic histories of a plethora of organisms. The information provided by examining complete mitochondrial genomes also enables investigation of other evolutionary events such as gene rearrangements, gene duplication and gene loss. Despite efforts to generate information to represent most of the currently recognized groups, some taxa are underrepresented in mitochondrial genomic databases. One such group is leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea: Clitellata). Herein, we expand our knowledge concerning leech mitochondrial makeup including gene arrangement, gene duplication and the evolution of mitochondrial genomes by adding newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes for three bloodfeeding species: Haementeria officinalis, Placobdella lamothei and Placobdella parasitica. With the inclusion of three new mitochondrial genomes of leeches, a better understanding of evolution for this organelle within the group is emerging. We found that gene order and genomic arrangement in the three new mitochondrial genomes is identical to previously sequenced members of Clitellata. Interestingly, within Placobdella, we recovered a genus-specific duplication of the trnD gene located between cox2 and atp8. We performed phylogenetic analyses using 12 protein-coding genes and expanded our taxon sampling by including GenBank sequences for 39 taxa; the analyses confirm the monophyletic status of Clitellata, yet disagree in several respects with other phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphology and analyses of non-mitochondrial data. PMID:27176910

  20. Timing and Scope of Genomic Expansion within Annelida: Evidence from Homeoboxes in the Genome of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida. (United States)

    Zwarycz, Allison S; Nossa, Carlos W; Putnam, Nicholas H; Ryan, Joseph F


    Annelida represents a large and morphologically diverse group of bilaterian organisms. The recently published polychaete and leech genome sequences revealed an equally dynamic range of diversity at the genomic level. The availability of more annelid genomes will allow for the identification of evolutionary genomic events that helped shape the annelid lineage and better understand the diversity within the group. We sequenced and assembled the genome of the common earthworm, Eisenia fetida. As a first pass at understanding the diversity within the group, we classified 363 earthworm homeoboxes and compared them with those of the leech Helobdella robusta and the polychaete Capitella teleta. We inferred many gene expansions occurring in the lineage connecting the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Capitella and Eisenia to the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA. Likewise, the lineage leading from the Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to the leech H. robusta has experienced substantial gains and losses. However, the lineage leading from Eisenia/Helobdella MRCA to E. fetida is characterized by extraordinary levels of homeobox gain. The evolutionary dynamics observed in the homeoboxes of these lineages are very likely to be generalizable to all genes. These genome expansions and losses have likely contributed to the remarkable biology exhibited in this group. These results provide a new perspective from which to understand the diversity within these lineages, show the utility of sub-draft genome assemblies for understanding genomic evolution, and provide a critical resource from which the biology of these animals can be studied.

  1. Cambios en la comunidad de lombrices de tierra (Annelida: Lumbricina) como consecuencia del uso de la técnica de siembra directa en el centro-sur de Córdoba, Argentina Changes in the earthworm community (Annelida: Lumbricina) as a consequence of no-tillage in the south-central region of Cordoba, Argentina


    Anahí Domínguez; José Camilo Bedano; Analía Rosa Becker


    La siembra directa (SD) ha sido reconocida como una alternativa de menor impacto ambiental que otros sistemas de cultivo. Sin embargo, algunos autores alertan que puede generar degradación de algunas propiedades del suelo, siendo las lombrices de tierra (Annelida: Lumbricina) buenas indicadoras por su capacidad de integrar en su respuesta a los manejos el conjunto de factores de estrés. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el cambio de las comunidades de lombrices de tierra y de algunas pr...

  2. The Oweniidae (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with the description of two new species of Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. (United States)

    Parapar, Julio; Moreira, Juan


    Study of the Oweniidae specimens (Annelida; Polychaeta) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) stored at the Australian Museum, Sydney and newly collected in August 2013 revealed the presence of three species, namely Galathowenia quelis Capa et al., 2012 and two new species belonging to the genus Owenia Delle Chiaje, 1844. Owenia dichotoma n. sp. is characterised by a very short branchial crown of about 1/3 of thoracic length which bears short, dichotomously-branched tentacles provided with the major division close to the base of the crown. Owenia picta n. sp. is characterised by a long branchial crown of about 4/5 of thoracic length provided with no major divisions, ventral pigmentation on thorax and the presence of deep ventro-lateral groove on the first thoracic chaetiger. A key of Owenia species hitherto described or reported in South East Asia and Australasia regions is provided based on characters of the branchial crown.

  3. A taxonomic guide to the fanworms (Sabellidae, Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including new species and new records. (United States)

    Capa, María; Murray, Anna


    This comprehensive taxonomic work is the result of the study of fan worms (Sabellidae, Annelida) collected over the last 40 years from around the Lizard Island Archipelago, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Some species described herein are commonly found in Lizard Island waters but had not previously been formally reported in the literature. Most species appear to be not particularly abundant, and few specimens have been collected despite the sampling effort in the area over this time period. After this study, the overall sabellid diversity of the archipelago has been greatly increased (by more than 650%). Before this revision, only four sabellid species had been recorded for Lizard Island, and in this paper we report 31 species, 13 of which belong to nominal species, six are formally described as new species (Euchone danieloi n. sp., Euchone glennoi n. sp., Jasmineira gustavoi n. sp., Megalomma jubata n. sp., Myxicola nana n. sp., and Paradialychone ambigua n. sp.), and the identity of 12 species is still unknown (those referred as cf. or sp.). Two species are newly recorded in Australia and two in Queensland. The invasive species Branchiomma bairdi is reported for the first time at Lizard Island. The genus Paradialychone is reported for Australia for the first time. Standardised descriptions, general photographs of live and/or preserved specimens and distribution data are provided for all species. New species descriptions are accompanied by detailed illustrations and exhaustive morphological information. A dichotomous key for sabellid identification is also included.

  4. Combined morphological and molecular data unveils relationships of Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida and reveals higher diversity of this intriguing group of fan worms in Australia, including potentially introduced species

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    Maria Capa


    Full Text Available Pseudobranchiomma (Sabellidae, Annelida is a small and heterogeneous group of fan worms found in shallow marine environments and is generally associated with hard substrates. The delineation and composition of this genus is problematic since it has been defined only by plesiomorphic characters that are widely distributed among other sabellids. In this study we have combined morphological and molecular (mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences data to evaluate species diversity in Australia and assess the phylogenetic relationships of these and other related sabellids. Unlike morphological data alone, molecular data and combined datasets suggest monophyly of Pseudobranchiomma. In this study, a new species of Pseudobranchiomma is described and three others are considered as potential unintentional introductions to Australian waters, one of them reported for the first time for the continent. Pseudobranchiomma pallida sp. n. bears 4–6 serrations along the radiolar flanges, lacks radiolar eyes and has uncini with three transverse rows of teeth over the main fang. In the new species the colour pattern as well is characteristic and species specific.

  5. Annelida, Euhirudinea (leeches) (United States)

    Worldwide, there are over 600 species of leeches described which occur in freshwater, marine, estuarine, and moist-terrestrial ecosystems. Leeches are included in the Class Clitellata, Subclass Hirudinida, and Superorder Euhirudinea. Seven of the ten families of leeches occur in...

  6. Histology and Mucous Histochemistry of the Integument and Body Wall of a Marine Polychaete Worm, Ophryotrocha n. sp. (Annelida: Dorvilleidae Associated with Steelhead Trout Cage Sites on the South Coast of Newfoundland

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    H. M. Murray


    Full Text Available Histology and mucous histochemistry of the integument and body wall of a marine polychaete worm, Ophryotrocha n. sp. (Annelida: Dorvilleidae associated with Steelhead trout cage sites on the south coast of Newfoundland. A new species of polychaete (Ophryotrocha n. sp. (Annelida: Dorvilleidae was identified from sediment below Steelhead trout cages on the south coast of Newfoundland, Canada. The organisms were observed to produce a network of mucus in which groups of individuals would reside. Questions regarding the nature and cellular source of the mucus were addressed in this study. Samples of worms were taken from below cages and transported to the laboratory where individuals were fixed for histological study of the cuticle and associated mucus histochemistry. The body wall was organized into segments with an outer cuticle that stained strongly for acid mucopolysaccharides. The epidermis was thin and supported by loose fibrous connective tissue layers. Channels separating individual segments were lined with cells staining positive for Alcian blue. Mucoid cellular secretions appeared thick and viscous, strongly staining with Alcian blue and Periodic Acid Schiff Reagent. It was noted that lateral channels were connected via a second channel running through the anterior/posterior axis. The role of mucus secretion is discussed.

  7. Cambios en la comunidad de lombrices de tierra (Annelida: Lumbricina como consecuencia del uso de la técnica de siembra directa en el centro-sur de Córdoba, Argentina Changes in the earthworm community (Annelida: Lumbricina as a consequence of no-tillage in the south-central region of Cordoba, Argentina

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    Anahí Domínguez


    Full Text Available La siembra directa (SD ha sido reconocida como una alternativa de menor impacto ambiental que otros sistemas de cultivo. Sin embargo, algunos autores alertan que puede generar degradación de algunas propiedades del suelo, siendo las lombrices de tierra (Annelida: Lumbricina buenas indicadoras por su capacidad de integrar en su respuesta a los manejos el conjunto de factores de estrés. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el cambio de las comunidades de lombrices de tierra y de algunas propiedades físicas, químicas y fisicoquímicas en suelos con SD en relación a pastizales naturales (PN, en la cuenca Gral. Deheza, Córdoba. Las lombrices de tierra se obtuvieron según el método del programa TSBF. Se observó un aumento de la compactación y una disminución en el contenido de materia orgánica (MO y del pH en los sitios con SD con respecto a los PN. La comunidad de Lumbricina estuvo dominada por lombrices endogeas, claves en los procesos edáficos al modificar tanto aspectos químicos como físicos del suelo. En SD disminuyó la población de Lumbricina de una media de 297 ind m-2 a 70 ind m-2 con respecto a los PN y aumentó la proporción de individuos en diapausa y juveniles. Esto se explica principalmente por la mayor compactación y el menor contenido de MO. El aumento de organismos juveniles y en diapausa también podría estar asociado a la influencia negativa del intenso uso de agrotóxicos. Se concluye que en la región estudiada, los suelos bajo SD estarían comprometidos en el cumplimiento de las «funciones ecosistémicas» que son la base de su calidad. Se plantea el interrogante sobre la sustentabilidad a largo plazo de esta práctica agrícola.No-till has been recognized as a low environmental impact management in relation to other crop systems. However, it has been suggested that no-till may produce degradation of several soil properties. The earthworm (Annelida: Lumbricina community is a good indicator of soil quality

  8. Arsenic speciation and susceptibility to oxidative stress in the fanworm Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin) (Annelida, Sabellidae) under naturally acidified conditions: An in situ transplant experiment in a Mediterranean CO2 vent system. (United States)

    Ricevuto, E; Lanzoni, I; Fattorini, D; Regoli, F; Gambi, M C


    The fanworm Sabella spallanzanii (Gmelin, 1791) (Annelida, Sabellidae) is considered tolerant to several types of stressors but is generally absent from the CO2 vents. A peculiar characteristic of this species is the elevated content of arsenic in the gills, particularly dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), stored as an anti-predatory compound. In this study, modulation of trace metal levels, chemical speciation of arsenic and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified in S. spallanzanii after a 30days transplant experiment into naturally acidified conditions in a Mediterranean vent system. No significant bioaccumulation of metals was observed in the thoracic tissues and branchial crowns after the translocation period, whereas variations occurred in the relative abundance of different arsenic compounds with the appearance of inorganic forms. The antioxidant system of translocated polychaetes exhibited a significant decrease of enzymatic activities of both catalase and glutathione peroxidases, and the impairment of the overall capability to neutralize hydroxyl radicals (OH). This highlighted an oxidative challenge primarily on the detoxification pathway of hydrogen peroxide. Overall low pH-elevated pCO2 may have detrimental effects on arsenic metabolism and oxidative status of S. spallanzanii, supporting the hypothesis of species-specific differences in vulnerability to ocean acidification. PMID:26688050

  9. Enchytraeidae of the Netherlands (Annelida; Oligochaeta)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunst, de J.H.


    This paper presents a preliminary check list of 46 species of Enchytraeidae hitherto found in the Netherlands. With the exception of Enchytraeus albidus and Hemifridericia parva, these species are recorded from the Netherlands for the first time.

  10. Phylogeny of Myzostomida (Annelida) and their relationships with echinoderm hosts


    Summers, Mindi M; Rouse, Greg W.


    Background Myzostomids are marine annelids, nearly all of which live symbiotically on or inside echinoderms, chiefly crinoids, and to a lesser extent asteroids and ophiuroids. These symbionts possess a variety of adult body plans and lifestyles. Most described species live freely on the exterior of their hosts as adults (though starting life on the host inside cysts), while other taxa permanently reside in galls, cysts, or within the host’s mouth, digestive system, coelom, or gonads. Myzostom...

  11. Serpulidae (Annelida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Kupriyanova, Elena K; Sun, Yanan; Hove, Harry A Ten; Wong, Eunice; Rouse, Greg W


    Serpulidae are obligatory sedentary polychaetes inhabiting calcareous tubes that are most common in subtropical and tropical areas of the world. This paper describes serpulid polychaetes collected from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in 1983-2013 and deposited in Australian museums and overseas. In total, 17 serpulid genera were recorded, but although the study deals with 44 nominal taxa, the exact number of species remains unclear because a number of genera (i.e., Salmacina, Protula, Serpula, Spirobranchus, and Vermiliopsis) need world-wide revisions. Some species described herein are commonly found in the waters around Lizard Island, but had not previously been formally reported. A new species of Hydroides (H. lirs) and two new species of Semivermilia (S. annehoggettae and S. lylevaili) are described. A taxonomic key to all taxa found at Lizard Island is provided.

  12. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat


    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided.

  13. Nereididae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Glasby, Christopher J


    Nereididae is one of the most ubiquitous of polychaete families, yet knowledge of their diversity in the northern Great Barrier Reef is poor; few species have been previously reported from any of the atolls or islands including Lizard Island. In this study, the diversity of the family from Lizard Island and surrounding reefs is documented based on museum collections derived from surveys conducted mostly over the last seven years. The Lizard Island nereidid fauna was found to be represented by 14 genera and 38 species/species groups, including 11 putative new species. Twelve species are newly reported from Lizard Island; four of these are also first records for Australia. For each genus and species, diagnoses and/or taxonomic remarks are provided in addition to notes on their habitat on Lizard Island, and general distribution; the existence of tissue samples tied to vouchered museum specimens is indicated. Fluorescence photography is used to help distinguish closely similar species of Nereis and Platynereis. A key is provided to facilitate identification and encourage further taxonomic, molecular and ecological studies on the group.

  14. The normal development of Platynereis dumerilii (Nereididae, Annelida

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    Henrich Thorsten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polychaete annelid Platynereis dumerilii is an emerging model organism for the study of molecular developmental processes, evolution, neurobiology and marine biology. Annelids belong to the Lophotrochozoa, the so far understudied third major branch of bilaterian animals besides deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. P. dumerilii has proven highly relevant to explore ancient bilaterian conditions via comparison to the deuterostomes, because it has accumulated less evolutionary change than conventional ecdysozoan models. Previous staging was mainly referring to hours post fertilization but did not allow matching stages between studies performed at (even slightly different temperatures. To overcome this, and to provide a first comprehensive description of P. dumerilii normal development, a temperature-independent staging system is needed. Results Platynereis dumerilii normal development is subdivided into 16 stages, starting with the zygote and ending with the death of the mature worms after delivering their gametes. The stages described can be easily identified by conventional light microscopy or even by dissecting scope. Developmental landmarks such as the beginning of phototaxis, the visibility of the stomodeal opening and of the chaetae, the first occurrence of the ciliary bands, the formation of the parapodia, the extension of antennae and cirri, the onset of feeding and other characteristics are used to define different developmental stages. The morphology of all larval stages as well as of juveniles and adults is documented by light microscopy. We also provide an overview of important steps in the development of the nervous system and of the musculature, using fluorescent labeling techniques and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. Timing of each developmental stage refers to hours post fertilization at 18 ± 0.1°C. For comparison, we determined the pace of development of larvae raised at 14°C, 16°C, 20°C, 25°C, 28°C and 30°C. A staging ontology representing the comprehensive list of developmental stages of P. dumerilii is available online. Conclusions Our atlas of Platynereis dumerilii normal development represents an important resource for the growing Platynereis community and can also be applied to other nereidid annelids.

  15. Mechanics of cocoon secretion in a segmented worm (Annelida: Hirudinidae). (United States)

    Rossi, Anthony M; Saidel, William M; Gravante, Christopher J; Sayers, Charlene W; Shain, Daniel H


    Clitellate annelids (e.g., segmented earthworms, leeches) secrete proteinaceous cocoons into which eggs are deposited. The process of cocoon production is characterized by the coordinated release of micro-granules from secretory cells positioned asymmetrically within the clitellum. Collectively, these assemble into a tubular cocoon sheath that is sealed at either end by globular opercula. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we show here that granules destined to the cocoon operculum in the leech, Erpodbdella obscura, display a series of concentric rings surrounding a structureless core with dimensions approximating a single nanoglobule found in the operculum. Upon their channeling to the surface through narrow tubules, granules are secreted into the cocoon lumen where they appear to fragment upon contact with the operculum matrix. The distribution of partial concentric ring structures throughout the operculum suggests that granular fusion causes dynamic fragmentation of outer surface material, which thereafter integrates into operculum nanoglobules and cavities. Other granules within the same secretory cell display a punctate pattern and likely fuse with the cocoon sheath prior to crystallization. PMID:27129037

  16. Comparative neuroanatomy suggests repeated reduction of neuroarchitectural complexity in Annelida

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    Todt Christiane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paired mushroom bodies, an unpaired central complex, and bilaterally arranged clusters of olfactory glomeruli are among the most distinctive components of arthropod neuroarchitecture. Mushroom body neuropils, unpaired midline neuropils, and olfactory glomeruli also occur in the brains of some polychaete annelids, showing varying degrees of morphological similarity to their arthropod counterparts. Attempts to elucidate the evolutionary origin of these neuropils and to deduce an ancestral ground pattern of annelid cerebral complexity are impeded by the incomplete knowledge of annelid phylogeny and by a lack of comparative neuroanatomical data for this group. The present account aims to provide new morphological data for a broad range of annelid taxa in order to trace the occurrence and variability of higher brain centers in segmented worms. Results Immunohistochemically stained preparations provide comparative neuroanatomical data for representatives from 22 annelid species. The most prominent neuropil structures to be encountered in the annelid brain are the paired mushroom bodies that occur in a number of polychaete taxa. Mushroom bodies can in some cases be demonstrated to be closely associated with clusters of spheroid neuropils reminiscent of arthropod olfactory glomeruli. Less distinctive subcompartments of the annelid brain are unpaired midline neuropils that bear a remote resemblance to similar components in the arthropod brain. The occurrence of higher brain centers such as mushroom bodies, olfactory glomeruli, and unpaired midline neuropils seems to be restricted to errant polychaetes. Conclusions The implications of an assumed homology between annelid and arthropod mushroom bodies are discussed in light of the 'new animal phylogeny'. It is concluded that the apparent homology of mushroom bodies in distantly related groups has to be interpreted as a plesiomorphy, pointing towards a considerably complex neuroarchitecture inherited from the last common ancestor, Urbilateria. Within the annelid radiation, the lack of mushroom bodies in certain groups is explained by widespread secondary reductions owing to selective pressures unfavorable for the differentiation of elaborate brains. Evolutionary pathways of mushroom body neuropils in errant polychaetes remain enigmatic.

  17. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) of Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Murray, Anna; Wong, Eunice; Hutchings, Pat


    Seven species of the family Nephtyidae are recorded from Lizard Island, none previously reported from the Great Barrier Reef. Two species of Aglaophamus, four species of Micronephthys, one new and one previously unreported from Australia, and one species of Nephtys, were identified from samples collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Workshop 2013, as well as from ecological studies undertaken during the 1970s and deposited in the Australian Museum marine invertebrate Collections. A dichotomous key to aid identification of these species newly reported from Lizard Island is provided. PMID:26624076


    In comparison to the other aquatic macroinvertebrate groups of Kansas, the leech fauna is an unusually neglected group. This preliminary survey of Kansas leeches include 20 species, 13 of which are new to this state.

  19. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

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    Guilherme R. Gorni


    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da família Naididae. As espécies Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 e Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 apresentaram a maior abundância relativa (43,68%, 12,32% e 10,08%, respectivamente. Espécimes de Haemonais waldvogeli foram encontrados em todos os períodos sazonais, o que demonstra sua afinidade com este tipo de substrato. Os resultados indicam que várias espécies de Naididae encontram no umbílico da concha (que contém detrito fino um habitat favorável para seu estabelecimento.

  20. Efectos subletales de la lambda-cialotrina sobre Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae Sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

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    Tamara Ricardo


    Full Text Available El uso intensivo de agroquímicos provoca efectos dañinos sobre la fauna no blanco. Dentro de la misma, los oligoquetos contribuyen a mantener la estructura y fertilidad del suelo. La lambda-cialotrina es uno de los insecticidas piretroides más utilizados en la Argentina, pero son escasos los datos existentes acerca de su toxicidad sobre oligoquetos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar mediante bioensayos de toxicidad crónica los efectos de lambda-cialotrina (producto comercial al 5% en Eisenia fetida sobre los parámetros de comportamiento, sobrevivencia, biomasa, reproducción y bioacumulación, así como la persistencia en suelo OECD de dicho tóxico. Los resultados muestran un comportamiento de huída intenso a partir de la concentración más baja, con un EC50 de 1,36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L. 0,24 - 2,80. No se observaron efectos en sobrevivencia y alimentación. La reproducción fue afectada significativamente (F= 11,94, PThe intensive use of agrochemicals has deleterious effects on non-target organisms. Among these organisms, earthworms are important because of their role in keeping the soil structure and fertility. Lambda-cyhalothrin is one of the most widely used pyrethroid insecticide in Argentina, but there are not enough studies of the effects of this pesticide on earthworms. The goals of this work were to perform chronic toxicity bioassays to determine the effects of commercial lambda-cyhalothrin (at 5% on Eisenia fetida. The parameters of behaviour, survival, biomass, reproduction, bioaccumulation and the degradation time of lambda-cyhalotrin in an OECD standard soil were also estimated. Results showed a hard avoidance behaviour in the lowest lambda-cyhalothrin concentration with an EC50 of 1.36 mg kg-1 (95% C.L 0.24-2.80. Eisenia fetida chronic test survival and feeding were not affected by lambda-cyhalothrin but negative effects on reproduction were significant (P<0.05. Cocoon production and fertility were reduced and incubation time was incremented. The BAF were between 0.005 and 0.08 in the test concentrations and the soil degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was complete after 86 days.

  1. Efectos subletales de la lambda-cialotrina sobre Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) Sublethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)


    Tamara Ricardo; Maria Inés Maitre; Alba Rut Rodríguez


    El uso intensivo de agroquímicos provoca efectos dañinos sobre la fauna no blanco. Dentro de la misma, los oligoquetos contribuyen a mantener la estructura y fertilidad del suelo. La lambda-cialotrina es uno de los insecticidas piretroides más utilizados en la Argentina, pero son escasos los datos existentes acerca de su toxicidad sobre oligoquetos. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron evaluar mediante bioensayos de toxicidad crónica los efectos de lambda-cialotrina (producto comercial al 5%)...

  2. New species of Pisionidens (Sigalionidae, Annelida) from Akumal, México. (United States)

    Petersen, H Cecilie B; Gonzalez, Brett C; Martínez, Alejandro; Worsaae, Katrine


    Pisionidens Aiyar & Alikuhni, 1943 is a genus of small scale-less annelids formerly belonging to the family 'Pisionidae', now synonymized with the scale worm family Sigalionidae. A new species from Akumal, México, Pisionidens ixazaluohae n. sp., is herein described, including a genetic barcode, and diagnosed by parapodia from segment 8, males having a continuous line of midventral pores, and the presence of a single copulatory segment without parapodia. The new species differs in morphology from the three previously described species, including P. indica (Aiyar & Alikuhni, 1940), representing the only other species previously reported from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. A comparative table with a summary of the main taxonomic characters of all described species of the genus, including information on distribution, is provided. PMID:27395710

  3. Description of three new species of Eumida Malmgren, 1865 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida) from southern and southeastern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Oliveira, Verônica Maria; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Lana, Paulo Da Cunha


    We describe three new species of Eumida from shallow estuarine and shelf bottoms from south and southeastern Brazil as part of a regional survey of the family Phyllodocidae. Previous regional records of Eumida sanguinea (Ørsted, 1843) are herein referred to Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The two...

  4. Description of three new species of Protodrilus (Annelida, Protodrilidae) from Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Jörger, Katharina;


    Three new species of Protodrilus are described from the shallow Western Atlantic waters of Belize and Panama: P. smithsoni sp. nov., P. draco sp. nov. and P. hochbergi sp. nov. Protodrilus smithsoni sp. nov. resembles P. jagersteni and P. submersus from New Zealand, differing by (i) the presence ...

  5. Annotated checklist of Capitellidae (Annelida, Polychaeta) from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands


    M. El Haddad; Capaccioni Azzati, R.; García-Carrascosa, A. M.


    The present annotated checklist has been elaborated after revision of preserved materials (from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid and the reference collection of the Marine Biology Laboratory of the University of Valencia) and published literature related to capitellids from the Iberian Peninsula, Chafarinas, Balearic and Canary Islands. Twenty-four species and subspecies belonging to thirteen genera are recognized as valid taxa. With this checklist we include some taxonomic de...

  6. A new species of Amphictene ( Annelida , Pectinariidae ) from the northern South China Sea


    Zhang,Jinghuai; Zhang, Yanjie; Qiu, Jian-Wen


    Abstract Pectinariids are a family of polychaetes commonly found in shallow coastal waters around the world, but their diversity is poorly known along the coasts of Asia. Here we describe Amphictene alata sp. n. ( Pectinariidae ), based on 15 specimens collected from the coastal waters of Guangdong in the northern South China Sea. This new species can be distinguished from all other 13 described species and one described subspecies of Amphictene by having a pair of dorsolateral lobes on segme...

  7. Evolution of cave Axiokebuita and Speleobregma (Scalibregmatidae, Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Garcia, Alejandro; Di Domenico, Maikon; Worsaae, Katrine


    on newly collected material and in situ observations. Axiokebuita cavernicola sp. n. is found in Pleistocene gravel deposits in a shallow water marine cave in Tenerife (Canary Islands). The new species is characterized by the presence of dorsal ciliary bands and short knob-like neuropodial cirri from...

  8. A new species of Heterospio (Annelida, longosomatidae) from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parapar, J.; Vijapure, T.; Moreira, J.; Sukumaran, S.

    the Indian Ocean Julio PARAPAR 1,*, Tejal VIJAPURE 2, Juan MOREIRA 3 & Soniya SUKUMARAN 4 1 Departamento de Bioloxía Animal, Bioloxía Vexetal e Ecoloxía, Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruña, Rúa da Fraga 10, E-15008 A Coruña, Spain. 2,4 CSIR...-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Mumbai, India. 3 Departamento de Biología (Zoología), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain. * Corresponding author: 2 Email: tejaalvijapure...

  9. A new Capitella polychaete worm (Annelida: Capitellidae) living inside whale bones in the abyssal South Atlantic (United States)

    Silva, Camila F.; Shimabukuro, Maurício; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Amaral, Antonia C. Z.


    A new species of the genus Capitella, Capitella iatapiuna sp. nov., has been found in deep sea whale-fall samples, São Paulo Ridge-Southwest Atlantic. The new species is mainly characterized by a bluntly rounded prostomium and a very distinct peristomium forming a complete ring. Ribosomal 16S sequences were obtained and used for inter-specific comparisons. This species is herein described and compared to others species of the genus. Its ecological role in the whale-fall community is also discussed.

  10. Two new genera of Lumbriculidae (Annelida, Clitellata) from North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Fend, S.V.; Lenat, D.R.


    Recent benthic macroinvertebrate collections from North Carolina contained many undescribed oligochaete taxa, mostly belonging to the family Lumbriculidae. Three of the new species had arrangements of spermathecae and atria previously unreported for the family, and were assigned to new two genera. Pilaridrilus is distinguished by the location of spermathecal pores five segments behind the male pores. The single species, Pilaridrilus uliginosus, also has unusually complex penes and spermathecae. Martinidrilus is distinguished by spermathecae beginning more than two segments anterior to the atrial segment, and also by the the vasa deferentia, which join a common duct before joining the atria. The two Martinidrilus species also have unusual digitiform blood vessels in posterior segments. Martinidrilus carolinensis has lateral spermathecae in VI, and Martinidrilus arenosus has dorsolateral spermathecae in VII and VIII. Because arrangement and morphology of reproductive organs do not resemble those of described lumbriculids, the phylogenetic affinities of the new species are not clear. These new genera and species were generally collected from areas of high water quality, suggesting that lumbriculids can be useful in water quality monitoring and conservation evaluation. Copyright ?? 2007 Magnolia Press.

  11. A biogeographical analysis of the polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta from the gulf of Tehuantepec, México.

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    Vivianne Solís-Weiss


    Full Text Available The biogeographic affinities of 84 species of annelid polychaetes collected in the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec are surveyed in this study. Four predominant faunistic assemblages were found: Wide distribution (24,99%, Amphiamerican (21,42%, Pacific (42,84% and Disjunct (10,91%; those were defined from the eleven most generalized groups found there (Cosmopolitan, Circumtropical, Amphiamerican extended, Amphiamerican warm waters, Northeastern Pacific, Eastern tropical Pacific, Indopacific, Transpacific, Amphiamerican-Eastern Atlantic, Amphiamerican-Western Pacific, Eastern Pacific-Eastern Atlantic. The distribution patterns as well as the migration hypotheses that might explain the present distribution are discussed, and comparisons are made with recent biogeographic studies in nearby areas in the eastern Pacific such as Panama, Colombia and western Mexico.

  12. New and previously known species of Oenonidae (Polychaeta: Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Zanol, Joana; Ruta, Christine


    The family Oenonidae consists of Eunicida species with prionognath jaws. Its Australian fauna had been reported to comprise six species belonging to Arabella, Drilonereis, and Oenone. This study provides descriptions for four new species, redescriptions for three species (two previously recorded and a new record, Drilonereis cf. logani) and diagnoses for the genera recorded from Australia. Currently, eleven species of oenonids, distributed in three genera, are known for the Australian coast. On Lizard Island, this family shows low abundance (19 specimens collected) and high richness (seven species). Our results suggest that despite the increasing accumulation of information, the biodiversity of the family is still poorly estimated.

  13. Telothelepodidae, Thelepodidae and Trichobranchidae (Annelida, Terebelliformia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Hutchings, Pat; de Matos Nogueira, João Miguel; Carrerette, Orlemir


    In a survey of the polychaetes of the Lizard Island region, six species of polychaetes belonging to the families Telothelepodidae Nogueira, Fitzhugh & Hutchings, 2013, Thelepodidae Hessle, 1917 and Trichobranchidae Malmgren, 1866 were found, from material collected during the Lizard Island Polychaete Taxonomic Workshop, and material collected by previous projects undertaken by the Australian Museum. This material includes one new species of Rhinothelepus Hutchings, 1974 (Telothelepodidae); one new species of each of the genera, Euthelepus McIntosh, 1885, Streblosoma Sars, 1872, and Thelepus Leuckart, 1849 (Thelepodidae); and one new species of Terebellides Sars, 1835 and another of Trichobranchus Malmgren, 1866 (Trichobranchidae). Keys for identification of these species are provided, together with full descriptions for all species, as well as comparisons with the morphologically most similar congeners.

  14. Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Alvestad, Tom; Budaeva, Nataliya


    Neosabellides lizae, a new species of Ampharetidae, is described from the intertidal zone off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. The new species is referred to the genus Neosabellides based on the shape of the prostomium, three pairs of branchiae, 14 thoracic segments with notopodia, 12 thoracic uncinigerous segments, and the first two pairs of abdominal uncinigers of thoracic type. The new species differs from all known species of Neosabellides in having 14 abdominal uncinigerous segments.

  15. Glyceriformia Fauchald, 1977 (Annelida: "Polychaeta") from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. (United States)

    Böggemann, Markus


    Eight species of Glyceridae (Glycera brevicirris, Glycera cf. lapidum, Glycera onomichiensis, Glycera sagittariae, Glycera tesselata, Glycera tridactyla, Glycerella magellanica, Hemipodia cf. simplex) and six species of Goniadidae (Goniada antipoda, Goniada cf. brunnea, Goniada echinulata, Goniada emerita, Goniada grahami, Goniada paucidens) have been collected during several expeditions to the vicinity of Lizard Island (Australia, Queensland). An identification key to the Glyceriformia that inhabit the region is presented. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions are given for all investigated species.


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    Full Text Available Twenty-eight freshwater crayfish were collected from 8 streams and one small lake in the province of South Tyrol (North Italy from autumn 1999 to spring 2001, in order to investigate the presence of branchiobdellidans. At 6 of the streams the white clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes italicus was collected, while the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, the exotic species: signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus and spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus were respectively caught at the other 2 streams and at the lake. Except for O. limosus, branchiobdellidans were observed on all crayfish examined. On noble crayfish, specimens of Branchiobdella italica and Branchiobdella hexodonta were found on the same host. Branchiobdella italica was largely recovered from all white clawed crayfish. The specimens of signal crayfish were found to carry only Xironogiton victoriensis.

  17. New Record of a Naidid Oligochaete Species, Ripistes parasita (Annelida: Clitellata: Naididae from Korea

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    Jongwoo Jung


    Full Text Available An aquatic oligochaete species, Ripistes parasita (Schmidt, 1847 collected from Ganghwado Island in Korea, is described and illustrated. Specimens inhabiting on aquatic vegetation at the edge of the streams were collected with a plankton hand net. Morphological features of present specimens such as the number of long hair chaetae per bundle and their length in VI-VIII, and shape and size of ventral chaetae are concordant with those of previous reports on this species. The genus Ripistes contains one species, R. parasite which is distributed over, Europe, North America and eastern part of Asia including China and Japan. This is the first record of R. parasita in Korea.

  18. Acquisition of dwarf male "harems" by recently settled females of Osedax roseus n. sp. (Siboglinidae; Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouse, G W; Worsaae, K; Johnson, S. B.;


    After the deployment of several whale carcasses in Monterey Bay, California, a time-series analysis revealed the presence of a new species of Osedax, a genus of bone-eating siboglinid annelids. That species is described here as Osedax roseus n. sp. It is the fifth species described since the erec......After the deployment of several whale carcasses in Monterey Bay, California, a time-series analysis revealed the presence of a new species of Osedax, a genus of bone-eating siboglinid annelids. That species is described here as Osedax roseus n. sp. It is the fifth species described since...... the erection of this genus and, like its congeners, uses a ramifying network of "roots" to house symbiotic bacteria. In less than 2 months, Osedax roseus n. sp. colonized the exposed bones of a whale carcass deposited at 1018-m depth, and many of the females were fecund in about 3 months post...

  19. Physiological responses to temperature and haeme synthesis modifiers in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Annelida: Oligochaeta). (United States)

    Khan, M A Q; Khan, Munawwar Ali; Hurlock, Peter; Ahmed, S A


    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) acclimated at 2° and 6°C above their average habitat temperature (10°C) had respectively 15 and 40% higher rate of respiration than those at habitat temperature. At 14°C, the rate of respiration and blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration both increased by ∼60 and 50%, respectively, of the values at habitat temperature. At higher temperatures the rate of respiration and Hb synthesis started decreasing. At 20-23°C, the respiration and Hb concentration decreased respectively by about 85% and 35% of that at 14°C. Decrease in blood Hb concentration at higher temperatures appeared to be due to the lowering of the activity of blood enzyme δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Exposure of 20-23°C-acclimated pale worms to ALAD inhibitor (lead), lowered the already compromised rate of respiration and blood Hb concentration; while exposure to hexachlorobenzene (HCB, inducer of haeme synthesis) and ferric chloride (enhancer of haeme synthesis) did not overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature on Hb synthesis. At 20-23°C the affinity of Hb for oxygen also decreased as indicated by the lowering of oxy-Hb (HbO) concentration in blood. The lowering of concentration of blood Hb and its affinity for oxygen may lower the amount of oxygen delivered to cells, which may limit the level of aerobic metabolism (glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation), as indicated by an increase in blood glucose concentration and a decrease in in vitro activities of mitochondrial electron transport system components (ETS) namely NADH-cytochrome c reductase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATPases. Although the oxygen concentration in air, at sea level, does not decrease significantly from 6° to 20-23°C (lack of hypoxia), lowering of both Hb and HbO concentrations by high temperature may cause significant hypoxemia. The latter may lead to inhibition of the activity of muscle mitochondrial respiratory enzymes (ETS). The resulting inhibition of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis may cause deficit of energy needed for peristalsis/fictive locomotion of body and heart muscles (as indicated by a decrease in heart rate) to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. The upper critical temperature (20-23°C) also slows down the heart rate and causes hyperosmotic stress (hypovolemia). Thus, a rise in soil temperature above 18°C, which inhibits Hb synthesis, Hb oxygenation, and mitochondrial ETS activity, and slows down the heart rate and causes hyperosmotic stress, can make this and higher temperatures lethal to populations of these earthworms, especially in the presence of metabolic inhibitors and respiratory poisons. PMID:20725936

  20. Conservative Mechanisms of Extracellular Trap Formation by Annelida Eisenia andrei: Serine Protease Activity Requirement. (United States)

    Homa, Joanna; Ortmann, Weronika; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta


    Formation of extracellular traps (ETs) capturing and immobilizing pathogens is now a well-established defense mechanism added to the repertoire of vertebrate phagocytes. These ETs are composed of extracellular DNA (extDNA), histones and antimicrobial proteins. Formation of mouse and human ETs depends on enzymes (i) facilitating decondensation of chromatin by citrullination of histones, and (ii) serine proteases degrading histones. In invertebrates, initial reports revealed existence of ETs composed of extDNA and histones, and here we document for the first time that also coelomocytes, immunocompetent cells of an earthworm Eisenia andrei, cast ETs which successfully trap bacteria in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and -independent manner. Importantly, the formation of ETs was observed not only when coelomocytes were studied ex vivo, but also in vivo, directly in the earthworm coelom. These ETs were composed of extDNA, heat shock proteins (HSP27) and H3 histones. Furthermore, the formation of E. andrei ETs depended on activity of serine proteases, including elastase-like activity. Moreover, ETs interconnected and hold together aggregating coelomocytes, a processes proceeding encapsulation. In conclusion, the study confirms ET formation by earthworms, and unravels mechanisms leading to ET formation and encapsulation in invertebrates. PMID:27416067

  1. A remarkable diversity of bone-eating worms (Osedax; Siboglinidae; Annelida

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    Johnson Shannon B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-eating Osedax worms have proved to be surprisingly diverse and widespread. Including the initial description of this genus in 2004, five species that live at depths between 25 and 3,000 m in the eastern and western Pacific and in the north Atlantic have been named to date. Here, we provide molecular and morphological evidence for 12 additional evolutionary lineages from Monterey Bay, California. To assess their phylogenetic relationships and possible status as new undescribed species, we examined DNA sequences from two mitochondrial (COI and 16S rRNA and three nuclear genes (H3, 18S and 28S rRNA. Results Phylogenetic analyses identified 17 distinct evolutionary lineages. Levels of sequence divergence among the undescribed lineages were similar to those found among the named species. The 17 lineages clustered into five well-supported clades that also differed for a number of key morphological traits. Attempts to determine the evolutionary age of Osedax depended on prior assumptions about nucleotide substitution rates. According to one scenario involving a molecular clock calibrated for shallow marine invertebrates, Osedax split from its siboglinid relatives about 45 million years ago when archeocete cetaceans first appeared and then diversified during the late Oligocene and early Miocene when toothed and baleen whales appeared. Alternatively, the use of a slower clock calibrated for deep-sea annelids suggested that Osedax split from its siboglinid relatives during the Cretaceous and began to diversify during the Early Paleocene, at least 20 million years before the origin of large marine mammals. Conclusion To help resolve uncertainties about the evolutionary age of Osedax, we suggest that the fossilized bones from Cretaceous marine reptiles and late Oligocene cetaceans be examined for possible trace fossils left by Osedax roots. Regardless of the outcome, the present molecular evidence for strong phylogenetic concordance across five separate genes suggests that the undescribed Osedax lineages comprise evolutionarily significant units that have been separate from one another for many millions of years. These data coupled with ongoing morphological analyses provide a solid foundation for their future descriptions as new species.

  2. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)


    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of echiuran worms (Phylum: Annelida reveals evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism.

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    Ryutaro Goto

    Full Text Available The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs. Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.

  4. Hesionura augeneri Goniadella Bobretzkii, and Parapodrilus psammophilus (Annelida, Polychaeta) : new to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.; Stegenga, H.


    INTRODUCTION AND METHODS During an investigation of distribution and ecology of the Archiannelida of the estuarine area of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt in the southwestern part of The Netherlands, three species of polychaetes new to the Dutch fauna were found. Because these species have not b

  5. Redescription and biology of Diopatra neapolitana (Annelida: Onuphidae), a protandric hermaphrodite with external spermaducal papillae (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore; Budaeva, Nataliya


    A one-year study of the reproductive biology of a population of Diopatra neapolitana at Villaviciosa estuary, northern Spain, was undertaken. Field observations together with a histological study of monthly collected individuals revealed that the population was iteroparous, had a discontinuous reproductive season with a resting period during August and September and a spawning season from March to July. The study showed that D. neapolitana was not dioecious as previously suggested but consisted of protandric sequential hermaphrodites, pure males and pure females with a male biased sex ratio of 3:1. During the peak reproductive period from May to August we observed simultaneous hermaphrodites with two dorsal papillae per segment in the branchial region. Histological studies demonstrated that the papillae were acting as seminal vesicles, storing own sperm, and also as sperm ducts, providing an exit route; hence we termed them 'spermaducal papillae'. The papillae are not the only sperm repositories as the coelom of males and simultaneous hermaphrodites in smaller size classes is also filled with sperm. The worms are broadcast spawners with a brief pelagic larval stage as previously reported but the finer points of this unusual fertilisation system need still to be elaborated. Diopatra cryptornata was recently described as a new species, supposedly differing from D. neapolitana in chaetal detail and the possession of the papillae. We have shown conclusively with morphological and genetical studies that the former species is a junior synonym of the latter. In the absence of type material we are here designating a neotype from recently collected material from Naples.

  6. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, M.O.; Eibye-Jacobsen, D.; Worsaae, K.


    The jaw ontogeny of Dorvillea albomaculata and D. bermudensis was studied in cultured specimens, reproducing asexually by transverse fission. Mandibular growth was found to occur by lateral apposition. Maxillary development exhibited a gradual growth pattern, as opposed to the maxillary moults...... found in closely related species (Macnaughton et al. 2009). Details of dentition and numbers of maxillary plates as well as the ontogenetic growth patterns of the jaws were found to provide significant information of systematic value. Based on detailed studies of jaw ontogeny and morphology, Dorvillea...

  7. Branchiosyllis, Haplosyllis, Opisthosyllis and Trypanosyllis (Annelida: Syllidae) from Brazil, with the Description of Two New Species (United States)

    Paresque, Karla; Fukuda, Marcelo Veronesi; Nogueira, João Miguel de Matos


    Brazilian specimens of Branchiosyllis cf. exilis, B. tamandarensis sp. n., Haplosyllis lattigae sp. n., H. loboi, Opisthosyllis brunnea and O. viridis are described and illustrated herein, from recently collected material; also, the distributions of Haplosyllis amphimedonicola and H. rosenalessoae are expanded to other localities in the states of Paraíba and Pernambuco. Branchiosyllis tamandarensis sp. n. was found associated with sponges and is characterized by having a flattened, ribbon-like body, with longitudinal line of mid-dorsal papillae, peristomium dorsally inconspicuous, branchiae with up to six lobes, branchiae and ungulae on all parapodia, and falcigers absent. Haplosyllis lattigae sp. n. is characterized by having two kinds of chaetae with different sizes and shapes per parapodium, papillate dorsum from midbody, and midbody dorsal cirri alternating in length. Additionally, we provide keys to the Brazilian species of Branchiosyllis, Haplosyllis and Opisthosyllis, comparative tables of the new species described herein and selected similar congeners, and the first record for Trypanosyllis zebra in the states of Espírito Santo and Paraíba. PMID:27144528

  8. Nerillidae (Annelida) from the Corona lava tube, Lanzarote, with description of Meganerilla cesari, n. sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Martínez, A; Núñez, J


    Five species of Nerillidae are previously known from Atlantic cave systems. Another four species of Nerillidae are reported here from the Corona lava tube (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) presenting the first records of Mesonerilla and Meganerilla from anchialine environments. We here describe...... reported. Updated diagnoses are presented for Mesonerilla armoricana, reported here for the first time from the Canary Islands, and Leptonerilla diatomeophaga, the only nerillid previously known from the Corona lava tube. The Corona lava tube holds a large variety of benthic habitats, which may explain...

  9. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

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    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  10. Six new deep-water sternaspid species (Annelida, Sternaspidae from the Pacific Ocean

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    Sergio Salazar-Vallejo


    Full Text Available Most sternaspid species have been described from shallow water, and Caulleryaspis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 includes one deep water species: C. gudmundssoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 from Iceland. In Sternaspis Otto, 1821, the most speciose genus, most species were described from shallow water and only three thrive in deep water: S. maior Chamberlin, 1919 from the Gulf of California, S. princeps Selenka, 1885 from New Zealand, and S. riestchi Caullery, 1944 from Indonesia. The study of some deep sea sternaspids from the Pacific Ocean in the collections of six research institutions resulted in the discovery of six undescribed species, and for three of them there were abundant materials showing ventro-caudal shield development. Caulleryaspis fauchaldi sp. n. is described based on specimens from Oregon and California; it differs from the known species because it has a shield with rounded anterior margins and its peg chaetae form thin, small spines. Caulleryaspis nuda sp. n. was collected off Oregon; it is unique because its shield lacks a layer of sediment particles firmly attached, but has instead a thin layer of small particles loosely attached. Four other species are newly described in Sternaspis: S. annenkovae sp. n. was collected east off the northern Kurile Islands in about 4,000 m depth; it differs from other species bya bicolored body, with the introvert darker than the abdomen, and its ventro-caudal shield plates are divergent resulting in a divided fan. The second species, S. maureri sp.n. was found off Peru in 1296–6489 m water depths and in the Southwestern Pacific in 795–3830 m; it resembles S. williamsae sp. n. but differs because its shield has better-developed ribs, the fan has a shallow or indistinct median notch and has lateral notches well-developed. The third species, S. uschakovi sp. n., was found in the Okhotsk Sea in 592–1366 m, off California in 1585 m, Gulf of California in 1200–1274 m, and Western Mexico in 2548 m; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 inshields with a denticulate posterior margin; the latter two species live in shallow water and they differ from each other and from the new species by a combination of shield and papillae features. The fourth species, S. williamsae sp. n., was found off Oregon in 1000–2400 m, and off California in 878–1246 m; it resembles S. annenkovae because both species have shields with fans narrower than the anterior margin width, but differ in the relative development of shield features and in the relative size of prostomium and mouth; as stated above it also resembles S. maureri sp. n. but its shield has poorly-developed ribs, its median notch is distinct, and the lateral notches are poorly developed or indistinct. Keys to identify all species of Caulleryaspis and Sternaspis are also included.

  11. New Prionospio and Aurospio Species from the Deep Sea (Annelida: Polychaeta). (United States)

    Paterson, Gordon L J; Neal, Lenka; Altamira, Iris; Soto, Eulogio H; Smith, Craig R; Menot, Lenaick; Billett, David S M; Cunha, Marina R; Marchais-Laguionie, Claire; Glover, Adrian G


    The number of records of the genus Prionospio Malmgren, 1867, from the deep sea (>2000 m) are relatively few and do not reflect the actual occurrence of species nor their potential ecological importance. In this paper we describe five new species of this genus (Prionospio amarsupiata sp. nov., P. vallensis sp. nov., P. branchilucida sp. nov., P. hermesia sp. nov. and P. kaplani sp. nov.) all of which are abundant members of the deep-sea community. We also describe two new species of the genus Aurospio Maciolek, 1981 (Aurospio abranchiata sp. nov. and A. tribranchiata sp. nov.) again common elements of the abyssal fauna. Two of the new species have characters which question the generic distinctiveness of Prionospio and Aurospio. The problems in differentiating these two genera are discussed. PMID:27394364

  12. Effects of extra-embryonic provisioning on larval morphology and histogenesis in Boccardia proboscidea (Annelida, Spionidae). (United States)

    Gibson, Glenys; Carver, David


    Morphology is strongly correlated with trophic mode in marine invertebrate larvae. We asked if larval morphogenesis is influenced by adelphophagy, a trophic mode in which larvae are provisioned with additional yolk in the form of extra-embryonic nurse eggs, instead of the more common increase in egg size. We used histology and scanning electron microscopy to analyze morphogenesis in Boccardia proboscidea, a polychaete that produces both small planktotrophic larvae and large adelphophagic larvae in a single egg capsule. Results indicate that both morphs are similar for histogenesis of ectodermal derivatives, and differ for the gut mucosa and coelom which show delayed differentiation in the adelphophagic morph. Heterochrony in gut and coelom development suggests that differentiation of these organ systems is decoupled from overall development, and that a trade-off exists between maturation of these tissues and rapid growth. We also looked for potential barriers to adelphophagy in planktotrophic larvae that have nurse eggs available to them. These planktotrophic larvae appeared morphologically equipped for adelphophagy: the gut was differentiated at an early stage, and larvae had structures involved in nurse-egg ingestion in the adelphophagic morph (e.g., oral cilia and ventral ciliated patches). Planktotrophic larvae were additionally capable of ingesting particles (Di-I) while in the egg capsule. Lack of adelphophagy in planktotrophic larvae remains enigmatic but these results indicate that morphology alone does not account for the arrested development shown by these larvae.

  13. Influence of environmental variables on the Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata community in a neotropical stream

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    Guilherme Rossi Gorni


    Full Text Available Among the organisms of the benthic community, oligochaetes play a key role in the energy flow and recycling of organic matter in aquatic ecosystems, where their distribution is mainly influenced by local hydrological patterns. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the influence of environmental variables on the community of limnic oligochaetes in a neotropical lotic system. Galharada stream is located within the Campos do Jordão State Park (PECJ, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1,600 m above sea level; 192 samples were collected from 4 sites selected according to their hierarchical order within the river basin (first to fourth order. To correlate the environmental variables to the oligochaete fauna, the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was performed. We identified 16 species divided into 4 families (Enchytraeidae, Naididae, Pristinidae, and Tubificidae. The results of CCA revealed that the physical characteristics of stretches, such as stream depth and width, flow speed, and flow rate were the factors that most influenced on the structure of the aquatic Oligochaeta community in Campos do Jordão. The species Aulodrilus limnobius and Nais communis were considered along with the variables electrical conductivity and turbidity, indicating a possible association with environments enriched with organic matter. The occurrence of Enchytraeidae, Pristina rosea, Chaetogaster diastrophus, Pristina proboscidea, and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri was seemingly uncorrelated to the environmental variables analyzed in this study. Our findings reinforce using the Oligochaeta community as bioindicators, by participating in the environmental assessment of continental aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Identification of two Nereis virens [Annelida: Polychaeta] cytochrome P450 enzymes and induction by xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim; Kjellerup, C; Jørgensen, A;


    Nereis virens. These are the first CYP sequences reported in annelids. The deduced amino acid sequences both share highest identities to mammalian CYP4F enzymes (61% and 58%), indicating membership of the CYP4 family (accordingly, referred to as CYP41 and CYP42, respectively). The CYP42 gene expression...... compounds such as fatty acids. Crude oil and benz(a)anthracene significantly induced CYP42 gene expression 2.6-fold, and because CYP enzymes often are induced by their own substrates, this induction may indicate involvement of N. virens CYP4 enzymes in the detoxification of environmental contaminants......Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme catalysed metabolism of xenobiotics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to occur in polychaetes. Yet specific polychaete CYP enzymes have so far not been identified. Here, we report two partial CYP cDNA sequences, both of 453 bp, characterised from...


    New species of a leech, Erpobdella lahontana, is described from the Lahontan Basin in California and Nevada of the western United States. This species has four pairs of eyes, the preatrial loops of male paired ducts extend to ganglion XI, and the male and female gonopores are loc...


    Three taxa within the leech family Glossiphoniidae, Actinobdella inequiannulata, Placobdella hollensis, and Theromyzon spp., though widespread in eastern North America, remain poorly known with respect to their biology and systematics. All three taxa have been collected in New E...

  17. Occurrence of three leech species (Annelida: Hirudinida) on fishes in the Kentucky River (United States)

    Leeches were collected from six fish species distributed among four of ten sites sampled. The leech species observed were Myzobdella reducta (Meyer, 1940) and Myzobdella lugubris Leidy, 1851 of the family Piscicolidae and Placobdella pediculata Hemingway, 1908 of the family Gloss...


    Batracobdella cryptobranchii, parasitic on Ozark Hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, is found in the North Fork of the White River, Ozark County, in Missouri. B. cryptobranchii reaches a length of 17 mm; dorsum is smooth; color pattern or metameric markings are absent. The...

  19. A general review of parasitic Annelida (Hirudinea) recorded from different habitats and hosts in Turkey


    ARSLAN, Naime; Öktener, Ahmet


    To date, parasitic leech species have not been intensively studied in Turkey, and studies on the leeches of Turkey have concentrated primarily on lakes. According to literature data, a total of 13 parasitic leech species (3 species from marine fish, 8 species from freshwater fish, 1 species from brackish water fish, and 1 species from aquarium fish) have been recorded in different parts of Turkey. Interest in this group has increased during the last 2 decades, but a large part of the Turkish ...


    Little is known specifically on the feeding relationships between parasitic leeches and fish in North America. During an electrofishing survey conducted on the main stem of the Kentucky River in the summer of 2000, the presence of leeches was documented on six species of fish. ...

  1. Expression pattern of Piwi-like genes in adult Myzostoma cirriferum (Annelida). (United States)

    Weigert, Anne; Helm, Conrad; Hausen, Harald; Zakrzewski, Anne-C; Bleidorn, Christoph


    Piwi-like genes are a subgroup of Argonaute genes which participate as gene regulators by gene silencing. In most bilaterians, such as mouse, human, insects, and zebrafish, their expression is mostly limited to gonadal stem cells. But there are some striking exceptions to this pattern; flatworms and acoels also express Piwi-like genes in somatic stem cells, due to their unique replacement system. Annelid species like Capitella teleta and Platynereis dumerilii express these genes in cells of the posterior growth zone as well as in gonadal stem cells. To investigate the expression pattern of Piwi-like genes in another annelid, we established in situ hybridization for adult Myzostoma cirriferum. Piwi-like gene transcripts recovered in an mRNA-seq library of pooled adult stages of M. cirriferum were expanded using RACE PCR, cloned and sequenced. ML analysis confirmed the identity of both transcripts as part of the Piwi1-like or Piwi2-like subfamily of Argonaute proteins. The results of in situ hybridization studies show that the expression of both Piwi-like genes, Mc-Piwi1 and Mc-Piwi2, is clearly located only in gonadal stem cells, and as such we did not find any evidence for the existence of a posterior growth zone nor expression in somatic stem cells. PMID:23609434

  2. Densidad estacional y distribución vertical de los Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta en diferentes sistemas de producción Seasonal density and vertical distribution of Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta in different production systems

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    Alicia Noemí López


    Full Text Available En el sudeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires existe escasa información sobre la actividad de los enquitreidos en diferentes sistemas de producción. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron determinar: a la importancia relativa de los enquitreidos dentro de la mesofauna; b su densidad estacional en relación con el grado de disturbio de los sistemas y c su distribución vertical. Este trabajo se realizó estacionalmente desde 1998 a 2001 en Balcarce, Argentina (37º 45'S, 58º 18'W, en cuatro lotes experimentales: natural (NAT, ganadero orgánico (GO, ganadero intensivo (GI y agrícola convencional (AC y en un suelo Argiudol Típico (NAT y Hapludol Tapto-Árgico (AC, GI y GO. Dentro de la comunidad mesofaunal, los enquitreidos fueron los más abundantes. GO (78 % y GI (68.5 % tuvieron un porcentaje menor que los sistemas más disturbado, AC (84.9 % y sin disturbios, NAT (93 %. El estudio comparativo de la densidad mostró interacción significativas entre sistemas y estación (p In the Southeastern of Buenos Aires Province little information exists on activity of enchytraeids under different production systems. The aims of this work were to determine: a the relative importance of enchytraeids among the components of the mesofaunal community; b the relationship between seasonal enchytraeids density (PD in different production systems, and c identify of pattern vertical distribution .This work was done seasonally from 1998 to 2001, on four experimental plots: natural (NAT, organic livestock (GO, intensive fertilization livestock (GI and conventional agriculture (AC at Balcarce, Argentina (37º 45'S, 58º 18'W, on soil Typic Argiudol (NAT and a Hapludol Tapto Árgico (AC, GI y GO. Enchytraeids were the most abundant in the mesofaunal community; GO (78% and GI (68,5% to supported a minor average those agroecosystems under intensive cultivation (84,9% and undisturbed soils NAT (93%. The comparative study showed significant interaction between site and season (p< 0.05 in PD. In general, GO, GI and AC average density were highest during autumn-winter than spring-summer (PD values ranged between 2476-10926 ind m-2 to 1922-0 ind m-2 in GO, 3740-2764 ind m-2 to 165-2 ind m-2 in GI and 8596-4022 ind m-2 to 4185-544 ind m-2 in AC. It was found the same in NAT (2000-2001 whereas there was not significant differences in 1999 between winter and summer. Enchytraeids were more superficially distributed (10 cm in natural grassland (NAT and in arable soil (AC than in cultivated pastures GO and GI (10-30 cm.

  3. Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata in lotic environments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata em ambientes lóticos do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Roberto da Gama Alves

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of Oligochaeta to the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems and to studies of the biology of pollution, there is currently a dearth of information on this group's ecology in Brazil. The aim of this study was to describe the Oligochaeta fauna in four watercourses - three urban and one rural - in the state of São Paulo: the Pinheirinho stream, the Água Branca stream, the Monjolinho River and the Gouveia stream, respectively. Sediment samples were taken with a Van Veen grab in two areas from each watercourse, during the summer and winter of 2001. In all collection areas, measurements of the pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity of the water were made with a Horiba U-10 device. Principal component analysis showed that axes 1 and 2 explained 68.18% of the results' variability, with the first axis predominantly associated with the granulometric data and the second one with the limnological data. Cluster analysis indicated that area II of the Monjolinho River differed from the other collection sites. In the present study, the Oligochaeta group was represented by Tubificidae, Naididae, Alluroididae, Narapidae and Enchytraeidae. Among the three species of Tubificidae, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862, was the most abundant and most frequent species. The results provided important information on the ecology and distribution of limnic Oligochaeta.Apesar da importância dos Oligochaeta para a dinâmica dos ecossistemas aquáticos e para os estudos sobre a biologia da poluição, existe atualmente, no Brasil, uma carência de informação sobre a ecologia desse grupo. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar a fauna de Oligochaeta em três córregos urbanos e um córrego rural, localizados na região central do Estado de São Paulo, sendo estes o córrego do Pinheirinho, Água Branca, rio Monjolinho e o córrego do Gouveia, respectivamente. Amostras do sedimento foram obtidas com um pegador Van Veen em duas áreas, durante o verão e inverno de 2001, em cada um dos ambientes estudados. Em todas as áreas de coletas foram tomadas medidas de pH, condutividade elétrica, oxigênio dissolvido e turbidez da água com o aparelho U-10 Horiba. A análise de componentes principais mostrou que os eixos I e II explicaram 68,18% da variabilidade dos resultados, sendo que, o primeiro eixo foi predominantemente explicado pelas variáveis granulométricas e o segundo eixo pelas variáveis limnológicas. A análise de agrupamento indicou que a área II do rio Monjolinho diferiu dos demais pontos de coleta. No presente estudo, o grupo Oligochaeta foi representado pelas famílias Tubificidae, Naididae, Alluroididae, Narapidae e Enchytraeidae. Entre as três espécies de Tubificidae, Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 foi a mais abundante e mais freqüente. Os resultados forneceram informações importantes sobre a ecologia e distribuição de Oligochaeta límnicos.

  4. The development of the larval nervous system, musculature and ciliary bands of Pomatoceros lamarckii (Annelida: heterochrony in polychaetes

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    Shimeld Sebastian M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand the evolution of animals it is essential to have taxon sampling across a representative spread of the animal kingdom. With the recent rearrangement of most of the Bilateria into three major clades (Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa and Deuterostomia it has become clear that the Lophotrochozoa are relatively poorly represented in our knowledge of animal development, compared to the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. We aim to contribute towards redressing this balance with data on the development of the muscular, nervous and ciliary systems of the annelid Pomatoceros lamarckii (Serpulidae. We compare our data with other lophotrochozoans. Results P. lamarckii develops locomotory and feeding structures that enable it to become a swimming, planktotrophic larva within 24 hours. Formation of the trochophore includes development of a prototroch, metatroch and neurotroch, development of apical and posterior nervous elements at similar times, and development of musculature around the ciliary bands and digestive tract prior to development of any body wall muscles. The adult nervous and muscular systems are essentially preformed in the late larva. Interestingly, the muscular systems of the larvae and juvenile worms do not include the circular muscles of the body wall, which are considered to be plesiomorphic for annelids, although the possibility that circular muscles develop after these stages cannot be ruled out at this point. Conclusion A comparison between polychaetes shows variability in the timing (heterochrony of development of body wall muscles and elements of the nervous system. These heterochronies are one route for evolution of different life history strategies, such as adaptations to feeding requirements.

  5. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters.

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    Sergi Taboada

    Full Text Available Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic. We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I-COI-, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. 'mediterranea' recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. 'mediterranea' to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from Deception Island and the South Georgia Island (ca. 1,600 km apart are clearly the same species, confirming the well-developed dispersal capabilities reported in other congeneric taxa. In addition, we include a complete description of living features and morphological characters (including scanning and transmission electron microscopy of O. deceptionensis, a species originally described from a single mature female, and compare it to information available for other congeneric OTUs.

  6. Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen new rank, with two new species from western North America (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae). (United States)

    Fend, Steven V; Carter, James L


    The lumbriculid Rhynchelmis subgenus Sutroa Eisen, 1888 new rank is defined for a group of Nearctic species having multiple diverticula originating at the spermathecal ducts and eversible penial bulbs. Characters are confirmed in specimens of the type species, Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) rostrata (Eisen, 1888), collected from the type locality. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) klamathensis Fend n. sp. is described from open water benthic habitats in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, USA. It resembles other R. (Sutroa) species in the paired spermathecal diverticula, the spermathecal and penial bulbs, the histological structure of the atria, the nonfunctional anterior male funnels, and the arrangement of blood vessels. Rhynchelmis klamathensis differs from all Nearctic Rhynchelmis in lacking a filiform proboscis. The combination of large body size, the elongate spermathecal ducts with paired and usually unbranched diverticula, the highly contorted atria, and the complex male pores with conical penes also distinguish typical R. klamathensis from other Rhynchelmis species. Smaller specimens with otherwise similar morphology, from the Sacramento River Delta, California, are also assigned to this species. Rhynchelmis (Sutroa) diespluviae Fend n. sp. is described from several stream sites, mostly in northern Idaho, USA. Rhynchelmis diespluviae differs from closely related species in morphology of the conical penes, and in the structure and anterolateral position of the paired spermathecae. PMID:24870078

  7. An annotated check list of the leeches (Annelida : Hirudinea of the Kruger National Park with a key to the species

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    J.H. Oosthuizen


    Full Text Available The diagnosis, distribution and bionomics of the ten species of leeches occurring in the Kruger National Park and a key to the identification of the species are presented. Seven species belong to the family Glossiphoniidae, two to the family Hirudinidae and one species to the family Salifidae. The African fish leech Batracobdelloides tricarinatus and the reptilian parasite Placobdelloidesmultistriatus are the most common species in the park. Two of the three snail leeches occurring in the reserve, viz. Alboglossiphoniadisjuncta and Helobdella conifera, the predaceous Salifa perspicax and the sanguivorous Hirudo michaelseni are widespread but not common. The snail leech Alboglossiphonia conjugata occurs only in the small Madzaringwi River and its tributaries located in the most northern part of the park. The amphibian parasite Oosthuizobdella stuhlmanni was found only at two adjacent localities in the most southern reaches of the park with the sanguivorous Asiatic obdella buntonensis limited to the southern half of the reserve. The host-specific parasite of hippopotami, Placobdelloidesjaegerskioeldi, is restricted to habitats inhabited by its host.

  8. Spionidae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Aonides, Dipolydora, Polydorella, Prionospio, Pseudopolydora, Rhynchospio, and Tripolydora. (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I


    Nineteen species in seven genera of spionid polychaetes are described and illustrated based on new material collected from the intertidal and shallow waters around the Lizard Island Group, northern Great Barrier Reef. Only one of these species had been previously reported from the Reef. Six species are described as new to science, and the taxonomy of seven species should be clarified in the future. Prionospio sensu lato is the most diverse group with 11 species identified in the present study. One species is identified in each of the genera Dipolydora, Polydorella, Rhynchospio and Tripolydora, and two species are identified in each of the genera Aonides and Pseudopolydora. The fauna of spionid polychaetes of the Great Barrier Reef seems to be more diverse than previously described and more species are expected to be found in the future. An identification key is provided to 16 genera of Spionidae reported from or likely to be found on the Great Barrier Reef.

  9. Spionidae (Annelida: 'Polychaeta': Canalipalpata) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia: the genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio, and Spiophanes. (United States)

    Meißner, Karin; Götting, Miriam


    Seven species belonging to the spionid genera Malacoceros, Scolelepis, Spio, Microspio, and Spiophanes were found during the polychaete workshop on Lizard Island in August 2013. One species is new to science and named Scolelepis inversa n. sp., another Scolelepis species is probably also a new species but was represented in our samples by only a single specimen and not formally described. All other species have been reported previously from Australia. Species diagnoses of all species found during the workshop and of Scolelepis balihaiensis Hartmann-Schröder, 1979, Microspio microcera (Dorsey, 1977) and M. minuta (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962) have been critically reviewed and amended based on the study of type material. The potential synonymy of Microspio minuta (Hartmann-Schröder, 1962) and M. microcera (Dorsey, 1977) is discussed. The new combination Spio jirkovi (Sikorski, 1992) proposed by Sikorski (2013) is returned to Malacoceros. We added DNA barcodes for five species collected in the Lizard Island area to public databases which will be useful in future phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. For Microspio we provide the first sequence data for this genus.

  10. Sphaerodoridae (Annelida) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, including the description of two new species and reproductive notes. (United States)

    Capa, María; Rouse, Greg W


    Sphaerodorids are scarce at Lizard Island archipelago and other localities in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Intensive collections at a variety of habitats within the Lizard Island archipelago over the last four decades have resulted in a total of just 11 specimens. Nevertheless, they represent two new species and a new record for Lizard Island. Sphaerodoropsis aurantica n. sp. is characterised by nine longitudinal rows of sessile and spherical dorsal macrotubercles, arranged in a single transverse row per segment; parapodia with around 10 spherical papillae; and compound chaetae with thin shafts and long blades. Sphaerodoropsis plurituberculata n. sp. is characterised by more than 12 more or less clearly arranged longitudinal rows of sessile spherical dorsal tubercles (variable in size), in four transverse rows per segment; parapodia lacking papillae; and semi-compound chaetae with distally enlarged shaft and short blades. Ephesiella australiensis is reported for the first time in Lizard Island. Laboratory observations of live specimens of Sphaerodoropsis plurituberculata n. sp., revealed the use of spermatophores by males. These were found attached externally to the body surface of both sexes, indicating pseudo-copulation.

  11. Darwin’s earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea with review of cosmopolitan Metaphire peguana–species group from Philippines

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    Blakemore, R.J.


    Full Text Available A chance visit to Darwin allowed inspection of and addition to Northern Territory (NT Museum’s earthworm collection. Native Diplotrema zicsii sp. nov. from Alligator River, Kakadu NP is described. Town samples were dominated by cosmopolitan exotic Metaphire bahli (Gates, 1945 herein keyed and compared morpho-molecularly with M. peguana (Rosa, 1890 requiring revision of allied species including Filipino Pheretima philippina (Rosa, 1891, P. p. lipa and P. p. victorias sub-spp. nov. A new P. philippina-group now replaces the dubia-group of Sims & Easton, 1972 and Amynthas carinensis (Rosa, 1890 further replaces their sieboldi-group. Lumbricid Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826 and Glossoscolecid Pontoscolex corethrurus (Müller, 1857 are confirmed introductions to the NT. mtDNA barcodes newly include Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872 and Polypheretima elongata (Perrier, 1872 spp.-complexes from the Philippines. Pithemera philippinensis James & Hong, 2004 and Pi. glandis Hong & James, 2011 are new synonyms of Pi. bicincta (Perrier, 1875 that is common in Luzon. Vietnamese homonym Pheretima thaii Nguyen, 2011 (non P. thaii Hong & James, 2011 is replaced with Pheretima baii nom. nov. Two new Filipino taxa are also described: Pleionogaster adya sp. nov. from southern Luzon and Pl. miagao sp. nov. from western Visayas.

  12. Bone-Eating Worms Spread: Insights into Shallow-Water Osedax (Annelida, Siboglinidae) from Antarctic, Subantarctic, and Mediterranean Waters. (United States)

    Taboada, Sergi; Riesgo, Ana; Bas, Maria; Arnedo, Miquel A; Cristobo, Javier; Rouse, Greg W; Avila, Conxita


    Osedax, commonly known as bone-eating worms, are unusual marine annelids belonging to Siboglinidae and represent a remarkable example of evolutionary adaptation to a specialized habitat, namely sunken vertebrate bones. Usually, females of these animals live anchored inside bone owing to a ramified root system from an ovisac, and obtain nutrition via symbiosis with Oceanospirillales gamma-proteobacteria. Since their discovery, 26 Osedax operational taxonomic units (OTUs) have been reported from a wide bathymetric range in the Pacific, the North Atlantic, and the Southern Ocean. Using experimentally deployed and naturally occurring bones we report here the presence of Osedax deceptionensis at very shallow-waters in Deception Island (type locality; Antarctica) and at moderate depths near South Georgia Island (Subantarctic). We present molecular evidence in a new phylogenetic analysis based on five concatenated genes (28S rDNA, Histone H3, 18S rDNA, 16S rDNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I-COI-), using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference, supporting the placement of O. deceptionensis as a separate lineage (Clade VI) although its position still remains uncertain. This phylogenetic analysis includes a new unnamed species (O. 'mediterranea') recently discovered in the shallow-water Mediterranean Sea belonging to Osedax Clade I. A timeframe of the diversification of Osedax inferred using a Bayesian framework further suggests that Osedax diverged from other siboglinids during the Middle Cretaceous (ca. 108 Ma) and also indicates that the most recent common ancestor of Osedax extant lineages dates to the Late Cretaceous (ca. 74.8 Ma) concomitantly with large marine reptiles and teleost fishes. We also provide a phylogenetic framework that assigns newly-sequenced Osedax endosymbionts of O. deceptionensis and O. 'mediterranea' to ribospecies Rs1. Molecular analysis for O. deceptionensis also includes a COI-based haplotype network indicating that individuals from Deception Island and the South Georgia Island (ca. 1,600 km apart) are clearly the same species, confirming the well-developed dispersal capabilities reported in other congeneric taxa. In addition, we include a complete description of living features and morphological characters (including scanning and transmission electron microscopy) of O. deceptionensis, a species originally described from a single mature female, and compare it to information available for other congeneric OTUs. PMID:26581105

  13. The present state of the leech fauna (Annelida, Hirudinea) in the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs. (United States)

    Fedorova, Lyudmila I; Kaygorodova, Irina A


    Hirudinea is a small and ecologically important group of aquatic organisms. However, up to date, the leech fauna of Kazakhstan is poorly studied. The presence of large under-collected areas, such as the Upper Irtysh basin, makes biodiversity studies concerning these invertebrates from Kazakhstan relevant. In this paper, the latest information on species diversity of the freshwater hirudofauna of the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs, the Kazakhstan part of Irtysh River, is presented. It includes 10 free-living and parasitic species, of which 7 and 9 inhabit the Shulbinsk and the Bukhtarma reservoirs, respectively. These species belong to 2 orders, 3 families and 6 genera. The faunal list highlights four potentially new morphological species (Alboglossiphonia sp., Erpobdella sp., Piscicola sp. 1 and Piscicola sp. 2). Besides them, another three species Erpobdella vilnensis, Helobdella stagnalis and Theromyzon tessulatum recorded for the first time in the area. The exact systematic position is stated for all leech taxa. Each species from the list accompanied with information on taxonomic synonymy, data on its geographic distribution, and brief summary of morphological and ecological characteristics. PMID:27408572

  14. Analysis of FAME for two species of earthworms Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny and Pheretima hawayana Rosa (Annelida-Oligochaeta

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    Hossam El-Din Mohamed Omar


    Full Text Available Analysis of fatty acid (FA is one of the most commonly used tools for investigating microbial populations in ecological studies. Fatty acids can be extracted and esterified to form fatty acid methyl esters (FAME when analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the resulting profile contains some microbial biomarkers. The aim of the present study to analysis FAME present in two species of earthworms exhibit the same environment. The thin layer chromatography of earthworm Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny showed three major spots corresponding to FAME while that of earthworm Pheretima hawayana Rosa showed two major spots. The GC-MS analysis of Allolobophora caliginosa Savigny extract showed the presence of at least 23 peaks, only two peaks were identified from their Rt and Ms spectrum, hexadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester. While the chromatogram of Pheretima hawayana Rosa extract showed at least 20 peaks, five of them were identified; butanedioic acid dimethyl ester, pentadecanoic acid 14-methyl ester, 2-hydroxy-hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid methyl ester. In conclusion, in spite of the two species of earthworms from the same environment, but their content of FAME was different and that may explain why the biological activity of the whole body extract was different.


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    Carlos Boschini-Figueroa


    Full Text Available Este estudio se efectuó entre setiembre y octubre del 2006 en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Ma ta (EEA VM ubicada en Ca rtago a 1.542 msnm, con precipi tación media anual de 2.050 mm, temperatura media de 19,5 ºC y humedad relativa de 84%. Se determinó la distribución de la población y masa de lombrices por unidad de área en una pastura de Estrella Africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis bajo condiciones de pastoreo rotativo intensivo con vacas lecheras. Las áreas fueron 28 potreros de suelo Andisol (Typic Distrandepts de los que se obtuvie ron cuatro muestras de 0,25 m2 de área por 10 cm de profundidad. Se contabilizó el número de lombrices. El materia l remanente se analizó para materia orgánica por los métodos de desecación y titulación. Se evaluaron las diferencia s entre las áreas de pastoreo. Se presentó en promedio 170,7 lombrices/m2 y una biomasa de 58,01 g/ m2 (0,414 g/lombriz. La cantidad de lombrices y de biomasa por unidad de área fue 100

  16. The Prevalence and Pathogenicity of Piscicola spp (Phylum Annelida) within the Finfish Populations from the Danube Delta


    Laura Daniela Urdes; Marius Hangan; Cristiana Diaconescu


    This study was performed between the years 2003 and 2008, having as sample sites the Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie natural aquatic complexes. The aim of the study was to assess the distribution and the pathogenicity of the hirudinea parasites among the inhabiting finfish populations, in various seasons of the time period. The presence of Piscicola spp was recorded only into the Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie complexes, in four finfish species: rutilus rutilus, abramis brama, carassius gibe...

  17. The Prevalence and Pathogenicity of Piscicola spp (Phylum Annelida within the Finfish Populations from the Danube Delta

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    Laura Daniela Urdes


    Full Text Available This study was performed between the years 2003 and 2008, having as sample sites the Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie natural aquatic complexes. The aim of the study was to assess the distribution and the pathogenicity of the hirudinea parasites among the inhabiting finfish populations, in various seasons of the time period. The presence of Piscicola spp was recorded only into the Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie complexes, in four finfish species: rutilus rutilus, abramis brama, carassius gibelio and perca fluviatilis. The frequency of the infestations differed among the fish species and between the two areas where the parasite was found. The infestation prevalence was highest at the end of the summers, during the autumns and at the beginning of the springs. The hemorrhagic lesions were discrete to medium, which suggested a low to medium invasion per captured fish. In perca fluviatilis, the parasite was found inhabiting the same individuals along with Triaenophorus spp and Eustrongylides spp.

  18. Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta como indicadores biológicos de contaminación marina: casos en Colombia

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    Vanessa Fernández Rodríguez


    Full Text Available El concepto de Indicador Biológico ha sido usado sin mayor precaución al momento de emplear ciertos organismos en programas de monitoreo ambiental, lo cual genera confusión. Uno de los objetivos de este trabajo fue resaltar la importancia en la consolidación de una definición precisa de este concepto a partir de información disponible, proponiendo una definición para el mismo. Las características ecológicas de los poliquetos permiten que, al estar en contacto permanente con diferentes tipos de contaminantes, respondan bioacumulando, disminuyendo o aumentando su abundancia, según sea la especie, hecho que posiciona este tipo de organismos como potenciales indicadores de contaminación marina. En este artículo se presenta de manera concreta un análisis de la literatura disponible para poliquetos en el campo de los indicadores biológicos, resaltando cómo éstos han sido usados en diferentes metodologías, con ejemplos a internacionales, así como una selección especial para Colombia. De los resultados más sobresalientes se encontró que Capitella capitata es la especie más estudiada al estar asociada con ambientes contaminados a causa del incremento de materia orgánica y es la única especie reportada en el país como indicador biológico usando las técnicas clásicas de bioindicación. Finalmente, se reitera la importancia de iniciar investigaciones sobre los aspectos ecológicos, ecotoxicológicos y bioensayos de laboratorio con otras especies de poliquetos para validar cuáles especies y por qué pueden ser consideradas como indicadores biológicos para el país.

  19. Phylogeography and reproductive variation of the poecilogonous polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Annelida: Spionidae) along the West Coast of North America. (United States)

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Mahon, Andrew R; Swalla, Billie J; Halanych, Kenneth M


    The ability to produce more than one kind of offspring, or poecilogony, is a striking example of reproductive variability. Traditionally, larval nutrition has been classified as a dichotomy: if offspring obtain nutrition from their mothers (lecithotrophy), there is lower fecundity and greater chance of offspring survival than when they get their nutrition from plankton (planktotrophy). The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Spionidae) produces both types of embryos using three different reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the roles of genetic history and phenotypic plasticity on explaining natural variation in B. proboscidea along the Pacific coast of the United States using two genetic mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and Cyt b, and common garden experiments. These data show a single North American West Coast network that is structured, geographically, by the well-documented biogeographic break near Point Conception, California. The southern group within this network covers a smaller range, but has larger haplotype diversity, than the northern group. Some individuals differing in reproductive type had the same haplotype, indicating independence of these features; however, differences between laboratory and field data suggest additional geographic variation within one of the reproductive types. Females from higher latitudes provide offspring with larger supplies of extra embryonic nutrition than females from southern latitudes. Results herein suggest that both genetic history and developmental plasticity are playing a role in the maintenance of this reproductive polymorphism.

  20. Hyalinecia (sic) Edwardsi Roule, 1898-the enigmatic ghost from abyssal depths-redescribed as Nothria edwardsi (Annelida: Onuphidae). (United States)

    Arias, Andrés; Paxton, Hannelore


    The deep sea is one of the largest ecosystems on earth, extending from 200 m, where sunlight becomes inadequate for photosynthesis, to the deepest trenches. However, it is still one of the least explored. Polychaetes are among the dominant groups in these environments worldwide and play a critical role in the deep sea food chain. Within polychaetes, the onuphids are one the best represented families from 2000 m deep to the hadal zone, with 46 recorded species (Paterson et al. 2009). Hyalinoecia edwardsi Roule, 1898 is one of the early described abyssal onuphids. The species was described from the Talisman station 136, located between the Azores archipelago and the Iberian Peninsula (referred as "l'Espagne") at 4255 m depth (Roule 1898). The original description is rather brief without illustrations and the species was characterised as follows: thick antennae, lateral ones reaching chaetiger 3; first chaetiger twice as long as second one; parapodia of first chaetiger with thick falcate hooks; parapodia of second chaetiger with bidentate hooks; parapodia of third chaetiger with limbate chaetae; following chaetigers with limbate, pectinate chaetae and subacicular hooks; oval tube looking flattened and covered by small particles, mainly quartzites of different colours (Roule 1898). PMID:27515609

  1. The present state of the leech fauna (Annelida, Hirudinea) in the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs (United States)

    Fedorova, Lyudmila I.; Kaygorodova, Irina A.


    Abstract Hirudinea is a small and ecologically important group of aquatic organisms. However, up to date, the leech fauna of Kazakhstan is poorly studied. The presence of large under-collected areas, such as the Upper Irtysh basin, makes biodiversity studies concerning these invertebrates from Kazakhstan relevant. In this paper, the latest information on species diversity of the freshwater hirudofauna of the Upper Irtysh cascade of water reservoirs, the Kazakhstan part of Irtysh River, is presented. It includes 10 free-living and parasitic species, of which 7 and 9 inhabit the Shulbinsk and the Bukhtarma reservoirs, respectively. These species belong to 2 orders, 3 families and 6 genera. The faunal list highlights four potentially new morphological species (Alboglossiphonia sp., Erpobdella sp., Piscicola sp. 1 and Piscicola sp. 2). Besides them, another three species Erpobdella vilnensis, Helobdella stagnalis and Theromyzon tessulatum recorded for the first time in the area. The exact systematic position is stated for all leech taxa. Each species from the list accompanied with information on taxonomic synonymy, data on its geographic distribution, and brief summary of morphological and ecological characteristics. PMID:27408572


    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. This study established the presence of only one species of leech, Actinobdela inequ...

  3. [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelidae: Oligochaeta) soil quality indicator in Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) sites with slash and burn management]. (United States)

    Uribe, Sheila; Huerta, Esperanza; Geissen, Violette; Mendoza, Manuel; Godoy, Roberto; Jarquín, Aarón


    Soil burning has been used in agricultural and forestry systems as a fundamental technique to clean the land and add some nutrients to the soil. In addition, earthworms are known to promote various soil functions since they contribute to aeration and organic matter and nutrients availability to other soil organisms. This study evaluated the effects of tropical forest crops management with presence-absence of Eucalyptus grandis on earthworm population in Huimanquillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Three sites (average area of 1-1.5ha each) with different management conditions were considered for soil and earthworm sampling (two depths and six replicates): without vegetation (SV) and recent slash-burned (38 days), forest crops of five years of production of E. grandis (Euc), and secondary vegetation of 15 years (Acah). Soil physico-chemical properties (apparent density, humidity, texture, pH, Ntot, OM, P, K, cationic capacity) were also evaluated, and earthworms were collected at the end of the rainy season (august-october 2007). We found that the sites soil is an acrisol acid, with pH 3.0-4.5 in the first 30cm depth. Organic matter content (OM) and total nitrogen (Ntot) in the recently burned sites were significantly lower (6-8% y 0.19-0.22%, respectively) than in sites with vegetation (OM=9-11%; el Ntot=0.27-0.33%). Only one species (P. corethrurus) was found in all the sampled areas, where most of the individuals were at juvenile stage (80%). The highest densities and biomass were found in Euc. treatment (166.4ind/m2 y 36.8g/m2) followed by Acah (138.7ind/m2 y 19.1g/m2 respectively), while the SV treatment showed of about an 80% reduced earthworm populations when compared to other treatments. Even though 15 years have passed over the secondary vegetation (Acah) still some perturbations were observed as the low abundance of the oligochaeta group. We concluded that the management used to culture E. grandis produces negative effects over the abundance and diversity of earthworms and soil nutrient availability. PMID:23342509

  4. Report of Prionospio complex (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae) from China' s waters, with description of a new species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jin; LI Xinzheng


    Nine species of Prionospio complex are recorded from China' s waters, including one new species and six newly recorded species. Prionospio (Priorvaspio) pacifica sp. Nov. , is characterized by having first and forth pairs of branchiae pinnate, second and third pairs of apinnate, ventral crest on Setiger 9 and dorsal crests on Setigers 10-25. Apoprionospio kirrae (Wilson, 1990), Prionospio (Aquilaspio) convexa Imajima, 1990, Prionospio (Minuspio) muhibranchiata Berkeley, 1927, Prionospio (Prionospio) bocki Soderstrom, 1920, Prionospio (Prionospio) dubia Maciolek, 1985 and Prionospio (Prionospio) paradisea Imajima, 1990 are recorded for the first time from China' s waters.

  5. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America. (United States)

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H


    The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America. PMID:24493951

  6. Molecular analysis of six Rhynchospio Hartman, 1936 species (Annelida: Spionidae) with comments on the evolution of brooding within the group. (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I; Malyar, Vasily V; Pankova, Victoria V; Nuzhdin, Sergey V


    Rhynchospio Hartman, 1936 is a small group of spionid polychaetes currently comprising ten described species distributed mainly in the Pacific. Five species examined to date are hermaphrodites producing spermatozoa with long nuclei, oocytes with thin and smooth envelopes, and dorsally brooding their offspring. Since our first molecular analysis of four Rhynchospio species, we have collected additional material from Northern Territory, Australia, and Oregon, USA. Herein, we describe the gamete and adult morphology of the newly collected material and use molecular analyses to provide new insight on the phylogenetic relationships of six Rhynchospio species. Adults of R. cf. foliosa from Oregon are hermaphrodites, but in contrast to other Rhynchospio, they produce spermatozoa with short nuclei (ect-aquasperm), oocytes with thick vesiculate envelopes, and likely have a holopelagic larval development. Analysis of four gene fragments, comprising mitochondrial 16S rDNA, and nuclear 18S, 28S rDNA, and Histone 3 (2516 bp in total) showed Rhynchospio to be a monophyletic group, with R. cf. foliosa being a distant sister to the five other species. Rhynchospio cf. foliosa was closer to M. arctia having ect-aquasperm and vesiculate thick-envelop oocytes (p = 14.40%) than to Spioninae members B. proboscidea and P. elegans, having introsperm and oocytes with thin and smooth envelopes (p = 15.39 and 16.54%, respectively). We hypothesize that brooding might have evolved from free-spawning inside the Rhynchospio clade, but this hypothesis should be tested in a future analysis. PMID:27395642

  7. Effects of Lumbriculus variegatus (Annelida, Oligochaete) bioturbation on zinc sediment chemistry and toxicity to the epi-benthic invertebrate Chironomus tepperi (Diptera: Chironomidae). (United States)

    Colombo, Valentina; Pettigrove, Vincent J; Hoffmann, Ary A; Golding, Lisa A


    Classical laboratory-based single-species sediment bioassays do not account for modifications to toxicity from bioturbation by benthic organisms which may impact predictions of contaminated sediment risk to biota in the field. This study aims to determine the effects of bioturbation on the toxicity of zinc measured in a standard laboratory bioassay conducted with chironomid larvae (Chironomus tepperi). The epi-benthic chironomid larvae were exposed to two different levels of sediment contamination (1600 and 1980 mg/kg of dry weight zinc) in the presence or absence of annelid worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) which are known to be tolerant to metal and to have a large impact on sediment properties through bioturbation. Chironomids had 5-6x higher survival in the presence of L. variegatus which shows that bioturbation had a beneficial effect on the chironomid larvae. Chemical analyses showed that bioturbation induced a flux of zinc from the pore water into the water column, thereby reducing the bioavailability of zinc in pore water to the chironomid larvae. This also suggested that pore water was the major exposure path for the chironomids to metals in sediment. During the study, annelid worms (Oligochaetes) produced a thin layer of faecal pellets at the sediment surface, a process known to: (i) create additional adsorption sites for zinc, thus reducing its availability, (ii) increase the microbial abundance that in turn could represent an additional food source for opportunistic C. tepperi larvae, and (iii) modify the microbial community's structure and alter the biogeochemical processes it governs thus indirectly impact zinc toxicity. This study represents a contribution in recognising bioturbating organisms as "ecological engineers" as they directly and indirectly influence metal bioavailability and impact other sediment-inhabiting species. This is significant and should be considered in risk assessment of zinc levels (and other metals) in contaminated sediment when extrapolating from laboratory studies to the field.

  8. The genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Annelida, Syllidae) from Australia. Molecular analysis and re-description of some poorly-known species. (United States)

    Álvarez-Campos, Patricia; Riesgo, Ana; Hutchings, Pat; San Martín, Guillermo


    The taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships within Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818, the type genus of the family Syllidae, are still a matter of debate because the group does not show clear synapomorphies and because of the lack of molecular data for many of the species. In order to help understand some of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Syllis, we have performed a morphological revision of part of the material collected during decades by the Australian Museum staff, and provide molecular data for species not sequenced before. In particular, seven poorly known Australian species of the genus Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 have been re-described in detail and sequenced to analyze their phylogenetic position: Syllis broomensis n. comb., S. crassicirrata (Treadwell, 1925) n. comb., Syllis cruzi Núñez & San Martín, 1991, S. edensis (Hartmann-Schröder, 1989), Syllis gracilis Grube, 1840, Syllis picta (Kinberg, 1866) n. comb., and S. setoensis (Imajima, 1966). The results obtained indicate the paraphyly of Typosyllis and a possible new organization of Syllis, which contains at least four well-supported clades.

  9. Evidence for cospeciation events in the host–symbiont system involving crinoids (Echinodermata) and their obligate associates, the myzostomids (Myzostomida, Annelida)


    Lanterbecq, D.; Rouse, G W; Eeckhaut, I


    Although molecular-based phylogenetic studies of hosts and their associates are increasingly common in the literature, no study to date has examined the hypothesis of coevolutionary process between hosts and commensals in the marine environment. The present work investigates the phylogenetic relationships among 16 species of obligate symbiont marine worms (Myzostomida) and their echinoderm hosts (Crinoidea) in order to estimate the phylogenetic congruence existing between the two lineages. Th...

  10. Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) indicador de la calidad del suelo en sitios de Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtacea) con manejo tumba y quema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uribe, S.; Huerta, E.; Geissen, V.; Mendoza, M.I.; Godoy, R.; Jarquin, A.


    La presencia de oligoquetos en los ecosistemas puede indicar fertilidad del suelo, ya que estos organismos transportan, mezclan y entierran los residuos vegetales de la superficie al interior del suelo. Se caracterizó la comunidad de oligoquetos bajo sitios con diferentes periodos de establecimiento

  11. Ampharetidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from cold seeps off Pakistan and hydrothermal vents off Taiwan, with the description of three new species. (United States)

    Reuscher, Michael G; Fiege, Dieter


    The new ampharetid species Eclysippe yonaguniensis sp. nov. and Glyphanostomum bilabiatum sp. nov. from the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field off the coast of Taiwan and Pavelius makranensis sp. nov. from the cold seeps in the Makran accretionary prism off the coast of Pakistan are described. Amage cf. ehlersi Reuscher, Fiege & Imajima, 2015 and Anobothrus dayi Imajima, Reuscher & Fiege, 2013 are newly recorded from the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field. PMID:27470798

  12. A comprehensive checklist of earthworm species and subspecies from Vietnam (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta: Almidae, Eudrilidae, Glossoscolecidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Ocnerodrilidae, Octochaetidae). (United States)

    Nguyen, Tung T; Nguyen, Anh D; Tran, Binh T T; Blakemore, Robert J


    The comprehensive checklist of earthworms in Vietnam is presented here listing 24 genera and 212 species arranged in eight families. For each species, bibliographic citations are given, including the original descriptions as well as notable citations affecting taxonomic status or distributional reports of a species. Distributions of each species are also provided. The bibliography contains all relevant papers for Vietnamese earthworms. Of 212 species, 114 have been recorded only in Vietnam, and 25 are cosmopolitan. New combinations are made for Amynthas acalifornicus (Do & Huynh, 1991) comb. nov., A. binhgiaensis (Le, 1994) comb. nov., Metaphire catbaensis (Thai & Le, 1993) comb. nov., M. khoii (Do & Tran, 1994) comb. nov., M. phaluongana (Do & Huynh, 1992) comb. nov., and M. mangophila (Nguyen, 2011) comb. nov., M. tripidoporophoratus (Thai & Nguyen, 1993) comb. nov. Additionally, Pheretima paraalexandri Nguyen, 2011 is treated as a junior synonym of Amynthas polychaetiferus (Thai, 1984). PMID:27470831

  13. When molecules support morphology: Phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Onuphidae (Eunicida, Annelida) based on 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA. (United States)

    Budaeva, Nataliya; Schepetov, Dmitry; Zanol, Joana; Neretina, Tatiana; Willassen, Endre


    Onuphid polychaetes are tubicolous marine worms commonly reported worldwide from intertidal areas to hadal depths. They often dominate in benthic communities and have economic importance in aquaculture and recreational fishing. Here we report the phylogeny of the family Onuphidae based on the combined analyses of nuclear (18S rDNA) and mitochondrial (16S rDNA) genes. Results of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses supported the monophyly of Onuphidae and its traditional subdivision into two monophyletic subfamilies: Onuphinae and Hyalinoeciinae. Ten of 22 recognized genera were monophyletic with strong node support; four more genera included in this study were either monotypic or represented by a single species. None of the genera appeared para- or polyphyletic and this indicates a strong congruence between the traditional morphology-based systematics of the family and the newly obtained molecular-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Intergeneric relationships within Hyalinoeciinae were not resolved. Two strongly supported monophyletic groups of genera were recovered within Onuphinae: ((Onuphis, Aponuphis), Diopatra, Paradiopatra) and (Hirsutonuphis, (Paxtonia, (Kinbergonuphis, Mooreonuphis))). A previously accepted hypothesis on the subdivision of Onuphinae into the Onuphis group of genera and the Diopatra group of genera was largely rejected.

  14. Sabellidae (Annelida from the Faro coastal lake (Messina, Ionian Sea, with the first record of the invasive species Branchiomma bairdi along the Italian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the present paper, morphological and ecological observations on 4 sabellid taxa, Branchiomma bairdi, B. luctuosum,Megalomma lanigera and Myxicola sp., collected from the coastal lake of Faro (Messina, Ionian Sea (26-36 psu, are reported. Megalomma lanigera, Myxicola sp. and B. luctuosum were collected from the soft bottom in shallow water and B. bairdi from the hard bottom of an internal channel. The presence of the latter is remarkable, as there is no previous record of this species along the Italian coast, and it confirms the lake of Faro as a very favourable environment for the introduction of alien species, which has occurred frequently as a result of aquaculture. High intraspecific variation was observed for M. lanigera, whilst more extensive analysis is required to ascertain the taxonomic status of the Myxicola specimens, including a review of all Mediterranean data currently attributed to M. infundibulum.

  15. Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Annelida) from a field site in Portugal, with the description of five new species and a redescription of Enchylea heteroducta Nielsen & Christensen, 1963. (United States)

    Schmelz, Rodiger M; Collado, Rut


    Five new species of terrestrial Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta, Clitellata) are described from an experimental field area in Portugal. Achaeta coimbrensis sp. nov. belongs to a group of species without pyriform glands and with lateral spermathecal ectal pores. Fridericia sousai sp. nov., F. roembkei sp. nov., F. marginata sp. nov., and F. ciliotheca sp. nov. have a maximum of four chaetae per bundle and two spermathecal diverticula, a character combination shared by c. 30 other species of this genus. The new Fridericia species are distinguished from these congeners by combinations of characters, but the ventral pattern of the clitellum alone is sufficient to separate the new species from each other. Enchylea heteroducta Nielsen & Christensen, 1963 is redescribed, this being the first record after the original description and the first record from a natural habitat. Further 16 species of enchytraeids are recorded, and there are now 32 species of enchytraeids known from Portugal.

  16. Sensitivity of Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Oligochaeta) to a commercial formulation of abamectin in avoidance tests with artificial substrate and natural soil under tropical conditions. (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Edna Tenório; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta


    Obtaining ecotoxicological data on pesticides in tropical regions is imperative for performing more realistic risk analysis, and avoidance tests have been proposed as a useful, fast and cost-effective tool. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the avoidance behavior of Eisenia andrei to a formulated product, Vertimec® 18 EC (a.i abamectin), in tests performed on a reference tropical artificial soil (TAS), to derive ecotoxicological data on tropical conditions, and a natural soil (NS), simulating crop field conditions. In TAS tests an adaptation of the substrate recommended by OECD and ISO protocols was used, with residues of coconut fiber as a source of organic matter. Concentrations of the pesticide on TAS test ranged from 0 to 7 mg abamectin/kg (dry weight-d.w.). In NS tests, earthworms were exposed to samples of soils sprayed in situ with: 0.9 L of Vertimec® 18 EC/ha (RD); twice as much this dosage (2RD); and distilled water (Control), respectively, and to 2RD: control dilutions (12.5, 25, 50, 75%). All tests were performed under 25 ± 2°C, to simulate tropical conditions, and a 12hL:12hD photoperiod. The organisms avoided contaminated TAS for an EC(50,48h) = 3.918 mg/kg soil d.w., LOEC = 1.75 mg/kg soil d.w. and NOEC = 0.85 mg/kg soil d.w. No significant avoidance response occurred for any NS test. Abamectin concentrations in NS were rather lower than EC(50, 48h) and LOEC determined in TAS tests. The results obtained contribute to overcome a lack of ecotoxicological data on pesticides under tropical conditions, but more tests with different soil invertebrates are needed to improve pesticides risk analysis. PMID:22297724

  17. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960 (Annelida, Serpulidae in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Arteaga-Florez


    Full Text Available The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  18. Expression of FoxA and GATA transcription factors correlates with regionalized gut development in two lophotrochozoan marine worms: Chaetopterus (Annelida and Themiste lageniformis (Sipuncula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A through gut is present in almost all metazoans, and most likely represents an ancient innovation that enabled bilaterian animals to exploit a wide range of habitats. Molecular developmental studies indicate that Fox and GATA regulatory genes specify tissue regions along the gut tube in a broad diversity of taxa, although little is known about gut regionalization within the Lophotrochozoa. In this study, we isolated FoxA and GATA456 orthologs and used whole mount in situ hybridization during larval gut formation in two marine worms: the segmented, polychaete annelid Chaetopterus, which develops a planktotrophic larva with a tripartite gut, and the non-segmented sipunculan Themiste lageniformis, which develops a lecithotrophic larva with a U-shaped gut. Results FoxA and GATA456 transcripts are predominantly restricted to gut tissue, and together show regional expression spanning most of the alimentary canal in each of these lophotrochozoans, although neither FoxA nor GATA456 is expressed in the posterior intestine of Chaetopterus. In both species, FoxA is expressed at the blastula stage, transiently in presumptive endoderm before formation of a definitive gut tube, and throughout early larval development in discrete foregut and hindgut domains. GATA456 genes are expressed during endoderm formation, and in endoderm and mesoderm associated with the midgut in each species. Several species-specific differences were detected, including an overlap of FoxA and GATA456 expression in the intestinal system of Themiste, which is instead complimentary in Chaetopterus. Other differences include additional discrete expression domains of FoxA in ectodermal trunk cells in Themiste but not Chaetopterus, and expression of GATA456 in anterior ectoderm and midgut cells unique to Chaetopterus. Conclusions This study of gene expression in a sipunculan contributes new comparative developmental insights from lophotrochozoans, and shows that FoxA and GATA456 transcription factors are part of an ancient patterning mechanism that was deployed during early evolution of the metazoan through gut. The common utilization of FoxA and GATA456 throughout gut formation by species with contrasting life history modes indicates that both genes are core components of a gut-specific gene regulatory network in spiralians. Despite a highly conserved pattern of early development, and probably similar ontogenic origins of gut tissue, there are molecular differences in gut regionalization between lophotrochozoan species.

  19. Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae, Pontodrilus litoralis (Grupe, 1985): First Record from Pondicherry Mangroves, Southeast Coast of India


    Senthilkumar, D.; Anisa Basheer Khan; P. Satheeshkumar


    This study reports the first record of the genus Pontodrilus litoralis (Grupe, 1985) in Pondicherry mangroves, southeast coast of India. Forty one adult specimens have been found in the Thengaithittu lagoon and Murungapakkam mangrove site during September 2008-March 2010. A detailed study is presented in order to clearly assign the species to the Pondicherry mangroves, in Union territory Puducherry. According to our knowledge this is the first report from Indian mangroves.

  20. The description of a new species Polymastigos javaensis n.sp. (Annelida: Capitellidae) from the Segara Anakan mangroves, Central Java, Indonesia. (United States)

    Pamungkas, Joko


    A new species, Polymastigos javaensis n. sp., is described from sandy clay sediment (0-30 cm depth) of the Segara Anakan mangroves. The species is described based on the distribution of capillaries and hooks, and the form of the prostomium, thorax, abdomen, lateral organs, genital pores, branchiae and pygidium. Methyl green staining pattern was applied to examine the similarity between the material of this study and Green's material. Polymastigos javaensis n. sp. is the second species belonging to the genus Polymastigos, after P. reishi Green, 2002. It differs from P. reishi in the form of abdominal segments and hooks, and the methyl green staining pattern. A key to distinguish the two species is provided in this paper.

  1. First record of Streptosyllis nunezi Faulwetter et al., 2008 (Annelida, Syllidae) from the United Kingdom, and amendment to the genus Streptosyllis Webster & Benedict, 1884. (United States)

    Musk, Will; Faulwetter, Sarah; McIlwaine, Paul


    During a benthic survey of a Marine Conservation Zone located on the Skerries Bank in the English Channel off the south-west coast of England, three specimens of Streptosyllis nunezi Faulwetter et al., 2008 were found. This is the second ever record of the species after its original description, and the first record from waters around the U.K. and a significant northerly range extension for a species previously only recorded from the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean Sea. A single simple ventral chaeta in each of the two posterior-most segments was discovered in this and two other species of Streptosyllis Webster & Benedict, 1884. The generic definition of Streptosyllis is emended to include this feature previously unknown for the genus, and an updated key to the Streptosyllis found in UK waters is provided. PMID:27199585

  2. The simplicity of males: Dwarf males of four species of Osedax (Siboglinidae; Annelida) investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W


    mature sperm to a ciliated duct and seminal vesicle lying just behind the prototroch region. A duct then runs from the seminal vesicle into the dorsal part of the prostomium. The similarity of Osedax males to the larvae of Osedax and other siboglinid annelids as well as similarities shown here...

  3. The unique adaptation of the life cycle of the coelomic gregarine Diplauxis hatti to its host Perinereis cultrifera (Annelida, Polychaeta): an experimental and ultrastructural study. (United States)

    Prensier, Gerard; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Schrevel, Joseph


    The coelomic gregarine Diplauxis hatti exhibits a unique adaptation of its life cycle to its polychaete host Perinereis cultrifera. Experimental and ultrastructural observations on natural populations from the English Channel showed that release of parasite spores is concomitant with the polychaete spawning. As the development of P. cultrifera is direct, the notochete larva ingest parts of the jelly coat covered with numerous sporocysts of D. hatti during hatching. Transepithelial migration of the sporozoites takes place in the gut of three- or four-segment notochete larvae and syzygies of about 20 microm are observed in the coelom. Growth of these young syzygies is slow: after 18-24 mo they reach only 60-70 microm. They exhibit active pendular movements. In the English Channel, female and male gametogenesis of P. cultrifera begins at 19 mo and 2 yr, respectively; the somatic transformations (epitoky) in the last 4 mo of their 3-year life. During epitoky, the syzygies undergo an impressive growth and reach 700-800 microm within a few weeks. A shift from pendular to active peristaltic motility is observed when the syzygies reach 200-250 microm. When gamogony occurs, syncytial nuclear divisions are initiated and cellularization produces hundred to thousands of male and female gametes of similar size. The male gametes exhibit a flagellum with 3+0 axoneme. The mixing of the gametes ("danse des gametes") and fertilization are observed during 4-5 h. Zygotes differentiate sporoblasts with eight sporozoites. The sporozoites exhibit the canonical structure of Apicomplexa, a polarized cell with micronemes and rhoptries. PMID:19120801

  4. A new earthworm species within a controversial genus: Eiseniona gerardoi sp. n. (Annelida, Lumbricidae - description based on morphological and molecular data

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    Dario Diaz Cosin


    Full Text Available The morphological and anatomical simplicity of soil dwelling animals, such as earthworms, has limited the establishment of a robust taxonomy making it sometimes subjective to authors’ criteria. Within this context, integrative approaches including molecular information are becoming more popular to solve the phylogenetic positioning of conflictive taxa. Here we present the description of a new lumbricid species from the region of Extremadura (Spain, Eiseniona gerardoi sp. n. The assignment to this genus is based on both a morphological and a phylogenetic study. The validity of the genus Eiseniona, one of the most controversial within Lumbricidae, is discussed. A synopsis of the differences between the type species and the west-European members of the genus is provided.

  5. Polychaetes from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara with the description of a new species of Polydora (Annelida: Polychaeta: Spionidae

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    M. E. ÇINAR


    Full Text Available Soft-bottom material collected from the northern part of the Sea of Marmara (off Küçükçekmece included a total of 67 species belonging to 24 polychaete families. Three species (Brania pusilla, Lysidice cf. margaritacea and Sabellaria spinulosa are new records for the Sea of Marmara. Three alien species (Polydora cornuta, Prionospio pulchra and Pseudopolydora paucibranchiata were found at the shallow-water stations. Different polychaete assemblages occurred in the area and the mud percentage of sediment and salinity were the main factors related to their distribution. A new Polydora species, which is mainly characterized in having brownish pigmentation solely on the antero-dorsal sides of the body, and falcate major spines with only a bulge (anterior ones or with a bulge and a small tooth, is described.

  6. Molecular Evidence for the Expansion of the Asian Cryptic Invader Hediste diadroma (Nereididae: Annelida) into the Northeast Pacific Habitats of the Native H. limnicola. (United States)

    Tosuji, Hiroaki; Furota, Toshio


    We used previously established molecular methods to determine how far the Asian invader nereidid worm Hediste diadroma has spread into northeast Pacific estuaries that are inhabited by the native congener H. limnicola. Further, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA of 702 Hediste specimens collected from 27 estuaries along 1,350 km of coastline in Washington, Oregon, and California, USA, to distinguish between the morphologically indistinguishable immature stages of these two species. In total, 377 specimens were identified as the invader H. diadroma and 325 were identified as the native H. limnicola. The invader H. diadroma was dominant at many sites in Puget Sound, Washington, and in the Columbia River estuary, Washington, and Oregon, suggesting that this species initially invaded estuaries in Washington or northern Oregon. In contrast, the native H. limnicola was dominant at intertidal sites in California and at subtidal sites in the Columbia River estuary. We also analyzed a partial nucleotide sequence from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene of H. diadroma in specimens collected from seven sites in the US and 11 sites in Japan, which showed no marked geographic differentiation between 18 US and 31 Japanese haplotypes. This finding suggests that H. diadroma have been introduced repeatedly into US estuaries from many regions in Japan. PMID:27032681

  7. High prevalence of buccal ulcerations in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Centrarchidae from Michigan inland lakes associated with Myzobdella lugubris Leidy 1851 (Annelida: Hirudinea

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    Faisal M.


    Full Text Available Widespread mouth ulcerations were observed in largemouth bass collected from eight inland lakes in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan during the summer months of 2002 and 2003. These ulcerations were associated with, and most likely caused by, leech parasitism. Through the use of morphological dichotomous keys, it was determined that all leeches collected are of one species: Myzobdella lugubris. Among the eight lakes examined, Lake Orion and Devils Lake had the highest prevalence of leech parasitism (34% and 29%, respectively and mouth ulcerations (53% and 68%, respectively. Statistical analyses demonstrated that leech and ulcer prevalence varied significantly from one lake to the other. Additionally, it was determined that the relationship between the prevalence of ulcers and the prevalence of leech attachment is significant, indicating that leech parasitism is most likely the cause of ulceration. The ulcers exhibited deep hemorrhagic centers and raised irregular edges. Affected areas lost their epithelial lining and submucosa, with masses of bacteria colonizing the damaged tissues. Since largemouth bass is a popular global sportfish and critical to the food web of inland lakes, there are concerns that the presence of leeches, damaged buccal mucosa, and general unsightliness may negatively affect this important sportfishery.

  8. Análises morfométricas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis (Annelida: Spionidae no litoral do Brasil

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    Marcelo B. Rocha


    Full Text Available Características morfológicas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis De Blainville, 1828 foram analisadas utilizando-se análise morfométrica com o ojetivo foi avaliar se essas espécies podem ser discriminadas através da utilização de dados morfométricos. Além disso, foram fornecidos novos caracteres que possam ser utilizados para uma reavaliação da taxonomia do gênero. A análise baseada nas variáveis canônicas revelou que S. chilensis, S. goodbodyi e S. squamata são mais similares entre si, quanto a forma, do que com S. acuta. Os caracteres mais significativos para a discriminação das quatro espécies foram o comprimento da brânquia, o comprimento da base do palpo até o vigésimo setígero, o comprimento e a largura do prostômio e a largura e o comprimento do setígero 5 e 20. Destes, destacam-se o formato das brânquias e do prostômio, pois vem sendo utilizados como caracteres diagnósticos em estudos taxonômicos do gênero.

  9. Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta del Parque Nacional de Coiba (Pacífico, Panamá, con la descripción de una nueva especie de Aricidea Webster, 1879 Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta from Coiba National Park (Pacific Ocean, Panamá, with the description of a new species of Aricidea Webster, 1879

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    Full Text Available Durante los años 1996 y 1997 se realizó un proyecto de investigación destinado a caracterizar la fauna marina del Parque Nacional de Coiba, situado en la costa pacífica de Panamá, y en el que se prestó una atención especial a dos ambientes: los fondos arenosos sublitorales y la zona intermareal de las playas. Las muestras sublitorales se tomaron en septiembre de 1996, en dos localidades próximas a arrecifes de coral: Mali Rock y Granito de Oro. En ambos casos el sedimento estaba constituido por arena gruesa proveniente de la destrucción del coral. Las muestras intermareales se colectaron en Santa Cruz y El Gambute, dos playas asociadas a manglares en las que se seleccionaron puntos en el intermareal superior, medio e inferior. En las playas se realizaron tres muestreos, en junio de 1996, en febrero de 1997 y en noviembre de 1997. El estudio de la fauna de la familia Paraonidae (Polychaeta reveló la presencia de nueve especies pertenecientes a tres géneros, cuatro de las cuales fueron nuevas citas para la región del Pacífico oriental comprendida entre el sur de México y norte de Colombia. Además, se describe una nueva especie de Aricidea Webster, 1879, que se caracteriza por poseer en combinación una antena extremadamente larga, que puede alcanzar el setígero 9, por el gran tamaño de los ojos del par posterior, por presentar 16 pares de branquias y por la presencia en los neuropodios abdominales de numerosas sedas pseudoarticuladas, que presentan un manubrio grueso y con la punta apenas curvada y una espina recta y de gran longitud insertada subterminalmente.During the years 1996 and 1997, a research project aiming to characterize the marine benthic fauna of Coiba National Park, located off the Pacific coast of Panamá, was conducted and special attention was paid to two environments: sandy sublittoral bottoms and tidal flats. Sublittoral samples were taken in September of 1996, from two sites located near coral reefs: Mali Rock and Granito de Oro. In both cases, sediment was composed of coarse sand coming from coral destruction. Tidal samples were collected from Santa Cruz and El Gambute, two flats associated with mangrove systems where upper, middle and lower intertidal sampling sites were selected. Three samplings were carried out in the flats, in June of 1996, in February of 1997 and in November of 1997. The study of the Paraonidae (Polychaeta fauna revealed the presence of nine species belonging to three different genera, four of which were new records for the Pacific area encompassed between southern Mexico and northern Colombia. Moreover, a new species of Aricidea Webster, 1879 is described; it can be distinguished from the already described species within the genus by the combined presence of an extremely long antenna, which extends to chaetiger 9, of a pair of large posterior pair eyes, of 16 pairs of branchiae, and of numerous pseudoarticulated chaetae on abdominal neuropodia. These chaetae have a thick shaft with a slightly curved tip and bear a straight and very long spine inserted subterminally.

  10. Preliminary observations of cadmium and copper effects on juveniles of the polychaete Capitella sp. Y (Annelida: Polychaeta from Estero del Yugo, Mazatlán, México Observaciones preliminares de los efectos de cadmio y cobre sobre juveniles del poliqueto Capitella sp. Y (Annelida: Polychaeta del Estero del Yugo, Mazatlán, México

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    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu on cultured juveniles of Capitella sp. Y were investigated. Seven-day old juveniles were exposed to 13 (control, 60, 160, 240 and 340 mg Cd L-1 and 17 (control, 50, 120 and 150 mg Cu L-1 for 30 days. Mortality significantly increased with increasing Cu concentrations, but in Cd exposures, it was only evident at 340 mg L-1. Body size and faecal pellet production were reduced earlier in juveniles exposed to Cu than those exposed to Cd, especially in the higher Cu concentrations. These facts indicate that juveniles are more sensitive to Cu in terms of mortality, feeding and growth. Haemoglobin production was inhibited due to the scarcity of food in the experimental sediment rather than to metal exposure. Tube building was not affected by the presence of metals or by the scarcity of food. This study suggests that Cu concentrations from 50 to 150 mg L-1 and 340 mg L-1 of Cd could affect the population dynamics of this species in natural ecosystemsSe investigaron los efectos de cadmio (Cd y cobre (Cu sobre juveniles cultivados de Capitella sp. Y. Organismos juveniles de siete días de edad fueron expuestos a 13 (control, 60, 160, 240 y 340 mg Cd L-1 y a 17 (control, 50, 120 y 150 mg Cu L-1 durante 30 días. La mortalidad se incrementó significativamente al aumentar las concentraciones de Cu y, en las exposiciones a Cd, solamente fue evidente a 340 mg L-1. El tamaño corporal y la producción de heces fecales disminuyeron antes en los especímenes expuestos a Cu que en los expuestos a Cd, especialmente en las concentraciones más altas de Cu. Estos resultados indican que los juveniles son más sensibles al Cu en términos de mortalidad, alimentación y crecimiento. La producción de hemoglobina fue inhibida debido a la escasez de alimento en el sedimento experimental, más que a exposición a los metales. La formación de tubos no fue afectada por la presencia de metales ni por la escasez de alimento. Este estudio sugiere que concentraciones entre 50 y 150 mg L-1 de Cu y de 340 mg L-1 de Cd, podrían afectar la dinámica poblacional de esta especie en ecosistemas naturales

  11. Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta described for the Mexican Pacific: an historical review and an updated checklist Los poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta descritos en el Pacífico mexicano: revisión histórica y lista faunística actualizada

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    Pablo Hernández-Alcántara


    Full Text Available An updated checklist of the polychaete species described for the Mexican Pacific and an historic review of their study are presented. The taxonomic list includes nomenclature references, data of the type locality and synonyms based on systematic revisions. In the study area, 313 species of polychaetes and 21 genera have been described, of which 278 species are currently valid. Several descriptions (28% of the valid species failed to indicate the habitat of the type locality. The remaining 199 valid species were described for a large variety of habitats: algae (11 species, mangroves (2, hard bottoms (22, soft bottoms (continental shelf = 65 species; deep sea = 78 species, hydrothermal vents (17, and others (parasites, larval planktonic forms, epitokes (4. The species descriptions for the Mexican Pacific can be divided into four main periods: the first, during the 1910s, includes mainly Chamberlin's studies of deep sea fauna. The second, in the 1940s, comprises studies carried out by Rioja (intertidal zone and Hartman (including specimens from the Allan Hancock Foundation collection. The third period began around the 1970s when Fauchald's studies were published and 77 currently valid species were described for western Mexico. The fourth period began in the 1980s and continues to date, being characterized by descriptions of species done mainly by Mexican scientists. The differences in the number of species described during each period and for the different regions of the Mexican Pacific are directly related to the sampling effort carried out along these coasts.Se presenta una lista taxonómica de las especies de poliquetos descritos en el Pacífico mexicano y una revisión histórica de su estudio. El listado incluye referencias nomenclaturales, información sobre la localidad tipo y sinonimias basadas en revisiones sistemáticas. Un total de 313 especies y 21 géneros han sido descritos en el área de estudio, de ellas, 278 especies son actualmente válidas. El 28% de las descripciones de las especies válidas no incluyeron el habitat de la localidad tipo. Las 199 especies válidas restantes fueron descritas en una amplia variedad de habitats: algas (11 especies, manglares (2, fondos duros (22, fondos blandos (plataforma continental = 65 especies; mar profundo = 78 especies, ventilas hidrotermales (17 y otros (parásitos, formas larvales planctónicas, epitocas (4. La descripción de especies en el Pacífico Mexicano puede ser dividida en cuatro periodos principales: el primero en la década de 1910 incluye principalmente los trabajos de Chamberlin sobre la fauna de aguas profundas. El segundo, en la década de 1940, comprende los estudios realizados por Rioja en la zona intermareal y por Hartman que incluyó especímenes de la colección de la Allan Hancock Foundation. El tercer periodo se inició alrededor de 1970 en que se publicaron los estudios de Fauchald que describen 77 especies actualmente válidas del oeste de México. El cuarto periodo se inició en la década de 1980 y continúa hasta la fecha, caracterizado por la descripción de especies realizada por científicos mexicanos. Las diferencias observadas en el número de especies descritas en cada periodo y en cada región del Pacífico mexicano están asociadas con el esfuerzo de muestreo llevado a cabo a lo largo de estas costas.

  12. Dynamics and vertical distribution of a Hrabeiella periglandulata (Annelida population in South Moravia, Czech Republic Dinâmica e distribuição vertical de uma população de Hrabeiella periglandulata (Annelida no Sul da Morávia, República Tcheca

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    Jiří Schlaghamerský


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the density, dynamics and vertical distribution of a Hrabeiella periglandulata population in a forest soil at Brno, Czech Republic. From December 2003 to November 2004, two plots covered by mixed stands and two covered by coniferous stands were sampled monthly. Six soil cores per plot were taken down to 15 cm and subdivided into layers, which were subjected to wet funnel extraction. Missing in one of the coniferous stands H. periglandulata was abundant in the mixed stand with the highest soil pH. In this stand, monthly sampling continued until November 2005, with three additional samplings up to January 2007. Mean annual density was 2,672±1,534 individuals m-2. Population dynamics differed from those reported from Germany. Highest densities were reached in early summer, lowest between August and December. Due to aggregated horizontal distribution, differences between monthly values were often nonsignificant. No significant correlation with climatic data was found. Nevertheless, the observed dynamics corresponded to the climatic conditions, showing particularly the negative effect of drought. The population was evenly distributed in the sampled soil profile, only avoiding the organic layer. Except for a locality in Poland, this is the easternmost record of the species.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a densidade, a dinâmica e a distribuição vertical de uma população de Hrabeiella periglandulata em uma floresta de Brno, República Tcheca. De dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004, amostras de solo foram coletadas mensalmente, em duas áreas de floresta mista e duas áreas de floresta de coníferas. Em cada área, seis amostras de solo foram retiradas até a profundidade de 15 cm, subdivididas em camadas e colocadas para extração úmida em funil. Não encontrada em uma das áreas de floresta de coníferas, H. periglandulata foi abundante na área de floresta mista com pH do solo mais alto, onde a amostragem mensal continuou até novembro de 2005, com três amostragens adicionais até janeiro de 2007. A densidade média anual foi de 2.672±1.534 indivíduos por m². A dinâmica populacional diferiu da encontrada na Alemanha. As maiores densidades foram encontradas no início do verão, e as menores entre agosto e dezembro. Em razão da distribuição horizontal agregada, diferenças entre os valores mensais foram, frequentemente, não significativas. Nenhuma correlação significativa com dados climáticos foi encontrada. No entanto, as dinâmicas observadas corresponderam às condições climáticas, particularmente, ao efeito negativo da seca. A população foi homogeneamente distribuída no perfil de solo amostrado, e evitou, somente, a camada orgânica. Com exceção de uma localidade na Polônia, este é o registro mais a leste sobre esta espécie.

  13. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean. (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte


    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  14. Cloning and expression of the metalloprotein (MPⅡ) gene from polychaetes Perinereis aibuhitensis (Annelida: Polychaeta)%双齿围沙蚕金属结合蛋白(MPⅡ)基因克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大佐; 周一兵; 陈雪; 周笑孝; 王斌; 袁秀堂; 孙静波


    In the present study, the partial cDNA of metalloprotein Ⅱ (MPIT) was amplified from the total RNA of epidermis muscle of the polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with the primers designed based upon the homologous cDNA sequence of MPⅡ from Nereis diversicolor. Other primers were designed according to the partial sequence of Perinereis aibuhitensis MPII and two fragments of approximately 600 bp and 250 bp were obtained using 3'- and S'-RACE, and sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed a 904 bp cDNA containing an 81 bp 5'-untranslated region, 463 bp 3'-untranslated regions, and 357 bp open reading frame putatively encoding a protein of 119 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of MPⅡ was subjected to BLAST search for similarity with published sequences and it was found that MPⅡ shared high identity (81.51%) with Periserrula leucophryna hemerythrin, also with myohemerythrin of Nereis diversicolor (77.12%), and with the hemerythrin of Themiste zostericola (61.02%). Furthermore, the deduced amino acid sequence of MPII contained the conserved motif (HX29HX3EX16HX3HX23/28HX4D) of the hemerythrin family of proteins, suggesting that MPII belongs to the hemerythrin family. The expression levels of Perinereis aibuhitensis MPII were detected after exposure to 40 mg/L Cd2+ for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h using quantitative PCR. The expression levels of MPⅡ mRNA during 15 d were also detected under three concentrations of Cd2+. The current study showed that the expression levels of the MPII were approximately 12.6-fold higher (P<0.01) than control group at 40 mg/L Cd2+ after 72 h. The level of MPII mRNA produced in the muscle tissue of sandworm increased significantly following exposure to Cd2+ of 5, 10, and 20 mg/L after 15 d, and were above 4.8-fold than control group (P<0.05). Therefore, the expression level of the MPII increased with increasing concentrations of Cd2+. We suggest that heavy metal Cd2+ is associated with the induction of MPⅡ expression, and the present study provided molecular support for the assessment of early ecological risks for monitoring the marine sediment environment based on the health of clamworm.%根据已知杂色沙蚕(Nereis diversicolor)金属结合蛋白Ⅱ (MP Ⅱ)部分基因序列设计引物,应用RACE技术从双齿围沙蚕(Perinereis aibuhitensis)中克隆得到MP ⅡcDNA序列全长为904 bp,其中,开放阅读框为357 bp,编码119个氨基酸.Blast比对结果显示,由双齿围沙蚕MP ⅡcDNA序列推导的氨基酸序列与多毛类Periserrula leucophryna 蚯蚓血红蛋白(Hr)、杂色沙蚕(Nereis diversicolor)蚯蚓肌血红蛋白(MHr)及星虫类Themiste zostericola Hr氨基酸序列的同源性分别为81.51%、77.12%和61.02%,由此推断该cDNA序列可能属于血红蛋白家族.应用Real-time PCR方法,分别研究了沙蚕暴露于Cd2+质量浓度为40 mg/L的环境中12、24、48和72 h后MPⅡ基因表达水平的变化,以及3种质量浓度5、10和20 mg/L Cd2+暴露15 d后MPⅡ基因的表达水平.实验结果表明:(1)沙蚕暴露于40mg/LCd2+ 72 h后,MP ⅡmRNA表达量显著增加,为空白对照组的12.6倍,表现出极显著差异(P<0.01);(2)不同质量浓度Cd2+诱导15d后,各组MP ⅡmRNA表达量均呈显著升高(P<0.05),达到空白对照组的4.8倍以上,且随Cd2+浓度增大,MP ⅡmRNA表达量增加.据此认为,MP Ⅱ对Cd2+的应激调控发生于转录水平.本研究为海洋沉积环境早期污染的生态风险预测提供了分子生物学依据.


    Actinobdella inequiannulata was found on the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, and less frequently on the longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus, in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Catostomus commersoni parasitized with Act. inequiannulata was collected from July ...

  16. Macrozoobenthic Taxocoenosis in a Cultivators’ Rice Field of North West Kashmir, (J and K) India


    Shahzadi Wufai Naw Bahaar; G. A. Bhat


    This paper presents the attempt to investigate the community composition and density of macro-zoobenthos in a cultivator’s field. The study carried out in the rice fields of north-western district Kupwara (34o02’N; 74o16E’) of Kashmir province revealed the presence of 7 taxa of macrozoobenthos belonging to Annelida, Arthropoda and Mollusca. Phylum Annelida formed the most dominant group represented by 5 taxa. Diversity calculated by employing Simpsons’ Index (D), Simpsons’ Index of Diversity ...

  17. On the synonymy of Pherecardia lobata Horst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.


    In my paper »Contributions towards the knowledge of the Annelida polychaeta, I: Amphinomidae” 1) I was the first to describe the genus Pherecardia, characterized by having a caruncle, composed of a median heart-shaped axis, that bears on each side several (7) folded lobes of a lamelliform shape and

  18. Effects of sediment organic matter quality on bioaccumulation, degradation, and distribution of pyrene in two macrofaunal species and their surrounding sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granberg, Maria E.; Selck, Henriette


    of sediment-associated pyrene in Nereis diversicolor (Annelida) and Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata), as well as the combined effect of SOM quality and infaunal bioturbation on pyrene distribution and metabolism in the sediment. After 45 d of exposure, SOM quality almost doubled pyrene bioaccumulation...

  19. Is Diurodrilus an annelid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Rouse, Greg W.


    Interstitial marine meiofaunal worms of the genus Diurodrilus have always been considered part of Annelida, either as basal or derived, though generally with reference to Dinophilidae. New evidence shows that Diurodrilus has a unique anatomy, and lacks key annelid features, possibly even...

  20. Segmental mode of neural patterning in sipuncula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas


    Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest a close relationship between two worm-shaped phyla, the nonsegmented Sipuncula (peanut worms) and the segmented Annelida (e.g., earthworms and polychaetes) [1-5]. The striking differences in their bodyplans are exemplified by the annelids' paired...

  1. Marine Oligochaeta (Tubificidae and Enchytraeidae) from the Caribbean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righi, Gilberto; Kanner, Elizabeth


    Seven species of Tubificidae and Enchytraeidae (Annelida: Oligochaeta) from Antillean coastal shallow waters have been studied. – The following new Tubificid taxa have been described: Marcusaedrilus hummelincki, gen. n., sp. n.; Kaketio ineri, gen. n., sp. n.; Limnodrilus bori sp. n., and Phallodril

  2. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography]. (United States)

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A


    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces. PMID:9246370

  3. Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleidorn Christoph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelida comprises an ancient and ecologically important animal phylum with over 16,500 described species and members are the dominant macrofauna of the deep sea. Traditionally, two major groups are distinguished: Clitellata (including earthworms, leeches and "Polychaeta" (mostly marine worms. Recent analyses of molecular data suggest that Annelida may include other taxa once considered separate phyla (i.e., Echiura, and Sipuncula and that Clitellata are derived annelids, thus rendering "Polychaeta" paraphyletic; however, this contradicts classification schemes of annelids developed from recent analyses of morphological characters. Given that deep-level evolutionary relationships of Annelida are poorly understood, we have analyzed comprehensive datasets based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes, and have applied rigorous testing of alternative hypotheses so that we can move towards the robust reconstruction of annelid history needed to interpret animal body plan evolution. Results Sipuncula, Echiura, Siboglinidae, and Clitellata are all nested within polychaete annelids according to phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, EF1α; 4552 nucleotide positions analyzed for 81 taxa, and 11 nuclear and mitochondrial genes for 10 taxa (additional: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, ATP8, COX1-3, CYTB, NAD6; 11,454 nucleotide positions analyzed. For the first time, these findings are substantiated using approximately unbiased tests and non-scaled bootstrap probability tests that compare alternative hypotheses. For echiurans, the polychaete group Capitellidae is corroborated as the sister taxon; while the exact placement of Sipuncula within Annelida is still uncertain, our analyses suggest an affiliation with terebellimorphs. Siboglinids are in a clade with other sabellimorphs, and clitellates fall within a polychaete clade with aeolosomatids as their possible sister group. None of our analyses support the major polychaete

  4. Macrozoobenthic Taxocoenosis in a Cultivators’ Rice Field of North West Kashmir, (J and K India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzadi Wufai Naw Bahaar


    Full Text Available This paper presents the attempt to investigate the community composition and density of macro-zoobenthos in a cultivator’s field. The study carried out in the rice fields of north-western district Kupwara (34o02’N; 74o16E’ of Kashmir province revealed the presence of 7 taxa of macrozoobenthos belonging to Annelida, Arthropoda and Mollusca. Phylum Annelida formed the most dominant group represented by 5 taxa. Diversity calculated by employing Simpsons’ Index (D, Simpsons’ Index of Diversity (1-D, Simpsons’ Reciprocal Index (1/D, Shannon-Weiner Index (H’, Margalef Richness Index (d Evenness Index (e indicated low but significant assemblage of zoobenthos. Agronomic practices seemed to influence the occurrence and distribution of various benthic organisms to a greater degree. The results pressed the need for recognizing and preserving rice fields as potential habitats for organisms that have successfully adapted to the highly manipulated and eutrophic conditions of rice paddies

  5. DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I from diverse metazoan invertebrates. (United States)

    Folmer, O; Black, M; Hoeh, W; Lutz, R; Vrijenhoek, R


    We describe "universal" DNA primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 710-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) from 11 invertebrate phyla: Echinodermata, Mollusca, Annelida, Pogonophora, Arthropoda, Nemertinea, Echiura, Sipuncula, Platyhelminthes, Tardigrada, and Coelenterata, as well as the putative phylum Vestimentifera. Preliminary comparisons revealed that these COI primers generate informative sequences for phylogenetic analyses at the species and higher taxonomic levels.

  6. Analysis of the Plankton in the Area around the Cape Maslen Nos, Bulgaria: Possibilities for Cultivation of Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis)


    Galin Y. Nikolov; Alexander P. Atanasov; Dian M. Georgiev; Evgeni G. Raichev


    The aim of the study was to establish the species taxonomic composition and thequantitative characteristics of plankton in the Cape Maslen Nos area. Representatives of theProtozoa, Rotatoria, Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda predominated in the compositionstructure of zooplankton whereas members of Bacillariophyta, Chrysophyta, Dinophyta,Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta in that of phytoplankton. The comparative analysis of phytoplanktondata shows that the highest mean biomass values were 24.76 – 33....



    Quazi Majaz A.; Sayyed Nazim; Quazi Asir; Quazi Shoeb; Gulati M. Bilal


    The plant Kalanchoe pinnata is widely used in ayurvedic system of medicine as astringent, analgesic, carminative and also useful in diarrhea and vomiting. Naturalized throughout the hot and moist parts of India. In this first roots are subjected to pet.ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous solvent respectively for extraction. And the in vitro evaluation of anthelmentic activity was done against Pheretima posthuma (Annelida), Ascardia galli (nematode). Methanolic extract of roots of K. pinna...

  8. New Records of Lake Baikal Leech Fauna: Species Diversity and Spatial Distribution in Chivyrkuy Gulf


    KAYGORODOVA, Irina A.; Nikolay M. Pronin


    The study of several Lake Baikal leech collections offered us the possibility to determine species diversity in the Chivyrkuy Gulf, the biggest one in the lake. As a result, the first information on the Chivyrkuy Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been revealed. There are two orders and four families of leeches in the Chivyrkuy Gulf: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (families Erpobdellidae and Haemopidae). In total, 22 leech ...

  9. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand


    Angsupanich, S.; Charoenpornthip, M.; Siripech, A.


    A bimonthly investigation of macrobenthic fauna at the area from Ban Pak Khat to Ban Leam Chong Thanon in the Inner Songkhla Lake from February 1998 to February 1999 was undertaken to determine the species richness and abundance. A total of 7 phyla and 161 species were identified. Annelida (58 species), Arthropoda (64 species) and Mollusca (23 species) were the major phyla while Nemertea (1 species), Platyhelminthes (1 species), Cnidaria (4 species) and Chordata (10 species) were the minor. F...

  10. A Comparative Assessment of Zootherapeutic Remedies From Selected Areas in Albania, Italy, Spain and Nepal


    Quave, Cassandra Leah; Lohani, Usha; Verde, Alonso; Fajardo, José; Rivera, Diego; Obón, Concepción; Valdes, Arturo; Pieroni, Andrea


    Zootherapy is the treatment of human ailments with remedies derived from animals and their products. Despite its prevalence in traditional medical practices worldwide, research on this phenomenon has often been neglected in comparison to medicinal plant research. Interviews regarding zootherapeutic traditions were conducted with informants from Albania, Italy, Nepal and Spain. We identified 80 species used in zootherapeutic remedies, representing 4 phyla in the animal kingdom: Annelida, Arthr...

  11. Analysis of the Plankton in the Area around the Cape Maslen Nos, Bulgaria: Possibilities for Cultivation of Mediterranean Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galin Y. Nikolov


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the species taxonomic composition and thequantitative characteristics of plankton in the Cape Maslen Nos area. Representatives of theProtozoa, Rotatoria, Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda predominated in the compositionstructure of zooplankton whereas members of Bacillariophyta, Chrysophyta, Dinophyta,Cyanophyta, Euglenophyta in that of phytoplankton. The comparative analysis of phytoplanktondata shows that the highest mean biomass values were 24.76 – 33.33 g/m3 and mean biomassvalues of zooplankton – 51.43 g/m3.

  12. Registros de sanguijuelas de Costa Rica y clave para la identificación de las especies con redescripción de Cylicobdella costaricae


    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa; Bernald Pacheco-Chaves


    En contraste con los enormes esfuerzos realizados por caracterizar la fauna y flora de Costa Rica, con excepción de algunos registros aislados, muy poco se sabe sobre las sanguijuelas (Annelida: Clitellata) en este país. En este trabajo, presentamos la redescripción de una especie terrestre muy poco conocida: Cylicobdella costaricae, caracterizando su morfología externa e interna; esta última se mantenía completamente desconocida hasta la fecha. Adicionalmente, presentamos la primera lista de...

  13. Registros de sanguijuelas de Costa Rica y clave para la identificación de las especies con redescripción de Cylicobdella costaricae Records of leeches from Costa Rica and taxonomic key for species identification with a redescription of Cylicobdella costaricae


    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa; Bernald Pacheco-Chaves


    En contraste con los enormes esfuerzos realizados por caracterizar la fauna y flora de Costa Rica, con excepción de algunos registros aislados, muy poco se sabe sobre las sanguijuelas (Annelida: Clitellata) en este país. En este trabajo, presentamos la redescripción de una especie terrestre muy poco conocida: Cylicobdella costaricae, caracterizando su morfología externa e interna; esta última se mantenía completamente desconocida hasta la fecha. Adicionalmente, presentamos la primera lista de...

  14. Molecular phylogeny of metazoan intermediate filament proteins. (United States)

    Erber, A; Riemer, D; Bovenschulte, M; Weber, K


    We have cloned cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins from a large number of invertebrate phyla using cDNA probes, the monoclonal antibody IFA, peptide sequence information, and various RT-PCR procedures. Novel IF protein sequences reported here include the urochordata and nine protostomic phyla, i.e., Annelida, Brachiopoda, Chaetognatha, Echiura, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Phoronida, and Sipuncula. Taken together with the wealth of data on IF proteins of vertebrates and the results on IF proteins of Cephalochordata, Mollusca, Annelida, and Nematoda, two IF prototypes emerge. The L-type, which includes 35 sequences from 11 protostomic phyla, shares with the nuclear lamins the long version of the coil 1b subdomain and, in most cases, a homology segment of some 120 residues in the carboxyterminal tail domain. The S-type, which includes all four subfamilies (types I to IV) of vertebrate IF proteins, lacks 42 residues in the coil 1b subdomain and the carboxyterminal lamin homology segment. Since IF proteins from all three phyla of the chordates have the 42-residue deletion, this deletion arose in a progenitor prior to the divergence of the chordates into the urochordate, cephalochordate, and vertebrate lineages, possibly already at the origin of the deuterostomic branch. Four phyla recently placed into the protostomia on grounds of their 18S rDNA sequences (Brachiopoda, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes) show IF proteins of the L-type and fit by sequence identity criteria into the lophotrochozoic branch of the protostomia. PMID:9847417

  15. Biodiversity of the white coral bank off Cape Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea): An update (United States)

    Mastrototaro, F.; D'Onghia, G.; Corriero, G.; Matarrese, A.; Maiorano, P.; Panetta, P.; Gherardi, M.; Longo, C.; Rosso, A.; Sciuto, F.; Sanfilippo, R.; Gravili, C.; Boero, F.; Taviani, M.; Tursi, A.


    The biodiversity of the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) coral bank is summarized and its description is updated using data collected by means of underwater video systems, benthic samplers and fishing gears. A total of 222 living species have been recorded within the coral bank area in the depth range 280-1121 m. The most abundant benthic taxa recorded are Porifera (36 species) followed by Mollusca (35) and Cnidaria (31). The scleractinian corals Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa are the main colonial species in the structure of the SML bank. Annelida, Crustacea and Bryozoa have been found with 24, 23 and 19 species, respectively. A total of 40 species of demersal fish have been recorded. Other faunal taxa were found with small numbers of species. One hundred and thirty-five species are new for the SML bank, 31 of which represent new records for the north-western Ionian Sea (2 Porifera, 17 Cnidaria, 1 Mollusca, 3 Annelida, 2 Crustacea, 4 Bryozoa and 4 Echinodermata). The finding of the annelid Harmothoë vesiculosa represents the first record for the Mediterranean Sea. The SML coral bank represents a biodiversity "hot-spot" on the bathyal bottoms of the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Structural analysis of the α subunit of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase genes in invertebrates. (United States)

    Thabet, Rahma; Rouault, J-D; Ayadi, Habib; Leignel, Vincent


    The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase is a ubiquitous pump coordinating the transport of Na(+) and K(+) across the membrane of cells and its role is fundamental to cellular functions. It is heteromer in eukaryotes including two or three subunits (α, β and γ which is specific to the vertebrates). The catalytic functions of the enzyme have been attributed to the α subunit. Several complete α protein sequences are available, but only few gene structures were characterized. We identified the genomic sequences coding the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, from the whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS), NCBI Genomes (chromosome), Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) and High Throughput Genomic Sequences (HTGS) databases across distinct phyla. One copy of the α subunit gene was found in Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Placozoa, Porifera, Platyhelminthes, Urochordata, but the nematodes seem to possess 2 to 4 copies. The number of introns varied from 0 (Platyhelminthes) to 26 (Porifera); and their localization and length are also highly variable. Molecular phylogenies (Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony methods) showed some clusters constituted by (Chordata/(Echinodermata/Hemichordata)) or (Plathelminthes/(Annelida/Mollusca)) and a basal position for Porifera. These structural analyses increase our knowledge about the evolutionary events of the α subunit genes in the invertebrates. PMID:26812300

  17. Community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary during water and sediment discharge regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhonghua; LI Fan; WEI Jiali; LI Shaowen; LV Zhenbo; GAO Yanjie; CONG Xuri


    The community characteristics of macrobenthos in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary is influenced by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. Here, we investigated short-term changes (1-month) in macrobenthic community structure in response to water and sediment discharge regulation (WSDR) in 2011. Specifically, we sampled the macrobenthos at 18 sampling stations situated at four distances (5, 10, 20, and 40 km) from the mouth of the Huanghe Estuary before (mid-June), during (early-July), and after (mid-July) WSDR. The results showed that a total of 73, 72, and 85 species were collected before, during, and after WSDR, respectively. Then, 13, 1, and 16 dominant species were detected at this three periods. Four phyla were primarily detected at all three periods (Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Echinodermata). However, while Mollusca and Annelida were the most important phyla in our study, Echinodermata and Annelida were the most important phyla in 1982, demonstrating major changes to community structure over a 3-decadal period. All stations were of high quality BOPA index before WSDR, whereas two and three stations were of reduced quality BOPA index during and after WSDR, respectively. The results of ABC curves showed that had incurred disturbed conditions after human activities WSDR. Most important of all, multivariate analyses and RDA analysis indicated that the structure of the macrobenthic community was closely linked to environment factors, including that organic content factor caused the distribution of macrobenthic community mostly during WSDR, while water depth after WSDR affected the macro benthos community structure seriously, and during WSDR, the environment factor influencing it was not single, including organic content, sulfide content, Hg and As. These differences may have been due to changes in water transparency negatively impacting the growth and development of macrobenthos, due to specific life-history requirements. Our results

  18. 上海苏州河大型底栖动物的研究%A study on macro-invertebrate of the Suzhou River, Shanghai.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国才; 赖伟; 殷浩文; 顾福康


    苏州河白鹤至浙江路段6个采样断面大型底栖动物隶属于环节动物门(Annelida)、软体动物门(Mollusca)及节肢动物门(Arthropoda).其中寡毛纲(Oligochaeta)4种、蛭纲(Hirudinea)2种、腹足纲(Gastropoda)5种、双壳纲(Bivalvia)2种及昆虫纲摇蚊科幼虫(Chironomidae)与潜蝇蛹(Agromyzigae)(未定种).随着底质污染的加重,群落结构趋于简化.种类少、高度耐污是存活大型底栖动物的显著特点.从白鹤至华槽断面,高度耐污的霍甫水丝蚓(Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri)数量趋于增加,并在华槽断面形成明显数量高峰;北新泾、武宁路河段底质污染严重,环节动物、软体动物消失;浙江路断面受黄浦江"逆流"影响,寡毛纲动物再度出现,并形成一定数量.%Macro-invertebrate from Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda were found in six sections from Baihe to Zhejiang road in the Suzhou River, among which four species were from Oligochaeta, two species from Hirudinea, five species from Gastropoda, two species from Bivalvia and several species from Insecta (unidentified). The community structure of macro-invertebrates became simple with the sediment pollution getting heavier. Limited species with high pollution resistibility were the characteristics of the species survival. The amounts of Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri with high pollution resistibility increased gradually from Baihe to Huacao section, and reached a peak in Huacao section; species from An-nelida, Mollusca were not found in Beixinjing and Wuninglu sections due to heavy sediment pollution; species from Oli-gochaeta were found again and had certain numbers in Zhejiang road section as the result of the effect of courterflow of the Huangpu River.

  19. Genetic Diversity of Freshwater Leeches in Lake Gusinoe (Eastern Siberia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kaygorodova


    Full Text Available The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae. In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp. have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates.

  20. Element-transfer in the ecosystem 'spruce-stand' with special regard to invertebrate animals. Elementfluesse im Oekosystem 'Fichtenforst' unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung wirbelloser Tiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth-Holzapfel, M.; Funke, W.; Rittner, P.


    In the most important representatives (Annelida, Arthropoda) of invertebrate food chains of a 80-year-old spruce stand nearby Ulm (Swabian Alb) the concentrations of numerous elements have been determined. The spectrum of elements includes major nutrients (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P), minor nutrients (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) and toxic elements (Pb, Cd). The estimation of transfer-rates of elements in the ecosystem from primary production to primary consumers and zoophagous invertebrates, has been of special interest. Saprophagous animals contain an element-pool, of which upto 30% is transferred to zoophagous species. Invertebrates of different systematic and trophic groups accumulate - except of Cd- predominantly essential elements. The highest factors of accumulation were found in saprophagous springtails and millipeds. In contrary to predaceous spiders, no accumulation was found in zoophagous beetles. In no species of animals investigated an anrichment of lead was estimated. (orig.).

  1. Fossilized spermatozoa preserved in a 50-Myr-old annelid cocoon from Antarctica (United States)

    Bomfleur, Benjamin; Mörs, Thomas; Ferraguti, Marco; Reguero, Marcelo A.; McLoughlin, Stephen


    The origin and evolution of clitellate annelids—earthworms, leeches and their relatives—is poorly understood, partly because body fossils of these delicate organisms are exceedingly rare. The distinctive egg cases (cocoons) of Clitellata, however, are relatively common in the fossil record, although their potential for phylogenetic studies has remained largely unexplored. Here, we report the remarkable discovery of fossilized spermatozoa preserved within the secreted wall layers of a 50-Myr-old clitellate cocoon from Antarctica, representing the oldest fossil animal sperm yet known. Sperm characters are highly informative for the classification of extant Annelida. The Antarctic fossil spermatozoa have several features that point to affinities with the peculiar, leech-like ‘crayfish worms' (Branchiobdellida). We anticipate that systematic surveys of cocoon fossils coupled with advances in non-destructive analytical methods may open a new window into the evolution of minute, soft-bodied life forms that are otherwise only rarely observed in the fossil record. PMID:26179804

  2. Studies on regeneration of central nervous system and social ability of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae. (United States)

    Gopi Daisy, Nino; Subramanian, Elaiya Raja; Selvan Christyraj, Jackson Durairaj; Sudalai Mani, Dinesh Kumar; Selvan Christyraj, Johnson Retnaraj Samuel; Ramamoorthy, Kalidas; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Sivasubramaniam, Sudhakar


    Earthworms are segmented invertebrates that belong to the phylum Annelida. The segments can be divided into the anterior, clitellar and posterior parts. If the anterior part of the earthworm, which includes the brain, is amputated, the worm would essentially survive even in the absence of the brain. In these brain amputee-derived worms, the nerve cord serves as the primary control center for neurological function. In this current work, we studied changes in the expression levels of anti-acetylated tubulin and serotonin as the indicators of neuro-regenerative processes. The data reveal that the blastemal tissues express the acetylated tubulin and serotonin from day four and that the worm amputated at the 7th segment takes 30 days to complete the regeneration of brain. The ability of self-assemblage is one of the specific functions of the earthworm's brain. The brain amputee restored the ability of self-assemblage on the eighth day. PMID:27279085

  3. Spatial and temporal variability of mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate patterns of spatial and temporal variability of mobile macroinvertebrate assemblages associated to coralligenous habitat. A multi-factorial sampling design was used to test the hypotheses that the structure of assemblages and their spatial and temporal variability changed in relation to substrate inclination. Moreover, macroalgae and sessile macro-invertebrates were also investigated in order to detect eventual relationship between sessile and mobile assemblages. A total of 236 mobile macro-invertebrate taxa were identified, among them 2 Platyhelminthes, 4 Sipuncula, 6 Nemertea, 27 Mollusca, 86 Annelida, 103 Arthropoda, 8 Echinodermata. Results of the study showed that mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages of coralligenous habitat were little influenced by the inclination of substrate and by the morphology of sessile organisms, as patterns of variation were different between the two assemblages. Mobile macro-invertebrate assemblages changed among sampling dates within one year period and they showed high variability at the spatial scale examined.

  4. Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael; Holmstrup, Martin;


    Earthworms (Annelida; Lumbricidae) harbour species-specific symbiotic bacteria in their nephridia (excretory organs) where the symbionts densely colonize a specific part of the nephridia called the ampulla [1]. The symbiosis is universal among earthworms, the symbionts form a monophyletic cluster...... within the genus Acidovorax [2], and they are transmitted vertically [3]. For these reasons, we suggest that the earthworm-Acidovorax association has evolved by co-speciation. This hypothesis was tested by a comparative study of earthworm and symbiont phylogeny. Different earthworm species were collected...... in Denmark and DNA was extracted from their nephridia. Earthworm phylogeny was resolved on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) by direct PCR amplification and sequencing from the nephridial DNA extract. Symbiont 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved by cloning and sequencing...

  5. A Fresh Look at Dickinsonia: Removing It from Vendobionta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xingliang; Joachim REITNER


    Abstract: The Ediacaran Dickinsonia is well-known for being the only fossil to be assigned to many phyla, ranging from lichens, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, and a phylum of its own to a nonmetazoan kingdom. A new specimen from the Ediacaran fine-grained sandstone on the Winter Coast of the White Sea in northern Russia, which has an age of ~555 million years ago, preserved convincing internal anatomies of definite animals, comparable with meridional canals of extant ctenophores (comb jellies). Additionally, we reconsidered Dickinsonia as a biradially symmetrical animal rather than a bilateral one as previously thought. The animal nature of Dickinsonia is, thus, well established and its affinities are most probably allied to ctenophores. This research is not only removing Dickinsonia from Vendobionta, but also bringing the fossil record of ctenophores forward to 20 million years before the Cambrian "explosion".

  6. Estudio bioedafológico preliminar de la Isla Gorgona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo B. Iván


    Full Text Available

    Los suelos de la Isla Gorgona son Inceptisoles con buena a baja saturación de bases (Eutropepts y Dystropepts respectivamente, con tendencia a ser ácidos y buena capacidad de intercambio catiónico. Domina en ellos la textura arcillosa: el contenido de materia orgánica es alto en los horizontes O y A, razón por la cual predominan, en la fauna edáfica las formas de hábitos fitófagos y saprófagos. Los más representativos de la fauna internadel suelo (0 a 40 ern son Insecta y Annelida e Insecta y Aracnida en la faunasuperficial.

  7. Jaw morphology and ontogeny in five species of Ophryothrocha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, Martin Oliver; Worsaae, Katrine; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny


    Detailed scanning electron microscopy of jaws within the genus Ophryotrocha (Dorvilleidae, Annelida) was performed on 871 jaw parts. The investigations resulted in new understandings of the ontogeny and jaw morphology and have systematic implications for the family. Five species in the genus...... (Ophryotrocha alborana, O. diadema, O. gracilis, O. hartmanni, and O. labronica pacifica) were kept in culture, and the development of the jaws was studied by sampling throughout their life history. Ophryotrocha species have mandibular plates that remain the same throughout ontogeny, whereas the posterior...... shafts elongate. Both mandibular plate morphology and shaft ontogeny have species-specific distinctions. In Ophryotrocha, the maxillae can be assigned to three to four distinct types, which are replaced by moulting. The maxillary morphology and developmental stages at which moults occur are species...

  8. First record of Bothrioneurum vejdovskyanum Štolc, 1886 (Oligochaeta, Tubificidae in Serbia

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    Vasiljević Božica


    Full Text Available We report the discovery of Bothrioneurum vejdovskyanum Štolc, 1886 (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Tubificidae: Rhyacodrilinae in Serbian freshwaters. Fifteen specimens were found in the middle course of the River Ibar (southern Serbia, at a locality where the macrolithal type of substrate and strong currents prevail. These organisms were found together with Stylodrilus heringianus (Claparede, 1862. They were among the most abundant Oligochaeta species. The species are described and its biology and distribution are discussed. The present record contributes to the knowledge on the general distribution of this rare species, particularly in the Balkans (southeastern Europe. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia, Projects No. ON 173025 and III 43002

  9. A study on the biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the waters of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, Korea

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    In-Young Cho


    Full Text Available The biodiversity of benthic invertebrates in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Gapado, Beomseom, and Munseom islets was surveyed twice in May and September 2013 to study the state of biodiversity in Seogwipo, Jeju Island. As a result, a total of 77 species, 46 families, 25 orders, 14 classes, and nine phyla of benthic invertebrates were found. The species which were found, by taxon, consisted of the following: 26 species of Cnidaria (34%, 24 species of Mollusca (31%, seven species of Chordata (9%, six species of Arthropoda (8%, six species of Porifera (8%, five species of Echinodermata (7%, one species of Bryozoa (1%, one species of Annelida (1%, and one species of Ctenophora (1%.

  10. Marine leech Ozobranchus margoi parasitizing loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Sanguessugas Ozobranchus margoi parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Carla Rosane Rodenbusch


    Full Text Available This paper reports the finding of several Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida: Hirudinea parasitizing a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta that was found in the municipality of Tavares, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Since this parasite is considered to be a vector of chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV-5, the leeches collected were tested for the presence of this virus. All the specimens were negative on PCR analysis. Although O. margoi is considered to be a common sea turtle parasite, this is the first official record describing collection of this parasite from a loggerhead turtle in southern Brazil, within the country's subtropical zone. This finding draws attention to the presence of this parasite and to the risk of leech-borne infectious diseases among turtles found along the coast of southern Brazil.Este artigo relata a descoberta de vários exemplares de Ozobranchus margoi (Annelida Hirudínea parasitando uma tartaruga cabeçuda (Caretta caretta encontrada no município de Tavares, Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Uma vez que esse parasito é considerado vetor do chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV 5, as sanguessugas foram testadas para a presença deste vírus. Todas as amostras foram negativas pela análise de PCR. Embora o O. margoi seja considerado um parasito comum de tartarugas marinhas, este é o primeiro registro oficial que descreve a coleta deste parasita em uma tartaruga cabeçuda no sul do Brasil, dentro da zona subtropical do país. Este achado chama a atenção para a presença deste parasita e para o risco de sanguessugas transmitirem doenças infecciosas em tartarugas no litoral sul do Brasil.

  11. Preliminary studies of quality assessment of aquatic environments from Cluj suburban areas, based on some invertebrates bioindicators and chemical indicators

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    Gheorghe Stan


    Full Text Available Systematic categories of invertebrates bioindicators correlated with some chemical parameters,were an effective way to characterize the quality of lotic (Someş River and lentic (Lake Gilău aquatic environment from Cluj-Napoca area. Invertebrate fauna was represented by species belonging to the following dominant systematic categories: Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea and Insecta. This paper containsalso some preliminary data on the bioindicators species belonging to Protozoa phylum. Dominant groups were crustaceans (the sampling points in Lake Gilău and annelids (Somes River and among species Gammarus pulex, Daphnia pulex, Tubifex tubifex. The fauna composition shows the β-α mesosaprobic character of the water, with an evolution from β mesosaprobity upstream the Cluj-Napoca city to polysaprobic downstream of the city. This aspect has been observed and analyzed according to chemical parameters (pH, TDS, ORP, EC, t and indices of saprobity (relative cleanliness, state of relative pollution, the deficit of species, saprobiological index.Systematic categories of invertebrates bioindicators correlated with some chemical parameters, were an effective way to characterize the quality of lotic (Someş River and lentic (Lake Gilău aquatic environment from Cluj-Napoca area. Invertebrate fauna was represented by species belonging to the following dominant systematic categories: Nematoda, Annelida, Crustacea and Insecta. This paper contains also some preliminary data on the bioindicators species belonging to Protozoa phylum. Dominant groups were crustaceans (the sampling points in Lake Gilău and annelids (Somes River and among species Gammarus pulex, Daphnia pulex, Tubifex tubifex. The fauna composition shows the β-α mesosaprobic character of the water, with an evolution from β mesosaprobity upstream the Cluj-Napoca city to polysaprobic downstream of the city. This aspect has been observed and analyzed according to chemical parameters (pH, TDS, ORP

  12. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

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    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  13. The molecular symplesiomorphies shared by the stem groups of metazoan evolution: can sites as few as 1% have a significant impact on recognizing the phylogenetic position of myzostomida? (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Xie, Qiang


    Although it is clear that taxon sampling, alignments, gene sampling, tree reconstruction methods and the total length of the sequences used are critical to the reconstruction of evolutionary history, weakly supported or misleading nodes exist in phylogenetic studies with no obvious flaw in those aspects. The phylogenetic studies focusing on the basal part of bilaterian evolution are such a case. During the past decade, Myzostomida has appeared in the basal part of Bilateria in several phylogenetic studies of Metazoa. However, most researchers have entertained only two competing hypotheses about the position of Myzostomida-an affinity with Annelida and an affinity with Platyhelminthes. In this study, dozens of symplesiomorphies were discovered by means of ancestral state reconstruction in the complete 18S and 28S rDNAs shared by the stem groups of Metazoa. By contrastive analysis on the datasets with or without such symplesiomorphic sites, we discovered that Myzostomida and other basal groups are basal lineages of Bilateria due to the corresponding symplesiomorphies shared with earlier lineages. As such, symplesiomorphies account for approximately 1-2% of the whole dataset have an essential impact on phylogenetic inference, and this study reminds molecular systematists of the importance of carrying out ancestral state reconstruction at each site in sequence-based phylogenetic studies. In addition, reasons should be explored for the low support of the hypothesis that Myzostomida belongs to Annelida in the results of phylogenomic studies. Future phylogenetic studies concerning Myzostomida should include all of the basal lineages of Bilateria to avoid directly neglecting the stand-alone basal position of Myzostomida as a potential hypothesis. PMID:25128981

  14. Effects of carbofuran and metsulfuron-methyl on the benthic macroinvertebrate community in flooded ricefields Efeito do carbofurano e metsulfuron-methyl sobre a comunidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos de lavoura de arroz irrigado

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    Joele Baumart


    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the effect of the insecticide carbofuran and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl on the abundance and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a paddy ricefield. METHODS: To achieve this goal, two pesticide treatments [the insecticide carbofuran (IC and the herbicide metsulfuron-methyl (HM] and a control (Co treatment with no added pesticide were established in an experimental area of the Plant Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. Soil samples were collected in triplicate from each treatment 30 days before and 1, 10, and 51 days after the pesticide application, for macrofauna identification. RESULTS: Among the 21 taxa identified, Trichoceridae was present only in Co, Hydroptilidae was recorded only in IC, and Corixidae in HM. In Co, the most abundant group was Annelida, while in IC and HM Diptera (Chironomidae was dominant. Significant differences were observed between Co and IC, in the density of Odontoceridae (Control>IC and Hydrophilidae (ControlHM and Hirudinea (ControlOBJETIVO: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do inseticida carbofurano e do herbicida metsulfuron-methyl na abundância e diversidade de macroinvertebrados bentônicos em campo de arroz irrigado. MÉTODOS: Para isto, dois tratamentos com agrotóxicos [o inseticida carbofurano (IC e o herbicida metsulfuron-methyl (HM] e um controle (Co, tratamento sem pesticida, foram aplicados em uma área experimental no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em triplicatas em cada tratamento 30 dias antes (DBA e 1, 10 e 51 dias após a aplicação dos pesticidas, posteriormente a macrofauna foi identificada. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um (21 taxa foram identificados, entre esses Trichoceridae esteve presente apenas em Co, enquanto que Hydroptilidae foi coletado apenas em IC, e Corixidae em HM. Em Co e IC, o grupo mais abundante foi Annelida, e em HM foi Diptera (Chironomidae que


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    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de las comunidades de macroinvertebrados presentes en la quebrada Paloblanco, ubicada en la cuenca del río Otún (Risaralda, Colombia. Los puntos de muestreo seleccionados corresponden a la cabecera y la zona cercana a la desembocadura en el río Otún, ambos con características geomorfológicas de corrientes de primer orden. En cada punto se colectaron los macroinvertebrados de las unidades funcionales hojarasca, epiliton, musgo y grava, junto con una muestra de deriva y fauna general (sin discriminar unidad funcional. Se encontraron 42 familias de Insecta, además de Acari, Annelida, Crustacea e Hirudinea. Igualmente se encontraron familias de presencia exclusiva en cada punto, mostrando diferencias en la composición de las comunidades. Los índices ecológicos empleados mostraron una mayor diversidad en punto bajo y diferencias entre algunas de las unidades funcionales, relacionados con el medio y los hábitos presentes. Para el análisis se tuvieron en cuenta los conceptos de continuo y zonación de los ríos. A pesar de tener condiciones de primer orden, existen variaciones a pequeña escala entre los puntos de muestreo, que están relacionadas con la intervención antrópica en la zona aledaña a punto bajo.A research on the macroinvertebrate community was made in the Paloblanco gulch, located in the Otun River basin, (Risaralda, Colombia. Two sample points were selected, the headwaters and the mouth’s closer zone in the Otun River and both presented first order river geomorphology characteristics. The functional units (litter, stone, moss and gravel were collected and conjunctly with derive and general fauna samples (not including discrimination in the functional units were taken at each point. 42 Insecta families were founded, also Acari, Annelida, Crustacea and Hirudinea. Equally, exclusive families were found in each point, showing a difference in the community composition. The ecological indexes were

  16. The benthic macroinvertebrate fauna of highland streams in southern Brazil: composition, diversity and structure Fauna de macro-invertebrados bentônicos de rios de montanha no sul do Brasil: composição, diversidade e estrutura

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    Ludwig Buckup


    Full Text Available Benthic macroinvertebrate in four rivers, three in the Pelotas River basin (Divisa, Marco and Silveira rivers, in the headwaters of the Uruguai River and one in the Taquari-Antas system (Antas River, a tributary in the Guaíba basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, were identified. Two samples were collected in summer, autumn and spring, with one replicate in each river. The total of 28,961 specimens included members of Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Acarina, Insecta, Crustacea and Mollusca. The Silveira and Marco rivers showed significant differences in the indices of Shannon-Weaver (H’, Simpson’s Reciprocal (1/D, Margalef (DMg and Equitability (E. The Silveira River showed the highest means of diversity and the EPT index (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera. Comparison among the diversity indices, considered individually, were insufficient to show differences in community structure, for the purpose of ecological characterization of the rivers. The EPT values characterized the Divisa River as having the highest abundance (73%, followed by the Marco (71%, Antas (48% and Silveira (36%. These results suggest that the Silveira River is subject to moderate environmental stress, from human impact, although it showed the highest diversity of the major macrobenthic groups.Os macro-invertebrados bentônicos que ocorrem em quatro rios, três pertencentes à bacia do Rio Pelotas (Rios Divisa, Marco e Silveira nas cabeceiras do Rio Uruguai e um ao sistema Taquari-Antas (Rio Antas, tributário da bacia do Guaíba, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foram identificados. Duas amostras foram coletadas no verão, outono e primavera, com uma réplica em cada rio. Foram coletados 28961 espécimes de macro-invertebrados compreendendo Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Acarina, Insecta, Crustacea e Mollusca. Na comparação entre os rios, Silveira e Marco mostraram diferenças significativas nos índices de Shannon-Weaver (H’, no Recíproco de Simpson (1/D, de

  17. Registros de sanguijuelas de Costa Rica y clave para la identificación de las especies con redescripción de Cylicobdella costaricae Records of leeches from Costa Rica and taxonomic key for species identification with a redescription of Cylicobdella costaricae

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    Alejandro Oceguera-Figueroa


    Full Text Available En contraste con los enormes esfuerzos realizados por caracterizar la fauna y flora de Costa Rica, con excepción de algunos registros aislados, muy poco se sabe sobre las sanguijuelas (Annelida: Clitellata en este país. En este trabajo, presentamos la redescripción de una especie terrestre muy poco conocida: Cylicobdella costaricae, caracterizando su morfología externa e interna; esta última se mantenía completamente desconocida hasta la fecha. Adicionalmente, presentamos la primera lista de especies de sanguijuelas para Costa Rica con un total de 12 taxones registrados en las 7 provincias del país. Se incluye una breve descripción de su morfología, fotografías y localidades para cada taxón. Los registros que presentamos son el resultado del estudio de los ejemplares depositados en el Museo de Zoología de la Universidad de Costa Rica así como de recolectas recientes. Finalmente, incluimos una clave taxonómica para la identificación de las especies de sanguijuelas de Costa Rica.In contrast to the enormous efforts made to characterize the fauna and flora from Costa Rica, except for a few isolated records, very little is known about leeches (Annelida: Clitellata in the country. In this paper, we present the redescription of a poorly known terrestrial leech: Cylicobdella costaricae, characterizing its external and internal morphology, the latter, completely unknown to date. In addition, we report the first list of leech species for Costa Rica, including in total 12 taxa with records from the 7 provinces of the country. We provide a brief description of the leech morphology, pictures and localities for each taxon. The information shown here is the result of the study of both, specimens deposited at the Museo de Zoología of the Universidad de Costa Rica and the new collections. Finally, we provide a taxonomic key for species identification.

  18. The impact of fossil data on annelid phylogeny inferred from discrete morphological characters. (United States)

    Parry, Luke A; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Vinther, Jakob


    As a result of their plastic body plan, the relationships of the annelid worms and even the taxonomic makeup of the phylum have long been contentious. Morphological cladistic analyses have typically recovered a monophyletic Polychaeta, with the simple-bodied forms assigned to an early-diverging clade or grade. This is in stark contrast to molecular trees, in which polychaetes are paraphyletic and include clitellates, echiurans and sipunculans. Cambrian stem group annelid body fossils are complex-bodied polychaetes that possess well-developed parapodia and paired head appendages (palps), suggesting that the root of annelids is misplaced in morphological trees. We present a reinvestigation of the morphology of key fossil taxa and include them in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of annelids. Analyses using probabilistic methods and both equal- and implied-weights parsimony recover paraphyletic polychaetes and support the conclusion that echiurans and clitellates are derived polychaetes. Morphological trees including fossils depict two main clades of crown-group annelids that are similar, but not identical, to Errantia and Sedentaria, the fundamental groupings in transcriptomic analyses. Removing fossils yields trees that are often less resolved and/or root the tree in greater conflict with molecular topologies. While there are many topological similarities between the analyses herein and recent phylogenomic hypotheses, differences include the exclusion of Sipuncula from Annelida and the taxa forming the deepest crown-group divergences. PMID:27581880

  19. How many marine aliens in Europe?

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    Stelios Katsanevakis


    Full Text Available In the framework of the European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN;, an inventory of marine alienspecies in Europe was created by critically reviewing existing information in 34 global, European, regional and national databases. In total, 1369 marine alien species have been reported in the European seas (including 110 cryptogenic and 139 questionable species; this is a substantial increase from the 737 species previously reported in 2009 based on the DAISIE (Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe; dataset. Most of the reported species were invertebrates (63.3%, followed by chromists (13.7%, vertebrates (11.6%, and plants (10.1%. Mollusca is the most numerous phylum, followed by Arthropoda, Chordata, and Annelida. Thecountries with the highest reported numbers of marine alien species were Israel, Turkey, Italy, France, Egypt and Greece. A reporting bias is evident as efforts for monitoring and reporting alien species vary among countries.

  20. Update of alien fauna and new records from Tunisian marine waters

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    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine fauna in coastal and offshore Tunisian waters is presented. Records were compiled from scientific and ‘grey’ publications, presentations at scientific meetings, theses presented in fulfillment of requirements towards MSc and PhD degrees, websites and personal observations. 136 alien species were recorded in Tunisian waters, 60 records in northern coasts, West Mediterranean and 76 in central and southern coasts, Central Mediterranean. Nearly half of the first sightings in Tunisian waters took place in the Gulf of Gabès. The dominant taxa are Crustancean (24%, Molluscs (23%, Fishes (19% and Annelida (13%. Twenty one species previously reported as aliens, were upon consideration, reclassified as range-expanding Atlantic species. Amathia verticillata, previously considered native to the Mediterranean, is reclassified as pseudoindigenous. Twenty one alien species are newly recorded from Tunisia, including 5 fish species, 5 polychaetes, 4 crustaceans, 4 molluscs, and one each schyphozoan, bryozoan and tunicate. The findings of Gibberulus gibberulus albus, Morula aspera and Calcinus latens, three species new to the Mediterranean, and of Actaedoes tomentosus, reported for the second time in the basin, are described. Species were classified according to their establishment status and their origins. This contribution highlights the dual origin of biological invasion in Tunisian waters (Red Sea and Atlantic, with slightly more species of Red Sea and Indo-Pacific origin (61,76%.  The impact of the alien species in Tunisian waters was discussed.

  1. Independent origins of parasitism in Animalia. (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B; Kuris, Armand M


    Nearly half of all animals may have a parasitic lifestyle, yet the number of transitions to parasitism and their potential for species diversification remain unresolved. Based on a comprehensive survey of the animal kingdom, we find that parasitism has independently evolved at least 223 times in just 15 phyla, with the majority of identified independent parasitic groups occurring in the Arthropoda, at or below the level of Family. Metazoan parasitology is dominated by the study of helminthes; however, only 20% of independently derived parasite taxa belong to those groups, with numerous transitions also seen in Mollusca, Rotifera, Annelida and Cnidaria. Parasitism is almost entirely absent from deuterostomes, and although worm-like morphology and host associations are widespread across Animalia, the dual symbiotic and trophic interactions required for parasitism may constrain its evolution from antecedent consumer strategies such as generalist predators and filter feeders. In general, parasitic groups do not differ from their free-living relatives in their potential for speciation. However, the 10 largest parasitic clades contain 90% of described parasitic species, or perhaps 40% of all animal species. Hence, a substantial fraction of animal diversity on the Earth arose following these few transitions to a parasitic trophic strategy. PMID:27436119

  2. Animal communities in forests - their usability as indicators for the state of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usability of soil protoza, nemotoda, annelida und insecta of spruce stands, decidous forests, an old orchard, and partly also of areas which were treeless and strongly altered by man as indicators of the conditions of ecosystems and their alterations was tested. Generally showed these areas certain similarities. However, considerable differences in species-range, abundance, biomass, dominance structure and diversity of animal coummunities were also found. Some of these remarkable differences in spruce stands are not evident in studies of plant communities. Most animal groups and a lot of species indicate strong relations to soil-humidity and esp. to the H+ - concentration of the substrate. Often they are reacting very sensitively to liming, fertilizing, acid pollutions and to additional precipitations etc. Oscillations and fluctuations of population densities are inclined at a high degree by climatic influences particularly in forests with poor litter and humus layers. The population structures of Mycorrhiza-feeders (in spruce stands) correlates to a certain degree with the physical condition of trees. (orig./VHE) With 60 figs., 53 tabs., 204 refs

  3. Transplants in annelids, nemerteans and planarians: a tool for embryology, immunology, endocrinology and regeneration research

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    EE Zattara


    Full Text Available While transplantation procedures are often associated with biomedical applications, they are also an invaluable tool for basic research. This review focuses on how transplantation techniques have been used to understand the biology of three large lophotrochozoan phyla: Annelida, Nemertea and Platyhelmintha. I describe how transplantation paradigms have uncovered fundamental principles regarding the embryology, immunology, endocrinology and regeneration biology of representative species within these three groups. In particular, embryologists have used blastomere transplantations to show that both mosaic and regulative development occurs in animals within the phyla. Immunologists have used transplantation techniques to demonstrate that these invertebrates mount a variety of innate immune responses, some of which include surprising features that classically characterize adaptive immunity. Endocrinologists have used transplantation experiments to uncover hormonal requirements for sexual development and maturation. Meanwhile, regeneration biologists continue to address fundamental questions regarding tissue polarity, post-embryonic patterning, stem cell physiology, and the role of the nervous system in regeneration. Along with recent technical and conceptual advances, transplantation remains a powerful tool for invertebrate research.

  4. Comparative investigations on animal cenuses of spruce and deciduous forests and of an old orchard - soil animals as bioindicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funke, W.; Herlitzius, H.; Jans, W.; Kraniz, V.; Lehle, E.; Ratajczak, L.; Stumpp, J.; Vogel, J.; Wanner, M.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A.


    Investigations were carried out on Protozoa (Testacea, Ciliata) and Metazoa (Nematode, Annelida, Arthropoda) esp. of spruce stands. For comparisons deciduous forests and an old orchard were also used. In enchytraeid worms and in arthropods, esp. in dipterous imagines, liming and fertilizing of soil surface (in 1984/1984) had brought strong negative effects in regard of population density in the last years. Since 1987 these effects seem to turn into the opposite direction. Earth worms are naturally promoted by liming and fertilizing. Contaminations of soil surface by solutions of NaCl or by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (in 1985) yielded considerable after-effects even 18 months later in a nematod worm coenosis, if comparisons are made with the data of control areas. In edaphic springtails, species numbers, abundances and diversities of coenoses now had nearly normalized (two years after the contaminations). But negative effects after contaminations with the synthetic pyrethroid Cypermethrin (Ripcord) seem to be unchanged up to now.

  5. Atmospheric Dispersal of Bioactive Streptomyces albidoflavus Strains Among Terrestrial and Marine Environments. (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Braña, Alfredo F; González, Verónica; Nava, Herminio; Molina, Axayacatl; Llera, Eva; Fiedler, Hans-Peter; Rico, José M; García-Flórez, Lucía; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria


    Members of the Streptomyces albidoflavus clade, identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, are widespread among predominant terrestrial lichens (Flavoparmelia caperata and Xanthoria parietina) and diverse intertidal and subtidal marine macroalgae, brown red and green (Phylum Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Chlorophyta) from the Cantabrian Cornice. In addition to these terrestrial and coastal temperate habitats, similar strains were also found to colonize deep-sea ecosystems and were isolated mainly from gorgonian and solitary corals and other invertebrates (Phylum Cnidaria, Annelida, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, and Porifera) living up to 4700-m depth and at a temperature of 2-4 °C in the submarine Avilés Canyon. Similar strains have been also repeatedly isolated from atmospheric precipitations (rain drops, snow, and hailstone) collected in the same area throughout a year observation time. These ubiquitous strains were found to be halotolerant, psychrotolerant, and barotolerant. Bioactive compounds with diverse antibiotic and cytotoxic activities produced by these strains were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and database comparison. These include antibacterials (paulomycins A and B), antifungals (maltophilins), antifungals displaying also cytotoxic activities (antimycins and 6-epialteramides), and the antitumor compound fredericamycin. A hypothetical dispersion model is here proposed to explain the biogeographical distribution of S. albidoflavus strains in terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric environments. PMID:26224165

  6. Зоология = Zoology : учебные тексты : пособие для студентов 1 курса биологического факультета БГУ / [сост. Т. А. Богомолова и др.


    Богомолова, Татьяна Анатольевна


    Пособие состоит из 22 текстов, в которых рассматриваются следующие группы животных: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Echinodermata, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata. Каждый текст включает комплекс упражнений для развития навыков чтения, речи и письма по специальной литературе.

  7. Tidal effects on short-term mesozooplankton distribution in small channels of a temperate-turbid estuary, Southwestern Atlantic

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    Javier Chazarreta


    Full Text Available Abstract The short-term variability of mesozooplankton distribution and physicochemical variables was examined in two different channels of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina, during two tidal cycles. All the physicochemical measurements and mesozooplankton sampling were performed at a fixed site during approximately 22-23 h at 3-h intervals. Pumps were used to obtain surface and bottom mesozooplankton samples and the water speed of each stratum was measured with an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP. In all, 23 mesozooplanktonic taxa belonging to four phyla (Arthropoda, Annelida, Echinodermata and Chordata were identified. The most abundant taxa during the two tidal cycles were Balanus glandula larvae, Eurytemora americana and Acartia tonsa. A discernible variability in the water conditions and vertical mesozooplankton distribution (VMD different from that known for the estuary's main channel, was found in the other two selected channels. VMD varied during the tidal cycle in both channels in accordance with the channel's geomorphology and water dynamic characteristics of each of them. The variation of the abundance of the different taxa during ebb and flood currents might indicate the existence of a tidal vertical migration of the mesozooplankton as a response to particular dynamic water conditions.

  8. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability. (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg


    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn. PMID:26980555

  9. The Histochemical Characterization of the Glycoconjugates in the Epidermal Mucous Cells of the Red Californian Earthworm, Eisenia foetida

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    Kenan Çinar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the nature and regional distribution of the glycoconjugates secreted by epidermal mucous cells in Eisenia foetida (Annelida. Specimens were divided into six regions from anterior to posterior. The histochemistry was carried out by using standard histochemical methods. Histochemical staining properties of glycoconjugates in epidermal mucous cells were determined regionally. The epidermis of all regions contained strong to stronger PAS (+ cells in various degrees. The epidermis of the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth regions had strong to stronger AB pH 2.5 (+ cells. On the contrary, all regions contained weak to moderate AB pH 0.5 and AB pH 1.0 (+ cells. Most of mucous cells in epidermis of the first region contained both PAS (+ and AB (+ mucosubstances. All regions included weaker to weak AF (+ cells. All regions featured KOH/PAS (+ cells, with a slight reduction in reaction intensity in the epidermis of the last three regions. In this context, the different staining patterns observed in epidermal mucous cells hinted at their functional roles with respect to production of mucus with different physical properties. This study provided comprehensive information about the regional distribution patterns of the glycoconjugates and an opportunity to compare their distributional patterns in other annelids.

  10. Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil

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    Marta Luciane Fischer


    Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

  11. Compostos biologicamente ativos em invertebrados marinhos

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    José Carlos de Freitas


    Full Text Available The author has reviewed the classification, the nomenclature and the ecological aspects of biologically active compounds, emphasizing the Freyvogel & Perret's (1973 concepts of venomous and poisonous organisms. The literature involving the phyla Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda was also reviewed. The author's pharmacological studies performed with the polychaete Eurytlioe camplanata, which revealed a dializable principle, active in the guinea pig's ileum and dorsal muscle ot polvchaete itself are also commented. This principle differs from Acetylcholine and Serotonin. Pharmacologically studies in the sea-hares (genus Aplysia were also focused, including the author's contribution. In the glands os Aplysia brasiliana, namely the mid-gut-gland, the opaline gland and the purple gland, the author confirmed presence of cholinesters, which are discussed in the review. Toxicity of Arthropods are also discussed, mainly in decapod crustaceans. In some Brazilian crabs studies revealed a pharmacological activity of the gastric secretion expelled with an apparently defensive purpose and its ecological importance is focused in terms of the community. The relatively scarce studies of chemical ecology of marine organisms in Latin America and the importance of these studies were finally emphasized.

  12. Remobilisation of uranium from contaminated freshwater sediments by bioturbation

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    S. Lagauzère


    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that benthic macro-invertebrate bioturbation can influence the remobilization of uranium initially associated with freshwater sediments resulting in a high release of this pollutant through the overlying water column. Giving the potential negative effects on aquatic biocenosis and the global ecological risk, it appeared crucial to improve our current knowledge concerning the uranium biogeochemical behaviour in sediments. The present study aimed to assess the biogeochemical modifications induced by Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Clitellata, Tubificidae bioturbation within the sediment permitting to explain such a release of uranium. To reach this goal, uranium distribution between solid and solute phases of a reconstructed benthic system (i.e. in mesocosms inhabited or not by T. tubifex worms was assessed in a 12 day laboratory experiment. Thanks notably to fine resolution (mm-scale measurements (e.g. DET gels probes for porewater, bioaccumulation in worms of uranium and main chemical species (iron, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, this work permitted (i to confirm that the removal of bottom sediment particles to the surface through the digestive tract of worms greatly favours the oxidative loss of uranium in the water column, and (ii to demonstrate that both uranium contamination and bioturbation of T. tubifex substantially influence major microbial-driven biogeochemical reactions in sediments (e.g. stimulation of denitrification, sulfate-reduction and iron dissolutive reduction. This study provides the first demonstration of biogeochemical modifications induced by bioturbation in freshwater uranium-contaminated sediments.

  13. The Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA): Developing Community Resources to Study Diverse Invertebrate Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather


    Over 95% of all metazoan (animal) species comprise the invertebrates, but very few genomes from these organisms have been sequenced. We have, therefore, formed a Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance (GIGA). Our intent is to build a collaborative network of diverse scientists to tackle major challenges (e.g., species selection, sample collection and storage, sequence assembly, annotation, analytical tools) associated with genome/transcriptome sequencing across a large taxonomic spectrum. We aim to promote standards that will facilitate comparative approaches to invertebrate genomics and collaborations across the international scientific community. Candidate study taxa include species from Porifera, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Annelida, Bryozoa, and Platyhelminthes, among others. GIGA will target 7000 noninsect/nonnematode species, with an emphasis on marine taxa because of the unrivaled phyletic diversity in the oceans. Priorities for selecting invertebrates for sequencing will include, but are not restricted to, their phylogenetic placement; relevance to organismal, ecological, and conservation research; and their importance to fisheries and human health. We highlight benefits of sequencing both whole genomes (DNA) and transcriptomes and also suggest policies for genomic-level data access and sharing based on transparency and inclusiveness. The GIGA Web site () has been launched to facilitate this collaborative venture.

  14. The impact of fossil data on annelid phylogeny inferred from discrete morphological characters (United States)

    Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Vinther, Jakob


    As a result of their plastic body plan, the relationships of the annelid worms and even the taxonomic makeup of the phylum have long been contentious. Morphological cladistic analyses have typically recovered a monophyletic Polychaeta, with the simple-bodied forms assigned to an early-diverging clade or grade. This is in stark contrast to molecular trees, in which polychaetes are paraphyletic and include clitellates, echiurans and sipunculans. Cambrian stem group annelid body fossils are complex-bodied polychaetes that possess well-developed parapodia and paired head appendages (palps), suggesting that the root of annelids is misplaced in morphological trees. We present a reinvestigation of the morphology of key fossil taxa and include them in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of annelids. Analyses using probabilistic methods and both equal- and implied-weights parsimony recover paraphyletic polychaetes and support the conclusion that echiurans and clitellates are derived polychaetes. Morphological trees including fossils depict two main clades of crown-group annelids that are similar, but not identical, to Errantia and Sedentaria, the fundamental groupings in transcriptomic analyses. Removing fossils yields trees that are often less resolved and/or root the tree in greater conflict with molecular topologies. While there are many topological similarities between the analyses herein and recent phylogenomic hypotheses, differences include the exclusion of Sipuncula from Annelida and the taxa forming the deepest crown-group divergences. PMID:27581880

  15. Unusually long palindromes are abundant in mitochondrial control regions of insects and nematodes.

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    K P Arunkumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Palindromes are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes. In the present investigation we carried out a comprehensive analysis of palindromes in the mitochondrial control regions (CRs of several animal groups to study their frequency, distribution and architecture to gain insights into the origin of replication of mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Many species of Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida harbor palindromes and inverted repeats (IRs in their CRs. Lower animals like cnidarians and higher animal groups like chordates are almost devoid of palindromes and IRs. The study revealed that palindrome occurrence is positively correlated with the AT content of CRs, and that IRs are likely to give rise to longer palindromes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study attempts to explain possible reasons and gives in silico evidence for absence of palindromes and IRs from CR of vertebrate mtDNA and acquisition and retention of the same in insects. Study of CRs of different animal phyla uncovered unique architecture of this locus, be it high abundance of long palindromes and IRs in CRs of Insecta and Nematoda, or short IRs of 10-20 nucleotides with a spacer region of 12-14 bases in subphylum Chelicerata, or nearly complete of absence of any long palindromes and IRs in Vertebrata, Cnidaria and Echinodermata.

  16. Abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two Mediterranean echinoids off the

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    Elzahrae Elmasry


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the variability in abundance, size composition and benthic assemblages of two echinoid species, the common sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816 and black urchin Arbacia lixula (Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southeastern Mediterranean (SEM along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt. Four seasonal trips were made during the years 2014–2015 covering 55 km of the shore with depths ranging between 3 and 9 m. The sea urchin species composition, density and size structure and distribution were compared. The associated macrobenthic invertebrates with prominent presence and biomass were observed as well as other benthic fauna and flora associations. The present results showed that P. lividus was the dominant echinoid spatially and temporally. A. lixula showed frequent occurrence in Sidi Bishr and Sidi Gaber stations in the spring season. The most dominant size class was the medium to large-sized classes for P. lividus and large-sized classes for A. lixula. The commercial size for the edible P. lividus represented 33% of the sampled population. Furthermore, the most dominant macrobenthic assemblages beside the echinoid population were primarily oysters, sea cucumbers, and mussels. Beside these, assemblage of seaweeds (red, green, brown and crustose algae, Porifera, Cnidaria, Crustacea, other Echinodermata, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Tunicata, Bryozoa and Annelida were found. The present study shows that the investigated area represents stable habitats for the echinoid population with rich and diversified algal assemblages as well as other potential food resources.

  17. Antitumor and immune regulation activities of the extracts of some Chinese marine invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lixin; FAN Xiao; HAN Lijun


    Extracts of 21 marine invertebrates belonging to Coelenterata, Mollusca, Annelida, Bryozoa,Echiura, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Urochordata were screened for the studies on their antitumor and immune regulation activities. Antitumor activity was determined by MTT method and immune regulation activity was studied using T- and B-lymphocytes in mice spleen in vitro. It was found that the n-butanol part of Asterina pectinifera, the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina, 95% ethanol extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus have a high inhibition rate of 96.7%, 63.9% and 50.5% respectively on tumor cell line HL-60 at the concentration of 0.063 mg/ml. The inhibition rate of the acetic ether part of Tubuaria marina on the tumor cell line A-549 is 65.4 % at concentration of 0.063 mg/mL. The 95% ethanol extract of Meretrix meretrix has so outstanding promoting effect on T-lymphocyfes that their multiplication increases 25% when the sample concentration is only 1 μg/ml. On B-lymphocytes, the 95% extract of Rapana venosa, at concentration of 100μg/ml, has a promotion percentage of 60%. On the other hand, under the condition of no cytotoxic effect, the 95% ethanol extracts of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus and Cellana toreum can reach 92% inhibition rate on T lymphocyte at concentration of 100 μg/ml, while the inhibition rate on B lymphocyte of the 95% extract of Acanthochiton rubrolineatus reaches 92% at the same concentration.

  18. Microdrile Oligochaeta in bromeliad pools of a Honduran cloud forest. (United States)

    Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Jocque, Merlijn; Collado, Rut


    Phytotelmata, or plant-held water bodies, often house complex aquatic invertebrate communities. Microdrile oligochaetes (Clitellata, Annelida) are known to be part of that community, but specimens are rarely identified to species level. Here we report three species of Enchytraeidae and three species of Naididae from a collection sampled in phytotelms of bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Two species of enchytraeids are new to science. Bryodrilus hondurensis sp. nov. is distinguished from other members of the genus by the high number of ventral chaetae, up to 11 per bundle. The genus is Holarctic and this is the southernmost record so far of a Bryodrilus species. Hemienchytraeus phytotelmatus sp. nov. is distinguished by a combination of characters, among which the huge spermathecae and seminal vesicles are most conspicuous. The genus is common in tropical and subtropical soils around the world. A third species of enchytraeids in the collection, Cernosvitoviella atrata (Bretscher), is redescribed, together with three known species of Naididae, Pristina jenkinae (Stephenson), Pristina osborni (Walton) and Pristina terrena Collado & Schmelz. Presence of ingested debris and humus in the intestine of most specimens suggests that the collected animals live and reproduce in the phytotelms. We provide a list of oligochaete species recorded so far from bromeliad pools in Central and South America.

  19. Epifaunal assemblage on morphologically distinct intertidal seaweeds of Kodiyaghat (South Andaman, India

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    I. Anandavelu


    Full Text Available Benthic macroalgae termed seaweed occupy coastal environments primarily on rocky intertidal areas. However, it has significant role by adding spatial complexity to the substratum and alter accessibility to other faunal and floral community. The studies of potential benefits of seaweeds have encouraged extensively yielding industrial, medicinal, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The present study deals with the quantitative distribution of epifaunal community associated with seaweeds of South Andaman and the influence of conspicuous morphology of seaweed on the assemblage of epifauna were compared. Galaxura sp. and Halimeda tuna supported higher faunal density than other seaweeds, with the respective mean density of 139.2 and 104.5 nos. per 100g of algal wet weight. Sargassum duplicatum held the lowest epifaunal density. Arthropoda was the major group found in this study, dominated by the Amphipoda (35.1%, Mysida (19.4% and Isopoda (2.8% followed by Annelida (20.1% and Mollusca (12%. The result indicated that the distribution and abundance of epifauna differ based on the structural morphology among macroalgal species which forms suitable habitat for these organisms. The present study suggests that the sediment retention capacity of weeds might play an important role on the assemblage of epifaunal community.

  20. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability. (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg


    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn.

  1. Developmental expression of COE across the Metazoa supports a conserved role in neuronal cell-type specification and mesodermal development. (United States)

    Jackson, Daniel J; Meyer, Néva P; Seaver, Elaine; Pang, Kevin; McDougall, Carmel; Moy, Vanessa N; Gordon, Kacy; Degnan, Bernard M; Martindale, Mark Q; Burke, Robert D; Peterson, Kevin J


    The transcription factor COE (collier/olfactory-1/early B cell factor) is an unusual basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor as it lacks a basic domain and is maintained as a single copy gene in the genomes of all currently analysed non-vertebrate Metazoan genomes. Given the unique features of the COE gene, its proposed ancestral role in the specification of chemosensory neurons and the wealth of functional data from vertebrates and Drosophila, the evolutionary history of the COE gene can be readily investigated. We have examined the ways in which COE expression has diversified among the Metazoa by analysing its expression from representatives of four disparate invertebrate phyla: Ctenophora (Mnemiopsis leidyi); Mollusca (Haliotis asinina); Annelida (Capitella teleta and Chaetopterus) and Echinodermata (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). In addition, we have studied COE function with knockdown experiments in S. purpuratus, which indicate that COE is likely to be involved in repressing serotonergic cell fate in the apical ganglion of dipleurula larvae. These analyses suggest that COE has played an important role in the evolution of ectodermally derived tissues (likely primarily nervous tissues) and mesodermally derived tissues. Our results provide a broad evolutionary foundation from which further studies aimed at the functional characterisation and evolution of COE can be investigated.

  2. Caracterización de la comunidad de macroinvertebrados de la quebrada Paloblanco de la cuenca del Río Otún, Colombia

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    Novoa Miguel


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de las comunidades de macroinvertebrados presentes en la quebrada Paloblanco,
    ubicada en la cuenca del río Otún (Risaralda, Colombia. Se seleccionaron dos puntos de muestreo (hacia la cabecera y su desembocadura en el río Otún. Se colectaron los macroinvertebrados de las unidades funcionales hojarasca, epiliton, musgo y grava, junto con una muestra de deriva y fauna general (sin discriminar unidad funcional de cada punto muestreado. Se encontraron 42 familias de Insecta, además de Acari, Annelida, Crustacea e Hirudinea. Igualmente se encontraron familias de presencia exclusiva en cada punto, mostrando diferencias en la composición de las comunidades. Los índices ecológicos empleados mostraron una mayor diversidad en punto bajo y diferencias entre algunas de las unidades funcionales, relacionados con el medio y los hábitos presentes. Además, se analizó la aplicación del concepto del
    continuo y zonación en la quebrada Paloblanco.

  3. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

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    Sarah Faulwetter


    Full Text Available The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (, a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida. At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources.

  4. A checklist of helminth parasites of Elasmobranchii in Mexico. (United States)

    Merlo-Serna, Aldo Iván; García-Prieto, Luis


    A comprehensive and updated summary of the literature and unpublished records contained in scientific collections on the helminth parasites of the elasmobranchs from Mexico is herein presented for the first time. At present, the helminth fauna associated with Elasmobranchii recorded in Mexico is composed of 132 (110 named species and 22 not assigned to species), which belong to 70 genera included in 27 families (plus 4 incertae sedis families of cestodes). These data represent 7.2% of the worldwide species richness. Platyhelminthes is the most widely represented, with 128 taxa: 94 of cestodes, 22 of monogeneans and 12 of trematodes; Nematoda and Annelida: Hirudinea are represented by only 2 taxa each. These records come from 54 localities, pertaining to 15 states; Baja California Sur (17 sampled localities) and Baja California (10), are the states with the highest species richness: 72 and 54 species, respectively. Up to now, 48 elasmobranch species have been recorded as hosts of helminths in Mexico; so, approximately 82% of sharks and 67% of rays distributed in Mexican waters lack helminthological studies. The present list provides the host, distribution (with geographical coordinates), site of infection, accession number in scientific collections, and references for the parasites. A host-parasite list is also provided. PMID:27047240

  5. Macroinvertebrates of the Iranian running waters: a review

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    Moslem Sharifinia


    Full Text Available Abstract A comprehensive review of macroinvertebrate studies conducted along the Iranian running waters over the last 15 years has been made by providing the most updated checklist of the Iranian running waters benthic invertebrates. Running waters ecosystems are complex environments known for their importance in terms of biodiversity. As part of the analysis, we endeavored to provide the critical re-identification of the reported species by through comparisons with the database of the Animal Diversity Web (ADW and appropriate literature sources or expert knowledge. A total of 126 species belonging to 4 phyla have been compiled from 57 references. The phylum Arthropoda was found to comprise the most taxa (n = 104 followed by Mollusca, Annelida and Platyhelminthes. Ongoing efforts in the Iranian running waters regarding biomonitoring indices development, testing, refinement and validation are yet to be employed in streams and rivers. Overall, we suggest that future macroinvertebrate studies in Iranian running waters should be focused on long-term changes by broadening target species and strong efforts to publish data in peer-reviewed journals in English.

  6. Phylogeny and mitochondrial gene order variation in Lophotrochozoa in the light of new mitogenomic data from Nemertea

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    von Döhren Jörn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new animal phylogeny established several taxa which were not identified by morphological analyses, most prominently the Ecdysozoa (arthropods, roundworms, priapulids and others and Lophotrochozoa (molluscs, annelids, brachiopods and others. Lophotrochozoan interrelationships are under discussion, e.g. regarding the position of Nemertea (ribbon worms, which were discussed to be sister group to e.g. Mollusca, Brachiozoa or Platyhelminthes. Mitochondrial genomes contributed well with sequence data and gene order characters to the deep metazoan phylogeny debate. Results In this study we present the first complete mitochondrial genome record for a member of the Nemertea, Lineus viridis. Except two trnP and trnT, all genes are located on the same strand. While gene order is most similar to that of the brachiopod Terebratulina retusa, sequence based analyses of mitochondrial genes place nemerteans close to molluscs, phoronids and entoprocts without clear preference for one of these taxa as sister group. Conclusion Almost all recent analyses with large datasets show good support for a taxon comprising Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida and Nemertea. But the relationships among these taxa vary between different studies. The analysis of gene order differences gives evidence for a multiple independent occurrence of a large inversion in the mitochondrial genome of Lophotrochozoa and a re-inversion of the same part in gastropods. We hypothesize that some regions of the genome have a higher chance for intramolecular recombination than others and gene order data have to be analysed carefully to detect convergent rearrangement events.

  7. Organisms in rock bed contact-purification channel for improvement of eutrophic coastal water; Kaisui joka no rekikan sesshoku suironai no fuchaku teisei seibutsuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, M. [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kadokura, N. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Suda, Y. [Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, Yamaguchi (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Toyo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hosokawa, Y. [Port and Harbor Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan)


    In order to identify living organism phases in a water purification channel for eutrophic coastal water, investigations were carried out on fouling and benthic organisms by using an experimental channel installed along a canal in the innermost part of Tokyo Bay. Phytoplanktons in influent are such algae as Skeletonema costatum, Navicula and Nitzschia which are often observed in coastal areas. Rock bed benthic organisms were Carchesium, Vorticella and Zoothamnium predominant in that order. The most predominant species in periphytons was Skeletonema costatum, an alga. In nine months after the water was first flown into the channel, seventeen kinds of large-size fouling and benthic animals were found living in the channel. Mollusca and Annelida contribute to purifying water and reducing water bottom mud, but reduce inter-rock spaces as individuals grow in size and number of individuals increases, causing clogging in the channel. When a rock bed contact-purification facility is operated in a water area, both of fouling and benthic animals living in that area appear in the channel. Species appeared in the present experimental channel were found similar to combination species appeared in the pier No. 13 and the artificial tideland off the Kasai coast. 41 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Living on a volcano's edge: genetic isolation of an extremophile terrestrial metazoan. (United States)

    Cunha, L; Montiel, R; Novo, M; Orozco-terWengel, P; Rodrigues, A; Morgan, A J; Kille, P


    Communities of organisms inhabiting extreme terrestrial environments provide a unique opportunity to study evolutionary forces that drive population structure and genetic diversity under the combined challenges posed by multiple geogenic stressors. High abundance of an invasive pantropical earthworm (and the absence of indigenous lumbricid species) in the Furnas geothermal field (Sao Miguel Island, Azores) indicates its remarkable tolerance to high soil temperature, exceptionally high carbon dioxide and low oxygen levels, and elevated metal bioavailability, conditions which are lethal for the majority of terrestrial metazoans. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers were used to analyze the relationship between populations living inside and outside the geothermal field. Results showed that Pontoscolex corethrurus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Glossoscolecidae) to be a genetically heterogeneous complex within the Sao Miguel landscape and is probably differentiated into cryptic species. The population exposed to the hostile soil conditions within the volcanic caldera possesses the lowest within-population mitochondrial diversity but an unexpectedly high degree of nuclear variability with several loci evidencing positive selection, parameters indicative of a genetically unique population only distantly related to conspecifics living outside the caldera. In conclusion, P. corethrurus inhabiting active volcanic soil is a discrete extremophile population that has evolved by tolerating a mixture of non-anthropogenic chemical and physical stressors.

  9. Wood-associated fauna collected during the KuramBio expedition in the North West Pacific (United States)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Bartsch, Ilse; Błażewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena; Brenke, Nils; Chernyshev, Alexei V.; Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Fischer, Viola; Jażdżewska, Anna; Malyutina, Marina V.; Miljutin, Dmitry; Miljutina, Maria; Kamenev, Gennady M.; Karanovic, Ivana; Maiorova, Anastassya; Würzberg, Laura


    Individual wood fragments obtained from Agassiz trawl samples in the abyssal plain area off the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench were analysed for faunistic components. Out of seven pieces of wood collected, only five harboured fauna and each showed distinctively different colonization patterns. In total, 257 specimens, mainly belonging to the phyla Arthropoda, Nematoda, Mollusca and Annelida, were collected from the available pieces of wood. While wood-boring bivalves of the genus Xylophaga, generally seen as opportunists among wood-converting organisms, were present at nearly all stations, the overwhelming majority of taxa found were restricted to individual pieces of wood. A fresh piece of wood from a site opposite to the Tsugaru Strait, was the most heavily colonized. The presence of shallow or even putative fresh-water taxa beside truly deep-water components possibly suggests a recent sinking of that particular wood fragment and demonstrates the role of such ephemeral organic objects in deep-sea ecosystems as energy-rich feeding grounds and potential distributional stepping stones. Detailed studies of driftwood communities on single sunken wood fragments from deep oceans are limited. The present data not only demonstrate a tolerance of some taxa to changes in physical parameters, such as hydrostatic pressure, salinity and temperature, but also indicate a higher biodiversity on fresher wood pieces compared to wood which already underwent decomposition processes. It is, however, not clear whether the species diversity was linked to the type of wood, since exhaustive analyses on the wood pieces themselves were not conducted.

  10. The eyes of Tullimonstrum reveal a vertebrate affinity. (United States)

    Clements, Thomas; Dolocan, Andrei; Martin, Peter; Purnell, Mark A; Vinther, Jakob; Gabbott, Sarah E


    Tullimonstrum gregarium is an iconic soft-bodied fossil from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Illinois, USA). Despite a large number of specimens and distinct anatomy, various analyses over the past five decades have failed to determine the phylogenetic affinities of the 'Tully monster', and although it has been allied to such disparate phyla as the Mollusca, Annelida or Chordata, it remains enigmatic. The nature and phylogenetic affinities of Tullimonstrum have defied confident systematic placement because none of its preserved anatomy provides unequivocal evidence of homology, without which comparative analysis fails. Here we show that the eyes of Tullimonstrum possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes. Anatomical analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the eyes of Tullimonstrum preserve a retina defined by a thick sheet comprising distinct layers of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics provide further evidence that these microbodies are melanosomes. A range of animals have melanin in their eyes, but the possession of melanosomes of two distinct morphologies arranged in layers, forming retinal pigment epithelium, is a synapomorphy of vertebrates. Our analysis indicates that in addition to evidence of colour patterning, ecology and thermoregulation, fossil melanosomes can also carry a phylogenetic signal. Identification in Tullimonstrum of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes forming the remains of retinal pigment epithelium indicates that it is a vertebrate; considering its body parts in this new light suggests it was an anatomically unusual member of total group Vertebrata. PMID:27074512

  11. The evaluation of the activity of medicinal remedies of plant and animal origin on the regeneration of the earthworms′ tail segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Alexandrovich Bybin


    Full Text Available Now, in the global community there is enough hard recommendation to replace the vertebrate test animals into simpler organisms at the development, testing, and evaluation of the quality pharmaceuticals. The feature of planarian to regenerate in new individual planarian from a piece, which is only 1/7 of the original animal, allowed to create the alternative methods of testing of drugs, dietary supplements, water quality, influence of electromagnetic fields, and other radiations. The tests on planarian can replace the ones that are held today on mammals. However, the lacks of the bioassays based on the planarian regeneration are the need for complex and expensive video equipment for recording the regrowth of worms′ body, the difficulties of culturing of flatworms and fairly long period of response. These difficulties can be avoided by using another group of the worms of type Annelida. The new individual can be fully recovered only from the front half of the body in many species of earthworms. Thus, the influence of the pharmaceuticals from earthworms, mummy, and Orthilia secunda on the ability of earthworms to regenerate lost tail segments has been investigated. The relations of the activity of preparations tested with doses and the time of the storage have been revealed. The principal possibility of applicability of the test reaction studied as a way to evaluate the effects and quality of remedies based on medicinal plants and earthworms has been shown.

  12. Invertebrate communities associated with hard bottom habitats in the South Atlantic Bight (United States)

    Wenner, E. L.; Knott, D. M.; Van Dolah, R. F.; Burrell, V. G.


    Epibenthic invertebrates associated with nine hard bottom areas in the South Atlantic Bight between South Carolina and northern Florida were collected with dredge, trawl, suction and grab samplers to evaluate species composition, biomass, abundance, diversity, spatial distributions, and seasonality (winter and summer). Species composition changed noticeably with depth and season. Inner and outer shelf stations were least similar in species composition. Middle shelf areas were transitional and contained taxa characteristic of both inner and outer sites. Bryozoa (88 taxa), Cnidaria (85 taxa), Porifera (67 taxa), Annelida (261 taxa) and Mollusca (203 taxa) represented the richest taxonomic groups of the 1175 taxa collected. Both diversity (1175 total taxa) and biomass (1995 kg total) of invertebrates from hard bottom areas exceeded those reported in the literature for sand bottom communities. Sponges accounted for >60% of the total invertebrate biomass collected by dredge and trawl during both seasons. High diversity values were attributed primarily to habitat complexity and did not exhibit any discernible pattern with depth or latitude.

  13. Preliminary Findings from a New Study of the Congo Clawless Otter (Aonyx congicus on the Dji Dji River, Ivindo National Park, Gabon (or “Where Have all the Otters Gone?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Davenport


    Full Text Available The Congo Clawless Otter (Aonyx congicus, is a little-known otter species that inhabits central African rivers and swamps. We report on the results of 3 field expeditions into the Dji Dji River, (Ivindo National Park, Gabon of varying length (3 days to 6 weeks to collect preliminary observations on this species, the sympatric spot-necked otter (Lutra maculicollis, and the fish community of the Dji Dji River. We also surveyed local people (primarily artisanal fishermen in the Makokou area of Ivindo National Park about their knowledge of otter species and human/wildlife conflicts in the area. Sightings of otters in 2010 indicated both otter species to be common on the Dji Dji River. Fish sampling in 2011 indicated high abundance but low diversity of fishes in this blackwater river. Feeding observations of a solitary animal on the Dji Dji and a family of 3 on the Ivindo River indicate a high dependence on large earthworms (Annelidae captured near the river’s edge. With a severe drought in 2011 affecting the Dji Dji River level, we found fewer otters compared to 2010 observations and no families with young. We speculate on the possibility of seasonal downstream movements, which could affect conservation of the species in the region.

  14. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola (United States)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.


    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  15. ELNAIS meets EASIN: distribution of marine alien species in Greece using EASIN mapping services and ELNAIS spatial data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The European Alien Species Information Network (EASIN was created with the aim to provide easy access to accurate information on alien species in Europe. EASIN allows the retrieval of spatial information from existing online data providers in order to produce integrated georeferenced distribution maps of alien species in Europe. In November 2012, a new data provider, the Ellenic Network on Aquatic Invasive Species (ELNAIS, joined EASIN; this has significantly increased the available georeferenced information on marine/estuarine alien species in Greek waters. Here, we use maps created by EASIN to show differences in patterns of distribution in Greece for the most abundant Phyla of marine alien species - Mollusca, Arthropoda, Chordata and Annelida. We also show that the two main pathways of introduction of marine alien species (Lessepsian migration and Shipping are related to different patterns of species spatial distribution in Greece. Overall, the tools provided by EASIN can greatly aid scientists and policy makers in obtaining high quality information on marine alien species in Greece, especially after the association with ELNAIS.

  16. 湛江湾大型底栖动物的群落结构和多样性特征%Community Structure and Diversity of Macrobenthos in Zhanjiang Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟男; 孙省利; 李荣冠; 江锦祥; 张才学


    The situations of macrobenthos in Zhanjiang Bay have been investigated in 10 sites during May 2010, analyzing the species composition, biomass, population density and species diversity and classifying on community structure by the method of CLUSTER and MDS. A total of 112 species of 7 phyla were identified, including Annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda, which were the dominant phyla in Zhanjiang Bay. Biomass ranged from 0.93 to 98.20 g/m2, with the highest average biomass of Mollusca. Population density ranged for 6.11 to 24.80 ind/m2, and population density of Annelida (24.08 ind/m2) was the highest, followed by Sipuncula (22.22 ind/m2). The community species of the macrobenthos in the area is relatively abundant while the diversity is poor. According to the analysis of clustering and multidimensional scaling ordination, macrobenthic animals in Zhanjiang Bay could be divided into 4 communities. Through the abundance/biomass curve analysis, macrobenthic organisms in Zhanjiang Bay was affected so seriously by environmental pollution or disturbance that the community structure was unstable. Compared with the other marine sites,the number of species, biomass and abundance of the Zhanjiang Bay were lower.%  2010年5月,在湛江湾海域设立10个站点对大型底栖生物进行调查,分析湛江湾大型底栖生物的种类组成、生物量、栖息密度和生物多样性特征,并通过聚类(CLUSTER)和MDS排序对大型底栖生物群落进行划分.结果表明,调查海域共有底栖生物共7门112种,环节动物门、软体动物门和节肢动物门为湛江湾大型底栖生物的主要类群.生物量分布范围为0.93~98.20 g·m-2,其中软体动物门的平均生物量最高值.栖息密度分布范围为6.11~24.80 ind·m-2,其中以环节动物门(24.08 ind·m-2)和星虫动物门(22.22 ind·m-2)最高.该海域大型底栖生物群落物种较为丰富,但多样性差.根据Bray-Curtis相似性系数聚类分析和多维尺度排序分析结

  17. Macrozooplâncton da Zona Econômica Exclusiva do Nordeste do Brasil (segunda expedição oceanográfica - REVIZEE/NE II com ênfase em Copepoda (Crustacea

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    Eliane Aparecida Holanda Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available Objetivando-se caracterizar a densidade, abundância relativa, freqüência de ocorrência, diversidade específica e associação de espécies do macrozooplâncton oceânico da "Zona Econômica Exclusiva" foi realizado o presente estudo. A região prospectada encontra-se localizada entre os paralelos 7º28'56"S - 34º32'45"W, referente a segunda expedição oceanográfica do Programa REVIZEE/NE, realizada pelo Noc. Antares da DHN/Marinha do Brasil. As amostras foram coletadas com rede de plâncton tipo bongo com malha de 300 e 500µm, no período de 31/01 a 07/02/97 em 21 estações, totalizando 42 amostras. Foram identificados 78 taxa. A densidade total dos organismos (exceto Copepoda variou de 2,31 a 6,06 org.m-3 (estações 55 e 56 e, para os Copepoda de 0,99 a 4,75 org.m-3 (estações 48 e 57. Em termos de freqüência de ocorrência Crustacea e Chaetognatha foram muito freqüentes; Cnidaria e Teleostei (ovos e larvas freqüentes; Mollusca, Annelida e Chordata pouco freqüentes e Protozoa raros. A diversidade específica variou de 0,648 a 4,037 ind.bits-1. A equitabilidade variou de 0,279 a 1,0. Os baixos valores de diversidade e equitabilidade ocorreram devido à dominância de Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849 e Calanopia americana F. Dahl, 1894. A análise cofenética revelou um r The present study was performed with the objective to characterise the density, relative abundance, frequency of occurrence, specific diversity and species associations of the oceanic macrozooplankton of the "Exclusive Economic Zone". The area under investigation is located between 7º28'56"S - 34º32'45"W and 3º21'08"S - 38º40'29"W, sampled during the second oceanographic expedition REVIZEE/NE on board OV Antares of the Brazilian Navy. Twenty-one samples were taken with bongo type plankton net with 300µm mesh size between 0 and 200 m depth. 63 (sixty and three taxa were identified. Total density varied from 2,31 to 6,06 ind.m-3 (station 55 and 56 for the whole

  18. Feeding of a pelagic chaetognath, Sagitta friderici Ritter-Záhony off Ubatuba region (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez


    Full Text Available The diet of Sagitta friderici off Ubatuba region, São Paulo State, was studied in March, 1989. Specimens were collected with a closing-net during three days at six hours' intervals (00:00; 06:00; 12:00; 18:00 h, at a fixed station of 38 m depth. The population was composed basically by young stages (O-II. A total of 3175 specimens were examined but only 760 contained preys in their guts. Copepods were the main constituent of food eaten (79.86%. There was a preference for the genera Paracalanus, Oncaea, Corycaeus and for crustacean nauplii. Other zooplanktonic groups such as Annelida, Urochordatha, and Mollusca were also found in the gut. Cannibalistic behavior occurred in 2.66% of the samples. In S. friderici the food was selected by size and was a direct function of the predator size. Younger stages (O-I selected small prey, whereas older stages (II preferred larger preys. Specimens collected above the thermocline exhibited higher feeding intensity (FCR during the night periods.Espécimens de Sagitta friderici foram coletados numa estação fixa de 38 m de profundidade, ao largo de Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, em março de 1989. Arrastos verticais, acima e abaixo da termoclina, foram feitos com rede de fechamento (50 cm de diâmetro de boca e malha de 0.200 mm durante três dias consecutivos e em intervalos de seis horas. O estudo de 3175 indivíduos, nos estágios de O-IV, revelou que 2415 apresentaram o trato digestivo vazio e 760 com algum tipo de alimento. Destes últimos, 283 continham material amorfo e os 473 restantes de 1 a 3 presas. Das 488 presas identificadas, 99,74% estavam localizadas na região posterior do trato digestivo e 0,26% na região anterior. A dieta de S. friderici esteve constituída de Crustácea, Annelida, Urochordata, Chaetognatha e Mollusca. Dentre os Crustácea, os Copepoda foram os mais abundantes, predominando os Calanoida e Cyclopoida. O estágio 0 de S. friderici teve preferência pelos náuplios de crust

  19. Spatial distribution and abundance of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, eastern Mediterranean Sea

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    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring to light the knowledge of marine diversity of invertebrates in Gabes gulf. The spatial distribution of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, together with the bottom type and vegetation cover, were studied. The abundance of the megabenthic fauna was represented by eight groups: Echinodermata (38%, Crustacea (21%, Tunicata (19%, Mollusca (13%, Porifera (4%, Cnidaria (3%, Bryozoa, and Annelida (2%. It was spatially more concentrated in the coast area of the gulf than in the offshore waters. This area, especially, in Southern Kerkennah, North-est of Gabes and North-east of Djerba appeared to be in a good ecological condition  hosting a variety of species like the paguridsPaguristes eremita and Pagurus cuanensis, the brachyura Medorippe lanata, Inachus doresttensis, the Gastropoda Hexaplex trunculus, Bolinus brandaris, Aporrhais pespelecani, andErosaria turdus, the Bivalvia Fulvia fragilis, the Echinoidea Psammechinus microtuberculatus, Holothuria polii,Ophiothrix fragilis and Antedon mediterranea, and the AscidiaceaAplidium cf. conicum, Didemnum spp, and Microcosmus exasperatus.The species’ compositions of the megabentic fauna community showed clearly that the spatial analysis represented the differences between the community of these two regions (inshore waters and offshore waters. These differences were closely related to peculiar characters of the fauna and biotopes (depth, bottom type and vegetation cover community. The results of the present study should be considered as a necessary starting point for a further analysis of priceless benthic fauna contribution to the marine environment and its organisms.

  20. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.


    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  1. Leeches of the genus Helobdella as model organisms for Evo-Devo studies. (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Weisblat, David A


    Model organisms are important tools in modern biology and have been used elucidate mechanism underlying processes, such as development, heredity, neuronal signaling, and phototropism, to name but a few. In this context, the use of model organisms is predicated on uncovering evolutionarily conserved features of biological processes in the expectation that the findings will be applicable to organisms that are either inaccessible or intractable for direct experimentation. For the most part, particular species have been adapted as model organisms because they can be easily reared and manipulated in the laboratory. In contrast, a major goal in the field of evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) is to identify and elucidate the differences in developmental processes among species associated with the dramatic range of body plans among organisms, and how these differences have emerged over time in various branches of phylogeny. At first glance then, it would appear that the concept of model organisms for Evo-Devo is oxymoronic. In fact, however, laboratory-compatible, experimentally tractable species are of great use for Evo-Devo, subject to the condition that the ensemble of models investigated should reflect the range of taxonomic diversity, and for this purpose glossiphoniid leeches are useful. Four decades ago (1975), leeches of the species-rich genus Helobdella (Lophotrochozoa; Annelida; Clitellata; Hirudinida; Glossiphoniidae) were collected in Stow Lake, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, CA (USA). These and other Helobdella species may be taken as Evo-Devo models of leeches, clitellate annelids, and the super-phylum Lophotrochozoa. Here we depict/discuss the biology/taxonomy of these Evo-Devo systems, and the challenges of identifying species within Helobdella. In addition, we document that H. austinensis has been established as a new model organism that can easily be cultivated in the laboratory. Finally, we provide an updated scheme illustrating the unique

  2. Nervous and muscle system development in Phascolion strombus (Sipuncula). (United States)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Koop, Demian; Bromham, Lindell; Noonan, Erin; Degnan, Bernard M


    Recent interpretations of developmental gene expression patterns propose that the last common metazoan ancestor was segmented, although most animal phyla show no obvious signs of segmentation. Developmental studies of non-model system trochozoan taxa may shed light on this hypothesis by assessing possible cryptic segmentation patterns. In this paper, we present the first immunocytochemical data on the ontogeny of the nervous system and the musculature in the sipunculan Phascolion strombus. Myogenesis of the first anlagen of the body wall ring muscles occurs synchronously and not subsequently from anterior to posterior as in segmented spiralian taxa (i.e. annelids). The number of ring muscles remains constant during the initial stages of body axis elongation. In the anterior-posteriorly elongated larva, newly formed ring muscles originate along the entire body axis between existing myocytes, indicating that repeated muscle bands do not form from a posterior growth zone. During neurogenesis, the Phascolion larva expresses a non-metameric, paired, ventral nerve cord that fuses in the mid-body region in the late-stage elongated larva. Contrary to other trochozoans, Phascolion lacks any larval serotonergic structures. However, two to three FMRFamide-positive cells are found in the apical organ. In addition, late larvae show commissure-like neurones interconnecting the two ventral nerve cords, while early juveniles exhibit a third, medially placed FMRFamidergic ventral nerve. Although we did not find any indications for cryptic segmentation, certain neuro-developmental traits in Phascolion resemble the conditions found in polychaetes (including echiurans) and myzostomids and support a close relationship of Sipuncula and Annelida. PMID:16133569

  3. Closely coupled evolutionary history of ecto- and endosymbionts from two distantly related animal phyla. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; Wentrup, Cecilia; Sadowski, Miriam; Blazejak, Anna; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R; Kleiner, Manuel; Ott, Jörg A; Cronholm, Bodil; De Wit, Pierre; Erséus, Christer; Dubilier, Nicole


    The level of integration between associated partners can range from ectosymbioses to extracellular and intracellular endosymbioses, and this range has been assumed to reflect a continuum from less intimate to evolutionarily highly stable associations. In this study, we examined the specificity and evolutionary history of marine symbioses in a group of closely related sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, called Candidatus Thiosymbion, that have established ecto- and endosymbioses with two distantly related animal phyla, Nematoda and Annelida. Intriguingly, in the ectosymbiotic associations of stilbonematine nematodes, we observed a high degree of congruence between symbiont and host phylogenies, based on their ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. In contrast, for the endosymbioses of gutless phallodriline annelids (oligochaetes), we found only a weak congruence between symbiont and host phylogenies, based on analyses of symbiont 16S rRNA genes and six host genetic markers. The much higher degree of congruence between nematodes and their ectosymbionts compared to those of annelids and their endosymbionts was confirmed by cophylogenetic analyses. These revealed 15 significant codivergence events between stilbonematine nematodes and their ectosymbionts, but only one event between gutless phallodrilines and their endosymbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 Cand. Thiosymbion species revealed seven well-supported clades that contained both stilbonematine ectosymbionts and phallodriline endosymbionts. This closely coupled evolutionary history of marine ecto- and endosymbionts suggests that switches between symbiotic lifestyles and between the two host phyla occurred multiple times during the evolution of the Cand. Thiosymbion clade, and highlights the remarkable flexibility of these symbiotic bacteria. PMID:26826340

  4. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Santos


    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  5. 基于454焦磷酸测序法的典型草原土壤真核生物多样性%Eukaryote diversity of typical grassland soil based on 454 pyrosequencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井赵斌; 程积民; 张宝泉; 李红红


    利用454焦磷酸测序法对黄土区不同封育时期典型草地土壤真核生物多样性进行了研究.结果表明,选择的V4区引物可以扩增出土壤真核生物中的微生物、动物和植物,其中真菌群落主要由子囊菌门(Ascomycota)、壶菌门(Chyt ridiomycota)、担子菌门(Basidiomycota)、绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、球囊菌门(Glomeromycota)和变形菌门(Proteobacteria)组成;动物群落区系主要包括脊椎动物门(Craniata)、节足动物门(Arthropoda)、线虫门(Nematoda)和环节动物门(Annelida);植物群落包括陆生植物(Embryophyta)和单子叶植物纲(百合纲)(Liliopsida).在不同分类学水平,不同封育时期草地真菌群落组成具有各自的优势菌群;动物群落组成仅在种水平存在差异.草地管理实践中可以结合土壤微生物和土壤养分恢复时间的阈值对封育草地进行合理利用.454焦磷酸测序法可以用于土壤中未知动物、植物和微生物区系的研究.

  6. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi


    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  7. Benthic Macro-Fauna Composition and Abundance in Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

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    E.N. Ezekiel


    Full Text Available The benthic macro-fauna composition and abundance in sombreiro was studied for a period of two years (August 2007 - July2009. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to fourteen (14 families, six (6 classes and three (3 phyla were recorded in Sombreiro River. The phylum Annelida dominated with two classes (Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. Oligochaeta was represented by two families (Naididae and Lumbricidae and seven species having 25% by composition. Polychaeta was represented by seven families (Nereidae, Nepthyidae, Capitellidae, Eucinidae, Glyceridae, Arenicolidae and Syllidae and thirteen species having 46.4% by composition. The Phylum arthropoda was represented by two classes (Crustacea and inseita. Two families (Gammaridae and Penaidae having two species consisting of 7.2% were recorded, for the class crustacea. The class insecta was represented by one family (Chironomidae with one species consisting of 3.6%. The phylum Mollusca was represented by two classes (Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Gastropoda had two species with 7.2% composition and Bivalvia has three species with10.7% composition. Oligochaeta was the highest and constituted 62.0%. The others were Polychaeta (23.9%, Insecta (6.7%, Gastropoda (3.9%, Bivalvia (2.2% and Crustacea (1.3%. The mean diversity(S ranged between 11 species. Mean abundance of individuals (N was 985. Mean Margalef index (d value was 1.339. The mean value for Shannon-Wienner (H was 0.956. Mean Pielou’s index of relative density or evenness index (E was 0.986. Mean SimpsIn’s Dominance index (C was 0.623.

  8. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. (United States)

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C


    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  9. Strong pathways for incorporation of terrestrially derived organic matter into benthic communities (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J.; Wing, Stephen R.


    In Fiordland, New Zealand, large volumes of organic matter are deposited into the marine environment from pristine forested catchments. Analyses of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S were employed to determine whether these inputs were contributing to marine food webs via assimilation by common macroinvertebrates inhabiting the inner reaches of the fjords. Terrestrially derived organic matter (TOM) had values of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S that were distinct from other carbon source pools, providing sufficient power to quantify the contribution of TOM to the benthic food web. Isotopic values among macroinvertebrates varied significantly, with consistently low values of δ15N, δ13C and δ34S for the abundant deposit feeders Echinocardium cordatum (Echinodermata) and Pectinaria australis (Annelida), indicating assimilation of TOM. High concentrations of bacterial fatty acid biomarkers in E. cordatum, and values of δ13C of these biomarkers similar to TOM (-27 to -30‰) confirmed that TOM is indirectly assimilated by these sea urchins via heterotrophic bacteria. TOM was also found to enter the infaunal food web via chemoautotrophic bacteria that live symbiotically within Solemya parkinsonii (Bivalvia). Echinocardium cordatum, Pectinaria australis and S. parkinsonii comprised up to 33.5% of the biomass of the macroinfaunal community, and thus represent strong pathways for movement of organic matter from the forested catchments into the benthic food web. This demonstration of connectivity among adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats has important implications for coastal land management, and highlights the importance of intact coastal forests to marine ecosystem function.

  10. Between a whale bone and the deep blue sea: the provenance of dwarf males in whale bone-eating tubeworms. (United States)

    Whiteman, Noah K


    When researchers first caught a glimpse of the lush carpet of pink tubeworms covering the scattered bones of a dead grey whale 2900 m below the surface of Monterey Bay, the excitement onboard the Western Flyer (the mother ship of the remotely operated vehicle the Tiburon) must have been electrifying. The discovery of a new genus and several species of whale bone-eating Osedax tubeworms (Annelida, Siboglinidae) a mere 6 years ago from the deep sea was itself noteworthy. But what the researchers peering into the video monitors aboard the Western Flyer could not have known at that moment was that in the gelatinous tubes of those worms clung even more peculiar forms: harems of tiny, paedomorphic males of Osedax, numbering in the hundreds at times. Whereas female tubeworms bore into the marrow of whale bones (possibly via enzymes from their endosymbiotic bacteria), the dwarf males secondarily colonize the tubes of the resident females. The number of males in a female's tube increases over time in a curvilinear fashion. Dwarf males are known from all Osedax species examined to date, yet the origin of the males was an open question. In this issue, Vrijenhoek et al. provide compelling evidence that dwarf males found in the tubes of female Osedax worms are derived from a common larval pool and are unlikely to be the sons of host females or the progeny of females in the local genetic neighbourhood. This study provides an important foundation for future work on the ecology and evolution of extreme male dwarfism in Osedax and sexual size dimorphism more generally.

  11. Inter-annual variation (1991-1993) of the substratum-leaf colonization dynamics for aquatic fauna in different habitats of the lake of the hydroelectric of Balbina, Amazon Central, Brazil; Variacao interanual (1991-1993) da dinamica de colonizacao de substrato-folha por fauna aquatica, em diferentes habitats do lago da Hidreletrica de Balbina, Amazonia Central, Amazonas- Brasil

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    Vela-Pena, Gladys


    Experiments on fauna colonization of submersed vegetal substrate in different depths of water column were done to evaluate the benthic community structure in three habitats of the Balbina hydroelectric dam in 1991, 1992 and 1993. In these experiments substrate exposition periods of up to 60 and 75 days were done. The fauna associated to the standard substrate (Mabea caudata) belonged to seven phyla: Arthropoda, Coelenterata, Nematoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca an Chordata. The most abundant and frequent families, during the studied period, were Naididae (Tubificida), Chydoridae (Cladocera) and Cenestheridae (Conchostraca), suggesting the persistence of these groups. In general, the pattern of colonization indicates some tendency to increase gradually with time of exposition of the substrate in the environment. Probably, the discontinuity of the tendencies is associated with the insects mobility and emergence. The initial colonization always was higher and quicker in the margin habitat, which indicates that the source of organisms is this habitat. This is due to better conditions of the environment such as availability of food and protection, associated with the submerged vegetation and wood. The community mean density during this study was 7, 312 ind/m{sup 2}. The density, the species richness index, and the diversity were correlated with abiotic variables such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, habitat and depth. Also, the density was correlated with total carbon and ammonium. Species richness was correlated with total carbon, ammonium and water color. The density, diversity and species richness were proportionally inverse to depth of the habitats and total absence of organisms ago 10 meter of depth, different from what is found in bottom of natural environments. This fact was attributed to the high concentration of nutrients, such as ammonium and dissolved iron, to the existence of toxic gases such a sulphide, and to the conditions of hypoxia in the deep

  12. Analysis on the characteristics of macrobenthis community in the North-west Daya Bay Of South China Bay in spring%大亚湾西北部春季大型底栖动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜飞雁; 林钦; 贾晓平; 杨圣云; 马胜伟; 陈海刚; 李纯厚


    利用2008年春季在大亚湾西北部海域开展的12个测站的大型底栖动物调查资料,对该海域大型底栖动物的群落特征进行分析.结果表明该海域内大型底栖动物优势种由粗帝汶蛤(Timoclea scabra)、波纹巴非蛤(Paphia undulata)、上野蜾嬴蜚(Corophium uenoi)、方背鳞虫(Lepidonotus squamatus)、刀明樱蛤(Moerella culter)和角海蛹(Ophelia acuminata)等6种组成;可划分为4个群落,群落Ⅱ和群落Ⅰ为主体群落,群落Ⅲ和群落Ⅳ分布区较小,群落间差异较大.大型底栖动物数量上以个体较大的软体动物占优,但群落的组成则以多毛类和甲壳类为主,其组成情况基本上反映了群落的特征.群落Ⅰ以多毛类-甲壳类为表征,群落Ⅱ则以甲壳类-多毛类-软体动物为表征.栖息环境的差异,是造成群落间差异的主要原因;群落多样性水平呈群落Ⅲ>群落Ⅱ>群落Ⅰ>群落Ⅳ,沉积环境的污染状况和人为扰动是影响多样性水平的主要因素;群落整体的稳定性较好,未受到明显的扰动,但分布于航道区域和渔业生产作业区的群落Ⅳ和群落Ⅲ,在航道建设、疏浚和渔业生产的影响下,群落受到一定程度的扰动,稳定性较弱.%Based on the data collected from 12 research stations in the North-west Daya Bay, South China Sea in spring 2008, the characteristics of macrobenthis community were examined. The results showed that the dominant macrobenthic species were Timoclea scabra, Paphia undulate, Corophium uenoi, Lepidonotus squamatus, Moerella culler and Ophelia acuminate. The macrobenthos community could be divided into four groups with notable differences. Group I and Ⅱ were the dominant groups, while the distribution areas of Groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ were relatively small. Overall, molluscs was dominant in quantity in the macrobenthos community but the community was mainly composed of Annelida and Arthropoda, reflecting the characteristics of the

  13. Effect of Ocean acidification on growth, calcification and recruitment of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of brown algae

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    V. Saderne


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are leading to an acidification of the oceans by 0.4 pH units in the course of this century according to the more severe model scenarios. The excess of CO2 could notably affect the benthic communities of calcifiers and macrophytes in different aspects (photosynthesis, respiration and calcification. Seaweeds are key species of nearshore benthic ecosystems of the Baltic Sea. They frequently are the substratum of fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Most of those species secrete calcified structures and could therefore be impacted by the seawater pCO2. On the other hand, the biological activity of the host may substantially modulate the pH and pCO2 conditions in the thallus boundary layer where the epibionts live. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of seaweed macrofouling communities to higher pCO2 concentrations. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium gelatinosum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 μatm and enriched 1193 ± 166 μatm and 3150 ± 446 μatm. Our study showed a significant reduction of growth rates and recruitment of Spirorbis individuals only at the highest pCO2. At a finer temporal resolution, the tubeworm recruits exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during irradiation hours compared to dark hours, presumably due to the effect of photosynthetic and respiratory activities of the host alga on the carbonate system. Electra colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at 1193 μatm. No effect on Alcyonidium colonies growth rates was observed. Those results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibiontic communities to the

  14. Invertebrados bentônicos: relação entre estrutura da fauna e características do mesohabitat

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    Virginia Sanches Uieda


    Full Text Available Em ecossistemas lóticos é comum a formação de diferentes mesohabitats intercalados ao longo do rio, como poções, corredeiras e rápidos, frequentemente acompanhados de alterações na estrutura da fauna bentônica associada. No trabalho analisamos a fauna de invertebrados bentônicos em rápidos e corredeiras de um trecho de serra do Rio Capivara (Bacia do Médio Rio Tietê. A análise das características ambientais e a coleta da fauna foram realizadas em três corredeiras e três rápidos, em um mês da estação chuvosa (cinco réplicas de cada. Os mesohabitats se diferenciaram quanto ao maior porcentual de blocos nos rápidos e maiores valores de profundidade, correnteza e porcentual de matacões nas corredeiras. Do total de 57 Unidades Taxonômicas Operacionais (UTO's amostradas, 75% foram comuns aos dois mesohabitats (Similaridade de Morisita = 0,86. Quando analisado o porcentual de abundância, a similaridade espacial se manteve e dois grupos se sobressaíram em abundância: Hexapoda (>80%, sendo a maioria Ephemeroptera, Diptera e Trichoptera e Annelida (10%. As análises exploratórias (cluster e NMDS também apontaram para uma elevada similaridade espacial, porém os resultados da Análise de Similaridade (ANOSIM indicaram uma diferença significativa entre os mesohabitats (p<0,1%, seja analisando o total de UTO's ou retirando as UTO's raras. Cinco grupos tiveram uma maior contribuição para a média de dissimilaridade entre os mesohabitats: Simulium e Baetodes mais abundantes nas corredeiras, Traveryphes, Hagenulopsis e Macrelmis nos rápidos. Assim, os resultados da ANOSIM salientaram a importância do refinamento na identificação para a interpretação mais precisa acerca da relação entre a fauna e a estrutura do habitat.

  15. Trace Elements in Calcifying Marine Invertebrates Indicate Diverse Sensitivities to the Seawater Carbonate System (United States)

    Doss, W. C.


    Surface ocean absorption of anthropogenic CO2 emissions resulting in ocean acidification may interfere with the ability of calcifying marine organisms to biomineralize, since the drop in pH is accompanied by reductions in CaCO3 saturation state. However, recent experiments show that net calcification rates of cultured benthic invertebrate taxa exhibit diverse responses to pCO2-induced changes in saturation state (Ries et al., 2009). Advancement of geochemical tools as biomineralization indicators will enable us to better understand these results and therefore help predict the impacts of ongoing and future decrease in seawater pH on marine organisms. Here we build upon previous work on these specimens by measuring the elemental composition of biogenic calcite and aragonite precipitated in four pCO2 treatments (400; 600; 900; and 2850 ppm). Element ratios (including Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Li/Ca, B/Ca, U/Ca, Ba/Ca, Cd/Ca, and Zn/Ca) were analyzed in 18 macro-invertebrate species representing seven phyla (crustacea, cnidaria, echinoidea, rhodophyta, chlorophyta, gastropoda, bivalvia, annelida), then compared to growth rate data and experimental seawater carbonate system parameters: [CO32-], [HCO3-], pH, saturation state, and DIC. Correlations between calcite or aragonite composition and seawater carbonate chemistry are highly taxa-specific, but do not resemble trends observed in growth rate for all species. Apparent carbonate system sensitivities vary widely by element, ranging from strongly correlated to no significant response. Interpretation of these results is guided by mounting evidence for the capacity of individual species to modulate pH and/or saturation state at the site of calcification in response to ambient seawater chemistry. Such biomineralization pathways and strategies in turn likely influence elemental fractionation during CaCO3 precipitation. Ries, J.B., A.L. Cohen, A.L., and D.C. McCorkle (2009), Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean

  16. Primary structure of a constituent polypeptide chain (AIII) of the giant haemoglobin from the deep-sea tube worm Lamellibrachia. A possible H2S-binding site. (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takagi, T; Ohta, S


    The deep-sea tube worm Lamellibrachia, belonging to the Phylum Vestimentifera, contains two giant extracellular haemoglobins, a 3000 kDa haemoglobin and a 440 kDa haemoglobin. The former consists of four haem-containing chains (AI-AIV) and two linker chains (AV and AVI) for the assembly of the haem-containing chains [Suzuki, Takagi & Ohta (1988) Biochem. J. 255, 541-545]. The tube-worm haemoglobins are believed to have a function of transporting sulphide (H2S) to internal bacterial symbionts, as well as of facilitating O2 transport [Arp & Childress (1983) Science 219, 295-297]. We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of Lamellibrachia chain AIII by automated or manual Edman sequencing. The chain is composed of 144 amino acid residues, has three cysteine residues at positions 3, 74 and 133, and has a molecular mass of 16,620 Da, including a haem group. The sequence showed significant homology (30-50% identity) with those of haem-containing chains of annelid giant haemoglobins. Two of the three cysteine residues are located at the positions where an intrachain disulphide bridge is formed in all annelid chains, but the remaining one (Cys-74) was located at a unique position, compared with annelid chains. Since the chain AIII was shown to have a reactive thiol group in the intact 3000 kDa molecule by preliminary experiments, the cysteine residue at position 74 appears to be one of the most probable candidates for the sulphide-binding sites. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from nine chains of annelid giant haemoglobins and one chain of vestimentiferan tube-worm haemoglobin now determined. The tree clearly showed that Lamellibrachia chain AIII belongs to the family of strain A of annelid giant haemoglobins, and that the two classes of Annelida, polychaete and oligochaete, and the vestimentiferan tube worm diverged at almost the same time. H.p.l.c. patterns of peptides (Figs. 4-7), amino acid compositions of peptides (Table 2) and amino acid sequences of

  17. Avaliação da comunidade de macroinvertebrados aquáticos como ferramenta para o monitoramento de um reservatório na bacia do rio Pitangui, Paraná, Brasil

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    Ivana F Barbola


    Full Text Available Os macroinvertebrados bentônicos e nectônicos representam elementos importantes na estrutura e funcionamento dos ecossistemas aquáticos e sua distribuição é influenciada pela natureza química do substrato, composição da vegetação e profundidade da lâmina d'água. O conhecimento desta fauna contribui para a avaliação da qualidade da água e a elaboração de ações visando à conservação da biodiversidade. No presente estudo foram avaliadas diferentes medidas bióticas da comunidade de invertebrados da represa de Alagados, importante manancial da cidade de Ponta Grossa, no Paraná. Em cinco diferentes pontos de amostragem, foram coletados 18.473 exemplares de macroinvertebrados aquáticos ou semi-aquáticos, pertencentes a 46 táxons dos filos Annelida (Hirudinea e Oligochaeta, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria, Nematoda e Arthropoda (Arachnida, Crustacea e Insecta. Esta comunidade foi constituída predominantemente por organismos predadores (45,7% dos táxons amostrados, seguidos de coletores e/ou filtradores (23,9%; raspadores (15,2%, fragmentadores (13% e detritívoros (2,2%. De modo geral, os índices de diversidade (H' e equitabilidade (J foram significativamente baixos para os cinco locais investigados, com H' variando de 0,3301 a 1,0396. Quanto à tolerância dos organismos à poluição orgânica, alguns táxons mais sensíveis foram muito raros (Plecoptera ou em baixa frequência (Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera. Entre os grupos mais resistentes a ambientes poluídos estão os Chironomidae e os Hirudinea, ambos bastante comuns nas amostras de Alagados. Este estudo reforça a importância da análise de bioindicadores na avaliação da qualidade de água para consumo humano e também para a conservação de ecossistemas, considerando que um programa de monitoramento ambiental deve integrar medidas físicas, químicas e biológicas.

  18. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

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    Igor David da Costa


    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  19. Differential responses of calcifying and non-calcifying epibionts of a brown macroalga to present-day and future upwelling pCO2.

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    Vincent Saderne

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are key species of the Baltic Sea benthic ecosystems. They are the substratum of numerous fouling epibionts like bryozoans and tubeworms. Several of these epibionts bear calcified structures and could be impacted by the high pCO2 events of the late summer upwellings in the Baltic nearshores. Those events are expected to increase in strength and duration with global change and ocean acidification. If calcifying epibionts are impacted by transient acidification as driven by upwelling events, their increasing prevalence could cause a shift of the fouling communities toward fleshy species. The aim of the present study was to test the sensitivity of selected seaweed macrofoulers to transient elevation of pCO2 in their natural microenvironment, i.e. the boundary layer covering the thallus surface of brown seaweeds. Fragments of the macroalga Fucus serratus bearing an epibiotic community composed of the calcifiers Spirorbis spirorbis (Annelida and Electra pilosa (Bryozoa and the non-calcifier Alcyonidium hirsutum (Bryozoa were maintained for 30 days under three pCO2 conditions: natural 460 ± 59 µatm, present-day upwelling1193 ± 166 µatm and future upwelling 3150 ± 446 µatm. Only the highest pCO2 caused a significant reduction of growth rates and settlement of S. spirorbis individuals. Additionally, S. spirorbis settled juveniles exhibited enhanced calcification of 40% during daylight hours compared to dark hours, possibly reflecting a day-night alternation of an acidification-modulating effect by algal photosynthesis as opposed to an acidification-enhancing effect of algal respiration. E. pilosa colonies showed significantly increased growth rates at intermediate pCO2 (1193 µatm but no response to higher pCO2. No effect of acidification on A. hirsutum colonies growth rates was observed. The results suggest a remarkable resistance of the algal macro-epibionts to levels of acidification occurring at present day upwellings in the Baltic

  20. Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from the Pilcam Industry in Cameroon

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    J. E. Djomo


    Full Text Available We studied the acute toxicity of a raw effluent from a battery manufacturing plant (Pilcam in Douala, Cameroon, to a freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus, and subsequently evaluated its sub-acute effects on water quality and the biota in freshwater microscosms. The acute toxicity test was based on 96 hrs static renewal bioassays that resulted in 96-h LC50 and LC90 values of 16 and 20.7% (v/v, respectively. The sub-acute experiments were conducted by exposing several species of aquatic organisms (plankton, macro-invertebrates and mollusks to lower effluent concentrations [1.6%, 8.0%, 16% (v/v] for six weeks, and monitoring their survival rates, as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water. These concentrations were based on 10%, 50%, and 100% of the 96 h - median lethal concentrations (LC50 of the effluent to the freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus. Significant effects on functional parameters, such as, chlorophyll-a and total protein could not be demonstrated. However, the activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly inhibited at all concentrations tested. Phytoplankton, zooplankton, macro-invertebrate communities and snails were negatively affected by the effluent application at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v, with chlorophyta, ciliates, ostracoda, annelida, planaria and snails being the most sensitive groups. The snails were eliminated after 24 h exposure from microcosms treated with effluent at concentration ≥ 8% (v/v. Effluent exposure also caused significant effects on water quality parameters (DO, pH, hardness, conductivity, color, turbidity, ammonia in general at concentrations ≥ 8% (v/v. Temperature and alkalinity were not significantly affected. Overall, data from this research indicate that a dilution of the Pilcam effluent down to 1.6% does not provide protection against chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. Further studies are needed to determine the no observable adverse

  1. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro


    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  2. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs. (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana


    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  3. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand

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    Angsupanich, S.


    Full Text Available A bimonthly investigation of macrobenthic fauna at the area from Ban Pak Khat to Ban Leam Chong Thanon in the Inner Songkhla Lake from February 1998 to February 1999 was undertaken to determine the species richness and abundance. A total of 7 phyla and 161 species were identified. Annelida (58 species, Arthropoda (64 species and Mollusca (23 species were the major phyla while Nemertea (1 species, Platyhelminthes (1 species, Cnidaria (4 species and Chordata (10 species were the minor. Fifty-seven speciesof Polychaete annelids were found. The highest species richness (14 species was in the Nereididae Family, of which Ceratonereis burmensis and Namalycastis indica were predominant. Nephtys sp. and Heteromastus sp. were not so highly abundant but appeared at almost all stations through every sampling month, while Prionospio cirrifera and Pseudopolydora kempi were found in higher densities but with narrower distribution. Ficopomatus sp. and unidentified Terebellidae were not commonly found, but occasionally reached a high density. Amphipods gave the highest species richness (22 species, with Photis longicaudata distributed widely and in all months. Five species of Tanaidaceans were found with Apseudes sapensis the second most dominant (max. 5044 individuals m-2 in February in the overall fauna. Isopoda were not as densely found as tanaidaceans but there were many species (18 species. Cyathura sp.1 was the most dominant isopod. Brachidontes arcuatulus was the most dominant bivalve (max. 29449 individuals m-2 in April, especially at stations with a sand-gravel substrate. The mean density of total macrobenthic fauna among stations ranged from 920 to 10620 ind. m-2 while the monthly densities ranged from 1520 to 6160 ind.m-2. The mean density of macrobenthic fauna was highest in the dry season (April. The species richness among stations ranged from65 to 105 species while varying from 81 to 112 species during the different months. The highest species

  4. Aquatic invertebrate's distribution in a freshwater coastal lagoon of southern Brazil in relation to water and sediment characteristics Distribuição de invertebrados aquáticos em uma lagoa costeira de água doce ao sul do Brasil em relação às características de água e sedimento

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    Leonardo Kleba Lisboa


    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of water and sediment characteristics on the abundance, richness and diversity of the benthic invertebrate community in Peri lagoon, a freshwater coastal lagoon located in central coast of Santa Catarina State; METHODS: Samplings were performed in April, May and June 2009, in five different sites of Peri lagoon. The samples were taken with an Eckman-Birge drag, totalizing 60 for the invertebrate community, and 45 for sediment. Water physicochemical variables were also measured. Environmental influences in benthic community have been measured using a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA. Linear regressions were also plotted for main correlations; RESULTS: A total of 5,535 specimens were collected, identified into 18 taxa. Tanaidacea was the most abundant representing 54% of relative abundance, followed by Diptera (23%, and Ostracoda (17%. The richest family was Chironomidae with 6 taxa. CCA results indicated positive correlation between Chaoborus and Stenocypris with local depth, and negative correlation between Odonata, Gastropoda, Cytheridella and Coleoptera with the finest grains of sediment, as well as between Tanaidacea, Lopescladius, Annelida and Nematoda with both organic matter (OM content in sediment and local depth. Linear regression analysis demonstrated inverse relation of Tanaidacea in response to OM (y = 0.6 - 0.62.OM and sand (y = 0.6 - 0.6.sand, and of Lopescladius in response to OM (y = 0.37 - 0.41.OM and sand (y = 0.37 - 0.46.sand. The fact that Peri lagoon has no marine influence and has Tanaidacea as the most abundant taxa, a group not expected in freshwaters, gives to this lagoon a particular relevance among coastal lagoons. The study concluded that sediment characteristics and local depth are more significant than water variables in determining the benthic community structure in Peri lagoon, which varied in accordance with different local conditions.OBJETIVO: O

  5. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

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    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva


    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated the composition and community attributes of invertebrates associated to Eichhornia azurea at Cascalho Lagoon, Upper Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over a hydrological cycle, as well the possible influence of abiotic factors upon these attributes. METHODS: The samplings were conducted during 2010 in the rainy and dry periods at stands of E. azurea. The attributes evaluated were abundance, richness, diversity, evenness and dominance. The abiotic factors, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were summarized by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In order to verify possible differences between the mean values of the community attributes and the scores of the PCA axis in different periods, we employed null models analysis of variance. The influence of abiotic factors on each attribute was evaluated through Pearson correlations. RESULTS: We captured 3,052 individuals, distributed into 32 taxa, belonging to the phyllum Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Among the assessed attributes, only abundance and richness varied significantly between periods, with higher values during the rainy period. Chironomidade was dominant in both periods, whereas Notonectidae and Cyclopoida were rare in the rainy, and Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera and Pyralidae, in the dry period. A temporal distinction was evident only for the PCA axis 1, which represented gradients in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Among the community attributes, only abundance was significant and negatively correlated with this axis. CONCLUSION: We attested that: i the rainy period should add favorable conditions for invertebrates' higher richness and abundance in this macrophyte; ii only the later attribute was influenced by limnological gradients.OBJETIVO: Nós avaliamos a composição e atributos da comunidade de invertebrados associados à Eichhornia azurea na lagoa do Cascalho, alto rio Paraná, MS, Brasil, durante um

  6. Assessing Aquatic Ecological Risk of Aniline by Species Sensitivity Distributions%应用物种敏感性分布评估苯胺的水生生态风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡习邦; 曾东; 王俊能; 贺德春; 许振成


    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was used to assess the ecological risk of aniline for freshwater organisms. The hazardous concentration for 5% of the species (HC5) was calculated, and the distinguished character of hazardous concentrations of aniline to different species was analyzed. The acute ecological risks of the aniline and the sensitivity of different freshwater species were assessed in the different surface water body in China, including environmental accident water. The results showed that different organisms have different tolerance range of aniline. That was in the order of Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Crustacean < Amphibia < Worms < Fishes < Ciliophora < Annelida. The wider tolerance range of aniline for organisms indicated that the increasing trend of ecological risk would slow down when the aniline’s concentration increased. The HC5 for all the species from low to high was in the order of Crustacean < Worms < Fishes < Molluscas < Arthropod < Algae < Amphibia < Ciliophora < Algae < Annelida < Arthropod < Molluscas < Amphibia. The lower HC5 is, the higher ecological risk of aniline for species is. Crustacean was the most sensitive specie among all the freshwater species with the HC5 of 2.29μg·L-1. Meanwhile, the HC5 for all of the freshwater species came up to 4.72μg·L-1. The value of Potential affected fraction (PAF) reflected the different damage degree in different pollution scenario. There was very low aquatic ecological riskby using SSD to assess the acute ecological risk assessment of aniline from several surface water body in China, which the PAF value was close to 0. It was obviously posed ecological damage to crustacean and worms during the aniline spilling accident in Shanxi Province.%应用物种敏感性分布(Species Sensitivity Distribution,SSD)方法构建了淡水生物对苯胺(Aniline)的敏感性分布曲线,计算了苯胺对不同生物的5%危害浓度(HC5),分析比较不同类别生物

  7. Research on soil faunal community composition and structure in the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve%高黎贡山自然保护区大型土壤动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能文; 刘向辉; 戈峰; 欧阳志云


    系统调查了高黎贡山国家自然保护区土壤性质与土壤动物的种类与分布.海拔高度决定土壤的性质,土壤温度、湿度、有机质含量和磷的含量与海拔有明显的相关.在不同海拔11个样地共采集到大型土壤动物标本1万余号,分属于2个门,5纲,18目,47科,13亚科.等翅目Isoptera、膜翅目Hymenoptera和弹尾目Collembola昆虫是主要类群,随着海拔高度的增加,土壤动物数量和种类,以及Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数和均匀度指数都是先增加然后减少.在海拔1500~2500 m左右数量最多,然后递减,土壤动物的分布以中山部最多而山顶部和底部较少的变化趋势.土壤动物的分布受海拔和土壤性质的影响.%The Gaoligong Mountain, as the subtropics climate, is located in the collision region between the Indian tectonic plate and the Eurasian tectonic plate. In this experiment, the soil property, fauna community type and distribution of 11 samples in Gaoligong Mountain were studied from altitude 960 m to 3188 m. The results showed that the soil property was determined by altitudinal gradient. Significant correlation was observed in soil temperature, water content, organic content and phosphorus content with altitudinal gradient (P<0.05). Two phylums(Annelida and Arthropoda), three classes (Oligochaeta, Arachnida, Diplopoda, Chilopoda, Insect), eighteen Orders, forty-seven Families and thirteen Subfamilys were included in the soil fauna. Isoptera, Hymenoptera and Collembola were dominant in these groups, and Coleoptera, Derampteraand and Diptera were common groups. A single-peak curve was appeared in the vertical distribution pattern of soil fauna. The number of the soil fauna individuals and groups, as well as the value of Simpson Index, Shannon-Wiener Index and Evenness Index gradually increased and then decreased with increase of elevation. The peak of soil fauna appeared in the areas from 1500 m to 2500 m above sea level. Soil fauna


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    N. Kharkavlyuk


    Washington and Missouri states in 2004 and in Upper Mississippi in 2007. A SVC-like virus was found in cultivated shrimps in Hawaii. Natural outbreaks of a SVC infection were registered in following cyprinids: common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi, Crucian carp (Carassius carassius, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Prussian carp (Carassius auratus, ide (Leuciscus idus, tench (Tinca tinca and bream (Abramis brama. SVCV transmission is horizontal but vertical transmission from the ovarial liquid of carp has been established as well. Among virus transmission vectors are invertebrate parasites Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea, Branchiura and Piscicola geometra (Annelida, Hirudinea. There is also mechanical transmission of the virus with the aid of fishing gears. The virus can persist in water and silt for a long period of time. Originality. Measures for the prevention of infection of specialized fish farms have been proposed based on the performed analysis. Practical value. The analysis allows developing modern methods of diagnostics and control of the virus spread.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 康丽娟; 孙从军; 杨青


    Bio assessment of benthic macroinvertebrate-based multmietrics is a very effective approach to evaluate quality of river water. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 83 sites in Shanghai metropolitan area, a typical dense river network plain. A total of 20 taxa of the benthic macroinvertebrate were collected, including 50% of Mollusca, 30% of Arthropoda and 20% of Annelida. Among 74 sites with living samples, 32 relatively clean sites and 42 polluted sites were separated based on Hilsenhoff biotic index discrminatory criteria. A comprehensive evaluation using 28 widely-used metrics was carried out. Furthermore, 8 metrics were selected as the most sensitive ones based on non-parametric tests (i.e., Mann-Whitney U test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). By standard scoring method, eight sensitive metrics were unified and integrated into a multi-metric index on a scale ranging from 8 to 40 for bioassessment at each site. Biocriteria values for benthic macroinvertebrate were proposed by quartation, i.e., 8-15, very poor; 16-23, poor; 24-31, fair; and 32-40, good. Water quality of 9 sites with no living sample were marked as very poor. According to the biocriteria, 41 typical sites were divided into 5 groups. The past 5-year historical data of physico-chemical water quality indicators have significant difference among 5 group sites. Consequently, the discrminatory biocriteria are suitable for the assessment of the river water quality of the Shanghai City.%2011年夏、秋季在上海市全境主要河流的83个断面进行大型底栖动物的采样,共获取底栖动物20个分类单位(种),其中软体动物、环节动物和节肢动物分别占50%、30% 和20%.选取常见的28个生物指数分别进行计算,并采用非参数统计检验方法筛选出8个敏感生物指数.通过记分法对8种敏感生物指数统一量纲后,获得数值范围为8-40的综合生物指数,运用四分法划分了判别河道水环境质量的生物基准:32-40,

  10. Physical Driver for the 62-Myr Cycle in Fossil Diversity (United States)

    Muller, R. A.


    The observation that fossil diversity is strongly modulated by two cycles, 62 Myr and 140 Myr, is one of the strangest discoveries of the last few years in geology and paleontology. (1) The cycles show strongest among those genera that are short-lived, i.e. endured for 45 Myr or less. In an attempt to identify patterns, we have subdivided the data into 170 groups consisting of various phyla, orders and classes, to examine the strength of the cycles; these results will be presented. As examples, the 62 Myr cycle is absent in the segmented worms (annelida), strong in the porifera, strong in the echinoderms, moderate in the bryosoa, moderate in the older anthropoda, very weak in the foraminifera, insignificant in the bivalves, very strong in the spiriferids, strong in trilobites, and very weak in fishes. No clear pattern has emerged from analysis of these taxonomic units. Several models will be discussed that could account for the cycles. One is the possibility of a helium-3 instability in the sun. Helium-3 is produced in the inner regions of the sun, but burned and destroyed in the deepest part of the core; only a layer outside the core remains. A regular overturn of the layer mixing it into the deeper core would result in a cycle of solar activity with a few percent modulation and a period that could be between 50 to 200 Myr.(2) This idea once received a great deal of attention when it was thought to be an explanation for the low flux of neutrinos from the sun. A second model to explain the cycle is the passage of the sun through variations in the mass density of the Milky Way Galaxy. Higher density puts an increased torque on comets in the Oort clould; that diminishes the angular momentum of half of them, and increases the eccentricity of the orbits. Doubling of the density (e.g. caused by passage through a giant molecular cloud or an arm of the galaxy) would result in a doubling of the number of comets hitting the earth. The passage through the arms of the galaxy

  11. Study of the Intertidal Macrobenthic Fauna in Dayushan Island, Zhejiang%浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The community structures of the intertidal macrobenthic fauna in Dayushan island,Zhejiang,including species composition,quantity distribution and biodiversity,were analyzed in the study.The investigation in the study found 35 species,including 1 species of Annelida,2 species of Chordata,2 species of coelenterate,9 species of Arthropoda and 21 species of Mollusca.The average biomass and density in all stations were 1027.33 g/m2 and 1404 ind.m-2,respectively.The mollusca were the first in biomass and density among all macrobenthic fauna.The value of Shannon-Weaner index,Margalef's species richness index and Pielou's evenness index were 0.193~2.101,0.268~1.744 and 0.073~2.007,and their averages were 1.140±1.084,1.080±0.696 and 0.780±0.886,respectively.There was significant difference between the results in the study and in the similar experiments.The Abundance/Biomass curves of the intertidal zone of Dayushan island had part of the cross.%文章通过分析浙江大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的物种组成、数量分布和生物多样性等群落结构特征来了解周围海域的水质状况。本次大渔山岛海域潮间带调查采获的大型底栖动物标本共有35种,其中软体动物21种,节肢动物9种,脊索动物与腔肠动物各2种,环节动物仅1种。且该海域潮间带大型底栖动物的平均生物量为1027.33 g/m2,平均丰度为1404 ind./m2。在各类群底栖动物中,软体动物的平均生物量及丰富都为第一。大渔山岛潮间带大型底栖动物的多样性指数、丰富度指数和均匀度指数的分布范围分别在0.193~2.101、0.268~1.744和0.073~2.007,平均值分别为1.140±1.084、1.080±0.696和0.780±0.886。

  12. 黄河三角洲湿地水域底栖动物群落结构及其时空差异%Community characteristcs and space-time variances of the water area macrozoobenthos in the Huanghe River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董贯仓; 李秀启; 高云芳; 刘峰; 秦玉广; 王亚楠


    Macrozoobenthic community characteristics and their space-time variances of different kinds of water areas (VIZ. river, reservoir and aquaculture ponds) were recorded in the Huanghe River Delta in May, August and November of 2009, respectively. The water quality was also estimated by the Shannon-Wiener index. There were 35 species, belonging to 4 phyla, 8 classes, 25 families and 31 genera of macrozoobenthos, which included 11 species of Annelida, 7 species of Mollusca, 16 species of Arthropoda and 1 species of Chordata. The number of macrobenthos was small as there being less than 3 species in 3/4 sampling sites. Both of the dominant species and the number of the species changed with the fluctuations of season. The inhabit density was between 0 and 22 000 ind/m2 with the mean value of 1 111 ind/m2 and the biomass density was between 0 and 146 g/m2 with the mean value of 12. 30 g/ m2. Most of the Shannon-Wiener index was small except 9# in August (3.15). 2/42 of them was between 2 and 3 with 8/42 between 1 and 2, 14/42 between 0 and 1, 5/42 being 0 and being no macrobenthos at 12/42 of the samples. It indicated that most of the different water areas were polluted to varying degrees in the Huanghe River Delta.%2009年5月、8月和11月调查了黄河三角洲河流、水库、养殖池塘等水域14个采样点的大型底栖动物群落多样性及其时空差异,并用Shannon-Wiener多样性指数对环境进行了评价.共采集底栖动物35种,隶属4门8纲25科31属,其中环节动物11种、软体动物7种、节肢动物16种和脊索动物1种;物种数均较少,3/4次少于3种,且近1/3次未采集到底栖动物,优势种及物种数均随季节波动而变化;栖息密度为0 ~22 000个/m2,平均为1 111个/m2;生物量为0~ 146 g/m2,平均为12.30 g/m2.结果表明,Shannon-Wiener指数均较低,仅9号站在8月>3(3.15),2/42次为2~3、8/42次为1~2、14/42次为0~1、5/42为0,且12/42次未采集到底栖动物,表明黄河三角

  13. 基于大型底栖无脊椎动物群落的上海市河道水质生物学评价%Evaluation on River Water Quality Based on the River Substrate Macro-invertebrate in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小华; 杨青; 赵振; 刘文亮


    The macro-invertebrate assemblages of river substrate were investigated at 83 sites in Shanghai city in summer and autumn 2011. A total of 20 taxa of the macro-invertebrate were collected, including 10 of Mollusca, 6 of Arthropoda and 4 of Annelida. No any living macro-invertebrates were detected from samples collected at 9 sites which were heavily polluted and no suitable habitat available. The water quality at the rest 74 sites with living macro-invertebrate was evaluated by Shannon-Wiener index, Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI) and Goodnight Biotic Index (GBI). Based on Shannon-Wiener Index, the water quality was critically polluted at 25 sites and heavily polluted at 49 sites. The water quality was heavily polluted at 38 sites, moderately at 5 sites and slightly at 31 sites, by the value of Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI). Evaluating on water quality by Goodnight Biotic Index (GBI) , the river water was severely polluted at 33 , moderately at 2 sites, and lightly at 39 sites. In contrast with the data of historical physicochemical water quality indicators in last 3 years, Shannon-Wiener Index had low efficiency and accuracy, while Hilsenhoff Biotic Index and Goodnight Biotic Index had much higher accuracy in spatial consistency between physicochemical assessment and biological evaluation.%2011年夏秋季,在上海市全境83个河道断面开展了大型底栖无脊椎动物采样,共获取底栖动物20个分类单位(种).9个极严重污染断面未采集到活体大型底栖生物,生境基本丧失.其余74个有活体生物断面,采用三种常用生物指数:Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Hilsenhoff耐污指数、Goodnight修正指数分别进行计算及评价.Shannon-Wiener多样性指数判别为25个严重污染和49个重污染断面;Hilsenhoff耐污指数划分38个重污染、5个中污染和31个轻污染断面;Goodnight修正指数划分33个重污染、2个中污染和39个轻污染断面.与典型河道断面的水质理化指标监测值

  14. 深海热液口化能合成共生作用的研究进展%Research Progress of the Chemosynthetic Symbioses in the Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕明; 林荣澄; 黄丁勇


    海洋无脊椎动物和细菌间的化能合成共生作用的发现,改变了人们对深海热液口初级生产力主要来源的认知.近年的研究表明,营化能合成共生的动物隶属于纤毛门、软体动物门、环节动物门和节肢动物门;其中无脊椎动物作为宿主在与共生菌的长期共生过程中,伴随着部分器官和功能的退化或消失,逐渐形成和演化出了与此相适应的形态结构,并产生了一些特殊的行为;在深海热液口发现的所有化能合成共生菌都属于革兰氏阴性菌,它们的宿主大致可以分为2个群体;通过16 SrRNA基因编码分析,不同代谢类型的共生菌在系统发育中通常处于不同分支,形态也有所差异;共生菌独特的传播方式和进化模式也使其更加适应共生生活;由无脊椎动物和化能合成细菌构成的共生体系与环境相互作用,影响了深海热液口生态系统的演化.对共生菌蛋白质及代谢组学的研究,以及对宿主生理和代谢机制的研究将成为未来热液口化能合成共生作用研究的新热点.%The discovery of the chemosynthetic symbioses between marine invertebrates and bacteria revolutionized our understanding of the energy sources that fuel primary productivity in the deep sea.Chemosynthetic host were classified within four major group including Ciliophora,Mollusca,Annelida and Arthropoda; Symbiotic invertebrates with anatomical adaptations of chemosynthetic associations are usually characterized by rudimentary or absent digestive system.Effective behavioural and physiological strategies are also used by animals to supply their symbionts with both reductants and oxidants.All the symbionts are Gram negative bacteria,and clustered in two different branches related to symbiont type in the phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences,distinct differences in morphology were also observed between the two groups.The transmission and evolution strategy utilized

  15. 苏北盆地金湖凹陷碳酸盐岩沉积特征及演化模式%Sedimentary characteristics and evolutionary patterns of carbonates in Jinhu depression, Subei Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵先杰; 王彩凤; 黄伟; 钟思瑛; 刘金华; 廖光明; 陈军


    根据对大量薄片和岩心的观察,金湖凹陷西斜坡碳酸盐岩的颗粒类型主要有生物碎屑、鲕粒、球粒、藻叠层石和陆源砂.生物碎屑含量丰富,以蠕虫动物中的环节动物门龙介虫科(Serpulidae)含量最高,占生物碎屑颗粒的70%以上,其他也见藻类、介形虫腕足、腹足、硅藻、有孔虫、苔藓等化石.生物数量虽然比较多,但种属单调,耐盐度比较窄,为半咸水海洋生物组合.微量元素硼的质量分数平均为77.6×10-6,硼与镓的比值(B/Ga)平均为3.6,也显示为半咸水环境.结合沉积物特征、生物组合和特殊矿物分析,认为金湖凹陷在古新统阜宁组二段第Ⅱ油组(E1f22)沉积时期,发生了海侵或与海洋有通道沟通、具有半咸水溺湖环境特征.水体清澈,构造活动相对平静,湖盆沉降和沉积速率缓慢且补偿适中,因此在西斜坡沉积了一套厚度为10~20 m、分布广阔的碳酸盐岩.根据颗粒类型和沉积特征,划分出4种沉积相带,包括陆源碎屑-碳酸盐混合相、鲕粒滩相、生物碎屑滩相、泥晶灰岩相,各相带在纵向和横向出现有规律的交替分布.生物碎屑灰岩溶孔发育,含油气丰富,已作为产能接替区投入了开发,并取得了一定效果.%Based on observations of a large number of cast thin sections and rock cores,grain types of carbonates in the west slope of the Jinhu depression were identified to be mainly composed of bioclast,oolite,spherulite,algal stromatolite and arenite.Of which bioclast is abundant and predominated by Annelida Serpulidae of vermes,which account for over 70 percent of the bioclast.And the other bioclast consists of algal,ostracod,brachiopod,gastropod,diatom,foraminifera and moss fossils.Although the amount of organisms is large,their species,composed mainly of brackish halobios,are relatively monotonous with narrower salt tolerance.The mass fraction of boron in microelements averages 77.6 × 10-6 and the ratio

  16. 哥斯达黎加外海夏季表层浮游动物种类组成及分布%Spatial distribution and species composition of zooplanktons in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘必林; 陈新军; 贾涛; 李纲


    The Jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) , one of the key abundant fisheries resources, is widely distributed in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica. The first survey of D. Gigas in this area was carried out in the middle of 1990s by the Japanese squid jigging vessels, followed by the development of a small scale commercial fishery. A survey of D. Gigas was conducted by Chinese squid jigging vessels to evaluate the distributions of fishery resources and fishing grounds and to understand the relationship between fishing ground and environmental variables including biotc and abiotic environment. In this paper, based on the zooplankton data sampled by the Chinese squid jigging vessels in the waters (4° 30' - 10°24'N, 91°20'- 100°00'W) of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Costa Rica from July to August in 2009, we analyzed the species composition, abundance and spatial distribution of zooplankton to evaluate potential mechanisms of forming the D. Gigas fishing grounds. This study showed that there were a wide range of zooplankton species in the survey area, including jellyfish ( Hydroidomedusa, Siphonophorae, Scyphomedusae ) , Ostracods, Copepods, Amphipoda, Mysidacea, Euphausiids, Macrura, Brachyura, Sagittoidea, Caudata, Thaliacea, Polychaetes and Pteropods. In total, 13 categories and 115 kinds (excluding cephalopods larvae, fish eggs and larvae and pelagic larvae) were recorded, There were 23 species 17 genus 10 family 8 order in the Coelentera, 74 species 43 genus 30 family 8 order in the Crustacea, 4species 1 genus 1 family 1 order in the Chaetognatha, 5 species 5 genus 3 family 3 order in the Urochordata, 6 species 5 genus 3 family 1 order in the Annelida, 3 species 3 genus 1 family 1 order in the Mollusca and other species including paralarvae and juvenile of fish and cephalopod and pelagic larva. The zooplankton species of high abundance included Copepoda and Sagittoidea, while Copepoda, Sagittoidea, Macrura and paralarvae and juvenile

  17. 泉州湾洛阳江口2种红树林生境大型底栖动物群落多样性比较%Comparison of benthic macrofaunal communities in two mangrove habitats of Luoyangjiang Estuary in Quanzhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛; 蔡立哲; 卓异; 饶义勇; 李想; 陈昕餠; 傅素晶; 纪剑锋


    In order to compare the benthic macrofaunal community in two mangrove habitats,Aegiceras corniculatum and Kandelia candel,in Luoyangjiang Estuary,Quanzhou Bay,China,benthic macrofauna was investigated in 4 sea-sons from April 201 1 to January 2012.A total of 49 benthic macrofaunal species were recorded,including 15 Annel-ida,8 Mollusca,15 Arthropoda,3 Chordata,2 Hexapod,1 Cnidaria,Platyhelminthes,Nemertea,Sipuncula,Oli-gochaeta and Bivalve.Nephtys oligobranchia,Assiminea brevicula,Uca arcuata,Actinia sp.showed high density in both two habitats,Phascolosoma esculenta is a dominant species in both two habitats but with lower density.Although the mean biomass of Kandelia candel was higher than Aegiceras corniculatum,the species number,density,diversity index(H′),evenness index(J)and richness index(d)of Aegiceras corniculatum were all higher.Two-way ANOVA showed that the diversity and evenness indexes of the two benthic macrofaunal communities had significant seasonal differences,habitat differences and habitat ×season differences.Cluster analysis showed high similarity between the benthic macrofaunal communities in two mangrove habitats because of same tidal zone and similar types of sediment and sediment particle size.%为探讨泉州湾洛阳江口桐花树和秋茄2种红树林生境的大型底栖动物群落是否存在明显差异,于2011年4月至2012年1月对2种红树林生境的大型底栖动物进行了季度定量调查.结果表明:4个季度在2种红树林生境定量取样获得大型底栖动物49种,其中多毛类15种,腹足类8种,甲壳类15种,鱼类3种,昆虫2种,刺胞动物、扁形动物、纽形动物、星虫动物、寡毛类和双壳类各1种.寡鳃齿吻沙蚕(Nephtys oligobranchia)、短拟沼螺(Assiminea brevicula)、弧边招潮蟹(Uca arcua-ta)、指海葵(Actinia sp.)等在2种生境均有较高的栖息密度,可口革囊星虫(Phascolosoma esculen-ta)是2种生境的常见种