WorldWideScience

Sample records for anna reactor

  1. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Suto, T.

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k eff of 1. 0040±0.0005

  2. Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    National Congress adopted complete independence as its goal, Anna Mani became increasingly drawn to nationalist ... college, Anna Mani obtained a scholarship to do research in physics at the Indian Institute of. Science. ... Anna Mani returned to Independent India in 1948, and she joined the Indian Meteorological.

  3. Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 11. Anna Mani. Abha Sur. Article-in-a-Box Volume 13 Issue 11 November 2008 pp 993-995 ... Author Affiliations. Abha Sur1. Program In Women's and Gender Studies, 14E-316, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA ...

  4. Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    meteorological instrumentation and pioneered research in the areas of solar radiation, ozone and wind energy measurements. ... drawn to nationalist politics. Although she did not join any ... diamonds from India and Africa; practically all his students worked on one aspect or the other of diamonds. Anna Mani recorded and ...

  5. Anna Politkovskaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulietto Chiesa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a profile of Anna Politkovskaja, the journalist murdered in Moscow in October 2006. When the communist regime collapsed she sided with the “Democrats” (Boris Eltsin, but afterwards she departed from them when the first Cecenia War began (autumn 1994. With the beginning of the second Cecenia War (August-September 1999 Anna Politkovskaja definitively understood the Democrats no longer existed in Russia. In fact, opening the road to the new massacre had been their own responsibility. Once she had understood the truth, she began to tell the way “they”, the “Democrats” had organized the Cecenia Wars. Many times she went to that devastated land and denounced the dreadful war crimes committed there by the Russians, writing on her daily Novaja Gazeta. She openly condemned the Russian army and government for their lacking in respect of civil rights and their violation of the Constitutional State, both in Russia and Cecenia. In the West she had published a book –Putin’s Russia– from which she gained fame. But it provoked the Russian President to anger. The strong will of this woman with a feeble voice to testify and inform has been blown out, together with her obstinate tenaciousness. Anna Politkovskaja had staked her own life, conscious of the risk.

  6. Anna Politkovskaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulietto Chiesa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a profile of Anna Politkovskaja, the journalist murdered in Moscow in October 2006. When the communist regime collapsed she sided with the “Democrats” (Boris Eltsin, but afterwards she departed from them when the first Cecenia War began (autumn 1994. With the beginning of the second Cecenia War (August-September 1999 Anna Politkovskaja definitively understood the Democrats no longer existed in Russia. In fact, opening the road to the new massacre had been their own responsibility. Once she had understood the truth, she began to tell the way “they”, the “Democrats” had organized the Cecenia Wars. Many times she went to that devastated land and denounced the dreadful war crimes committed there by the Russians, writing on her daily Novaja Gazeta. She openly condemned the Russian army and government for their lacking in respect of civil rights and their violation of the Constitutional State, both in Russia and Cecenia. In the West she had published a book –Putin’s Russia– from which she gained fame. But it provoked the Russian President to anger. The strong will of this woman with a feeble voice to testify and inform has been blown out, together with her obstinate tenaciousness. Anna Politkovskaja had staked her own life, conscious of the risk.

  7. Mani, Miss Anna Modayil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Miss Anna Modayil A.I.I.Sc., FNA 1971-79; Secretary 1977-79. Date of birth: 23 August 1918. Date of death: 16 August 2001. Specialization: Atmospheric Physics and Instrumentation Last known address: c/o Mr K.T. Chandy, 14, Avittom Road, Medical College Post, Trivandrum 695 011. YouTube · Twitter · Facebook · Blog ...

  8. Mani, Miss Anna Modayil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mani, Miss Anna Modayil A.I.I.Sc., FNA 1971-79; Secretary 1977-79. Date of birth: 23 August 1918. Date of death: 16 August 2001. Specialization: Atmospheric Physics and Instrumentation Last known address: c/o Mr K.T. Chandy, 14, Avittom Road, Medical College Post, Trivandrum 695 011. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  9. An appreciation of Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    independence as its goal, Anna Mani became increasingly drawn to nationalist politics. Although she did not join any particular ... ors program in physics at the Presidency College in Madras (now. Chennai). In 1940, a year after finishing college, Anna Mani ob- tained a scholarship to do research in physics at the Indian ...

  10. Podcast - Interview with Anna Sfard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    During the 14th - 17th of November PhD Students and researchers from e-learning lab attended a PhD course called "Perspectives on Identity in Learning and Education Research". This course was co-organised by three local doctoral schools; The International Doctoral school of Technology and Science......, The Doctoral School of Human Centered Informatics (HCI) and The Doctoral school of Education, Learning and Philosophy. During the course Thomas Ryberg had the opportunity to interview the invited guest speakers about their views on the notion of identity within learning and educational research. The first...... interview was with Anna Sfard who at present holds a joint appointment in Michigan State University in US (as Lappan-Phillips-Fitzgerald Professor of Mathematics Education) and in the University of Haifa, Israel. During the interview Anna talks about her research on identity and two metaphors on learning...

  11. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  12. Interview with Dr Anna Matamala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-09-01

    In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.

  13. Seeing things by Anna Margolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francuz Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If we recall the most important words for the poetry, we should begin the story with the stones, lily, hands and blood, which, if you look at them with the philological accuracy, are interrelated: situate themselves clearly on opposite banks of the creative process. They talk about the construction of the building consisting of perceptions about their own strength and weakness, ecstasy and congealing in what for centuries the classics poets have tried to fathom: the harmony and clarity, driven by the hope that in life they should above all stick to be beauty. And in addition, they ought to go further than discipline, practice eye and expand the field of view, should not shun from the gusts of the heart, because the heart grows more powerful due to great ideas, passions. Spacious becomes the vision of writing, it is the weave of contradictions - this is how one of the most important twentieth-century poets, who wrote in Yiddish, Anna Margolin sees it. Margolin’s poetry is a clear return towards neoclassicism, building up topics, theses, allusions, ideas taken from ideologically close to her artists of great individuality, Anna Akhmatova (from whom she took her name, Osip Mandelstam, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ezra Pound.

  14. Hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) in ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Erica J; Wolf, Marta; Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Cheng, Stanley H; Dudley, Robert

    2014-09-06

    Aerodynamic performance and energetic savings for flight in ground effect are theoretically maximized during hovering, but have never been directly measured for flying animals. We evaluated flight kinematics, metabolic rates and induced flow velocities for Anna's hummingbirds hovering at heights (relative to wing length R = 5.5 cm) of 0.7R, 0.9R, 1.1R, 1.7R, 2.2R and 8R above a solid surface. Flight at heights less than or equal to 1.1R resulted in significant reductions in the body angle, tail angle, anatomical stroke plane angle, wake-induced velocity, and mechanical and metabolic power expenditures when compared with flight at the control height of 8R. By contrast, stroke plane angle relative to horizontal, wingbeat amplitude and wingbeat frequency were unexpectedly independent of height from ground. Qualitative smoke visualizations suggest that each wing generates a vortex ring during both down- and upstroke. These rings expand upon reaching the ground and present a complex turbulent interaction below the bird's body. Nonetheless, hovering near surfaces results in substantial energetic benefits for hummingbirds, and by inference for all volant taxa that either feed at flowers or otherwise fly close to plant or other surfaces. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Eesti goes St. Etienne / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Näitus Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna magistrantide viimase kahe aasta projektide paremikust esindas Eestit disainibiennaalil St. Etiennis Prantsusmaal. Näituse panid üles Pent Talvet ja Pavel Sidorenko, näitusel osalejad: Anna-Maria Einla, Kätlin Kangur, Triin Kuusler, Andri Laidre, Veiko Liis, Liina-Kai Raivet, P. Sidorenko, P. Talvet, Ingela Viks, Triin Voss

  16. A Teacher's Guide for "Anna Karenina."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    In 1870, after the successful publication of "War and Peace," Leo Tolstoy began imagining a story about a high-born society woman, "Anna Karenina," who destroys her life by having an adulterous affair. By presenting his adulteress as a sympathetic character, Tolstoy aimed to expose injustices in such Russian institutions as…

  17. Kerjav kunstnik / Anna Hints, Maria Rõhu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Linnagaleriis oli 17.03.-10.04.2011 avatud Anna Hintsi ja Maria Rõhu näitus "Nälg". Autorid näituse taotlusest, raha taotlemisest, aktsioonist "Kerjav kunstnik", külastajate suhtumisest sellesse. Näituse aruanne

  18. Professor dr hab. Anna Maria Bujakiewicz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kujawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the biography and scientific achievements of Professor Anna Bujakiewicz. After receiving her master’s degree and doctorate in biology and mycology from Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Professor Bujakiewicz continued her exciting research and teaching on mycology at her Alma Mater Posnaniensis for more than 50 years. Her publications in this field include many books, articles, and other scholarly reports.

  19. Structure of the vortex wake in hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M; Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Dudley, R

    2013-12-22

    Hummingbirds are specialized hoverers for which the vortex wake has been described as a series of single vortex rings shed primarily during the downstroke. Recent findings in bats and birds, as well as in a recent study on Anna's hummingbirds, suggest that each wing may shed a discrete vortex ring, yielding a bilaterally paired wake. Here, we describe the presence of two discrete rings in the wake of hovering Anna's hummingbirds, and also infer force production through a wingbeat with contributions to weight support. Using flow visualization, we found separate vortices at the tip and root of each wing, with 15% stronger circulation at the wingtip than at the root during the downstroke. The upstroke wake is more complex, with near-continuous shedding of vorticity, and circulation of approximately equal magnitude at tip and root. Force estimates suggest that the downstroke contributes 66% of required weight support, whereas the upstroke generates 35%. We also identified a secondary vortex structure yielding 8-26% of weight support. Lift production in Anna's hummingbirds is more evenly distributed between the stroke phases than previously estimated for Rufous hummingbirds, in accordance with the generally symmetric down- and upstrokes that characterize hovering in these birds.

  20. Western armament and tactics in the writings of Anna Komnene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Marko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, first we reconstructed and commented the western horseman's armament witch Anna Komnene had known (long spear, cross-bow, chain mail "Norman" shield, solarets. Afterwards, we established that Anne knew four types of western horseman's attack (attack in full gallop, attack from back slow march, attack from flank and three types of their battle formation (strewn formation, congested formation, formation of two columns. Also, we commented Anna's knowledge of western siege engines (battering-ram, tortoise catapult, siege tower; we established that Anne knew five types of western siege tower. In the end, we commented several fragments witch show Anna Komnene's knowledge of the western siege tactics.

  1. Anna Pavlova, danzatrice eurasiana? (I parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – IT Prima diva nella costellazione di nuove star dello spettacolo novecentesco, Anna Pavlova visse unicamente nello spirito e nella missione della danza come forma d’arte e stile di vita. Senza temere i rischi del solipsismo, si lancia nell’avventura di una compagnia tutta sua dopo il clamore parigino dei Ballets Russes. Il suo coraggio, la sua curiosità, il suo genio artistico la portano a viaggiare per i cinque continenti senza sosta, a scoprire danze tradizionali, a praticarle essa stessa, come quelle kabuki, apprese non senza sofferenze in Giappone nel 1922. Presentata nella vulgata come paladina della tradizione classicoaccademica, Pavlova può ostentare una biografia degna delle grandi danzatrici moderne a lei contemporanee, come una Duncan o una Ruth St. Denis (con quest’ultima in rapporto di competizione a distanza intorno al soggetto di Radha. Insieme ad una figura controversa e intrigante come quella del danzatore indiano Uday Shankar, crea un trittico di danze di ispirazione orientale all’insegna del rigore filologico e dell’integrazione linguistica, traccia della sua apertura e del rispetto di tradizioni teatrali altre. Abstract – EN Anna Pavlova, the first diva within the stars firmament of the 20th century, spent her life exclusively in the spirit of dance, intended as an art form and a life style, as if it were a mission. She threw herself into the adventure of leading her own company, after the Ballets Russes' European acclaim. Her courage, curiosity and artistic genius took her through five continents, endlessly searching for traditional dances that she learned with tremendous physical suffering, as in Japan with kabuki in 1922. She’s not simply a paladin of the academic tradition. She can in fact claim a biography and dance practice worthy of the most famous modern dancers who lived in her age, such as Duncan and St. Denis (with whom she was in a special competition, though after years, on the subject

  2. Anna Politkovskaya: Rússlands Pútíns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétur Berg Matthíasson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Fram kemur í lok bókarinnar að Anna hafi illan bifur á Pútín. Það kemur lesandanum í sjálfu sér ekki á óvart enda bókin upptalning á skelfilegum atburðum sem lýsa hvers konar stjórnvöldum hann fer fyrir, fyrir utan það að Pútín gerir lítið sem ekkert til að breyta því til hins betra. Þessi bók er nauðsynleg fyrir alla þá sem vilja skyggnast bak við tjöldin og sjá Rússland eins og það er í raun og veru.

  3. Paediatrics and psychoanalysis--Miss Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Miss Anna Freud died during the winter at the age of 86. She had been a pioneer in the understanding of children through psychoanalysis and a great champion of the rights of children. Her life began in Vienna as the youngest child of Sigmund Freud, and her early work with children was in Austria. In 1938, because of the Nazi régime and even though she was nursing her father during his terminal illness, she had to escape with him to London. Her work with homeless children and with those in residential nurseries in London during the second world war is well known, as is her work on child development and psychopathology in the postwar years. But one less well known aspect of her life that was of immense importance to a few fortunate British paediatricians was the 'paediatric group' that she ran for over a quarter of a century and which Dr Christine Cooper recalled at the memorial meeting in London earlier this year. PMID:6344806

  4. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  5. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  6. ANNA: A Convolutional Neural Network Code for Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Brown, Donald; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    We present ANNA, a Python-based convolutional neural network code for the automated analysis of stellar spectra. ANNA provides a flexible framework that allows atmospheric parameters such as temperature and metallicity to be determined with accuracies comparable to those of established but less efficient techniques. ANNA performs its parameterization extremely quickly; typically several thousand spectra can be analyzed in less than a second. Additionally, the code incorporates features which greatly speed up the training process necessary for the neural network to measure spectra accurately, resulting in a tool that can easily be run on a single desktop or laptop computer. Thus, ANNA is useful in an era when spectrographs increasingly have the capability to collect dozens to hundreds of spectra each night. This talk will cover the basic features included in ANNA and demonstrate its performance in two use cases: an open cluster abundance analysis involving several hundred spectra, and a metal-rich field star study. Applicability of the code to large survey datasets will also be discussed.

  7. Anna Karenina, the 'English novel'.Towards the study of anglomania in Leo Tolstoy 's novel Anna Karenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sarana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one storyline of the novel Anna Karenina that stands as the key for the re-search into the significance of Anglomania in the novel. The 1850-1870s in Russian culture is the time of a most intensive formation of the image of the UK as a highly complex combination of real and mythological elements. The novel Anna Karenina, which Tolstoy himself called the novel about modern life, sets forth the fashion for everything ‘English’ in Russian high society in the 1870s with almost documentary precision. The episode the article deals with is Anna Karenina's reading of an English novel. The article looks at different theories of the origin of the novel and suggests a particular novel as the source for the English novel in Anna Karenina. Article argues that the knowledge of the particular English novel contributes not only to the re-search of Anglomania in Anna Karenina and other Tolstoy's works but also gives a significant in-sight into the study of the characters in the novel.

  8. Dietary protein level affects iridescent coloration in Anna's hummingbirds, Calypte anna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Melissa G; Roudybush, Thomas E; McGraw, Kevin J

    2012-08-15

    Many animal displays involve colorful ornamental traits that signal an individual's quality as a mate or rival. Brilliant iridescent ornaments are common, but little is currently known about their production cost and signaling value. One potential cost of colorful ornaments is the acquisition of limited dietary resources that may be involved, directly or indirectly, in their production. Protein, the primary component of bird feathers and of many nanostructural components of iridescent traits, is naturally restricted in hummingbird diets (comprised mostly of sugars), suggesting that iridescent coloration may be especially challenging to produce in these animals. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effect of dietary protein availability during molt on iridescent color expression in male Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna). We fed captive birds either a 6% (high) or a 3% (low) protein diet and stimulated molt by plucking half the gorget and crown ornaments on each bird as well as the non-ornamental iridescent green tail feathers. We found that birds receiving more protein grew significantly more colorful crown feathers (higher red chroma and redder hue) than those fed the low-protein diet. Diet did not affect gorget coloration, but regrowth of feathers in captivity affected both gorget and crown coloration. Additionally, birds on the high-protein diet grew yellower (higher hue) green tail feathers than birds on the low-protein diet. These results indicate that iridescent ornamental feathers are sensitive to diet quality and may serve as honest signals of nutrition to mates or rivals. Further, because both ornamental and non-ornamental iridescent coloration were affected by conditions during their growth, iridescent color in these birds appears to be generally condition dependent.

  9. Anna Sangadzhi-Goryaeva, A Legend About Lightning

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaeva, Bair; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Anna’s mother was born in the village of Khar-Tolga in Yashkul’skiy rayon. There, lightning, thunder and dust storms were frequent occurrences. Anna heard from her mother that she should not be afraid of lightning. According to a legend, once upon a time a god descended on earth but could not ascent back to the skies. He was helped by a pair of helping hands from Anna’s maternal clan. Since then lightning never harms people from this clan. One day when Anna lived in the village of Chilgir lig...

  10. Kõrkjasaar Põlvas = Bulrush Island in Põlva / Anna-Liisa Unt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Anna-Liisa, 1982-

    2004-01-01

    Põlvas 2003. a. korraldatud ideevõistluste tulemused: keskpargi võistlus: II preemia - OÜ Kaunimad Aiad, III - Mart Mets; paisjärve kujunduse konkurss: II - Anna-Liisa Unt, III - Mart Mets. A.-L. Undi realiseeritud võistlustööst, paisjärve saare valguskujundusest. 4 ill

  11. Anna Politkovskaja mälestus Euroopas / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Virumaa Teataja, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 11; Põhjarannik, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Severnoje Poberezhje, 18. sept. 2007, lk. 4; Sakala, 21. sept. 2007, lk. 2. Euroopa Parlamendi saadik toetas ideed anda Euroopa Parlamendi pressiruumile Anna Politkovskaja nimi, sellega antakse Venemaale ka teada, mida europarlament arvab Vene võimude tegevusest Tšetšeenias

  12. Anna Dziemianko: User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Anna Dziemianko. User-friendliness of Verb Syntax in Pedagogical Dictionaries of English. 2006, XII + 229 pp. ISBN-13: 978-3-484-39130-7. ISBN- 10: 3-484-39130-8. Lexicographica. Series Maior 130. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Price: €124.

  13. Reclassification of Theileria annae as Babesia vulpes sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Florin-Christensen, Monica; Cardoso, Luís; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2015-04-08

    Theileria annae is a tick-transmitted small piroplasmid that infects dogs and foxes in North America and Europe. Due to disagreement on its placement in the Theileria or Babesia genera, several synonyms have been used for this parasite, including Babesia Spanish dog isolate, Babesia microti-like, Babesia (Theileria) annae, and Babesia cf. microti. Infections by this parasite cause anemia, thrombocytopenia, and azotemia in dogs but are mostly subclinical in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Furthermore, high infection rates have been detected among red fox populations in distant regions strongly suggesting that these canines act as the parasite's natural host. This study aims to reassess and harmonize the phylogenetic placement and binomen of T. annae within the order Piroplasmida. Four molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using a maximum likelihood algorithm based on DNA alignments of: (i) near-complete 18S rRNA gene sequences (n = 76 and n = 93), (ii) near-complete and incomplete 18S rRNA gene sequences (n = 92), and (iii) tubulin-beta gene sequences (n = 32) from B. microti and B. microti-related parasites including those detected in dogs and foxes. All phylogenetic trees demonstrate that T. annae and its synonyms are not Theileria parasites but are most closely related with B. microti. The phylogenetic tree based on the 18S rRNA gene forms two separate branches with high bootstrap value, of which one branch corresponds to Babesia species infecting rodents, humans, and macaques, while the other corresponds to species exclusively infecting carnivores. Within the carnivore group, T. annae and its synonyms from distant regions segregate into a single clade with a highly significant bootstrap value corroborating their separate species identity. Phylogenetic analysis clearly shows that T. annae and its synonyms do not pertain to Theileria and can be clearly defined as a separate species. Based on the facts that T. annae and its synonyms have not been

  14. Wingbeat kinematics and motor control of yaw turns in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L; Quicazán-Rubio, Elsa M; Segre, Paolo S; Middleton, Kevin M

    2012-12-01

    The biomechanical and neuromuscular mechanisms used by different animals to generate turns in flight are highly variable. Body size and body plan exert some influence, e.g. birds typically roll their body to orient forces generated by the wings whereas insects are capable of turning via left-right wingbeat asymmetries. Turns are also relatively brief and have low repeatability, with almost every wingbeat serving a different function throughout the change in heading. Here we present an analysis of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) as they fed continuously from an artificial feeder revolving around the outside of the animal. This setup allowed for examination of sustained changes in yaw without requiring any corresponding changes in pitch, roll or body position. Hummingbirds sustained yaw turns by expanding the wing stroke amplitude of the outer wing during the downstroke and by altering the deviation of the wingtip path during both downstroke and upstroke. The latter led to a shift in the inner-outer stroke plane angle during the upstroke and shifts in the elevation of the stroke plane and in the deviation of the wingtip path during both strokes. These features are generally more similar to how insects, as opposed to birds, turn. However, time series analysis also revealed considerable stroke-to-stroke variation. Changes in the stroke amplitude and the wingtip velocity were highly cross-correlated, as were changes in the stroke deviation and the elevation of the stroke plane. As was the case for wingbeat kinematics, electromyogram recordings from pectoral and wing muscles were highly variable, but no correlations were found between these two features of motor control. The high variability of both kinematic and muscle activation features indicates a high level of wingbeat-to-wingbeat adjustments during sustained yaw. The activation timing of the muscles was more repeatable than the activation intensity, which suggests that the former may be constrained by harmonic

  15. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  16. Physical and geometrical parameters of ANNA critical assemblies. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malewski, S.; Dabrowski, C.

    1973-01-01

    An extended analysis of four critical configurations of ANNA Assembly has been performed. Diffusion parameters of the thermal group and of one or three epithermal groups have been determined. Using these data the critical calculations have been carried out and the main neutron density distributions presented. The role of some neutron processes in these systems and their influence on integral parameters has been considered. The calculated quantities have been compared with the available experimental data. (author)

  17. Hovering and forward flight energetics in Anna's and Allen's hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that the mechanical costs of flight are lowest at intermediate flight speeds; metabolic costs of flight should trend similarly if muscle efficiency is constant. We measured metabolic rates for nine Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) and two male Allen's hummingbirds (Selasphorus sasin) feeding during flight from a free-standing mask over a range of airspeeds. Ten of 11 birds exhibited higher metabolic costs during hovering than during flight at intermediate airspeeds, whereas one individual exhibited comparable costs at hovering and during forward flight up to speeds of approximately 7 m s(-1). Flight costs of all hummingbirds increased at higher airspeeds. Relative to Anna's hummingbirds, Allen's hummingbirds exhibited deeper minima in the power curve, possibly due to higher wing loadings and greater associated costs of induced drag. Although feeding at a mask in an airstream may reduce body drag and, thus, the contributions of parasite power to overall metabolic expenditure, these results suggest that hummingbird power curves are characterized by energetic minima at intermediate speeds relative to hovering costs.

  18. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  19. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Disclosed is a neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch. 1 claim, 16 figures

  20. Components of West European feudalism in the writings of Anna Komnine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In her "Alexiad", Anna Komnine had left various fragmented statements from witch we noticed her knowledge of many components of west European feudalism. By reciprocal comparison of Anna's statements and by analysis of separate Anna's statements on the ground of west European feudalism's erudition, we managed to prove, notice or verify Anna's knowledge of the following components: homage, vassal's oath of fealty, "ordinary" vassal liege vassal, feudal curia, feudal consilium, feudal primo­geniture, ordeal by battle, count, sergeant, constable, chevalier. Also, we tried to establish the concrete details witch Anne had known about each of these components.

  1. Anna Negri, una regista in cerca d’identità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Jacoponi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna Negri, a Director in Search of an Identity   The transition to an autobiographical novel format in 2009 is the illustration, on paper, of a personal and intimate narrative that offers the reader a definition of cinescrittura (cinematic writing. Moreover, this evolution illustrates how the language of television and film has influenced Anna Negri’s narrative and stylistic choices in prose. The reading of the filmic image demands, as in the reading of a textual passage, a fundamental decoding of linguistic, ethical, aesthetic, and narrative processes Additionally and above all, one must also analyse the emotional system at work in the narrative, as it is the emotional area that is most stressed when both watching a film, and when reading a book (for instance when reading a book so compelling that one cannot put it aside until done. That is to say, the narrative’s emotional system emotionally involves the reader or viewer, causing him or her to interact with images and stories. Negri’s literary-cinematic production favors an abundance of dialogue, fast beats, contamination between different genres such as autobiography and mockmumentary, the use of musical and film vocabulary, intermixed with dialect. When directly confronted with this array of aspects, the viewer-reader’s task is to decode and interpret. In Con un piede impigliato nella storia Anna Negri succeeds in condensing the wish to offer a space to dream, by using cinematic writing as a means of making concrete references, in private or collective memory, to the personal and social history of her country. The stylistic choice of dialect, or of a ‘foreign’ cadence, serves to render the text/film more accessible. The viewer/reader both imagines the film when reading the book, and reads textually while watching the film.

  2. Anna-Maria Galojan: jah-liikumisega võivad liituda kõik soovijad / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Ishtvan Ban

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje : Subbota 2. aug. lk. 1. Eesti Euroopa liikumise Ida-Virumaa tugikeskuse piirkondlik koordinaator Anna-Maria Galojan oma organisatsioonist, noorte vabatahtlike tööst

  3. [O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata] / Risto Pullat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullat, Raimo, 1935-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: O rzeczach minionych, scripta rerum historicarum annae rutkowska-plachcińska oblata. (Pod redakeja Marty Mlynarskiej-Kaletynowej i Jerzego Kruppe. Studia i materaly z historii kultury materialney pod redakeja Jerzego Kruppe). Warszawa, 2006. Sisukast ja mitmekülgsest Anna Rutkowska-Plachcinska juubelikogumikust

  4. Eluloofilmide põud paneb rääkima Anna Chapmanist / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika ajalehede käivitatud diskussioonist eluloofilmist, mille võiks vändata spiooniafääriga kuulsaks saanud Anna Chapmanist (Anna Kuštšenko). USA-s, Suurbritannias, Indias ja Soomes valmivatest eluloofilmidest. Austraalia filmist "Mao viimane tantsija"

  5. Clinical findings and normative ocular data for free-living Anna's (Calypte anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Bret A; Maggs, David J; Kim, Soohyun; Motta, Monica J; Bandivadekar, Ruta; Tell, Lisa A; Murphy, Christopher J

    2018-02-20

    To estimate the prevalence of ocular disease and obtain normative ocular data for free-living hummingbirds. Two hundred and sixty-three free-living, adult Hummingbirds from coastal and inland central California were studied, including Anna's (Calypte anna, n = 186) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri; n = 77) hummingbirds. Slit lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy were performed on all individuals. Rebound tonometry, measurement of horizontal palpebral fissure length, and streak retinoscopy were performed on select individuals. Five conscious Anna's Hummingbirds underwent ocular imaging including fundus photography, digital slit lamp photography, and anterior segment and retinal optical coherence tomography. The prevalence of ocular disease in this population was 2.28%. Ocular imaging revealed a thin cornea, shallow anterior chamber, large lens, and a single central, deep convexiclivate fovea. Mean ± SD intraocular pressure was 11.21 ± 2.23 mm Hg. Mean ± SD eyelid length was 2.59 ± 0.19 mm. All eyes were emmetropic or mildly hyperopic with a mean (range) ± SD refractive error of +0.32 (-0.25 to +1) ± 0.33 diopters. Consistent with previous reports, these data suggest that hummingbirds have visual characteristics found in predatory and prey species, as well as a low prevalence of spontaneous ocular disease. This work provides a set of reference values and clinical findings that can be used in the future research on hummingbird vision and ocular disease. It also provides representative diagnostic images of normal birds and demonstrates that advanced ocular imaging can be performed on manually restrained hummingbirds without pharmacologic dilation. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Analisis Simbolik Kyrie Eleison Karya Anna Wahyu Prasetyowati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RINA MARTIARA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbolic Analysis of Kyrie Eleison of Anna Wahyu Prasetyowati’s Work. This paper describes and interpretsthe Kyrie Eleison as a performing arts. Kyrie Eleison text is read through choreography elements that shape thethemes, motion, musical accompaniment, fashion makeup, fl oor pattern, form and stage layout. This paper useshermeneutic approach. Based on the research it can be concluded that this work has a deep meaning. The story ofJesus Christ journey in teaching the word with great passion until his death on the Cross is fi xated religious valuesthat serve as an example for mankind. This work also contains the values of humanity that every human being mustbe having a miserable, suffering, and death. Humans must be steadfast and strong in the face of every temptationthat comes when he/she want to achieve the highest inner awareness and understanding of divine truth.

  7. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche.

  8. Anna-Maria Galojanil seisab ees uurija jutule minek / Risto Berendson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. sept. 2008, lk. 3. MTÜ Eesti Euroopa Liikumine endise tegevjuhile Anna-Maria Galojanile esitatud süüdistusest euroraha raiskamises. Lisa: Kulutatud raha

  9. Anna King’s dress: trade and society in early colonial Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Jocic

    2017-01-01

    A dress which belonged to Anna King, the wife of Philip Gidley King, the third governor of New South Wales, is one of the earliest surviving items of clothing with Australian provenance. Made from embroidered Indian muslin, the evening dress, dated to c.1805, is a significant item of colonial Australian material culture. Anna King’s dress has regularly been cited as an example of the early trade between India and Australia. In providing updated research into the dress, including new insights ...

  10. Use of mock-up training to reduce personnel exposure at the North Anna Unit 1 Steam Generator Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, H.G. [Virginia Power, Mineral, VA (United States); Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The North Anna Power Station is located on the southern shore of Lake Anna in Louisa County, approximately forty miles northwest of Richmond, Virginia. The two 910 Mw nuclear units located on this site are owned by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and operated by Virginia Power. Fuel was loaded into Unit 1 in December 1977, and it began commercial operation in June 1978. Fuel was loaded into Unit 2 in April 1980 and began commercial operation in December 1980. Each nuclear unit includes a three-coolant-loop pressurized light water reactor nuclear steam supply system that was furnished by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Included within each system were three Westinghouse Model 51 steam generators with alloy 600, mill-annealed tubing material. Over the years of operation of Unit 1, various corrosion-related phenomena had occurred that affected the steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fulfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fullfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators would not last their design life and must be repaired. To this end Virginia Power determined that a steam generator replacement (SGR) program was necessary to remove the old steam generator tube bundles and lower shell sections, including the channel heads (collectively called the lower assemblies), and replace them with new lower assemblies incorporating design features that will prevent the degradation problems that the old steam generators had experienced.

  11. Anna Freud and the Holocaust: mourning and survival guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, John J

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the period of Anna Freud's life after she was informed of the deaths of her aunts in Nazi concentration camps during World War II. Understanding of this period may be enhanced by consideration of the role of the Holocaust in her complicated mourning process. A series of her dreams is re-examined from the point of view of survivor guilt and the complicated mourning of her father in the context of the Holocaust. It is argued that unconscious reproaches against her father led to an identification with him that included his 'decision' to leave his sisters in Vienna. Survivor guilt in relation to her aunts' murders is seen as one of the complicating factors in the mourning process. In addition the article discusses the possible role of this period, particularly her work with child concentration camp survivors, in her post-war writing. The noted duality in her work between innovation and conservatism is explored in terms of an outcome of the mourning process of this period. It is argued that her views on mourning, trauma, attachment, and the widening scope of indications for psychoanalysis were influenced by the outcome of her mourning process. Finally, an irony is noted in the fact that her attitude about altruism never changed despite the role of the altruism of others in her rescue from the Nazis. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: publicações de enfermeiras sobre pediatria (1932-1941 Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: publicaciones de enfermeras sobre pediatria (1932-1941 Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: nurses' publications about pediatrics (1932-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva Fontes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudo histórico-social que tem como objeto a produção intelectual de enfermeiras e estudantes de enfermagem relativas à enfermagem pediátrica na revista Annaes de Enfermagem, no período entre 1932-1941. A fonte primária refere-se aos números da revista Annaes de Enfermagem pertencentes ao recorte temporal do estudo, além de relatórios e correspondências. As fontes secundárias estão constituídas de livros, artigos, dissertações e teses relativas à história do Brasil e da enfermagem. A análise dos dados teve o apoio das fontes secundárias e do pensamento do sociólogo francês Pierre Bourdieu. Os resultados evidenciam que a revista Annaes de Enfermagem publicou e divulgou temas importantes sobre a assistência de enfermagem à criança e contribuiu para a visibilidade da enfermeira brasileira junto à comunidade científica.Estudio de naturaleza historico-social que tiene como objeto la producción intelectual de las enfermeras y estudiantes de enfermería relativos a la enfermería pediátrica en el periodico Annaes de Enfermagem, en el período 1932-1941. Las fuentes primarias se refieren a los números de la Revista Annaes de Enfermagem pertenecientes al recorte temporal del estudio, además de los informes y correspondencia. Las fuentes secundarias están compuestas de libros, artículos, tesis y disertaciones sobre la historia de la enfermería de Brasil. El análisis de datos cuenta con el apoyo de fuentes secundarias y el pensamiento del sociólogo francés Pierre Bourdieu. Los resultados muestran que el periodico Annaes de Enfermería publicó sobre las importantes cuestiones de la asistencia de enfermería para el niño y ha contribuydo con la visibilidad de la enfermera brasileña en la comunidad científica.Historic-social study whose object was the intellectual production of nurses and students about pediatric nursing in the journal Annaes de Enfermagem, in the period 1932-1941. The primary source refers to the

  13. Environmental factors influencing the distribution of "Theileria annae" in red foxes, Vulpes vulpes in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Ionică, Angela Monica; Deak, Georgiana; Gherman, Călin Mircea; D'Amico, Gianluca; Păstrav, Ioana Raluca; Matei, Ioana Adriana; Domșa, Cristian; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Red foxes, Vulpes vulpes are among the most widely spread carnivores in the world, invading also urban areas and are often parasitized by various ticks and directly exposed to several vector-borne pathogens, including the commonly present "Theileria annae". Considering the paucity of data on the possible vectors of this pathogen and the presence of the infection in various locations across the globe, the aim of our study was to understand the potential role of various environmental factors on the distribution of "T. annae" in red foxes from a well-defined region within the Carpathians, Romania. Between July 2016 and April 2017, a total of 347 blood samples originating from red foxes from 13 counties were tested using a PCR specifically designed for "T. annae". In order to assess the potential distribution of "T. annae" based on niche modelling, we used presence-only data and 15 ecological variables. The probability of presence models was built using MaxEnt software. Of all sampled foxes, 20.1% (66 unique locations in 8 counties) were positive for "T. annae" DNA. There was no significant difference between the prevalence in males and females, nor between juveniles and adults. The sequences were all identical to each other and showed 100% identity to other sequences deposited in GenBank. The highest contribution to the spatial model was represented by the agricultural land coverage. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of "T. annae" in foxes in Romania and the first spatial analysis for "T. annae" highlighting the importance of the environmental factors on its distribution. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. Corrosion of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods in high-temperature PWRs: Measurement of waterside corrosion in North Anna Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balfour, M.G.; Kilp, G.R.; Comstock, R.J.; McAtee, K.R.; Thornburg, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    Twenty-four peripheral rods and two interior rods from North Anna Unit 1, End-of-Cycle 7, were measured at poolside for waterside corrosion on four-cycle Region 6 assemblies F35 and F66, with rod average burnups of 60 GWD/MTU. Similar measurements were obtained on 24 two-cycle fuel rods from Region 8A assemblies H02 and H10 with average burnups of about 40 GWD/MTU. The Region 6 peripheral rods had been corrosion measured previously after three cycles, at 45 GWD/MTU average burnup. The four-cycle Region 6 fuel rods showed high corrosion, compared to only intermediate corrosion level after three cycles. The accelerated corrosion rate in the fourth cycle was accompanied by extensive laminar cracking and spalling of the oxide film in the thickest regions. The peak corrosion of the two-cycle region 8A rods was 32 μm to 53 μm, with some isolated incipient oxide spalling. In conjunction with the in-reactor corrosion measurements, extensive characterization tests plus long-term autoclave corrosion tests were performed on archive samples of the three major tubing lots represented in the North Anna measurements. The autoclave tests generally showed the same ordering of corrosion by tubing lot as in the reactor; the chief difference between the archive tubing samples was a lower tin content (1.38 percent) for the lot with the lowest corrosion rate compared with a higher tin content (1.58) for the lot with the highest corrosion rate. There was no indication in the autoclave tests of an accelerated rate of corrosion as observed in the reactor

  15. Infantile sexuality: Its place in the conceptual developments of Anna Freud and Donald W. Winnicott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This essay explores the place of infantile sexuality in the theories of Anna Freud and Donald W Winnicott. Both Anna Freud and D.W. Winnicott incorporated and at the same time changed the classical psychoanalytic account of infantile sexuality and the instinctual drives. Whilst Anna Freud remained closer to her father's original conceptualization, she developed a multidimensional model of development which gave the drives a foundational status whist also maintaining their significance in giving meaning and texture to children's subjective experience. Winnicott also retained much of S. Freud's original theorizing except that in a fundamental way he turned it on its head when considering earliest development. For him the establishment of the self was paramount, and the drives and infantile sexuality merely served to give substance to that self. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. [Revista Annaes de Enfermagem: nurses' publications about pediatrics (1932-1941)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Aline Silva; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa de

    2009-01-01

    Historic-social study whose object was the intellectual production of nurses and students about pediatric nursing in the journal Annaes de Enfermagem, in the period 1932-1941. The primary source refers to the issues of the journal Annaes de Enfermagem considering the established time limits for the study, as well as reports and correspondences. The secondary sources are constituted by books, articles, dissertations and thesis on the Brazilian history of nursing. On data analysis it was used the thought of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results show that the journal Annaes de Enfermagem published important issues of nursing care to the child and contributed to the visibility of Brazilian nurses among the scientific community.

  17. The Tragedy of Becoming: Hegel in Cruz’s Anna in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Emilio Aiello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The small world of Nilo Cruz’s Anna in the Tropics brings to light a collision between historical and cultural forces personified in the play. It is this drama’s singular transitional moment, the end of the cycle for a way of life represented by Cruz’s characters that reverberates both tension and meaning for modern audiences. The resolution of a conflict between two of the play's central characters effects questions that hover over the play's final tragic tableaux. Their clash of seemingly justifiable positions frames Anna in the Tropics as a dialectical drama that is redolent in many ways of G.W.F.’s Hegel’s view of tragedy, as evidenced by his analysis of Sophocles’ Antigone.  The dialectical form of Anna in the Tropics discloses what it means to enter a world of becoming for its immigrant characters of the Depression Era and for its modern audiences as well.

  18. Aiamängud vormi ja värviga / Anna-Liisa Unt ; interv. Victoria Parmas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Unt, Anna-Liisa, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Maaülikoolis ja Rootsi Põllumajandusülikoolis maastikuarhitektuuri õppinud Anna-Liisa Unt (sünd. 1982) endast, oma aiakujundustest, tüüpilisest eestlase aiast tänapäeval jm. Anna-Liisa Undi tööde loetelu

  19. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...] Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station, Units 1... the Emergency Plan, ``Conditions of licenses,'' for North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (NAPS), for Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. NPF-4 and NPF-7, and Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2...

  20. Geophysical investigations of the Anna, Ohio earthquake zone. Annual progess report, July 1978-July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauk, F.J.; Coupland, D.; Christensen, D.; Kimball, J.; Ford, P.

    1979-10-01

    During fiscal year 1979, the Anna Seismic Array of nine local stations and two remote stations continuously collected seismic data from the Anna, Ohio Seismic Zone. Seismic records of local quarry blasts were used to measure the velocity of Lg surface waves in west-central Ohio. An experimental technique using moving window analysis of quarry blast records yielded significant data on crustal structure in the region. In addition, considerable effort was devoted to software development and acquisition. Data on bedrock depth were collected from well log information in order to improve maps of the buried Teays River Valley, which may be related to proposed faults in the area. 33 figures, 12 tables

  1. Geophysical investigations of the Anna, Ohio earthquake zone. Annual progess report, July 1978-July 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Coupland, D.; Christensen, D.; Kimball, J.; Ford, P.

    1979-10-01

    During fiscal year 1979, the Anna Seismic Array of nine local stations and two remote stations continuously collected seismic data from the Anna, Ohio Seismic Zone. Seismic records of local quarry blasts were used to measure the velocity of Lg surface waves in west-central Ohio. An experimental technique using moving window analysis of quarry blast records yielded significant data on crustal structure in the region. In addition, considerable effort was devoted to software development and acquisition. Data on bedrock depth were collected from well log information in order to improve maps of the buried Teays River Valley, which may be related to proposed faults in the area. 33 figures, 12 tables.

  2. The "Matchbox School" (1927-1932): Anna Freud and the Idea of a "Psychoanalytically Informed Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Of all the applications of psychoanalysis to various fields, perhaps none has been as important--or as fraught--as the application of psychoanalytic insights to education. This paper re-constructs some of the early debates around psychoanalysis and pedagogy that Anna Freud engaged with during the 1920s in Vienna, when the whole question of what…

  3. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  4. Abjeção em textos de André Sant’Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Salgueirinho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma leitura de textos do escritor André Sant’Anna a partir da problematização que, em The Return of the Real (1986, o crítico de arte norte-americano Hal Foster faz da noção de abjeto e da dita abject art.

  5. Kas kooliraamatukogus on hea raamatuvalik? / Inga Paaskivi, Anna Elise Rohtmets, Piia Selge ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid: Muhu põhikooli raamatukoguhoidja Inga Paaskivi, Mustamäe gümnaasiumi abiturient Anna Elise Rohtmets, Tallinna Arte gümnaasiumi raamatukoguhoidja Piia Selge, Saue gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Piret Uulma, Mõisaküla kooli raamatukoguhoidja Airi Allikivi, Loksa gümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Urve Toompuu, lapsevanem Heli Kilter

  6. Ultrasonic Phased Array Assessment of the Interference Fit and Leak Path of the North Anna Unit 2 Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzle 63 with Destructive Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Hanson, Brady D.; Mathews, Royce

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonic testing (UT) for primary water leak path assessments of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) upper head penetrations. Operating reactors have experienced leakage when stress corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy penetrations allowed primary water into the annulus of the interference fit between the penetration and the low-alloy steel RPV head. In this investigation, UT leak path data were acquired for an Alloy 600 control rod drive mechanism nozzle penetration, referred to as Nozzle 63, which was removed from the North Anna Unit 2 reactor when the RPV head was replaced in 2002. In-service inspection prior to the head replacement indicated that Nozzle 63 had a probable leakage path through the interference fit region. Nozzle 63 was examined using a phased-array UT probe with a 5.0-MHz, eight-element annular array. Immersion data were acquired from the nozzle inner diameter surface. The UT data were interpreted by comparing to responses measured on a mockup penetration with known features. Following acquisition of the UT data, Nozzle 63 was destructively examined to determine if the features identified in the UT examination, including leakage paths and crystalline boric acid deposits, could be visually confirmed. Additional measurements of boric acid deposit thickness and low-alloy steel wastage were made to assess how these factors affect the UT response. The implications of these findings for interpreting UT leak path data are described.

  7. Peter Heller's a Child Analysis with Anna Freud: the significance of the case for the history of child psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2012-02-01

    A Child Analysis with Anna Freud, a collection of Anna Freud's detailed case notes of her treatment of the young Peter Heller between 1929 and 1932, was first published in English in 1990. Not only does this work give us direct access to Anna Freud's ways of thinking and working at a crucial period in the early history of child analysis; it is also one of the few records of an adult reflecting in depth on the experience of being in analysis as a child. Yet to date this work has received little attention in the psychoanalytic literature. In an attempt to redress this neglect, the Heller case study is placed in the context of Anna Freud's emerging ideas about child analysis. In particular, its significance in the development of her psychoanalytic thinking is investigated in the light of her 1927 book, The Technique of Child Analysis.

  8. Kahevahel : Kui hajusad on kultuuriruumi piirid? / Anna Verschik, Tiina Kirss, Mikko Lagerspetz ; intervjueerinud Daniele Monticelli, Merle Karro-Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verschik, Anna, 1968-

    2015-01-01

    Kultuurist, kultuuriruumist, kultuuris olemisest ja sealt pärinemisest arutlevad TLÜ professori Daniele Monticelli eestvõttel TLÜ professorid Anna Verschik ja Tiina Kirss ning Turu Åbo Akadeemia professor Mikko Lagerspetz

  9. Vos, Faust, Voss: raakpunte tussen Vos deur Anna M. Louw en enkele ander tekste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. John

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Vos, Faust, Voss: Points of contact between Vos by Anna M. Louw and selected other texts This article explores points of contact between “Vos” by Anna M. Louw and a number of related texts, including the following: the book “Job” from the Christian Bible, “Faust” by Goethe, “Voss” by Patrick White and texts forming part of the Gnostic tradition. The analysis describes similarities and differences, arguing that the implication of the points of contact between the various texts is that Vos suggests that the heritage of the Christian Reformation is not adequate for an understanding of life in South Africa, and it has to be supplemented with perspectives from other traditions.

  10. Melanie Klein and Anna Freud: the discourse of the early dispute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viner, R

    1996-01-01

    Divisions in the field of the psychoanalysis of children can be traced to a dispute over the infantile super-ego between the theorists Melanie Klein and Anna Freud beginning in 1927. These divisions are understood within the analytic world as the result of scientific disputation between alternative valid theories. An examination of the language, claims, and epistemology of Klein's and Freud's publications in 1927 that marked the public commencement of the conflict, reveals a personalized discourse in which authority was derived from the allegiance, experience, and personal analytic standing of the contestants as much as from theoretical insight. The structure and rhetoric of the debate suggest that, rather than terminating the dispute, the publications of 1927 served to encourage professionalization in child analysis and establish Anna Freud and Melanie Klein as authoritative alternative theorists.

  11. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. II. Patient diary as a tool in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-10

    In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina). Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1) love, (2) trust, (3) holding, and (4) helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas. The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt) at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patient's philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis) and the process of healing (salutogenesis). At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients.

  12. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. II. Patient Diary as a Tool in Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of extreme childhood sexual and violent abuse, a 22-year-old young woman, Anna, healed during holistic existential therapy. New and highly confrontational therapeutic tools were developed and used to help this patient (like acceptance through touch and acupressure through the vagina. Her vulva and introitus were scarred from repeated brutal rape, as was the interior of her mouth. During therapy, these scars were gently contacted and the negative emotional contents released. The healing was in accordance with the advanced holistic medical toolbox that uses (1 love, (2 trust, (3 holding, and (4 helping the patient to process and integrate old traumas.The case story clearly revealed the philosophical adjustments that Anna made during treatment in response to the severe childhood abuse. These adjustments are demonstrated by her diary, where sentences contain both the feelings and thoughts of the painful present (the gestalt at the time of the abuse, thus containing the essence of the traumas, making the repression of the painful emotions possible through the change in the patient’s philosophical perspective. Anna's case gives a unique insight into the process of traumatization (pathogenesis and the process of healing (salutogenesis. At the end of the healing, Anna reconnected her existence to the outer world in a deep existential, suicidal crisis and faced her choice of life or death. She decided to live and, in this process, assumed existential responsibility, which made her able to step out of her mental disease. The advanced holistic toolbox seems to help patients heal even from the worst childhood abuse. In spite of the depth of the existential crisis, holistic existential therapy seems to support existential responsibility well and thus safe for the patients.

  13. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  14. Medical Narrative and the Rhetoric of Identification: The Many Faces of Anna White Dildane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Gabriel, Joseph M

    2016-11-01

    When Anna White Dildane, a prostitute and heroin addict, was committed to the Laboratory of Social Hygiene (LSH) in 1917, she was treated by a staff that anticipated the methods of the biopsychosocial model later developed by Engel. That is to say, the staff members believed that Anna's rehabilitation was contingent on a scientific diagnosis of the physical, mental, and social factors that underlay her condition. However, using Anna and the LSH as a case study, we draw from Latour to show the limitations of this "modern" method of diagnosis and treatment that persists today. Using Burke, we advocate for a pragmatic orientation focused on creating rhetorically oriented narratives whose aim is to help patients make judgments about their health and future, namely, by bringing about the experience of "form" capable of constituting new types of identification. Effective medical rhetoric thus adopts a method of persuasion that begins with the narrative and self-understanding of the patient, links aspects of that narrative with the technical expertise of physicians and other health care providers, and crafts a new, more specialized narrative attentive to the desires and constraints of a patient's form of identification that is ultimately the seat of judgment.

  15. Anna King’s dress: trade and society in early colonial Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jocic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dress which belonged to Anna King, the wife of Philip Gidley King, the third governor of New South Wales, is one of the earliest surviving items of clothing with Australian provenance. Made from embroidered Indian muslin, the evening dress, dated to c.1805, is a significant item of colonial Australian material culture. Anna King’s dress has regularly been cited as an example of the early trade between India and Australia. In providing updated research into the dress, including new insights from Anna King’s diary, written on her voyage to Australia in 1799-1800, I move beyond the general recognition, made by James Broadbent and Marion Fletcher, that the fabric is of Indian origin, and challenge the assumption that it was imported into Australia directly from India. By tracing the origins of the fabric and investigating who may have made the dress this article illuminates the social life of an early colonial society making the transition from a penal colony to one which also provided opportunities for emancipated convicts and free settlers. A close study of this particular garment provides insights into the social mores of a small but developing settlement, the establishment of businesses, and the complex networks of trade that were developing between India and the colony. This article also argues that the dress – both in terms of its form, fabric, and manner of procurement – is evidence that genteel styles of dress from Britain were already arriving in the penal colony in the first decade of the nineteenth century.

  16. Wanting to be Anna: examining lesbian sporting celebrity on The L Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansky, Megan; Francombe, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This article adds to the limited literature on coming out and on lesbians in sport by highlighting the presence of lesbian sporting celebrity on Showtime's series The L Word. Through a reading of The L Word's character/professional athlete, Dana Fairbanks, we explore the economic impetus and the racial and classed undertones of corporatized coming out narratives. We devote considerable effort to unpacking Fairbanks' articulation that she wishes to be "the gay Anna Kournikova" and speculate on the consequences of this utterance for both real lesbian sporting celebrities and the lesbian fans that necessarily follow Fairbanks' corporate-sponsored coming out.

  17. [Questions and worries. On the correspondence of Grete Bibring and Anna Freud 1949-1975].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakman, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Grete Bibring (1899 - 1977) was a representative of the second generation of analysts. Having emigrated from Vienna to London in 1938, she left for Boston in 1942 where she made a remarkable career. 1946 she became head of the department of psychiatry at the Beth-Israel hospital in Harvard and from 1961 the first woman professor of medicine there. She maintained a connection with European psychoanalysis in the person of Anna Freud with whom she corresponded regularly. Their letters contain an interesting exchange of ideas about psychoanalytic institutions (e.g. the American Psychoanalytical Association) and papers (e.g. on pregnancy). It is also the testimony of an exceptional friendship.

  18. Physiatrie and German maternal feminism: Dr. Anna Fischer-Dückelmann critiques academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Paulette

    2006-01-01

    Alternative medicine and reform strategies made Anna Fischer-Dückelmann a most controversial, notorious, and widely read women doctor before World War I. She published a dozen titles in 13 languages asserting that national well-being depended on maternal prowess. To her critics, Fischer-Dückelmann's commitment to medical self-help and practices of Physiatrie amounted to medical quackery. Her career has been largely unexamined, yet her feminist critiques and social concerns are not far removed from modern social medicine. For this pioneering doctor, treating physical and emotional ills and promoting the health of families were first steps toward healing the divisions of a world at war.

  19. Restart Testing Program for piping following steam generator replacement at North Anna Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Bayer, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to provide assurance that the effects of performing steam generator replacement (SGR) at North Anna unit 1 had no adverse impact on plant piping systems, a cold functional verification restart testing program was developed. This restart testing program was implemented in lieu of a hot functional testing program normally used during the initial startup of a nuclear plant. A review of North Anna plant-specific and generic U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for restart testing was performed to ensure that no mandatory hot functional testing was required. This was determined to be the case, and the development of a cold functional test program was initiated. The cold functional test had inherent advantages as compared to the hot functional testing, while still providing assurance of piping system adequacy. The advantages of the cold verification program included reducing risk to personnel from hot piping, increasing the accuracy of measurements with the improvement in work conditions, eliminating engineering activities during the heatup process, and being able to record measurements as construction work was completed allowing for rework or repair of components if required. To ensure the effectiveness of the cold verification program, a project procedure was generated to identify the personnel, equipment, and measurement requirements. An engineering calculation was issued to document the scope of the restart test program, and an additional calculation was developed to provide acceptance criteria for the critical commodity measurements

  20. Influence of canopy form on growth, flowering, and storage potential of ,anna, apple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    this study was carried out during the two successive seasons of 1997 and 1998. two years old anna apple trees (budded on M.M. 106 semi - dwarfing root - stocks) planted in El Khattatbah, Monoufiah Governorate were used in this investigation. this study aimed to evaluate the influence of two different tree canopy forms (central leaders and vase) and tipping treatment on the yield and some fruit quality characteristics of anna apple fruits and the effect of irradiation on some of these characteristics during a limited period under cold storage. results revealed improved light conditions in trained trees compared to untrained controls. open vase trained trees produce less fruits which where bigger, softer, with more T.S.S. and sugar content, and less acidity, compared to central leader harvested fruits.it was also found that tipping application resulted in excessive vegetative growth and reduced fruit numbers which were bigger, softer, and contained more T.S.S., and sugars, and less acidity, compared to fruits harvested from untipped trees

  1. North Anna Power Station - Unit 1: Overview of steam generator replacement project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettler, M.W.; Bayer, R.K.; Lippard, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The original steam generators at Virginia Electric and Power Company's (Virginia Power) North Anna Power Station (NAPS) Unit 1 have experienced corrosion-related degradation that require periodic inspection and plugging of steam generator tubes to ensure their continued safe and reliable operation. Despite improvements in secondary water chemistry, continued tube degradation in the steam generators necessitated the removal from service of approximately 20.3 percent of the tubes by plugging, (18.6, 17.3, and 25.1 for steam generators A, B, and C, respectively). Additionally, the unit power was limited to 95 % during, its last cycle of operation. Projections of industry and Virginia Power experience indicated the possibility of mid-cycle inspections and reductions in unit power. Therefore, economic considerations led to the decision to repair the steam generators (i.e., replace the steam generator lower assemblies). Three new Model 51F Steam Generator lower assembly units were ordered from Westinghouse. Virginia Power contracted Bechtel Power Corporation to provide the engineering and construction support to repair the Unit 1 steam generators. On January 4, 1993, after an extended coastdown period, North Anna Unit 1 was brought off-line and the 110 day (breaker-to-breaker) Steam Generator Replacement Project (SGRP) outage began. As of this paper, the outage is still in progress

  2. Patronage in the dispute over child analysis between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud--1927-1932.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, J

    2000-08-01

    The author investigates the role of patrons and advocates for Melanie Klein's clinical ideas at the British Psycho-Analytical Society against the backdrop of her theoretical and technical differences with Anna Freud from 1927 to 1932. He also outlines the development of Klein and Anna Freud's theories and techniques within the nascent discipline of child psychoanalysis. The London and Viennese patrons/advocates contributed to polarising what initially were clinical differences about how to analyse pre-latency and latency-age children and which technical processes might best facilitate successful treatment. While the author speculates that a diversity of motivations and agendas may have driven the London group's support for Klein--personal and politicised enthusiasm (Jones), genuine conviction (Riviere) and attempts at theoretical rapprochement between the London and Vienna schools (Glover)--he also argues that Freud's diagnosis with cancer in 1923 and suspicion of patricidal son-successors necessitated the choice of a female successor with unquestioning loyalty to his doctrines. From 1932, when Klein's clinical authority was established, her first group of English supporters began to splinter, as she went on to become a training analyst, mentor and patron in her own right to a succeeding generation of adherents who defended her views during the Controversial Discussions.

  3. Flying in the rain: hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds under varied precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Dudley, Robert

    2012-10-07

    Flight in rain represents a greater challenge for smaller animals because the relative effects of water loading and drop impact are greater at reduced scales given the increased ratios of surface area to mass. Nevertheless, it is well known that small volant taxa such as hummingbirds can continue foraging even in extreme precipitation. Here, we evaluated the effect of four rain intensities (i.e. zero, light, moderate and heavy) on the hovering performance of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) under laboratory conditions. Light-to-moderate rain had only a marginal effect on flight kinematics; wingbeat frequency of individuals in moderate rain was reduced by 7 per cent relative to control conditions. By contrast, birds hovering in heavy rain adopted more horizontal body and tail positions, and also increased wingbeat frequency substantially, while reducing stroke amplitude when compared with control conditions. The ratio between peak forces produced by single drops on a wing and on a solid surface suggests that feathers can absorb associated impact forces by up to approximately 50 per cent. Remarkably, hummingbirds hovered well even under heavy precipitation (i.e. 270 mm h(-1)) with no apparent loss of control, although mechanical power output assuming perfect and zero storage of elastic energy was estimated to be about 9 and 57 per cent higher, respectively, compared with normal hovering.

  4. Anna Freud: the Hampstead War Nurseries and the role of the direct observation of children for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Nick

    2007-08-01

    The psychoanalytic tradition of direct observation of children has a long history, going back to the early 20th century, when psychoanalysis and the emerging field of 'child studies' came into fruitful contact in Freud's Vienna. As a leading figure in the attempted integration of direct observation with the new psychoanalytic knowledge emerging from the consulting room, Anna Freud played a crucial role in the emergence of this field. But her major contribution to the theory and practice of observing children came during the Second World War, when she founded the Hampstead War Nurseries. The author describes in detail this important period of Anna Freud's career, and discusses the impact it had on later work. He explores the theoretical contribution that Anna Freud made in the post-war years to the debate about the place of direct observation in psychoanalysis, and concludes that Anna Freud's 'double approach' (direct observation plus analytic reconstruction) still has a great deal to offer as a method of both psychoanalytic research and education.

  5. Review Essay: John Pratt and Anna Eriksson (2013 'Contrasts in Punishment: An Explanation of Anglophone Excess and Nordic Exceptionalism'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This review essay combines the comments made by David Brown, Russell Hogg and Mark Finanne at the Crime, Justice and Social Democracy: 2nd International Conference July 2013. It is followed by a rejoinder by the two authors John Pratt and Anna Eriksson.

  6. Developmental hip dysplasia in the Medici family: Giovanna from Austria (1548-1578) and her daughter Anna (1569-1584).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffra, Valentina; Fornaciari, Gino

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of Giovanna from Austria (1548-1578), first wife of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Francesco I (1541-1587), and their daughter Anna (1569-1584) were exhumed from the Medici Chapels in the Basilica of S. Lorenzo in Florence and submitted to anthropological and paleopathological study. The superior portion of the acetabulum of Giovanna is sloping, and reveals bilateral acetabular dysplasia. The same defect is also present in Anna, together with sacral spina bifida occulta. In both women the anatomical abnormality is limited to a deformation in the roof of both acetabulae and the femoral heads continued to articulate normally within the hip joint. The presence of bilateral acetabular dysplasia in the skeletal remains of Giovanna and her daughter Anna can be explained by a series of risk factors to which the two Medici women were exposed: female sex, practice of swaddling in the first months of life, as well as scoliosis and pelvic deformity for Giovanna and family history for Anna.

  7. Studi Komunikasi Interpersonal Antara Perawat Dengan Lansia Di Panti Lansia Santa Anna Teluk Gong Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mela Cristanty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the interpersonal communication between the nurses with elderly who were living in a nursing home. Establishment of a nursing home is one of the government's efforts to address the issue of social welfare for the elderly. Like the other nursing homes Nursing Home “Santa Anna” also have nurses on duty to take care the elderly living at home. In order to perform their duties the nurses need to perform an effective interpersonal communication with the elderly. Interpersonal communication activities have influence in building a relationship with the elderly in order to provide guidance, supervision and encouragement to the elderly. The theory used in this research is theory of communication, interpersonal communication, social penetration theory, concept of nurses, the elderly and nursing homes. This study used descriptive qualitative method and authors conducted in-depth interviews with four informants, namely two nurses and two elderly people, also made observation and doing literature study. The results of this study reveals that the closeness of interpersonal relations between nurses and elderly in Nursing Home “Santa Anna” can be seen through five general quality that are openness, positive behavior, supportive behavior, empathy, and equality. These five factors mentioned above is run entirely by nurses in the Nursing Home “Santa Anna” in terms of communicating and forming relationships with the elderly who live in institutions. Penelitian ini membahas mengenai komunikasi antarpribadi yang dilakukan antara perawat dengan lansia yang tinggal di panti jompo. Pendirian panti jompo merupakan salah satu usaha pemerintah dalam menangani masalah kesejahteraan sosial untuk para lansia. Seperti panti-panti jompo lainnya Panti Lansia Santa Anna juga memiliki perawat-perawat yang bertugas untuk merawat, mengurus, dan mengasuh para lansia yang tinggal di panti. Untuk dapat menjalankan tugas serta perannya perawat perlu

  8. [Analysing the content of the section "Students' page" of the Annaes de Enfermagem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marlene Nunes Morals; Marques, Isaac Rosa

    2006-01-01

    The joumal Annaes de Enfermagem was a publishing vehicle to discuss health problems and to evidence the professional role. The section "Students Page" was created for the motivation of students to expose their ideas and to focus in relevant points of the nurse education by that time. This study aimed at describing and analysing the content of the published material in the period from 1932 to 1941. This is a study with qualitative approach using the historical method, main described elements in the analysed section was related to collective health problems such as escarlatine, tetanus, eclampsya and also ethics. It was concluded that the content of the analysed material reflects that in this period there was a concem regarding student preparedness to attend national current health needs.

  9. Burst muscle performance predicts the speed, acceleration, and turning performance of Anna's hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Zordan, Victor B; Dickinson, Michael H; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2015-11-19

    Despite recent advances in the study of animal flight, the biomechanical determinants of maneuverability are poorly understood. It is thought that maneuverability may be influenced by intrinsic body mass and wing morphology, and by physiological muscle capacity, but this hypothesis has not yet been evaluated because it requires tracking a large number of free flight maneuvers from known individuals. We used an automated tracking system to record flight sequences from 20 Anna's hummingbirds flying solo and in competition in a large chamber. We found that burst muscle capacity predicted most performance metrics. Hummingbirds with higher burst capacity flew with faster velocities, accelerations, and rotations, and they used more demanding complex turns. In contrast, body mass did not predict variation in maneuvering performance, and wing morphology predicted only the use of arcing turns and high centripetal accelerations. Collectively, our results indicate that burst muscle capacity is a key predictor of maneuverability.

  10. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  11. Anna Perenna : religión y ejemplaridad mítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Perea

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre Anna Perenna los propios romanos tenían una idea poco clara. Sin embargo, sus noticias «anticuaristas» y su literatura etiológica, unidas a otro tipo de documentación, la epigráfica, y a nuevos métodos de estudio, nos permiten a posteriori abordar el conocimiento de esta divinidad con una visión más amplia. Este trabajo no elude deliberadamente ninguna perspectiva; así pues, para obtener finalmente una imagen más cabal de la diosa se verán algunos aspectos que la conciernen analizados a través de la fenomenología religiosa, su papel dentro del culto privado y, sobre todo, las manifestaciones públicas de ese culto (el calendario y la fiesta, así como su utilización política y simbólica (ejemplaridad mítica durante la época augustea.The goddess Anna Perenna have a signifiant place in the román calendar. His party is celebrated in the idus oí March (coincident day of Julius Caesar death, and have a propiciatory character: renovated abundance and fertility for the New Year. This work shows the contradictions and coincidences of latin-text on purpose to the her divine-personality (especially Ovid. Fast. III, 523-720; some characteristic of her archaic phenomenology; her possible origin; her cult; and also her mythical modelity, throug the public and prívate religión, as a way of augustan propaganda (vgr. Aen. IV.

  12. Detection of Babesia annae DNA in lung exudate samples from Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Hamilton, Clare; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2016-02-12

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Babesia species DNA in lung exudate samples collected from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from across Great Britain. Babesia are small piroplasmid parasites which are mainly transmitted through the bite of infected ticks of the family Ixodidae. Babesia can cause potentially fatal disease in a wide-range of mammalian species including humans, dogs and cattle, making them of significant economic importance to both the medical and veterinary fields. DNA was extracted from lung exudate samples of 316 foxes. A semi-nested PCR was used to initially screen samples, using universal Babesia-Theileria primers which target the 18S rRNA gene. A selection of positive PCR amplicons were purified and sequenced. Subsequently specific primers were designed to detect Babesia annae and used to screen all 316 DNA samples. Randomly selected positive samples were purified and sequenced (GenBank accession KT580786). Clones spanning a 1717 bp region of the 18S rRNA gene were generated from 2 positive samples, the resultant consensus sequence was submitted to GenBank (KT580785). Sequence KT580785 was used in the phylogenetic analysis Babesia annae DNA was detected in the fox samples, in total 46/316 (14.6%) of samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia annae DNA. The central region of England had the highest prevalence at 36.7%, while no positive samples were found from Wales, though only 12 samples were tested from this region. Male foxes were found to have a higher prevalence of Babesia annae DNA than females in all regions of Britain. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of the GenBank submissions (Accession numbers KT580785 and KT580786) showed 100% identity to Babesia sp.-'Spanish Dog' (AY534602, EU583387 and AF188001). This is the first time that Babesia annae DNA has been reported in red foxes in Great Britain with positive samples being found across England and Scotland indicating that this parasite is well established within the

  13. Die Zitruskultur am Hofe Ferdinands I. und Anna Jagiellos. Import und Anbau von Südfrüchten in Prag 1526–1564

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobalová, Sylva; Hausenblasová, J.

    -, č. 15 (2015), s. 9-36 ISSN 1213-5372 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Ferdinand I * Anna of Jagiello * orange fruit * renaissance gardens * trade * residence Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Mida teeb Narva kutseõppekeskus teie arvates Narva linna heaks? / Burkina, Irina; Patlep, Kaarel; Kaalik, Ljubov; Dolgovskaja, Tatjana; Ibragimov, Muret; Vorobjova, Anna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vastavad Narva Kutseõppekeskuse kutseõpetajad Irina Burkina, Tatjana Dolgovskaja ja Murat Ibragimov ning autovaldkonna juht Kaarel Patlep, projektijuht Ljubov Kaalik ja PR-spetsialist Anna Vorobjova

  15. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  16. Evaluation of Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna) and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri) Hummingbirds: Prevalence assessment and imaging analysis using light and tabletop scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Youki K; Graves, Emily E; Houston, Robin S; OConnor, Barry M; Kysar, Patricia E; Straub, Mary H; Foley, Janet E; Tell, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii Atyeo & Braasch 1966 (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae), a feather mite, was found on feathers collected from five hummingbird species in California. This mite has not been previously documented on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna [Lesson 1829]) or Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri [Bourcier & Mulsant 1846]) Hummingbirds. A total of 753 hummingbirds were evaluated for the presence of mites by species (Allen's n = 112; Anna's n = 500; Black-chinned n = 122; Rufous n = 18; Calliope n = 1), sex (males n = 421; females n = 329; 3 unidentified), and age (juvenile n = 199; after-hatch-year n = 549; 5 unidentified). Of these 753 hummingbirds evaluated, mites were present on the rectrices of 40.9% of the birds. Significantly more Anna's Hummingbirds were positive for rectricial mites (59.2%) compared with 8.2% of Black-chinned, 0.9% of Allen's, 5.6% of Rufous Hummingbirds, and 0% for Calliope (p-value hummingbird species, male hummingbirds (44.9%) had a higher prevalence of rectricial mites compared to female hummingbirds (36.2%; p-value = 0.004), while juvenile hummingbirds (46.2%) had a non-significantly higher prevalence compared to after-hatch-year hummingbirds (39.0%; p-value = 0.089). On average, the percentage of the long axis of the rachis occupied by mites for the outer rectrices (R4 and R5) was 19%, compared to 11% for inner rectrices (R1 and R2), a significant difference (p-value = hummingbird-feather mite relationship is not well understood, but the specialized TSEM technique may be especially useful in examining natural positioning and developmental aspects of the mites since it allows in situ feather examination of live mites.

  17. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  18. Disputed Past: The Friendship and Competing Memories of Anna Lesznai and Emma Ritoók

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Szapor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a larger research project that explores the contributions of women intellectuals to the nationalistic, anti-liberal rhetoric of the early 1920s and the gendered aspect of the official ideology of the Horthy-era. The paper probes the connection of the personal and the political by exploring the shared history and competing memories of two woman writers, Anna Lesznai (1885-1966 and Emma Ritoók (1868-1945. The writers were friends and founding members of the Sunday Circle in 1915 but ended up in opposite camps during the 1918-19 revolutions. Ritoók, with Cécile Tormay, became a champion of the counter-revolution, contributing to its anti-Semitic ideology and rhetoric. Lesznai, the wife of Oszkár Jászi and a supporter of the Republic of Councils, was forced to flee and she spent the rest of her life in exile. Their diaries and autobiographical novels reflect the two writers’ diagonally opposing perspectives on their past and their shared intellectual and spiritual home, the Sunday Circle. The juxtaposition of their respective biographies and literary works offers insight into the process of re-interpreting and re-writing the past, whether for personal or political ends. It also illustrates the broader contours and irreparable breach between the Left and the nationalistic Right in Hungarian political and intellectual life after 1919.

  19. Babesia (Theileria) annae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, Noel; Horney, Barbara; Burton, Shelley; Birkenheuer, Adam; McBurney, Scott; Tefft, Karen

    2010-04-01

    A 4-6-mo-old female red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College (AVC) Teaching Hospital, Prince Edward Island, Canada. On presentation, the fox was weak and had pale mucous membranes. A complete blood count and a serum biochemistry profile were performed. Blood smear examination revealed low numbers of erythrocytes containing centrally to paracentrally located, single, rarely multiple, approximately 1 x 2 microm, oval to round organisms with morphology similar to Babesia microti. Polymerase chain reaction testing and DNA sequencing of the Babesia species 18S rRNA gene were performed on DNA extracted from whole blood. Results were positive for a Babesia microti-like parasite genetically identical to Babesia (Theileria) annae. The fox was euthanized due to poor prognosis for recovery. Necropsy examination revealed multifocal to locally extensive subacute nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, an eosinophilic broncho-pneumonia, a moderate diffuse vacuolar hepatopathy, and lesions associated with blunt trauma to the left abdominal region. This is the first reported case of a red fox in Canada infected with a piroplasm. It remains uncertain whether the presence of this hemoparasite in this fox was pathogenic or an incidental finding. The potential for competent vectors of Babesia species on Prince Edward Island, the potential for this Babesia microti-like parasite to infect other wild and domestic canids, and the significance of this parasite to the health of infected individuals are yet to be determined.

  20. Bohemia as the Homeland of the Soul in the Letters of Marina Tsvetaeva to Anna Teskova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the letters sent by Marina Tsvetaeva to the translator and public figure Anna Teskova, who was one of the few poet’s Czech intimate friends, whom she met during her stay in Czechoslovakia (1922-1925. In the first part of the paper the Author focuses on the echoes of Prague and its culture in this specific correspondence, trying to ascertain to which extent Marina Tsvetaeva was acquainted with the cultural world she lived in: the lack of knowledge of the Czech language and the limited relationships with Prague intellectuals didn’t allow her to get a deep insight of the Czech cultural milieu. The textual analysis of the letters, though, on the basis of key concepts as “родной”, “родина”, “честь”, confirms the presence of a persistent feeling of Prague-homesickness in Tsvetaeva’s psycho- logical world, which brought her to develop an alternative model of Homeland, substitute to her native Russia and to Germany, which disappointed her after the rise of the Nazi Regime. Through this unique correspondence (including the first part of her Verses dedicated to Bohemia we gain the certainty that Tsvetaeva discovered in Prague and in the Czech lands an idealized model of a pacific, beautiful and faithful Homeland.

  1. Escritor-personagem e leitor cúmplice em Sérgio Sant'anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ximenes Graciano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As narrativas de Sérgio Sant’Anna sugerem, pela exposição recorrente dos bastidores da criação literária (aqui entendida como gesto literário, que o discurso ficcional extrapola o espaço da literatura, repercutindo as relações dos indivíduos no “mundo real”. Em sua prosa é evidente a tentativa dos narradores de aproximarem o leitor para suas perspectivas, quando a narrativa assemelha-se a um jogo em que o prêmio é a cumplicidade deste a quem ela se dirige. Com isso, estende-se uma via de mão-dupla entre vida e imaginário, de modo que uma constitui e é constituída pelo outro. Como afirma Carlos Santeiro, personagem de Um romance de geração, trata-se das “possibilidades possíveis” do texto para além do texto, uma vez que o acordo entre narrador romanesco e leitor – e que sustenta o acontecimento literário – carrega muito dos pressupostos das diversas instâncias discursivas entre indivíduos, ficcionais ou não.

  2. Translating Anna Karenina - to the Question About the Pragmatics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gurina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the stylistic peculiarities of the translations made by R. Pevear and L. Volokhonsky, L. and A. Maud, J. Carmichael of the novel Anna Karenina by L. Tolstoy on the basis of pragmastylistics and comparative analysis. It tries to analyze the text of the novel using the lingo-stylistic characteristics in accordance with the national bias in the way of thinking and individual creative preferences of every translator taking an attempt to introduce a foreign picture of the world to his countrymen. It underlines the impact of Tolstoy’s complicated attitude towards the customs and traditions of the Russian Orthodox church and the specific relationship of the author of the novel with God and its manifestation in the description of the heroes’ characters. In stresses how vital it may turn out to preserve the author’s ideostyle - lexis and syntax (the word order, the choice of them and the length of the sentences for the successful interpretation of the writer’s views and stance by the reader.

  3. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  4. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  5. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  6. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  7. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  8. Evaluation of Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna and Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri Hummingbirds: Prevalence assessment and imaging analysis using light and tabletop scanning electron microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youki K Yamasaki

    Full Text Available Proctophyllodes huitzilopochtlii Atyeo & Braasch 1966 (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae, a feather mite, was found on feathers collected from five hummingbird species in California. This mite has not been previously documented on feathers from Anna's (Calypte anna [Lesson 1829] or Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri [Bourcier & Mulsant 1846] Hummingbirds. A total of 753 hummingbirds were evaluated for the presence of mites by species (Allen's n = 112; Anna's n = 500; Black-chinned n = 122; Rufous n = 18; Calliope n = 1, sex (males n = 421; females n = 329; 3 unidentified, and age (juvenile n = 199; after-hatch-year n = 549; 5 unidentified. Of these 753 hummingbirds evaluated, mites were present on the rectrices of 40.9% of the birds. Significantly more Anna's Hummingbirds were positive for rectricial mites (59.2% compared with 8.2% of Black-chinned, 0.9% of Allen's, 5.6% of Rufous Hummingbirds, and 0% for Calliope (p-value < 0.0001. Across all hummingbird species, male hummingbirds (44.9% had a higher prevalence of rectricial mites compared to female hummingbirds (36.2%; p-value = 0.004, while juvenile hummingbirds (46.2% had a non-significantly higher prevalence compared to after-hatch-year hummingbirds (39.0%; p-value = 0.089. On average, the percentage of the long axis of the rachis occupied by mites for the outer rectrices (R4 and R5 was 19%, compared to 11% for inner rectrices (R1 and R2, a significant difference (p-value = <0.0001. There was a marginal lack of significance for symmetrical distribution of tail mites with the mean left side percentage of long axis of the rachis occupied by mites being 16% and very close to the mean right side score of 18% (p-value = 0.003. The identification of the feather mite species was based on light microscopic morphometry, and mite distribution on feathers was further evaluated using tabletop scanning electron microscopy (TSEM. The hummingbird-feather mite relationship is not well understood

  9. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  10. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  11. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo-Bong; Lasserre, Thierry; Wang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  12. BOILING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  13. Reactor vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and

  14. Visions d’Anna de Marie-Claire Blais: un voyage au cœur de l’abjection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pich Ponce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the novel Visions d’Anna ou le vertige, by Marie-Claire Blais, the concept of abjection is essential and it highlights the hypocrisy and the complexity that characterizes social and family relationships. This study analyzes the importance of this notion in the portrayal of the characters depicted by Blais, and particularly in the description of those figures that are displaced. It also examines how the concept of abjection conditions and emphasizes the kind of relationship that exists between parents and their offspring.

  15. A digital instrument for reactivity measurements in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwaszczewski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument for digital determination of the reactivity in nuclear reactors is described. It is based on the CAMAC standard apparatus, suitable for the use of pulse or current type neutron detectors and operates with prompt response and an output signal proportional to the core neutron flux. The measured data of neutron flux and reactivity can be registered by a digital display unit, an indicator, or, by request of the operator, a paper type punch. The algorithms used for reactivity calculation are considered and the results of numerical studies on those algorithms are discussed. The instrument has been used for determining the reactivity of the control elements in the fast-thermal assembly ANNA and in the research reactor MARIA. Some results of these measurements are given. (author)

  16. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  17. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  18. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Nagatomi, Shozo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Os elementos simbólicos do monumento a Anna Nery no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Los elementos del monumento simbólico a Anna Nery en Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The symbolic elements in the Anna Nery monument in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Porto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os elementos simbólicos da estátua e placas do monumento em tributo a homenageada, pela Cruz Vermelha Brasileira, como efeito simbólico para a sociedade. A análise foi documental, principalmente, mediante registros da imprensa institucional e imagens, as quais foram interpretadas, por meio das noções de representação objetal e hexis corporal. Os resultados evidenciaram que as representações objetais ostentadas na estátua de Anna Nery careceram de representação de heroína articulada a sua hexis corporal, o que conduziu a interpretação do monumento - estátua e quatro placas narrativas - como homenagem a mulher brasileira.El objetivo era examinar los elementos simbólicos de la placa de la estatua y el monumento en honor de la homenajeada, la Cruz Roja Brasileña, como el efecto simbólico en la sociedad. El análisis documental ha sido principalmente a través de los registros institucionales de prensa e imágenes, que fueron interpretadas por medio de las nociones de representación y el cuerpo objeto hexis. Los resultados evidenciaron que las representaciones objetales ostentadas en la estatua de Anna Nery carecían de representación de heroína articulada a sua hexis corporal, lo que condujo a la interpretación del monumento - estatua y cuatro placas narrativas - como homenaje a la mujer brasileña.The objective of this study was to examine the symbolic elements of the statue and memorial plaques in honor of Anna Nery offered by the Brazilian Red Cross, as a symbolic effect on society. The documentary analysis was performed mainly through institutional press records and images, which were interpreted by means of the notions of object representation and object bodyly hexis. Results showed that the object representations in the statue of Anna Nery lacked a representation of her articulated to her bodyly hexis, which led to the interpretation of the monument - both the statue and the four

  1. ["Signs for the whole rest of the life". The house as symbol and autobiographical substrate in letters, dreams and literary texts by by Anna Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    The house as object and symbol preoccupied Anna Freud from childhood onwards. This article traces these ideas in letters, autobiographical documents and literary texts. It focuses on the phantasmal construction of a dream house; on the organisation, loss and later efforts to recover Hochrotherd; on casual birthday poems dedicated to Anna, praising the country house, as well as on the purchase of a weekend cottage in Walberswick reflected in dreams related to the process of inner detachment from the dead father. A fluent interchange between reality and imagination comes into focus, high- lighting the dimension of inwardness rather than that of biographical reality.

  2. Final environmental statement related to the operation of North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The proposed action is the issuance of Operating Licenses to the Virginia Electric and Power Company for the startup and operation of the North Anna Power Station, Units No. 1 and 2, located on Lake Anna in Louisa County, 40 miles east of Charlottesville, Virginia. The information in this second addendum responds to the Commission's directive that the staff address in narrative form the environmental dose commitments and health effects from fuel cycle releases, fuel cycle socioeconomic impacts, and possible cumulative impacts pending further treatment by rulemaking

  3. “Speaking German Like Nobody’s Business”: Anna May Wong, Walter Benjamin, and the Possibilities of Asian American Cosmopolitanism

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Shirley Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 1928 in Berlin, the noted German Jewish philosopher Walter Benjamin (1892–1940) and Chinese American actress Anna May Wong (1905–1961) shared an unlikely encounter that set in relief European and American conceptions of modernity as well as white European intellectual and American racial minority cosmopolitanisms. On July 6, 1928, Benjamin published the results as “Gespräch mit Anne May Wong” [“Speaking with Anna May Wong: A Chinoiserie from the Old West”] on the front page o...

  4. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  5. Distribution of bacterioplankton with active metabolism in waters of the St. Anna Trough, Kara Sea, in autumn 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharova, I. V.; Mosharov, S. A.; Ilinskiy, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of bacterioplankton with active electron transport chains, as well as bacteria with intact cell membranes, was investigated for the first time in the region of St. Anna Trough in the Kara Sea. The average number of bacteria with active electron transport chains in the waters of the St. Anna Trough was 15.55 × 103 cells mL-1 (the limits of variation were 1.06-92.17 × 103 cells mL-1). The average number of bacteria with intact membranes was 33.46 × 103 cells mL-1 (the limits of variation were 6.78 to 103.18 × 103 cells mL-1). Almost all bacterioplankton microorganisms in the studied area were potentially viable, and the average share of bacteria with intact membranes was 92.1% of the total number of bacterioplankton (TNB) (the limits of variation were 76.2 to 98.4%). The share of bacteria with active metabolisms was 38.2% of the TNB (the limits of variation were 5.6-93.4%). The shares of the bacteria with active metabolisms were maximum in areas with the most stable environmental conditions (on the shelf and in deep water), whereas on the slope, where the gradients of water temperature and salinity were maximum, these values were lower.

  6. Vocación y andanzas caribeñas de Antonio López de Santa Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Hernández, Benjamín

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses Antonio López de Santa Anna, the famous Mexican military man and politician in his Caribbean facet, studying particularly the moments when he lived and operated in the Gulf of Mexico and in the Caribbean Sea, in peace and in war, in Mexico or in the exile. With this perspective more data is given for an accurate interpretation of this personage and the contribution to the history of the zone.

    El presente texto analiza la figura del célebre militar y hombre público mexicano Antonio López de Santa Anna en su faceta caribeña, teniendo como guía los periodos en los que el caudillo mantuvo un contacto directo con la región: desde su nacimiento, a través de sus andanzas militares y de sus diversos intentos por incidir en la política de la zona, y hasta sus emblemáticos exilios. Con esta perspectiva se aportan datos para una más cabal interpretación del significado del personaje, al relacionarlo con la historia de la zona.

  7. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  8. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author) [pt

  9. Conformance to Regulatory Guide 1.97, North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udy, A.C.

    1985-09-01

    This EG and G Idaho, Inc. report reviews the submittals for Regulatory Guide 1.97, Revision 3, for Unit Nos. 1 and 2 of the North Anna Power Station and identifies areas of nonconformance to the regulatory guide. Exceptions to Regulatory Guide 1.97 are evaluated and those areas where sufficient basis for acceptability is not provided are identified

  10. Zwei Briefromane eines gewitzten böhmischen Frauenzimmers im Reprint: Maria Anna Sagers Beiträge zur frühen Frauenliteratur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wögerbauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2015), s. 240-243. ISBN 978-3-8353-16-97-3. ISSN 0722-740X Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : enlightenment * prose * Sager, Maria Anna * female writer * German literature * Czech literature Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  13. [Elements of the Political Professional Project of the Brazilian Graduate Nurses National Association present in the Annaes de Enfermagem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Jane Lilliane Gonçalves; Marques, Isaac Rosa

    2006-01-01

    The journal Annaes de Enfermagem was created to publish ideas, concepts, results of scientific production, reflections and, mainly to expose the Political Professional Project of the Associagao Nacional de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras (Brazilian Graduate Nurses National Association). This study aimed at describing and characterizing that elements as they were present in the referred journal in the periodo from 1932 up to 1941. This is a qualitative study based on the historical method. Main elements of the political project comprehends the desired attributes for the nurse as altruism, abnegation, patriotism, humantary sense, professional progress linked to education, art, ideal, ethics and components of Christian religion. These elements made part of a political project that aimed at integrating nursing in the health national context by that time.

  14. Evaluation of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2012-06-01

    During a recent inservice inspection (ISI) of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) in an inlet (hot leg) steam generator nozzle at North Anna Power Station Unit 1, several axially oriented flaws went undetected by the licensee's manual ultrasonic testing (UT) technique. The flaws were subsequently detected as a result of outside diameter (OD) surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the DMW. Further ultrasonic tests were then performed, and a total of five axially oriented flaws, classified as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference.

  15. Produção de conhecimento na enfermagem em oncologia: contribuição da escola de enfermagem Anna Nery Producción de conocimiento en la enfermería en oncología: contribución de la escola de enfermagem anna nery (escuela de enfermería Anna Nery Production of knowledge in nursing in oncology: contribution of Anna Nery nursing school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marléa Chagas Moreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos mapear as teses e dissertações produzidas no Programa de Pós-Graduação da Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery com enfoque na enfermagem em oncologia e analisar as repercussões diante dos aspectos epistemológicos destacados. Estudo exploratório, descritivo, retrospectivo e bibliográfico de 59 estudos (45 dissertações e 14 teses produzidos de 1980 a 2009. O referencial teórico-metodológico foi a Metodologia de Categorização Epistemológica para a Pesquisa na Enfermagem. Os resultados indicam que a produção analisada é mais setorizada na área da oncologia clínica, com ênfase nos aspectos Gestão Saúde/Enfermagem, Saúde da Mulher e Fundamentos do Cuidado de Enfermagem. Houve predomínio de estudos na perspectiva sociológica com abordagem qualitativa. As repercussões demonstradas nos aspectos epistemológicos destacados possibilitam afirmar que o conhecimento produzido é consistente com a complexidade e as tentativas de explicação sobre a arte de cuidar dos clientes com câncer e com esforços de definir/ampliar critérios e padrões assistenciais. Enfermagem Oncológica. Pesquisa em Enfermagem. Educação de Pós-graduação em EnfermagemEl estudio tuvo como objetivo mapear las tesis y disertaciones del Programa de Posgraduado de la Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery (Escuela de Enfermería Anna Nery con énfasis en la enfermería en oncología y analizar las repercusiones frente los aspectos epistemológicos señalados. Exploratorio, descriptivo, retrospectivo y documental de 59 estudios (45 disertaciones y 14 tesis producidos desde 1980 hasta 2009. El referencial teórico-metodológico fue la Metodología Epistemológica para la Investigación en Enfermería. Los resultados indican que la producción es la más sectorizada de la oncología clínica, con énfasis en Gestión de la Salud / Enfermería, Salud de la Mujer y Fundamentos de la Atención de Enfermería. Se detectó un predominio de los

  16. SLOWPOKE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.J.R.; Downs, W.E.

    1974-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE reactor is described, which is a small pool type with thermal neutron fluxes ranging from 10 11 -10 12 n cm -2 sec -1 . It differs in many ways from conventional pool type, namely small critical mass, beryllium reflector and a closed reactor container. The reactor is designed as small and simply as possible, and consistently with safety and good operating practice. Access to the present model is via pneumatic irradiation tubes only, which limits the use of the facility to activation analysis, tracer production and training. (Mori, K.)

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  18. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  19. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  20. REACTOR SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  2. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  3. Reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdoes, P.

    1977-01-01

    This is one of a series of articles discussing aspects of nuclear engineering ranging from a survey of various reactor types for static and mobile use to mention of atomic thermo-electric batteries of atomic thermo-electric batteries for cardiac pacemakers. Various statistics are presented on power generation in Europe and U.S.A. and economics are discussed in some detail. Molten salt reactors and research machines are also described. (G.M.E.)

  4. Propulsion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A nuclear reactor equips the recently constructed French aircraft- carrier Charles-De-Gaulle, in a few months the second nuclear submarine (SNLE) of new generation will be operational. In last october the government launched the program Barracuda which consists of 6 submarines (SNA) whose series head will be operational in 2010. The main asset of nuclear propulsion is to allow an almost unlimited autonomy: soft water, air are produced inside the submarine and the maximum time spent underwater is only limited by human capacity to cope with confinement. CEA has 3 missions concerning country defence. First the designing, the fabrication and the maintenance of weapons, secondly the supplying of fissile materials and thirdly the nuclear propulsion. A new generation of propulsion reactors is being studied and a ground installation involving a test reactor equivalent to that on board is being built. This test reactor (RES) will simulate any type of on-board reactors by adjusting temperature, pressure, flowrate and even equipment such as steam generator. This reactor will validate the technological choices for the Barracuda program. (A.C.)

  5. Evaluation of a permanent reactor vessel head shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.S.; Johnson, T.G.; Tipswork, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Virginia Power recently completed installing permanent reactor vessel head shields at all four of its nuclear units-Surry 1 and 2 (781-MWe Westinghouse PWRs) and North Anna 1 and 2 (893-MWe Westinghouse PWRs). Permanent shields were chosen over the use of temporary shielding based on a cost/benefit analysis. Factors that were taken into account in the analysis included the cost of the shields, the one-time dose commitment for installation of permanent shields, dose and manpower commitments for installation and removal of temporary shielding during each outage, decontamination and storage of temporary shielding between outages, and projected dose savings for both types of shields. Basically, permanent shields were found to be more cot-effective because each required only a one-time dose commitment for installation

  6. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Burnup credit validation of SCALE-4 using light water reactor criticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Hermann, O.W.; Brady, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The ANSI/ANS 8.1 criticality safety standard recommends validation and benchmarking of the calculational methods used in evaluating criticality safety limits for away-from-reactor applications. The lack of critical experiments with burned light-water-reactor (LWR) fuel in racks or in casks necessitates the validation of burnup credit methods by comparison to LWR core criticals. These are relevant benchmarks because they test a methodology's ability to predict spent fuel isotopics and to evaluate the reactivity effects of heterogeneities and strong absorbers. Data are available to perform analyses at precise state points. The US Department of Energy Burnup Credit Program has sponsored analysis of selected reactor core critical configurations from commercial pressurized-water-reactors (PWRs) in order to validate an appropriate analysis methodology. The initial methodology used the SCALE-4 code system to analyze a set of reactor critical configurations from Virginia Power's Surry and North Anna reactors. The methodology has since been revised to simplify both the data requirements and the calculational procedure for the criticality analyst. This revised methodology is validated here by comparison to three reactor critical configurations from Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Unit 2 Cycle 3 and two from Virginia Power's Surry Unit 1 Cycle 2

  8. Anna Lampérière, solidarité et citoyenneté féminine sous la Troisième République

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne R. Epstein

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine les idées de l’institutrice Anna Lampérière, l’une des rares femmes à avoir contribué à la discussion théorique sur l’idéologie de la solidarité pendant la Troisième République. Vue dans le contexte de son parcours personnel et de son engagement civique, la pensée d’A. Lampérière offre un aperçu inédit d’un modèle solidariste de citoyenneté féminine sans droit de vote. Au sein d’une culture d’associations florissante au début du XXe siècle, elle participe à la création et au fonctionnement d’importantes associations mixtes qui, par l’éducation civique, visent la mise en place de l’idéologie solidariste de Léon Bourgeois. Se proclamant anti-féministe, Anna Lampérière se présente néanmoins comme une défenseuse de la cause des femmes et du progrès social et, comme beaucoup de ses contemporains, elle place la réforme scolaire au cœur de son projet républicain. Après une analyse de la vision sociale d’Anna Lampérière, l’article examine les pratiques civiques et la structure mixte selon les sexes de la Société pour l’éducation sociale, une association pour la promotion du solidarisme, dont elle a été Secrétaire générale. L’idéologie solidariste et sa pratique avaient un attrait pour des femmes républicaines comme Anna Lampérière qui avaient une vocation civique mais qui n’étaient pas attirées par un modèle égalitaire de la citoyenneté.Anna Lampérière, solidarité and female citizenship in the Third Republic This article explores the ideas of educator Anna Lampérière, one of the rare women to contribute significantly to the theoretical discussion about the ideology of solidarity during the Third Republic. Viewed in tandem with her own personal history and civic activism, Lampérière’s thought provides unique insight into a possible solidarist model of female citizenship without voting rights. Operating within the flourishing associational

  9. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupa...

  10. Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  11. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  12. Reactor utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecevic, V.

    1963-01-01

    In 1962, the RA reactor was operated almost three times more than in 1961, producing total of 25 555 MWh. Diagram containing comparative data about reactor operation for 1960, 1961, and 1962, percent of fuel used and U-235 burnup shows increase in reactor operation. Number of samples irradiated was 659, number of experiments done was 16. mean powered level was 5.93 MW. Fuel was added into the core twice during the reporting year. In fact the core was increased from 56 to 68 fuel channels and later to 84 fuel channels. Fuel was added to the core when the reactivity worth decreased to the minimum operation level due to burnup. In addition to this 5 central fuel channels were exchanged with fresh fuel in february for the purpose of irradiation in the VISA-2 channel

  13. Bioconversion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  14. Thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao; Saito, Yasushi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the seismic wave responsivity of an exhaust duct shields thereby preventing the release of tritium in an evacuating device due to failures upon earthquakes. Constitution: The ends on the cutting side of upper outer exhaust duct shields of a thermonuclear reactor are connected with a plurality of support beams. In a case where seismic vibrations are exerted to such a thermonuclear reactor, since the ends on the cutting side are coupled with the support beams, vibrations of the upper outer exhaust duct shields are greatly restricted. Thus, since there is no more such a possibility, for example, that an exhaust duct connected to the upper portion of a reactor main body is greatly distorted due to the seismic response of the upper outside exhaust duct shields to result in the failure of the connection portion with a vacuum pump, the release of tritium due to failure of the evacuating device can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. Analisando o conteúdo da seção "Página do Estudante" dos Annaes de Enfermagem Analisando el contenido de la sección "Pagina del Estudiante" de los Annaes de Enfermagem Analysing the content of the section Students' page of the Annaes de Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Nunes Morais Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Revista Annaes Enfermagem foi um veiculo para retratar os problemas da saúde e evidenciar o exercício da profissão. A seção página do estudante foi criada para dar incentivo ao aluno, para expor suas idéias e focar pontos importantes na formação do enfermeiro da época. Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar e descrever o conteúdo das publicações no período de 1932 a 1941. Trata-se de estudo de abordagem qualitativa pelo método histórico. Os principais elementos descritos na seção analisada estavam relacionados com os problemas de saúde, como escarlatina, tétano eclâmpsia. Conclui-se que o conteúdo do material analisado reflete que neste período existia uma preocupação com a preparação das alunas para suprir a necessidade vigente que o país atravessava.El periodico Annaes de Enfermagem ha sido el veiculo para discutir los problemas de salud y para evidenciar el professional rol. La sección "Pagina de estudiante" há sido creada para incentivar los estudiantes a exponer sus ideas y para focalisar en los puntos relevantes de formación del enfermero el aquelle tienpo . Esto estúdio objectivó describir y analisar el contenido de lo material publicado em el periodo de 1932 hasta 1941. Esto és um estudio con abordaje cualitativo usandoce el metodo historìco. Los principales elementos descriptos en la sección analisada estan relacionados a los problemas de salud colectiva como la escarlatina, tétano, eclampsia y tanbien a la ética. Se ha concluydo que el contenido del material analisado reflete que en el período analisado habia una preocupación com la preparación del studiante para atender a las necesidades de salud que el pais presentava.The journal Annaes de Enfermagem was a publishing vehicle to discuss health problems and to evidence the professional role. The section "Students Page" Was created for the motivation of students to expose their ideas and to focus in relevant points of the nurse education by

  16. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) thermal surface water mapping and its correlation to LANDSAT. [Lake Anna, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvocoresses, A. P. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Graphics are presented which show HCMM mapped water-surface temperature in Lake Anna, a 13,000 dendrically-shaped lake which provides cooling for a nuclear power plant in Virginia. The HCMM digital data, produced by NASA were processed by NOAA/NESS into image and line-printer form. A LANDSAT image of the lake illustrates the relationship between MSS band 7 data and the HCMM data as processed by the NASA image processing facility which transforms the data to the same distortion-free hotline oblique Mercator projection. Spatial correlation of the two images is relatively simple by either digital or analog means and the HCMM image has a potential accuracy approaching the 80 m of the original LANDSAT data. While it is difficult to get readings that are not diluted by radiation from cooler adjacent land areas in narrow portions of the lake, digital data indicated by the line-printer display five different temperatures for open-water areas. Where the water surface response was not diluted by land areas, the temperature difference recorded by HCMM corresponds to in situ readings with rsme on the order of 1 C.

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilroy, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved cover structure for liquid metal cooled fast breeder type reactors is described which it is claimed reduces the temperature differential across the intermediate grid plate of the core cover structure and thereby reduces its subjection to thermal stresses. (UK)

  18. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator is described which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40--60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator. 2 claims, 4 figures

  19. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1976-01-01

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield

  20. Reactor licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses reactor licensing and includes the legislative basis for licensing, other relevant legislation , the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, important regulations, regulatory document, policies, and standards. It also discusses the role of the CNSC, its mandate and safety philosophy

  1. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleton, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment. 3 claims, 6 figures

  2. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Masaru; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Mogi, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor core, a fuel inventory at an outer peripheral region is made smaller than that at a central region. Fuel assemblies comprising a small number of large-diameter fuel rods are used at the central region and fuel assemblies comprising a great number of smalldiameter fuel rods are used at the outer peripheral region. Since a burning degradation rate of the fuels at the outer peripheral region can be increased, the burning degradation rate at the infinite multiplication factor of fuels at the outer region can substantially be made identical with that of the fuels in the inner region. As a result, the power distribution in the direction of the reactor core can be flattened throughout the entire period of the burning cycle. Further, it is also possible to make the degradation rate of fuels at the outer region substantially identical with that of fuels at the inner side. A power peak formed at the outer circumferential portion of the reactor core of advanced burning can be lowered to improve the fuel integrity, and also improve the reactor safety and operation efficiency. (N.H.)

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  4. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  5. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Takashi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent rain water falling along the outer wall of the container during the construction work of an atomic power plant from making ingress into the inner part of a reactor container through a large size material carry-in port. Constitution: A weir for preventing the ingress of rain water is provided on the border between the foot floor of a large material carry-in port provided on the side surface at the bottom part of the reactor container and the floor surface of the building. This weir is of a semi-circular plate shape, and formed so that the lower semi-circular part of the carry-in port is tightly closed. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Saba, Kazuhisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake resistance as well as reduce the size of a container for a nuclear reactor with no adverse effects on the decrease of impact shock to the container and shortening of construction step. Constitution: Reinforcing profile steel materials are welded longitudinally and transversely to the inner surface of a container, and inner steel plates are secured to the above profile steel materials while keeping a gap between the materials and the container. Reactor shielding wall planted to the base concrete of the container is mounted to the pressure vessel, and main steam pipeways secured by the transverse beams and led to the outside of container is connected. This can improve the rigidity earthquake strength and the safetiness against the increase in the inside pressure upon failures of the container. (Yoshino, Y.)

  7. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Osamu; Furukawa, Hideyasu; Uozumi, Hiroto.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To lower the position of an intermediate slab within a reactor container and fitting a heat insulating material to the inner wall of said intermediate slab, whereby a space for a control rod exchanging device and thermal stresses of the inner peripheral wall are lowered. Constitution: In the pedestal at the lower part of a reactor pressure vessel there is formed an intermediate slab at a position lower than diaphragm floor slab of the outer periphery of the pedestal thereby to secure a space for providing automatic exchanging device of a control rod driving device. Futhermore, a heat insulating material is fitted to the inner peripheral wall at the upper side of the intermediate slab part, and the temperature gradient in the wall thickness direction at the time of a piping rupture trouble is made gentle, and thermal stresses at the inner peripheral wall are lowered. (Sekiya, K.)

  8. Neutronic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels

  9. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihisa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent cladding tube injuries due to thermal expansion of each of the pellets by successively extracting each of the control rods loaded in the reactor core from those having less number of notches, as well as facilitate the handling work for the control rods. Constitution: A recycle flow control device is provided to a circulation pump for forcibly circulating coolants in the reactor container and an operational device is provided for receiving each of the signals concerning number of notches for each of the control rods and flow control depending on the xenon poisoning effect obtained from the signals derived from the in-core instrument system connected to the reactor core. The operational device is connected with a control rod drive for moving each of the control rods up and down and a recycle flow control device. The operational device is set with a pattern for the aimed control rod power and the sequence of extraction. Upon extraction of the control rods, they are extracted successively from those having less notch numbers. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, Sakae.

    1990-01-01

    At least one valve rack is disposed in a reactor building, on which pipeways to a main closure valve, valves and bypasses of turbines are placed and contained. The valve rack is fixed to the main body of the building or to a base mat. Since the reactor building is designed as class A earthquake-proofness and for maintaining the S 1 function, the valve rack can be fixed to the building main body or to the base mat. With such a constitution, the portions for maintaining the S 1 function are concentrated to the reactor building. As a result, the dispersion of structures of earthquake-proof portion corresponding to the reference earthquake vibration S 1 can be prevented. Accordingly, the conditions for the earthquake-proof design of the turbine building and the turbine/electric generator supporting rack are defined as only the class B earthquake-proof design conditions. In view of the above, the amount of building materials can be saved and the time for construction can be shortened. (I.S.)

  11. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  13. Photocatalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Fain, Douglas E.; Stockdale, John A. D.

    1999-01-01

    A photocatalytic reactor for processing selected reactants from a fluid medium comprising at least one permeable photocatalytic membrane having a photocatalytic material. The material forms an area of chemically active sites when illuminated by light at selected wavelengths. When the fluid medium is passed through the illuminated membrane, the reactants are processed at these sites separating the processed fluid from the unprocessed fluid. A light source is provided and a light transmitting means, including an optical fiber, for transmitting light from the light source to the membrane.

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  15. „Nein, hier bin ich fremd, ich gehöre dahin, wo ich nicht bin“. Fremdheit und Heimatsuche im Schaffen von Anna Mitgutsch

    OpenAIRE

    Jurzysta, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the broad concept of strangeness in the literary work of Anna Mitgutsch, a contemporary Austrian writer. The topic of strangeness is a keynote in her rich literary output. Mitgutsch’s experience of being abroad (travelling to the Middle East and south-east Asia, living and working in Israel, England, Korea and The USA) is reflected in such novels as Das andere Gesicht, In fremden Städten or Abschied von Jerusalem. Her characters are nomads, people looking for identity and...

  16. Costos y rendimientos de producción de tres néctares de manzana (pyrusmalusl) variedades Anna, Pensilvania y Winter

    OpenAIRE

    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina; Yesenia Fernández Vargas; Efrain Martinez Quintero

    2016-01-01

    La agroindustria en Colombia se muestra como una alternativa para dar aprovechamiento eficiente a materias primas de origen agropecuario, especialmente aquellas que por parámetros de calidad, no salen al mercado y generan cuantiosas pérdidas a agricultores y ganaderos; esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de la manzana (Pyrus malus L), se elaboró néctar con tres variedades producidas en el departamento de Boyacá, Colombia: Pensilvania, Anna y Winter y se evaluaron l...

  17. Uma representação contemporânea da violência em contos e novelas de Sérgio Sant'Anna

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Possani Gongora

    2007-01-01

    Partindo da leitura de alguns contos e novelas escritos por Sérgio Sant'Anna, autor brasileiro contemporâneo que iniciou seus trabalhos literários nos últimos anos da década de 60, esta pesquisa objetiva verificar em sua obra a recorrência temática da violência. Para isso, algumas abordagens teóricas próprias da literatura, filosofia, psicanálise, criminologia, entre outras, são indispensáveis. A violência, grande problema que acompanha a humanidade desde a sua origem, já se tornou complexa e...

  18. Migrations and Diasporas. German Writers in Mexican Exile. Egon Erwin Kisch’s and Anna Seghers’ Promotion of Cross-Cultural Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Michaels

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The journalist and popular travel writer, Egon Erwin Kisch, and the well-known novelist and short story writer Anna Seghers were among the many left wing and communist intellectuals for whom Mexico was a haven during the Hitler years. Kisch traveled extensively in Mexico, immersed himself in its history and culture and interpreted Mexico for the other German exiles. On her return from exile Seghers became an important mediator in the GDR of Mexican and South American culture and a strong voice for crosscultural understanding

  19. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  20. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hirohide; Otonari, Jun-ichiro; Tozaki, Yuka.

    1993-01-01

    Partition walls are disposed between a reactor pressure vessel and a suppression chamber to separate a dry well to an upper portion and a lower portion. A communication pipe is disposed to the partition walls. One end of the communication pipe is opened in an upper portion of the dry well at a position higher than a hole disposed to a bent tube of the suppression chamber. When coolants overflow from a depressurization valve by an erroneous operation of an emergency reactor core cooling device, the coolants accumulate in the upper portion of the dry well. When the pipeline is ruptured at the upper portion of the pressure vessel, only the inside of the pressure vessel and the upper portion of the dry well are submerged in water. In this case, the water level of the coolants does not elevate to the opening of the commuication pipe but they flow into the suppression chamber from the hole disposed to the bent tube. Since the coolants do not flow out to the lower portion of the dry well, important equipments such as control rod drives disposed at the lower portion of the dry wall can be prevented from submerging in water. (I.N.)

  3. Reactor container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikawa, Hirohide; Otonari, Jun-ichiro; Tozaki, Yuka.

    1993-09-07

    Partition walls are disposed between a reactor pressure vessel and a suppression chamber to separate a dry well to an upper portion and a lower portion. A communication pipe is disposed to the partition walls. One end of the communication pipe is opened in an upper portion of the dry well at a position higher than a hole disposed to a bent tube of the suppression chamber. When coolants overflow from a depressurization valve by an erroneous operation of an emergency reactor core cooling device, the coolants accumulate in the upper portion of the dry well. When the pipeline is ruptured at the upper portion of the pressure vessel, only the inside of the pressure vessel and the upper portion of the dry well are submerged in water. In this case, the water level of the coolants does not elevate to the opening of the commuication pipe but they flow into the suppression chamber from the hole disposed to the bent tube. Since the coolants do not flow out to the lower portion of the dry well, important equipments such as control rod drives disposed at the lower portion of the dry wall can be prevented from submerging in water. (I.N.).

  4. Reactor monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tamotsu.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors a reactor so that each of the operations for the relocation of fuel assemblies and the withdrawal and the insertion of control rods upon exchange of fuel assemblies and control rods in the reactor. That is, when an operator conducts relocating operation by way of a fuel assembly operation section, the device of the present invention judges whether the operation indication is adequate or not, based on the information of control rod arrangement in a control rod memory section. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to a fuel assembly relocating device. Further, when the operator conducts control rod operation by way of a control rod operation section, the device of the present invention judges in the control rod withdrawal judging section, as to whether the operation indication given by the operator is adequate or not by comparing it with fuel assembly arrangement information. When the operation indication is wrong, a stop signal is sent to control rod drives. With such procedures, increase of nuclear heating upon occurrence of erroneous operation can be prevented. (I.S.)

  5. Seismic Safety Margins Research Programs. Assessment of potential increases in risk due to degradation of steam generator and reactor coolant pump supports. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohn, M. P.; Wells, J. E.; Shieh, L. C.; Cover, L. E.; Streit, R. L.

    1983-08-01

    During the NRC licensing review for the North Anna Units 1 and 2 pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), questions were raised regarding the potential for low-fracture toughness of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump supports. Because other PWRs may face similar problems, this issue was incorporated into the NRC Program for Resolution of Generic Issues. The work described in this report was performed to provide the NRC with a quantitative evaluation of the value/impact implications of the various options of resolving the fracture-toughness question. This report presents an assessment of the probabilistic risk associated with nil-ductility failures of steam-generator and reactor-coolant-pump structural-support systems during seismic events, performed using the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program codes and data bases.

  6. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Weber, R.; Bauer, A.

    1975-01-01

    The refuelling of a PWR power reactor of about 1,200 MWe is performed by a transport pipe in the containment leading from an external to an internal fuel pit. A wagon to transport the fuel elements can go from a vertical loading position to an also vertical deloading position in the inner fuel pit via guide rollers. The necessary horizontal movement is effected by means of a cable line through the transport pipe which is inclined at least 10 0 . Gravity thus helps in the movement to the deloading position. The cable line with winch is fastened outside the containment. Swivelling devices tip the wagon from the horizontal to the vertical position or vice versa. Loading and deloading are done laterally. (TK/LH) [de

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, R.J.

    1958-04-22

    Fluid-cooled nuclear reactors of the type that utilize finned uranium fuel elements disposed in coolant channels in a moderater are described. The coolant channels are provided with removable bushings composed of a non- fissionable material. The interior walls of the bushings have a plurality of spaced, longtudinal ribs separated by grooves which receive the fins on the fuel elements. The lands between the grooves are spaced from the fuel elements to form flow passages, and the size of the now passages progressively decreases as the dlstance from the center of the core increases for the purpose of producing a greater cooling effect at the center to maintain a uniform temperature throughout the core.

  8. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  9. Anna Schnädelbach: Kriegerwitwen. Lebensbewältigung zwischen Arbeit und Familie in Westdeutschland nach 1945. Frankfurt am Main u.a.: Campus Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Behrens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Anna Schnädelbach untersucht in ihrer Dissertation die Strategien der individuellen Lebensbewältigung von Kriegerwitwen, ihre Handlungsspielräume und ihre Erfahrungen mit der praktischen Umsetzung der Kriegsopferversorgung in Westdeutschland nach 1945. Durch eine Verbindung von erfahrungsgeschichtlichen Ansätzen und historischer Diskursanalyse verknüpft sie den Blick auf die Kriegerwitwen als handelnde Subjekte mit einer Analyse der zeitgenössischen Debatten über Lage und Verhalten der Witwen auf den zentralen Konfliktfeldern Versorgung, Ehe/Familie und Erwerbsarbeit. Dabei wird deutlich, wie sich die Frauen verschiedene sie betreffende Diskurse aneigneten, für die Artikulation eigener Interessen nutzten und eigenes soziales und kulturelles Kapital in der Auseinandersetzung mit den Behören aktivierten.In her dissertation, Anna Schnädelbach examines the individual life-coping strategies of war widows, their latitude and their experience with the practical application of West German war victim provisions after 1945. By conjoining historical approaches based in experience with historical discourse analysis the author is able to connect an examination of these war widows as acting subjects with an analysis of contemporary debates on the war widows’ situation and their behavior toward central contentious areas: provision, marriage/family, and employment. It becomes clear how the women appropriated those different discourses affecting them, utilized these to articulate their own interests, and activated their own social and cultural capital in their conflict with public authorities.

  10. “Speaking German Like Nobody’s Business”: Anna May Wong, Walter Benjamin, and the Possibilities of Asian American Cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Jennifer Lim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 1928 in Berlin, the noted German Jewish philosopher Walter Benjamin (1892–1940 and Chinese American actress Anna May Wong (1905–1961 shared an unlikely encounter that set in relief European and American conceptions of modernity as well as white European intellectual and American racial minority cosmopolitanisms. On July 6, 1928, Benjamin published the results as “Gespräch mit Anne May Wong” [“Speaking with Anna May Wong: A Chinoiserie from the Old West”] on the front page of the leading German literary review, Die Literarische Welt. Read against a cache of Wong’s writings, the encounter and the writings are significant for how they intervene in constructions of cosmopolitanism and racial and gendered difference. This encounter raises questions concerning the relationship between Asian America, modernity, race, gender, and cosmopolitanism, linking notions of cosmopolitanism to a discourse of race in the transnational American context. Benjamin’s struggles in fully characterizing Wong also point to the antagonism between racialized American modern femininity and Eurocentric cosmopolitanism.

  11. Between Les Rendez-vous d’Anna and Demain on Déménage: m(other inscriptions in two films by Chantal Akerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Rowley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Demain on Déménage' is a gloriously comic queering of reproduction that claims as its foundation heterosexual sexuality and the stability of the hetero-normative unit of the couple. Akerman's decision to cast Aurore Clément in the role of a mother in 'Demain on Déménage', over two decades after playing a daughter in 'Les Rendez-vous d'Anna', encourages a reading of the 2005 film as a reprise of concerns first explored in 1978. If 'Les Rendez-vous d'Anna' has moments in common with Lee Edelman's uncompromisingly provocative polemic against the ideology of 'reproductive futurism', this paper argues that 'Demain on Déménage' figures the 'matrixial' movement Bracha Ettinger theorises as opening on to a different concept of futurity, symbolised not in post-natal terms by the child or the mother, but rather as a corporeal- psychic imprint of the 'originary prenatal encounter event, with-in pregnancy' common to all human beings, which offers another model of communal relations.

  12. Minimalism and sociability in crisis: masks of alterity in the works of Marcelino Freire and André Sant’Anna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Dias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian literature, when dedicated to recreating contemporary social fractures, has frequently chosen a minimalist perspective in order to counteract the representationalist lineage overly expressed in our tradition. Nowadays, there two writers operating in the minimalist scene and elaborating on the disjunctions of a problematic sociability of a rather impersonal diction in favor of a stylized theater of alterity: André Sant’Anna and Marcelino Freire. The latter, in his modulated short-stories, adopts the rhythms and the assonances of a reduced vocabulary to give form to the situation of marginal characters and, in so doing, he is capable of making them sing. André Sant’Anna, for his part, works through dissonance and seeks to disarrange language by adopting a coordinated syntax, full of repetitions and recurrences. His style causes the tedious effect that underlies the grotesque comicality of certain dictions. Consequently, the examined short-stories, although they offer differences in their conception, practice the rituals of performance, due to their respective efforts to influence reception, as they include elements of reality and equally try to produce literature open to an ethical commitment to life.

  13. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  14. 75 FR 53984 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Regulations (10 CFR), Part 50, Section 50.46 ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and Appendix K to 10 CFR part 50, ``ECCS (emergency core cooling... threatened, endangered, or protected species under the Endangered Species Act, or impacts to essential fish...

  15. Tsvetotshnaja skazka / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Tatjana Tridvornova organiseeritud lilleballist Tallinnas. Algas lillekleitide defileega Saku Suurhallis ja jätkus lillekleitide konkursiga klubis Opium. Žürii koosseis. Osalejad Eestist, Lätist ja Soomest. Võitja on läti florist Druvis Ciritis lillekleidiga "Puudutus"

  16. Vsepobezhdajushtshaja strast / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Professionaalsete lilleseadjate võistlusest "Lillekleit 2003" Tallinnas klubis Opium. Võitis läti lilleseadja Druvis Ciritise lillekleit "Puudutus", II koha sai Irmen Laving ja III koha Heiki Põder. Rikkalikult illustreeritud

  17. Posvjashtshenije muzam / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna Vene Draamateatri galeriis avatakse maalinäitus "Pühendus teatrile". Kunstnikud A. Strahhov, S. Semerikov, S. ja V. Inkatovid, E. Sterpu, V. Voitsehhovitsh ja S. Minin oma teatrikogemustest ja töödest näitusel

  18. Milano 2006 / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Sisekujunduse- ja mööblimessist I Saloni, mis tähistas oma 45. juubelit uues asupaigas Massimiliano Fuksase kavandite järgi ehitatud Fiera Milano Rho Pero messiavenüül 5.-10. aprillil. 36 värv. ill

  19. Norra disain / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Norra disainist, tootedisaini, sisekujundust ja installatsioone valmistavast disainikompaniist Norway Says, mille asutasid Torbjorn Anderssen, Andreas Engesvik ja Espen Voll.. Torbjorn Anderssen kompaniist, selle eesmärkidest, pingist Break, oma lemmikprojektidest. 9 ill

  20. Sportivnaja gratsija / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna klubis Arctic Sport demonstreeritud firma Adidas uutest sügis-talviste spordirõivaste kollektsioonidest Adilibria ja Fuse naistele. Adilibria kollektsiooni loomisel kasutati moekunstnik Stella McCartney ideesid

  1. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  2. Survey of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boek, H.; Villa, M.

    2004-06-01

    A survey of reasearch reactors based on the IAEA Nuclear Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) was done. This database includes information on 273 operating research reactors ranging in power from zero to several hundred MW. From these 273 operating research reactors 205 reactors have a power level below 5 MW, the remaining 68 reactors range from 5 MW up to several 100 MW thermal power. The major reactor types with common design are: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktors, 1.2 Argonaut reactors, Slowpoke reactors, the miniature neutron source reactors, TRIGA reactors, material testing reactors and high flux reactors. Technical data such as: power, fuel material, fuel type, enrichment, maximum neutron flux density and experimental facilities for each reactor type as well as a description of their utilization in physics and chemistry, medicine and biology, academic research and teaching, training purposes (students and physicists, operating personnel), industrial application (neutron radiography, silicon neutron transmutation doping facilities) are provided. The geographically distribution of these reactors is also shown. As conclusions the author discussed the advantages (low capital cost, low operating cost, low burn up, simple to operate, safe, less restrictive containment and sitting requirements, versatility) and disadvantages (lower sensitivity for NAA, limited radioisotope production, limited use of neutron beams, limited access to the core, licensing) of low power research reactors. 24 figs., refs. 15, Tab. 1 (nevyjel)

  3. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kimitaka; Fukuie, Ken; Iijima, Tooru; Shimpo, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    In an FBR type reactor for exchanging fuels by pulling up reactor core upper mechanisms, a connection mechanism is disposed for connecting the top of the reactor core and the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms. In addition, a cylindrical body is disposed surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, and a support member is disposed to the cylindrical body for supporting an intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is connected to the top of the reactor core. Same displacements are caused to both of them upon occurrence of earthquakes and, as a result, it is possible to eliminate mutual horizontal displacement between a control rod guide hole of the reactor core upper mechanisms and a control rod insertion hole of the reactor core. In addition, since the intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms is supported by the support member disposed to the cylindrical body surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, deformation caused to the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is reduced, so that the mutual horizontal displacement with respect to the control rod insertion hole of the reactor core can be reduced. As a result, performance of control rod insertion upon occurrence of the earthquakes is improved, so that reactor shutdown is conducted more reliably to improve reactor safety. (N.H.)

  4. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  5. Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understa...

  6. Nuclear reactor coolant channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear reactor coolant channel is described that is suitable for sub-cooled reactors as in pressurised water reactors as well as for bulk boiling, as in boiling water reactors and steam generating nuclear reactors. The arrangement aims to improve heat transfer between the fuel elements and the coolant. Full constructional details are given. See also other similar patents by the author. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irion, L.; Tautz, J.; Ulrych, G.

    1976-01-01

    This additional patent complements the arrangement of non-return valves to prevent loss of cooling water on fracture of external tubes in the main coolant circuit (according to PS 24 24 427.7) by ensuring that the easily movable valves only operate in case of a fault, but do not flutter in operation, because the direction of flow is not the same at each location where they are installed. The remedy for this undesirable effect consists of allocating 1 non-return valve unit with 5 to 10 valves to each (of several) ducts for the cooling water intake. These units are installed in the annular space between the reactor vessel and the pressure vessel below the inlet of the ducts. Due to flow guidance surfaces in the same space, the incoming cooling water is deflected downwards and as the guiding surfaces are closed at the sides, must pass parallel to the valves of the non-return valve unit. On fracture of the external cooling water inlet pipe concerned, all valves of this unit close due to reversal of flow on the outlet side. (TK) [de

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Tatsuo; Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a reactor container which is free from water shock action or condensing vibrations and cannot be readily broken by a missile from a pump impeller, pipe whipping, steam jet reaction, etc., and which also quickly condenses issuing steam and possesses a large vibration-proof strength. Structure: A high pressure containment vessel accommodating a pressure container includes a plurality of pressurized water tanks arranged along its inner periphery, and a pneumatic valve is provided in a lower portion of each of these pressurized water tanks. If an accident occurs, vapor is caused to issue from the pressure container into the vessel. When a certain value is reached, the pneumatic valves are opened, whereby the gas within the pressurized water tanks causes pressurized water to flow through the pipe and be ejected from spray nozzles to cause condensation of water within the vessel. Further, water of a pool within the container is circulated to allow heat release to the outside. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. SCALE-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original fresh composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Each of the five volumes comprising this report provides an overview of the methodology applied. Subsequent volumes also describe in detail the approach taken in performing criticality calculations for these PWR configurations: Volume 2 describes criticality calculations for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Unit 2 reactor for Cycle 3; Volume 3 documents the analysis of Virginia Power's Surry Unit 1 reactor for the Cycle 2 core; Volume 4 documents the calculations performed based on GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5 core; and, lastly, Volume 5 describes the analysis of Virginia Power's North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5 core. Each of the reactor-specific volumes provides the details of calculations performed to determine the effective multiplication factor for each reactor core for one or more critical configurations using the SCALE-4 system; these results are summarized in this volume. Differences between the core designs and their possible impact on the criticality calculations are also discussed. Finally, results are presented for additional analyses performed to verify that solutions were sufficiently converged

  10. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2007-01-01

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  11. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  12. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  13. Nuclear reactor instrumentation at research reactor renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baers, B.; Pellionisz, P.

    1981-10-01

    The paper overviews the state-of-the-art of research reactor renewals. As a case study the instrumentation reconstruction of the Finnish 250 kW TRIGA reactor is described, with particular emphasis on the nuclear control instrumentation and equipment which has been developed and manufactured by the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest. Beside the presentation of the nuclear instrument family developed primarily for research reactor reconstructions, the quality assurance policy conducted during the manufacturing process is also discussed. (author)

  14. Two Austro-Hungarian Women Writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux, Creating New Urban Identities in Early Twentieth-Century Budapest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Kádár

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine some literary texts of two turn-of-the century Hungarian women writers, Anna Tutsek and Terka Lux who left behind their childhood environment in remote regions of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in order to move to Budapest, the capital of the eastern part of the Empire. Assuming that individuals hold multiple identities that are flexible and inevitably affected by environmental and social changes, my main focus is on the transformation of their ethnic, regional, occupational and gender identity influenced by the disengagement from their birthplace. Within a context of Hungarian−Eastern-European women's social history, I investigate how migration had led them to reshape their original identities and create new ones and how these emigrant writers reacted to the loss of cultural and social norms in which they had previously lived.

  15. Biblioteca escolar das escolas reunidas Sant’anna do Paranahyba/MT (1936-1945: contribuições para o estudo de sua história.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimar Pires Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto apresentam-se os resultados de pesquisa de mestrado vinculada ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação da Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UEMS, Unidade Universitária de Paranaíba, sobre o tema história das bibliotecas escolares na escola primária urbana em Paranaíba/MT. A pesquisa é oriunda dos resultados do projeto “Memória da Escola Primária em Paranaíba/MS (1946-1971”, desenvolvido no âmbito do Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em História e Historiografia da Educação Brasileira (GEPHEB. No projeto verificou-se em alguns documentos escolares localizados, reunidos e selecionados sobre as Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba – um dos primeiros núcleos de escolarização do município de Paranaíba –, a fundação e a organização de uma biblioteca escolar a partir do ano de 1936, o que levou à constituição do objeto de estudo. Com isso traçou-se como objetivo contribuir para a produção de uma história das bibliotecas escolares em Mato Grosso do Sul e no Brasil, a partir da história da primeira biblioteca escolar organizada nas Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba, mediante localização, reunião, seleção, organização e análise de fontes documentais sobre a implantação, o acervo, as especificidades e os sujeitos envolvidos. O recorte temporal abrange o período de 1936 – início das atividades da biblioteca escolar – até 1945, quando as Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba foram transformadas no Grupo Escolar José Garcia Leal. A pesquisa fundamentou-se na abordagem histórica, no campo da educação, na vertente da Nova História que apresenta um leque de possibilidades no que se refere à pesquisa histórica em educação, constituindo um campo produtivo de estudos. Assim, a pesquisa realizada permitiu compreender que a Biblioteca Escolar das Escolas Reunidas Sant‟Anna do Paranahyba não se mostrou aquém do movimento em prol da leitura e das bibliotecas

  16. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2014-03-24

    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  17. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. III. Rehabilitation of Philosophy of Life During Holistic Existential Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When we experience life events with overwhelming emotional pain, we can escape this pain by making decisions (in our mind that transfer responsibility from our existence to the surrounding world. By doing this, we slowly destroy the essence of our being, health, quality of life, and ability to function. The case of Anna is an excellent example of such a systematic destruction of self, done to survive the extreme pressure from childhood abuse and sexual abuse. The case study shows that the damage done to us by traumatic events is not on our body or soul, but rather our philosophy of life. The important consequence is that we can heal our existence by letting go of the negative decisions taken in the past painful and traumatic situations. By letting go of the life-denying sentences, we come back to life and take responsibility for our own life and existence. The healing of Anna’s existence was done by existential holistic therapy. Although the processing did not always run smoothly, as she projected very charged material on the therapists on several occasions, the process resulted in full health and a good quality of life due to her own will to recover and heal completely. The case illustrates the inner logic and complexity of intensive holistic therapy at the most difficult moment, where only a combination of intensive medical, psychiatric, and sexological treatment could set her free. In the paper, we also present a meta-perspective on intensive holistic therapy and its most characteristic phases.

  18. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Raedt, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  19. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  20. Research reactor instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2001-02-01

    This is a textbook on research reactor instrumentation for training purposes, it gives a survey on research reactor instrumentation requirements and eight exercises covering the major aspects of this topic are presented. (author)

  1. Nuclear reactors; graphical symbols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This standard contains graphical symbols that reveal the type of nuclear reactor and is used to design graphical and technical presentations. Distinguishing features for nuclear reactors are laid down in graphical symbols. (orig.) [de

  2. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  3. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  4. Fusion reactor design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Santarius, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on the ARIES tokamak: systems; plasma power balance; impurity control and fusion ash removal; fusion product ripple loss; energy conversion; reactor fueling; first wall design; shield design; reactor safety; and fuel cost and resources

  5. Reactor shutdown method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Yoshitaka; Sawa, Toshio; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Osumi, Katsumi; Usui, Naoshi.

    1991-01-01

    A device for injecting a hydrogen gas, a chelating agent or a reducing agent is disposed in a reactor water recycling system. Upon reactor shutdown, the hydrogen gas, the chelating agent or the reducing agent is injected to primary coolants. With such a procedure, radioactive ions formed by the dissolution of oxide layers at the surface of pipelines and equipments in a reactor water recycling system and a reactor water cleanup system are removed from the primary coolants by a reactor water cleanup device. Accordingly, since the dose rate at the surface of the pipelines can be reduced, the operator's radiation dose can be reduced upon periodical inspection for a power plant. Further, the inner pressure of the reactor is kept higher than the saturated steam pressure at the reactor water temperature to suppress boiling of the reactor water. This can suppress the peeling of cruds deposited to the surface of the fuel cladding tube. (I.N.)

  6. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, R.M.; Power, M.A.; Bryan, M.

    1992-01-01

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  7. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, S. K.; Kim, G. K.; Yeo, J. W.

    2006-08-01

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  8. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor shutdown system is described comprising a temperature sensitive device connected to control the electric power supply to a magnetic latch holding a body of a neutron absorbing material. The temperature sensitive device is exposed to the reactor coolant so that when the reactor coolant temperature rises above a specific level, the temperature sensitive device will cause deenergization of the magnetic latch to allow the body of neutron absorbing material to enter the reactor core. (author)

  9. PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor is the only research reactor in Malaysia. This 1 MW TRIGA Mk II reactor first reached criticality on 28 June 1982 and is located at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency premise in Bangi, Malaysia. This reactor has been mainly utilised for research, training and education and isotope production. Over the years several systems have been refurbished or modernised to overcome ageing and obsolescence problems. Major achievements and milestones will also be elaborated in this paper. (author)

  10. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Seki, Eiji; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Ito, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  11. Ulysse, mentor reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquin, B.; Rio, I.; Safieh, J.

    1997-01-01

    On July 23, 1961, the ULYSSE reactor began its first power rise. Designed at that time to train nuclear engineering students and reactor operators, this reactor still remains an indispensable tool for nuclear teaching and a choice instrument for scientists. (author)

  12. Towards nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The results of nuclear fusion researches in JAERI are summarized. In this report, following themes are collected: the concept of fusion reactor (including ITER), fusion reactor safety, plasma confinement, fusion reactor equipment, and so on. Includes glossary. (J.P.N.)

  13. Refuelling nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, J.; Webb, J.; White, W.P.; McLaren, N.H.

    1981-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor refuelling machine is described which can be left in the reactor vault to reduce the off-load refuelling time for the reactor. The system comprises a gripper device rangeable within a tubular chute, the gripper device being movable by a pantograph. (U.K.)

  14. The Jules Horowitz reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jules Horowitz reactor is the future european reactor for irradiation. It will be used for materials and new fuels irradiation. Experiments for the safety and the validation of neutronics calculation will be also realized. This paper presents the design and the performance of the reactor and the schedule of the remaining design studies. (A.L.B.)

  15. Thorium fueled reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaun, S.

    2017-01-01

    Current development in thorium fueled reactors shows that they can be designed to operate in the fast or thermal spectrum. The thorium/uranium fuel cycle converts fertile thorium-232 into fissile uranium-233, which fissions and releases energy. This paper analyses the characteristics of thorium fueled reactors and discusses the thermal reactor option. It is found that thorium fuel can be utilized in molten salt reactors through many configurations and designs. A balanced assessment on the feasibility of adopting one reactor technology versus another could lead to optimized benefits of having thorium resource.

  16. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  17. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  18. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  19. Elementos do Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional das Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras presentes nos Annaes de Enfermagem Elementos del Proyecto Politico Profesional de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras Graduadas Brasileras presentes en los Annaes de Enfermagem Elements of the Political Professional Project of the Brazilian Graduate Nurses National Association present in the Annaes de Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Liliane Gonçalves da Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A revista Annaes de Enfermagem foi criada para publicar idéias, conceitos, resultados da produção científica, reflexões e, principalmente, o de expor e discutir o Projeto Político Profissional da Associação Nacional de Enfermeiras Diplomadas Brasileiras (ANEDB. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e caracterizar estes elementos presentes na referida revista no período de 1932 a 1941. Trata-se de um estudo de abordagem qualitativa pelo método histórico. Os principais elementos do projeto político compreendem os atributos desejáveis no enfermeiro como altruísmo, abnegação, patriotismo, senso humanitário, progresso profissional ligado à educação, arte, ideal, ética e componentes da religião cristã. Todos estes elementos fizeram parte de um projeto político que visava a integração da enfermagem no contexto de saúde nacional da época. (118 palavras.El periódico Annaes de Enfermagem fue creado para publicar ideas, conceptos, resultados de la producción cientifica, reflexiones y principalmente o de presentar y discutir el proyecto politico profesional de la Asociación Nacional de Enfermeras Graduadas Brasileras. Este estudio tuvo como objectivo decribir y caracterizar estos elementos presentes en este periódico en lo periodo de 1932 hasta 1941. Tratase de um estudio de abordaje cualitativa por lo metodo historico. Lo principales elementos del proyecto politico compreenden los atributos desejables en lo enfermero como el altruismo, abnegación, patriotismo, senso humaño, progreso profesional junto com la educación, arte, ideal, etica y componentes de la religión cristiana. Todos los elementos hicierón parte del proyecto politico que objectivó la integración de la enfermería en el contexto de salud en ámbito nacional a la epoca.The journal Annaes de Enfermagem was created to publish ideas, concepts, results of scientific production, reflections and, meanly to expose the Political Professional Project of the

  20. Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO 2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPR TM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1 TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENA TM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENA TM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident

  1. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  2. Reactor power monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogen, Ayumi; Ozawa, Michihiro.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve the working efficiency of a nuclear reactor by reflecting the control rod history effect on thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation. Constitution: An incore power distribution calculation section reads the incore neutron fluxes detected by neutron detectors disposed in the reactor to calculate the incore power distribution. A burnup degree distribution calculation section calculates the burnup degree distribution in the reactor based on the thus calculated incore power distribution. A control rod history date store device supplied with the burnup degree distribution renews the stored control rod history data based on the present control rod pattern and the burnup degree distribution. Then, thermal variants of the nuclear reactor are calculated based on the thus renewed control rod history data. Since the control rod history effect is reflected on the thermal variants required for the monitoring of the reactor operation, the working efficiency of the nuclear reactor can be improved significantly. (Seki, T.)

  3. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshihiko; Arita, Setsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Yukihisa; Ishii, Kazuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor power control device capable of enhancing an operation efficiency while keeping high reliability and safety in a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a means for inputting a set value of a generator power and a set value of a reactor power, (2) a means for controlling the reactor power to either smaller one of the reactor power corresponding to the set value of the generator power and the set value of the reactor power. With such procedures, even if the nuclear power plant is set so as to operate it to make the reactor power 100%, when the generator power reaches the upper limit, the reactor power is controlled with a preference given to the upper limit value of the generator power. Accordingly, safety and reliability are not deteriorated. The operation efficiency of the plant can be improved. (I.S.)

  4. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Wei-Min; Wang, Song-Feng

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of Taiwan Research Reactor Renewal plan is to remove the old reactor block with One Piece Reactor Removal (OPRR) method for installing a new research reactor in original building. In this paper, the engineering design of each transportation works including the work method, the major equipments, the design policy and design criteria is described and discussed. In addition, to ensure the reactor block is safety transported for storage and to guarantee the integrity of reactor base mat is maintained for new reactor, operation safety is drawn special attention, particularly under seismic condition, to warrant safe operation of OPRR. ALARA principle and Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) practice were also incorporated in the planning to minimize the collective dose and the total amount of radioactive wastes. All these activities are introduced in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  5. Reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.; Richter, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with disengaging the coupling of a reactor coolant pump of a nuclear reactor feeding pressurized coolant. The disengaging coupling has two parts joined by bolts, at least one of them containing a driving agent within a bore. This is provided with a speed-depending ignition device in such manner that, if the critical speed is reached, the driving charge is ignited and the coupling is disengaged by destroying the bolts. (UWI) [de

  6. Neutron fluxes in test reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youinou, Gilles Jean-Michel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Communicate the fact that high-power water-cooled test reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) or the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) cannot provide fast flux levels as high as sodium-cooled fast test reactors. The memo first presents some basics physics considerations about neutron fluxes in test reactors and then uses ATR, HFIR and JHR as an illustration of the performance of modern high-power water-cooled test reactors.

  7. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  8. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  9. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  10. Multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Shojiro; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Takano, Hideki

    1982-09-01

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  12. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1984 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, reactor physics experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  13. Spectral shift reactor control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method of operating a nuclear reactor having a core and coolant displacer elements arranged in the core wherein is established a reator coolant temperature set point at which it is desired to operate said reactor and first reactor coolant temperature band limits are provided within which said set point is located and it is desired to operate said reactor charactrized in that said reactor coolant displacer elements are moved relative to the reactor core for adjusting the volume of reactor coolant in said core as said reactor coolant temperature approaches said first band limits thereby to maintain said reactor coolant temperature near said set point and within said first band limits

  14. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this invention is the provision of improved seals for reactor vessels in which fuel assemblies are located together with inlets and outlets for the circulation of a coolant. The object is to provide a seal arrangement for the rotatable plugs of nuclear reactor closure heads which has good sealing capacities over a wide gap during operation of the reactor but which also permits uninhibited rotation of the plugs for maintenance. (U.K.)

  15. Power reactors operational diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.; Pecinka, L.

    1976-01-01

    The definition of reactor operational diagnostics is presented and the fundamental trends of research are determined. The possible sources of power reactor malfunctions, the methods of defect detection, the data evaluation and the analysis of the results are discussed in detail. In view of scarcity of a theoretical basis and of insufficient in-core instrumentation, operational diagnostics cannot be as yet incorporated in a computer-aided reactor control system. (author)

  16. Pressurised water reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnie, S.; Lamonby, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    The operation of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) is described with respect to the procedure for a unit start-up. The systems details and numerical data are for a four loop PWR station of the design proposed for Sizewell-'B', United Kingdom. A description is given of: the initial conditions, filling the reactor coolant system (RCS), heat-up and pressurisation of the RCS, secondary system preparations, reactor start-up, and reactivity control at power. (UK)

  17. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  18. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  19. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Villa, M.

    2007-01-01

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  20. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  1. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A.

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  3. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dazeley, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobie, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sumner, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweany, Melinda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  4. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  5. Multi purpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.K.; Sasidharan, K.; Sengupta, Samiran; Singh, Tej

    2006-01-01

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor

  6. Trench reactor: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Rohach, A.F.; Razzaque, M.M.; Sankoorikal, J.T.; Schmidt, R.S.; Lofshult, J.; Ramin, T.; Sokmen, N.; Lin, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent fast, sodium-cooled reactor designs reflect new conditions. In nuclear energy these conditions are (a) emphasis on maintainability and operability, (b) design for more transparent safety, and (c) a surplus of uranium and enrichment availability that eases concerns about light water reactor fueling costs. In utility practice the demand is for less capital exposure, short construction time, smaller new unit sizes, and low capital cost. The PRISM, SAFR, and integral fast reactor (IFR) concepts are responses to these conditions. Fast reactors will not soon be deployed commercially, so more radical designs can be considered. The trench reactor is the product of such thinking. Its concepts are intended as contributions to the literature, which may be picked up by one of the existing programs or used in a new experimental project. The trench reactor is a thin-slab, pool-type reactor operated at very low power density and- for sodium-modest temperature. The thin slab is repeated in the sodium tank and the reactor core. The low power density permits a longer than conventional core height and a large-diameter fuel pin. Control is by borated steel slabs that can be lowered between the core and lateral sodium reflector. Shutdown is by semaphore slabs that can be swung into place just outside the control slabs. The paper presents major characteristics of the trench reactor that have been changed since the last report

  7. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  8. Nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A safety system for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is described. The system includes a series of parallel-connected computer memory type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter and in each of which a precalculated functional value for that parameter is stored indicative of the percentage of maximum reactor load that the parameter contributes. The various functional values corresponding to the actual measured parameters are added together to provide a control signal used to shut down the reactor under overload conditions. (U.K.)

  9. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    We have carried out conceptual design studies of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fission fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid based on standard mirror confinement, and also a small pilot plant hybrid. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000 MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single cell pilot plant

  10. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, E.; Andrews, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  11. Infantile anorexia, co-excitation and co-mastery in the parent/baby cathexis: The contribution of Sigmund and Anna Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show that 2% of babies in ordinary paediatric clinics suffer from infantile anorexia. In the first part of this paper we present a case study from our hospital clinical activity. Our framework combines clinical psychoanalytic sessions and perinatal videos. In the second part, we will focus on the concepts of instinct and excitation proposed by Sigmund Freud and the concept of mastery proposed by Anna Freud. In the third part, we will examine these concepts in the light of the case study. The fourth part is devoted to clinical recommendations from our hospital psychoanalytic practice. In conclusion, unlike other clinical settings, the psychoanalytic setting allows for the elaboration of the parental hatred included in the libidinal cathexis. Our psychoanalytic setting (sessions/videos) makes it possible to decontaminate parental intrapsychic elements overloaded with excitement, saturated with hate elements, and rendered sterile by the instinct for mastery. An initial part of the treatment process involves working through the intersubjective elements observed in the video. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  12. Technical evaluation report on the seven main transformer failures at the North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-338, 50-339)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, K.J.; Kresser, J.V.; Savage, J.W.; Selan, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This report documents technical evaluations on various aspects pertaining to the seven main transformer failures at the North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2. These reports cover the subjects of Probability Risk Assessment (PRA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Root Causes, Protection Systems, Modifications, Failure Statistics, and Generic Aspects. The PRA determined that the contribution from a main transformer failure affecting plant safety systems so as to increase the risk to the public health and safety is negligible. The FMEA determined that a main transformer failure can have primary and secondary effects on plant safety system operation. The evaluation of the Root Causes found that no single common cause contributed to the seven failures. Each failure was found to have specific circumstances for initiating the failure. Both the generator and transformer primary protection systems were found to perform correctly and were designed within industry standards and practices. The proposed modifications resulting from the analyses of the failures will improve system reliability and integrity, and will reduce potentially damaging effects. The failure statistic survey found very limited data bases from which a meaningful correlation could be ascertained. The statistical comparison found no appreciable anomalies with the NAPS failures. The evaluation of all the available information and the results of the separate reports on the main transformer failures found that several generic concerns exist

  13. Reactor core monitor for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention provides a various information of a wide adaptability, such as a power distribution, to an operator by determining a reactor core performance of the reactor by a performance calculation with improved accuracy. That is, a calculation means determines a neutron flux distribution of the reactor and coolant temperature based on the neutron flux distribution. A measuring means measures a cooled temperature of a reactor core inlet and a temperature at the exit of a fuel assembly. The result of coolant temperature by the measuring means and the result of the calculation by the calculation means are compared. The result of the calculation for the neutron flux distribution obtained by the calculation means is corrected based on the result of the comparison. The calculation means introduces calculation at higher accuracy by adopting two-dimensional balance in the fuel assembly. Further, a more accurate three-dimensional neutron diffusion calculation model is introduced in an on-line computer. Then, the accuracy of the calculation for the neutron flux distribution, power distribution, temperature distribution, etc. is improved. In view of the above, adaptability of a reactor core monitor is widened. (I.S.)

  14. RB Research nuclear reactor RB reactor, Annual report for 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    2000-12-01

    Report on RB reactor operation during 2000 contains 3 parts. Part one contains a brief description of reactor operation and reactor components, relevant dosimetry data and radiation protection issues, personnel and financial data. Part two is devoted to maintenance of the reactor components, namely, fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, heavy water circulation system, absorption rods and heavy water level-meters, maintenance of electronic, mechanical, electrical and auxiliary equipment. Part three contains data concerned with reactor operation and utilization with a comprehensive list of publications resulting from experiments done at the RB reactor. It contains data about reactor operation during previous 14 years, i.e. from 1986 - 2000

  15. Survey for the presence of Naegleria fowleri amebae in lake water used to cool reactors at a nuclear power generating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Melissa; Remmers, Kenneth; Cabral, Guy; Marciano-Cabral, Francine

    2009-04-01

    Water from Lake Anna in Virginia, a lake that is used to cool reactors at a nuclear power plant and for recreational activities, was assessed for the presence of Naegleria fowleri, an ameba that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This survey was undertaken because it has been reported that thermally enriched water fosters the propagation of N. fowleri and, hence, increases the risk of infection to humans. Of 16 sites sampled during the summer of 2007, nine were found to be positive for N. fowleri by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. However, total ameba counts, inclusive of N. fowleri, never exceeded 12/50 mL of lake water at any site. No correlation was obtained between the conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH of water and presence of N. fowleri. To date, cases of PAM have not been reported from this thermally enriched lake. It is postulated that predation by other protozoa and invertebrates, disturbance of the water surface from recreational boating activities, or the presence of bacterial or fungal toxins, maintain the number N. fowleri at a low level in Lake Anna.

  16. Technical specifications, Hanford production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.D. [comp.

    1962-06-25

    These technical specifications are applicable to the eight operating production reactor facilities, B, C, D, DR, F, H, KE, and KW. Covered are operating and performance restrictions and administrative procedures. Areas covered by the operating and performance restrictions are reactivity, reactor control and safety elements, power level, temperature and heat flux, reactor fuel loadings, reactor coolant systems, reactor confinement, test facilities, code compliance, and reactor scram set points. Administrative procedures include process control procedures, training programs, audits and inspections, and reports and records.

  17. A nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrman, B.E.; Broden, P.; Lundin, N.

    1979-12-01

    The invention consists of shock absorbing support beams fastened to the underside of the reactor tank lid of a BWR type reactor, whose purpose is to provide support to the steam separator and dryer unit against accelerations due to earthquakes, without causing undue thermal stresses in the unit due to differential expansion. (J.I.W.)

  18. Reactor cost driving items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Assuming that the design solutions presently perceived for NET can be extrapolated for use in a power reactor, and using costing experience with present day fusion experiments and with fission power plants, the major components of the cost of a tokamak fusion power reactor are described. The analysis shows the emphasis worth placing on various areas of plant design to reduce costs

  19. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  20. CAREM 25 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, A.A.; Ordonez, J.P.; Rajoy, J.E.; Durione, C.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the CAREM project reactor, its design philosophy, its main characteristics and its advantages with respect to similar reactors. The main objective is to use the nuclear energy at lower costs than those applied up to now. (Author) [es

  1. Molten salt reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Molten salt reactor is an advanced breeder concept which is suited for the utilization of thorium for nuclear power production. This reactor is based on the use of solutions of uranium or plutonium fluorides in LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 as fuel. Unlike the conventional reactors, no external coolant is used in the reactor core and the fuel salt itself is circulated through heat exchangers to transfer the fission produced heat to a secondary salt (NaF-NaBF 4 ) for steam generation. A part of the fuel stream is continuously processed to isolate 233 Pa, so that it can decay to fissile 233 U without getting converted to 234 Pa, and for the removal of neutron absorbing fission products. This on-line processing scheme makes this reactor concept to achieve a breeding ratio of 1.07 which is the highest for any thermal breeder reactor. Experimental studies at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have established the use of plutonium as fuel for this reactor. This molten salt reactor concept is described and the work conducted at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is summarised. (auth.)

  2. International thermal reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The worldwide development of nuclear power plants is reviewed. Charts are presented which show the commitment to light-water reactor capacity construction with breakdown by region and country. Additional charts show the major nuclear research centers which have substantial scope in light water reactor development and extensive international activities

  3. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.

    1974-01-01

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  4. Advanced converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced converter reactors (ACRs) of primary US interest are those which can be commercialized within about 20 years, and are: Advanced Light-Water Reactors, Spectral-Shift-Control Reactors, Heavy-Water Reactors (CANDU type), and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors. These reactors can operate on uranium, thorium, or uranium-thorium fuel cycles, but have the greatest fuel utilization on thorium type cycles. The water reactors tend to operate more economically on uranium cycles, while the HTGR is more economical on thorium cycles. Thus, the HTGR had the greatest practical potential for improving fuel utilization. If the US has 3.4 to 4 million tons U 3 O 8 at reasonable costs, ACRs can make important contributions to maintaining a high nuclear power level for many decades; further, they work well with fast breeder reactors in the long term under symbiotic fueling conditions. Primary nuclear data needs of ACRs are integral measurements of reactivity coefficients and resonance absorption integrals

  5. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  6. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  7. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. Nuclear reactor instrumentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handa, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Katsumi; Nemesawa, Shigeki; Nemoto, Yuji; Ohashi, Masahisa.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention can appropriately monitor the state of a reactor core in an FBR type reactor which has a system of storing spent fuel assemblies in a reactor container while reducing the weight and making the structure compact in the reactor. That is, a fuel assembly having a shield lacking portion in upper axial shields is disposed. The shield lacking portion defines neutrons' leaking path from the reactor core. The leakage of neutrons from the path is detected by a neutron monitor disposed just above the fuel assembly. With such a constitution, influence of neutrons from stored spent fuel assemblies disposed to the out side of the radial shields can be reduced by a shielding effect of the existent radial shields around the reactor core. Further, if a shield lacking portion is locally disposed in the region of the upper axial shields just below the neutron monitor, neutrons from the reactor core can be monitored while suppressing excessive neutron leakage. As a result, it is unnecessary to dispose shields on the outer side of the spent fuel assembly disposed in the reactor core. (I.S.)

  9. Reactor building for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidlen, F.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the improvement of the design of a liner, supported by a latticed steel girder structure and destined for guaranteeing a gastight closure for the plant compartments in the reactor building of a pressurized water reactor. It is intended to provide the steel girder structure on their top side with grates, being suited for walking upon, and to hang on their lower side diaphragms in modular construction as a liner. At the edges they may be sealed with bellows in order to avoid thermal stresses. The steel girder structure may at the same time serve as supports for parts of the steam pipe. (RW) [de

  10. Reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, W.; Richter, G.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement is proposed concerning the easier disengagement of the coupling at the reactor coolant pump for a nuclear reactor transporting a pressurized coolant. According to the invention the disengaging coupling consists of two parts separated by screws. At least one of the screws contains a propellent charge ananged within a bore and provided with a speed-dependent ignition device in such a way that by separation of the screws at overspeeds the coupling is disengaged. The sub-claims are concerned with the kind of ignition ot the propellent charge. (UWI) [de

  11. Mirror reactor surface study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. L.; Damm, C. C.; Futch, A. H.; Hiskes, J. R.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Moir, R. W.; Simonen, T. C.; Stallard, B. W.; Taylor, C. E.

    1976-09-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included.

  12. Iris reactor conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.E.; Petrovic, B.; Paramonov, D.V. [Westinghouse Electric Comp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Galvin, M.; Todreas, N.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lombardi, C.V.; Maldari, F.; Ricotti, M.E. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Cinotti, L. [Ansaldo SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  13. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  14. Mirror reactor surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.L.; Damm, C.C.; Futch, A.H.; Hiskes, J.R.; Meisenheimer, R.G.; Moir, R.W.; Simonen, T.C.; Stallard, B.W.; Taylor, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  15. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  16. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Akira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent misoperation in a control system for the adjustment of core coolant flow rate, and the increase in the neutron flux density caused from the misoperation in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a reactor power control system adapted to control the reactor power by the adjustment of core flow rate, average neutron flux signals of a reactor core, entire core flow rate signals and operation state signals for coolant recycling system are inputted to a microcomputer. The outputs from the computer are sent to a recycling MG set speed controller to control the reactor core flow rate. The computer calculates the change ratio with time in the average neutron flux signals, correlation between the average neutron flux signals and the entire core flow rate signals, change ratio with time in the operation state signals for the coolant recycling system and the like and judges the abnormality in the coolant recycling system based on the calculated results. (Ikeda, J.)

  17. Status of French reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-01-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm 3 . The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U 3 Si 2 as soon as its present stock of UO 2 fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU

  18. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1983 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  19. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Jitsuya; Asaoka, Takumi; Suzuki, Tomoo; Mitani, Hiroshi; Akino, Fujiyoshi

    1977-09-01

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1976 are described. Works of the division concern mainly the development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  20. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Research activities conducted in Reactor Engineering Division in fiscal 1975 are summarized in this report. Works in the division are closely related to the development of multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering research of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Many achievements are described concerning nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  1. Mirror reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Bender, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Design studies of a fusion mirror reactor, a fusion-fission mirror reactor, and two small mirror reactors are summarized. The fusion reactor uses 150-keV neutral-beam injectors based on the acceleration of negative ions. The injectors provide over 1 GW of continuous power at an efficiency greater than 80%. The fusion reactor has three-stage, modularized, Venetian blind, plasma direct converter with a predicted efficiency of 59% and a new concept for removal of the lune-shaped blanket: a crane is brought between the two halves of the Yin-Yang magnet, which are separated by a float. The design has desirable features such as steady-state operation, minimal impurity problems, and low first-wall thermal stress. The major disadvantage is low Q resulting in high re-circulating power and hence high cost of electrical power. However, the direct capital cost per unit of gross electrical power is reasonable [$1000/kW(e)]. By contrast, the fusion-fission reactor design is not penalized by re-circulating power and uses relatively near-term fusion technology being developed for the fusion power program. New results are presented on the Th- 233 U and the U- 239 Pu fuel cycles. The purpose of this hybrid is fuel production, with projected costs at $55/g of Pu or $127/g of 233 U. Blanket and cooling system designs, including an emergency cooling system, by General Atomic Company, lead us to the opinion that the reactor can meet expected safety standards for licensing. The smallest mirror reactor having only a shield between the plasma and the coil is the 4.2-m long fusion engineering research facility (FERF) designed for material irradiation. The smallest mirror reactor having both a blanket and shield is the 7.5-m long experimental power reactor (EPR), which has both a fusion and a fusion-fission version. (author)

  2. Multi-purpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Multi-Purpose-Reactor (MPR), is a pool-type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. Its main feature is plant safety and reliability. Its power is 22MW t h, cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium. It has platetype fuel elements (MTR type, approx. 20%. enriched uranium) clad in aluminium. Its cobalt (Co 60 ) production capacity is 50000 Ci/yr, 200 Ci/gr. The distribution of the reactor core and associated control and safety systems is essentially based on the following design criteria: - upwards cooling flow, to waive the need for cooling flow inversion in case the reactor is cooled by natural convection if confronted with a loss of pumping power, and in order to establish a superior heat transfer potential (a higher coolant saturation temperature); - easy access to the reactor core from top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power, in order to facilitate actual implementation of experiments. Consequently, mechanisms associated to control and safety rods s,re located underneath the reactor tank; - free access of reactor personnel to top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power. This aids in the training of personnel and the actual carrying out of experiments, hence: - a vast water column was placed over the core to act as radiation shielding; - the core's external area is cooled by a downwards flow which leads to a decay tank beyond the pool (for N 16 to decay); - a small downwards flow was directed to stream downwards from above the reactor core in order to drag along any possibly active element; and - a stagnant hot layer system was placed at top of pool level so as to minimize the upwards coolant flow rising towards pool level

  3. Reactor performance calculations for water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    1970-04-01

    The principles of nuclear, thermal and hydraulic performance calculations for water cooled reactors are discussed. The principles are illustrated by describing their implementation in the UKAEA PATRIARCH scheme of computer codes. This material was originally delivered as a course of lectures at the Technical University of Helsinki in Summer of 1969.

  4. Reactor scram device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Arashida, Genji; Itooka, Satoshi.

    1991-01-01

    In a control rod attaching structure in a reactor scram device of an FBR type reactor, an anti-rising mechanism proposed so far against external upward force upon occurrence of earthquakes relies on the engagement of a mechanical structure but temperature condition is not taken into consideration. Then, in the present invention, a material having curie temperature characteristics and which exhibits ferromagnetism only under low temperature condition and a magnet device are disposed to one of a movable control rod and a portion secured to the reactor. Alternatively, a bimetal member or a shape memory alloy which actuates to fix to the mating member only under low temperature condition is secured. The fixing device is adapted to operate so as to secure the control rods when the low temperature state is caused depending on the temperature condition. With such a constitution, when the control rods are separated from a driving device, they are prevented from rising even if they undergo external upward force due to earthquakes and so on, which can improve the reactor safety. (N.H.)

  5. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992-March 31, 1993). The major Department's programs promoted in the year are the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor, the design activities of advanced reactor system and development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the engineering applications including TRU incineration. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on the nuclear data and group constants, the developments of theoretical methods and codes, the reactor physics experiments and their analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project were also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  6. Reactor engineering department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1989 (April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990). One of major Department's programs is the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor and the design activities of advanced reactor system. Development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the nuclear engineering including is also TRU incineration promoted. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on nuclear data and group constants, theoretical methods and code development, on reactor physics experiments and analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics, technology assessment of nuclear energy and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  7. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  8. Reactor safety protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Tsuguo.

    1989-01-01

    A plurality of neutron detectors are disposed around a reactor core and detection signals from optional two neutron detectors are inputted into a ratio calculation device. If the ratio between both of the neutron flux level signals exceeds a predetermined value, a reactor trip signal is generated from an alarm setting device. Further, detection signals from all of the neutron detection devices are inputted into an average calculation device and the reactor trip signal is generated also in a case where the average value exceeds a predetermined set value. That is, when the reactor core power is increased locally, the detection signal from the neutron detector nearer to the point of power increase is greater than the increase rate for the entire reactor core power, while the detection signal from the neutron detector remote from the point of power increase is smaller. Thus, the local power increase ratio in the FBR reactor core can be detected efficiently by calculating the ratio for the neutron flux level signals from two neutron detectors, thereby enabling to exactly recognize the local power increase rate in the reactor core. (N.H.)

  9. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaruoka, Hiromitsu.

    1994-01-01

    A high pressure water injection recycling system comprising injection pipelines of a high pressure water injection system and a flow rate control means in communication with a pool of a pressure control chamber is disposed to a feedwater system of a BWR type reactor. In addition, the flow rate control means is controlled by a power control device comprising a scram impossible transient event judging section, a required injection flow rate calculation section for high pressure water injection system and a control signal calculation section. Feed water flow rate to be supplied to the reactor is controlled upon occurrence of a scram impossible transient event of the reactor. The scram impossible transient event is judged based on reactor output signals and scram operation demand signals and injection flow rate is calculated based on a predetermined reactor water level, and condensate storage tank water or pressure control chamber pool water is injected to the reactor. With such procedures, water level can be ensured and power can be suppressed. Further, condensate storage tank water of low enthalpy is introduced to the pressure suppression chamber pool to directly control elevation of water temperature and ensure integrity of the pressure vessel and the reactor container. (N.H.)

  10. Nuclear reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Murase, Michio.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor containing facility, a condensation means is disposed above the water level of a cooling water pool to condensate steams of the cooling water pool, and return the condensated water to the cooling water pool. Upon occurrence of a pipeline rupture accident, steams generated by after-heat of a reactor core are caused to flow into a bent tube, blown from the exit of the bent tube into a suppression pool and condensated in a suppression pool water, thereby suppressing the pressure in the reactor container. Cooling water in the cooling water pool is boiled by heat conduction due to the condensation of steams, then the steams are exhausted to the outside of the reactor container to remove the heat of the reactor container to the outside of the reactor. In addition, since cooling water is supplied to the cooling water pool quasi-permanently by gravity as a natural force, the reactor container can be cooled by the cooling water pool for a long period of time. Since the condensation means is constituted with a closed loop and interrupted from the outside, radioactive materials are never released to the outside. (N.H.)

  11. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  12. The integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3rd, 1986, two demonstrations of the inherent capability of sodium-cooled fast reactors to survive unprotected loss of cooling accidents were carried out on the experimental sodium-cooled power reactor, EBR-II, on the Idaho site of Argonne National Laboratory. Transients potentially of the most serious kind, one an unprotected loss of flow, the other an unprotected loss of heat sink, both initiated from full power. In both cases the reactor quietly shut itself down, without damage of any kind. These tests were a part of the on-going development program at Argonne to develop an advanced reactor with significant new inherent safety characteristics. Called the integral fast reactor, or IFR, the basic thrust is to develop everything that is needed for a complete nuclear power system - reactor, closed fuel cycle, and waste processing - as a single optimized entity, and, for simplicity in concept, as an integral part of a single plant. The particular selection of reactor materials emphasizes inherent safety characteristics also makes possible a simplified close fuel cycle and waste process improvements. The paper describes the IFR concept, the inherent safety, tests, and status of IFR development today

  13. Water cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to reduce any loss of primary water coolant from around a reactor core of a water cooled nuclear reactor caused by any failure of a pressure vessel, an inner vessel is positioned within and spaced from the pressure vessel. The reactor core and main portion of the primary water coolant circuit and a heat exchanger are positioned within the inner vessel to maintain some primary water coolant around the reactor core and to allow residual decay heat to be removed from the reactor core by the heat exchanger. In the embodiment shown an aperture at the upper region of the inner vessel is dimensioned configured and arranged to prevent steam from a steam space of an integral pressurised water cooled nuclear reactor for a ship entering the main portion of the primary water coolant circuit in the inner vessel if the longitudinal axis of the nuclear reactor is displaced from its normal substantially vertical position to an abnormal position at an angle to the vertical direction. Shields are integral with the inner vessel. (author)

  14. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Reactor monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shigehiro.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors the stability of a power of a BWR type reactor by using each of recycling flow rates in addition to a reactor core flow rate to improve monitoring accuracy. Namely, a set value registering means is disposed for registering reactor core flow rate set values corresponding to the number of recycling flow rates not reaching a reference value for each of the recycling flow rates. A reactor flow rate take-out means judges whether each of the recycling flow rates reaches the reference value or not. The set values of the set value registering means are taken out based on the number of each of the recycling flow rate signals not reaching the reference values. The taken out set value and calculated reactor core flow rate value are compared by an abnormal alarm means. When calculated value is smaller than the set value, abnormality is informed. The accuracy for the monitoring is improved by monitoring the reactor power by using each of recycling flow rates in addition to the reactor core flow rate. (I.S.)

  16. Nuclear reactor control column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest crosssectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor

  17. The integral fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    On April 3rd, 1986, two dramatic demonstrations of the inherent capability of sodium-cooled fast reactors to survive unprotected loss of cooling accidents were carried out on the experimental sodium-cooled power reactor, EBR-II, on the Idaho site of Argonne National Laboratory. Transients potentially of the most serious kind, one an unprotected loss of flow, the other an unprotected loss of heat sink, both initiated from full power. In both cases the reactor quietly shut itself down, without damage of any kind. These tests were a part of the on-going development program at Argonne to develop an advanced reactor with significant new inherent safety characteristics. Called the Integral Fast Reactor, or IFR, the basic thrust is to develop everything that is needed for a complete nuclear power system - reactor, closed fuel cycle, and waste processing - as a single optimized entity, and, for simplicity in concept, as an integral part of a single plant. The particular selection of reactor materials emphasizes inherent safety characteristics and also makes possible a simplified closed fuel cycle and waste process improvements

  18. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  19. Reactor safety device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Yasumasa.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To scram control rods by processing signals from a plurality of temperature detectors and generating abnormal temperature warning upon occurrence of abnormal temperature in a nuclear reactor. Constitution: A temperature sensor comprising a plurality of reactors each having a magnetic body as the magnetic core having a curie point different from each other and corresponding to the abnormal temperature against which reactor core fuels have to be protected is disposed in an identical instrumentation well near the reactor core fuel outlet/inlet of a reactor. A temperature detection device actuated upon detection of an abnormal temperature by the abrupt reduction of the reactance of each of the reactors is disposed. An OR circuit and an AND circuit for conducting OR and AND operations for each of the abnormal temperature detection signals from the temperature detection device are disposed. The output from the OR circuit is used as the abnormal temperature warning signal, while the output from the AND circuit is utilized as a signal for actuating the scram operation of control rod drive mechanisms. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability of the reactor scram system, particularly, improve the reliability under a high temperature atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Inherently safe reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartensson, Anders

    1992-01-01

    A rethinking of nuclear reactor safety has created proposals for new designs based on inherent and passive safety principles. Diverging interpretations of these concepts can be found. This article reviews the key features of proposed advanced power reactors. An evaluation is made of the degree of inherent safety for four different designs: the AP-600, the PIUS, the MHTGR and the PRISM. The inherent hazards of today's most common reactor principles are used as reference for the evaluation. It is concluded that claims for the new designs being inherently, naturally or passively safe are not substantiated by experience. (author)

  1. Reactor safety assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.E.; Bray, M.A.; King, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS) is an expert system under development for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). RSA is designed for use at the USNRC Operations Center in the event of a serious incident at a licensed nuclear power plant. RSAS is a situation assessment expert system which uses plant parametric data to generate conclusions for use by the NRC Reactor Safety Team. RSAS uses multiple rule bases and plant specific setpoint files to be applicable to all licensed nuclear power plants in the United States. RSAS currently covers several generic reactor categories and multiple plants within each category

  2. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The subject of this invention is a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor construction in which a concrete pit is lagged to protect it from the heat radiated from the reactor in normal operation but in which the efficiency of the lagging is reduced in case of emergency to allow the excess heat generated by the reactor to be dissipated throughout the pit. The lagging is in two layers, the first covering the internal surface of the pit wall is impermeable to the liquid metal, whilst the second layer over the first is permeable [fr

  3. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiroyuki.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To provide a reactor shutdown device suitable to the low temperature shutdown of a heavy water-moderated type nuclear reactor and capable of ensuring an adequate shutdown margin. Constitution : Xenon reactivity is calculated based on the detection signals for reactor neutrons, the temperature reactivity is calculated based on the temperature of the moderators and of the coolants and, further, poisons in the moderators are detected. Injection amount of the poisons is calculated based on the result of the calculation and the detection, and the calculated amount of poisons is injected into the moderators. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Mirror machine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.; Moir, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    Recent mirror reactor conceptual design studies are described. Considered in detail is the design of ''standard'' Yin-Yang fusion power reactors with classical and enhanced confinement. It is shown that to be economically competitive with estimates for other future energy sources, mirror reactors require a considerable increase in Q, or major design simplifications, or preferably both. These improvements may require a departure from the ''standard'' configuration. Two attractive possibilities, both of which would use much of the same physics and technology as the ''standard'' mirror, are the field reversed mirror and the end-stoppered mirror

  5. Reactor flux calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhuillier, D. [Commissariat à l' Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPhN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15

    The status of the prediction of reactor anti-neutrino spectra is presented. The most accurate method is still the conversion of total β spectra of fissionning isotopes as measured at research reactors. Recent re-evaluations of the conversion process led to an increased predicted flux by few percent and were at the origin of the so-called reactor anomaly. The up to date predictions are presented with their main sources of error. Perspectives are given on the complementary ab-initio predictions and upcoming experimental cross-checks of the predicted spectrum shape.

  6. Reactor pressure tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, H.; Scholz, M.; Jungmann, A.

    1975-01-01

    In a reactor pressure tank for a nuclear reactor, self-locking hooks engage a steel ring disposed over the removable cover of the steel vessel. The hooks exert force upon the cover to maintain the cover in a closed position during operation of the reactor pressure tank. The force upon the removal cover is partly the result of the increasing temperature and thermal expansion of the steel vessel during operation. The steel vessel is surrounded by a reinforced-concrete tank. (U.S.)

  7. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Operating Units Status Report --- Licensed Operating Reactors provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff on NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non- power reactors in the US

  8. Reactor BR2: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. A safety audit was conduced by the IAEA, the conclusions of which demonstrated the excellent performance of the plant in terms of operational safety. In 1999, the CALLISTO facility was extensively used for various programmes involving LWR pressure vessel materials, IASCC of LWR structural materials, fusion reactor materials and martensic steels for use in ADS systems. In 1999, BR2's commercial programmes were further developed

  9. Nuclear reactor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    This textbook is composed of two parts. Part 1 'Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory' is composed of only elements but the main resource for the lecture of nuclear reactor theory, and should be studied as common knowledge. Much space is therefore devoted to the history of nuclear energy production and to nuclear physics, and the material focuses on the principles of energy production in nuclear reactors. However, considering the heavy workload of students, these subjects are presented concisely, allowing students to read quickly through this textbook. (J.P.N.)

  10. Power reactor design trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade and Pulse Star represent new trends in ICF power reactor design that have emerged in the last few years. The most recent embodiments of these two concepts, and that of the HYLIFE design with which they will compare them, are shown. All three reactors depend upon protecting structural elements from neutrons, x rays and debris by injecting massive amounts of shielding material inside the reaction chamber. However, Cascade and Pulse Star introduce new ideas to improve the economics, safety, and environmental impact of ICF reactors. They also pose different development issues and thus represent technological alternatives to HYLIFE

  11. Reactor power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisawa, Teruaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To restore reactor-power condition in a minimum time after a termination of turbine bypass by reducing the throttling of the reactor power at the time of load-failure as low as possible. Constitution: The transient change of the internal pressure of condenser is continuously monitored. When a turbine is bypassed, a speed-control-command signal for a coolant recirculating pump is generated according as the internal pressure of the condenser. When the signal relating to the internal pressure of the condenser indicates insufficient power, a reactor-control-rod-drive signal is generated. (J.P.N.)

  12. Research reactor support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have been used in a wide range of applications including nuclear power development, basic physics research, education and training, medical isotope production, geology, industry and other fields. However, many research reactors are fuelled with High Enriched Uranium (HEU), are underutilized and aging, and have significant quantities of spent fuel. HEU inventories (fresh and spent) pose security risks Unavailability of a high-density-reprocessable fuel hinders conversion and limits back-end options and represents a survival dilemma for many RRs. Improvement of interim spent fuel storage is required at some RRs. Many RRs are under-utilized and/or inadequately funded and need to find users for their services, or permanently shut down and eventually decommission. Reluctance to decommission affect both cost and safety (loss of experienced staff ) and many shut down but not decommissioned RR with fresh and/or spent fuel at the sites invoke serious concern. The IAEA's research reactor support helps to ensure that research reactors can be operated efficiently with fuels and targets of lower proliferation and security concern and that operators have appropriate technology and options to manage RR fuel cycle issues, especially on long term interim storage of spent research reactor fuel. Availability of a high-density-reprocessable fuel would expand and improve back end options. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to convert research reactors from High Enriched Uranium fuel and targets (for medical isotope production) to qualified Low Enriched Uranium fuel and targets while maintaining reactor performance levels. The assistance includes provision of handbooks and training in the performance of core conversion studies, advice for the procurement of LEU fuel, and expert services for LEU fuel acceptance. The IAEA further provides technical and administrative support for countries considering repatriation of its

  13. Reactors of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    Basic data relating to 127 power reactors in 15 countries which are expected to be in operation at the end of this year, with a total installed electrical generating capacity of 35 340.15 MW(e), and a listing of 361 research reactors in 46 countries are given in the 1971 edition of the IAEA handbook, Power and Research Reactors in Member States, which has just been published. This edition, the fourth, was prepared especially for the Fourth International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. (author)

  14. Elmo Bumpy Torus Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAlees, D.G.; Uckan, N.A.; Lidsky, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    In the Elmo Bumpy Torus Reactor (EBTR) study the feasibility of achieving a fusion power plant based on the EBT confinement concept was evaluated. If the present understanding of the physics can be extrapolated to reactor scale devices the reactor could operate at high beta, high power density, and at steady state. The high aspect ratio of the device eases the accessibility, structural design and remote maintenance problems which are common to low aspect ratio machines. A version of the EBTR reference design described here could be constructed with only minor extrapolations in available technology

  15. Nuclear reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a safety system for a nuclear reactor which uses a parallel combination of computer type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular parameter (from transducers located in the reactor system) and each of which produces the functional counterpart of that particular parameter. The various functional counterparts are then added together to form a control signal for shutting down the reactor. The functional counterparts are developed by analysis of experimental thermal and hydraulic data, which are used to form expressions that define safe conditions

  16. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  17. First Algerian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, both the Algerian Commissariat of New Energies and the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission plus the firm INVAP S.E., started a series of mutual visits aimed at defining the mechanisms for cooperation in the nuclear field. Within this framework, a commercial contract was undersigned covering the supply of a low-power reactor (RUN), designed for basic and applied research in the fields of reactor physics and nuclear engineering. The reactor may also be used for performing experiences with neutron beams, for the irradiation of several materials and for the training of technicians, scientists and operators [es

  18. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamer, B.J.; Bidwell, R.M.; Hammond, R.P.

    1959-09-15

    Homogeneous reactor fuel solutions are reported which provide automatic recombination of radiolytic gases and exhibit large thermal expansion characteristics, thereby providing stability at high temperatures and enabling reactor operation without the necessity of apparatus to recombine gases formed by the radiolytic dissociation of water in the fuel and without the necessity of liquid fuel handling outside the reactor vessel except for recovery processes. The fuels consist of phosphoric acid and water solutions of enriched uranium, wherein the uranium is in either the hexavalent or tetravalent state.

  20. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  1. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  2. Special lecture on nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Nam Jin

    1993-08-01

    This book gives a special lecture on nuclear reactor, which is divided into two parts. The first part has explanation on nuclear design of nuclear reactor and analysis of core with theories of integral transports, diffusion Nodal, transports Nodal and Monte Carlo skill parallel computer and nuclear calculation and speciality of transmutation reactor. The second part deals with speciality of nuclear reactor and control with nonlinear stabilization of nuclear reactor, nonlinear control of nuclear reactor, neural network and control of nuclear reactor, control theory of observer and analysis method of Adomian.

  3. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    Research activities in fiscal 1974 in Reactor Engineering Division of eight laboratories and computing center are described. Works in the division are closely related with the development of a multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering of thermonuclear fusion reactors. They cover nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and aspects of the computing center. (auth.)

  4. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 Ra reactor was not operated. New instrumentation is not complete, without it, it is not possible to think about reactor start-up. Since 1985, when reactor operation was forbidden, there are 480 fuel elements left in 48 fuel channels in the reactor core. Heavy water was removed from the reactor core because of the repair of the heavy water pumps in 1986. The old instrumentation was removed. Eleven years after being left to its own destiny, it would be difficult to imagine that anybody would think of reactor restart without examining the state of reactor vessel and other vital reactor components. Maintaining the reactor under existing conditions without final decision about restart or permanent shutdown is destructive for this nuclear facility. The existing state that pertains for more than 10 years would have only one result, destruction of the RA reactor [sr

  5. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In 1998 Ra reactor was not operated. New instrumentation is not complete, without it, it is not possible to think about reactor start-up. Since 1985, when reactor operation was forbidden, there are 480 fuel elements left in 48 fuel channels in the reactor core. Heavy water was removed from the reactor core because of the repair of the heavy water pumps in 1986. The old instrumentation was removed. Eleven years after being left to its own destiny, it would be difficult to imagine that anybody would think of reactor restart without examining the state of reactor vessel and other vital reactor components. Maintaining the reactor under existing conditions without final decision about restart or permanent shutdown is destructive for this nuclear facility. The existing state that pertains for more than 10 years would have only one result, destruction of the RA reactor [sr

  6. RA Reactor applications, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cupac, S.; Vukadin, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 Ra reactor was not operated. New instrumentation is not complete, without it, it is not possible to think about reactor start-up. Since 1985, when reactor operation was forbidden, there are 480 fuel elements left in 48 fuel channels in the reactor core. Heavy water was removed from the reactor core because of the repair of the heavy water pumps in 1986. The old instrumentation was removed. Eleven years after being left to its own destiny, it would be difficult to imagine that anybody would think of reactor restart without examining the state of reactor vessel and other vital reactor components. Maintaining the reactor under existing conditions without final decision about restart or permanent shutdown is destructive for this nuclear facility. The existing state that pertains for more than 10 years would have only one result, destruction of the RA reactor [sr

  7. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the earthquake proofness and also increase the safety to a nuclear reactor container by preventing bucklings upon earthquake. Constitution: A device for absorbing the deformation exerted from nuclear reactor buildings is disposed to a suppression chamber constituting a reactor container. When a nclear power plant encounters earthquakes, the entire reactor buildings are shaken and deformations of buildings are transmitted by way of building shell walls to a container and the forcive deforming forces are absorbed in the deformation absorbing device. That is, bellows are formed at the base of the container, which are deformed by the deforming forces to absorb the forcive deforming amount to moderate the stresses resulted to the suppression chamber. Thus, the rigidity to the bending of the container can be reduced and allowable displacement to the bucklings can be increased to prevent the buckling, by which earthquake proofness is improved and the safety is increased. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  10. Nuclear reactor (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, M.L.

    1960-01-01

    The first French plutonium-making reactors G1, G2 and G3 built at Marcoule research center are linked to a power plant. The G1 electrical output does not offset the energy needed for operating this reactor. On the contrary, reactors G2 and G3 will each generate a net power of 25 to 30 MW, which will go into the EDF grid. This power is relatively small, but the information obtained from operation is great and will be helpful for starting up the power reactor EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3. The paper describes how, previous to any starting-up operation, the tests performed, especially those concerned with the power plant and the pressure vessel, have helped to bring the commissioning date closer. (author) [fr

  11. Backfitting of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delrue, R.; Noesen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The backfitting of research reactors covers a variety of activities. 1. Instrumentation and control: Control systems have developed rapidly and many reactor operators wish to replace obsolete equipment by new systems. 2. Pool liners: Some pools are lined internally with ceramic tiles. These may become pervious with time necessitating replacement, e.g. by a new stainless steel liner. 3. Heat removal system: Deficiencies can occur in one or more of the cooling system components. Upgrading may require modifications of the system such as addition of primary loops, introduction of deactivation tanks, pump replacement. Recent experience in such work has shown that renewal, backfitting and upgrading of an existing reactor is economically attractive since the related costs and delivery times are substantially lower than those required to install a new research reactor

  12. Ageing of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocanescu, M.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, many of the research institutions were centred on a research reactor facility as main technological asset and major source of neutrons for research. Important achievements were made in time in these research institutions for development of nuclear materials technology and nuclear safety for nuclear energy. At present, ageing of nuclear research facilities among these research reactors and ageing of staff are considerable factors of reduction of competence in research centres. The safe way of mitigation of this trend deals with ageing management by so called, for power reactors, Plant Life Management and new investments in staff as investments in research, or in future resources of competence. A programmatic approach of ageing of research reactors in correlation with their actual and future utilisation, will be used as a basis for safety evaluation and future spending. (author)

  13. Integrated nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pales, I.; Hasko, V.

    1984-01-01

    The reactor is provided with an integrated circuit of primary medium circulation with hydraulic pump drive. The pump drive which is a blade hydraulic facility is placed in the reactor vessel together with the pump. The primary medium flows through the core and enters the inter-tube space of the secondary circuit heat exchanger. The secondary circuit medium is supplied under the bottom tube plate with a supply pipe. From it the flow of secondary medium is directed to the blades of the hydraulic facility, e.g. the turbine. The turbine drives the pump which transports the primary medium to the reactor core. The secondary medium enters the heat exchanger tubes and through their walls receives the heat from the primary medium. This design reduces capital costs of the reactor and increases its safety. (E.S.)

  14. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  15. Inertial thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, Haruki; Oomura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Norio.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the durability of the first wall. Constitution: A reactor cavity for performing inertial thermofusion is defined within a vessel of a thermonuclear reactor, and the first wall of a tubular structure flowing coolants for taking out thermonuclear energy generated in the reactor cavity as the heat energy to the outside of the reactor is disposed, in which jet nozzles are disposed to the inside of the first wall that pulse-width jet coolants to form coolant membranes on the inner circumferential surface of the first wall to thereby surround the fire ball by the membrane of the coolants. Thus, the energy of the fire ball can be reduced by the membrane of the coolants, whereby the thermal loads and impact loads to the first wall can be moderated to substantially increase the working life and improve the safety of the first wall for which the greatest stress load is expected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Reactor pressure vessel support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butti, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    A link and pin support system provides the primary vertical and lateral support for a nuclear reactor pressure vessel without restricting thermally induced radial and vertical expansion and contraction

  17. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Michihira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To equalize heavy water flow distribution by providing a nozzle for externally injecting heavy water from a vibration preventive plate to the upper portion to feed the heavy water in a pressure tube reactor and swallowing up heavy water in a calandria tank to supply the heavy water to the reactor core above the vibration preventive plate. Constitution: A moderator injection nozzle is mounted on the inner wall of a calandria tank. Heavy water is externally injected above the vibration preventive plate, and heavy water in the calandria tank is swallowed up to supply the heavy water to the core reactor above the vibration preventive plate. Therefore, the heavy water flow distribution can be equalized over the entire reactor core, and the distribution of neutron absorber dissolved in the heavy water is equalized. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  19. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the past two years, scientists from Argonne have developed an advanced breeder reactor with a closed self contained fuel cycle. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a new reactor concept, adaptable to a variety of designs, that is based on a fuel cycle radically different from the CRBR line of breeder development. The essential features of the IFR are metal fuel, pool layout, and pyro- and electro-reprocessing in a facility integral with the reactor plant. The IFR shows promise to provide an inexhaustible, safe, economic, environmentally acceptable, and diversion resistant source of nuclear power. It shows potential for major improvement in all of the areas that have led to concern about nuclear power

  20. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system

  1. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  2. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  3. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  4. Small reactor operating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    There is a potential need for small reactors in the future for applications such as district heating, electricity production at remote sites, and desalination. Nuclear power can provide these at low cost and with insignificant pollution. The economies required by the small scale application, and/or the remote location, require a review of the size and location of the operating staff. Current concepts range all the way from reactors which are fully automatic, and need no local attention for days or weeks, to those with reduced local staff. In general the less dependent a reactor is on local human intervention, the greater its dependence on intrinsic safety features such as passive decay heat removal, low-stored energy and limited reactivity speed and depth in the control systems. A case study of the design and licensing of the SLOWPOKE Energy System heating reactor is presented. (author)

  5. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  6. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  7. Pressurized water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Design and mode of operation of the main PWR components are described: reactor core, pressure vessel and internals, cooling systems with pumps and steam generators, ancillary systems, and waste processing. (TK) [de

  8. Rec.: Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka, Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa, Wydawnictwo LIBRON – Filip Lohner, Kraków 2014, ss. 286

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Jarosz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Review: Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka, Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalnosemantyczna słownictwa, Wydawnictwo LIBRON – Filip Lohner, Kraków 2014, 286 pp. The article is a review of Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka’s book Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa (The sociolect of Polish mountaineers. A lexical and semantic analysis of the vocabulary. First, the text summarizes the subject matter of this monograph, devoted to a hitherto undescribed variety of the Polish language. It then goes on to characterize the composition of the book and its methodology. Finally, some problematic points are indicated – concerning, among other things, the classification of the language variety analyzed or the development of its vocabulary – and alternative lexical and semantic solutions are suggested.   Rec.: Anna Niepytalska-Osiecka, Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa, Wydawnictwo LIBRON – Filip Lohner, Kraków 2014, ss. 286 Artykuł stanowi recenzję książki Anny Niepytalskiej-Osieckiej pt. Socjolekt polskich alpinistów. Analiza leksykalno-semantyczna słownictwa. W tekście przybliżono zawartą w monografii problematykę poświęconą nieopisanemu dotychczas wariantowi polszczyzny oraz scharakteryzowano zastosowane rozwiązania kompozycyjne i analityczne. Wskazano również punkty dyskusyjne dotyczące m.in. klasyfikacji opisywanego wariantu polszczyzny czy procesu kształtowania się jego zasobu słownego, a także zasugerowano alternatywne rozstrzygnięcia leksykalno-semantyczne.

  9. K-Reactor readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes some of the more significant accomplishments in the reactor restart program and details the magnitude and extent of the work completed to bring K-Reactor to a state of restart readiness. The discussion of restart achievements is organized into the three major categories of personnel, programs, and plant. Also presented is information on the scope and extent of internal and external oversight of the efforts, as well as some details on the startup plan

  10. Polymeric Membrane Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Sousa; Luís M. Madeira; João C. Santos; Adélio Mendes

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is the study of membrane reactors with polymeric membranes, particularly catalytic polymeric membranes. After an introduction where the main advantages and disadvantages of the use of polymeric membranes are summarised, a review of the main areas where they have been applied, integrated in chemical reactors, is presented. This excludes the field of bio-membranes processes, which is analysed in a specific chapter of this book. Particular attention is then given to model...

  11. Alternative breeder reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of employing breeder reactors to stretch the world resources of nuclear fuels is briefly discussed, and the various types of breeder concepts are described. General descriptions, advantages, and disadvantages of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder, gas cooled fast breeder, molten salt breeder, thermal breeders, and spectral-shift control reactors are presented. Aspects of safeguarding fissile material connected with breeder operation are examined. 31 references

  12. Reactor Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    The present status and the prospects for development of reactor neutron sources for neutron scattering research in the world are considered. The fields of application of neutron scattering relative to synchrotron radiation, the creation stages of reactors (steady state and pulsed) and their position in comparison with spallation neutron sources at present and in the foreseen future are discussed. (author). 15 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. KS-150 reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, K.

    1974-01-01

    A thorough description is presented of the control and protection system of the Bohunice A-1 reactor. The system including auxiliary facilities was developed, manufactured and installed at the reactor by the SKODA Works, Plzen. The system parameters are listed and a brief account is also given of the development efforts and of the physical and power start-up of the A-1 nuclear power plant. (L.O.)

  14. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  16. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the OECD Halden Reactor Project for the year 1976. The main items reported on are: a) the process supervision and control which have focused on core monitoring and control, and operator-process communication; b) the fuel performance and safety behavior which have provided data and analytical descriptions of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of fuel under various operating conditions; c) the reactor operations and d) the administration and finance

  17. Generation IV reactors: economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, B.; Bertel, E.

    2003-01-01

    The operating nuclear reactors were built over a short period: no more than 10 years and today their average age rounds 18 years. EDF (French electricity company) plans to renew its reactor park over a far longer period : 30 years from 2020 to 2050. According to EDF this objective implies 3 constraints: 1) a service life of 50 to 60 years for a significant part of the present operating reactors, 2) to be ready to built a generation 3+ unit in 2020 which infers the third constraint: 3) to launch the construction of an EPR (European pressurized reactor) prototype as soon as possible in order to have it operating in 2010. In this scheme, generation 4 reactor will benefit the feedback experience of generation 3 and will take over in 2030. Economic analysis is an important tool that has been used by the generation 4 international forum to select the likely future reactor systems. This analysis is based on 4 independent criteria: the basic construction cost, the construction time, the operation and maintenance costs and the fuel cycle cost. This analysis leads to the evaluation of the global cost of electricity generation and of the total investment required for each of the reactor system. The former defines the economic competitiveness in a de-regulated energy market while the latter is linked to the financial risk taken by the investor. It appears, within the limits of the assumptions and models used, that generation 4 reactors will be characterized by a better competitiveness and an equivalent financial risk when compared with the previous generation. (A.C.)

  18. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  19. Regulations for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions [sr

  20. Reactor of the XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhotabaev, Zh.R.; Solov'ev, Yu.A.

    2001-01-01

    The advantages of both molten salt reactors (MSR) and homogenous molten salt reactors (HMSR) are illuminated. It is noted that the MSR possess accident probability A=10 -6 1/reactor.years and the HMSR with integral configuration has A=10 -7 1/reactor.years. The methods for these reactors technological problems solution - tritium removal, salt melt circulation and capacity pick up - are discussed

  1. Licensing of nuclear reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    Recommendations are presented for the licensing of nuclear reactor operators in units licensed according to the legislation in effect. They apply to all physical persons designated by the Operating Organization of the nuclear reactor or reactors to execute any of the following functional activities: a) to manipulate the controls of a definite reactor b) to direct the authorized activities of the reactor operators licesed according to the present recommendations. (F.E.) [pt

  2. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichige, Masayuki; Ishige, Takanori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring a power such as of a nuclear fission reactor or a thermonuclear reactor by utilizing a light emitting phenomenon by radiation rays of gases. Namely, a measuring vessel sealed with a gas scintillator is inserted to the inside of a reactor. The measuring vessel is optically connected to a photoelectric convertor. The photoelectric convertor is electrically connected with a signal processing device. With such a constitution, gases sealed in the measuring vessel are ionized by radiation rays released in proportion to the power of the reactor to cause scintillation emission. The light is converted into electric signals by the photoelectric convertor. Reactor power can be monitored by the signal processing device having the electric signals as an input. According to the present invention, since the gas scintillation detector is used, the device is simplified and time responsiveness can be improved. As a result, the function of the reactor power measuring device can be improved. (I.S.)

  3. Materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, K.; Kaletta, D.

    1978-03-01

    The following report describes five papers which were given during the IMF seminar series summer 1977. The purpose of this series was to discuss especially the irradiation behaviour of materials intended for the first wall of future fusion reactors. The first paper deals with the basic understanding of plasma physics relating to the fusion reactor and presents the current state of art of fusion technology. The next two talks discuss the metals intended for the first wall and structural components of a fusion reactor. Since 14 MeV neutrons play an important part in the process of irradiation damage their role is discussed in detail. The question which machines are presently available to simulate irradiation damage under conditions similar to the ones found in a fusion reactor are investigated in the fourth talk which also presents the limitations of the different methods of simulation. In this context also discussed is the importance future intensive neutron sources and materials test reactors will have for this problem area. The closing paper has as a theme the review of the present status of research of metallic and non-metallic materials in view of the quite different requirements for different fusion systems; a closing topic is the world supply on rare materials required for fusion reactors. (orig) [de

  4. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  5. Nuclear reactors to come

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.

    2002-01-01

    The demand for nuclear energy will continue to grow at least till 2050 because of mainly 6 reasons: 1) the steady increase of the world population, 2) China, India and Indonesia will reach higher social standard and their energy consumption will consequently grow, 3) fossil energy resources are dwindling, 4) coal will be little by little banned because of its major contribution to the emission of green house effect gas, 5) renewable energies need important technological jumps to be really efficient and to take the lead, and 6) fusion energy is not yet ready to take over. All these reasons draw a promising future for nuclear energy. Today 450 nuclear reactors are operating throughout the world producing 17% of the total electrical power demand. In order to benefit fully of this future, nuclear industry has to improve some characteristics of reactors: 1) a more efficient use of uranium (it means higher burnups), 2) a simplification and automation of reprocessing-recycling chain of processes, 3) efficient measures against proliferation and against any misuse for terrorist purposes, and 4) an enhancement of safety for the next generation of reactors. The characteristics of fast reactors and of high-temperature reactors will likely make these kinds of reactors the best tools for energy production in the second half of this century. (A.C.)

  6. BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoichi

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To inhibit the lowering of the neutron moderation effect due to voids in the upper portion of the reactor core, thereby flatten the axial power distribution. Constitution: Although it has been proposed to enlarge the diameter at the upper portion of a water rod thereby increasing the moderator in the upper portion, since the water rod situates within the channel box, the increase in the capacity thereof is has certain limit. In the present invention, it is designed such that the volume of the region at the outside of the channel box for the fuel assembly to which non-boiling water in the non-boiling water region can enter is made greater in the upper portion than in the lower portion of the reactor core. Thus, if the moderator density in the upper portion of the reactor core should be decreased due to the generation of the voids, the neutron moderating effect in the upper portion of the reactor core is not lowered as compared with the lower portion of the reactor core and, accordingly, the axial power distribution can be flattening more as compared with that in the conventional nuclear reactors. (Takahashi, M.)

  7. Reactor operation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osumi, Katsumi; Miki, Minoru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent stress corrosion cracks by decreasing the dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the coolants within a reactor container upon transient operation such as at the start-up or shutdown of bwr type reactors. Method: After a condensate has been evacuated, deaeration operation is conducted while opening a main steam drain line, as well as a main steam separation valve and a by-pass valve in a turbine by-pass line connecting the main steam line and the condenser without by way of a turbine, and the reactor is started-up by the extraction of control rods after the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the cooling water within a pressure vessel has been decreased below a predetermined value. Nuclear heating is started after the reactor water has been increased to about 150 0 C by pump heating after the end of the deaeration operation for preventing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen in the reactor water from temporarily increasing immediately after the start-up. The corrosive atmosphere in the reactor vessel can thus be moderated. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To flatten the power distribution while maintaining the flattening in the axial power distribution in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: Main system control rods are divided into control rods used for the operation and starting rods used for the starting of the reactor, and the starting rods are disposed in the radial periphery of the reactor core, while the control rods are disposed to the inside of the starting rods. With such a constitution, adjusting rods can be disposed in the region where the radial power peaking is generated to facilitate the flattening of the power distribution even in such a design that the ratio of the number of control rods to that of fuel assemblies is relatively large. That is, in this reactor, the radial power peaking is reduced by about 10% as compared with the conventional reactor core. As a result, the maximum linear power density during operation is reduced by about 10% to increase the thermal margin of the reactor core. If the maximum linear power density is set identical, the number of the fuel assemblies can be decreased by about 10%, to thereby reduce the fuel production cost. (K.M.)

  9. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the nineteenth annual Report on the OECD Halden Reactor Project, describing activities at the Project during 1978, the last year of the 1976-1978 Halden Agreement. Work continued in two main fields: test fuel irradiation and fuel research, and computer-based process supervision and control. Project research on water reactor fuel focusses on various aspects of fuel behavior under normal, and off-normal transient conditions. In 1978, participating organisations continued to submit test fuel for irradiation in the Halden boiling heavy-water reactor, in instrumented test assemblies designed and manufactured by the Project. Work included analysis of the impact of fuel design and reactor operating conditions on fuel cladding behavior. Fuel performance modelling included characterization of thermal and mechanical behavior at high burn-up, of fuel failure modes, and improvement of data qualification procedures to reduce and quantify error bands on in-reactor measurements. Instrument development yielded new or improved designs for measuring rod temperature, internal pressure, axial neutron flux shape determination, and for detecting cladding defects. Work on computer-based methods of reactor supervision and control included continued development of a system for predictive core surveillance, and of special mathematical methods for core power distribution control

  10. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  11. The reactor Cabri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ailloud, J.; Millot, J.P.

    1964-01-01

    It has become necessary to construct in France a reactor which would permit the investigation of the conditions of functioning of future installations, the choice, the testing and the development of safety devices to be adopted. A water reactor of a type corresponding to the latest CEA constructions in the field of laboratory or university reactors was decided upon: it appeared important to be able to evaluate the risks entailed and to study the possibilities of increasing the power, always demanded by the users; on the other hand, it is particularly interesting to clarify the phenomena of power oscillation and the risks of burn out. The work programme for CABRI will be associated with the work carried out on the American Sperts of the same type, during its construction, very useful contacts were made with the American specialists who designed the se reactors. A brief description of the reactor is given in the communication as well as the work programme for the first years with respect to the objectives up to now envisaged. Rough description of the reactor. CABRI is an open core swimming-pool reactor without any lateral protection, housed in a reinforced building with controlled leakage, in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache. It lies alone in the middle of an area whose radius is 300 meters long. Control and measurements equipment stand out on the edge of that zone. It consumes MTR fuel elements. The control-safety rods are propelled by compressed air. The maximum flow rate of cooling circuit is 1500 m 3 /h. Transient measurements are recorded in a RW330 unit. Aims and work programme. CABRI is meant for: - studies on the safety of water reactors - for the definition of the safety margins under working conditions: research of maximum power at which a swimming-pool reactor may operate with respect to a cooling accident, of local boiling effect on the nuclear behaviour of the reactor, performances of the control and safety instruments under exceptional

  12. SM-2 reactor potentialities for investigation of fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Samsonov, B.V.; Markina, N.V.; Polyakov, Yu.N.; Sluzhaev, V.I.; Losev, N.P.; Lobanov, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of utilization of the SM-2 type reactors for fusion reactor (FR) materials testing is discussed. The measuring and calculational results, while estimating irradiation conditions in the SM-2 reactor channels, are given. The basic characteristics, necessary for correct simulation of FR parameters in fission reactors such as neutron flux density, radiation damage in the shift per atom values, gas accumulation, are considered. The characteristics of existing and tested in the SM-2 reactor investigational methods for studying structural and isolation materials are given. The conclusion about the possibility of SM-2 reactor utilization for the FR materials testing is made [ru

  13. Materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Kamath, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy/materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear reactor materials (fuels and structural materials), are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO 2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO 2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques and in-reactor degradation mechanisms. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. The presentation will conclude by listing various materials related phenomena, which have a strong bearing on the successful development of future nuclear energy systems. (author)

  14. Method of operating a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosumi, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent stress corrosion cracking in the structural material of a reactor pressure vessel. Method: Prior to the starting of a reactor, the reactor pressure vessel is evacuated to carry out degassing of reactor water, and, at the same time, reactor water is heated. After reactor water is heated to a predetermined temperature, control rods are extracted to start nuclear heating. While the temperature of the reactor water is in a temperature range where elution of a metal which is a structural material of the reactor pressure vessel becomes vigorous and the sensitivity to the stress corrosion cracks increases, the reactor is operated at the maximum permissible temperature raising speed or maximum permissible cooling speed. (Aizawa, K.)

  15. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Guidez, Joel; Andrieux, Catherine; Baque, Francois; Bonin, Bernard; Boullis, Bernard; Cabet, Celine; Carre, Frank; Dufour, Philippe; Gauche, Francois; Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Jeannot, Jean-Philippe; Le Flem, Marion; Le Coz, Pierre; Martin, Laurent; Masson, Michel; Mathonniere, Gilles; Nokhamzon, Jean-Guy; Pelletier, Michel; Rodriguez, Gilles; Saez, Manuel; Seran, Jean-Louis; Varaine, Frederic; Zaetta, Alain; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This book first explains the choice of sodium-cooled reactors by outlining the reasons of the choice of fast neutron reactors (fast neutrons instead of thermal neutrons, recycling opportunity for plutonium, full use of natural uranium, nuclear waste optimization, flexibility of fast neutron reactors in nuclear material management, fast neutron reactors as complements of water-cooled reactors), and by outlining the reasons for the choice of sodium as heat-transfer material. Physical, chemical, and neutron properties of sodium are presented. The second part of the book first presents the main design principles for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors and their core. The third part proposes an historical overview and an assessment of previously operated sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (French reactors from Rapsodie to Superphenix, other reactors in the world), and an assessment of the main incidents which occurred in these reactors. It also reports the experience and lessons learned from the dismantling of various sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the world. The next chapter addresses safety issues (technical and safety aspects related to the use of sodium) and environmental issues (dosimetry, gaseous and liquid releases, solid wastes, and cooling water). Then, various technological aspects of these reactors are addressed: the energy conversion system, main components, sodium chemistry, sodium-related technology, advances in in-service inspection, materials used in reactors and their behaviour, and fuel system. The next chapter addresses the fuel cycle in these reactors: its integrated specific character, report of the French experience in fast neutron reactor fuel processing, description of the transmutation of minor actinides in these reactors. The last chapter proposes an overview of reactors currently projected or under construction in the world, presents the Astrid project, and gives an assessment of the economy of these reactors. A glossary and an index

  16. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moons, F.

    2007-01-01

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3 He, 6 Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  17. Clinical holistic medicine: the case story of Anna. I. Long-term effect of childhood sexual abuse and incest with a treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-02

    The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range) through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical treatment, making her feel

  18. Clinical Holistic Medicine: The Case Story of Anna. I. Long-Term Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Incest with a Treatment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous breakdown of a 22-year-old, young woman was caused by severe sexual abuse in childhood, which was repressed over many years. During therapy, the patient accumulated resources to start the painful integration of these old traumas. Using holistic existential therapy in accordance with the life mission theory and the holistic process theory of healing, she finally was able to confront her old traumas and heal her existence. She seemingly recovered completely (including regaining full emotional range through holistic existential therapy, individually and in a group. The therapy took 18 months and more than 100 hours of intensive therapy. In the beginning of the therapy, the issues were her physical and mental health; in the middle of the therapy, the central issue was her purpose of life and her love life; and at the conclusion of the therapy, the issue was gender and sexuality. The strategy was to build up her strength for several months, mobilizing hidden resources and motivation for living, before the old traumas could be confronted and integrated. The therapy was based on quality of life philosophy, on the life mission theory, the theory of ego, the theory of talent, the theory of the evil side of man, the theory of human character, and the holistic process theory of healing. The clinical procedures included conversation, philosophical training, group therapeutic tools, extended use of therapeutic touch, holistic pelvic examination, and acceptance through touch was used to integrate the early traumas bound to the pelvis and scar tissue in the sexual organs. She was processed according to 10 levels of the advanced toolbox for holistic medicine and the general plan for clinical holistic psychiatry. The emotional steps she went through are well described by the scale of existential responsibility. The case story of Anna is an example of how even the most severely ill patient can recover fully with the support of holistic medical

  19. Radiation detectors for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagi, V.

    2005-01-01

    Detection and measurement of radiation plays a vital role in nuclear reactors from the point of view of control and safety, personnel protection and process control applications. Various types of radiation are measured over a wide range of intensity. Consequently a variety of detectors find use in nuclear reactors. Some of these devices have been developed in Electronics Division. They include gas-filled detectors such as 10 B-lined proportional counters and chambers, fission detectors and BF 3 counters are used for the measurement of neutron flux both for reactor control and safety, process control as well as health physics instrumentation. In-core neutron flux instrumentation employs the use detectors such as miniature fission detectors and self-powered detectors. In this development effort, several indigenous materials, technologies and innovations have been employed to suit the specific requirement of nuclear reactor applications. This has particular significance in view of the fact that several new types of reactors such as P-4, PWR and AHWR critical facilities, FBTR, PFBR as well as the refurbishment of old units like CIRUS are being developed. The development work has sought to overcome some difficulties associated with the non-availability of isotopically enriched neutron-sensing materials, achieving all-welded construction etc. The present paper describes some of these innovations and performance results. (author)

  20. Reactors PMT backlog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    The overall backlog of action items within the Reactors Priority Maintenance Tracking Systems (PMT) is similar to that resulting from Reactor Incident Reports. At least 1000 open action items are being tracked (excluding procedure revisions); the exact number is not obvious because some items are being tracked in more than one tracking document. About 20 to 25% of the incomplete items are directly related to reactor safety. About 70% of these were initiated within the last two years. A few of the remaining 30% date back to the 1977-1980 time frame. The tracking systems that are in place serve particular needs but they are unconnected and do not provide a means to understand and manage the overall Reactors PMT backlog. Shortcomings are summarized. Several initiatives are in progress or planned by Reactors PMT to facilitate improved tracking of backlog items with computer software systems. Under consideration is the Integrated Living Schedule (ILS) approach to prioritize work items and schedule resources to manage the backlog in the most effective way. ILS systems are being used effectively by a number of nuclear power utilities. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Generalities about nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Beroux, P.

    2012-01-01

    From Zoe, the first nuclear reactor, till the current EPR, the French nuclear industry has always advanced by profiting from the feedback from dozens of years of experience and operations, in particular by drawing lessons from the most significant events in its history, such as the Fukushima accident. The new generations of reactors must improve safety and economic performance so that the industry maintain its legitimacy and its share in the production of electricity. This article draws the history of nuclear power in France, gives a brief description of the pressurized water reactor design, lists the technical features of the different versions of PWR that operate in France and compares them with other types of reactors. The feedback experience concerning safety, learnt from the major nuclear accidents Three Miles Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) is also detailed. Today there are 26 third generation reactors being built in the world: 4 EPR (1 in Finland, 1 in France and 2 in China); 2 VVER-1200 in Russia, 8 AP-1000 (4 in China and 4 in the Usa), 8 APR-1400 (4 in Korea and 4 in UAE), and 4 ABWR (2 in Japan and 2 in Taiwan)

  2. Mirror reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Bender, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Design studies of a fusion mirror reactor, a fusion-fission mirror reactor, and two small mirror reactors are summarized. The fusion reactor uses 150-keV neutral-beam injectors based on the acceleration of negative ions. The injectors provide over 1 GW of continuous power at an efficiency greater than 80 percent. The fusion reactor has three-stage, modularized, Venetian blind, plasma direct converter with a predicted efficiency of 59 percent and a new concept for removal of the lune-shaped blanket: a crane is brought between the two halves of the Yin-Yang magnet, which are separated by a float. The design has desirable features such as steady-state operation, minimal impurity problems, and low first-wall thermal stress. The major disadvantage is low Q resulting in high recirculating power and hence high cost of electrical power. However, the direct capital cost per unit of gross electrical power is reasonable [$1000/kW(e)

  3. Reactor core control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor core control device, in which switching from a manual operation to an automatic operation, and the control for the parameter of an automatic operation device are facilitated. Namely, the hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter by an manual operation input means is stored. The hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter is collected. The state of the reactor core simulated by an operation control to which the collected operation parameters are manually inputted is determined as an input of the reactor core state to the automatic input means. The record of operation upon manual operation is stored as a hysteresis of control for the operation parameter, but the hysteresis information is not only the result of manual operation of the operation parameter. This is results of operation conducted by a skilled operator who judge the state of the reactor core to be optimum. Accordingly, it involves information relevant to the reactor core state. Then, it is considered that the optimum automatic operation is not deviated greatly from the manual operation. (I.S.)

  4. Reactor physics computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, A.

    1977-01-01

    Those reactor-core calculations which provide the effective multiplication factor (or eigenvalue) and the stationary (or fundamental mode) neutron-flux distribution at selected times during the lifetime of the core are considered. The multiplication factor is required to establish the nuclear composition and configuration which satisfy criticality and control requirements. The steady-state flux distribution must be known to calculate reaction rates and power distributions which are needed for the thermal, mechanical and shielding design of the reactor, as well as for evaluating refueling requirements. The calculational methods and techniques used for evaluating the nuclear design information vary with the type of reactor and with the preferences and prejudices of the reactor-physics group responsible for the calculation. Additionally, new methods and techniques are continually being developed and made operational. This results in a rather large conglomeration of methods and computer codes which are available for reactor analysis. The author provides the basic calculational framework and discusses the more prominent techniques which have evolved. (Auth.)

  5. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.E.; Bonnet, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor and its containment, instead of being supported on a solid concrete pad, are supported on a truss formed of upper and lower reinforced horizontal plates and vertical walls integrated into a rigid structure. The plates and walls from chambers within which the auxiliary components of the reactor, such as valves, pumping equipment and various tanks, are disposed. Certain of the chambers are also access passages for personnel, pipe chases, valve chambers and the like. In particular the truss includes an annular chamber. This chamber is lined and sealed by a corrosion-resistant liner and contains coolant and serves as a refueling cooling storage tank. This tank is directly below the primary-coolant conductor loops which extend from the reactor above the upper plate. The upper plate includes a sump connected to the tank through which coolant flows into the tank in the event of the occurrence of a loss-of-coolant accident. The truss extends beyond the containment and has chambers in the extending annulus. Pumps for circulating the coolant between the refueling coolant storage tank and the reactor are provided in certain of these chambers. The pumps are connected to the reactor by relatively short coolant conductors. Access to these pumps is readily afforded through hatches in the extending annulus

  6. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Hiroyuki.

    1991-01-01

    The device of the present invention prevents unnecessary automatic reactor shutdown, without increasing operator's burden by automatic insertion of selected control rods in case if a recycling pump in a BWR reaction should stop. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a means for detecting that at least one recycling pump stops, (2) a means for judging region for inserting the selected control rods based on the reactor power and the recycling flowrate of driving water, and (3) a means for calculating a logic product of output signals sent from both of the means described above and outputting a selected control rod insertion signal. With such a constitution, if at least one recycling pump stops, the means (1) detects it. Further, the means (2) judges the regions for inserting the selected control rods. Then, the means (3) outputs a signal for inserting the selected control rods. As a result, since a group of control rods selected previously are inserted into the reactor rapidly, the reactor power is suppressed, to avoid the automatic reactor shutdown. (I.N.)

  7. Tandem mirror reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    We have made preliminary designs of tandem mirror fusion reactors burning D-T fuel and of fusion-fission (hybrid) tandem mirrors producing both fissile fuel and electricity. For the hybrid reactor, we find that by using stream-stabilized, 2XIIB-like plugs and by injecting 200-keV deuterium beams into a tritium-plasma target confined electrostatically in the solenoid (two-component operation), we obtain a useful Q (fusion power/injection power) near unity. The D-T tandem reactor parameters are optimized to obtain the minimum capital cost per kW(e) net. For $200/kW(e) of 1200-keV neutral beam injection power in the plugs and a solenoid cost of about $3 million per metre length, the optimum Q is near 5. To allow for more expensive injector costs, a higher D-T reactor Q of 10 is obtainable with either increased power output or decreased neutron wall loading. Fokker--Planck calculations show steady-state Q approximately 5 for D-D tandem reactors burning only deuterium fuel and its reaction products, with most of the charged-particle fusion power recovered in a direct converter

  8. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumiya, Hirohito; Endo, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yasushi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor shutdown device capable of suppressing change of a core insertion amount relative to temperature change during normal operation and having a great extension amount due to thermal expansion and high mechanical strength. A control rod main body is contained vertically movably in a guide tube disposed in a reactor core. An extension member extends upward from the upper end of a control rod main body and suspends the control rod main body. A shrinkable member intervenes at a midway of the extension member and is made shrinkable. A temperature sensitive member contains coolants at the inside and surrounds the shrinkable member. Thus, if the temperature of external coolants rises abruptly, the shrinkable member is extended by thermal expansion of the coolants in the temperature sensitive member. Upon usual reactor startup, the coolants in the temperature sensitive member cause no substantial thermal expansion by temperature elevation from a cold shutdown temperature to a rated power operation temperature, and the shrinkable member maintains its original state, so that the control rod main body is not inserted into the reactor core. However, upon abrupt temperature elevation, the control rod main body is inserted into the reactor core. (I.S.)

  9. FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maemoto, Junko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To moderate abrupt temperature change near the inner walls of a suspended body thereby prevent thermal shocks and thermal deformations to structural materials. Constitution: High temperature coolants during ordinary operation of the nuclear reactor flow from the reactor core through the flow holes of the suspended body and from the upper plenum into an intermediate heat exchanger. The temperature of the coolants is lowered with heat exchanging effect with secondary coolants in the heat exchange and the coolants are then flow through the lower plenum into the reactor core and heated again. Upon generation of reactor scram, the temperature of the coolants at the exit of the reactor core is reduced abruptly and the flow rate is lowered due to the pump coast down. However, mixing of the coolants in the suspended body is accelerated by the coolants at high temperature flowing out of the flow holes and the coolants at the low temperature flowing from the flow hole group, to reduce the temperature difference and moderate the stratification flow forming an abrupt temperature slope. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. RB research reactor Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotic, O.; Pesic, M.; Vranic, S.

    1979-04-01

    This RB reactor safety report is a revised and improved version of the Safety report written in 1962. It contains descriptions of: reactor building, reactor hall, control room, laboratories, reactor components, reactor control system, heavy water loop, neutron source, safety system, dosimetry system, alarm system, neutron converter, experimental channels. Safety aspects of the reactor operation include analyses of accident causes, errors during operation, measures for preventing uncontrolled activity changes, analysis of the maximum possible accident in case of different core configurations with natural uranium, slightly and highly enriched fuel; influence of possible seismic events

  11. Mimic of OSU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hong; Miller, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Ohio State University research reactor (OSURR) is undergoing improvements in its research and educational capabilities. A computer-based digital data acquisition system, including a reactor system mimic, will be installed as part of these improvements. The system will monitor the reactor system parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital or analog form. The system includes two computers. All the signals are sent to computer 1, which processes the data and sends the data through a serial port to computer 2 with a video graphics array VGA monitor, which is utilized to display the mimic system of the reactor

  12. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  13. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaouadi, R.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  14. Neuromuscular control of wingbeat kinematics in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L; Welch, Kenneth C; Cho, Brian H; Welch, Danny B; Lin, Amy F; Dickson, William B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2010-07-15

    Hummingbirds can maintain the highest wingbeat frequencies of any flying vertebrate - a feat accomplished by the large pectoral muscles that power the wing strokes. An unusual feature of these muscles is that they are activated by one or a few spikes per cycle as revealed by electromyogram recordings (EMGs). The relatively simple nature of this activation pattern provides an opportunity to understand how motor units are recruited to modulate limb kinematics. Hummingbirds made to fly in low-density air responded by moderately increasing wingbeat frequency and substantially increasing the wing stroke amplitude as compared with flight in normal air. There was little change in the number of spikes per EMG burst in the pectoralis major muscle between flight in normal and low-density heliox (mean=1.4 spikes cycle(-1)). However the spike amplitude, which we take to be an indication of the number of active motor units, increased in concert with the wing stroke amplitude, 1.7 times the value in air. We also challenged the hummingbirds using transient load lifting to elicit maximum burst performance. During maximum load lifting, both wing stroke amplitude and wingbeat frequency increased substantially above those values during hovering flight. The number of spikes per EMG burst increased to a mean of 3.3 per cycle, and the maximum spike amplitude increased to approximately 1.6 times those values during flight in heliox. These results suggest that hummingbirds recruit additional motor units (spatial recruitment) to regulate wing stroke amplitude but that temporal recruitment is also required to maintain maximum stroke amplitude at the highest wingbeat frequencies.

  15. Reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arien, B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk assessments of nuclear installations require accurate safety and reliability analyses to estimate the consequences of accidental events and their probability of occurrence. The objective of the work performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The four main activities of the research project on reactor safety analysis are: (1) the development of software for the reliable analysis of large systems; (2) the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; (3) the development and the application of a probabilistic reactor-dynamics method, and (4) to participate in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents. Progress in research during 1997 is described

  16. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  17. Refueling of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuschke, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes the unrodded refueling of a nuclear reactor having fuel assemblies and upper internals with apparatus including a lifting rig and a lift plate. The upper internals of the reactor are secured to the lifting rig. A method is given of reinserting in the fuel assemblies of the reactor the rods which penetrate into the fuel assemblies, such as control rods and/or coolant-displacement rods. The penetrating rods are connected to drive rods, the drive rods and penetrating rods being suspended from the lift plate, the lift plate and the drive rods and penetrating rods suspended therefrom being supported on a removable support in an upper position on the lifting rig

  18. Nuclear reactor safety device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  19. The nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various nuclear reactor systems, starting with the Generation II, then the present development of the Generation III and the stakes and challenges of the future Generation IV. Some have found appropriate to oppose reactor systems or generations one to another, especially by minimizing the enhancements of generation III compared to generation II or by expecting the earth from generation IV (meaning that generation III is already obsolete). In the first part of the document (chapter 2), some keys are given to the reader to develop its proper opinion. Chapter 3 describes more precisely the various reactor systems and generations. Chapter 4 discusses the large industrial manoeuvres around the generation III, and the last chapter gives some economical references, taking into account, for the various means of power generation, the impediments linked to climate protection

  20. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takao; Inoue, Toyokazu.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To protect the reactor floor by alleviating the shock imparted to the reactor floor by a dropped control rod when a wire rope accidentally breaks. Constitution: A control rod is hung by wire rope from a control rod drive, and shock absorbers are mounted at the upper and lower portions of the control rod. The outer diameter of the upper shock absorber is made larger than the inner diameter of a control rod inserting hole formed in the reactor core. If the control rod drops, the upper absorber is stopped at the upper tapered portion of the inserting hole. Thus, the dropping energy of the control rod can be sufficiently absorbed by the upper and lower shock absorbers. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    THE OPERATING UNITS STATUS REPORT - LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff of NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non-power reactors in the US

  2. Nuclear reactor risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Experience has shown that reactors can be operated safely. Accidents have occurred, but the probability of physical health detriment to members of the public has been negligible. Methods for the quantitative evaluation of the probabilities of serious accidents are described, and some results are quoted which show that the estimated frequency of harmful effects is small when compared with other risks already accepted by society. Attempts have been made to justify the acceptance of nuclear reactor risks by relating them to the benefits which are derived from reactor operation and comparing them quantitatively with the risks from alternative methods of deriving the same benefits. This approach takes no account of the perceptions which people have of risk

  3. Breazeale Reactor Modernization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C. C.

    2003-01-01

    The Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor is the longest operating licensed research reactor in the nation. The facility has played a key role in educating scientists, engineers and in providing facilities and services to researchers in many different disciplines. In order to remain a viable and effective research and educational institution, a multi-phase modernization project was proposed. Phase I was the replacement of the 25-year old reactor control and safety system along with associated wiring and hardware. This phase was fully funded by non-federal funds. Tasks identified in Phases II-V expand upon and complement the work done in Phase I to strategically implement state-of-the-art technologies focusing on identified national needs and priorities of the future

  4. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Burn, G.L.; Knee', S.S.; Dowker, C.L.

    1994-02-01

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  5. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  6. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  7. Compact stellarators as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Valanju, P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hirshman, S.; Spong, D.A.; Strickler, D.; Williamson, D.E.; Ware, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of compact stellarators are examined as reactors: two- and three-field-period (M=2 and 3) quasi-axisymmetric devices with volume-average =4-5% and M=2 and 3 quasi-poloidal devices with =10-15%. These low-aspect-ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrids differ from conventional stellarators in their use of the plasma-generated bootstrap current to supplement the poloidal field from external coils. Using the ARIES-AT model with B max =12T on the coils gives Compact Stellarator reactors with R=7.3-8.2m, a factor of 2-3 smaller R than other stellarator reactors for the same assumptions, and neutron wall loadings up to 3.7MWm -2 . (author)

  8. Reactor container facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi; Nagasaka, Hideo.

    1990-01-01

    A dry-well pool for spontaneously circulating stored pool water and a suppression pool for flooding a pressure vessel by feeding water, when required, to a flooding gap by means of spontaneous falling upto the flooding position, thereby flooding the pressure vessel are contained at the inside of a reactor container. Thus, when loss of coolant accidents such as caused by main pipe rupture accidents should happen, pool water in the suppression pool is supplied to the flooding gap by spontaneously falling. Further, if the flooding water uprises exceeding a predetermined level, the flooding gap is in communication with the dry-well pool at the upper and the lower portions respectively. Accordingly, flooding water at high temperature heated by the after-heat of the reactor core is returned again into the flooding gap to cool the reactor core repeatedly. (T.M.)

  9. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, J.D.; Stasko, R.R.

    1989-09-01

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  10. BWR type reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Shin-ichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the internal structure in a reactor by rapidly and efficiently transferring heat generated in a reactor core out of the reactor and eliminating the danger of radiation exposure. Constitution: Steam generated in a pressure vessel is introduced into heat pipe group by inserting the heat pipe group into the steam dome of the pressure vessel. The introduced steam is condensed in the heat pipes to transfer the heat of the steam to the heat pipe group. The transferred heat is transmitted to a heat exchanger provided out of a containment vessel to generate steam to operate a turbine. Thus, it is not necessary to introduce the steam including radioactive substance externally and can remove only the heat so as to carry out the desired purpose. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  12. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  13. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfield, R.A.

    1990-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  14. Nuclear reactor containment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of a containment shell and decrease the size of a containment equipment for BWR type reactors by connecting the containment shell and a suppression pool with slanted vent tubes to thereby shorten the vent tubes. Constitution: A pressure vessel containing a reactor core is installed at the center of a building and a containment vessel for the nuclear reactor that contains the pressure vessel forms a cabin. To a building situated below the containment shell, is provided a suppression chamber in which cooling water is charged to form a suppression pool. The suppression pool is communicated with vent tubes that pass through the partition wall of the containment vessel. The vent tubes are slanted and their lower openings are immersed in coolants. Therefore, if accident is resulted and fluid at high temperature and high pressure is jetted from the pressure vessel, the jetting fluid is injected and condensated in the cooling water. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  16. Reactor power distribution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoizumi, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To grasp the margin for the limit value of the power distribution peaking factor inside the reactor under operation by using the reactor power distribution monitor. Constitution: The monitor is composed of the 'constant' file, (to store in-reactor power distributions obtained from analysis), TIP and thermocouple, lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus, axial output distribution synthesizer and peaking factor synthesizer. The lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus is used to make calibration by comparing the power distribution obtained from the thermocouples to the power distribution obtained from the TIP, and then to provide the power distribution lateral peaking factors. The axial output distribution synthesizer provides the power distribution axial peaking factors in accordance with the signals from the out-pile neutron flux detector. These axial and lateral power peaking factors are synthesized with high precision in the three-dimensional format and can be monitored at any time. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. AREVA's nuclear reactors portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincic, A.

    2009-01-01

    A reasonable assumption for the estimated new build market for the next 25 years is over 340 GWe net. The number of prospect countries is growing almost each day. To address this new build market, AREVA is developing a comprehensive portfolio of reactors intended to meet a wide range of power requirements and of technology choices. The EPR reactor is the flagship of the fleet. Intended for large power requirements, the four first EPRs are being built in Finland, France and China. Other countries and customers are in view, citing just two examples: the Usa where the U.S. EPR has been selected as the technology of choice by several U.S utilities; and the United Kingdom where the Generic Design Acceptance process of the EPR design submitted by AREVA and EDF is well under way, and where there is a strong will to have a plant on line in 2017. For medium power ranges, the AREVA portfolio includes a boiling water reactor and a pressurized water reactor which both offer all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation cost: -) KERENA (1250+ MWe), developed in collaboration with several European utilities, and in particular with Eon; -) ATMEA 1 (1100+ MWe), a 3-loop evolutionary PWR which is being developed by AREVA and Mitsubishi. AREVA is also preparing the future and is deeply involved into Gen IV concepts. It has developed the ANTARES modular HTR reactor (pre-conceptual design completed) and is building upon its vast Sodium Fast Reactor experience to take part into the development of the next prototype. (author)

  18. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  19. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.

    2002-01-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

  20. ARIES tokamak reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.

    1990-07-01

    This is a status report on technical progress relative to the tasks identified for the fifth year of Grant No. FG02-85-ER52118. The ARIES tokamak reactor study is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of the tokamak as an attractive fusion reactor with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The ARIES study is being coordinated by UCLA and involves a number of institutions, including RPI. The RPI group has been pursuing the following areas of research in the context of the ARIES-I design effort: MHD equilibrium and stability analyses; plasma-edge modeling and blanket materials issues. Progress in these areas is summarized herein

  1. Nuclear reactor core assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to provide a fast reactor core assembly design for use with a fluid coolant such as liquid sodium or carbon monoxide incorporating a method of increasing the percentage of coolant flow though the blanket elements relative to the total coolant flow through the blanket and fuel elements during shutdown conditions without using moving parts. It is claimed that deterioration due to reactor radiation or temperature conditions is avoided and ready modification or replacement is possible. (U.K.)

  2. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  3. Advanced reactors: A retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives for nuclear power have always emphasized competitive costs, reliability, and public safety. During its initial two decades, the nuclear reactor program was enthusiastically and generously supported by the public, government, and industry. In the subsequent decades this external support was substantially eroded by the growing public fears of catastrophic accidents, poor economic performance of many nuclear plants, regulatory constraints, and a plethora of engineering issues disclosed by plant operations. The technical and institutional histories are discussed with particular relevance to their influence on the framework for future development of the several proposed advance reactors

  4. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, G.J.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor construction comprising a reactor core submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant in a primary vessel which is suspended from the roof structure of a containment vault. Control rods supported from the roof structure are insertable in the core which is carried on a support structure from the wall of the primary vessel. To prevent excessive relaxation of the support structure whereby the control rods would be displaced relative to the core, the support structure incorporates a normally inactive secondary structure designed to become effective in bracing the primary structure against further relaxation beyond a predetermined limit. (author)

  5. Reactor pressure vessel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. Chapter 3 offers a detailed treatment of the selection criteria and properties of reactor pressure vessel materials. The main attention is directed towards steel and ingot making and the subsequent material processing

  6. Australia's new nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.

    2007-01-01

    On 19 and 20 April 2007, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) celebrated the recent commissioning of its new, world-class, OPAL (Open Pool Australian Lightwater) research reactor at the Lucas Heights. On the 19th, scientists, business leaders and academics were introduced to the reactor and its technical capacity for the manufacture of radiopharmaceuticals, its material science applications, its environmental services and its neutron scattering facilities for business applications. The formal OPAL opening function took place that evening and, on the 20th, Prime Minister John Howard visited ANSTO to be briefed about OPAL and to be shown the work being carried out at Lucas Heights

  7. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  8. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  9. Perspectives on reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haskin, F.E.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course

  10. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  11. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  12. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  13. Fast quench reactor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  14. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    In nuclear power reactor systems which have a reactor core inside a pressure vessel, the feedwater inlet pipe and steam discharge nozzle usually require separate pressure vessel penetrations. This requirement involves a great deal of expensive high quality special machining, welding and weld joint testing. The invention overcomes most of these problems by nestling the feedwater inlet pipe inside the steam discharge nozzle. At the same time the individual heat exchanger modules are supported from the pressure vessel at the same location as the nested feedwater inlet pipe and steam discharge nozzle combination, thus eliminating the need to accomodate troublesome differential thermal expansion problems through special structures within the pressure vessel

  15. Computerized reactor monitor and control for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.; Vegh, E.

    1981-09-01

    The computerized process control system developed in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, Hungary, is described together with its special applications at research reactors. The nuclear power of the Hungarian research reactor is controlled by this computerized system, too, while in Lybia many interesting reactor-hpysical calculations are built into the computerized monitor system. (author)

  16. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. The market for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The assay deals with some basic questions if there is an international market for research reactors at all, which influencing factors affect this market, and if research reactors have any effects on the future market for nuclear engineering. (UA) [de

  18. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, S.; Nakahara, Y.; Takano, H.

    1983-09-01

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1982 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Since fiscal 1982, Systematic research and development work on safeguards technology has been added to the activities of the Department. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  19. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  20. Dostojevski bez nakipi / Anna Moleva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moleva, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Fjodor Dostojevski romaani "Idioot" järgi filmitud 10-osalise samanimelise Venemaa draamaseriaali valmimisest : režissöör Vladimir Bortko. Oma arvamust avaldavad produtsent Valeri Todorovski, näitlejad Oleg Basilashvili, Vladimir Mashkov, Jevgeni Mironov, Andrei Smirnov, Mihhail Bojarski, Maria Kisseljova, Sasha Lazarev

  1. Zdorovje - nash ressurss / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Ülemaailmse Tervishoiuorganisatsiooni (WHO) andmetel on keskmine eluiga Eestis tunduvalt lühem kui teistes EL-i riikides. Samuti on Eesti elanike tervis võrreldes teiste EL-i riikide elanike tervisega tunduvalt halvem. WHO toetusel toimunud tervisefoorumist Eestis. Diagramm

  2. Peizazh v oprave / Anna Litvinjuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Litvinjuk, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Vene Draamateatri galerii avas teatri remondi tõttu hooaja juveelikeskuses Bindes Tartu mnt. 10. Maalinäitusel "Peizazh" osaleb 15 eesti kunstnikku. Nendest on mainitud V. Laur, V. Inkatov, S. Semerikov, A. Strahhov, E. Zentshik ja M. Leis. Avamisel näitas moekunstnik D. Denissova oma uut suvekollektsiooni

  3. An appreciation of Anna Mani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    came to Vaikom to lend his support to the civil disobedience move- ment. The motto of the satyagraha, 'one caste, one religion, and one god for men [sic]' became the rallying cry of the progressives who demanded that all Hindus irrespective of their caste be al- lowed entry into the temples of the state. The satyagraha, and.

  4. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  5. Nuclear reactors for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Kamble, M.T.; Dulera, I.V.

    2013-01-01

    For the sustainable development of nuclear power plants with enhanced safety features, economic competitiveness, proliferation resistance and physical protection, several advanced reactor developments have been initiated world-wide. The major advanced reactor initiatives and the proposed advanced reactor concepts have been briefly reviewed along with their advantages and challenges. Various advanced reactor designs being pursued in India have also been briefly described in the paper. (author)

  6. Fusion reactor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is a review of the current prospects for fusion reactor development based upon the present status in plasma physics research, fusion technology development and reactor conceptual design for the tokamak magnetic confinement concept. Recent advances in tokamak plasma research and fusion technology development are summarized. The direction and conclusions of tokamak reactor conceptual design are discussed. The status of alternate magnetic confinement concept research is reviewed briefly. A feasible timetable for the development of fusion reactors is presented

  7. Inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.G.; Bohachevsky, I.O.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of reactor cavity concepts, drivers, and energy conversion mechanisms are being considered to realize commercial applications of ICF. Presented in this paper are: (1) a review of reactor concepts with estimates of practically achievable pulse repetition rates; (2) a survey of drivers with estimates of the requirements on reactor conditions imposed by beam propagation characteristics; and (3) an assessment of compatible driver-reactor combinations

  8. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  9. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies ...

  10. Operating reactors licensing actions summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The operating reactors licensing actions summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with an overview of licensing actions dealing with operating power and nonpower reactors. These reports utilize data collected from the Division of Licensing in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and are prepared by the Office of Management and Program Analysis

  11. Fast reactors: potential for power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: basic facts about conventional and fast reactors; uranium economy; plutonium and fast reactors; cooling systems; sodium coolant; safety engineering; handling and recycling plutonium; safeguards; development of fast reactors in Britain and abroad; future progress. (U.K.)

  12. Digital control of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, J.C. III.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    Research reactors provide an important service for the nuclear industry. Developments and innovations used for research reactors can be later applied to larger power reactors. Their relatively inexpensive cost allows research reactors to be an excellent testing ground for the reactors of tomorrow. One area of current interest is digital control of research reactor systems. Digital control systems offer the benefits of implementation and superior system response over their analog counterparts. At McClellan Air Force Base in Sacramento, California, the Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS) uses a 1,000-kW TRIGA reactor for neutron radiography and other nuclear research missions. The neutron radiography beams generated by the reactor are used to detect corrosion in aircraft structures. While the use of the reactor to inspect intact F-111 wings is in itself noteworthy, there is another area in which the facility has applied new technology: the instrumentation and control system (ICS). The ICS developed by General Atomics (GA) contains several new and significant items: (a) the ability to servocontrol on three rods, (b) the ability to produce a square wave, and (c) the use of a software configurator to tune parameters affected by the actual reactor core dynamics. These items will probably be present in most, if not all, future research reactors. They were developed with increased control and overall usefulness of the reactor in mind

  13. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  14. LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Kawamura, Yutaka.

    1990-01-01

    A main vessel support skirt is supported by a base mat of reactor buildings and the base mat is supported by means of an earthquake-proof device on concretes of a lower raft disposed on ground rocks. The earthquake-proof device is constituted by alternately stacking, laminating and press-bonding thin steel plates together with thin rubber layers between an upper flange and a lower raft. Thus, for the horizontal seismic vibrations, the period of the swinging in the horizontal direction of the buildings is made greater than the swinging period of earthquakes by the earthquake-proof device to reduce the impact shocks of earthquakes. Further, for the vertical seismic vibrations, the input seismic movements are not amplified during transmission from the base mat of the buildings to the reactor structure by way of the support skirt of the main vessel, due to the shortened load transmission path and the seismic power design to the reactor structure can be moderated sufficiently. A safety LMFBR type reactor with reduced construction cost and improved reliability can be attained. (N.H.)

  15. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baddley, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of constructing a radiation shielding plug for use in the roof of the coolant containment vault of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is described. The construction allows relative movement of that part of service cables and pipes which are carried by the fixed roof and that part which is carried by the rotatable plug. (U.K.)

  16. The reactor vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilous, W.; Hajewska, E.; Szteke, W.; Przyborska, M.; Wasiak, J.; Wieczorkowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper the fundamental steels using in the construction of pressure vessel water reactor are discussed. The properties of these steels as well as the influence of neutron irradiation on its degradation in the time of exploitation are also done. (authors)

  17. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  18. Thermal Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods

  19. Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactors contd…

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactors contd… Reservoir: 10 L capacity. Centrifugal Pump :1.5kW). Orifice plate (different configurations in terms of number and diameter of the holes). Bypass line (for controlling the inlet pressure and the flow rate into the cavitation ...

  20. Reactor power distribution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimizu, Koichi

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance and secure the safety of a nuclear reactor by rapidly computing and display the power density in the nuclear reactor by using a plurality of processors. Constitution: Plant data for a nuclear reactor containing the measured values from a local power monitor LPRM are sent and recorded in a magnetic disc. They are also sent to a core performance computer in which burn-up degree distribution and the like are computed, and the results are sent and recorded in the magnetic disc. A central processors loads programs to each of the processors and applies data recorded in the magnetic disc to each of the processors. Each of the processors computes the corresponding power distribution in four fuel assemblies surrounding the LPRM string by the above information. The central processor compiles the computation results and displays them on a display. In this way, power distribution in the fuel assemblies can rapidly be computed to thereby secure the improvement of the performance and safety of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  1. Reactor instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, D.; Beraha, D.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for measuring radiation are shortly reviewed. The instrumentation for neutron flux measurement is classified into out-of-core and in-core instrumentation. The out-of-core instrumentation monitors the operational range from the subcritical reactor to full power. This large range is covered by several measurement channels which derive their signals from counter tubes and ionization chambers. The in-core instrumentation provides more detailed information on the power distribution in the core. The self-powered neutron detectors and the aeroball system in PWR reactors are discussed. Temperature and pressure measurement devices are briefly discussed. The different methods for leak detection are described. In concluding the plant instrumentation part some new monitoring systems and analysis methods are presented: early failure detection methods by noise analysis, acoustic monitoring and vibration monitoring. The presentation of the control starts from an qualitative assessment of the reactor dynamics. The chosen control strategy leads to the definition of the part-load diagram, which provides the set-points for the different control systems. The tasks and the functions of these control systems are described. In additiion to the control, a number of limiting systems is employed to keep the reactor in a safe operating region. Finally, an outlook is given on future developments in control, concerning mainly the increased application of process computers. (orig./RW)

  2. Nuclear Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Ohio State University Research Reactor (OSURR) is licensed to operate at a maximum power level of 500 kW. A pool-type reactor using flat-plate, low enriched fuel elements, the OSURR provides several experimental facilities including two 6-inch i.d. beam ports, a graphite thermal column, several graphite-isotope-irradiation elements, a pneumatic transfer system (Rabbit), various dry tubes, and a Central Irradiation Facility (CIF). The core arrangement and accessibility facilitates research programs involving material activation or core parameter studies. The OSURR control room is large enough to accommodate laboratory groups which can use control instrumentation for monitoring of experiments. The control instrumentation is relatively simple, without a large amount of duplication. This facilitates opportunities for hands-on experience in reactor operation by nuclear engineering students making reactor parameter measurements. For neutron activation analysis and analyses of natural environmental radioactivity, the NRL maintains the gamma ray spectroscopy system (GRSS). It is comprised of two PC-based 8192-channel multichannel analyzers (MCAs) with all the required software for quantitative analysis. A 3 double-prime x 3 double-prime NaI(Tl), a 14 percent Ge(Li), and a High Purity Germanium detector are currently available for use with the spectroscopy system

  3. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP) [de

  4. Nuclear power reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjon, Robert

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to explain the physical working conditions of nuclear reactors for the benefit of non-specialized engineers and engineering students. One of the leading ideas of this course is to distinguish between two fundamentally different concepts: - a science which could be called neutrodynamics (as distinct from neutron physics which covers the knowledge of the neutron considered as an elementary particle and the study of its interactions with nuclei); the aim of this science is to study the interaction of the neutron gas with real material media; the introduction will however be restricted to its simplified expression, the theory and equation of diffusion; - a special application: reactor physics, which is introduced when the diffusing and absorbing material medium is also multiplying. For this reason the chapter on fission is used to introduce this section. In practice the section on reactor physics is much longer than that devoted to neutrodynamics and it is developed in what seemed to be the most relevant direction: nuclear power reactors. Every effort was made to meet the following three requirements: to define the physical bases of neutron interaction with different materials, to give a correct mathematical treatment within the limit of necessary simplifying hypotheses clearly explained; to propose, whenever possible, numerical applications in order to fix orders of magnitude [fr

  5. Reactor control system. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWR type reactors have been operated in Japan since the start of Mihama Unit 1 operation in 1970 and various improvements have been made to upgrade operability of power stations as well as reliability and safety of power plants. As the share of nuclear power increases, further improvements of operating performance such as load following capability will be requested for power stations with more reliable and safer operation. This article outlined the reactor control system of PWR type reactors and described the control performance of power plants realized with those systems. The PWR control system is characterized that the turbine power is automatic or manually controlled with request of the electric power system and then the nuclear power is followingly controlled with the change of core reactivity. The system mainly consists of reactor automatic control system (control rod control system), pressurizer pressure control system, pressurizer water level control system, steam generator water level control system and turbine bypass control system. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Reactor vessel stud tensioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandra, L.J.; Beer, R.W.; Salton, R.B.; Spiegelman, S.R.; Cognevich, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    A quick-acting stud tensioner, for facilitating the loosening or tightening of a stud nut on a reactor vessel stud, has gripper jaws which when the tensioner is lowered into engagement with the upper end of the stud are moved inwards to grip the upper end and which when the tensioner is lifted move outward to release the upper end. (author)

  7. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  8. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  9. Reactor operational transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, W.K.; Chae, S.K.; Han, K.I.; Yang, K.S.; Chung, H. D.; Kim, H.G.; Moon, H.J.; Ryu, Y.H.

    1983-01-01

    To build up efficient capability of safety review and inspection for the nuclear power plants, four area of studies have performed as follows: 1) In order to search the most optimized operating method during load follow operating schemes, automatic control and normal control, are compared each other under the CAOC condition. The analysis performed by DDID code has shown that the reactor has to be controlled by the operator manually during load follow operation. 2) Through the sensitivity analysis by COBRA code, the operating parameters, such as coolant pressure, flow rate, inlet temperature, and power distribution are shown to be important to the determination of DNBR. Expecially, inlet temperature of primary coolant system is appeared as the most senstive parameter on DNBR. 3) FRAPCON code is adapted to study the sensitivity of several operational parameters on the mechanical properties of reactor fuel rod. 4) The calculations procedure which is required to be obtained the neutron fluence at the reactor vessel and the spectrum at the surveillance capsule is established. The results of computation are conpared with those of FSAR and SWRI report and proved its applicability to reactor surveillance program. (Author)

  10. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.K.; Scholz, R.; Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given for each of the following areas: (1) effects of irradiation on fusion reactor materials, (2) hydrogen permeation and materials behavior in alloys, (3) carbon coatings for fusion applications, (4) surface damage of TiB 2 coatings under energetic D + and 4 He + irradiations, and (5) neutron dosimetry

  11. Reactor physics of CANFLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, K. S.; Min, Byung Joo.

    1997-07-01

    Characteristic of reactor physics for CANFLEX-NU fuel core were calculated using final fuel design data. The results of analysis showed that there was no impact on reactor operations and safety. The above results of calculations and analysis were described in the physics design for CANFLEX-NU core. Various fuel models were evaluated for selecting high burnup fuel using recovered uranium. It is judged to be worse effects for reactor safety. Hence, the use of graphite within fuel was proposed and its results showed to be better. The analysis system of reactor physics for design and analysis of high burnup fuel was evaluated. Lattice codes and core code were reviewed. From the results, the probability of WIMS-AECL and HELIOS is known to be high for analysis of high burnup fuel. For the core code, RFSP, it was evaluated that the simplified 2 group equation should be replaced by explicit 2 group equation. This report also describes about the status of critical assemblies in other countries. (author). 58 refs., 41 tabs., 126 figs

  12. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  13. Cermet fuel reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Integral Fast Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Walters, L.C.; Laidler, J.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Wade, D.C.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the technical progress made in the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Program in FY 1992. Technical accomplishments are presented in the following areas of the IFR technology development activities: (1) metal fuel performance, (2) pyroprocess development, (3) safety experiments and analyses, (4) core design development, (5) fuel cycle demonstration, and (6) LMR technology R ampersand D

  15. Nuclear reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshimi; Fukuda, Yoshio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the strength and reliability by moderating thermal stresses produced to the furnace walls of a reactor vessel by the thermal shocks upon reactor shutdown and tripping and reducing the generation of developing thermal ratchet strains produced upon repeating thermal shocks. Constitution: Upon occurrence of reactor shutdown or tripping, the temperature is detected and the pressure of the cover gas is controlled such that the axial temperature slope is decreased to displace the liquid surface in an annular vessel. Then, for attaining the stress reducing temperature, control is so conducted that the temperature of the lower portion is not higher than the upper portion in the axial temperature distribution of the reactor vessel. By controlling the pressure of the cover gas in the annular vessel in this way, the liquid level can be raised to a cover gas portion remaining at a high temperature state. Further, the temperature of the furnace wall can always be decreased to a temperature of the high temperature plenum thereby enabling to moderate the thermal stresses. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Studies on reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Most of the peaceful applications of atomic energy are inherently dependent on advances in the science and technology of nuclear reactors, and aspects of this development are part of a major programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The most useful role that the Agency can play is as a co-ordinating body or central forum where the trends can be reviewed and the results assessed. Some of the basic studies are carried out by members of the Agency's own scientific staff. The Agency also convenes groups of experts from different countries to examine a particular problem in detail and make any necessary recommendations. Some of the important subjects are discussed at international scientific meetings held by the Agency. One of the subjects covered by such studies is the physics of nuclear reactors and a specific topic recently discussed was Codes for Reactor Computations, on which a seminar was held in Vienna in April this year. Another The members of the Panel described the development of heavy water reactors, the equipment and methods of research currently used, and plans for further development in their respective countries meeting of Panel of Experts on Heavy Water Lattices was held in Vienna in August 1959

  17. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented

  18. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  19. Method of reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To minimize the power change due to the increase in xenone and power distribution after reaching the rated power in the case of using fresh fuels no requiring conditioning operation thereby starting the nuclear reactor in a short period of time and stably. Method: When control rods are entirely inserted only with a purpose for the compensation of the reactivity in a xenon-unsaturated state such as upon starting of the nuclear reactor, peaking is generated in the lower portion of the reactor core. Therefore, it is necessary to insert control rods for additionally suppressing the peaking in the lower portion of the reactor core to a relatively shallow level. In view of the above, a plurality of control rods are divided into a first control rod group finally inserted in the rated power state and a second control rod group other than the above. Then, the power is once elevated to the rated power level by means of such an intermediate control rod pattern that the ratio of the total extraction amount between the first control rod group and the second control rod group is made constant. Then, the control rods are extracted stepwise while setting the ratio of the total extraction amount constant in accordance with the change of the accumulating amount of xenone, to thereby obtain the purpose. (kamimura, M.)

  20. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.