WorldWideScience

Sample records for anl electric vehicle

  1. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  2. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  3. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  4. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Yingqi, Liu; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... government`s leading role, improving low-awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles and focusing on user requirements....

  5. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  6. Electric Vehicle Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles are being considered as one of the pillar of eco-friendly solutions to overcome the problem of global pollution and radiations due to greenhouse gases. Present thesis work reports the improvement in overall performance of the propulsion system of an electric vehicle by improving autonomy and torque-speed characteristic. Electric vehicle propulsion system consists of supply and traction system, and are coordinated by the monitoring & control system. Case of light electric veh...

  7. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  9. Whither electric vehicles?

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline and electric vehicles all competed to become the dominant automobile technology. By the early 1900s, the battle was over and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEVs) were poised to become the prime movers of the twentieth century.

  10. Electric vehicles in action

    OpenAIRE

    Wikström, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses the political and practical conditions for introducing electric vehicles in Swedish public authorites and discusses the potential for using electric vehicles in public transport and public fleets. The work has been carried out using an interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach brings new insights to energy studies; the combination of technical methods and methods from social science allows the technology to be studied in its societal context. Local self-govern...

  11. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  12. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  13. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  14. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  15. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  16. Light and ultralight electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Bossche, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Today electrical vehicles are again considered seriously. However, one is not yet used to their performance. An overview is given in what one can expect from electric vehicles, ranging from electric bicycles to the electrical SUV. Special attention is given to the possibility of ultralight electric cars and the elbev concept, “Ecologic Low Budget Electric Vehicle”. Together with high efficiency power plants, a CO2 emissions of about 10gr/km could be obtained.

  17. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  18. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  19. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-07-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  20. At A Glance: Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-07-13

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. With the range of styles and options available, there is likely one to meet your needs. The vehicles can be divided into three categories: 1) Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), 2) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and 3) All-electric vehicles (EVs).

  1. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  2. Electric Vehicles and the Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour.......This report is analysing the potential travel behaviour of electric vehicles (EVs) and the need for charging infrastructure which can be derived from the behaviour....

  3. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  4. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  5. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  6. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  7. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  8. Perspectives for Electric Vehicles in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Jørgen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective.......Review of the present knowledge on electric vehicles and analysis of the energy and environmental consequences of the introduction of electric vehicles in Denmark. The report focuses on the 10-15 year time perspective....

  9. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  10. Electric vehicle energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Chakib

    This thesis investigates and analyzes novel strategies for the optimum energy management of electric vehicles (EVs). These are aimed to maximize the useful life of the EV batteries and make the EV more practical in order to increase its acceptability to market. The first strategy concerns the right choice of the batteries for the EV according to the user's driving habits, which may vary. Tests conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell battery lab show that the batteries perform differently from one manufacturer to the other. The second strategy was to investigate the fast chargeability of different batteries, which leads to reduce the time needed to recharge the EV battery pack. Tests were conducted again to prove that only few battery types could be fast charged. Test data were used to design a fast battery charger that could be installed in an EV charging station. The third strategy was the design, fabrication and application of an Electric Vehicle Diagnostic and Rejuvenation System (EVDRS). This system is based on Mosfet Controlled Thyristors (MCTs). It is capable of quickly identifying any failing battery(s) within the EV pack and rejuvenating the whole battery pack without dismantling them and unloading them. A novel algorithm to rejuvenate Electric Vehicle Sealed Lead Acid Batteries is described. This rejuvenation extends the useful life of the batteries and makes the EV more competitive. The fourth strategy was to design a thermal management system for EV, which is crucial to the safe operation, and the achievement of normal/optimal performance of, electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A novel approach for EV thermal management, based on Pettier-Effect heat pumps, was designed, fabricated and tested in EV. It shows the application of this type of technology for thermal management of EVs.

  11. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  12. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  13. Electric and Conventional Vehicle Driving Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) is an interesting vehicle type that can reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, e.g., by using electricity from wind turbines. A significant disadvantage of EVs is a very limited range, typically less than 200 km. This paper compares EVs to conventional vehicles (CVs...

  14. Electric vehicle integration into modern power networks

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources.New business mo

  15. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  16. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Cipcigan, Liana M.; Jenkins, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  17. Technology and implementation of electric vehicles and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    developments. Different business models and policies are also outlined along with a description of the on‐going research and demonstration projects. An analysis of the current and near term electric and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles indicate that the cost for family cars will not change much, while...... the ranges of electric vehicles will increase and may even double for some family cars compared to the existing models. The average driving range in this report increases from around 150 km for existing electric vehicles to more than 200 km for near term electric vehicles (expected new models in 2012......In this report state of the art electric vehicle and plug‐in hybrid electric vehicle technology is presented to clarify the current and near term development. The current status of diffusion for electric vehicles in Denmark, Sweden and internationally is presented as well as the expected...

  18. Environmental assessment of lightweight electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Egede, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    This monograph adresses the challenge of the environmental assessment of leightweight electric vehicles. It poses the question whether the use of lightweight materials in electric vehicles can reduce the vehicles’ environmental impact and compares the environmental performance of a lightweight electric vehicle (LEV) to other types of vehicles. The topical approach focuses on methods from life cycle assessment (LCA), and the book concludes with a comprehensive concept on the environmental assessment of LEVs. The target audience primarily comprises LCA practitioners from research institutes and industry, but it may also be beneficial for graduate students specializing in the field of environmental assessment.

  19. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  20. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  1. Modern Electric Traction of Skoda Plzen Vehicles Modern Electric Traction of Skoda Plzen Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Drabek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric traction vehicle producting plant SKODA Plzen - Transportations develops and produces electric traction drives with the top technological niveau. Electric vehicles are delivered to transport institutions in Czech Republic as well as abroad. Many Ma, and PhD. graduates of the University of Zilina take part in this successful activity.The electric traction vehicle producting plant SKODA Plzen - Transportations develops and produces electric traction drives with the top technological niveau. Electric vehicles are delivered to transport institutions in Czech Republic as well as abroad. Many Ma, and PhD. graduates of the University of Zilina take part in this successful activity.

  2. Motor Torque Calculations For Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Chauhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is estimated that 25 of the total cars across the world will run on electricity by 2025. An important component that is an integral part of all electric vehicles is the motor. The amount of torque that the driving motor delivers is what plays a decisive role in determining the speed acceleration and performance of an electric vehicle. The following work aims at simplifying the calculations required to decide the capacity of the motor that should be used to drive a vehicle of particular specifications.

  3. Traffic modelling framework for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlote, Arieh; Crisostomi, Emanuele; Kirkland, Stephen; Shorten, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews and improves a recently proposed model of road network dynamics. The model is also adapted and generalised to represent the patterns of battery consumption of electric vehicles travelling in the road network. Simulations from the mobility simulator SUMO are given to support and to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. Applications relevant in the field of electric vehicles, such as optimal routing and traffic load control, are provided to illustrate how the proposed model can be used to address typical problems arising in contemporary road network planning and electric vehicle mobility.

  4. ELECTROMAGNETIC BIOSPHERE POLLUTION BY MOTOR TRANSPORT (VEHICLES, ELECTRIC VEHICLES, HYBRID VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selivanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The physics of the electromagnetic field is considered. The analysis of electromagnetic radiation on the human-being, the origin of which is the vehicle the electric vehicle, the hybrid vehicle is being considered. The monitoring of electromagnetic radiation of vehicles is carried out.

  5. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  6. Predictive cruise control in hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, T. van; Naus, M.J.G.; Jager, B. de; Molengraft, G.J.L. van de; Steinbuch, M.; Aneke, N.P.I.

    2009-01-01

    Deceleration rates have considerable influence on the fuel economy of hybrid electric vehicles. Given the vehicle characteristics and actual/measured operating conditions, as well as upcoming route information, optimal velocity trajectories can be constructed that maximize energy recovery. To suppor

  7. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  8. Electric vehicles; Jidosha gijutsu. Denki jidosha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Problems such as global warning, air pollution centering mainly to big cities, diversification of energy resources and so forth are dealt world widely in big scale and expectation to clean electric vehicles is getting higher. Conventional electric vehicles were mainly light vans. Although the ZEV sale compulsion from the year 1998 in California State was postponed, small type electric vehicles with improved performance appeared one after another from the fact that there is 10% sale compulsion in 2003. In Japan, these ordinary/small type electric vehicles are getting popularized rapidly. As for overseas, present record of 1996, number of electric vehicles sold by America were 2300 cars, Europe sold 3000 cars, Italy 800 cars, Germany 4,500 cars, Switzerland 2,050 cars and their sale has been promoted centering to France. As for technology development, transfer from direct motor to alternating motor as a power unit is completely ahead. Further, development of new type of battery is commonly carried out and electric vehicles with new battery are outstanding. 4 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  10. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC AND GASOLINE-POWERED VEHICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m(-1) for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m(-1) for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model.

  11. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  12. Control of Energy Regeneration for Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; MAO Xiao-jian; LI Li-ming; ZHUO Bn

    2008-01-01

    To extend electric vehicle (EV) running distance, the vehicle energy regeneration (ER) method and vehicle control strategy were designed based on the original vehicle braking system. The ER principle of direct current (DC) brushless motor was studied, the motor mathematical model and PI control method with torque close-loop were built. This control method was applied to pure EV and the real road tests were evaluated.The ER control does not make any significant uncomfortable influence brake feeling and can save about 10% battery energy based on 3 times economic commission for Europe (ECE) driving cycles.

  13. OPTIMAL CONTROL FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE STABILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This main objective of the paper is to stabilize an electric vehicle in optimal manner to a step lane change maneuver. To define the mathematical model of the vehicle, the rigid body moving on a plane is taken into account. An optimal lane keeping controller delivers the adequate angles in order to stabilize the vehicle’s trajectory in an optimal way. Two degree of freedom linear bicycle model is adopted as vehicle model, consisting of lateral and yaw motion equations. The proposed control maintains the lateral stability by taking the feedback information from the vehicle transducers. In this way only the lateral vehicle’s dynamics are enough to considerate. Based on the obtained linear mathematical model the quadratic optimal control is designed in order to maintain the lateral stability of the electric vehicle. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed solution.

  14. Advanced hybrid and electric vehicles system optimization and vehicle integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the results of the research program “Agreement for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles”, funded by the International Energy Agency. The topical focus lies on technology options for the system optimization of hybrid and electric vehicle components and drive train configurations which enhance the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and industry experts in the field of automotive engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  15. Identification of potential locations of electric vehicle supply equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, R. Paul; Qin, Nan

    2015-12-01

    Proper placement of electric vehicle supply equipment (charging stations) requires an understanding of vehicle usage patterns. Using data from the National Household Travel Survey on vehicle mileage and destination patterns, analyses were performed to determine electric vehicles' charging needs, as a function of battery size and state of charge. This paper compares electric vehicle charging needs with Department of Energy electric vehicle charging data from real-world charging infrastructure. By combining the electric vehicles charging needs with charging data from real-world applications, locations with high electric vehicle charging likelihood are identified.

  16. Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Robin J. D. [Smith Electric Vehicles Corporation, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The Smith Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (SDP) was integral to the Smith business plan to establish a manufacturing base in the United States (US) and produce a portfolio of All Electric Vehicles (AEV’s) for the medium duty commercial truck market. Smith focused on the commercial depot based logistics market, as it represented the market that was most ready for the early adoption of AEV technology. The SDP enabled Smith to accelerate its introduction of vehicles and increase the size of its US supply chain to support early market adoption of AEV’s that were cost competitive, fully met the needs of a diverse set of end users and were compliant with Federal safety and emissions requirements. The SDP accelerated the development and production of various electric drive vehicle systems to substantially reduce petroleum consumption, reduce vehicular emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and increase US jobs.

  17. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John Sheungchun

    2007-09-18

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  18. Electrical Vehicles Activities Around the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauer, Gerd; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    To understand the development of electric vehicles it is helpful to recognize constraints that were overcome during its history and the lessons learned from these constraints. In the earliest history of automobiles electrical cars initially dominated, but were pushed aside by cars with a combustion...... power electronics, preparations for roll-out, and there is discussion of a variety of electric vehicles manufactured by the car industry. Only recently the results in terms of performance, costs of operation and consumer acceptance were disheartening but now incentive schemes, regulatory frameworks, new...... engine. In the 1990s research and demonstrations intensified and built a good basis for actual development of electrical vehicles. Discussion of the results achieved and lessons learned from millions of kilometers of road testing is worthwhile but in addition to technological developments such as light...

  19. DC Power System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liwei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmental and energy problem has become one of the world's hot spot problems. Today, the road cars not only consume a lot of oil resource, but also cause serious pollution to human survival environment. Therefore, to save energy and protect environment, a green environmental friendly electric car instead of fuel car will be needed for sustainable development of the society. Electric vehicle has no pollution, low noise, high efficiency, diversification, simple structure and convenient maintaining; the development of green cleaning electric vehicle is the trend, and the inevitable choice. The power supply system of electric vehicle can be divided into three parts, the battery charging system, motor drive system and dc load power supply system. This paper mainly studies the dc load power supply system. Main function is to convert the high-voltage of the battery in the electric vehicle into low voltage output, provide the power supply for the low voltage dc load, including the car safety system, windshield wiper system, audio system. On the basis of the analysis of the parameters, this article designs the converter, sets up the principle prototype, analyzes the experimental results and finally makes conclusion. The vehicle power supply is green, environment friendly, high-efficiency, digital and intelligent.    

  20. Optimal Charge control of Electric Vehicles in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie; Wu, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Environment constraints, petroleum scarcity, high price on fuel resources and recent advancements in battery technology have led to emergence of Electric Vehicles (EVs). As increasing numbers of EVs enter the electricity market, these extra loads may cause peak load and need to be properly...

  1. Plug-in electric vehicles integrating fluctuating renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallinger, David

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines a method to model plug-in electric vehicles as part of the power system and presents results for the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance the fluctuating electricity generation of renewable energy sources. The scientific contribution includes: - A novel approach to characterizing fluctuating generation. This allows the detailed comparison of results from energy analysis and is the basis to describe the effect of electricity from renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles on the power system. - The characterization of mobile storage, which includes the description of mobility behavior using probabilities and battery discharging costs. - The introduction of an agent-based simulation approach, coupling energy markets and distributed grids using a price-based mechanism design. - The description of an agent with specific driving behavior, battery discharging costs and optimization algorithm suitable for real plug-in vehicles and simulation models. - A case study for a 2030 scenario describing the contribution of plug-in electric vehicles to balance generation from renewable energy sources in California and Germany.

  2. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  3. Electric Vehicles Mileage Extender Kinetic Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivkov, Venelin; Draganov, Vutko; Stoyanova, Yana

    2015-03-01

    The proposed paper considers small urban vehicles with electric hybrid propulsion systems. Energy demands are examined on the basis of European drive cycle (NEUDC) and on an energy recuperation coefficient and are formulated for description of cycle energy transfers. Numerical simulation results show real possibilities for increasing in achievable vehicle mileage at the same energy levels of a main energy source - the electric battery. Kinetic energy storage (KES), as proposed to be used as an energy buffer and different structural schemes of the hybrid propulsion system are commented. Minimum energy levels for primary (the electric battery) and secondary (KES) sources are evaluated. A strategy for reduced power flows control is examined, and its impact on achievable vehicle mileage is investigated. Results show an additional increase in simulated mileage at the same initial energy levels.

  4. Flinders University Electric Vehicle Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    Outlines the specifications and principles involved in the operation of an electric car developed by the Institute of Solar and Electochemical Energy Conversion at Flinders University in South Australia. (JR)

  5. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.A.; Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.

    1978-11-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at industrial subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1977--September 1978 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary-energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing electrodes of lithium--aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl--KCl electrolyte. During this fiscal year, cell and battery development work continued at ANL, Eagle--Picher Industries, Inc., the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International, and Gould Inc. Related work was also in progress at the Carborundum Co., General Motors Research Laboratories, and various other organizations. A major event was the initiation of a subcontract with Eagle--Picher Industries to develop, design, and fabricate a 40-kWh battery (Mark IA) for testing in an electric van. Conceptual design studies on a 100-MWh stationary-energy-storage module were conducted as a joint effort between ANL and Rockwell International. A significant technical advance was the development of multiplate cells, which are capable of higher performance than bicells. 89 figures, 57 tables.

  6. A cycle timer for testing electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    A cycle timer was developed to assist the driver of an electric vehicle in more accurately following and repeating SAE driving schedules. These schedules require operating an electric vehicle in a selected stop-and-go driving cycle and repeating this cycle pattern until the vehicle ceases to meet the requirements of the cycle. The heart of the system is a programmable read-only memory (PROM) that has the required test profiles permanently recorded on plug-in cards, one card for each different driving schedule. The PROM generates a direct current analog signal that drives a speedometer displayed on one scale of a dual movement meter. The second scale of the dual movement meter displays the actual speed of the vehicle as recorded by the fifth wheel. The vehicle operator controls vehicle speed to match the desired profile speed. The PROM controls the recycle start time as well as the buzzer activation. The cycle programmer is powered by the test vehicle's 12-volt accessory battery, through a 5-volt regulator and a 12-volt dc-to-dc converter.

  7. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  8. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  9. Electric Vehicle Preparedness - Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense base studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island (NASWI) located in Washington State. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at NASWI to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the NASWI fleet.

  10. The Nikola project intelligent electric vehicle integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Marinelli, Mattia; Olesen, Ole Jan;

    2014-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) has certain properties that elevate its relevance to the smart grid. If EV integration is to meet its potential in supporting an economic and secure power system and at the same time lower the operating costs for the owner, it is necessary to thoroughly and systematically...

  11. Online energy management for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Koot, M.W.T.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den; Kok, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are equipped with multiple power sources for improving the efficiency and performance of their power supply system. An energy management (EM) strategy is needed to optimize the internal power flows and satisfy the driver's power demand. To achieve maximum fuel profits

  12. A Comprehensive Overview of Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiying Shen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the environmental pollution and energy crises are getting more and more remarkable, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs have taken on an accelerated pace in the world. A comprehensive overview of HEVs is presented in this paper, with the emphasis on configurations, main issues, and energy management strategies. Conclusions are discussed finally.

  13. Urban electric vehicles: a contemporary business case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha SADEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world where energy supply security and environmental protection are major concerns, the development of green vehicles is becoming a necessity. The Electric vehicle (EV is one of the most promising technologies that will make the “green dream” come true. This paper is a contemporary business case that encourages the immediate deployment of urban EVs. It proposes a model in which we can profit from the benefits of urban EVs namely, high energy efficiency, emissions reduction, small size and noise reduction. The model mitigates the EV potential limitations such as energy source, charging infrastructure, impact on electrical power system and cost issues. It also provides ideas to overcome the barriers of the technology application in order to speed up their commercialization. This study reveals that having an environmentally friendly vehicle can soon become a reality if our collaborative efforts are properly directed.

  14. Anlægsteknik 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermed foreligger en ny udgave af Anlægsteknik 2, hvor der er en del ændringer i forhold til 3. udgave. Dette skyldes at fagområdet Anlægsteknik er under konstant udvikling, og nye relevante emner derfor er medtaget i denne udgave samt at andre forældede emner er fjernet. Anlægsteknik 2 har...

  15. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  16. DOE Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yimin [Advanced Vehicle Research Center, Danville, VA (United States)

    2012-03-31

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS

  17. Design of electric vehicle propulsion system incorporating flywheel energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Battery electric vehicles are crucial for moving towards a zero emission transport system. Though battery electric vehicle technology has been rapidly improving, it is still not competitive to the conventional vehicles in terms of both cost and performance. The limited driving range and high cost are significant impediments to the popularity of battery electric vehicles. The battery is the main element which affects the range and cost of the vehicle. The battery has to meet the requirements o...

  18. Critical behaviour in charging of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-09-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on two real-world distribution networks. We show that the system undergoes a continuous phase transition to a congested state as a function of the rate of vehicles plugging to the network to charge. We focus on the order parameter and its fluctuations close to the phase transition, and show that the critical point depends on the choice of congestion protocol. Finally, we analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more equitable in proportional fairness than in max-flow.

  19. Hybrid electric vehicles energy management strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Onori, Simona; Rizzoni, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief deals with the control and optimization problem in hybrid electric vehicles. Given that there are two (or more) energy sources (i.e., battery and fuel) in hybrid vehicles, it shows the reader how to implement an energy-management strategy that decides how much of the vehicle’s power is provided by each source instant by instant. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: •introduces methods for modeling energy flow in hybrid electric vehicles; •presents a standard mathematical formulation of the optimal control problem; •discusses different optimization and control strategies for energy management, integrating the most recent research results; and •carries out an overall comparison of the different control strategies presented. Chapter by chapter, a case study is thoroughly developed, providing illustrative numerical examples that show the basic principles applied to real-world situations. In addition to the examples, simulation code is provided via a website, so that readers can work on the actua...

  20. Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles in Open Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    congestion management scenario within electric distribution networks •optimal EV charging management with the fleet operator concept and smart charging management •EV battery technology, modelling and tests •the use of EVs for balancing power fluctuations from renewable energy sources, looking at power......Presenting the policy drivers, benefits and challenges for grid integration of electric vehicles (EVs) in the open electricity market environment, this book provides a comprehensive overview of existing electricity markets and demonstrates how EVs are integrated into these different markets...... and power systems. Unlike other texts, this book analyses EV integration in parallel with electricity market design, showing the interaction between EVs and differing electricity markets. Future regulating power market and distribution system operator (DSO) market design is covered, with up-to-date case...

  1. Realizing the electric-vehicle revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Martino; Banister, David; Bishop, Justin D. K.; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    2012-05-01

    Full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) have become an important policy option to mitigate climate change, but there are major uncertainties in the scale and timing of market diffusion. Although there has been substantial work showing the potential energy and climate benefits of BEVs, demand-side factors, such as consumer behaviour, are less recognized in the debate. We show the importance of assessing BEV diffusion from an integrated perspective, focusing on key interactions between technology and behaviour across different scales, including power-system demand, charging infrastructure, vehicle performance, driving patterns and individual adoption behaviour.

  2. Review on Electric Vehicle, Battery Charger, Charging Station and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afida Ayob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are a new and upcoming technology in the transportation and power sector that have many benefits in terms of economic and environmental. This study presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of various types of electric vehicles and its associated equipment in particular battery charger and charging station. A comparison is made on the commercial and prototype electric vehicles in terms of electric range, battery size, charger power and charging time. The various types of charging stations and standards used for charging electric vehicles have been outlined and the impact of electric vehicle charging on utility distribution system is also discussed.

  3. California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Helwig, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The California Statewide Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Assessment conveys to interested parties the Energy Commission’s conclusions, recommendations, and intentions with respect to plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) infrastructure development. There are several relatively low-risk and high-priority electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) deployment options that will encourage PEV sales and

  4. Electric Vehicle Careers: On the Road to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations related to electric vehicles are similar to those that help to make and maintain all types of automobiles. But the industry is also adding some nontraditional jobs, and workers' skill sets must evolve to keep up. This article describes careers related to electric vehicles. The first section is about the electric vehicle industry…

  5. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  6. An SCR inverter for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T.; Bosack, D.; Ehrlich, R.; Jahns, T.; Mezera, J.; Thimmesch, D.

    1980-01-01

    An inverter for an electric vehicle propulsion application has been designed and constructed to excite a polyphase induction motor from a fixed propulsion battery source. The inverter, rated at 35kW peak power, is fully regenerative and permits vehicle operation in both the forward and reverse directions. Thyristors are employed as the power switching devices arranged in a dc bus commutated topology. This paper describes the major role the controller plays in generating the motor excitation voltage and frequency to deliver performance similar to dc systems. Motoring efficiency test data for the controller are presented. It is concluded that an SCR inverter in conjunction with an ac induction motor is a viable alternative to present dc vehicle propulsion systems on the basis of performance and size criteria.

  7. Repurposing of Batteries from Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2015-06-11

    Energy storage for stationary use is gaining traction both at the grid scale and distributed level. As renewable energy generation increases, energy storage is needed to compensate for the volatility of renewable over various time scales. This requires energy storage that is tailored for various energy to power (E/P) ratios. Other applications for energy storage include peak shaving, time shifting, load leveling, VAR control, frequency regulation, spinning reserves and other ancillary applications. While the need for energy storage for stationary applications is obvious, the regulations that determine the economic value of adding storage are at various stages of development. This has created a reluctance on the part of energy storage manufacturers to develop a suite of storage systems that can address the myriad of applications associated with stationary applications. Deployment of battery energy storage systems in the transportation sector is ahead of the curve with respect to the stationary space. Batteries, along with battery management systems (BMS) have been deployed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs). HEVs have now been deployed for 12 years, while PHEVs for 8 and EVs for 4 years. Some of the batteries are approaching end of life within the vehicle, and are ready to be taken off for recycling and disposal. Performance within a vehicle is non-negotiable in terms of miles traveled per charge, resulting in the batteries retaining a significant portion of their life. For stationary applications, the remaining energy and power of the battery can still be used by grouping together a few of these batteries. This enables getting the most of these batteries, while ensuring that performance is not compromised in either the automotive or stationary applications. This work summarizes the opportunities for such re-purposing of automotive batteries, along with the advantages and limitations

  8. Multilevel Inverters for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habetler, T.G.; Peng, F.Z.; Tolbert, L.M.

    1998-10-22

    This paper presents multilevel inverters as an application for all-electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Diode-clamped inverters and cascaded H-bridge inverters, (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference (EMI) and common-mode voltage; and (3) make an EV more accessible/safer and open wiring possible for most of an EV'S power system. This paper explores the benefits and discusses control schemes of the cascade inverter for use as an EV motor drive or a parallel HEV drive and the diode-clamped inverter as a series HEV motor drive. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results show the superiority of these multilevel inverters for this new niche.

  9. Recycling of Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUNGST,RUDOLPH G.

    1999-10-06

    The pace of development and fielding of electric vehicles is briefly described and the principal advanced battery chemistries expected to be used in the EV application are identified as Ni/MH in the near term and Li-ion/Li-polymer in the intermediate to long term. The status of recycling process development is reviewed for each of the two chemistries and future research needs are discussed.

  10. Electric Vehicle based on standard industrial components

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Ramos, José; Aghili Kathir, Foroohar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to presents the complete design of an electric vehicle by using standard industrial components as VRLA batteries, AC induction motors and standard frequency converters. In comparison with dedicated components, the use of standard components has the following advantages: higher reliability, low price, broad range of products and suppliers, and high availability and technological independence. Besides this, we show that these components allow to ...

  11. Electric vehicles:charged with potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Roger; Blythe, Phil; Brace, Chris; James, Pete; Parry-Jones, Richard; Thielens, Davy; Thomas, Martyn; Wenham, Richard; Urry, John

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles hold the promise, if widely adopted, of drastically reducing carbon emissions from surface transport and could, therefore, form a major plank in the UK’s efforts to meet the binding emissions reduction targets enshrined in the 2008 Climate Change Act. Most credible energy scenarios for the UK based on the earlier CO2 emissions reduction targets of 60% compared to 1990 levels strategically allocated all emissions savings to other sectors of the UK economy, allowing the majori...

  12. Systems Engineering of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Levin, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical paper notes systems engineering principles applied to development of electric and hybrid vehicles such that system performance requirements support overall program goal of reduced petroleum consumption. Paper discusses iterative design approach dictated by systems analyses. In addition to obvious peformance parameters of range, acceleration rate, and energy consumption, systems engineering also considers such major factors as cost, safety, reliability, comfort, necessary supporting infrastructure, and availability of materials.

  13. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-07-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  14. Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles advanced simulation methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Varga, Bogdan Ovidiu; Moldovanu, Dan; Iclodean, Calin

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain

  15. Lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and other applications. Progress report, October 1979-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Shimotake, H.

    1980-08-01

    The research and development activities of the program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on lithium/iron sulfide batteries during the period October 1979-March 1980 is described. Although the major emphasis is currently on batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion, stationary energy-storage applications are also under investigation. The individual battery cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with two or more positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte. The ANL program consists of cell chemistry studies, materials engineering, and component and auxiliary systems development. Important elements of this program are studies of the effects of design modifications on cell performance and post-test examinations of cells. During the reporting period, cell and battery development work has been aimed primarily at the first phase of the Mark II electric-vehicle battery program, which consists of an effort to develop high-reliability cells having boron nitride felt separators. Later in the Mark II program, the cells will be tested in 10-cell modules. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted mainly of conceptual design studies. 23 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-29

    operate as a generator to convert mechanical energy from the diesel t~nginc 01 from regenerative braking to electrical energy. A vehicle control module...Distributed Heterogeneous Simulation of a Hybrid- Electric Vehicle Ning Wu’, Curtis Rands t , Charles E. Lucas!, Eric A. Walters§, and Maher A...Masrurit US Army RDECOM-TARDEC, Warren, MI, 48397 Hybrid- electric military vehicles provide many advantages over conventional military vehicles powered

  17. Communicating with residential electrical devices via a vehicle telematics unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rebecca C.; Pebbles, Paul H.

    2016-11-15

    A method of communicating with residential electrical devices using a vehicle telematics unit includes receiving information identifying a residential electrical device to control; displaying in a vehicle one or more controlled features of the identified residential electrical device; receiving from a vehicle occupant a selection of the displayed controlled features of the residential electrical device; sending an instruction from the vehicle telematics unit to the residential electrical device via a wireless carrier system in response to the received selection; and controlling the residential electrical device using the sent instruction.

  18. Modeling and Analyzing Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Thomsen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The combined battery capacity in electric vehicles (EVs) is considered an integral part of balancing a smart power grid in the future. In addition, EVs can reduce the usage of fossil fuels in the transport sector because EVs can be charged using electricity from renewable energy sources......, such as wind turbines. To both enable a smart grid and the use of renewable energy, it is essential to know when and where an EV is plugged into the power grid and what battery capacity is available. In this paper, we present a generic spatio-temporal data-warehouse model for storing detailed information...... on all aspects of charging EVs, including integration with the electricity prices from a spot market. The proposed data warehouse is fully implemented and currently contains 2.5 years of charging data from 176 EVs. We describe the date warehouse model and the implementation including complex operations...

  19. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  20. Intelligent Vehicle Electrical Power Supply System with Central Coordinated Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Diange; KONG Weiwei; LI Bing; LIAN Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect;electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle’s battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle’s power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  1. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  2. Technique applied in electrical power distribution for Satellite Launch Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Rosário

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Satellite Launch Vehicle electrical network, which is currently being developed in Brazil, is sub-divided for analysis in the following parts: Service Electrical Network, Controlling Electrical Network, Safety Electrical Network and Telemetry Electrical Network. During the pre-launching and launching phases, these electrical networks are associated electrically and mechanically to the structure of the vehicle. In order to succeed in the integration of these electrical networks it is necessary to employ techniques of electrical power distribution, which are proper to Launch Vehicle systems. This work presents the most important techniques to be considered in the characterization of the electrical power supply applied to Launch Vehicle systems. Such techniques are primarily designed to allow the electrical networks, when submitted to the single-phase fault to ground, to be able of keeping the power supply to the loads.

  3. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids energy management

    CERN Document Server

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights the cutting-edge research on energy management within smart grids with significant deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV). These vehicles not only can be a significant electrical power consumer during Grid to Vehicle (G2V) charging mode, they can also be smartly utilized as a controlled source of electrical power when they are used in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operating mode. Electricity Price, Time of Use Tariffs, Quality of Service, Social Welfare as well as electrical parameters of the network are all different criteria considered by the researchers when developing

  4. Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. P.

    1993-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

  5. Electric vehicle business models global perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Beeton, David

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume collects insights from industry professionals, policy makers and researchers on new and profitable business models in the field of electric vehicles (EV) for the mass market. This book includes approaches that address the optimization of total cost of ownership. Moreover, it presents alternative models of ownership, financing and leasing. The editors present state-of-the-art insights from international experts, including real-world case studies. The volume has been edited in the framework of the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement for Cooperation on Hy

  6. Electric vehicle drive train with contactor protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.

    1994-01-01

    A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.

  7. Efficiency Test Method for Electric Vehicle Chargers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieldsen, Andreas; Thingvad, Andreas; Martinenas, Sergejus;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates different methods for measuring the charger efficiency of mass produced electric vehicles (EVs), in order to compare the different models. The consumers have low attention to the loss in the charger though the impact on the driving cost is high. It is not a high priority...... above the state of the art power converters. This is an unnecessary high consumption of electrical energy during charging, which not only affects the consumer financially, but also creates unnecessary load on the grid....... area for the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), which means the cost of the power converter equipment is minimised. The internal wiring and the composition of components within an EV is different for each OEM and model, hence a unified test method is needed in order to compare results across...

  8. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle R&D plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-06-01

    FCVT, in consultation with industry and other appropriate DOE offices, developed the Draft Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle R&D Plan to accelerate the development and deployment of technologies critical for plug-in hybrid vehicles.

  9. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  10. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  11. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning;

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting...... a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging...... optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming...

  12. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment

  13. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see

  14. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty

  15. Research and Simulation of the Electrical Vehicle Based Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko-Chun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a dynamic model of electric vehicle system by using the MATLAB/Simulink tool. The vehicle model comprises two system components: an electrical system and a suspension system. This study also designed various road conditions for simulating the motion of vehicle traveling along a road. The results show that the electrical and suspension system parameters can be adjusted immediately to enhance passenger comfort. The findings of this research have practical teaching applications. Students can modify the vehicle model parameters byes using the MATLAB graphical user interface, allowing them to observe the motion of vehicle under various road conditions.

  16. Impacts of Electric Vehicle Loads on Power Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity syste...... be accommodated in the network with the smart charging mode. The extent of integrating EVs in an area is constrained by the EV charging behavior and the safe operational limits of electricity system parameters....... operation. This paper investigates the effects on the key power distribution system parameters like voltages, line drops, system losses etc. by integrating electric vehicles in the range of 0-50% of the cars with different charging capacities. The dump as well as smart charging modes of electric vehicles......Electric vehicles (EVs) are the most promising alternative to replace a significant amount of gasoline vehicles to provide cleaner, CO2 free and climate friendly transportation. On integrating more electric vehicles, the electric utilities must analyse the related impacts on the electricity system...

  17. Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator Tool for Smart Grid Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Morais; Zita Vale; João Soares; Cristina Lobo; Bruno Canizes

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simulator for electric vehicles in the context of smart grids and distribution networks. It aims to support network operators’ planning and operations but can be used by other entities for related studies. The paper describes the parameters supported by the current version of the Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi) tool and its current algorithm. EVeSSi enables the definition of electric vehicles scenarios on distribution networks using a built-in movement engin...

  18. High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    M) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 9-11 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN HIGH TEMPERATURE POWER CONVERTERS FOR MILITARY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES ABSTRACT...SUBTITLE High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...public release High Temperature Power Converters for Military Hybrid Electric Vehicles Page 2 of 8 I. INTRODUCTION Today, wide bandgap devices

  19. Network based management for multiplexed electric vehicle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching Yen; Qui, Li

    2017-04-11

    A system for multiplexing charging of electric vehicles, comprising a server coupled to a plurality of charging control modules over a network. Each of said charging modules being connected to a voltage source such that each charging control module is configured to regulate distribution of voltage from the voltage source to an electric vehicle coupled to the charging control module. Data collection and control software is provided on the server for identifying a plurality of electric vehicles coupled to the plurality of charging control modules and selectively distributing charging of the plurality of charging control modules to multiplex distribution of voltage to the plurality of electric vehicles.

  20. High-performance batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage. Progress report, October 1978-September 1979. [40 kWh, Li-Al and Li-Si anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barney, D. L.; Steunenberg, R. K.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C.; Battles, J. E.; Hornstra, F.; Miller, W. E.; Vissers, D. R.; Roche, M. F.; Shimotake, H.; Hudson, R.; Askew, B. A.; Sudar, S.

    1980-03-01

    The research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 to September 1979 are reported. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400 to 500/sup 0/C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS/sub 2/, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte. During this reporting period, cell and battery development work has continued at ANL and contractors' laboratories. A 40 kWh electric-vehicle battery (designated Mark IA) was fabricated and delivered to ANL for testing. During the initial heat-up, one of the two modules failed due to a short circuit. A failure analysis was conducted, and the Mark IA program completed. Development work on the next electric-vehicle battery (Mark II) was initiated at Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and Gould, Inc. Work on stationary energy-storage batteries during this period has consisted primarily of conceptual design studies. 107 figures, 67 tables.

  1. Multiple Attribute Decision Making Based Relay Vehicle Selection for Electric Vehicle Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale electric vehicle integration into power grid and charging randomly will cause serious impacts on the normal operation of power grid. Therefore, it is necessary to control the charging behavior of electric vehicle, while information transmission for electric vehicle is significant. Due to the highly mobile characteristics of vehicle, transferring information to power grid directly might be inaccessible. Relay vehicle (RV can be used for supporting multi-hop connection between SV and power grid. This paper proposes a multiple attribute decision making (MADM-based RV selection algorithm, which considers multiple attribute, including data transfer rate, delay, route duration. It takes the characteristics of electric vehicle communication into account, which can provide protection for the communication services of electric vehicle charging and discharging. Numerical results demonstrate that compared to previous algorithm, the proposed algorithm offer better performance in terms of throughput, transmission delay.

  2. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  3. Energy storage specification requirements for hybrid-electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. F.

    1993-09-01

    A study has been made of energy storage unit requirements for hybrid-electric vehicles. The drivelines for these vehicles included both primary energy storage units and/or pulse power units. The primary energy storage units were sized to provide 'primary energy' ranges up to 60 km. The total power capability of the drivelines were such that the vehicles had 0 to 100 km/h acceleration times of 10 to 12 s. The power density requirements for primary energy storage devices to be used in hybrid vehicles are much higher than that for devices to be used in electric vehicles. The energy density and power density requirements for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles, are not much different than those in an electric vehicle. The cycle life requirements for primary energy-storage units for hybrid vehicles are about double that for electric vehicles, because of the reduced size of the storage units in the hybrid vehicles. The cycle life for pulse-power devices for hybrid vehicles is about the same as for electric vehicles having battery load leveling. Because of the need for additional components in the hybrid driveline, the cost of the energy storage units in hybrid vehicles should be much less (at least a factor of two) than those in electric vehicles. There are no presently available energy storage units that meet all the specifications for hybrid vehicle applications, but ultracapacitors and bipolar lead-acid batteries are under development that have the potential for meeting them. If flywheel systems having a mechanical system energy density of 40 to 50 W(center dot)h/kg and an electrical system power density of 2 to 3 kw/kg can be developed, they would have the potential of meeting specifications for primary storage and pulse power units.

  4. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Juul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming. We show that all vehicle owners will benefit from acting more intelligently on the energy market. Furthermore, the high value of the stochastic solution shows that, in case the regulating price differs from the expected, the solution to the deterministic problem becomes infeasible.

  5. Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shapiro, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-11

    With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

  6. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WADA Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Dept.of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology.Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile,electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot.These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles,i.e.,batteries and electric motors,does not deteriorate the environment.To drive motors for vehicle traveling,robotic technologies were applied.

  7. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh; Capion, Karsten Emil; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With a potential to facilitate the integration of renewable energy into the electricity system, electric drive vehicles may offer a considerable flexibility by allowing for charging and discharging when desired. This paper takes the perspective of an aggregator that manages the electricity market...... participation of a vehicle fleet and presents a framework for optimizing charging and discharging of the electric drive vehicles, given the driving patterns of the fleet and the variations in market prices of electricity. When the aggregator is a price-taker the optimization can be stated in terms of linear...... on prices from the Nordic market. The results show that electric vehicles provide flexibility almost exclusively through charging. Moreover, the vehicles provide flexibility within the day but only limited flexibility from day to day when driving patterns are fixed....

  8. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost without late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Zhao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip cost without late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has significant effects on each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip costs and that the effects are dependent on its time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent effects on the minimum value of the system's total trip cost.

  9. Predicting the Potential Market for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2016-01-01

    diffusion models in marketing research use fairly simple demand models. In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting market shares for new products and suggest a method that combines advanced choice models with a diffusion model to take into account that new products often need time to gain......Forecasting the potential demand for electric vehicles is a challenging task. Because most studies for new technologies rely on stated preference (SP) data, market share predictions will reflect shares in the SP data and not in the real market. Moreover, typical disaggregate demand models...... are suitable to forecast demand in relatively stable markets, but show limitations in the case of innovations. When predicting the market for new products it is crucial to account for the role played by innovation and how it penetrates the new market over time through a diffusion process. However, typical...

  10. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  11. Vehicles under electricity. Result booklet; Autos unter Strom. Ergebnisbroschuere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The booklet under consideration reports on the environmental relief of electric-driven vehicles by means of the research project OPTUM 'Potentials of environmental relief of electric driven vehicles - Integrated analysis of vehicle usage and energy economy'. Experts from the Institute for Applied Ecology (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Institute for Social-Ecological Research (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) are devoted to the following issues: (1) What is the acceptance for electric-driven vehicles?; (2) What is their future market potential?; (3) What are the advantages of electromobility with respect to the climate?; (4) Are their supply shortages concerning major raw materials?.

  12. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in dynamical energy markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2008-01-01

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle allows vehicle propulsion from multiple internal power sources. Electric energy from the grid can be utilized by means of the plug-in connection. An on-line energy management (EM) strategy is proposed to minimize the costs for taking energy from each power source.

  13. Daxing anling Forestry Group Co.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Located on the Daxing'anling forest region of China's frontier, the Daxing'anling Forestry Group Co. is one of the 500 national large size enterprise groups with a total management area of 8.225 million ha. There are 10forestry bureaus under its jurisdiction, 93 000 in-service staff and a population of 358 000. The net value of fixed asset is 3. 58 billion yuan, Accumulative total output of timber has amounted to 110 million m3 during the past 38 years. Its profits and tax turned over to the State has t...

  14. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are commonly recognized as smart grid assets in addition to their environmental benefits. However, uncoordinated charging or sole cost minimization based charging of electric vehicles may bring undesirable peak demands and voltage violations in the distribution system....... This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...... actors are considered: distribution system operator (DSO), fleet operators and EV owners. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the fleet operator centrally manages the charging schedule of electric vehicles; in the upper level of the hierarchy, the DSO uses transactive control technique to coordinate...

  15. Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B. H.; Murry, R.

    1977-08-01

    A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2) design an entirely new electric vehicle that meets performance and economic requirements; and (3) define a program to develop this vehicle design for production in the early 1980's. The design and performance features of the preliminary (baseline) electric-powered passenger vehicle design are described, including the baseline power system, system performance, economic analysis, reliability and safety, alternate designs and options, development plan, and conclusions and recommendations. All aspects of the baseline design were defined in sufficient detail to verify performance expectations and system feasibility.

  16. Electric Vehicle Scenarios for India: Implications for mitigation and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash; Bhaskar, Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    of the electricity sector, CO2 mitigation and reduction in local air pollution. The Indian government has recently launched a national electricity mobility mission to promote EVs. There is, however, much uncertainty in terms of the penetration of EVs in the transport sector, particularly those related......), Electric Vehicles, and Electric Vehicles Plus 2°), for EVs from 2010 to 2050, are analysed using the bottom-up energy system ANSWER MARKAL model. The paper makes use of global CO2 prices for aligning the model with global stabilisation targets. Electric two-wheelers and electric four-wheelers achieve cost...

  17. Electric vehicle machines and drives design, analysis and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, K

    2015-01-01

    A timely comprehensive reference consolidates the research and development of electric vehicle machines and drives for electric and hybrid propulsions • Focuses on electric vehicle machines and drives • Covers the major technologies in the area including fundamental concepts and applications • Emphasis the design criteria, performance analyses and application examples or potentials of various motor drives and machine systems • Accompanying website includes the simulation models and outcomes as supplementary material

  18. Electric vehicle batteries reports of the PPP European green vehicles initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Briec, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume presents research results of the PPP European Green Vehicle Initiative (EGVI), focusing on electric vehicle batteries. Electrification is one road towards sustainable road transportation, and battery technology is one of the key enabling technologies. However, at the same time, battery technology is one of the main obstacles for a broad commercial launch of electric vehicles. This book includes research contributions which try to bridge the gap between research and innovation in the field of battery technology for electric vehicles. The target audience primarily comprises r

  19. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  20. Energistyring med CTS-anlæg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhold, Claus

    Rapporten gennemgår mulighederne for energistyring ved hjælp af anlæg for central tilstandskontrol og styring - de såkaldte CTS-anlæg. Der beskrives grundprincipper og typiske systemopbygninger, samt de praktiske erfaringer fra et stort engelsk forskningsprojekt og fra fire CTS-anlæg i Danmark....

  1. Optimal Charging of Electric Drive Vehicles: A Dynamic Programming Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Capion, Karsten Emil; Juul, Nina

    2013-01-01

    of electric vehicles in a market environment. From the perspective of vehicle operators participating in the electricity spot market, the problem is to optimally charge and discharge the vehicles in response to spot market prices. We consider the case of a vehicle owner who is a price......With the integration of fluctuating renewable production into the electricity system, electric-drive vehicles may contribute to the resulting need for flexibility, given that the market conditions provide sufficient economic incentive. To investigate this, we consider the short-term management......-taker and that of a fleet operator who can influence prices. In both cases, we show how the problem is amenable to dynamic programming with respectively linear and quadratic costs. With discretization of the state space, however, the problem of fleet operation is prone to suffer from the curse of dimensionality and...

  2. Torque vectoring for improving stability of small electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegożek, W.; Weigel-Milleret, K.

    2016-09-01

    The electric vehicles solutions based on the individually controlled electric motors propel a single wheel allow to improve the dynamic properties of the vehicle by varying the distribution of the driving torque. Most of the literature refer to the vehicles with a track typical for passenger cars. This paper examines whether the narrow vehicle (with a very small track) torque vectoring bring a noticeable change of the understeer characteristics and whether torque vectoring is possible to use in securing a narrow vehicle from roll over (roll mitigation). The paper contains road tests of the steering characteristics (steady state understeer characteristic quasi-static acceleration with a fixed steering wheel (SH = const) and on the constant radius track (R = const)) of the narrow vehicle. The vehicle understeer characteristic as a function of a power distribution is presented.

  3. Lithium Battery Power Delivers Electric Vehicles to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid Technologies Inc., a manufacturer and marketer of lithium-ion battery electric vehicles, based in Las Vegas, Nevada, and with research and manufacturing facilities in Mooresville, North Carolina, entered into a Space Act Agreement with Kennedy Space Center to determine the utility of lithium-powered fleet vehicles. NASA contributed engineering expertise for the car's advanced battery management system and tested a fleet of zero-emission vehicles on the Kennedy campus. Hybrid Technologies now offers a series of purpose-built lithium electric vehicles dubbed the LiV series, aimed at the urban and commuter environments.

  4. Frequency-Control Reserves and Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    the system balance in power systems with high volumes of wind power generation. To analyse the applications and performance of electric vehicles in supplying active power balancing services, the case studies simulated in wind-power-dominated Danish power systems are also presented.......The increasing penetration of variable wind power generation units and electricity consumption in power systems demands additional ancillary services for its reliable operation. The battery storages of electric vehicles are one of the substitute solutions for replacing conventional fossil......-fuelled generators to supply future grid support functions. The quick start and fast response characteristics of battery storages enable the electric vehicles to provide most of the power system auxiliary tasks. This chapter discusses key ancillary services that could be supplied by electric vehicles to maintain...

  5. Effects of electric vehicles on power systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Karsten; Ravn, Hans; Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it is analysed how a large-scale implementation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles towards 2030 would influence the power systems of five Northern European countries, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Norway, and Sweden. Increasing shares of electric vehicles....... Moreover, due to vehicle-to-grid capability, EVs can reduce the need for new coal/natural gas power capacities. Wind power can be expected to provide a large share of the electricity for EVs in several of the countries. However, if EVs are not followed up by economic support for renewable energy...... technologies, coal based power will in several cases, particularly in the short term, likely provide a large part of this electricity. The effects of EVs vary significantly from country to country and are sensitive to fuel and CO2 price variations. The EVs bring CO2 reductions of 1e6% in 2025 and 3e28% in 2030...

  6. Vehicle to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Smart Grid Communications Interface Research and Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Morrow; Dimitri Hochard; Jeff Wishart

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and extended range electric vehicles, are under evaluation by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) and other various stakeholders to better understand their capability and potential petroleum reduction benefits. PEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard hybrid electric vehicles, and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, PEVs may have the ability to eliminate petroleum consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The AVTA is working jointly with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to assist in the further development of standards necessary for the advancement of PEVs. This report analyzes different methods and available hardware for advanced communications between the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and the PEV; particularly Power Line Devices and their physical layer. Results of this study are not conclusive, but add to the collective knowledge base in this area to help define further testing that will be necessary for the development of the final recommended SAE communications standard. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Applications conduct the AVTA for the United States Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program.

  7. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Electrical machines for traction in electric vehicles are an essential component which attract attention with respect to machine design and control as a part of the emerging renewable industry. For the hybrid electric machine to replace the familiar behaviour of the combustion engine torque...

  8. Sustainable Electric Vehicle Management using Coordinated Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Valogianni (Konstantina)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how intelligent algorithms can support electricity customers in their complex decisions within the electricity grid. In particular, we focus on how electric vehicle (EV) owners can be supported in their charging and discharging decis

  9. DIAGNOSTICS CONCEPTION OF ELECTRICAL DRIVE OF A HYBRID VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Borodenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual approach to creat the diagnostic system of the power elements of the electric drive of the hybrid vehicle has been considered. Approbation of the imitation model of electric drive with brushless DC electric motor as a diagnostic object has been carried out.

  10. Electric Vehicle Requirements for Operation in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Træholt, Chresten

    2011-01-01

    Several European projects on smart grids are considering Electric Vehicles (EVs) as active element in future power systems. Both battery-powered vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are expected to interact with the grid, sharing their energy storage capacity. Different coordination concepts......, the requirements for the interaction of EVs with the electrical grid are presented. The defined requirements have been implemented on an EV test bed, realized by using real EV components. Charging/V2G tests on the EV test bed have shown that the presented requirements are sufficient to ensure an intelligent...... coordination of EVs into the electricity grid....

  11. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging using Dynamic Price Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Pedersen, Anders Bro; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    With yearly increases in Electric Vehicle (EV) sales, the future for electric mobility continues to brighten, and with more vehicles hitting the roads every day, the energy requirements on the grid will increase, potentially causing low-voltage distribution grid congestion. This problem can...... proposed in this paper, involves a real-time control strategy for charging the EV using a dynamic price tariff, with the objective of minimizing the charging cost. Two different charging scenario are investigated, and the results are verified by experiments on a real Electric Vehicle. Finally, the costs...

  12. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  13. Thermal Management of Power Electronics and Electric Motors for Electric-Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation is an overview of the power electronics and electric motor thermal management and reliability activities at NREL. The focus is on activities funded by the Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program.

  14. Loading models for electric vehicles; Lademodelle fuer Elektrofahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezger, Tomas [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    About 5 to 7 million electric vehicles have adverse effects on the electricity grid. Thus, there is a need to develop optimized loading concepts, which generate an added value both for the energy industry as well as for the vehicle owners. A two-stage analysis method is used for this. Within the first step it is examined, how defined fleet of electric vehicles can be loaded optimally with electricity taking into account the specific vehicle usage. In the second step, the charging models are again evaluated from a user perspective. The impact of the driving behavior and charge characteristics on the aging of the battery are considered specifically. Charging possibilities are identified in order to increase the battery life.

  15. Investigations of safety risks in converted electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolech, M.; Foster, D.L.; Lange, R. de; Rodarius, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the departments Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Automotive of TNO (Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research) several projects investigating safety aspects of electric vehicles have been conducted, including one in cooperation with KEMA and RDW of the Netherlands. Mos

  16. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-02-09

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  17. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This handbook is designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  18. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  19. Environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have been seen by some policymakers as a tool to target reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.1,2 Some researchers have shown that the full environmental impact of electric vehicles depends very much on the cleanliness of the electricity grid.3 In countries such as the USA and China, where coal-fired power plants still play a very important role in electricity generation, the environmental impact of electric vehicles is equivalent to, or even higher than that of cars running on internal combustion engines.4,5 In this study, the environmental impacts of electric vehicles in South Africa were investigated. We found that, as the bulk of South Africa’s electricity is generated from relatively low-quality coal and the advanced exhaust clean up technologies are not implemented in the current coal-fired power plants, the use of electric vehicles in South Africa would not help to cut greenhouse gas emissions now (2010 or in the future (in 2030 using the IRP 2010 Revision 2, policy-adjusted IRP scenario, and actually would lead to higher SOx and NOx emissions.

  20. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  1. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-09-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for consumers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  2. Modelling and simulation of vehicle electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wootaik; Choi, Daeho; Sunwoo, Myoungho

    In recent years, the demand for an increased number of vehicle functions by legislation and customer expectations has introduced many electronic control systems and electrical driven units in vehicles and has resulted in steadily increasing electrical loads. Moreover, due to heavy urban traffic conditions, the idling time fraction has increased and reduced the power generation of the alternator. In the vehicle design phase, in order to avoid an over- or under-design problem of the electric power system, it is necessary to understand both the characteristics of each component of the vehicle electric power system and the interactions between the components. For this purpose, model and simulation algorithms of the vehicle power system are required. In this study, the vehicle electric power system, which is mainly composed of a generator and battery, is modelled and evaluated. Among the various proposed battery models, two types are compared in terms of accuracy and ease-of-use. These two models are distinguished by the consideration of inrush current at the beginning of charging and discharging. In addition, a variable terminal voltage alternator model (VTVA model) is proposed, and is compared with a constant terminal voltage alternator model (CTVA model). Based on the major component model, a simulation algorithm is developed and used to perform a case study. Compared with real data from the vehicle, the simulation results of energy generation and consumption are comparable.

  3. Electric vehicle test report, Cutler-Hammer Corvette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The work described was part of the effort to characterize vehicles for the state-of-the-art assessment of electric vehicles. The vehicle evaluated was a Chevrolet Corvette converted to electric operation. The vehicle was based on a standard production 1967 chassis and body. The original internal combustion engine was replaced by an electric traction motor. Eighteen batteries supplied the electrical energy. A controller, an onboard battery charger, and several dashboard instruments completed the conversion. The remainder of the vehicle, and in particular the remainder of the drive-train (clutch, driveshaft, and differential), was stock, except for the transmission. The overall objective of the tests was to develop performance data at the system and subsystem level. The emphasis was on the electrical portion of the drive train, although some analysis and discussion of the mechanical elements are included. There was no evaluation of other aspects of the vehicle such as braking, ride, handling, passenger accomodations, etc. Included are a description of the vehicle, the tests performed and a discussion of the results. Tests were conducted both on the road (actually a mile long runway) and in a chassis dynamometer equipped laboratory. The majority of the tests performed were according to SAE Procedure J227a and included maximum effort accelerations, constant-speed range, and cyclic range. Some tests that are not a part of the SAE Procedure J227a are described and the analysis of the data from all tests is discussed. (LCL)

  4. Electric Vehicle Routing Problems : models and solution approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Jose-Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles (evs) are one of the most promising technologies to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. For this reason, the use of evs in service operations has dramatically increased in recent years. Despite their environmental benefits, evs still face technical constraints such as short autonomy and long charging times. Taking into account these constraints when planning ev operations leads to a new breed of vehicle routing problems (vrps), known as electricVrps (evrps). In addition, to...

  5. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  6. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable...... energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  7. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  8. Long-term impacts of battery electric vehicles on the German electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, H. U.; Jochem, P.

    2016-05-01

    The emerging market for electric vehicles gives rise to an additional electricity demand. This new electricity demand will affect the electricity system. For quantifying those impacts a model-based approach, which covers long-term time horizons is necessary in order to consider the long lasting investment paths in electricity systems and the market development of electric mobility. Therefore, we apply a bottom-up electricity system model showing a detailed spatial resolution for different development paths of electric mobility in Germany until 2030. This model is based on a linear optimization which minimizes the discounted costs of the electricity system. We observe an increase of electricity exchange between countries and electricity generated by renewable energy sources. One major result turns out to be that electric vehicles can be integrated in the electricity system without increasing the system costs when a controlled (postponing) charging strategy for electric vehicles is applied. The impact on the power plant portfolio is insignificant. Another important side effect of electric vehicles is their substantial contribution to decreasing CO2 emissions of the German transport sector. Hence, electric mobility might be an integral part of a sustainable energy system of tomorrow.

  9. Lithium batteries for electric road vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Bo; Hallgren, B.; Johansson, Arne; Selaanger, P. [Catella Generics, Kista (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Lithium is one of the most promising negative electrode materials to be used for the manufacturing of batteries. It is the most electronegative material in the table of standard potentials and its low weight will facilitate a high gravimetric coulombic density. Theoretically, as high values as 6 kWh/kg could be reached for lithium based batteries. The aim of this study has been to make an inventory of what is internationally known about lithium batteries suitable for electric vehicle applications. It is representative for the development status by the summer of 1995. Both high and ambient temperature lithium batteries are described in the study even if the analysis is concentrated on the latter. Ambient temperature systems has gathered the major interest, especially from manufacturers in the `3Cs` market segment (Consumer electronics, Communications and Computers). There is no doubt, a bright future for lithium rechargeable batteries. Depending on the ambition of a national research programme, one can await the ongoing development of batteries for the 3Cs market segment or take the lead in a near-term or advanced system R and D for EV batteries. In the zero ambition EV battery programme, we recommend allocation of funds to follow the development within the 3Cs sector. The corresponding funding level is 1-2 MSEK/year granted to a stable receiver. In a low ambition EV programme, we recommend to keep a few groups active in the front-line of specific research areas. The purpose is to keep a link for communication open to the surrounding battery world. The cost level is 4-6 MSEK per year continually. In a high ambition programme we recommend the merging of Swedish resources with international EV battery R and D programmes, e.g. the EUCAR project. The research team engaged should be able to contribute to the progress of the overall project. The cost for the high ambition programme is estimated at the level 15-20 MSEK per year continually. 47 refs, 17 figs, 16 tabs

  10. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  11. Near-term electric vehicle program. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Tests will be performed to determine the degree to which the (DOE) performance goals for the near-term electric vehicle program have been met, to provide a subjective evaluation of the regeneration brake system, to provide a general customer acceptability review. The specific tests covered in this plan are enumerated. Group 1 tests will be performed on the first available vehicle and will, in general, concentrate on performance tests to satisfy the DOE goals. Group 2 tests, to be performed on Vehicle No. 2, will provide additional test data (braking, suspension system, shake, noise level, ride and handling evaluations, and general customer acceptability review).

  12. 75 FR 33515 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electric-Powered Vehicles; Electrolyte Spillage and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... issuing this final rule to facilitate the development and introduction of fuel cell vehicles, a type of... so by revising the agency's standard regulating electrolyte spillage and electrical shock...

  13. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  14. Alleviating a form of electric vehicle range anxiety through on-demand vehicle access

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Griggs, Wynita; Wirth, Fabian; Quinn, Karl; Shorten, Robert

    2015-04-01

    On-demand vehicle access is a method that can be used to reduce types of range anxiety problems related to planned travel for electric vehicle owners. Using ideas from elementary queueing theory, basic quality of service (QoS) metrics are defined to dimension a shared fleet to ensure high levels of vehicle access. Using mobility data from Ireland, it is argued that the potential cost of such a system is very low.

  15. Electric vehicles: Likely consequences of US and other nations` programs and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Kwai-Cheung

    1994-12-30

    This report examines international electric vehicle development and commercialization programs. The study encompassed a review of current barriers to widespread electric vehicle implementation, field visits in seven nations and the United States to examine electric vehicle programs and policies, and analyses of electric vehicle effects on economics, energy, and the environment.

  16. How should an electric vehicle sound? User and expert perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petiot, Jean-François; Kristensen, Bjørn G.; Maier, Anja

    2013-01-01

    a great diversity of opinion about the sounds. Novice users indicate their preference for the sound of the traditional combustion engine as a possible proposition. Whilst participants saw the necessity, there was generally little enthusiasm for adding sounds to electric vehicles. The contribution......As electric vehicles are moving in on the automobile market, safety relating to acoustic perception is an important issue. It is a growing concern, particularly with respect to pedestrians, cyclists or visually impaired people. This can be addressed by adding sounds to the vehicle whilst at low...... speed. However, adding artificial sounds to an electric vehicle begs the question as to what kind of sound is appropriate. Appropriateness concerns technical specifications and is also linked to affective reactions of recipients of such a sound. Emotional reactions to 17 artificial exterior sounds...

  17. ROBUST ELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL CONTROLLER FOR AN ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an efficient and robust control scheme of electronic differential system for an electric vehicle. The proposed system consists of two Brushless DC motors (BLDC that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels of an electric vehicle. Electronic Differential Controller (EDC ensures the maximum torque and it can control both the driving wheel independently to turn at different speeds in any curve and also distribute the power to each motor according to the steering angle. EDC is designed to facilitate experimentation with an electric vehicle using the PIC 16F877A. The BLDC motor has been controlled by the method of back EMF zero crossing detection. The effectiveness and substantiation of the proposed methods are ascertained in the MATLAB/Simulink environment and also experimentally validated. The experimental results give satisfactory performance with the proposed electronic control scheme which also ensures the stability of the vehicle in all road conditions.

  18. Tesla''s Strategic Analysis in Electric Vehicle Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of new energy era, automobile industry is undergoing a major change of the power transmission. Electric vehicle (EV) with its green technology overwhelms those gasolines combustion vehicles through emission control. As one category of EV, battery electric vehicle (BEV) access the mass market rapidly with its merit of zero emission and generous grants from government. Tesla Motors (Tesla) is an American automobile company, its primary sales revenue come from selling fully electric powered vehicles. This report aims to give an overall look on Tesla and explore its competitive strategies in response to different environments. Porter''s five forces analysis tool, SWOT, strategic group mapping and key financial ratios are used in this report.

  19. Transient Performance of Electrical System in a Military Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zang Kemao

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical system in a military vehicle is a low voltage (28 V dc system which is an unsymmetrical and nonlinear system made up of silicon-rectifying generator and a battery in parallel. Studies have been carried out using numerical method to calculate its transient performance. State variable and coordinate transformation have been adopted to express the functional modes and its transfer law of the silicon-rectifying generator; the battery is expressed as a simplified equivalent circuit according to its characteristics during transient process: Consequently, the general mathematical model of electrical system in a military vehicle is presented. Examples of electrical systems in somemilitary vehicles have been taken to carry out the calculation of transient performance and the findings have been compared with the test results of an actual vehicle to show that the numerical method designed works.

  20. 78 FR 2797 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Engine Vehicles to Hybrid and Electric Vehicles B. Need for Independent Mobility of People Who Are... and mobility, automotive industry perspective, SAE work and status, potential solutions, and noise... might be perceived as annoying. In early 2011, NHTSA initiated additional research and data...

  1. Electric vehicles: energy consumption and the comparision with other new vehicle technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Schillemans, R.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the end of the 19th century the electric vehicle (EV) controlled the market for road transport. But with remarkable improvements in the performance of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), EVs had vanished from the scene by the 1930's. Since then, they have attracted interest from time to

  2. Electrically powered automotive vehicle with an energy recovering apppartus

    OpenAIRE

    Chevroulet, Tristan; Damminger, Ludwig

    1994-01-01

    Electrically driven motor vehicle, comprising mechanical means for braking the driving wheel and at least one electric motor. System for transfering brake energy into air-conditioning device. Enhances electro brake capabilities, provides controlled dissipation means, enables energy recovery & management. Improves accumulator lifetime (limits power surges due to braking). SMH - MCC Smart car concepts (electic & hybrid)

  3. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  4. Electric Vehicle Fleet Integration in the Danish EDISON Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Træholt, Chresten; Marra, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both the individual car owners and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  5. EDISON – Study on optimal grid integration of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foosnæs, Anders Holm; Andersen, Claus Amtrup; Christensen, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The Danish EDISON project has been launched to investigate how a large fleet of electric vehicles (EVs) can be integrated in a way that supports the electric grid while benefitting both individual car owners, and society as a whole through reductions in CO2 emissions. The consortium partners...

  6. Assessing electric vehicles battery second life remanufacture and management

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Electric cars are entering into the automotive market. However, their prices are still expensive mostly due to the battery cost. Additionally, electric vehicle batteries are considered not useful for traction purposes after they have lost a 20% of its capacity. Having still an 80% of its capacity, these batteries may work on stationary applications with lower requirements than electric mobility. In order to recover part of the battery costs came out the idea of giving batteries a second l...

  7. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  8. Unregulated emissions from light-duty hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Bertoa, R.; Astorga, C.

    2016-07-01

    The number of registrations of light duty hybrid electric vehicles has systematically increased over the last years and it is expected to keep growing. Hence, evaluation of their emissions becomes very important in order to be able to anticipate their impact and share in the total emissions from the transport sector. For that reason the emissions from a Euro 5 compliant hybrid electric vehicle (HV2) and a Euro 5 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHV1) were investigated with special interest on exhaust emissions of ammonia, acetaldehyde and ethanol. Vehicles were tested over the World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) at 23 and -7 °C using two different commercial fuels E5 and E10 (gasoline containing 5% and 10% vol/vol of ethanol, respectively). PHV1 resulted in lower emissions than HV2 due to the pure electric strategy used by the former. PHV1 and HV2 showed lower regulated emissions than conventional Euro 5 gasoline light duty vehicles. However, emissions of ammonia (2-8 and 6-15 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively), ethanol (0.3-0.8 and 2.6-7.2 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) and acetaldehyde (∼0.2 and 0.8-2.7 mg km-1 at 22 and -7 °C, respectively) were in the same range of those recently reported for conventional gasoline light duty vehicles.

  9. Impact of potential electric vehicle market penetration on air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, III, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    Emissions to the air due to electric vehicles will result from several processes during the production, operation, and recycling and disposal of the vehicles. Some of these processes are significantly different than those for conventional vehicles. Mining and manufacturing impacts are different and larger than those for CVs due mainly to battery production and materials preparation. Battery charging will cause the greatest air pollution during the life cycle of the vehicle. Increases in SOx emissions from electric utilities in regions where coal is the major source of electricity could be significant. The CO, HC, and NOx emissions that would be produced at ground level for CVs are eliminated with EV use, however. Other battery charging emissions take place at the battery. Toxic and potentially explosive gases are emitted during charging of current technology batteries. Particulate re-entrainment by urban vehicles will not be discussed for EVs, as this phenomenon is not yet well understood in general, and because EVs are likely to be no different than CVs in this regard, but particulate emissions from tire wear are included. Emissions from recycling of the electrical component materials are likely to be recycled. Little is known about localized emissions due to vehicle accidents with battery rupture and fires.

  10. Effects of electric vehicles on air quality in street canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Schöllnhammer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. Electric vehicles (EV are often presented as climate friendly and as a solution for air quality problems in cities. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of this claim is true and to find out the necessary shares of electric vehicles of different types needed to solve air quality problems in street canyons. For example, the German government has formulated the ambitious goal of increasing the amount of electric vehicles in Germany to 1 million in 2020 and 6 million in 2030. Will this improve the air quality significantly? The focus of the present study is the air quality in street canyons, with a focus on PM10 and NO2 concentrations. We concentrate our investigation on road traffic, taking the fleet composition into account. A sensitivity study with a dispersion model was carried out for two street canyons in North Rhine-Westphalia, typical for moderately polluted street canyons in European cities. It is shown that the reduction potential is larger for NO2 than for PM10. The necessary share of electric vehicles to comply with the limit values lies at about 40 % for NO2 and 100 % for PM10, respectively. Thus, the share of electric vehicles needed to comply with the limit values is far above the goal of the German government.

  11. One year monitoring of 26 electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kieft, J. van de; Bolech, M.; Koffrie, R.; Goethem, S. van; Kievit, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch government regards electric driving as a very promising option to make our future automobility more sustainable, to strenghten the Dutch energy position and to give our economy a structural boost. Therefore, it was decided to gain experience of electric driving through field tests with the

  12. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  13. Hybrid Technologies for Clandestine Electric Reconnaissance Vehicles (CERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    of other on board equipment. The OPC and high voltage Energy Storage system operate in concert with the Motor-Generator and Controller to form...the Vehicle DC Bus. When operating in PHEV mode from external power, the OPC provides power to the Vehicle DC Bus if either the Energy Storage System...commercial electric and hybrid buses. He has designed several motor drives including a 500 HP drive for sonar pulse power using a flywheel for energy

  14. Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator Tool for Smart Grid Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Morais

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulator for electric vehicles in the context of smart grids and distribution networks. It aims to support network operators’ planning and operations but can be used by other entities for related studies. The paper describes the parameters supported by the current version of the Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi tool and its current algorithm. EVeSSi enables the definition of electric vehicles scenarios on distribution networks using a built-in movement engine. The scenarios created with EVeSSi can be used by external tools (e.g., power flow for specific analysis, for instance grid impacts. Two scenarios are briefly presented for illustration of the simulator capabilities.

  15. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...... is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults...... in the steering system. The paper shows how active control reconfiguration can accommodate all critical faults. The fault-tolerant abilities of the steering system are demonstrated on the hardware of a warehouse truck....

  16. Battery prices and capacity sensitivity: Electric drive vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The increase in fluctuating power production requires an increase in flexibility in the system as well. Flexibility can be found in generation technologies with fast response times or in storage options. In the transport sector, the proportion of electric drive vehicles is expected to increase over...... the next decade or two. These vehicles can provide some of the flexibility needed in the power system, in terms of both flexible demand and electricity storage. However, what are the batteries worth to the power system? And does the value depend on battery capacity? This article presents an analysis...... of the integrated power and transport system, focusing on the sensitivity of the power system configuration according to battery capacity and price of the electric drive vehicle. The value of different battery capacities is estimated, given that the batteries are used for both driving and storage. Likewise...

  17. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  18. Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-05-16

    This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: long calendar life (greater than 10 years); sufficient cycle life; reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures; safe performance under extreme conditions; end-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.

  19. Quantifying electric vehicle battery degradation from driving vs. vehicle-to-grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Coignard, Jonathan; Zeng, Teng; Zhang, Cong; Saxena, Samveg

    2016-11-01

    The risk of accelerated electric vehicle battery degradation is commonly cited as a concern inhibiting the implementation of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. However, little quantitative evidence exists in prior literature to refute or substantiate these concerns for different grid services that vehicles may offer. In this paper, a methodology is proposed to quantify electric vehicle (EV) battery degradation from driving only vs. driving and several vehicle-grid services, based on a semi-empirical lithium-ion battery capacity fade model. A detailed EV battery pack thermal model and EV powertrain model are utilized to capture the time-varying battery temperature and working parameters including current, internal resistance and state-of-charge (SOC), while an EV is driving and offering various grid services. We use the proposed method to simulate the battery degradation impacts from multiple vehicle-grid services including peak load shaving, frequency regulation and net load shaping. The degradation impact of these grid services is compared against baseline cases for driving and uncontrolled charging only, for several different cases of vehicle itineraries, driving distances, and climate conditions. Over the lifetime of a vehicle, our results show that battery wear is indeed increased when vehicles offer V2G grid services. However, the increased wear from V2G is inconsequential compared with naturally occurring battery wear (i.e. from driving and calendar ageing) when V2G services are offered only on days of the greatest grid need (20 days/year in our study). In the case of frequency regulation and peak load shaving V2G grid services offered 2 hours each day, battery wear remains minimal even if this grid service is offered every day over the vehicle lifetime. Our results suggest that an attractive tradeoff exists where vehicles can offer grid services on the highest value days for the grid with minimal impact on vehicle battery life.

  20. Analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle utility factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Quinn, Casey W.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are hybrid electric vehicles that can be fueled from both conventional liquid fuels and grid electricity. To represent the total contribution of both of these fuels to the operation, energy use, and environmental impacts of PHEVs, researchers have developed the concept of the utility factor. As standardized in documents such as SAE J1711 and SAE J2841, the utility factor represents the proportion of vehicle distance travelled that can be allocated to a vehicle test condition so as to represent the real-world driving habits of a vehicle fleet. These standards must be used with care so that the results are understood within the context of the assumptions implicit in the standardized utility factors. This study analyzes and derives alternatives to the standard utility factors from the 2001 National Highway Transportation Survey, so as to understand the sensitivity of PHEV performance to assumptions regarding charging frequency, vehicle characteristics, driver characteristics, and means of defining the utility factor. Through analysis of these alternative utility factors, this study identifies areas where analysis, design, and policy development for PHEVs can be improved by alternative utility factor calculations.

  1. Mechanically refuelable zinc/air electric vehicle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noring, J.; Gordon, S.; Maimoni, A.; Spragge, M.; Cooper, J. F.

    1992-12-01

    Refuelable zinc/air batteries have long been considered for motive as well as stationary power because of a combination of high specific energy, low initial cost, and the possibility of mechanical recharge by electrolyte exchange and additions of metallic zinc. In this context, advanced slurry batteries, stationary packed bed cells, and batteries offering replaceable cassettes have been reported recently. The authors are developing self-feeding, particulate-zinc/air batteries for electric vehicle applications. Emissionless vehicle legislation in California motivated efforts to consider a new approach to providing an electric vehicle with long range (400 km), rapid refueling (10 minutes) and highway safe acceleration - factors which define the essential functions of common automobiles. Such an electric vehicle would not compete with emerging secondary battery vehicles in specialized applications (commuting vehicles, delivery trucks). Rather, different markets would be sought where long range or rapid range extension are important. Examples are: taxis, continuous-duty fork-lift trucks and shuttle busses, and general purpose automobiles having modest acceleration capabilities. In the long range, a mature fleet would best use regional plants to efficiently recover zinc from battery reaction products. One option would be to use chemical/thermal reduction to recover the zinc. The work described focuses on development of battery configurations which efficiently and completely consume zinc particles, without clogging or changing discharge characteristics.

  2. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, D. D.; Lukamana, N. I.; Budiana, E. P.; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2016-03-01

    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  3. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  4. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  5. Numerical Comparison of Optimal Charging Schemes for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    The optimal charging schemes for Electric vehicles (EV) generally differ from each other in the choice of charging periods and the possibility of performing vehicle-to-grid (V2G), and have different impacts on EV economics. Regarding these variations, this paper presents a numerical comparison...... of four different charging schemes, namely night charging, night charging with V2G, 24 hour charging and 24 hour charging with V2G, on the basis of real driving data and electricity price of Denmark in 2003. For all schemes, optimal charging plans with 5 minute resolution are derived through the solving...

  6. Preliminary Design of Reluctance Motors for Light Electric Vehicles Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIFA, V.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aspects regarding FEM analysis of a reluctant motor for direct driving of the light electric vehicles. The reluctant motor take into study is of special construction suitable for direct drive of a light electric vehicle. It is an inverse radial reluctant motor, with a fixed stator mounted on front wheel shaft and an external toothed rotor fixed on the front wheel itself. A short presentation of preliminary design is continued with the FEM analysis in order to provide the optimal geometry of the motor and adequate windings.

  7. Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles in Competitive Electricity Markets and Its Impact on Distribution Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    operation strategy for a Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) in relation to the hourly electricity price in order to achieve minimum energy costs of the PEV. The western Danish power system, which is currently the grid area in the world that has the largest share of wind power in its generation profiles and may...... represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. The impact of the optimal operation strategy for electric vehicles together with the optimal load response to spot market price on the distribution power system with high wind power penetrations......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the electricity price could be transferred to the consumers and they may make some optimal charge and discharge schedules for their electric vehicles in order to minimize their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal...

  8. Cost Analysis of Utilizing Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic Solar Energy in the United States Marine Corps Commercial Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    1992 Energy Policy Act of 1992 EPAct 2005 Energy Policy Act of 2005 EV1 Electric Vehicle 1 EVC Electric Vehicle Company FEMP Federal Energy...Battery Company to introduce an electric cab and carriage service known as the Electric Vehicle Company ( EVC ) in 1897. By 1899, the EVC —operating from...the original vision of its founding engineers—merged with the Motor Carriage division of the Pope Manufacturing Company (Kirsch, 2000). The EVC

  9. HIGH VOLTAGE SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the drivability and energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV), more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage which makes it necessary to monitor the electric parameters of high voltage system (HVS) to ensure the high voltage safety. A high voltage safety management system is developed to solve this critical issue. Several key electric parameters including pre-charge, contact resistance, insulation resistance and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the presented equivalent models. An electronic unit called high voltage safety controller is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated and the on-line electric parameters monitor strategy is discussed. The real vehicle experiment results indicate that the high voltage safety management system designed is suitable for EV application.

  10. Policies for Promotion of Electric Vehicles and Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchasing Decisions of Low Emission Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Knez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently different studies of green transport have become interesting for policy makers,car manufacturers, customers and energy suppliers. Many stakeholders from the publicand private sectors are investing a lot of effort to identify consumer behaviour for futureimprovements in development of green products and effective strategies, which couldaccelerate the transition to sustainable future. This paper presents the effects of electricvehicle promotional policies and customer preferences about alternative fuel vehicles.This study has shown that the electric vehicle promotional policies adopted in Sloveniahave been unsuccessful, as the share of first-time registered electric vehicles in 2013 wasbelow 1%. For different segments of people whose opinions about low emission vehiclesdiffer, different measures must be adopted. When designing promotional policies focusmust be on the most relevant factors such as the total vehicle price and fuel economy.

  11. Advanced Driving Assistance Systems for an Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Pau Muñoz-Benavent; Leopoldo Armesto; Vicent Girbés; J. Ernesto Solanes; Juan F Dols; Adolfo Muñoz; Josep Tornero

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the automation of a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) and the embedded distributed architecture for implementing an Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS) with haptic, visual, and audio feedback in order to improve safety. For the automation, original electric signals were conditioned, and mechanisms for actuation and haptic feedback were installed. An embedded distributed architecture was chosen based on two low-cost boards and implemented under a Robotics Operating...

  12. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    P. Suntharalingam

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  13. Creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Юрьевич Зубенко

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of creation of electromechanical device for electric vehicle traction are considered in the article. The aim of creation this design are the replacement of the internal combustion engine on electromechanical device. For this electromechanical device are constructed model, which describe processes that occur in the electric drive of electromechanical device. Characteristics of the main modes of motion were recorded. The introduction of electromechanical device will reduce the level of emissions and reduce noise in the cities

  14. STRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT AND SIMULATION OF PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marozka; Yu. N. Petrenko

    2013-01-01

    Electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) have gained attention, especially in the context of growing concerns about global warming and energy security aspects associated with road transport. The main characteristic of EDVs is that the torque is supplied to the wheels by an electric motor that is powered either solely by a battery or in combination with an internal combustion engine (ICE). This covers hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles...

  15. Stibine/arsine monitoring during EV operation: summary report on preliminary tests at ANL and at LILCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutfy, R.O.; Graczyk, D.G.; Varma, R.; Hayes, E.R.; Williams, F.L.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-02-01

    A series of tests was performed to monitor the evolution and dispersal of stibine and arsine from the lead-acid propulsion batteries in three different Electra-Van Model 600 vehicles operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and by the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO). Ambient air was sampled at several locations inside the vehicles and in the garages where testing was done during charge, equalization charge, and on-the-road discharge operations. In addition, direct sampling of cell off-gases was performed with the ANL van. Interpretation of the individual test results was carried out in the context of vehicle characteristics, sampling protocol, and operating conditions. The test results demonstrated that under the test conditions only small concentrations of stibine and arsine accumulated in occupiable work areas. Measured concentrations in the vehicles and in the garages never exceeded 25% of the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) standards. A threshold voltage for hydride production, at about 2.45 V per cell, was reflected in the results of the experiments performed during charging of the batteries. Hydride evolution rates were lower during equalization charge than during the overcharge portion of a charge cycle when the on-board charger was used in a normal operating mode. A delayed release of the metal hydrides from the battery cells was observed during on-the-road operation of the vehicles. The implications of these observations for electric vehicle (EV) operation are discussed. An engineering analysis of the generation and dispersal of the metal hydrides is presented, and equations are derived for estimating minimum ventilation requirements for the EV battery compartment and for garages housing EV operations. Recommendations are made regarding safe handling procedures for battery off-gases, procedures for conducting stibine/arsine monitoring tests and future work.

  16. Cascade Control Solution for Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Preitl

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hybrid electric vehicle is considered, which contains both aninternal combustion engine and an electric motor (EM. Without focusing on the othercomponents of the vehicle, the EM is treated in detail, both regarding modelling aspectsand control solutions.After a brief modelling of the plant, two cascade speed control solutions are presented: firsta classical PI+PI cascade control solution is presented. The control systems related totraction electric motors (used in vehicle traction must be able to cope with differentrequests, such as variation of the reference signal, load disturbances which depend on thetransport conditions and parametric disturbances regarding changes in the total mass ofthe vehicle. For this purpose, in the design of the speed controller (external loop a specificmethodology based on extension of the symmetrical optimum method is presented. Thecontrollers are developed using the Modulus–Optimum method for the inner loop, and theExtended Symmetrical Optimum Method, corrected based on the 2p-SO-method, for theouter loop (for a more efficient disturbance rejection.In order to force the behaviour of the system regarding the reference input, a correctionterm is introduced as a non-homogenous structured PI controller solution.Simulations were performed using numerical values taken from a real applicationconsisting in a hybrid vehicle prototype, showing satisfactory behaviour.

  17. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  18. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...... used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm....

  19. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  20. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles: Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power s

  1. Development and Early Adoption of Electric Vehicles: Understanding the tempest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierzchula, W.

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles are one innovation that could help reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector and mitigate the harmful effects of climate change. However, substantial roadblocks to their adoption exist including high purchase cost, lack of charging infrastructure, and long charging time.

  2. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  3. Range prediction for electric vehicles; Reichweitenprognose fuer Elektromobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradi, Peter [All4IP Technologies GmbH and Co.KG, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The range of electric vehicles varies strongly in dependency of a number of external factors. To be able to make an exact dynamic prediction of the remaining range during the journey, All4IP Technologies developed a special software that can access the CAN bus. The App, programmed for iOS and Android operating systems considers even the topology of the area. (orig.)

  4. An Electric Vehicle Charging Management and its Impact on Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez; Zaidi, Arsalan Hussain

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the statistics of passenger car usage in Denmark has been studied in order to obtain the possible future use of electric vehicles (EVs). On the basis of this analysis, a sequential charging management of EV has been developed and simulated in DIgSILENT power factory. Different cases...

  5. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  6. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  7. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  8. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  9. CO2 emissions associated with electric vehicle charging: The impact of electricity generation mix, charging infrastructure availability and vehicle type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John; O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Wood, Eric; Shapiro, Evan

    2016-06-01

    The emission reduction benefits of EVs are dependent on the time and location of charging. An analysis of battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles under four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles shows that CO2 emissions are highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix. Availability of workplace charging generally results in lower emissions, while restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions.

  10. Design of synchromesh mechanism to optimization manual transmission's electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainuri, Fuad; Sumarsono, Danardono A.; Adhitya, Muhammad; Siregar, Rolan

    2017-03-01

    Significant research has been attempted on a vehicle that lead to the development of transmission that can reduce energy consumption and improve vehicle efficiency. Consumers also expect safety, convenience, and competitive prices. Automatic transmission (AT), continuously variable transmission (CVT), and dual clutch transmission (DCT) is the latest transmission developed for road vehicle. From literature reviews that have been done that this transmission is less effective on electric cars which use batteries as a power source compared to type manual transmission, this is due to the large power losses when making gear changes. Zeroshift system is the transmission can do shift gears with no time (zero time). It was developed for the automatic manual transmission, and this transmission has been used on racing vehicles to eliminate deceleration when gear shift. Zeroshift transmission still use the clutch to change gear in which electromechanical be used to replace the clutch pedal. Therefore, the transmission is too complex for the transmission of electric vehicles, but its mechanism is considered very suitable to increase the transmission efficiency. From this idea, a new innovation design transmission will be created to electric car. The combination synchromesh with zeroshift mechanism for the manual transmission is a transmission that is ideal for improving the transmission efficiency. Installation synchromesh on zeroshift mechanism is expected to replace the function of the clutch MT, and assisted with the motor torque setting when to change gear. Additionally to consider is the weight of the transmission, ease of manufacturing, ease of installation with an electric motor, as well as ease of use by drivers is a matter that must be done to obtain a new transmission system that is suitable for electric cars.

  11. Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gopal, Anand R.; Harris, Andrew; Jacobson, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6-7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ˜10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of 4.4 M (or 440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.

  12. Student Learning Projects in Electric Vehicle Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the didactic problem based learning method in general use at Aalborg University as applied to Electric Mobility. Advantage is taken of this method to link student learning to current research projects. This offers advantages to the students and the researchers. The paper...... introduces the subject, presents the research of the Department of Energy Technology and describes the relevant syllabus. It continues to present a range of titles of previous research linked student project projects, and to fill in some of the detail, an example of such a student project. The paper...

  13. Electric vehicle charge planning using Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels K.; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) is very well suited for controlling smart energy systems since electricity price and demand forecasts are easily integrated in the controller. Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a large role in the future Smart Grid. They are expected to provide g...... should be consumed as soon as it is produced to avoid the need for energy storage as this is expensive, limited and introduces efficiency losses. The Economic MPC for EVs described in this paper may contribute to facilitating transition to a fossil free energy system.......Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) is very well suited for controlling smart energy systems since electricity price and demand forecasts are easily integrated in the controller. Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a large role in the future Smart Grid. They are expected to provide...... grid services, both for peak reduction and for ancillary services, by absorbing short term variations in the electricity production. In this paper the Economic MPC minimizes the cost of electricity consumption for a single EV. Simulations show savings of 50–60% of the electricity costs compared...

  14. Energy management systems on board of electric vehicles, based on power electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    The core of any electric vehicle (EV) is the electric drive train, intended as the energy conversion chain from the energy tank (typically some kind of rechargeable battery) to the electric motor that converts the electrical energy into the mechanical energy needed for the vehicle motion.The need for on-board electrical energy storage is the factor that has so far prevented pure electric vehicles from conquering significant market share. In fact electrochemical batteries, which are currently ...

  15. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  16. Energy management strategies for electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Sheldon S

    2013-01-01

    Covers power electronics and motor drives for energy management of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Addresses specific issues and design solutions related to photovoltaic/grid based EV battery charging infrastructures and on-board battery management systems Emphasis on power electronic converter topologies for on-board battery management

  17. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    of electrical energy. A smart grid can also be dened as an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it - generators, consumers and those that do both - in order to eciently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. This thesis focuses......Demand side resources, like electric vehicles (EVs), can become integral parts of a smart grids because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. EVs can be used to balance the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind and solar...... strategies supported by an increased use of information and communication technology. This is the idea of the smart grid. The smart grid is a next-generation electrical power system that is typied by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption...

  18. Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Danish Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Thøgersen, Paul; Møller, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as one of the important components of the future intelligent grids. Their role as energy storages in the electricity grid could provide local sustainable solutions to support more renewable energy. In order to estimate the extent of interaction of EVs...... in the electricity grid operation, a careful examination in the local electricity system is essential. This paper investigates the degree of EV penetration and its key influence on the low voltage distribution grids. Three detailed models of residential grids in Denmark are considered as test cases in this study...... are reflected as the major technical constraint to the stable operation of the electricity grids for integrating more EVs, when compared to the thermal loading on the cables....

  19. Development of a DC propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelledes, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of the Eaton automatically shifted mechanical transaxle concept for use in a near-term dc powered electric vehicle is evaluated. A prototype dc propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the contractor's site. The system consisted of a two-axis, three-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle, 15.2 Kw rated, separately excited traction motor, and a transistorized motor controller with a single chopper providing limited armature current below motor base speed and full range field control above base speed at up to twice rated motor current. The controller utilized a microprocessor to perform motor and vehicle speed monitoring and shift sequencing by means of solenoids applying hydraulic pressure to the transaxle clutches. Bench dynamometer and track testing was performed. Track testing showed best system efficiency for steady-state cruising speeds of 65-80 Km/Hz (40-50 mph). Test results include acceleration, steady speed and SAE J227A/D cycle energy consumption, braking tests and coast down to characterize the vehicle road load.

  20. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  1. Driving an electric vehicle. A sociological analysis on pioneer users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, M. [EDF R and D, Electricite de France, Research and Development, 1 avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Jemelin, C. [6T research bureau, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France); Louvet, N. [EPFL, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic School, 11 rue Duhesme, 75018 Paris (France)

    2011-11-15

    In most of the western countries, car is the prevalent means of transport for local mobility. At the same time, sensitivity to environmental issues is increasing, correlated to the consciousness that carbon dioxide emissions have to be reduced. In regard to these two trends (individual mobility and public opinions favourable to a reduction of carbon emissions), energy-efficient vehicles will probably develop in the future-car manufacturers actually prepare new offers for the mass market. Comparable cases have occurred during the last decades-probably more modest but full of learning: some local authorities have promoted innovations based on electric vehicles in the 1990s, and some people have chosen this kind of cars for their daily travels. This article deals with these pioneers (This article comes from a communication at the ECEEE Summer Study, June 2009, Panel 6: Energy efficiency in transport and mobility.). Reporting studies carried out in 2006 and 2008, we intend to identify the reasons of this innovative modal choice, to show the difficulties that electric vehicle drivers then encountered and to analyse the patterns of use that governed their mobility and their use of electric vehicles.

  2. Recharging infrastructure for electric vehicles; Las infraestructuras de recarga para el vehiculo electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asin Munoa, J.

    2012-11-01

    Load managers are those stakeholders being themselves electric electricity consumers, are able to resell to their customers electricity; intended to charge electric vehicles. Figure cargo manager is critical in the successful development of charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, and occupies a conceptually similar role to that of mobile operator. (Author)

  3. Substantial improvements of fuel economy. Potentials of electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Nielsen, L.H. [Forskningscenter Risoe (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This paper evaluates the scope for improvement of the energy and environmental impacts of road traffic by means of electrical and hybrid electric propulsion. These technologies promise considerable improvements of the fuel economy of vehicles compared to the present vehicle types as well as beneficial effects for the energy and traffic system. The paper - based on work carried out in the project `Transportation fuel based on renewable energy`, funded by the National Energy Agency of Denmark and carried out by Department of Buildings and Energy, Technical University of Denmark and System Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory - assesses the potentials for reduction of the primary energy consumption and emissions, and points to the necessary technical development to reap these benefits. A case study concerning passenger cars is analysed by means of computer simulations, comparing electric and hybrid electric passenger car to an equivalent reference vehicle (a conventional gasoline passenger car). (au) 10 refs.

  4. Power control apparatus and methods for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadh, Rajit; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Qiu, Li

    2016-03-22

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging apparatus and methods are described which allow the sharing of charge current between multiple vehicles connected to a single source of charging energy. In addition, this charge sharing can be performed in a grid-friendly manner by lowering current supplied to EVs when necessary in order to satisfy the needs of the grid, or building operator. The apparatus and methods can be integrated into charging stations or can be implemented with a middle-man approach in which a multiple EV charging box, which includes an EV emulator and multiple pilot signal generation circuits, is coupled to a single EV charge station.

  5. Electric Conversion of a Retro-Era Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis was to design and realize a modern vehicle control system in a 1970’s vintage car that was converted to an electric vehicle. In addition to the control system, the 12 V low voltage system was completely redone based on the old system, in order to ensure its functionality and that it met all the requirements set for it. This thesis was assigned by e-Drive Retro OÜ, an Estonian based startup company. During this thesis research was carried out on the en...

  6. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  7. Research on the Interior Sound Quality in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Lian Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even the overall level of vehicle interior noise of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV reduced to a certain degree, the vibration and noise generated by the engine, motor, generator and power split have made greater effect on the vehicle interior sound quality in HEV. In order to research the feature of vehicle interior sound quality in HEV, the HEV is used to be the research object, the binaural noise sample of the driver when playing different kinds of music in the vehicle with the speed of sixty kilometers per hour is collected. ArtemiS is used to conduct frequency division processing, so as to obtain the relative weight of each frequency band and the overall noise. The tone, roughness and sharpness of sound quality subjective evaluation parameters are quantified, the SPSS is used to establish the linear regression model of the sample, and the best masking music tracks are found out. Then, the sound samples that contains the best music tracks and the simple vehicle interior noise are re-collected, the regression model and ArtemiS are used to predict the subjective evaluation value. The research results show that when adding the music, the tone degree rises and the lowering degree decreases, thus the disturbing degree reduces, which significantly improves the sound quality in the HEV.

  8. Study on High Efficient Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. X.; Liu, Z. Z.; Zeng, H.; Qu, X. D.; Hou, Y. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electric and unmanned is a new trend in the development of automobile, cable charging pile can not meet the demand of unmanned electric vehicle. Wireless charging system for electric vehicle has a high level of automation, which can be realized by unmanned operation, and the wireless charging technology has been paid more and more attention. This paper first analyses the differences in S-S (series-series) and S-P (series-parallel) type resonant wireless power supply system, combined with the load characteristics of electric vehicle, S-S type resonant structure was used in this system. This paper analyses the coupling coefficient of several common coil structure changes with the moving distance of Maxwell Ansys software, the performance of disc type coil structure is better. Then the simulation model is established by Simulink toolbox in Matlab, to analyse the power and efficiency characteristics of the whole system. Finally, the experiment platform is set up to verify the feasibility of the whole system and optimize the system. Based on the theoretical and simulation analysis, the higher charging efficiency is obtained by optimizing the magnetic coupling mechanism.

  9. A database on electric vehicle use in Sweden. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridstrand, Niklas [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation

    2000-05-01

    The Department of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA) at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), has taken responsibility for developing and maintaining a database on electric and hybrid road vehicles in Sweden. The Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, (KFB) initiated the development of this database. Information is collected from three major cities in Sweden: Malmoe, Gothenburg and Stockholm, as well as smaller cities such as Skellefteaa and Haernoesand in northern Sweden. This final report summarises the experience gained during the development and maintenance of the database from February 1996 to December 1999. Our aim was to construct a well-functioning database for the evaluation of electric and hybrid road vehicles in Sweden. The database contains detailed information on several years' use of electric vehicles (EVs) in Sweden (for example, 220 million driving records). Two data acquisition systems were used, one less and one more complex with respect to the number of quantities logged. Unfortunately, data collection was not complete, due to malfunctioning of the more complex system, and due to human factors for the less complex system.

  10. S/EV 91: Solar and electric vehicle symposium, car and trade show. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    These proceedings cover the fundamentals of electric vehicles. Papers on the design, testing and performance of the power supplies, drive trains, and bodies of solar and non-solar powered electric vehicles are presented. Results from demonstrations and races are described. Public policy on the economics and environmental impacts of using electric powered vehicles is also presented.

  11. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The progress and status of Eltra's Electric Vehicle Battery Program during FY-80 are presented under five divisional headings: Research on Components and Processes; Development of Cells and Modules for Electric Vehicle Propulsion; Sub-Systems; Pilot Line Production of Electric Vehicle Battery Prototypes; and Program Management.

  12. ENERGY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR PARALLEL HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Jinhuan; Yin Chengliang; ZhangJianwu

    2005-01-01

    Energy management strategy (EMS) is the core of the real-time control algorithm of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A novel EMS using the logic threshold approach with incorporation of a stand-by optimization algorithm is proposed. The aim of it is to minimize the engine fuel consumption and maintain the battery state of charge (SOC) in its operation range, while satisfying the vehicle performance and drivability requirements. The hybrid powertrain bench test is carried out to collect data of the engine, motor and battery pack, which are used in the EMS to control the powertrain. Computer simulation model of the HEV is established in the MATLAB/Simulink environment according to the bench test results. Simulation results are presented for behaviors of the engine, motor and battery. The proposed EMS is implemented for a real parallel hybrid car control system and validated by vehicle field tests.

  13. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Policy Effectiveness: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. federal government first introduced incentives for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) through the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009, which provided a tax credit of up to $7,500 for a new PEV purchase. Soon after, in December 2010, two mass-market PEVs were introduced, the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) Chevrolet Volt and the battery electric vehicle (BEV) Nissan LEAF. Since that time, numerous additional types of PEV incentives have been provided by federal and regional (state or city) government agencies and utility companies. These incentives cover vehicle purchases as well as the purchase and installation of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) through purchase rebates, tax credits, or discounted purchase taxes or registration fees. Additional incentives, such as free high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane access and parking benefits, may also be offered to PEV owners. Details about these incentives, such as the extent to which each type is offered by region, can be obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Fuel Data Center (http://www.afdc.energy.gov/). In addition to these incentives, other policies, such as zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) mandates,1 have also been implemented, and community-scale federal incentives, such as the DOE PEV Readiness Grants, have been awarded throughout the country to improve PEV market penetration. This report reviews 18 studies that analyze the impacts of past or current incentives and policies that were designed to support PEV adoption in the U.S. These studies were selected for review after a comprehensive survey of the literature and discussion with a number of experts in the field. The report summarizes the lessons learned and best practices from the experiences of these incentive programs to date, as well as the challenges they face and barriers that inhibit further market adoption of PEVs. Studies that make projections based on future policy scenarios and those that focus solely

  14. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    . This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...... will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity...

  15. Electric vehicles and large-scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Weihao; Lund, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    was 6.5% in 2009 and which has the plan to develop large-scale wind power. The results show that electric vehicles (EVs) have the ability to balance the electricity demand and supply and to further the wind power integration. In the best case, the energy system with EV can increase wind power...... with this imbalance and to reduce its high dependence on oil production. For this reason, it is interesting to analyse the extent to which transport electrification can further the renewable energy integration. This paper quantifies this issue in Inner Mongolia, where the share of wind power in the electricity supply......Renewable energy is one of the possible solutions when addressing climate change. Today, large-scale renewable energy integration needs to include the experience to balance the discrepancy between electricity demand and supply. The electrification of transportation may have the potential to deal...

  16. Optimal charging control of electric vehicles in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wanrong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators. Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information. Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.

  17. Intelligent Electric Vehicle Integration - Domain Interfaces and Supporting Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach

    are proposed with a special attention to the impact that congestion would have on the operation of a fleet operator. The third and most important stakeholder is the electric vehicle owner. The emphasis is on the plug in patterns of a number of Danish electric vehicle drivers. The objective is to understand how...... owner behavior will influence charging flexibility. It is indicated how plug in behavior may be predicted and how the resulting flexibility may be applied to achieve several different goals. After having investigated the aims, constraints and requirements for the above stakeholders, the attention...... considerations to each of the stakeholders can be included in the optimization done by the fleet operator. It is shown how dierent markets can be considered and how stochastic optimizationcan be used to model uncertainty in regards to plug in behavior and grid congestion. A large part of the above work have been...

  18. Driving Electric Vehicle by EMG Signal Considering Frequency Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Shinichi; Sasaki, Akinori; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Chiharu

    This paper proposes a useful method driving the electric vehicle by EMG signals (Electromyographic signals) which are filtered on the basis of frequency components which change with muscle contraction. This method estimates strength of muscular tension by a single EMG signal. By our method, user is able to control speed of the electric vehicle by strength of muscular tension. The method of speed control may give user good or bad operation feeling in the meaning of SD (Semantic Differential) method and factor analysis. The operation feeling is evaluated by experiment on EMG interface in cases of using filters or not. As a result, it is shown that operation feeling is influenced by this method.

  19. Advanced Driving Assistance Systems for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Muñoz-Benavent

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the automation of a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV and the embedded distributed architecture for implementing an Advanced Driving Assistance System (ADAS with haptic, visual, and audio feedback in order to improve safety. For the automation, original electric signals were conditioned, and mechanisms for actuation and haptic feedback were installed. An embedded distributed architecture was chosen based on two low-cost boards and implemented under a Robotics Operating System (ROS framework. The system includes features such as collision avoidance and motion planning.

  20. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids integration techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the state of the art in worldwide research on applying optimization approaches to intelligently control charging and discharging of batteries of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in smart grids. Network constraints, cost considerations, the number and penetration level of PEVs, utilization of PEVs by their owners, ancillary services, load forecasting, risk analysis, etc. are all different criteria considered by the researchers in developing mathematical based equations which represent the presence of PEVs in electric networks. Different objective functions can be defined an

  1. Robust Broadcast-Communication Control of Electric Vehicle Charging

    CERN Document Server

    Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01

    The anticipated increase in the number of plug-in electric vehicles (EV) will put additional strain on electrical distribution circuits. Many control schemes have been proposed to control EV charging. Here, we develop control algorithms based on randomized EV charging start times and simple one-way broadcast communication allowing for a time delay between communication events. Using arguments from queuing theory and statistical analysis, we seek to maximize the utilization of excess distribution circuit capacity while keeping the probability of a circuit overload negligible.

  2. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  3. Robust broadcast-communication control of electric vehicle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The anticipated increase in the number of plug-in electric vehicles (EV) will put additional strain on electrical distribution circuits. Many control schemes have been proposed to control EV charging. Here, we develop control algorithms based on randomized EV charging start times and simple one-way broadcast communication allowing for a time delay between communication events. Using arguments from queuing theory and statistical analysis, we seek to maximize the utilization of excess distribution circuit capacity while keeping the probability of a circuit overload negligible.

  4. Development of quick charging system for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anegawa, Takafumi

    2010-09-15

    Despite low environmental impact and high energy efficiency, electric vehicles (EV) have not been widely accepted. The lack of charging infrastructure is one reason. Since lithium-ion battery has high energy density and low internal resistance that allows quick charging, the convenience of EV may be greatly improved if charging infrastructure is prepared adequately. TEPCO aims for EV spread to reduce CO2 emissions and to increase demand for electric power, and has developed quick charging system for fleet-use EV to improve the convenience of EV. And based on research results, we will propose desirable characteristics of quick charger for public use.

  5. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Bridget; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate the use of electric vehicles at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), charging stations should be made available to LaRC employees. The implementation of charging stations would decrease the need for gasoline thus decreasing CO2 emissions improving local air quality and providing a cost savings for LaRC employees. A charging station pilot program is described that would install stations as the need increased and also presents a business model that pays for the electricity used and installation at no cost to the government.

  6. Research of Energy Regeneration Technology in Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家新; 江建中; 汪信尧

    2003-01-01

    The theory of energy regeneration in electric vehicle (EV) has been introduced in most papers, but the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system was little studied. In this paper the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system is studied,and then the system ability under four control strategies is analyzed. In the end the system reliability is researched, and the calcula-tion model of system reliability is proposed.

  7. Impacts and Utilization of Electric Vehicles Integration Into Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUZechun; SONG Yonghua; XU Zhiwei; LUO Zhuowei; ZHAN Kaiqiao; JIA Long

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of electric vehicles (EVs) penetration in power grids, the charging of EVs will have significant impacts on power system planning and operation. It is necessary to note that the majority of EVs are not in use in most of the time in a day. Therefore, the onboard batteries can be utilized as energy storage devices. This article reviews and discusses the current related research in the following areas.

  8. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  9. State of the Art on Different Types of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, F. J.; Almeida, P.M. Rocha Almeida; Lopes, J.A. Pecas

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents the main drivers and challenges for the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EV). The most important issues related with EV technology are also analyzed, namely, the charging infrastructures’ power levels, the type of plugs, the most common powertrain architectures, an......, and the energy storage solutions currently available. The EV charging controllability is briefly discussed, as well as its benefits for the distribution grids operation and its contribution for the renewable energy sources expansion....

  10. Smart charging management for electric vehicle battery chargers

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Vítor Duarte Fernandes; Pinto, J. G.; Exposto, Bruno Fernandes; Ferreira, João C.; Afonso, João L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a smart battery charging strategy for Electric Vehicles (EVs) targeting the future smart homes. The proposed strategy consists in regulate the EV battery charging current in function of the total home current, aiming to prevent overcurrent trips in the main switch breaker. Computational and experimental results were obtained under real-time conditions to validate the proposed strategy. For such purpose was adapted a bidirectional EV battery charger ...

  11. Electric Vehicle Green Routing with Possible En-Route Recharging

    OpenAIRE

    BAOUCHE, Fouad; BILLOT, Romain; Trigui, Rochdi; EL FAOUZI, Nour Eddin

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is constrained mainly by the restricted autonomy, the lack of charging stations, the battery recharge time and recuperation capability (e.g. braking phases or downhill). In this study we aim to develop a green routing tool to encourage the use of EV. To overcome the autonomy limitation we propose a methodology for the EV that includes a charging stations location model, an energy graph construction for EV routing and a resolution scheme for the routin...

  12. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  13. The eco-driving effect of electric vehicles compared to conventional gasoline vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kato

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Eco-driving is attractive to the public, not only users of internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs including hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs but also users of electric vehicles (EVs have interest in eco-driving. In this context, a quantitative evaluation of eco-driving effect of EVs was conducted using a chassis dynamometer (C/D with an “eco-driving test mode.” This mode comprised four speed patterns selected from fifty-two real-world driving datasets collected during an eco-driving test-ride event. The four patterns had the same travel distance (5.2 km, but showed varying eco-driving achievement levels. Three ICEVs, one HEV and two EVs were tested using a C/D. Good linear relationships were found between the eco-driving achievement level and electric or fuel consumption rate of all vehicles. The reduction of CO2 emissions was also estimated. The CO2-reduction rates of the four conventional (including hybrid vehicles were 10.9%–12.6%, while those of two types of EVs were 11.7%–18.4%. These results indicate that the eco-driving tips for conventional vehicles are effective to not only ICEVs and HEVs but also EVs. Furthermore, EVs have a higher potential of eco-driving effect than ICEVs and HEVs if EVs could maintain high energy conversion efficiency at low load range. This study is intended to support the importance of the dissemination of tools like the intelligent speed adaptation (ISA to obey the regulation speed in real time. In the future, also in the development and dissemination of automated driving systems, the viewpoint of achieving the traveling purpose with less kinetic energy would be important.

  14. Hybrid-Electric Vehicle with Natural Gas-Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Guzzella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate the potential of combining electric hybridization with a dual-fuel natural gas-Diesel engine. We show that carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced to 43 gram per kilometer with a subcompact car on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The vehicle is operated in charge-sustaining mode, which means that all energy is provided by the fuel. The result is obtained by hardware-in-the-loop experiments where the engine is operated on a test bench while the rest of the powertrain as well as the vehicle are simulated. By static engine measurements we demonstrate that the natural gas-Diesel engine reaches efficiencies of up to 39.5%. The engine is operated lean at low loads with low engine out nitrogen oxide emissions such that no nitrogen oxide aftertreatment is necessary. At medium to high loads the engine is operated stoichiometrically, which enables the use of a cost-efficient three-way catalytic converter. By vehicle emulation of a non-hybrid vehicle on the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP, we demonstrate that transient operation of the natural gas-Diesel engine is also possible, thus enabling a non-hybridized powertrain as well.

  15. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle Drive Cycles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, R.; Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Kelly, K.

    2015-05-03

    With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2011, NREL launched a large-scale performance evaluation of medium-duty electric vehicles. With support from vehicle manufacturers Smith and Navistar, NREL research focused on characterizing vehicle operation and drive cycles for electric delivery vehicles operating in commercial service across the nation.

  16. Prediction and optimization methods for electric vehicle charging schedules in the EDISON project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bach; Pedersen, Anders Bro;

    2012-01-01

    project has been launched to investigate various areas relevant to electric vehicle integration. As part of EDISON an electric vehicle aggregator has been developed to demonstrate smart charging of electric vehicles. The emphasis of this paper is the mathematical methods on which the EDISON aggregator......Smart charging, where the charging of an electric vehicle battery is delayed or advanced in time based on energy costs, grid capacity or renewable contents, has a great potential for increasing the value of the electric vehicle to the owner, the grid and society as a whole. The Danish EDISON...

  17. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  18. Coupling Electric Vehicles and Power Grid through Charging-In-Motion and Connected Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A traffic-assignment-based framework is proposed to model the coupling of transportation network and power grid for analyzing impacts of energy demand from electric vehicles on the operation of power distribution. Although the reverse can be investigated with the proposed framework as well, electricity flowing from a power grid to electric vehicles is the focus of this paper. Major variables in transportation network (including link flows) and power grid (including electricity transmitted) are introduced for the coupling. Roles of charging-in-motion technology and connected vehicle technology have been identified in the framework of supernetwork. A linkage (i.e. individual energy demand) between the two networks is defined to construct the supernetwork. To determine equilibrium of the supernetwork can also answer how many drivers are going to use the charging-in-motion services, in which locations, and at what time frame. An optimal operation plan of power distribution will be decided along the determination simultaneously by which we have a picture about what level of power demand from the grid is expected in locations during an analyzed period. Caveat of the framework and possible applications have also been discussed.

  19. Charging Scheduling of Electric Vehicles with Local Renewable Energy under Uncertain Electric Vehicle Arrival and Grid Power Price

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tian; Chen, Wei; Han, Zhu; Cao, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we consider delay-optimal charging scheduling of the electric vehicles (EVs) at a charging station with multiple charge points. The charging station is equipped with renewable energy generation devices and can also buy energy from power grid. The uncertainty of the EV arrival, the intermittence of the renewable energy, and the variation of the grid power price are taken into account and described as independent Markov processes. Meanwhile, the charging energy for each EV is rand...

  20. EMI Measurement and Mitigation Testing for the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-27

    will be a more realistic approach for evaluating the EMI radiated from the electric vehicles . Vehicle Converter TyJ:!e OJ:!en-Field Screen Room...radiation from the electric vehicles considered were motor controllers, de to de converters , power steering motors, brake vacuum pumps, distribution...the ARPA Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program Anthony B. Bruno Engineering and Technical Services Department Oscar R. Zelaya Submarine Electromagnetic

  1. Systems Engineering Technology Readiness Assessment of Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Department of Energy. 2007. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Freedom CAR and vehicle technology program; Plug-In hybrid- electric vehicle R&D Plan...ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY READINESS ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES by Eddie E. McCown September 2014 Thesis...HYBRID- ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FOR TACTICAL WHEELED VEHICLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Eddie E. McCown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  2. Microgrid and Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) with Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Power Services Capability (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security Phase-II (SPIDERS-II) • Plug in Electric Vehicle (PEV) and V2G Power services 2. Tactical...Charging Stations: Coritech, Princeton Power , Eaton, and Aerovironment LAAFB* (34 vehicles)  13 Nissan LEAFs sedans (California Energy Commission...advanced vehicle systems such as e- armor, e-weapons, and advanced C4: Utilizing mixed power generation system such as solar arrays, Plug in electric

  3. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  4. Potential impacts of electric vehicles on air quality in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chen, Jen-Ping; Tsai, I-Chun; He, Qingyang; Chi, Szu-Yu; Lin, Yi-Chiu; Fu, Tzung-May

    2016-10-01

    The prospective impacts of electric vehicle (EV) penetration on the air quality in Taiwan were evaluated using an air quality model with the assumption of an ambitious replacement of current light-duty vehicles under different power generation scenarios. With full EV penetration (i.e., the replacement of all light-duty vehicles), CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 emissions in Taiwan from a fleet of 20.6 million vehicles would be reduced by 1500, 165, 33.9 and 7.2Ggyr(-1), respectively, while electric sector NOx and SO2 emissions would be increased by up to 20.3 and 12.9Ggyr(-1), respectively, if the electricity to power EVs were provided by thermal power plants. The net impacts of these emission changes would be to reduce the annual mean surface concentrations of CO, VOCs, NOx and PM2.5 by about 260, 11.3, 3.3ppb and 2.1μgm(-3), respectively, but to increase SO2 by 0.1ppb. Larger reductions tend to occur at time and place of higher ambient concentrations and during high pollution events. Greater benefits would clearly be attained if clean energy sources were fully encouraged. EV penetration would also reduce the mean peak-time surface O3 concentrations by up to 7ppb across Taiwan with the exception of the center of metropolitan Taipei where the concentration increased by <2ppb. Furthermore, full EV penetration would reduce annual days of O3 pollution episodes by ~40% and PM2.5 pollution episodes by 6-10%. Our findings offer important insights into the air quality impacts of EV and can provide useful information for potential mitigation actions.

  5. Battery Test Manual For Electric Vehicles, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Electric Vehicles (EV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for EVs. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Chul Bae of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  6. Electric vehicle integration in a real-time market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Østergaard, Jacob; Poulsen, Bjarne

    ” are needed at the device level. In order for this market to work, however, the proper ICTnetwork- and server-infrastructure has to be developed. The primary goal of this PhD project, has been to investigate the scope of this ICT infrastructure, required to realise price-signal based charging of electric......This project is rooted in the EDISON project, which dealt with Electrical Vehicle (EV) integration into the existing power grid, as well as with the infrastructure needed to facilitate the ever increasing penetration of fluctuating renewable energy resources like e.g. wind turbines. In the EDISON...... the distributed energy resources registered with it, in order to make them appear as a single producer in the eyes of the market. Although the concept of a VPP is used within the EcoGrid EU project, the idea of more individual control is introduced through a new proposed real-time electricity market, where...

  7. CALCULATION OF A MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Le Ngo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristic of an electric vehicle is the main characteristic of mechanical system that reflects its key performance indicators. Implementation of the traction characteristic is based on controlling angular speed and torque of electric traction motor in an automatic control system. The static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor in an automatic control system is the most important characteristic that determines weight, size and operating characteristics of an electric traction motor and serves as the basis for design. The most common variants of constructive implementation of a traction electric drive are analyzed, and a scheme is chosen for further design. Lagrange’s equation for electric mechanical system with one degree of freedom is written in generalized coordinates. In order to determine the generalized forces, elementary operation of all moments influencing on a moving car has been calculated. The resulting equation of motion of the electric vehicle corresponding to the design scheme, as well as the expressions for calculation of characteristic points of static mechanical characteristics of traction motor (i.e. the maximum and minimum time, minimum power are obtained. In order to determine the nominal values of the angular velocity and the power of electric traction motor, a method based on ensuring the movement of the vehicle in the standard cycle has been developed. The method makes it possible to calculate characteristic points of the mechanical characteristic with the lowest possible power rating. The algorithm for calculation of mechanical characteristics of the motor is presented. The method was applied to calculate static mechanical characteristic of an electric traction motor for a small urban electric truck.

  8. Improving the Energy Management of a Solar Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUNESER, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A solar electric vehicle (SEV is an electric vehicle (EV with onboard photovoltaic cells charging a set of batteries for extended driving range. This study aimed to improve the energy management system of a SEV, called YILDIZ, using a fuzzy logic control system (FLC. A MATLAB based simulation model of three basic components of a solar car: solar cell modules, batteries and motor drive system was performed. An original FLC was developed. For proving its applicability, the performances of the SEV were tested by simulation, in accordance with the standard test drive cycle ECE-15. The characteristics obtained with the original Proportional Integral Fuzzy Logic Control (PI-FLC were compared with those obtained with a classical Proportional Integral (PI controller. Using the designed model, we calculated the range of YILDIZ with and without PV feeding which gave us an opportunity to study and compare both SEV and EV models on real race-track situation. Then the optimum speed, at any time, which enabled the vehicle to reach a chosen destination as quickly as possible, while fully using the available energy, was calculated. Proposed solutions tested on YILDIZ. Results of simulations were compared with YILDIZ run on the Formula-G race track in Izmit, Turkey.

  9. S/EV 92 (Solar and Electric Vehicles): Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Volume I of these proceedings presents current research on solar and electric powered vehicles. Both fundamental and advanced concepts concerning electric vehicles are presented. The use of photovoltaic cells in electric vehicles and in a broader sense as a means of power generation are discussed. Information on electric powered fleets and races is included. And policy and regulations, especially pertaining to air quality and air pollution abatement are presented.

  10. The Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiermann, Gerhard; Puchinger, Jakob; Røpke, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Due to new regulations and further technological progress in the field of electric vehicles, the research community faces the new challenge of incorporating the electric energy based restrictions into vehicle routing problems. One of these restrictions is the limited battery capacity which makes...... detours to recharging stations necessary, thus requiring efficient tour planning mechanisms in order to sustain the competitiveness of electric vehicles compared to conventional vehicles. We introduce the Electric Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Recharging Stations (E...

  11. Optimal scheduling of electrical vehicle charging under two types of steering signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauw, van der Thijs; Gerards, Marco E.T.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electrical vehicles and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles is causing an increasing load upon our residential distribution network. However, the charging of these vehicles is often shiftable in time to off-peak hours due to long parking times at a fixed location during

  12. System Design and Implementation of Smart Dashboard for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of automobile focuses on the chassis structure and motion control. However, due to the concept of smart and safe vehicle, the integrated dashboard becomes a necessary issue. The proposed system can not only represent the conventional dashboard in a digital form but also endow the system with an intelligent guidance. The statuses such as speed, battery SOC, braking, mileage, and the activation of TCS and ABS can be seen and monitored in all driving scenarios. For example, the current modern electric vehicles face the danger of self-ignition problem when the over load problem is consisted. Basically, these severe conditions can be eliminated by a guard of smart interface. Consequently, under a proper design, the presented system can assist the driver to maintain the energy efficiency, steering stability, and so on. Then the operation procedure can be simplified and hence driver can concentrate more on steering.

  13. An analytical study of electric vehicle handling dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Segal, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Hypothetical electric vehicle configurations were studied by applying available analytical methods. Elementary linearized models were used in addition to a highly sophisticated vehicle dynamics computer simulation technique. Physical properties of specific EV's were defined for various battery and powertrain packaging approaches applied to a range of weight distribution and inertial properties which characterize a generic class of EV's. Computer simulations of structured maneuvers were performed for predicting handling qualities in the normal driving range and during various extreme conditions related to accident avoidance. Results indicate that an EV with forward weight bias will possess handling qualities superior to a comparable EV that is rear-heavy or equally balanced. The importance of properly matching tires, suspension systems, and brake system front/rear torque proportioning to a given EV configuration during the design stage is demonstrated.

  14. Nonlinear Cascade Strategy for Longitudinal Control of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Majdoub, K; Giri, F; Ouadi, H; Chaoui, F Z

    2014-01-01

    The problem of controlling the longitudinal motion of front-wheels electric vehicle (EV) is considered making the focus on the case where a single dc motor is used for both front wheels. Chassis dynamics are modelled applying relevant fundamental laws taking into account the aerodynamic effects and the road slope variation. The longitudinal slip, resulting from tire deformation, is captured through Kiencke's model. Despite its highly nonlinear nature the complete model proves to be utilizable in longitudinal control design. The control objective is to achieve a satisfactory vehicle speed regulation in acceleration/deceleration stages, despite wind speed and other parameters uncertainty. An adaptive controller is developed using the backstepping design technique. The obtained adaptive controller is shown to meet its objectives in presence of the changing aerodynamics efforts and road slope.

  15. Episodic air quality impacts of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi, Ghazal; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the Spatially and Temporally Resolved Energy and Environment Tool (STREET) is used in conjunction with University of California Irvine - California Institute of Technology (UCI-CIT) atmospheric chemistry and transport model to assess the impact of deploying plug-in electric vehicles and integrating wind energy into the electricity grid on urban air quality. STREET is used to generate emissions profiles associated with transportation and power generation sectors for different future cases. These profiles are then used as inputs to UCI-CIT to assess the impact of each case on urban air quality. The results show an overall improvement in 8-h averaged ozone and 24-h averaged particulate matter concentrations in the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) with localized increases in some cases. The most significant reductions occur northeast of the region where baseline concentrations are highest (up to 6 ppb decrease in 8-h-averaged ozone and 6 μg/m3 decrease in 24-h-averaged PM2.5). The results also indicate that, without integration of wind energy into the electricity grid, the temporal vehicle charging profile has very little to no effect on urban air quality. With the addition of wind energy to the grid mix, improvement in air quality is observed while charging at off-peak hours compared to the business as usual scenario.

  16. High Penetration of Electrical Vehicles in Microgrids: Threats and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khederzadeh, Mojtaba; Khalili, Mohammad

    2014-10-01

    Given that the microgrid concept is the building block of future electric distribution systems and electrical vehicles (EVs) are the future of transportation market, in this paper, the impact of EVs on the performance of microgrids is investigated. Demand-side participation is used to cope with increasing demand for EV charging. The problem of coordination of EV charging and discharging (with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) functionality) and demand response is formulated as a market-clearing mechanism that accepts bids from the demand and supply sides and takes into account the constraints put forward by different parts. Therefore, a day-ahead market with detailed bids and offers within the microgrid is designed whose objective is to maximize the social welfare which is the difference between the value that consumers attach to the electrical energy they buy plus the benefit of the EV owners participating in the V2G functionality and the cost of producing/purchasing this energy. As the optimization problem is a mixed integer nonlinear programming one, it is decomposed into one master problem for energy scheduling and one subproblem for power flow computation. The two problems are solved iteratively by interfacing MATLAB with GAMS. Simulation results on a sample microgrid with different residential, commercial and industrial consumers with associated demand-side biddings and different penetration level of EVs support the proposed formulation of the problem and the applied methods.

  17. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 2, Identification of Vehicles for Installation of Data Loggers for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In Task 1, a survey was completed of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization was used to select vehicles for further monitoring, which involves data logging of vehicle movements in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the list of vehicles selected by MCBCL and Intertek for further monitoring and fulfills the Task 2 requirements.

  18. New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This project was sponsored by the US DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention. The object was for Ukrainian and US partners, including Argonne, AETC, and Dontech to develop special carbon materials and factory production equipment with the goal of making better car batteries to achieve DOE's goals for all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Carbon materials are used in designs for lithium-ion batteries and metal-air batteries, both leading contenders for future electric cars. Specifically, the collaborators planned to use the equipment derived from this project to develop a rechargeable battery system that will use the carbon materials produced by the innovative factory process equipment. The final outcome of the project was that the Ukrainian participants consisting of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), the Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Materials Research Center, Ltd. designed, built, tested and delivered 14 pieces of processing equipment for pilot scale carbon production lines at the AETC, Arlington Heights facilities. The pilot scale equipment will be used to process materials such as activated carbon, thermally expanded graphite and carbon coated nano-particles. The equipment was shipped from Ukraine to the United States and received by AETC on December 3, 2013. The equipment is on loan from Argonne, control # 6140. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and all-electric vehicles have already demostrated success in the U.S. as they begin to share the market with older hybrid electric designs. When the project was conceived, PHEV battery systems provided a ~40 mile driving range (2011 figures). DOE R&D targets increased this to >100 miles at reduced cost less than $250/kWh (2011 figures.) A 2016 Tesla model S has boasted 270 miles. The project object was to develop pilot-production line equipment for advanced hybrid battery system that achieves cycle life of 1000, an energy

  19. Selected Topics on Decision Making for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweda, Timothy Matthew

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are an attractive alternative to conventional gasoline-powered vehicles due to their lower emissions, fuel costs, and maintenance costs. Range anxiety, or the fear of running out of charge prior to reaching one's destination, remains a significant concern, however. In this dissertation, we address the issue of range anxiety by developing a set of decision support tools for both charging infrastructure providers and EV drivers. In Chapter 1, we present an agent-based information system for identifying patterns in residential EV ownership and driving activities to enable strategic deployment of new charging infrastructure. Driver agents consider their own driving activities within the simulated environment, in addition to the presence of charging stations and the vehicle ownership of others in their social networks, when purchasing a new vehicle. The Chicagoland area is used as a case study to demonstrate the model, and several deployment scenarios are analyzed. In Chapter 2, we address the problem of finding an optimal recharging policy for an EV along a given path. The path consists of a sequence of nodes, each representing a charging station, and the driver must decide where to stop and how much to recharge at each stop. We present efficient algorithms for finding an optimal policy in general instances with deterministic travel costs and homogeneous charging stations, and also for two specialized cases. In addition, we develop two heuristic procedures that we characterize analytically and explore empirically. We further analyze and test our solution methods on model variations that include stochastic travel costs and nonhomogeneous charging stations. In Chapter 3, we study the problem of finding an optimal routing and recharging policy for an electric vehicle in a grid network. Each node in the network represents a charging station and has an associated probability of being available at any point in time or occupied by another vehicle. We

  20. Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear in a Battery Electrical Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tommy; Mathe, Laszlo; Berg, Nick Ilsø;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical construction and test results of two new demonstrators of a Motor Integrated Permanent Magnet Gear (MIPMG), which is a second version of an already tested demonstrator. The demonstrators will be used as traction units for a Battery Electrical Vehicle (BEV......) and the background for the specifications are elaborated. Simulated as well as measured results of rotational losses of the first and second version are compared. The efficiency of the new design is investigated and compared to three direct drive motors in a few operating points and the MIPMG v.2 seems superior when...

  1. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  2. Electric vehicles: a recurrent story; Veiculos eletricos: uma historia recorrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, Renato; Legey, Luiz F.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper has a double sense: first to discuss the reasons which conduct the US government to take this attitude, presenting the dimension and the consequences of dependence on imported petroleum over the american economy, and second to analyse the main historical facts which conduct to the ascension and fall of the hybrid and electrical vehicles. The conclusion is that beyond the environmental questions and of more efficient use of energy, the US government would have as main factor the increasing of energy security of the country.

  3. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids charging strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the recent research advancements in the area of charging strategies that can be employed to accommodate the anticipated high deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) in smart grids. Recent literature has focused on various potential issues of uncoordinated charging of PEVs and methods of overcoming such challenges. After an introduction to charging coordination paradigms of PEVs, this book will present various ways the coordinated control can be accomplished. These innovative approaches include hierarchical coordinated control, model predictive control, optimal control

  4. Improvement the DTC system for electric vehicles induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase squirrel-cage induction motor is used as a propulsion system of an electric vehicle (EV. Two different control methods have been designed. The first is based on the conventional DTC Scheme adapted for three level inverter. The second is based on the application of fuzzy logic controller to the DTC scheme. The motor is controlled at different operating conditions using a FLC based DTC technique. In the simulation the novel proposed technique reduces the torque and current ripples. The EV dynamics are taken into account.

  5. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  6. Electric Vehicle IM Controller Based on Voltage-Fed Inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建国; 张承宁; 袁学; 谭建

    2004-01-01

    A novel electric vehicle (EV) induction motor (IM) controller based on voltage-fed inverter is presented. It is shown that the proposed adaptive control algorithm effectively both simplifies the structure and expands the capacity of controller. The relationship between stator's voltage and that of current under rotor's flux-oriented-coordinates is first introduced, and then the structure of vector control is analyzed, in which voltage compensation is inducted as the core feedback procedure. Experiments prove that, together with a facility for realization, a smooth transition, a prompt torque response and small concussion are gained. Extensive research conducted by varying parameters that result in practical ripple is proposed in conclusion.

  7. System Architecture Design for Electric Vehicle (EV) Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) system should fulfill the energy needs of EVs to meet the EV users’ driving requirements and enable the system service from EVs to support the power system operation with high penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) by providing necessary infrastructures. In order...... or aggregated control concept and market solutions. The information/communication level is comprised of information exchange and ICT infrastructure. The physical level consists of meters, network connections, charging facility and EVs. The details of the three levels have been discussed. The stakeholders...

  8. Fast recharging of electric road vehicles; Elektrostrassenfahrzeuge schnell laden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, J. [GL Stromrichtertechnik GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    Electric vehicles are still not generally accepted, owing to their short mileage and long charging procedure. This may change with the development of fast recharging stations. Since mid-1995, a fast recharging station has been installed in a normal fuel station at Bergen on the island of Ruegen. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Das Elektrofahrzeug hat immer noch grosse Akzeptanzprobleme. Die Gruende hierfuer sind einerseits die geringe Reichweite und andererseits die langwierige Ladeprozedur. Die daraus entstandenen Aktivitaeten fuehrten zur ersten Schnelladestation mit Zapfsaeuleneigenschaften. Seit Mitte 1995 ist der Nachfolger dieser Station in einer normalen Marken-Tankstelle in Bergen auf Ruegen integriert und von einer Mineraloel-Zapfsaeule nicht zu unterscheiden. (orig./GL)

  9. Optimization of batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Jeffrey Robb

    This thesis presents a method to quickly determine the optimal battery for an electric vehicle given a set of vehicle characteristics and desired performance metrics. The model is based on four independent design variables: cell count, cell capacity, state-of-charge window, and battery chemistry. Performance is measured in seven categories: cost, all-electric range, maximum speed, acceleration, battery lifetime, lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, and charging time. The performance of each battery is weighted according to a user-defined objective function to determine its overall fitness. The model is informed by a series of battery tests performed on scaled-down battery samples. Seven battery chemistries were tested for capacity at different discharge rates, maximum output power at different charge levels, and performance in a real-world automotive duty cycle. The results of these tests enable a prediction of the performance of the battery in an automobile. Testing was performed at both room temperature and low temperature to investigate the effects of battery temperature on operation. The testing highlighted differences in behavior between lithium, nickel, and lead based batteries. Battery performance decreased with temperature across all samples with the largest effect on nickel-based chemistries. Output power also decreased with lead acid batteries being the least affected by temperature. Lithium-ion batteries were found to be highly efficient (>95%) under a vehicular duty cycle; nickel and lead batteries have greater losses. Low temperatures hindered battery performance and resulted in accelerated failure in several samples. Lead acid, lead tin, and lithium nickel alloy batteries were unable to complete the low temperature testing regime without losing significant capacity and power capability. This is a concern for their applicability in electric vehicles intended for cold climates which have to maintain battery temperature during long periods of inactivity

  10. Impacts of electric vehicle charging on distribution networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lizhong; Yang, Guang Ya; Xu, Zhao;

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) provide a unique opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector by drawing on renewable resources. As EVs become increasingly popular in the automotive market, the study of its impacts on the low-voltage grid has become increasingly important....... The model of EVs is affected by the user, battery characteristics, as well as the environment. Studies are carried out based on the Danish case. A preliminary model on demand is created by integrating the driving pattern and battery charging characteristics. The model is applied to a typical distribution...

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  12. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...... the smart charging behavior and detailed parameters needed for charging behavior of an individual EV are analyzed. The individual charging schedule is extended to the EV fleet. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model....

  13. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  14. Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles in Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    , the combination of these two methods is also examined for controlled EV charging. Simulation results show that the combination of the two individual supporting methods has the best performance in terms of voltage regulation as well as improving EV penetration level at weak distribution grids.......The paper evaluates the voltage support functions from electric vehicles (EVs) on a typical Danish distribution grid with high EV penetration. In addition to the popular voltage control modes, such as voltage droop charging (low voltage level leads to low charging power) and reactive power support...

  15. Detection System Design of Electric Vehicle Wiring Harness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-Xin; LI Xiao-Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method of harness testing system for electric vehicle wiring harness wiring .The system has implemented some commonly used electric wiring harness state detection using the way of the upper machine and lower machine communicate with each other, Such as normal, open circuit, short circuit, fault, etc. And then the lower machine send the wiring harness status to the upper machine, and then the upper machine parses the line state, and at the same time shows the test results, And then stores the test results in the database. After all, we can call at any time to check the date and the results of detection. It changes the traditional manual test mode of operation and Implements the detection process of automation and intellectualization.

  16. Battery Management Systems in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pecht

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The battery management system (BMS is a critical component of electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the BMS is to guarantee safe and reliable battery operation. To maintain the safety and reliability of the battery, state monitoring and evaluation, charge control, and cell balancing are functionalities that have been implemented in BMS. As an electrochemical product, a battery acts differently under different operational and environmental conditions. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to the implementation of these functions. This paper addresses concerns for current BMSs. State evaluation of a battery, including state of charge, state of health, and state of life, is a critical task for a BMS. Through reviewing the latest methodologies for the state evaluation of batteries, the future challenges for BMSs are presented and possible solutions are proposed as well.

  17. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method designed to alleviate congestion induced by electric vehicle (EV) loads in future power systems. In the proposed approach, the distribution system operator (DSO) determines distribution locational marginal...... prices (DLMPs) by solving the social welfare optimization of the Electric distribution system which considers EV aggregators as Price takers in the local DSO market and demand price elasticity. Nonlinear optimization has been used to solve the social welfare optimization problem in order to obtain...... the DLMPs. The efficacy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by using the bus 4 distribution system of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and Danish driving data. The case study results show that the integrated DLMP methodology can successfully alleviate the congestion caused by EV loads. It is also...

  18. Designing for sustainability - mobility systems based on electrical vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Hansen, Ole Erik

    2013-01-01

    in interaction with public authorities and transportation companies), configuring the electric car sharing system as an element in an alternative mobility service system, and designing the technical and organizational system The concluding discussion falls into two parts: an assessment of the design process......-design, concerned with design as meta-level processes of regime transformation and the constructive configuration of design spaces. The case study examines an attempt to integrate electric vehicles in the Danish mobility systems. It maps the framework conditions and contemporary (competing) strategies....../projects, but focuses on a specific car-sharing project (‘Cleardrive’), with the objective to examine the early and constitutive stages of the design-process. It is conducted as an intensive study tracing elements of interpretation, interaction and intervention, which have been part of the project formation process...

  19. Highway vehicle electric drive in the United States : 2009 status and issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-16

    The status of electric drive technology in the United States as of early 2010 is documented. Rapidly evolving electric drive technologies discussed include hybrid electric vehicles, multiple types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles. Recent trends for hybrids are quantified. Various plug-in vehicles entering the market in the near term are examined. The technical and economic requirements for electric drive to more broadly succeed in a wider range of highway vehicle applications are described, and implications for the most promising new markets are provided. Federal and selected state government policy measures promoting and preparing for electric drive are discussed. Taking these into account, judgment on areas where increased Clean Cities funds might be most productively focused over the next five years are provided. In closing, the request by Clean Cities for opinion on the broad range of research needs providing near-term support to electric drive is fulfilled.

  20. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle on Power Distribution System Considering Vehicle to Grid Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aljanad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comprehensive review of the potential technical impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on power distribution and transmission systems. This review also presents various power quality impacts on the power system in several aspects. This review conveys a detailed analysis of electric vehicle charging strategies on electrical distribution networks. The two charging aspects (coordinated/uncoordinated and intelligent scheduling of charging are discussed in terms of their impacts on power systems. Vehicle to grid technology are investigated, elaborated and evaluated based on technical, suitability and configuration aspects.

  1. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities...

  2. Electric Vehicles in Logistics and Transportation: A Survey on Emerging Environmental, Strategic, and Operational Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Alejandro Juan; Carlos Alberto Mendez; Javier Faulin; Jesica de Armas; Scott Erwin Grasman

    2016-01-01

    Current logistics and transportation (L&T) systems include heterogeneous fleets consisting of common internal combustion engine vehicles as well as other types of vehicles using “green” technologies, e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (EVs). However, the incorporation of EVs in L&T activities also raise some additional challenges from the strategic, planning, and operational perspectives. For instance, smart cities are required to provide recharge stations fo...

  3. 49 CFR 571.305 - Standard No. 305; Electric-powered vehicles: electrolyte spillage and electrical shock protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: electrolyte spillage and electrical shock protection. 571.305 Section 571.305 Transportation Other Regulations... No. 305; Electric-powered vehicles: electrolyte spillage and electrical shock protection. Link to an... system components into the occupant compartment, and electrical shock. S3 Application. This...

  4. Summarize of Electric Vehicle Electric System Fault and Fault-tolerant Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liwei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle drive system is a multi-variable function, running environment complexed and changeable system, so it’s failure form is complicated. In this paper, according to the fault happens in different position, establish vehicle fault table, analyze the consequences of failure may cause and the causes of failure. Combined with hardware limitations, and the maximum guarantee system performance requirements, passive software redundancy fault-tolerant strategy is put forward, give an example to analysis the pros and cons of this method.

  5. AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.

  6. Development of commercial hybrid electric vehicle with native key components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspectives of development of medium weight cargo vehicles with hybrid powertrain including Russian native key components are considered in this article. Series-parallel scheme of HEV is more relevant owing to limitations of series and parallel schemes. An example of this technology is described. This technical solution has good facilities for variation of HEV and AWD type. The authors have patented it. In addition, another main issue is to choose the types of key components with good correlation for parameters of ICE, electric motors, batteries, and inverter. Using mathematical model of the vehicle a selection and correlation of technical characteristics were carried out to meet ecological and economical requirements. After computing calculation two control strategies were accepted. The first strategy contributes to good fuel consumption, while the other one is aimed at ecology. Researchers use test benches to confirm the results of calculation, and this one was built by the authors applying native components. The result of experiment on the test bench is the growth of fuel consumption of the medium weight cargo vehicle by 25% and compliance with ecological class Euro-4.

  7. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  8. Factors Influencing the Behavioural Intention towards Full Electric Vehicles: An Empirical Study in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. W. Lai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that influence individual intentions towards the adoption of full electric vehicles. A sample including 308 respondents was collected on the streets of Macau. The collected data were analysed by confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate that environmental concerns and the perception of environmental policy are antecedent factors of the perception of full electric vehicles, which influences the behavioural intention to purchase full electric vehicles. This study also finds that the perception of economic benefit is one of the key factors influencing the adoption of full electric vehicles. Vehicle operators seek economic benefits from future long-term fuel savings, high energy efficiency, and cheap electricity. Thus, a government striving to promote low-carbon transportation needs to scale up its efforts to enhance citizens’ environmental concerns and to establish proper environmental policy as well as to provide long-term financial and strategic support for electric vehicles.

  9. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Jonathan [Sentech, Inc.; Khowailed, Gannate [Sentech, Inc.; Blackburn, Julia [Sentech, Inc.; Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary

  10. Economic Dispatch for Microgrid Containing Electric Vehicles via Probabilistic Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yin; Gao, Wenzhong; Momoh, James; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-10-06

    In this paper, an economic dispatch model with probabilistic modeling is developed for microgrid. Electric power supply in microgrid consists of conventional power plants and renewable energy power plants, such as wind and solar power plants. Due to the fluctuation of solar and wind plants' output, an empirical probabilistic model is developed to predict their hourly output. According to different characteristics of wind and solar plants, the parameters for probabilistic distribution are further adjusted individually for both power plants. On the other hand, with the growing trend of Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PHEV), an integrated microgrid system must also consider the impact of PHEVs. Not only the charging loads from PHEVs, but also the discharging output via Vehicle to Grid (V2G) method can greatly affect the economic dispatch for all the micro energy sources in microgrid. This paper presents an optimization method for economic dispatch in microgrid considering conventional, renewable power plants, and PHEVs. The simulation results reveal that PHEVs with V2G capability can be an indispensable supplement in modern microgrid.

  11. Effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI FenZhu; XU LiCong; WU ZhiXin

    2009-01-01

    Based on several typical domestic and foreign driving cycles, the energy usage efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle (EV) is analyzed.The energy usage efficiency of EVs and the evaluation index of electromotor efficiency are studied.The concepts of "interval usage percentage of energy efficiency" and "exertion degree of energy efficiency" of electromotor are presented.The effects of driving cycles on the distribution of the running status of electromotor and the efficiency are investi-gated.The efficiency of electromotor and the trend of average driving force at different driving cycles are discussed.The exertion degree of energy efficiency and the total power train efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle at typical driving cycles are analyzed and calculated.The result in-dicates that the driving cycle engenders a big influence on the exertion degree of electromotor energy efficiency at different driving cycles.Dissimilar driving cycles result in different efficiency distributions of electromotor, the control system as well as the average driving force and driving range are variable.

  12. Effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on several typical domestic and foreign driving cycles, the energy usage efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle (EV) is analyzed. The energy usage efficiency of EVs and the evaluation index of electromotor efficiency are studied. The concepts of "interval usage percentage of energy efficiency" and "exertion degree of energy efficiency" of electromotor are presented. The effects of driving cycles on the distribution of the running status of electromotor and the efficiency are investi-gated. The efficiency of electromotor and the trend of average driving force at different driving cycles are discussed. The exertion degree of energy efficiency and the total power train efficiency of the EVs-XL 2000 type electric vehicle at typical driving cycles are analyzed and calculated. The result indicates that the driving cycle engenders a big influence on the exertion degree of electromotor energy efficiency at different driving cycles. Dissimilar driving cycles result in different efficiency distributions of electromotor, the control system as well as the average driving force and driving range are variable.

  13. Design of a 200kW electric powertrain for a high performance electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Martinez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of designing the electric powertrain of a high performance electric vehicle capable of running a quarter mile in 10 seconds, firstly it is necessary to calculate the required energy, torque, and power in order to size and select the suitable storage components and electric motors. Secondly, an assessment of the powertrain arrangement is needed to choose the best internal configuration of the vehicle and guarantee the highest efficiency possible. Finally, a design of the power conversion stages, specifically the DC-DC converter that interfaces the storage unit with the electric motors, is required as well. This paper shows the energy calculation procedure based on a longitudinal dynamic model of the vehicle and the selection method of the storage components and motors needed for this application, as well as the design of two 100kW interleaved boost converters with coupled inductors. In addition, a novel operation of the interleaved boost converter is proposed in order to increase the efficiency of the converter. As a result, the designed converter achieved a power density of 24,2kW/kg with an efficiency of 98 %, which was validated by experimental tests of a low power prototype.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J. F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  16. Electric vehicle fleet management in smart grids: A review of services, optimization and control aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    Electric vehicles can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. On the transmission system level, electric vehicles are regarded as an important means of balancing the intermittent renewable energy...... and industries. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging (including power to vehicle and vehicle-to-grid) of electric vehicles for fleet operators. The study firstly presents service relationships between fleet operators and other four actors in smart grids; then, modeling...

  17. The International Energy Agency's implementing agreement on hybrid and electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed implementing agreements and programs developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for hybrid and electric vehicles. The agreement was designed to provide an international platform for the coordination of ideas, themes, and technologies related to hybrid and electric vehicles. Industries, governments, and users must also communicate to ensure the successful deployment of new technologies, laws and incentives. International collaboration programs will lower the cost for implementing new technologies in addition to enhancing information exchange. The IEA's Hybrid Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) program was designed to promote pre-competitive research projects and provide information on hybrid vehicles and their impacts on energy efficiency and the environment. Annex groups related to the program include: (1) an information exchange on HEV technologies and programs; (2) an annex on hybrid electric vehicles; (3) clean city vehicles; (4) electrochemical systems; (5) electric cycles; (6) heavy-duty hybrid vehicles; (7) fuel cells for vehicles; and (8) deployment of HEVs. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Annex Group was established in 1994 to exchange information and prepare a series of reports on subjects related to components for hybrid vehicles, as well as on topics related to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A new annex group has been proposed to study advanced battery technologies, policy issues, charging, marketability, and group administration. It was concluded that the group will report on progress and make all its research and findings available. Details of the IEA structure and governing board were provided. 6 figs.

  18. Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-13

    34Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited" Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications Sonya...requirements for DC-DC converters for electric and hybrid vehicles . This paper introduces a bidirectional, isolated DC-DC converter for medium power...the design and build of a medium power DC-DC converter . Key words: Power Converter , DC-DC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle , Battery, Galvanically Isolation

  19. Baseline and Verification Tests of the Electric Vehicle Associates’ Current Fare Station Wagon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    the EVA Current Fare Wagon. The EVA Current Fare Wagon is a 1980 Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle . The...standard Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle (Figures 1 anil 2). It is powered I% 22 6-V lead-acid batteries2...D-R132 549 BASELINE AND VERIFICATION TESTS OF THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE 112 ASSOCIATES’ CURRE..(U) ARMY MOBILITY EQUIPMENT RESEARCH AIND DEVELOPMENT

  20. An extended car-following model with consideration of the electric vehicle's driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Chen, Liang; Yang, Shi-Chun; Shang, Hua-Yan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a car-following model to explore the influences of the electric vehicle's driving range on the driving behavior under four traffic situations. The numerical results illustrate that the electric vehicle's behavior of exchanging battery at the charge station can destroy the stability of traffic flow and produce some prominent jams, and that the influences are related to the electric vehicle's driving range, i.e., the shorter the driving range is, the greater the effects are.

  1. What are the environmental benefits of electric vehicles? A life cycle based comparison of electric vehicles with biofuels, hydrogen and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungmeier, Gerfried; Canella, Lorenza; Beermann, Martin; Pucker, Johanna; Koenighofer, Kurt [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Graz (Austria)

    2013-06-01

    The Renewable Energy Directive aims reaching a share of 10% of renewable fuels in Europe in 2020. These renewable fuels are transportation biofuels, renewable electricity and renewable hydrogen. In most European countries transportation biofuels are already on the transportation fuel market in significant shares, e.g. in Austria 7% by blending bioethanol to gasoline and biodiesel to diesel. Electric vehicles can significantly contribute towards creating a sustainable, intelligent mobility and intelligent transportation systems. They can open new business opportunities for the transportation engineering sector and electricity companies. But the broad market introduction of electric vehicles is only justified due to a significant improvement of the environmental impact compared to conventional vehicles. This means that in addition to highly efficient electric vehicles and renewable electricity, the overall environmental impact in the life cycle - from building the vehicles and the battery to recycling at the end of its useful life - has to be limited to an absolute minimum. There is international consensus that the environmental effects of electric vehicles (and all other fuel options) can only be analysed on the basis of life cycle assessment (LCA) including the production, operation and the end of life treatment of the vehicles. The LCA results for different environmental effects e.g. greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy consumption, eutrophication will be presented in comparison to other fuels e.g. transportation biofuels, gasoline, natural gas and the key factors to maximize the environmental benefits will be presented. The presented results are mainly based on a national research projects. These results are currently compared and discussed with international research activities within the International Energy Agency (lEA) in the Implementing Agreement on Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (IA-HEV) in Task 19 ''Life Cycle Assessment of Electric Vehicles

  2. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  3. Electric Vehicles Parking (EVP) Sitting Considering GIS Information and the Extent of Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad R. Aghaebrahimi; Mahdi Tourani; Mohammad M. Ghasemipour

    2015-01-01

    energy resources, such as wind and solar, are increased. Also, the use of Electric Vehicles (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV), known as V2G, is under development. Due to the widespread use of these vehicles in the near future, Electric Vehicles Parking (EVP) is considered as a source of Distributed Generation (DG) and Electric Energy Storage. The location of parking lot is important for power utilities to reduce power losses, and to municipalities of the urban areas from constr...

  4. Multi-agent based modeling for electric vehicle integration in a distribution network operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    operator (DSO) technical agent and ii) DSO market agents that both belong to the top layer of the hierarchy and their roles are to manage the distribution network by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy scheduled; iii) Electric vehicle virtual power plant agents...... are in the middle level of the hierarchy and their roles are to manage the charge process of the electric vehicles; iv) Electric vehicle agents are placed at the bottom layer of the hierarchy and they represent electric vehicle owners with different users’ profiles. To demonstrate the coordination behavior...

  5. Energy management of electric and hybrid vehicles dependent on powertrain configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Bogdan

    2012-06-01

    Electric and hybrid vehicles are going to become the most reliable source of transport for future years. The CO2 and NOx targets in Euro 6 normative puts the producers of vehicles in a dilemma, whether to adapt the internal combustion engines further, or to develop hybrid or electric power trains that are going to reach the pollution limit of the future norms or to go below that. Before acting a well-developed strategy in determining the optimum power flow has to be developed by producers; CRUISE software is a tool with the unique and special characteristics to determine the optimum in this highly important area. Whether electric vehicle, electric vehicle with range extender or a hybrid with CVT or planetary gearbox, the complexity of the mathematical modules remains the same, giving the developer the possibility to create complex functions and distinctive characteristics for each component of the vehicle. With such a powerful tool it becomes extremely easy to evaluate the energy flow in all directions, from electric machine to the battery, from electric machine to the power generator, and from the electric machine to the internal combustion engine. Applying to the (Electric Vehicle, Electric Vehicle with Range Extender, Hybrid vehicle with CVT, Hybrid vehicle with planetary gear set) the ECE-15 in a virtual environment (urban driving cycle) the simulation results show a different usage, rate of storage and efficiency concerning the energy, this being dependent of the power train configuration in most part.

  6. Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2009-02-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and byimproving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEVfleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NOx emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further.

  7. Smart charging of electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle-to-grid technology in a microgrid; a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kam, Mart; van Sark, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    We present a model developed to study the increase of self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power by smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. Whereas previous studies mostly use large EV fleets in their models, our focus is on a smaller scale. We apply the mode

  8. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Electric Power Stage in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahri, A.; El Fadil, H.; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of modeling and controlling the electric power stage of hybrid electric vehicle. The controlled system consists of a fuel cell (FC) as a main source, a supercapacitor as an auxiliary source, two DC-DC power converters, an inverter and a traction induction motor...... based approach is used to control the DC/DC power converters associated with the DC sources, the backstepping technique combined with the field oriented control strategy are invoked in order to control the induction motor. It is formally shown, using a theoretical analysis and simulation results...

  9. Determining an energy-optimal thermal management strategy for electric driven vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchaneck, Andre; Probst, Tobias; Puente Leon, Fernando [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Industrial Information Technology (IIIT)

    2012-11-01

    In electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles, thermal management may have a significant impact on vehicle range. Therefore, optimal thermal management strategies are required. In this paper a method for determining an energy-optimal control strategy for thermal power generation in electric driven vehicles is presented considering all controlled devices (pumps, valves, fans, and the like) as well as influences like ambient temperature, vehicle speed, motor and battery and cooling cycle temperatures. The method is designed to be generic to increase the thermal management development process speed and to achieve the maximal energy reduction for any electric driven vehicle (e.g., by waste heat utilization). Based on simulations of a prototype electric vehicle with an advanced cooling cycle structure, the potential of the method is shown. (orig.)

  10. The General Configuration of CEV1 Electric Vehicle's Electrical System and the Design of Its Control Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The general configuration of CEV1 electric vehicle's electrical system and the design scheme of its control sequence are presented, which are modularized by using VMU as master control unit, PMU as power management unit, BMU as battery management unit. It is a rather advanced and practical general design scheme of electric vehicle, because the division of its module function is definite, which is advantage for research, manufacture and maintenance.

  11. Transient Analysis of a Bldc Starter/generatorsystem Used in Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinli; Shi, Yan; Liang, Anbo; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Qian

    The brushless DC motor used in ISAD of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles is introduced in this paper. Magnet field distribution and static characteristic of permanent magnet brushless DC motor are calculated by finite element methods.

  12. A Study of Torque Vectoring and Traction Control for an All-Wheel Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharun Mui’nuddin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Common vehicle always experience energy loss during cornering manoeuver. Thus, to ensure it did not happened especially at high speed, a study of torque vectoring and traction control need to be made since it can increase the traction control of tyres during cornering at high speed. The study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle was conducted by modelling an all-wheel drive electric vehicle (EV in ADAMS/Car software. In addition, an optimal control algorithm will be developed for best performance to minimize energy losses using MATLAB/Simulink software. Furthermore, to prove the effectiveness of the all-wheel drive electric, the torque and traction control simulation of the all-wheel drive electric vehicle will be compared with uncontrolled electric vehicle model. According to the result, torque vectoring and traction control of in-wheel motor in all wheel drive EV can help to increase the performance of the electric vehicle during cornering manoeuver. In conclusion, this study of torque vectoring and traction control for an all-wheel drive electric vehicle will help researchers to improve the design of the future electric vehicle in term of the vehicle performance during cornering manoeuvre.

  13. Always on the starting line: ELCAT 200 - the new-generation electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, K.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The Elcat 200 electric van can always be left charging. With most other electric van models, the situation is different. They run the risk of overcharging, which prevents continual `refuelling` of their batteries and thus considerably reduces the performance of the vehicles. The Elcat electric vehicle project has so far manufactured over 160 electric vans. Of these, the Elcat Cityvan accounts for 130, and the state-of-the-art Elcat 200 just over 30. The greatest single Elcat user is Finland Post, with 50 electric vehicles. Fifty Elcats have been sold abroad, most of them to Sweden

  14. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Report of the International Evaluation Committee. June 96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlen, H. [Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany); Maggetto, G. [Vrije Univ., Brussel (Belgium); Scrosati, B. [Univ. di Roma (Italy); Srinivasan, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)

    1996-11-01

    As requested by NUTEK our task was to evaluate the results and progress achieved in the electric and hybrid electric vehicles programme. This is a multidisciplinary research programme involving 12 projects at four universities and is planned to be extended over two three-year periods, i.e. 1993-1996 and 1997-1999 at a level of 8 MSKR (about USD 1,2M) per year. The programme has been launched to stimulate the development of electric vehicle technology in Sweden and is supporting projects to optimize the material processes, improve battery and engine components and promote of their production by the Swedish industry. In addition, the programme is directed to: 1. improve the knowledge and experience in the field at the academic level; 2. to support long time research on the subject and, 3. promote collaboration nationally and internationally. Our first comment is that the latter aspect appears to be satisfactorily accomplished. Most of the groups we have visited demonstrate an acquired experience in the field and presented their results with competence and enthusiasm. In many cases, we found valid interactions on ongoing projects in Swedish universities and established collaborations with high rank international groups. The programme has provided the material and the motivation for high-quality thesis work and, consequently, the formation of a class of well prepared and professionally competent students. Since electric vehicle technology is fast developing and is expected to have important fall-outs not only in the car industry but also in battery and electric engine manufacturing, the training of competent scientists and engineers in the field is of paramount relevance for Sweden where these types of industries are active and spread out. Therefore, we believe that as far as educational promotion is concerned, the funds distribution was worthwhile in all the projects which we evaluated

  15. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  16. Fuzzy Adaptive PI Controller for DTFC in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medjdoub khessam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique to control the electric vehicle (EV speed and torque at any curve. Our propulsion model consist of two permanent magnet synchronous (PMSM motors. The fuzzy adaptive PI controller is used to adjust the different static error constants, as per the speed error. The suggested based on the direct torque fuzzy control (DTFC. A Mamdani type fuzzy direct torque controller is first developed and then rules are modified using stator current membership functions. The computations are ensured by the electronic differential, this driving process permit to steer each driving wheels at any curve separately.Modeling and simulation are carried out using the Matlab/Simulink tool to investigate the performance of the proposed system.

  17. Policy Incentives for the Adoption of Electric Vehicles across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs have prominent advantages for reducing CO2 emissions and alleviating the dependence on fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. Therefore, many countries have set targets for EV development in recent years and have employed a number of policies to achieve environmental objectives and alleviate the energy pressure. Despite the fact that the adoption of EVs has increased in the past few years, more policies, such as financial incentives, technology support or charging infrastructure, should be made by governments to promote broader range use of EVs. In this paper, we review the relevant policies that different countries may adopt for stimulating the market of EVs. Based on this, we analyze the relationship between the policies and the adoption of EVs by taking America as an example. In conclusion, some effective policies are summarized to spur the market. Therefore, each country should learn from each other and employ effective policies based on the actual situation.

  18. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

    2011-08-01

    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  19. Electromagnetic interference in electrical systems of motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubiński, M.; Drozd, A.; Adamiec, M.; Siemionek, E.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic ignition system affects the electronic equipment of the vehicle by electric and magnetic fields. The measurement of radio electromagnetic interference originating from the ignition system affecting the audiovisual test bench was carried out with a variable speed of the ignition system. The paper presents measurements of radio electromagnetic interference in automobiles. In order to determine the level of electromagnetic interference, the audiovisual test bench was equipped with a set of meters for power consumption and assessment of the level of electromagnetic interference. Measurements of the electromagnetic interference level within the audiovisual system were performed on an experimental test bench consisting of the ignition system, starting system and charging system with an alternator and regulator.

  20. Battery outgassing sensor for electric drive vehicle energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshay, Manal; Chandra Sekhar, Jai Ganesh; Kempen, Lothar U.

    2011-06-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been proven efficient as high power density and low self-discharge rate energy storage systems, specifically in electrical drive vehicles. An important safety factor associated with these systems is the potential hazardous release and outgassing of toxic chemical vapors such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen sulfides (H2S), and relatively elevated levels of carbon dioxide (CO2). The release and accumulation of such gases emphasizes an in-line monitoring need. Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc. (IOS) has identified a viable approach for the development of an onboard optical sensor array that can be used to monitor battery outgassing. This paper discusses the potential of developing a battery outgas sensing approach that will meet sensitivity and response time requirements.

  1. Fuel optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhuan PU; Chenliang YIN; Jianwu ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model for fuel optimal control and its corresponding dynamic programming (DP) recurs-ive equation were established for an existing parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). Two augmented cost func-tions for gear shifting and engine stop-starting were designed to limit their frequency. To overcome the prob-lem of numerical DP dimensionality, an algorithm to restrict the exploring region was proposed. The algorithm significantly reduced the computational complexity. The system model was converted into real-time simulation code by using MATLAB/RTW to improve computation efficiency. Comparison between the results of a chassis dynamometer test, simulation, and DP proves that the proposed method can compute the performance limita-tion of the HEV within an acceptable time period and can be used to evaluate and optimize the control strategy.

  2. The ZEBRA electric vehicle battery: power and energy improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Roy C.; Haslam, Steven

    Vehicle trials with the first sodium/nickel chloride ZEBRA batteries indicated that the pulse power capability of the battery needed to be improved towards the end of the discharge. A research programme led to several design changes to improve the cell which, in combination, have improved the power of the battery to greater than 150 W kg -1 at 80% depth of discharge. Bench and vehicle tests have established the stability of the high power battery over several years of cycling. The gravimetric energy density of the first generation of cells was less than 100 Wh kg -1. Optimisation of the design has led to a cell with a specific energy of 120 Wh kg -1 or 86 Wh kg -1 for a 30 kWh battery. Recently, the cell chemistry has been altered to improve the useful capacity. The cell is assembled in the over-discharged state and during the first charge the following reactions occur: at 1.6 V: Al+4NaCl=NaAlCl 4+3Na; at 2.35 V: Fe+2NaCl=FeCl 2+2Na; at 2.58 V: Ni+2NaCl=NiCl 2+2 Na. The first reaction serves to prime the negative sodium electrode but occurs at too low a voltage to be of use in providing useful capacity. By minimising the aluminium content more NaCl is released for the main reactions to improve the capacity of the cell. This, and further composition optimisation, have resulted in cells with specific energies in excess of 140 Wh kg -1, which equates to battery energies>100 Wh kg -1. The present production battery, as installed in a Mercedes Benz A class electric vehicle, gives a driving range of 205 km (128 miles) in city and hill climbing. The cells with improved capacity will extend the practical driving range to beyond 240 km (150 miles).

  3. Simulation of a distance estimator for battery electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Kuew Wai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV is a promising candidate in reducing air pollution and fossil fuel dependencies. It is a growing market for the automobile manufacturers. Although there are many advantages of driving a BEV, it is still not widely accepted in the market due to the limited driving range. Other than just improving the technologies that drive the vehicle, an additional range estimation system can calm the ‘range anxiety’ caused by the limited range of BEVs. Merely predicting the range based on the state of charge of the battery, the average driving speed, and the average power consumption is inadequate. This paper proposes a new range estimator, the dynamic range estimator, which also takes into account the driving behavior, in addition to the slopes of the trip for its energy estimation. The driving behavior is obtained based on the response to speed error and the time delay between throttle pedal and brake pedal switching. In this way, the driving behavior is a fixed response for any driving speeds on the same route thus, allowing the energy consumption to be compared for different speeds.

  4. Load shift potential of electric vehicles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrowski, Sonja; Heinrichs, Heidi; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf

    2014-06-01

    Many governments highly encourage electric mobility today, aiming at a high market penetration. This development would bring forth an impact on the energy system, which strongly depends on the driving and charging behavior of the users. While an uncontrolled immediate charging might strain the local grid and/or higher peak loads, there are benefits to be gained by a controlled charging. We examine six European mobility studies in order to display the effects of controlled and uncontrolled unidirectional charging. Taking into account country-specific driving patterns, we generate for each country a charging load curve corresponding to uncontrolled charging and consider the corresponding parking time at charging facilities in order to identify load shift potentials. The main results are that besides the charging power of the vehicles, the possibility to charge at the work place has a significant influence on the uncontrolled charging curve. Neither national nor regional differences are as significant. When charging is only possible at home, the vehicle availability at charging facilities during the day for all countries is at least 24%. With the additional possibility to charge at work, at least 45% are constantly available. Accordingly, we identified a big potential for load shifting through controlled charging.

  5. Control and state estimation for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcone, P.; Lidberg, M.; Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Iersel, S. van

    2011-01-01

    Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles is mainly limited by the requirement to preserve vehicle stability but it is also dependent on the brake system design and the ability of the control system. The boundaries of vehicle stability are difficult to assess, and must be approached with care,

  6. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  7. Analysis of an electric vehicle fleet in commuter traffic; Analyse einer elektromobilen Fahrzeugflotte im Pendlerverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmschrott, Thomas; Goedde, Markus [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the logging of vehicle-, battery- and vehicle use data of electric vehicles and their analysis and evaluation. The vehicles were purely battery-powered small cars and some small vans that were used in commuter traffic. It has been focused on technical parameters such as energy consumption as a function of various factors (speed, urban-/rural driving area, etc.) and the battery charge curve, but also variables which reflect the user behaviour. The precise knowledge of the battery charging curve and also user behaviour are supposed to allow more precise simulations of the time- and location-dependent network loads in studies about grid integration of electric vehicles. (orig.)

  8. Dynamic simulation of urban hybrid electric vehicles; Dynamische Simulation von Stadthybridfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winke, Florian; Bargende, Michael [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen (IVK)

    2013-09-15

    As a result of the rising requirements on the development process of modern vehicles, simulation models for the prediction of fuel efficiency have become an irreplaceable tool in the automotive industry. Especially for the design of hybrid electric drivetrains, the increasingly short development cycles can only be met by the use of efficient simulation models. At the IVK of the University of Stuttgart, different approaches to simulating the longitudinal dynamics of hybrid electric vehicles were analysed and compared within the presented project. The focus of the investigations was on urban operation. The objective was to develop a hybrid vehicle concept that allows an equitable comparison with pure battery electric vehicles. (orig.)

  9. Simulated annealing to handle energy and ancillary services joint management considering electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago M; Soares, Tiago; Morais, Hugo;

    2016-01-01

    The massive use of distributed generation and electric vehicles will lead to a more complex management of the power system, requiring new approaches to be used in the optimal resource scheduling field. Electric vehicles with vehicle-to-grid capability can be useful for the aggregator players...... of the aggregator total operation costs. The case study considers a distribution network with 33-bus, 66 distributed generation and 2000 electric vehicles. The proposed simulated annealing is matched with a deterministic approach allowing an effective and efficient comparison. The simulated annealing presents...

  10. An adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for the Electric Vehicle Scheduling Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, M.; Linde, Esben; Røpke, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the Electric Vehicle Scheduling Problem (E-VSP), in which a set of timetabled bus trips, each starting from and ending at specific locations and at specific times, should be carried out by a set of electric buses or vehicles based at a number of depots with limited driving...... ranges. The electric vehicles are allowed to be recharged fully or partially at any of the given recharging stations. The objective is to firstly minimize the number of vehicles needed to cover all the timetabled trips, and secondly to minimize the total traveling distance, which is equivalent...

  11. Electric Vehicle Preparedness: Task 1, Assessment of Fleet Inventory for Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense-based studies were conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 included a survey of the inventory of non-tactical fleet vehicles at the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) to characterize the fleet. This information and characterization will be used to select vehicles for monitoring that takes place during Task 2. This monitoring involves data logging of vehicle operation in order to identify the vehicle’s mission and travel requirements. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption. It also identifies whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure.

  12. Towards E(lectric)-urban freight: First promising steps in the electric vehicle revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, J.H.R. van; Tavasszy, L.A.; Quak, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Innovative logistics service providers are currently looking for possibilities to introduce electric vehicles for goods distribution. As electrical vehicles still suffer from a limited operation range, the logistical process faces important challenges. In this research we advise on the composition o

  13. Market-based coordinated charging of electric vehicles on the low-voltage distribution grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; D'hulst, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a market based coordination mechanism for charging electric vehicles. In market based coordination, a virtual market is used to match supply and demand of a commodity. The goal is to limit the impact of the electric vehicles on the low voltage distribution grid. First it is shown

  14. Distributed Coordination of Electric Vehicle Charging in a Community Microgrid Considering Real-Time Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Schaltz, Erik; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    The predictable increasing adoption of EV by residential users imposes the necessity of Electric Vehicle charging coordination, in order to charge effectively while minimizing the impact on the grid. In this paper, a two-stage distributed coordination algorithm for electric vehicle charging...... activity based on the real-time price, while meeting the requirement of technical constraints of the distribution system....

  15. Analysis for Large Scale Integration of Electric Vehicles into Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Xiaoru

    2011-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) provide a significant opportunity for reducing the consumption of fossil energies and the emission of carbon dioxide. With more and more electric vehicles integrated in the power systems, it becomes important to study the effects of EV integration on the power systems, esp...

  16. Letter to the Editor: Electric Vehicle Demand Model for Load Flow Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Vlachogiannis, Ioannis (John)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces specific and simple model for electric vehicles suitable for load flow studies. The electric vehicles demand system is modelled as PQ bus with stochastic characteristics based on the concept of queuing theory. All appropriate variables of stochastic PQ buses are given with c...

  17. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  18. The System of Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles with Minimal Impact on the Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The searching and utilization of new energy sources and technologies is a current trend. The effort to increase the share of electricity production from renewable energy sources is characteristic for economically developed countries. The use of accumulation of electrical energy with a large number of decentralized storage units is most preferred, as well as the focus on the production of energy at the point of its consumption. Modern cogeneration units are a good example. This paper describes the accumulation of electrical energy for equalizing the power balance of electric charging stations with high instantaneous power. The possibility of re-utilization of electrical energy from the charged vehicle in the case of lack of electricity in the power grid is solved at the same time. This paper also deals with the selection of appropriate concept of accumulation system and its cooperation with both renewable and distribution networks. Details of the main power components including the results obtained from the system implementation are also described in this paper.

  19. Power Module Cooling for Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant Comparison of Oil and PGW

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    POWER MODULE COOLING FOR FUTURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE APPLICATIONS: A COOLANT COMPARISON OF OIL AND PGW T. E. Salem U. S. Naval Academy 105...and efficient power converters are being developed to support the needs of future ground vehicle systems. This progress is being driven by...2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Power Module Cooling For Future Electric Vehicle Applications: A Coolant

  20. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-01-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  1. Comparing the Mass, Energy, and Cost Effects of Lightweighting in Conventional and Electric Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hofer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effect of weight reduction using advanced lightweight materials on the mass, energy use, and cost of conventional and battery electric passenger vehicles is compared. Analytic vehicle simulation is coupled with cost assessment to find the optimal degree of weight reduction minimizing manufacturing and total costs. The results show a strong secondary weight and cost saving potential for the battery electric vehicles, but a higher sensitivity of vehicle energy use to mass reduction for the conventional vehicle. Generally, light weighting has the potential to lower vehicle costs, however, the results are very sensitive to parameters affecting lifetime fuel costs for conventional and battery costs for electric vehicles. Based on current technology cost estimates it is shown that the optimal amount of primary mass reduction minimizing total costs is similar for conventional and electric vehicles and ranges from 22% to 39%, depending on vehicle range and overall use patterns. The difference between the optimal solutions minimizing manufacturing versus total costs is higher for conventional than battery electric vehicles.

  2. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  3. Implementation and Demonstration of Grid Frequency Support by V2G Enabled Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2014-01-01

    Safe operation of the electric power system relies on conventional power stations. In addition to providing electrical energy to the network, some power stations also provide a number of ancillary services for the grid stability. These services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... of electric vehicles - faster and with better precision, using Vehicle-to-Grid technology. This paper explores the implementation of a system that demonstrates the use of the electric vehicles for providing frequency regulation in the Danish power grid. The system is tested with the use case of Primary...

  4. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume VI. Cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, K.S.

    1979-09-30

    The purpose of the cost analysis is to determine the economic feasibility of a variety of hybrid vehicles with respect to conventional vehicles specifically designed for the same duty cycle defined by the mission analysis. Several different hybrid configurations including parallel, parallel-flywheel, and series vehicles were evaluated. The ramifications of incorporating examples of advanced batteries, these being the advanced lead-acid, nickel-zinc, and sodium sulfur were also investigated. Vehicles were specifically designed with these batteries and for the driving cycles specified by the mission. Simulated operation on the missions yielded the energy consumption (petroleum and/or electricity) over the driving cycles. It was concluded that: in the event that gasoline prices reach $2.50 to $3.00/gal, hybrid vehicles in many applications will become economically competitive with conventional vehicles without subsidization; in some commercial applications hybrid vehicles could be economically competitive, when the gasoline price ranges from $1.20 to $1.50/gal. The cost per kWh per cycle of the advanced batteries is much more important economically than the specific energy; the series hybrid vehicles were found to be more expensive in comparison to the parallel or parallel-flywheel hybrids when designed as passenger vehicles; and hybrid vehicles designed for private use could become economically competitive and displace up to 50% of the fuel normally used on that mission if subsidies of $500 to $2000 were supplied to the owner/operator. (LCL)

  5. The tzero electric sports car : how electric vehicles can achieve both high performance and high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, A.N.; Gage, T.B. [AC Propulsion, San Dimas, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The development of a high-performance electric sports car by AC Propulsion was described along with a status report on the progress in developing the product-certified version. The development of the tzero car began in 1996. In-use testing and safety certification of prototypes is currently underway. The tzero is powered by a high-performance induction motor operated at 37 per cent higher peak current than allowed in a standard system since periods of peak power are limited to only a few seconds. The car, which can accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in 4.1 seconds, is considered to be one of the most energy-efficient cars on the road. Since the tzero will likely be sold without subsidy and since the market size for the tzero is expected to be small, in the order of 1000 units per year, it will have to be sold at a high enough price to cover the costs of small-volume production. AC Propulsion is hopeful that it may even be the first electric vehicle to be sold at a profit. Its technology and image are expected to present examples for other electric vehicles. The paper also included a comprehensive technical description of the car and its systems, such as the power electronics unit, traction converter, charger, auxiliary power supply, 12V battery, recharge interface, battery pack, battery modules and powertrain control. 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  6. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  7. Vehicle Velocity and Roll Angle Estimation with Road and Friction Adaptation for Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle velocity and roll angle are important information for active safety control systems of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. In order to obtain robustness estimation of vehicle velocity and roll angle, a novel method is proposed based on vehicle dynamics and the measurement information provided by the sensors equipped in modern cars. The method is robust with respect to different road and friction conditions. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle are analyzed, and a four-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic model of vehicle and a tire longitudinal dynamic equation are established. The relationship between the longitudinal and lateral friction forces is derived based on Dugoff tire model. The unknown input reconstruction technique of sliding mode observer is used to achieve longitudinal tire friction force estimation. A simple observer is designed for the estimation of the roll angle of the vehicle. And then using the relationship, the estimated longitudinal friction forces and roll angle, a sliding mode observer for vehicle velocity estimation is provided, which does not need to know the tire-road friction coefficient and road angles. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated experimentally under a variety of maneuvers and road conditions.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of the Three Phase Induction Motor Couple to DC Motor in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Lubis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: With emphasis on a cleaner environment and efficient operation, vehicles today rely more and more heavily on electrical power generation for success. Approach: Mathematical modeling the components of the HEV as the three phase induction motor couple to DC motor in hybrid electric vehicle was introduced. The controller of Induction Motor (IM was designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. It allowed greater electrical generation capacity and the fuel economy and emissions benefits of hybrid electric automotive propulsion. Results: A typical series hybrid electric vehicle was modeled and investigated. Conclusion: Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp and fuel consumption and emission were performed on the proposed model of 3 phase induction motor coupler DC motor in electric hybrid vehicles drive.

  9. Near-Term Electric Vehicle Program. Phase II: Mid-Term Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    The Near Term Electric Vehicle (NTEV) Program is a constituent elements of the overall national Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program that is being implemented by the Department of Energy in accordance with the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. Phase II of the NTEV Program is focused on the detailed design and development, of complete electric integrated test vehicles that incorporate current and near-term technology, and meet specified DOE objectives. The activities described in this Mid-Term Summary Report are being carried out by two contractor teams. The prime contractors for these contractor teams are the General Electric Company and the Garrett Corporation. This report is divided into two discrete parts. Part 1 describes the progress of the General Electric team and Part 2 describes the progress of the Garrett team.

  10. A Regional Time-of-Use Electricity Price Based Optimal Charging Strategy for Electrical Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of electric vehicles (EVs, the out-of-order charging behaviors of large numbers of EVs will bring new challenges to the safe and economic operation of power systems. This paper studies an optimal charging strategy for EVs. For that a typical urban zone is divided into four regions, a regional time-of-use (RTOU electricity price model is proposed to guide EVs when and where to charge considering spatial and temporal characteristics. In light of the elastic coefficient, the user response to the RTOU electricity price is analyzed, and also a bilayer optimization charging strategy including regional-layer and node-layer models is suggested to schedule the EVs. On the one hand, the regional layer model is designed to coordinate the EVs located in different time and space. On the other hand, the node layer model is built to schedule the EVs to charge in certain nodes. According to the simulations of an IEEE 33-bus distribution network, the performance of the proposed optimal charging strategy is verified. The results demonstrate that the proposed bilayer optimization strategy can effectively decrease the charging cost of users, mitigate the peak-valley load difference and the network loss. Besides, the RTOU electricity price shows better performance than the time-of-use (TOU electricity price.

  11. Hybrid PID and PSO-based control for electric power assist steering system for electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, R. A.; Toha, S. F.; Ahmad, S.

    2013-12-01

    Electric power assist steering (EPAS) system provides an important significance in enhancing the driving performance of a vehicle with its energy-conserving features. This paper presents a hybrid PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based control scheme to minimize energy consumption for EPAS. This single objective optimization scheme is realized using the PSO technique in searching for best gain parameters of the PID controller. The fast tuning feature of this optimum PID controller produced high-quality solutions. Simulation results show the performance and effectiveness of the hybrid PSO-PID based controller as opposed to the conventional PID controller.

  12. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  13. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Shouliang Han; Shumei Cui; Liwei Song; Ching Chuen Chan

    2014-01-01

    The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM) is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not onl...

  14. Performance Analysis of Induction Motor of Electric Vehicle Using Vector control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu ping

    2012-01-01

    According to the principle of Vector controlused in an asyn- chronous motor,a simulation model of the asynchronous motor in elec-tric vehicle and Vectorcontrolsystem was established with Matlab/Simu-link software. Simulation analysis of the asynchronous motor driving an electric vehicle was performedunder the classic mode of EV , and the simulation results show the modeland control scheme has better stable and dynamic performance,whichcanbe a good candidate for electric ve- hicle propulsion system

  15. Commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) Development and Manufacturing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeve, Dion

    2014-06-30

    Navistar with the Department of Energy’s assistance undertook this effort to achieve the project objectives as listed in the next section. A wholly owned subsidiary of Navistar, Workhorse Sales Corporation was the original grant awardee and upon their discontinuation as a standalone business entity, Navistar assumed the role of principal investigator. The intent of the effort, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was to produce zero emission vehicles that could meet the needs of the marketplace while reducing carbon emissions to zero. This effort was predicated upon the assumption that concurrent development activities in the lithium ion battery industry investigations would significantly increase their production volumes thus leading to substantial reductions in their manufacturing costs. As a result of this development effort much was learned about the overall system compatibility between the electric motor, battery pack, and charging capabilities. The original system was significantly revised and improved during the execution of this development effort. The overall approach that was chosen was to utilize a British zero emissions, class 2 truck that had been developed for their market, homologate it and modify it to meet the product requirements as specified in the grant details. All of these specific goals were achieved. During the course of marketing and selling the product valuable information was obtained as relates to customer expectations, price points, and product performance expectations, specifically those customer expectations about range requirements in urban delivery situations. While the grant requirements specified a range of 100 miles on a single charge, actual customer usage logs indicate a range of 40 miles or less is typical for their applications. The price point, primarily due to battery pack costs, was significantly higher than the mass market could bear. From Navistar’s and the overall industry’s perspective

  16. Linear engine development for series hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Nagy, Csaba

    This dissertation argues that diminishing oil reserves, concern over global climate change, and desire to improve ambient air quality all demand the development of environment-friendly personal transportation. In certain applications, series hybrid electric vehicles offer an attractive solution to reducing fuel consumption and emissions. Furthermore, linear engines are emerging as a powerplant suited to series HEV applications. In this dissertation, a linear engine/alternator was considered as the auxiliary power unit of a range extender series hybrid electric vehicle. A prototype linear engine/alternator was developed, constructed and tested at West Virginia University. The engine was a 2-stroke, 2-cylinder, dual piston, direct injection, diesel engine. Experiment on the engine was performed to study its behavior. The study variables included mass of the translator, amount of fuel injected, injection timing, load, and stroke with operating frequency and mechanical efficiency as the basis of comparison. The linear engine was analyzed in detail and a simple simulation model was constructed to compare the trends of simulation with the experimental data and to expand on the area where the experimental data were lacking. The simulation was based on a simple and analytical model, rather than a detailed and intensely numerical one. The experimental and theoretical data showed similar trends. Increasing translator mass decreased the operating frequency and increased compression ratio. Larger mass and increased compression ratio improved the ability of the engine to sustain operation and the engine was able to idle on less fuel injected into the cylinder. Increasing the stroke length caused the operating frequency to drop. Increasing fueling or decreasing the load resulted in increased operating frequency. This projects the possibility of using the operating frequency as an input for feedback control of the engine. Injection timing was varied to investigate two different

  17. Predictive control strategies for energy saving of hybrid electric vehicles based on traffic light information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijiang YU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional control method for hybrid electric vehicle doesn’t consider the effect of known traffic light information on the vehicle energy management, this paper proposes a model predictive control intelligent optimization strategies based on traffic light information for hybrid electric vehicles. By building the simplified model of the hybrid electric vehicle and adopting the continuation/generalized minimum residual method, the model prediction problem is solved. The simulation is conducted by using MATLAB/Simulink platform. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model of the traffic light information, and that the proposed model predictive control method can improve fuel economy and the real-time control performance significantly. The research conclusions show that the proposed control strategy can achieve optimal control of the vehicle trajectory, significantly improving fuel economy of the vehicle, and meet the system requirements for the real-time optimal control.

  18. Development of portable measuring system for testing of electrical vehicle's heat energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvajcz, K.; Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays the consumer society applies a huge amount of energy in many fields including transportation sector. Internal combustion vehicles contribute substantially to the air pollution. An alternative solution for reducing energy consumption is replacing the internal combustion vehicles by electrical or hybrid vehicles. Today one of the biggest disadvantages of the electrical vehicles is the finite capacity of batteries. The research topic presented in this paper is the „Energy Harvesting”, and development of energy recovery system for electrical vehicles which largely contributes in increasing the driving range. At the current phase of the research efficiency analysis of the heat energy recovery devices are investigated in real driving circumstances. Computer based mobile and wireless measurement system for the analysis was developed, tested and installed in a real vehicle. Driving tests were performed and analysed in different circumstances.

  19. Near-term electric-vehicle program. Phase II. Mid-term review summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-27

    The general objective of the Near-Term Electric Vehicle Program is to confirm that, in fact, the complete spectrum of requirements placed on the automobile (e.g., safety, producibility, utility, etc.) can still be satisfied if electric power train concepts are incorporated in lieu of contemporary power train concepts, and that the resultant set of vehicle characteristics are mutually compatible, technologically achievable, and economically achievable. The focus of the approach to meeting this general objective involves the design, development, and fabrication of complete electric vehicles incorporating, where necessary, extensive technological advancements. A mid-term summary is presented of Phase II which is a continuation of the preliminary design study conducted in Phase I of the program. Information is included on vehicle performance and performance simulation models; battery subsystems; control equipment; power systems; vehicle design and components for suspension, steering, and braking; scale model testing; structural analysis; and vehicle dynamics analysis. (LCL)

  20. U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

    2003-11-01

    Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric

  1. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  2. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lebeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles. Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile.

  3. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Philippe; De Cauwer, Cedric; Van Mierlo, Joeri; Macharis, Cathy; Verbeke, Wouter; Coosemans, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. PMID:26236769

  4. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Sadeghi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicle performance,dynamic modeling of the motor and other components is necessary. Whereas the switchedreluctance machine is well suited for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, due to the simpleand rugged construction, low cost, and ability to operate over a wide speed range atconstant power, in this paper dynamic performance of the switched reluctance motor for eseries hybrid electric vehicles is investigated. For this purpose a switched reluctance motorwith its electrical drive is modeld and simulated first, and then the other components of aseries hybrid electric vehicle, such as battery, generator, internal combusion engine, andgearbox, are designed and linked with the electric motor. Finally a typical series hybridelectric vehicle is simulated for different drive cycles. The extensive simulation results showthe dynamic performance of SRM, battery, fuel consumption, and emissions.

  5. Crash analysis of a conceptual electric vehicle with a multifunctional battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Jaspreet S.

    For current electric vehicles, batteries are employed only as an energy source. Due to safety concerns, the space for battery storage is co-allocated with passenger space, which would constrain the design for the vehicle. An architectured multifunctional battery-structure material, namely Granular Battery Assembly (GBA), has been proposed by Tsutsui et al., 2014. Such a material system utilizes the deformation of sacrificing tubes to dissipate impact energy and protect the battery cells, thereby allowing the batteries to be placed in the front crumple zone of an electric vehicle, while also ensuring occupant safety. The primary focus of this study was vehicle level design analysis of GBA for application in an electric vehicle. A parametric study was performed to determine suitable characteristics of the GBA system for installation in a vehicle. To reduce computational cost, a homogenized material was used to represent GBA in the finite element model of the vehicle. Frontal crash simulation of a vehicle with GBA placed in crumple zone was performed on LS-DYNA platform.The crash response was used to demonstrate the utility of GBA mechanism to keep the batteries and passengers safe. The incorporation of GBA into an electric vehicle would allow for battery space to be decoupled from passenger space, thereby increasing the vehicle design freedom. Use of the crumple zone for battery storage would also result in increasing the available battery space.

  6. Authentication System for Electrical Charging of Electrical Vehicles in the Housing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wang-Cheol

    Recently the smart grid has been a hot issue in the research area. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the most important component in the Smart Grid, having a role of the battery component with high capacity. We have thought how to introduce the EV in the housing development, and for proper operation of the smart grid systems in the housing area the authentication system is essential for the individual houses. We propose an authentication system to discriminate an individual houses, so that the account management component can appropriately operate the electrical charging and billing in the housing estate. The proposed system has an architecture to integrate the charging system outside a house and the monitoring system inside a house.

  7. Electric Vehicle Performance at McMurdo Station (Antarctica) and Comparison with McMurdo Station Conventional Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, T.; Lammert, M.; Colby, K.; Walter, R.

    2014-09-01

    This report examines the performance of two electric vehicles (EVs) at McMurdo, Antarctica (McMurdo). The study examined the performance of two e-ride Industries EVs initially delivered to McMurdo on February 16, 2011, and compared their performance and fuel use with that of conventional vehicles that have a duty cycle similar to that of the EVs used at McMurdo.

  8. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  9. Charging electric vehicles. Protection against electric shock by DC fault current sensor units; Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen. Schutz gegen elektrischen Schlag durch DC-Fehlerstromsensorik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofheinz, Wolfgang; Sellner, Harald; Moell, Winfried [Bender GmbH und Co. KG, Gruenberg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In electromobility subjects a mutual exchange of information and the necessary knowledge transfer between power suppliers and vehicle developers are essential and the results are implemented into the standards. Protection against electric shock, for example, is particularly important in charging electric vehicles. Since decades, the Bender company are experts in the field of 'electrical safety'. This article facilitates a closer look at the specific electrical safety aspects when charging an electric vehicle. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles on the move with Mobile Energy Disseminators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros A. Maglaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs is becoming a preferred method since it enables power exchange between the vehicle and the grid while the vehicle is moving. In this article, we present mobile energy disseminators (MED, a new concept, that can facilitate EVs to extend their range in a typical urban scenario. Our proposed method exploits Inter-Vehicle (IVC communications in order to eco-route electric vehicles taking advantage of the existence of MEDs. Combining modern communications between vehicles and state of the art technologies on energy transfer, vehicles can extend their travel time without the need for large batteries or extremely costly infrastructure. Furthermore, by applying intelligent decision mechanisms we can further improve the performance of the method.

  11. Near-term electric test vehicle ETV-2. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    A unique battery-powered passenger vehicle has been developed that provides a significant improvement over conventional electric vehicle performance, particularly during stop-and-go driving. The vehicle is unique in two major respects: (1) the power system incorporates a flywheel that stores energy during regenerative braking and makes possible the acceleration capability needed to keep up with traffic without reducing range to unacceptable values; and (2) lightweight plastic materials are used for the vehicle unibody to minimize weight and increase range. These features were analyzed and demonstrated in an electric test vehicle, ETV-2. Characteristics of this vehicle are summarized. Information is presented on: vehicle design, fabrication, safety testing, and performance testing; power system design and operation; flywheel; battery pack performance; and controls and electronic equipment. (LCL)

  12. Summary of Market Opportunities for Electric Vehicles and Dispatchable Load in Electrolyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ma, Ookie [U.S Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and electrolyzers are potentially significant sources of new electric loads. Both are flexible in that the amount of electricity consumed can be varied in response to a variety of factors including the cost of electricity. Because both EVs and electrolyzers can control the timing of electricity purchases, they can minimize energy costs by timing the purchases of energy to periods of lowest costs.

  13. A User Guide to PARET/ANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A. P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marin-Lafleche, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kalimullah, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    PARET was originally created in 1969 at what is now Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to analyze reactivity insertion events in research and test reactor cores cooled by light or heavy water, with fuel composed of either plates or pins. The use of PARET is also appropriate for fuel assemblies with curved fuel plates when their radii of curvatures are large with respect to the fuel plate thickness. The PARET/ANL version of the code has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/NNSA, and has been used by the Reactor Conversion Program to determine the expected transient behavior of a large number of reactors. PARET/ANL models the various fueled regions of a reactor core as channels. Each of these channels consists of a single flat fuel plate/pin (including cladding and, optionally, a gap) with water coolant on each side. In slab geometry the coolant channels for a given fuel plate are of identical dimensions (mirror symmetry), but they can be of different thickness in each channel. There can be many channels, but each channel is independent and coupled only through reactivity feedback effects to the whole core. The time-dependent differential equations that represent the system are replaced by an equivalent set of finite-difference equations in space and time, which are integrated numerically. PARET/ANL uses fundamentally the same numerical scheme as RELAP5 for the time-integration of the point-kinetics equations. The one-dimensional thermal-hydraulic model includes temperature-dependent thermal properties of the solid materials, such as heat capacity and thermal conductivity, as well as the transient heat production and heat transfer from the fuel meat to the coolant. Temperature- and pressure-dependent thermal properties of the coolant such as enthalpy, density, thermal conductivity, and viscosity are also used in determining parameters such as friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. The code

  14. A Boosting Multi Flyback Converter for Electric Vehicle Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sangeetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flyback converter belongs to the primary switched converter family, which means there is isolation between input and output. Flyback converters have low number of components compared to other Switched Mode Power Supplies (SMPSs, they also have the advantage that several isolated output voltages can be regulated by one control circuit. This study proposes an efficient and cost effective Multi Flyback topology, an isolated DC-DC converter suitable for electric vehicle applications especially driven with induction motor. The converter topology forms a power interface between the battery and the motor and also capable of boosting the voltage from low voltage battery side to high voltage DC link. A Multi Flyback Converter topology implemented by paralleling three individual flyback converters at the battery input side and DC link output side. The topology will share the current across each individual converter and the individual power will be added up at the output side. The scheme incorporates a transformer winding technique which can reduce the leakage inductance of the coupled inductor to a satisfactory limit.

  15. Life cycle assessment of lithium sulfur battery for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yelin; Li, Jianyang; Li, Tonghui; Gao, Xianfeng; Yuan, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is widely recognized as the most promising battery technology for future electric vehicles (EV). To understand the environmental sustainability performance of Li-S battery on future EVs, here a novel life cycle assessment (LCA) model is developed for comprehensive environmental impact assessment of a Li-S battery pack using a graphene sulfur composite cathode and a lithium metal anode protected by a lithium-ion conductive layer, for actual EV applications. The Li-S battery pack is configured with a 61.3 kWh capacity to power a mid-size EV for 320 km range. The life cycle inventory model is developed with a hybrid approach, based on our lab-scale synthesis of the graphene sulfur composite, our lab fabrication of Li-S battery cell, and our industrial partner's battery production processes. The impacts of the Li-S battery are assessed using the ReCiPe method and benchmarked with those of a conventional Nickle-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM)-Graphite battery pack under the same driving distance per charge. The environmental impact assessment results illustrate that Li-S battery is more environmentally friendly than conventional NCM-Graphite battery, with 9%-90% lower impact. Finally, the improvement pathways for the Li-S battery to meet the USABC (U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium) targets are presented with the corresponding environmental impact changes.

  16. Impact of Battery Ageing on an Electric Vehicle Powertrain Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Auger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An electric vehicle’s battery is its most expensive component, and it cannot be charged and discharged indefinitely. This affects a consumer vehicle’s end-user value. Ageing is tolerated as an unwanted operational side-effect; manufacturers have little control over it. Recent publications have considered trade-offs between efficiency and ageing in plug-in hybrids (PHEVs but there is no equivalent literature for pure EVs. For PHEVs, battery ageing has been modelled by translating current demands into chemical degradation. Given such models it is possible to produce similar trade-offs for EVs. We consider the effects of varying battery size and introducing a parallel supercapacitor pack. (Supercapacitors can smooth current demands, but their weight and electronics reduce economy. We extend existing EV optimisation techniques to include battery ageing, illustrated with vehicle case studies. We comment on the applicability to similar EV problems and identify where additional research is needed to improve on our assumptions.

  17. Research and Development of Engine-Generator Set Control System for Tracked Vehicle Electric Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ying; HUANG Qian; SUN Feng-chun; LIU Bo-lan; LIU Jia

    2007-01-01

    As an energy generating equipment, the engine-generator set supplies power to the electric transmission. Therefore, its control is one of the key technologies of electric vehicles. Based on the discussion about the demands to the engine-generator set in tracked vehicles, the detailed function of engine-generator and the control strategy are determined. The hardware and software of the control system are also developed and tested in a prototype vehicle. The experiment results show that the control system has good reliability and can satisfy the power requirements of vehicles under all operating conditions.

  18. NREL Works to Increase Electric Vehicle Efficiency Through Enhanced Thermal Management (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-06-01

    Researchers at NREL are providing new insight into how heating and cooling systems affect the distance that electric vehicles can travel on a single charge. Electric vehicle range can be reduced by as much as 68% per charge because of climate-control demands. NREL engineers are investigating opportunities to change this dynamic and increase driving range by improving vehicle thermal management. NREL experts are collaborating with automotive industry partners to investigate promising thermal management technologies and strategies, including zone-based cabin temperature controls, advanced heating and air conditioning controls, seat-based climate controls, vehicle thermal preconditioning, and thermal load reduction technologies.

  19. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Infrastructure: A Foundation for Electrified Transportation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)--which include all-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles--provide a new opportunity for reducing oil consumption by drawing power from the electric grid. To maximize the benefits of PEVs, the emerging PEV infrastructure--from battery manufacturing to communication and control between the vehicle and the grid--must provide access to clean electricity, satisfy stakeholder expectations, and ensure safety. Currently, codes and standards organizations are collaborating on a PEV infrastructure plan. Establishing a PEV infrastructure framework will create new opportunities for business and job development initiating the move toward electrified transportation. This paper summarizes the components of the PEV infrastructure, challenges and opportunities related to the design and deployment of the infrastructure, and the potential benefits.

  20. ANL analysis of ZPPR-13A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, P.J.; Brumbach, S.B. [comps.

    1984-08-09

    The ZPPR-13 experiments provide basic physics data for radial heterogeneous LMFBR cores of approximately 700MWe size. Assemblies ZPPR-13A, ZPPR-13B and ZPPR-13C comprised the JUPITER-II cooperative program between the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) and PNC of Japan. The measurements were made between August 1982 and April 1984. The core designs and the measurements were planned jointly by the two parties with substantial input from U.S. industrial interests to ensure coverage of the design requirements. This report describes in detail the results of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) analyses of phase 13A.

  1. Space vehicle electrical power processing distribution and control study. Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausz, A.

    1972-01-01

    A concept for the processing, distribution, and control of electric power for manned space vehicles and future aircraft is presented. Emphasis is placed on the requirements of the space station and space shuttle configurations. The systems involved are referred to as the processing distribution and control system (PDCS), electrical power system (EPS), and electric power generation system (EPGS).

  2. The role of nanotechnology in the development of battery materials for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Chen, Zonghai; Ma, Zifeng; Pan, Feng; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-12-01

    A significant amount of battery research and development is underway, both in academia and industry, to meet the demand for electric vehicle applications. When it comes to designing and fabricating electrode materials, nanotechnology-based approaches have demonstrated numerous benefits for improved energy and power density, cyclability and safety. In this Review, we offer an overview of nanostructured materials that are either already commercialized or close to commercialization for hybrid electric vehicle applications, as well as those under development with the potential to meet the requirements for long-range electric vehicles.

  3. Motion Analysis of an Electric Vehicle with Two Independent Drive Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 陈全世; 孙逢春

    2004-01-01

    Motion analyses are performed with the help of stability and simulation analysis, which can provide theoretical bases for applications of an electric vehicle with two independent drive motors. Compared with one-motor drive electric vehicle, the two-motor drive electric vehicle has the advantage of easy layout, simple power train and good drivability and handling characteristics. Analysis shows the method connecting armatures of two DC motors in parallel can function as mechanical differential without a steering sensor, which can simplify structure and increase reliability of the controller. Computer simulations and experiment are carried out to verify conclusions.

  4. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  5. Study on battery state of charge correct algorithm of electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAN Ping; QIAN Lijun

    2012-01-01

    State of Charge (SOC) is used to adjust the initialization SOC value so as to make electric vehicle simulation results close to real vehicle performance. This paper firstly analyses the battery SOC correct algorithm, then uses ADVISOR which is a electric vehicle simulation software to simulate a hybrid electric car with three different cases of no SOC correct, linear SOC correct and zero delta SOC correct, as well as makes the compare and analysis for those simulation results. In the end, an overall conclusion to SOC correct algorithm is given.

  6. The Power of Electric Vehicles - Exploring the Value of Flexible Electricity Demand in a Multi-actor Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijlbergh, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) have the potential to play a crucial role in clean and intelligent power systems. The key to this potential lies in the flexibility that EVs provide by the ability to shift their electricity demand in time. This flexibility can be used to facilitate the integration of renewab

  7. Recommended documentation for computer users at ANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiberger, A.A.

    1992-04-01

    Recommended Documentation for Computer Users at ANL is for all users of the services available from the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD). This document will guide you in selecting available documentation that will best fill your particular needs. Chapter 1 explains how to use this document to select documents and how to obtain them from the CTD Document Distribution Counter. Chapter 2 contains a table that categorizes available publications. Chapter 3 gives descriptions of the online DOCUMENT command for CMS, and VAX, and the Sun workstation. DOCUMENT allows you to scan for and order documentation that interests you. Chapter 4 lists publications by subject. Categories I and IX cover publications of a general nature and publications on telecommunications and networks respectively. Categories II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, and X cover publications on specific computer systems. Category XI covers publications on advanced scientific computing at Argonne. Chapter 5 contains abstracts for each publication, all arranged alphabetically. Chapter 6 describes additional publications containing bibliographies and master indexes that the user may find useful. The appendix identifies available computer systems, applications, languages, and libraries.

  8. Evaluation of the Electric Vehicle Impact in the Power Demand Curve in a Smart Grid Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    and to minimize the difference between the minimum and maximum system demand (leveling the power demand curve). The proposed methodology perform the day-ahead scheduling of distributed energy resources in a distribution network with high penetration of DG and a large number of electric vehicles. It is used a 32......Smart grids with an intensive penetration of distributed energy resources will play an important role in future power system scenarios. The intermittent nature of renewable energy sources brings new challenges, requiring an efficient management of those sources. Additional storage resources can...... be beneficially used to address this problem; the massive use of electric vehicles, particularly of vehicle-to-grid (usually referred as gridable vehicles or V2G), becomes a very relevant issue. This paper addresses the impact of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in system operation costs and in power demand curve...

  9. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  10. A Dynamic Algorithm for Facilitated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Taheri, Nicole; Ye, Yinyu

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) are a rapidly developing technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and change the way vehicles obtain power. PEV charging stations will most likely be available at home and at work, and occasionally be publicly available, offering flexible charging options. Ideally, each vehicle will charge during periods when electricity prices are relatively low, to minimize the cost to the consumer and maximize societal benefits. A Demand Response (DR) service for a fleet of PEVs could yield such charging schedules by regulating consumer electricity use during certain time periods, in order to meet an obligation to the market. We construct an automated DR mechanism for a fleet of PEVs that facilitates vehicle charging to ensure the demands of the vehicles and the market are met. Our dynamic algorithm depends only on the knowledge of a few hundred driving behaviors from a previous similar day, and uses a simple adjusted pricing scheme to instantly assign feasible and satisfactory c...

  11. Development of a software platform for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlis, Athanasios; Bibeau, Eric; Zanetel, Paul; Lye, Zelon

    2012-03-01

    Electricity use for transportation has had limited applications because of battery storage range issues, although many recent successful demonstrations of electric vehicles have been achieved. Renewable biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol also contribute only a small percentage of the overall energy mix for mobility. Recent advances in hybrid technologies have significantly increased vehicle efficiencies. More importantly, hybridization now allows a significant reduction in battery capacity requirements compared to pure electric vehicles, allowing electricity to be used in the overall energy mix in the transportation sector. This paper presents an effort made to develop a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) platform that can act as a comprehensive alternative energy vehicle simulator. Its goal is to help in solving the pressing needs of the transportation sector, both in terms of contributing data to aid policy decisions for reducing fossil fuel use, and to support research in this important area. The Simulator will allow analysing different vehicle configurations, and control strategies with regards to renewable and non-renewable fuel and electricity sources. The simulation platform models the fundamental aspects of PHEV components, that is, process control, heat transfer, chemical reactions, thermodynamics and fluid properties. The outcomes of the Simulator are: (i) determining the optimal combination of fuels and grid electricity use, (ii) performing greenhouse gas calculations based on emerging protocols being developed, and (iii) optimizing the efficient and proper use of renewable energy sources in a carbon constrained world.

  12. Driving modes for designing the cornering response of fully electric vehicles with multiple motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Novellis, Leonardo; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Fully electric vehicles with multiple drivetrains allow a significant variation of the steady-state and transient cornering responses through the individual control of the electric motor drives. As a consequence, alternative driving modes can be created that provide the driver the option to select the preferred dynamic vehicle behavior. This article presents a torque-vectoring control structure based on the combination of feedforward and feedback contributions for the continuous control of vehicle yaw rate. The controller is specifically developed to be easily implementable on real-world vehicles. A novel model-based procedure for the definition of the control objectives is described in detail, together with the automated tuning process of the algorithm. The implemented control functions are demonstrated with experimental vehicle tests. The results show the possibilities of torque-vectoring control in designing the vehicle understeer characteristic.

  13. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  14. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Durfee, Norman [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Overbey, Randall M [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data

  15. Dynamic motion stabilization for front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new dynamic motion stabilization approach to front-wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicles. The approach includes functions such as traction control system, electronic differential system, and electronic stability control. The presented electric vehicle was endowed with anti-skid performance in longitudinal accelerated start; smooth turning with less tire scrubbing; and safe driving experience in two-dimensional steering. The analysis of the presented system is given in numerical derivations. For practical verifications, this article employed a hands-on electric vehicle named Corsa-electric vehicle to carry out the tests. The presented approach contains an integrated scheme which can achieve the mentioned functions in a single microprocessor. The experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented methodology.

  16. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    2012-01-01

    Environment-friendly electric vehicles have gained substantial attention in governments, industry and universities. The deployment of a network of recharging stations is essential given their limited travel range. This paper considers the problem of locating electronic replenishment stations...

  17. The Swedish electric and hybrid vehicle R, D and D program. Seminar October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This publication presents a selection of the ongoing projects in the form of abstracts, within the KFB RDD-program Electric- and Hybrid Vehicles. These projects were presented at a project manager seminar 20-21 October 1998

  18. Onboard power line conditioning system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun

    2016-06-14

    A power line quality conditioning system for a vehicle includes an onboard rechargeable direct current (DC) energy storage system and an onboard electrical system coupled to the energy storage system. The energy storage system provides DC energy to drive an electric traction motor of the vehicle. The electrical system operates in a charging mode such that alternating current (AC) energy from a power grid external to the vehicle is converted to DC energy to charge the DC energy storage system. The electrical system also operates in a vehicle-to-grid power conditioning mode such that DC energy from the DC energy storage system is converted to AC energy to condition an AC voltage of the power grid.

  19. Enhancing the Role of Electric Vehicles in the Power Grid: Field Validation of Multiple Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach;

    2016-01-01

    With increased penetration of distributed energy resources and electric vehicles (EVs), different EV integration strategies can be used for mitigating various adverse effects, and supporting the grid. However, the research regarding EV smart charging has mostly remained on simulations, whereas...

  20. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Jiang Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery’s state of charge (SOC. This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system’s SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  1. Electric Vehicles Parking (EVP Sitting Considering GIS Information and the Extent of Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Aghaebrahimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available energy resources, such as wind and solar, are increased. Also, the use of Electric Vehicles (EV and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV, known as V2G, is under development. Due to the widespread use of these vehicles in the near future, Electric Vehicles Parking (EVP is considered as a source of Distributed Generation (DG and Electric Energy Storage. The location of parking lot is important for power utilities to reduce power losses, and to municipalities of the urban areas from construction point of view. In this paper, sitting of EVP considering GIS information and the extent of urban areas will be discussed for rapid determination of parking locations using different evolutionary algorithms. The goal is to reduce the candidate locations, to analyze and to compare the performance of these algorithms as well as increasing the satisfaction of power utilities and municipalities.

  2. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jenn-Jiang; Hu, Jia-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery's state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system's SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  3. Economic and Environmental Impacts Analyses of Regional Widespread Use of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsen Deng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We focused on the economic and environmental impacts of regional widespread use of Electric Vehicles (EV. Massive introduction of battery and plug-in hybrid EV will affect the regional energy consumption significantly and therefore, influence environment situations. In this study, we adopted performance price ratio to evaluate cost effectiveness of conventional vehicles and electric vehicles and introduced Grey Relational Analysis method to evaluate environmental changes. Sensitivity analyses indicate that electricity and gasoline price fluctuation will not significantly change cost effectiveness of conventional vehicles and that large scale introduction of EV requires improvement of EV’s driving range and adequate charging stations. Electricity generation system also needs to be adjusted to reduce incremental SO2 pollution.

  4. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of public symposium. SUMMARY: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is announcing...

  5. Optimal charging of an electric vehicle using a Markov decision process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The combination of electric vehicles and renewable energy is taking shape as a potential driver for a future free of fossil fuels. However, the efficient management of the electric vehicle fleet is not exempt from challenges. It calls for the involvement of all actors directly or indirectly related...... to the energy and transportation sectors, ranging from governments, automakers and transmission system operators, to the ultimate beneficiary of the change: the end-user. An electric vehicle is primarily to be used to satisfy driving needs, and accordingly charging policies must be designed primarily...... for this purpose. The charging models presented in the technical literature, however, overlook the stochastic nature of driving patterns. Here we introduce an efficient stochastic dynamic programming model to optimally charge an electric vehicle while accounting for the uncertainty inherent to its use...

  6. The Allure of Technology: How France and California Promoted Electric Vehicles to Reduce Urban Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Calef, David; Goble, Robert

    2005-01-01

    All advanced industrialized societies face the problem of air pollution produced by motor vehicles. In spite of striking improvements in internal combustion engine technology, air pollution in most urban areas is still measured at levels determined to be harmful to human health. Throughout the 1990s and beyond, California and France both chose to improve air quality by means of technological innovation, adopting legislation that promoted clean vehicles, prominently among them, electric vehicl...

  7. Electric vehicles in low voltage residential grid: a danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained large interest in the energy sector as a carrier to support clean transportation and green electricity. The potential to use battery storages of electric vehicles as a sink for excess electricity that may result from large integration of wind power, especially...... a detailed secondary distribution grid model in Denmark. Various EV integration scenarios are analysed in this work to understand the network operational flexibility and ruggedness. The simulation results show that level of EV integration varies with the strength of different feeders in the studied network....... Simple grid reinforcement measures like adding new feeders in the existing network improves EV penetration levels....

  8. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging......, including nonlinearities. In this work, modeling, simulation and testing of the demand profile of a battery-EV are conducted. Realistic work conditions for a lithium-ion EV battery and battery charger are considered as the base for the modeling. Simulation results show that EV charging generates different...

  9. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell Range Extender Impact on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Schaltz, Erik; Koustrup, Per Sune

    2013-01-01

    of a vehicle with an internal combustion engine (ICE). Fuel cells (FCs) can be added to an EV as an additional energy source. These are faster to refill and will therefore facilitate the transition from vehicles running on fossil fuel to electricity. Different EV setups with FC strategies are presented...

  10. Analysis and Comparison of Electric Drive System Projects of Military Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zi-li; MA Xiao-jun; ZHAO Yu-hui; ZANG Ke-mao

    2007-01-01

    The electric drive system characteristics of different projects for tracked vehicles are analyzed. For the two most typical projects, the parameters of power, torque and rotating speed and others of drive motor are figured out under the condition of satisfying adequate steering performance of the tracked vehicles. General opinions on the two projects are brought forward and conclusions are drawn.

  11. Clean Cities Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Fleet Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are entering the automobile market and are viable alternatives to conventional vehicles. This guide for fleet managers describes the basics of PEV technology, PEV benefits for fleets, how to select the right PEV, charging a PEV, and PEV maintenance.

  12. Wheeled Vehicle Electrical Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle electrical systems. It provides the basic theory, and also includes…

  13. Model-based eco-driving and integrated powertrain control for (hybrid) electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, T.; Spronkmans, S.; Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) is engaged in research, development and testing of a range of technologies relating to hybrid and electric vehicle energy management and performance. The impact of driver behaviour on vehicle energy consumption is a significant facto

  14. Life Cycle GHG of NG-Based Fuel and Electric Vehicle in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG- based fuels to the GHG emissions of electric vehicles (EVs powered with NG-to-electricity in China. A life-cycle model is used to account for full fuel cycle and use-phase emissions, as well as vehicle cycle and battery manufacturing. The reduction of life-cycle GHG emissions of EVs charged by electricity generated from NG, without utilizing carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS technology can be 36%–47% when compared to gasoline vehicles. The large range change in emissions reduction potential is driven by the different generation technologies that could in the future be used to generate electricity in China. When CCS is employed in power plants, the GHG emission reductions increase to about 71%–73% compared to gasoline vehicles. It is found that compressed NG (CNG and liquefied NG (LNG fuels can save about 10% of carbon as compared to gasoline vehicles. However, gas-to-liquid (GTL fuel made through the Fischer-Tropsch method will likely lead to a life-cycle GHG emissions increase, potentially 3%–15% higher than gasoline, but roughly equal to petroleum-based diesel. When CCS is utilized, the GTL fueled vehicles emit roughly equal GHG emissions to petroleum-based diesel fuel high-efficient hybrid electric vehicle from the life-cycle perspective.

  15. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  16. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Oli B G Madsen; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted; Olsen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Environment-friendly electric vehicles have gained substantial attention in governments, industry and universities. The deployment of a network of recharging stations is essential given their limited travel range. This paper considers the problem of locating electronic replenishment stations for electric vehicles on a traffic network with flow-based demand. The objective is to optimize the network performance, for example to maximize the flow covered by a prefixed number of stations, or to mi...

  17. Second life of electric vehicle batteries: relation between materials degradation and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Canals Casals, Lluc; Amante García, Beatriz; Aguesse, Frédéric; Iturrondobeitia, Amaia

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric vehicle is one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable transportation. However, the battery, which is one of the most important components, is the main contributor to environmental impact and faces recycling issues. In order to reduce the carbon footprint and to minimize the overall recycling processes, this paper introduces the concept of re-use of electric vehicle batteries, analyzing some possible second-life applications. Methods First, the boundari...

  18. Climate Control Load Reduction Strategies for Electric Drive Vehicles in Warm Weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, M. A.; Chaney, L.; Rugh, J. P.

    2015-04-30

    Passenger compartment climate control is one of the largest auxiliary loads on a vehicle. Like conventional vehicles, electric vehicles (EVs) require climate control to maintain occupant comfort and safety, but cabin heating and air conditioning have a negative impact on driving range for all electric vehicles. Range reduction caused by climate control and other factors is a barrier to widespread adoption of EVs. Reducing the thermal loads on the climate control system will extend driving range, thereby reducing consumer range anxiety and increasing the market penetration of EVs. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have investigated strategies for vehicle climate control load reduction, with special attention toward EVs. Outdoor vehicle thermal testing was conducted on two 2012 Ford Focus Electric vehicles to evaluate thermal management strategies for warm weather, including solar load reduction and cabin pre-ventilation. An advanced thermal test manikin was used to assess a zonal approach to climate control. In addition, vehicle thermal analysis was used to support testing by exploring thermal load reduction strategies, evaluating occupant thermal comfort, and calculating EV range impacts. Through stationary cooling tests and vehicle simulations, a zonal cooling configuration demonstrated range improvement of 6%-15%, depending on the drive cycle. A combined cooling configuration that incorporated thermal load reduction and zonal cooling strategies showed up to 33% improvement in EV range.

  19. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  20. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Tian, Hao [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Vohra, Surendra [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Mazloomzadeh, Ali [Smart Utility Systems

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  1. Environmental impacts of varying electric vehicle user behaviours and comparisons to internal combustion engine vehicle usage - An Irish case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Peter; Morrissey, Patrick; O'Mahony, Margaret

    2016-07-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the displacement of harmful emissions from internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) tailpipes to the sources of electricity generation used to charge electric vehicles (EV). The degree to which EVs can reduce the environmental impacts of road transportation is dependent on the fuel mix of electricity generation within a country and on the real-time charging behaviours of EV users since the fuel mix of electricity generation frequently changes. This paper analyses the varying environmental impacts of EVs based on contrasting user behaviours and compares them to the environmental impacts of ICEVs. Individual EV user profiles are developed which comprise real data emerging from charge events undertaken in Ireland, and information is gathered on the actual CO2 intensity of the electrical grid in real-time, allowing for the carbon intensity of every individual charge event to be determined using time and date information. The results show that the environmental impacts of EVs are highly influenced by the charging behaviours of individual users, and night-time charging was found to produce the largest environmental impact. EVs are shown to be a more environmentally friendly choice of vehicle than ICEVs under a wide majority of scenarios.

  2. Electric Vehicle Based Battery Storages for Large Scale Wind Power Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    verified for an interconnected power system operation where the power exchange deviations between two control areas are significantly minimised. The extent of electric vehicle penetration in the power distribution systems also depends on the support of smart control strategies to facilitate the safe......In the recent years, the electric vehicles (EVs) have drawn great attention world wide as a feasible solution for clean transportation. The electric vehicle technology is not new as it was introduced in the mid 19th century. The low battery capacity, driving range and superior gasoline cars had...... resulted in the demise of electric cars in the 1930s. However, with the advancement of new high density battery technologies and power electronic converters, it is now viable to produce electric cars of higher efficiency and driving range. The performance and durability of the battery technology...

  3. Optimal Allocation of Changing Station for Electric Vehicle Based on Queuing Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle as the main development direction of the future automotive industry, has gained attention worldwide. The rationality of the planning and construction of the power station, as the foundation of energy supply, is an important premise for the development of electric vehicles. In full consideration of the electric demand and electricity consumption, this paper proposes a new construction mode in which charging station and centralized charging station are appropriately combined and presents a location optimization model. Not only can this model be applied to determine the appropriate location for the power station, but it can use the queuing theory to determine the optimal number of power equipment, with which we can achieve the minimum costs. Finally, taking a certain city as an example, the optimum plan for power station is calculated by using this model, which provides an important reference for the study of electric vehicle infrastructure planning.

  4. A framework for electric vehicle charging strategy optimization tested for travel demand generated by an activity-based model

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Muhammad; Knapen, Luk; Kochan, Bruno; Yasar, Ansar; Bellemans, Tom; Janssens, Davy; WETS, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the cost optimization model which plans a charging strategy for an electric vehicle. In case of time dependent electric prices an intelligent planner is required which plans the charging strategy only at cheaper moments and places to keep the vehicle charged enough to complete its scheduled travels. This model estimates the required charging energy to travel by the electric vehicle. Then using the time dependent electric prices and available power at each pe...

  5. Design of Solar/Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) System with Charge Pattern Optimization for Energy Cost

    OpenAIRE

    T Balamurugan; Dr.S.Manoharan

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a Solar Electric Powered Hybrid Vehicle (SEPHV) system which solves the major problems of fuel and pollution. An electric vehicle usually uses a battery which has been charged by external electrical power supply. All recent electric vehicles present a drive on AC power supplied motor. An inverter set is required to be connected with the battery through which AC power is converted to DC power. During this conversion many losses take place and also the maintenance cost of th...

  6. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kanghyun

    2015-11-11

    This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle's cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  7. Environmental assessment for the electric and hybrid vehicle demonstration project, performance standards and financial incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, S. J.

    1978-10-01

    The assessment is concerned with the impacts of the demonstration of electric and hybrid vehicles acquired to fulfill certain requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act, PL 94-413 as amended. The financial incentives programs and vehicle performance standards associated with the demonstration are also covered. Not included is an assessment of the long term effects of EHV commercialization and of the research and development program being carried out simultaneously with the demonstration, also in response to PL 94-413. These federal actions will be included in a programmatic environmental assessment scheduled for completion in FY 79.

  8. On the road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-08-01

    A dynamometer (road load simulator) is used to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems. To improve correlation between system tests on the road load simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the electric propulsion system test vehicle are described. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast down tests.

  9. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  10. Bidding Strategy for Aggregators of Electric Vehicles in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To make full use of the flexible charging and discharging capabilities of the growing number of electric vehicles (EVs, a bidding strategy for EV aggregators to participate in a day-ahead electricity energy market is proposed in this work. The proposed bidding strategy is able to reduce the operating cost of the EV aggregators and to handle the uncertainties of day-ahead market prices properly at the same time. Agreements between the EV owners and the aggregators are discussed, and a hierarchical market structure is proposed. While assuming the aggregators as economic rational entities, the bidding strategy is established based on the market prices, extra battery charging/discharging costs and the expected profits. The bidding clearing system will display the current/temporal market clearance results of the day-ahead market before the final clearance, and hence the market participants can revise their bids and mitigate the risks, to some extent, of forecasted market price forecast errors. Numerical results with a modified IEEE 30-bus system have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  11. Estimating the HVAC energy consumption of plug-in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambly, Kiran R.; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2014-08-01

    Plug in electric vehicles are vehicles that use energy from the electric grid to provide tractive and accessory power to the vehicle. Due to the limited specific energy of energy storage systems, the energy requirements of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for cabin conditioning can significantly reduce their range between charges. Factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, length of the trip and thermal soak have been identified as primary drivers of cabin conditioning loads and therefore of vehicle range. The objective of this paper is to develop a detailed systems-level approach to connect HVAC technologies and usage conditions to consumer-centric metrics of vehicle performance including energy consumption and range. This includes consideration of stochastic and transient inputs to the HVAC energy consumption model including local weather, solar loads, driving behavior, charging behavior, and regional passenger fleet population. The resulting engineering toolset is used to determine the summation of and geographical distribution of energy consumption by HVAC systems in electric vehicles, and to identify regions of US where the distributions of electric vehicle range are particularly sensitive to climate.

  12. NREL Reveals Links Among Climate Control, Battery Life, and Electric Vehicle Range (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are providing new insights into the relationships between the climate-control systems of plug-in electric vehicles and the distances these vehicles can travel on a single charge. In particular, NREL research has determined that 'preconditioning' a vehicle-achieving a comfortable cabin temperature and preheating or precooling the battery while the vehicle is still plugged in-can extend its driving range and improve battery life over the long term.

  13. Consumer Views on Plug-in Electric Vehicles -- National Benchmark Report (Second Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities, private researchers, and organizations worldwide are pursuing advanced vehicle technologies that aim to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the forms of gasoline and diesel. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are one such technology. This report, an update to the version published in January 2016, details findings from a study in February 2015 of broad American public sentiments toward issues that surround PEVs. This report is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office in alignment with its mission to develop and deploy these technologies to improve energy security, enhance mobility flexibility, reduce transportation costs, and increase environmental sustainability.

  14. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  15. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  16. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles City Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Goals of the site operator program include field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments, advancement of electric vehicle technologies, development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant EV use, and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The site operator program currently consists of 11 participants under contract and two other organizations with data-sharing agreements with the program. The participants (electric utilities, academic institutions, Federal agencies) are geographically dispersed within US and their vehicles see a broad spectrum of service conditions. Current EV inventories of the site operators exceeds 250 vehicles. Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of EVs, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for EVs; (2) DOE, DOT, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of EVs. Current focus of the program is collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real- world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus: EV testing results, energy economics of EVs, and site operators activities.

  18. Simulation of a solar powered electric vehicle under the constraints of the world solar challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, Steven J.

    1995-03-01

    Development of an effective method for evaluation of alternative energy sources in the automotive industry has always been a necessity for cost efficient design analysis. One viable alternative energy source is electricity. In the present day environment of shrinking fossil fuel supplies and environmental awareness, electric powered vehicles are becoming a low cost, non-polluting, alternative means of transportation. The analysis of reliable electric propulsion can be expensive without a modeling tool for evaluating design strategies before vehicle construction. This thesis explores electricity as an alternative energy source for the automobile of tomorrow. Under the guidelines of the World Solar challenge, a solar powered electric vehicle, using a permanent-magnet brushless dc motor has be modeled and simulated in Simulink (Dynamic System Simulation Software). The simulations were performed with the goal of determining the optimum configuration to efficiently utilize the power supplied from the solar array, batteries, and motor. The simulated vehicle was 'driven' over various terrain's and at various speeds. The results obtained confirm this simulation as an efficient design tool and present an example of an optimum vehicle speed for one particular vehicle configuration.

  19. The Cultivation of Electric Vehicles Market in China: Dilemma and Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinliang Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has been increasingly concerning, and international society has been taking various measures to mitigate this issue. Since the electric vehicle has important and generally beneficial impacts on environment protection, grid construction, and operation economical efficiency improvement, many countries have stressed the status of electric vehicle promotion in future planning. As China is the world’s largest carbon dioxide emitter, the Chinese government has taken various acts to reduce emissions, of which promoting electric vehicle is an effective one. This paper attempts to present a critical review of the current EV situations including the market sales, charging infrastructure, battery performances and policies in China. The survey of customer preferences and acceptance to electric vehicle indicate that purchasing behaviors are affected by four factors: charge inconvenience, short battery range, cost and psychological factors. According to the China’s situation, recommendations including diversified energy supplement approaches, time-of-use charging price mechanism, vehicle-to-grid technology and enlarge price subsidy scope are proposed to accelerate the development of the electric vehicle industry.

  20. Control Algorithms of Propulsion Unit with Induction Motors for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALACKY, P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research of algorithms for controlling electronic differential and differential lock of an electrically driven vehicle. The simulation part addresses the development of algorithms suitable for the implementation into a real system of a road vehicle. The algorithms are then implemented into a vehicle, a propulsion unit of which is consists of two separate electric drives with induction motors fed by voltage inverters with own control units using advanced signal processors. Communication among control units is provided by means of SPI interface. A method of vector control is used for the control of induction motors. The developed algorithms are experimentally verified for correct function in a laboratory using a roll test stand and while driving an electrically driven vehicle on the road.

  1. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  2. An Investigation into Regenerative Braking Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Dong; YIN Cheng-liang; ZHANG Jian-wu

    2005-01-01

    Energy regeneration during braking is an important technique for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to improve their fuel economy and extend their driving range. Due to the effect of regenerative braking torque which is added by electric motor, the braking torque distribution between front and rear axles should be changed and the control logic of anti-lock braking system (ABS) ought to be adjusted according to the regenerative braking torque. This paper put forward a braking control strategy for hybrid electric vehicle; the control strategy is implemented with eight DOFs (Degree-of-Freedom) nonlinear vehicle forward simulation model which is built under the environment of Matlab/Simulink. Based on target wheel slip ratio, a fuzzy logic approach was applied to maintain the optimal target slip ratio so that best compromise between hydraulic torque and regenerative torque can be obtained for the vehicle.

  3. Electric Vehicles Integration in the Electric Power System with Intermittent Energy Sources - The Charge/Discharge infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco

    The replacement of conventional fuelled vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is going to increase in the coming years, following the trend seen for renewable energy sources (RES), as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power. In this scenario, the electric power systems in Europe are going to accommodate...... is realized, using the target power requests from the Danish Transmission System Operator (ENERGINET.DK), valid as the control signal for the EVs. The EV coordination is realized under the control framework of a Virtual Power Plant. The tests performed show that an EV can respond according to the time plan...

  4. Energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles subject to stability and drivability requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsdóttir, J.M.; Lidberg, M.; Falcone, P.; Iersel, S. van; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a combined control and estimation framework for energy recuperation in fully electric vehicles. We consider a fully electric powertrain, with a driven front axle operating on low friction road surfaces. Our objective is to find the blending of regenerative and friction braking th

  5. Planning Future Electric Vehicle Central Charging Stations Connected to Low-Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    A great interest is recently paid to Electric Vehicles (EV) and their integration into electricity grids. EV can potentially play an important role in power system operation, however, the EV charging infrastructures have been only partly defined, considering them as limited to individual charging...

  6. Planning under Uncertainty for Aggregated Electric Vehicle Charging using Markov Decision Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources and electric vehicles raises important challenges related to the operation of electricity grids. For instance, the amount of power generated by wind turbines is time-varying and dependent on the weather, which makes it hard to match flexible ele

  7. Attractivity and acceptance of electric vehicles. Work package 1 of the project OPTUM. Optimization of the potentials of environmental benefits of electric vehicles; Attraktivitaet und Akzeptanz von Elektroautos. Arbeitspaket 1 des Projekts OPTUM. Optimierung der Umweltentlastungspotenziale von Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Konrad; Sunderer, Georg; Birzle-Harder, Barbara; Deffner, Jutta

    2011-10-15

    Germany wants to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 40% up to 2020 compared to 1990. Among other reasons, the Federal Government promotes the electric mobility. At least one million electric vehicles shall be brought to the streets up to 2020. As part of the research project OPTUM, an integrative approach for the balancing of the potential environmental benefits of electric vehicles was utilized.

  8. An Optimal Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles using Firefly Optimization Algorithm based Dynamic EDF Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Kayalvizhi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitigation of global warming gases from burning gasoline for transportation in vehicles is one of the biggest and most complex issues the world has ever faced. In an intention to eradicate the environmental crisis caused due to global warming, electric vehicles were been introduced that are powered by electric motor which works on the energy stored in a battery pack. Inspired by the research on power management in electric vehicles, this paper focuses on the development of an energy management system for electric vehicles (EMSEV to optimally balance the energy from battery pack. The proposed methodology uses firefly optimization algorithm to optimize the power consumption of the devices like electric motor, power steering, air conditioner, power window, automatic door locks, radio, speaker, horn, wiper, GPS, internal and external lights etc., from the battery in electric vehicles. Depending upon the distance to cover and the battery availability, the devices are made to switch down automatically through dynamic EDF scheduling. CAN protocol is used for effective communication between the devices and the controller. Simulation results are obtained using MATLAB.

  9. Implementation Approach for Electric Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense base studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). This study is focused on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (MCBCL) located in North Carolina. Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at MCBCL to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, daily operational characteristics of vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. The results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption, i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements. It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report focuses on an implementation plan for the near-term adoption of PEVs into the MCBCL fleet. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from MCBCL personnel.

  10. Micro Climate Assessment of Grid-Connected Electric Drive Vehicles and Charging Infrastructure. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s advanced vehicle testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense-based micro-climate studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The study included Joint Base Lewis McChord, located in Washington State; Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, located in Washington State; and United States Marine Corp Base Camp Lejeune, located in North Carolina. The project was divided into four tasks for each of the three bases studied. Task 1 consisted of surveying the non-tactical fleet of vehicles to begin review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. In Task 2, the daily operational characteristics of the vehicles were identified to select vehicles for further monitoring and attachment of data loggers. Task 3 recorded vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicles’ missions. Results of the data analysis and observations were provided. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption (i.e., whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle [collectively referred to as PEVs] can fulfill the mission requirements). It also provided the basis for recommendations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. In Task 4, an implementation approach was provided for near-term adoption of PEVs into the respective fleets. Each facility was provided detailed reports on each of these tasks. This paper summarizes and provides observations on the project and completes Intertek’s required actions.

  11. Application of Novel Lateral Tire Force Sensors to Vehicle Parameter Estimation of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghyun Nam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents methods for estimating lateral vehicle velocity and tire cornering stiffness, which are key parameters in vehicle dynamics control, using lateral tire force measurements. Lateral tire forces acting on each tire are directly measured by load-sensing hub bearings that were invented and further developed by NSK Ltd. For estimating the lateral vehicle velocity, tire force models considering lateral load transfer effects are used, and a recursive least square algorithm is adapted to identify the lateral vehicle velocity as an unknown parameter. Using the estimated lateral vehicle velocity, tire cornering stiffness, which is an important tire parameter dominating the vehicle’s cornering responses, is estimated. For the practical implementation, the cornering stiffness estimation algorithm based on a simple bicycle model is developed and discussed. Finally, proposed estimation algorithms were evaluated using experimental test data.

  12. Fuzzy Control Based on Neural Networks for Armored Vehicle Electric Drive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-jun; LI Hua; ZHANG Jian; ZHANG Yu-nan

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet rigorous demands of control of electric motors in armored vehicle electric drive system and make the system of strong robustness and antijamming capability, a fuzzy control method based on neural networks is put forward. The simulation model of the armored vehicle electric drive system is built up to test the validity of the control. Simulation experiments show that when load is increased or decreased suddenly, the system adopting fuzzy control based on neural networks is insensitive to parameter change and has little overshooting and oscillation compared with PID control.

  13. Battery Electric Vehicles can reduce greenhouse has emissions and make renewable energy cheaper in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Witt, Maggie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States); Harris, Andrew [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    India's National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020. There are widespread concerns, both within and outside the government, that the Indian grid is not equipped to accommodate additional power demand from battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Such concerns are justified on the grounds of India's notorious power sector problems pertaining to grid instability and chronic blackouts. Studies have claimed that deploying BEVs in India will only

  14. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-02-21

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  15. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  16. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  17. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    CERN Document Server

    Dedinec, Aleksandar; Gajduk, Andrej; Markovska, Natasa; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  18. Intelligent electric vehicle heuristic for energy resource management using simulated annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Tiago; Pinto, Tiago; MORAIS, H.; Vale, Zita

    2012-01-01

    The smart grid concept appears as a suitable solution to guarantee the power system operation in the new electricity paradigm with electricity markets and integration of large amounts of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). Virtual Power Player (VPP) will have a significant importance in the management of a smart grid. In the context of this new paradigm, Electric Vehicles (EVs) rise as a good available resource to be used as a DER by a VPP. This paper presents the application of the Si...

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles - CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL; White, Cliff P [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

    2016-06-20

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is a paradigm shift in electric-vehicle (EV) charging that offers the consumer an autonomous, safe, and convenient option to conductive charging and its attendant need for cables. With WPT, charging process can be fully automated due to the vehicle and grid side radio communication systems, and is non-contacting; therefore issues with leakage currents, ground faults, and touch potentials do not exist. It also eliminates the need for touching the heavy, bulky, dirty cables and plugs. It eliminates the fear of forgetting to plug-in and running out of charge the following day and eliminates the tripping hazards in public parking lots and in highly populated areas such as shopping malls, recreational areas, parking buildings, etc. Furthermore, the high-frequency magnetic fields employed in power transfer across a large air gap are focused and shielded, so that fringe fields (i.e., magnetic leakage/stray fields) attenuate rapidly over a transition region to levels well below limits set by international standards for the public zone (which starts at the perimeter of the vehicle and includes the passenger cabin). Oak Ridge National Laboratory s approach to WPT charging places strong emphasis on radio communications in the power regulation feedback channel augmented with software control algorithms. The over-arching goal for WPT is minimization of vehicle on-board complexity by keeping the secondary side content confined to coil tuning, rectification, filtering, and interfacing to the regenerative energy-storage system (RESS). This report summarizes the CRADA work between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Toyota Research Institute of North America, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America (TEMA) on the wireless charging of electric vehicles which was funded by Department of Energy under DE-FOA-000667. In this project, ORNL is the lead agency and Toyota TEMA is one of the major partners. Over the course of the project

  20. Research of Charging(Discharging Orderly and Optimizing Load Curve for Electric Vehicles Based on Dynamic Electric Price and V2G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, using the Monte Carlo method and simulation analysis, this paper builds models for the behaviour of electric vehicles, the conventional charging model and the fast charging model. Secondly, this paper studies the impact that the number of electric vehicles which get access to power grid has on the daily load curve. Then, the paper put forwards a dynamic pricing mechanism of electricity, and studies how this dynamic pricing mechanism guides the electric vehicles to charge orderly. Last but not the least, the paper presents a V2G mechanism. Under this mechanism, electric vehicles can charge orderly and take part in the peak shaving. Research finds that massive electric vehicles’ access to the power grid will increase the peak-valley difference of daily load curve. Dynamic pricing mechanism and V2G mechanism can effectively lead the electric vehicles to take part in peak-shaving, and optimize the daily load curve.