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Sample records for ankara modificado mva

  1. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  2. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA) como vacunas preventivas y terapéuticas contra el SIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Heeney, Jonathan L.; Mooij, Petra; Nájera García, José Luis; Jiménez, Victoria; Esteban, Mariano; Gómez, Carmen E.

    2005-01-01

    Vectores Recombinantes basados en el Virus Modificado de Ankara (MVA) como Vacunas Preventivas y Terapéuticas contra el SIDA. Losvirus recombinantes de la invención contienen secuencias que se encuentran insertadas en el mismo sitio de inserción del MVA y permiten la expresión simultánea de varios antígenos, una proteína Env del VIH-I consistente en una proteína gpl20 carente de secuencias correspondientes a la proteína gp41, y una proteína quiméricade fusión de Gag, Pol y Nef. Son virus esta...

  3. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Especificamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antigenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficienciahumana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que see ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  4. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Específicamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antígenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que se ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  5. Diseño y construcción de vectores de transferencia para la obtención de virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA recombinantes Design and construction of transfer vectors in order to obtain recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ferrer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El virus vaccinia Ankara modificado (MVA constituye un buen candidato para el desarrollo de vectores virales de expresión no replicativos porque no replica en la mayoría de las células de mamíferos. Para la producción de MVA recombinantes es fundamental disponer de vectores de transferencia que, por recombinación homóloga con el genoma viral, permitan introducir los genes de interés en regiones no esenciales para la replicación in vitro. En este trabajo se diseñaron y obtuvieron los vectores de transferencia denominados VT-MHA y VT-MTK que portan las regiones correspondientes a las posiciones 1-303 y 608-948 del gen MVA165R y 1-244 y 325-534 del gen MVA086R, respectivamente, las que flanquean un sitio de clonado múltiple para la inserción de los genes foráneos. En dichos vectores se clonaron los casetes para la expresión de los genes lac Z o uid A, y la actividad de las enzimas marcadoras b-galactosidasa y b-glucuronidasa se confirmó in situ. Además, utilizando el vector denominado VT-MTK-GUS, se obtuvieron y aislaron MVA recombinantes puros que portan y expresan el gen uid A. Los resultados obtenidos constituyen las herramientas básicas para establecer la metodología de obtención de MVA recombinantes, con el propósito de desarrollar localmente vectores virales no replicativos candidatos a vacunas.Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA constitutes a good candidate for the development of non-replicative expression viral vectors because it does not replicate in most of mammalian cells. It is essential, for the production of recombinant MVA, the availability of transfer vectors which allow the introduction of desired genes into non-essential regions for in vitro viral replication, by homologous recombination with the viral genome. In the present work, the transfer vectors named VT-MHA and VT-MTK were designed and obtained. They carried genomic regions corresponding to 1- 303 and 608-948 positions of the MVA165R gene and 1-244 and

  6. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) com vacunas preventivas y terapeúticas contra la hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Mariano; Gómez, Carmen E.; Perdiguero, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    [ES] Los virus recombinantes de la invención contienen secuencias que se encuentran insertadas en el mismo sitio de inserción del MVA y que permiten la expresión simultáneamente de varios antígenos del VHC, concretamente las proteínas maduras estructurales (Core, E1, E2 y p7) y no estructurales (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A más los 201 aminoácidos de la región N-terminal de NS5B). Con ello se consiguen virus recombinantes estables, que permiten el desencadenamiento de una respuesta inmune contr...

  7. [Modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA)--development as recombinant vaccine and prospects for use in veterinary medicine].

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    Volz, Asisa; Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Sutter, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Poxviruses as expression vectors are widely used in medical research for the development of recombinant vaccines and molecular therapies. Here we review recent accomplishments in vaccine research using recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (MVA). MVA is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus strain that originated from serial tissue culture passage in chicken embryo fibroblasts more than 40 years ago. Growth adaptation to avian host cells caused deletions and mutations in the viral genome affecting about 15% of the original genetic information. In consequence, MVA is replication-deficient in cells of mammalian origin and fails to produce many of the virulence factors encoded by conventional vaccinia virus. Because of its safety for the general environment MVA can be handled under conditions of biosafety level one. Non-replicating MVA can enter any target cell and activate its molecular life cycle to express all classes of viral and recombinant genes. Therefore, recombinant MVA have been established as an extremely safe and efficient vector system for vaccine development in medical research. By now, various recombinant MVA vaccines have been found safe and immunogenic when used for phase I/II clinical testing in humans, and suitable for industrial scale production following good practice of manufacturing. Thus, there is an obvious usefulness of recombinant MVA vaccines for novel prophylactic and therapeutic approaches also in veterinary medicine. Results from first studies in companion and farm animals are highly promising.

  8. Recombination-mediated genetic engineering of a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cottingham, Matthew G; Andersen, Rikke F; Spencer, Alexandra J

    2008-01-01

    to infectious virus using a Fowlpox virus helper to supply transcriptional machinery. We apply here a similar approach to the attenuated strain Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), now widely used as a safe non-replicating recombinant vaccine vector in mammals, including humans. Four apparently full......-length, rescuable clones were obtained, which had indistinguishable immunogenicity in mice. One clone was shotgun sequenced and found to be identical to the parent. We employed GalK recombination-mediated genetic engineering (recombineering) of MVA-BAC to delete five selected viral genes. Deletion of C12L, A44L, A......K counterselection to insert an antigen expression cassette lacking a tandem marker gene into the traditional thymidine kinase locus of MVA-BAC. MVA continues to feature prominently in clinical trials of recombinant vaccines against diseases such as HIV-AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate in proof...

  9. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) as Production Platform for Vaccines against Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, Arwen F.; Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; de Vries, Rory D.; Song, Fei; Fux, Robert; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Sutter, Gerd; Volz, Asisa

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory viruses infections caused by influenza viruses, human parainfluenza virus (hPIV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and coronaviruses are an eminent threat for public health. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines available for hPIV, RSV and coronaviruses, and the available seasonal influenza vaccines have considerable limitations. With regard to pandemic preparedness, it is important that procedures are in place to respond rapidly and produce tailor made vaccines against these respiratory viruses on short notice. Moreover, especially for influenza there is great need for the development of a universal vaccine that induces broad protective immunity against influenza viruses of various subtypes. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-deficient viral vector that holds great promise as a vaccine platform. MVA can encode one or more foreign antigens and thus functions as a multivalent vaccine. The vector can be used at biosafety level 1, has intrinsic adjuvant capacities and induces humoral and cellular immune responses. However, there are some practical and regulatory issues that need to be addressed in order to develop MVA-based vaccines on short notice at the verge of a pandemic. In this review, we discuss promising novel influenza virus vaccine targets and the use of MVA for vaccine development against various respiratory viruses. PMID:25036462

  10. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

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    Jeffrey R Currier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand.MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7 or 10(8 pfu or intradermally (ID; 10(6 or 10(7 pfu at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2. Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6 PBMC at 10(8 pfu IM, but high in response rate (70% (51Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8 pfu IM; (ii predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+ T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route; (iv dose- and route-dependent with 10(8 pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8 pfu IM.MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  11. Phase I safety and immunogenicity evaluation of MVA-CMDR, a multigenic, recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 vaccine candidate.

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    Currier, Jeffrey R; Ngauy, Viseth; de Souza, Mark S; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Cox, Josephine H; Polonis, Victoria R; Earl, Patricia; Moss, Bernard; Peel, Sheila; Slike, Bonnie; Sriplienchan, Somchai; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Paris, Robert M; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome; Michael, Nelson L; Marovich, Mary A

    2010-11-15

    We conducted a Phase I randomized, dose-escalation, route-comparison trial of MVA-CMDR, a candidate HIV-1 vaccine based on a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector expressing HIV-1 genes env/gag/pol. The HIV sequences were derived from circulating recombinant form CRF01_AE, which predominates in Thailand. The objective was to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of MVA-CMDR in human volunteers in the US and Thailand. MVA-CMDR or placebo was administered intra-muscularly (IM; 10(7) or 10(8) pfu) or intradermally (ID; 10(6) or 10(7) pfu) at months 0, 1 and 3, to 48 healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV-1 infection. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were randomized to receive MVA-CMDR or placebo (10∶2). Volunteers were actively monitored for local and systemic reactogenicity and adverse events post vaccination. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNγ Elispot assay, an intracellular cytokine staining assay, lymphocyte proliferation and a (51)Cr-release assay. Humoral immunogenicity was assessed by ADCC for gp120 and binding antibody ELISAs for gp120 and p24. MVA-CMDR was safe and well tolerated with no vaccine related serious adverse events. Cell-mediated immune responses were: (i) moderate in magnitude (median IFNγ Elispot of 78 SFC/10(6) PBMC at 10(8) pfu IM), but high in response rate (70% (51)Cr-release positive; 90% Elispot positive; 100% ICS positive, at 10(8) pfu IM); (ii) predominantly HIV Env-specific CD4(+) T cells, with a high proliferative capacity and durable for at least 6 months (100% LPA response rate by the IM route); (iv) dose- and route-dependent with 10(8) pfu IM being the most immunogenic treatment. Binding antibodies against gp120 and p24 were detectable in all vaccination groups with ADCC capacity detectable at the highest dose (40% positive at 10(8) pfu IM). MVA-CMDR delivered both intramuscularly and intradermally was safe, well-tolerated and elicited durable cell-mediated and humoral immune responses

  12. A Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus (MVA) Vaccine Expressing African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) VP2 Protects Against AHSV Challenge in an IFNAR −/− Mouse Model

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    Castillo-Olivares, Javier; Calvo-Pinilla, Eva; Casanova, Isabel; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Chiam, Rachael; Maan, Sushila; Nieto, Jose Maria; Ortego, Javier; Mertens, Peter Paul Clement

    2011-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal viral disease of equids, which is transmitted by Culicoides midges that become infected after biting a viraemic host. The use of live attenuated vaccines has been vital for the control of this disease in endemic regions. However, there are safety concerns over their use in non-endemic countries. Research efforts over the last two decades have therefore focused on developing alternative vaccines based on recombinant baculovirus or live viral vectors expressing structural components of the AHS virion. However, ethical and financial considerations, relating to the use of infected horses in high biosecurity installations, have made progress very slow. We have therefore assessed the potential of an experimental mouse-model for AHSV infection for vaccine and immunology research. We initially characterised AHSV infection in this model, then tested the protective efficacy of a recombinant vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing AHS-4 VP2 (MVA-VP2). PMID:21298069

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN® in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects.

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    Richard N Greenberg

    Full Text Available Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA was assessed in a 56-80 years old population.MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56-80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120. Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE, focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT before and at different time points after vaccination.Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4 were as follows: Seroconversion (SC rates (doubling of titers from baseline in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%], and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]. Geometric mean titers (GMT measured by ELISA two weeks after the final vaccination for

  14. Alphavirus replicon DNA expressing HIV antigens is an excellent prime for boosting with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA or with HIV gp140 protein antigen.

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    Maria L Knudsen

    Full Text Available Vaccination with DNA is an attractive strategy for induction of pathogen-specific T cells and antibodies. Studies in humans have shown that DNA vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity needs further improvement. As a step towards this goal, we have previously demonstrated that immunogenicity is increased with the use of an alphavirus DNA-launched replicon (DREP vector compared to conventional DNA vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effect of varying the dose and number of administrations of DREP when given as a prime prior to a heterologous boost with poxvirus vector (MVA and/or HIV gp140 protein formulated in glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA-AF adjuvant. The DREP and MVA vaccine constructs encoded Env and a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein from HIV clade C. One to three administrations of 0.2 μg DREP induced lower HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses than the equivalent number of immunizations with 10 μg DREP. However, the two doses were equally efficient as a priming component in a heterologous prime-boost regimen. The magnitude of immune responses depended on the number of priming immunizations rather than the dose. A single low dose of DREP prior to a heterologous boost resulted in greatly increased immune responses compared to MVA or protein antigen alone, demonstrating that a mere 0.2 μg DREP was sufficient for priming immune responses. Following a DREP prime, T cell responses were expanded greatly by an MVA boost, and IgG responses were also expanded when boosted with protein antigen. When MVA and protein were administered simultaneously following multiple DREP primes, responses were slightly compromised compared to administering them sequentially. In conclusion, we have demonstrated efficient priming of HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses with a low dose of DREP, and shown that the priming effect depends on number of primes administered rather than dose.

  15. Development of a novel, guinea pig-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT assay and characterization of guinea pig cytomegalovirus GP83-specific cellular immune responses following immunization with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored GP83 vaccine.

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    Gillis, Peter A; Hernandez-Alvarado, Nelmary; Gnanandarajah, Josephine S; Wussow, Felix; Diamond, Don J; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-06-30

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) provides a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases, and for preclinical evaluation of vaccines. However, guinea pig models are limited by the lack of immunological reagents required for characterization and quantification of antigen-specific T cell responses. To address this deficiency, an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for guinea pig interferon (IFN)-γ was developed to measure antigen/epitope-specific T cell responses to guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) vaccines. Using splenocytes harvested from animals vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector encoding the GPCMV GP83 (homolog of human CMV pp65 [gpUL83]) protein, we were able to enumerate and map antigen-specific responses, both in vaccinated as well as GPCMV-infected animals, using a panel of GP83-specific peptides. Several potential immunodominant GP83-specific peptides were identified, including one epitope, LGIVHFFDN, that was noted in all guinea pigs that had a detectable CD8+ response to GP83. Development of a guinea pig IFN-γ ELISPOT should be useful in characterization of additional T cell-specific responses to GPCMV, as well as other pathogens. This information in turn can help focus future experimental evaluation of immunization strategies, both for GPCMV as well as for other vaccine-preventable illnesses studied in the guinea pig model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

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    Meseda, Clement A; Atukorale, Vajini; Kuhn, Jordan; Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification). The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1) elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that MVA and MVA

  17. Percutaneous Vaccination as an Effective Method of Delivery of MVA and MVA-Vectored Vaccines.

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    Clement A Meseda

    Full Text Available The robustness of immune responses to an antigen could be dictated by the route of vaccine inoculation. Traditional smallpox vaccines, essentially vaccinia virus strains, that were used in the eradication of smallpox were administered by percutaneous inoculation (skin scarification. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara is licensed as a smallpox vaccine in Europe and Canada and currently undergoing clinical development in the United States. MVA is also being investigated as a vector for the delivery of heterologous genes for prophylactic or therapeutic immunization. Since MVA is replication-deficient, MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines are often inoculated through the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes. Vaccine inoculation via the intramuscular, intradermal or subcutaneous routes requires the use of injection needles, and an estimated 10 to 20% of the population of the United States has needle phobia. Following an observation in our laboratory that a replication-deficient recombinant vaccinia virus derived from the New York City Board of Health strain elicited protective immune responses in a mouse model upon inoculation by tail scarification, we investigated whether MVA and MVA recombinants can elicit protective responses following percutaneous administration in mouse models. Our data suggest that MVA administered by percutaneous inoculation, elicited vaccinia-specific antibody responses, and protected mice from lethal vaccinia virus challenge, at levels comparable to or better than subcutaneous or intramuscular inoculation. High titers of specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in mice inoculated with a recombinant MVA expressing the herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D after scarification. Similarly, a recombinant MVA expressing the hemagglutinin of attenuated influenza virus rgA/Viet Nam/1203/2004 (H5N1 elicited protective immune responses when administered at low doses by scarification. Taken together, our data suggest that

  18. Immunogenicity of viral vector, prime-boost SIV vaccine regimens in infant rhesus macaques: attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) recombinant SIV vaccines compared to live-attenuated SIV.

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    Van Rompay, Koen K A; Abel, Kristina; Earl, Patricia; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Easlick, Juliet; Moore, Joseph; Buonocore-Buzzelli, Linda; Schmidt, Kimberli A; Wilson, Robert L; Simon, Ian; Moss, Bernard; Rose, Nina; Rose, John; Marthas, Marta L

    2010-02-10

    In a previously developed infant macaque model mimicking HIV infection by breast-feeding, we demonstrated that intramuscular immunization with recombinant poxvirus vaccines expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) structural proteins provided partial protection against infection following oral inoculation with virulent SIV. In an attempt to further increase systemic but also local antiviral immune responses at the site of viral entry, we tested the immunogenicity of different orally administered, replicating vaccines. One group of newborn macaques received an oral prime immunization with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing SIVmac239 gag, pol and env (VSV-SIVgpe), followed 2 weeks later by an intramuscular boost immunization with MVA-SIV. Another group received two immunizations with live-attenuated SIVmac1A11, administered each time both orally and intravenously. Control animals received mock immunizations or non-SIV VSV and MVA control vectors. Analysis of SIV-specific immune responses in blood and lymphoid tissues at 4 weeks of age demonstrated that both vaccine regimens induced systemic antibody responses and both systemic and local cell-mediated immune responses. The safety and immunogenicity of the VSV-SIVgpe+MVA-SIV immunization regimen described in this report provide the scientific incentive to explore the efficacy of this vaccine regimen against virulent SIV exposure in the infant macaque model. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hazard Characterization of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector: What Are the Knowledge Gaps?

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    Malachy I. Okeke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is the vector of choice for human and veterinary applications due to its strong safety profile and immunogenicity in vivo. The use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines against human and animal diseases must comply with regulatory requirements as they pertain to environmental risk assessment, particularly the characterization of potential adverse effects to humans, animals and the environment. MVA and recombinant MVA are widely believed to pose low or negligible risk to ecosystem health. However, key aspects of MVA biology require further research in order to provide data needed to evaluate the potential risks that may occur due to the use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge gaps in the biology of MVA and recombinant MVA that are of relevance to its hazard characterization and discuss ongoing and future experiments aimed at providing data necessary to fill in the knowledge gaps. In addition, we presented arguments for the inclusion of uncertainty analysis and experimental investigation of verifiable worst-case scenarios in the environmental risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA. These will contribute to improved risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA vaccines.

  20. E3L and F1L Gene Functions Modulate the Protective Capacity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Immunization in Murine Model of Human Smallpox

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    Asisa Volz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The highly attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA lacks most of the known vaccinia virus (VACV virulence and immune evasion genes. Today MVA can serve as a safety-tested next-generation smallpox vaccine. Yet, we still need to learn about regulatory gene functions preserved in the MVA genome, such as the apoptosis inhibitor genes F1L and E3L. Here, we tested MVA vaccine preparations on the basis of the deletion mutant viruses MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L for efficacy against ectromelia virus (ECTV challenge infections in mice. In non-permissive human tissue culture the MVA deletion mutant viruses produced reduced levels of the VACV envelope antigen B5. Upon mousepox challenge at three weeks after vaccination, MVA-ΔF1L and MVA-ΔE3L exhibited reduced protective capacity in comparison to wildtype MVA. Surprisingly, however, all vaccines proved equally protective against a lethal ECTV infection at two days after vaccination. Accordingly, the deletion mutant MVA vaccines induced high levels of virus-specific CD8+ T cells previously shown to be essential for rapidly protective MVA vaccination. These results suggest that inactivation of the anti-apoptotic genes F1L or E3L modulates the protective capacity of MVA vaccination most likely through the induction of distinct orthopoxvirus specific immunity in the absence of these viral regulatory proteins.

  1. OCM: Organismos Culturalmente Modificados

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    Gaetano Chiurazzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Con la palabra “biotecnología” podemos entender una tecnología que modifica la vida en el sentido de zoé o de bios. Mientras en el primer caso hablamos de OGM (Organismos Genéticamente Modificados, en el segundo sería más indicado hablar de OCM (Organismos Culturalmente Modificados. En este texto me propongo examinar el significado de esta intervención tecnológica sobre la vida, partiendo de que el hombre es un animal intrínsecamente cultural, que modifica con la tecnología el ambiente circundante y por lo tanto a sí mismo. Los conceptos que intervienen en la definición del hombre como OCM son el de “mundo” (siguiendo a Heidegger y el de “espíritu objetivo” (deducido por Hegel. En la parte final presento una confrontación con la teoría de la mente extendida de Clark y Chalmers, proponiendo una tesis diferente, la “mente concreta”

  2. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga, Marnie L; Vasan, Sandhya; Marovich, Mary A; Sato, Alicia H; Lawrence, Dale N; Chaitman, Bernard R; Frey, Sharon E; Keefer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax) campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines. Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls), and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine. Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12%) had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine. Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337.

  3. Prospective surveillance for cardiac adverse events in healthy adults receiving modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines: a systematic review.

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    Marnie L Elizaga

    Full Text Available Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines.Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls, and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine.Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12% had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine.Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337.

  4. Expanding the repertoire of Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine vectors via genetic complementation strategies.

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    David A Garber

    Full Text Available Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is a safe, highly attenuated orthopoxvirus that is being developed as a recombinant vaccine vector for immunization against a number of infectious diseases and cancers. However, the expression by MVA vectors of large numbers of poxvirus antigens, which display immunodominance over vectored antigens-of-interest for the priming of T cell responses, and the induction of vector-neutralizing antibodies, which curtail the efficacy of subsequent booster immunizations, remain as significant impediments to the overall utility of such vaccines. Thus, genetic approaches that enable the derivation of MVA vectors that are antigenically less complex may allow for rational improvement of MVA-based vaccines.We have developed a genetic complementation system that enables the deletion of essential viral genes from the MVA genome, thereby allowing us to generate MVA vaccine vectors that are antigenically less complex. Using this system, we deleted the essential uracil-DNA-glycosylase (udg gene from MVA and propagated this otherwise replication-defective variant on a complementing cell line that constitutively expresses the poxvirus udg gene and that was derived from a newly identified continuous cell line that is permissive for growth of wild type MVA. The resulting virus, MVADeltaudg, does not replicate its DNA genome or express late viral gene products during infection of non-complementing cells in culture. As proof-of-concept for immunological 'focusing', we demonstrate that immunization of mice with MVADeltaudg elicits CD8+ T cell responses that are directed against a restricted repertoire of vector antigens, as compared to immunization with parental MVA. Immunization of rhesus macaques with MVADeltaudg-gag, a udg(- recombinant virus that expresses an HIV subtype-B consensus gag transgene, elicited significantly higher frequencies of Gag-specific CD8 and CD4 T cells following both primary (2-4-fold and booster (2-fold

  5. Co-expression of Interleukin-15 Enhances the Protective Immune Responses Induced by Immunization with a Murine Malaria MVA-Based Vaccine Encoding the Circumsporozoite Protein.

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    Parra, Marcela; Liu, Xia; Derrick, Steven C; Yang, Amy; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Zheng, Hong; Thao Pham, Phuong; Sedegah, Martha; Belmonte, Arnel; Litilit, Dianne D; Waldmann, Thomas A; Kumar, Sanjai; Morris, Sheldon L; Perera, Liyanage P

    2015-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global public health problem with an estimated 200 million cases detected in 2012. Although the most advanced candidate malaria vaccine (RTS,S) has shown promise in clinical trials, its modest efficacy and durability have created uncertainty about the impact of RTS,S immunization (when used alone) on global malaria transmission. Here we describe the development and characterization of a novel modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based malaria vaccine which co-expresses the Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and IL-15. Vaccination/challenge studies showed that C57BL/6 mice immunized with the MVA-CSP/IL15 vaccine were protected significantly better against a P. yoelii 17XNL sporozoite challenge than either mice immunized with an MVA vaccine expressing only CSP or naïve controls. Importantly, the levels of total anti-CSP IgG were elevated about 100-fold for the MVA-CSP/IL15 immunized group compared to mice immunized with the MVA-CSP construct that does not express IL-15. Among the IgG subtypes, the IL-15 expressing MVA-CSP vaccine induced levels of IgG1 (8 fold) and IgG2b (80 fold) higher than the MVA-CSP construct. The significantly enhanced humoral responses and protection detected after immunization with the MVA-CSP/IL15 vaccine suggest that this IL-15 expressing MVA construct could be considered in the development of future malaria immunization strategies.

  6. NLRC4 Inflammasome-Driven Immunogenicity of a Recombinant MVA Mucosal Vaccine Encoding Flagellin

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    Stephanie L. Sanos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial flagellin enhances innate and adaptive immune responses and is considered a promising adjuvant for the development of vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Antigen-presenting cells recognize flagellin with the extracellular TLR5 and the intracellular NLRC4 inflammasome-mediated pathway. The detailed cooperation of these innate pathways in the induction of the adaptive immune response following intranasal (i.n. administration of a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vaccine encoding flagellin (rMVA-flagellin is not known. rMVA-flagellin induced enhanced secretion of mucosal IL-1β and TNF-α resulting in elevated CTL and IgG2c antibody responses. Importantly, mucosal IgA responses were also significantly enhanced in both bronchoalveolar (BAL and intestinal lavages accompanied by the increased migration of CD8+ T cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN. Nlrc4−/− rMVA-flagellin-immunized mice failed to enhance pulmonary CTL responses, IgG2c was lower, and IgA levels in the BAL or intestinal lavages were similar as those of control mice. Our results show the favorable adjuvant effect of rMVA-flagellin in the lung as well as the intestinal mucosa following i.n. administration with NLRC4 as the essential driver of this promising mucosal vaccine concept.

  7. NLRC4 Inflammasome-Driven Immunogenicity of a Recombinant MVA Mucosal Vaccine Encoding Flagellin

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    Sanos, Stephanie L.; Kassub, Ronny; Testori, Marco; Geiger, Marlene; Pätzold, Juliane; Giessel, Raphael; Knallinger, Johanna; Bathke, Barbara; Gräbnitz, Fabienne; Brinkmann, Kay; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; Hochrein, Hubertus; Lauterbach, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin enhances innate and adaptive immune responses and is considered a promising adjuvant for the development of vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Antigen-presenting cells recognize flagellin with the extracellular TLR5 and the intracellular NLRC4 inflammasome-mediated pathway. The detailed cooperation of these innate pathways in the induction of the adaptive immune response following intranasal (i.n.) administration of a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccine encoding flagellin (rMVA-flagellin) is not known. rMVA-flagellin induced enhanced secretion of mucosal IL-1β and TNF-α resulting in elevated CTL and IgG2c antibody responses. Importantly, mucosal IgA responses were also significantly enhanced in both bronchoalveolar (BAL) and intestinal lavages accompanied by the increased migration of CD8+ T cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Nlrc4−/− rMVA-flagellin-immunized mice failed to enhance pulmonary CTL responses, IgG2c was lower, and IgA levels in the BAL or intestinal lavages were similar as those of control mice. Our results show the favorable adjuvant effect of rMVA-flagellin in the lung as well as the intestinal mucosa following i.n. administration with NLRC4 as the essential driver of this promising mucosal vaccine concept. PMID:29416534

  8. Attenuation and immunogenicity of host-range extended modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants.

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    Melamed, Sharon; Wyatt, Linda S; Kastenmayer, Robin J; Moss, Bernard

    2013-09-23

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is being widely investigated as a safe smallpox vaccine and as an expression vector to produce vaccines against other infectious diseases and cancer. MVA was isolated following more than 500 passages in chick embryo fibroblasts and suffered several major deletions and numerous small mutations resulting in replication defects in human and most other mammalian cells as well as severe attenuation of pathogenicity. Due to the host range restriction, primary chick embryo fibroblasts are routinely used for production of MVA-based vaccines. While a replication defect undoubtedly contributes to safety of MVA, it is worth considering whether host range and attenuation are partially separable properties. Marker rescue transfection experiments resulted in the creation of recombinant MVAs with extended mammalian cell host range. Here, we characterize two host-range extended rMVAs and show that they (i) have acquired the ability to stably replicate in Vero cells, which are frequently used as a cell substrate for vaccine manufacture, (ii) are severely attenuated in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mouse strains following intranasal infection, (iii) are more pathogenic than MVA but less pathogenic than the ACAM2000 vaccine strain at high intracranial doses, (iv) do not form lesions upon tail scratch in mice in contrast to ACAM2000 and (v) induce protective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses similar to MVA. The extended host range of rMVAs may be useful for vaccine production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Can vaccinia virus be replaced by MVA virus for testing virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants?

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    Rapp Ingrid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV is a test virus in the DVV/RKI guidelines as representative of the stable enveloped viruses. Since the potential risk of laboratory-acquired infections with VACV persists and since the adverse effects of vaccination with VACV are described, the replacement of VACV by the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA was studied by testing the activity of different chemical biocides in three German laboratories. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides (peracetic acid, aldehydes and alcohols were tested in a quantitative suspension test according to the DVV/RKI guideline. All tests were performed with a protein load of 10% fetal calf serum with both viruses in parallel using different concentrations and contact times. Residual virus was determined by endpoint dilution method. Results The chemical biocides exhibited similar virucidal activity against VACV and MVA. In three cases intra-laboratory differences were determined between VACV and MVA - 40% (v/v ethanol and 30% (v/v isopropanol are more active against MVA, whereas MVA seems more stable than VACV when testing with 0.05% glutardialdehyde. Test accuracy across the three participating laboratories was high. Remarkably inter-laboratory differences in the reduction factor were only observed in two cases. Conclusions Our data provide valuable information for the replacement of VACV by MVA for testing chemical biocides and disinfectants. Because MVA does not replicate in humans this would eliminate the potential risk of inadvertent inoculation with vaccinia virus and disease in non-vaccinated laboratory workers.

  10. Genetic adjuvantation of recombinant MVA with CD40L potentiates CD8 T cell mediated immunity

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    Henning eLauterbach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA is a safe and promising viral vaccine vector that is currently investigated in several clinical and pre-clinical trials. In contrast to inactivated or sub-unit vaccines, MVA is able to induce strong humoral as well as cellular immune responses. In order to further improve its CD8 T cell inducing capacity, we genetically adjuvanted MVA with the coding sequence of murine CD40L, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily. Immunization of mice with this new vector led to strongly enhanced primary and memory CD8 T cell responses. Concordant with the enhanced CD8 T cell response, we could detect stronger activation of dendritic cells and higher systemic levels of innate cytokines (including IL-12p70 early after immunization. Interestingly, acquisition of memory characteristics (i.e., IL-7R expression was accelerated after immunization with MVA-CD40L in comparison to non-adjuvanted MVA. Furthermore, the generated CTLs also showed improved functionality as demonstrated by intracellular cytokine staining and in vivo killing activity. Importantly, the superior CTL response after a single MVA-CD40L immunization was able to protect B cell deficient mice against a fatal infection with ectromelia virus. Taken together, we show that genetic adjuvantation of MVA can change strength, quality and functionality of innate and adaptive immune responses. These data should facilitate a rational vaccine design with a focus on rapid induction of large numbers of CD8 T cells able to protect against specific diseases.

  11. Rapid generation of markerless recombinant MVA vaccines by en passant recombineering of a self-excising bacterial artificial chromosome.

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    Cottingham, Matthew G; Gilbert, Sarah C

    2010-09-01

    The non-replicating poxviral vector modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is currently a leading candidate for development of novel recombinant vaccines against globally important diseases. The 1980s technology for making recombinant MVA (and other poxviruses) is powerful and robust, but relies on rare recombination events in poxviral-infected cells. In the 21st century, it has become possible to apply bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology to poxviruses, as first demonstrated by B. Moss' lab in 2002 for vaccinia virus. A similar BAC clone of MVA was subsequently derived, but while recombination-mediated genetic engineering for rapid production was used of deletion mutants, an alternative method was required for efficient insertion of transgenes. Furthermore "markerless" viruses, which carry no trace of the selectable marker used for their isolation, are increasingly required for clinical trials, and the viruses derived via the new method contained the BAC sequence in their genomic DNA. Two methods are adapted to MVA-BAC to provide more rapid generation of markerless recombinants in weeks rather than months. "En passant" recombineering is applied to the insertion of a transgene expression cassette and the removal of the selectable marker in bacteria; and a self-excising variant of MVA-BAC is constructed, in which the BAC cassette region is rapidly and efficiently lost from the viral genome following rescue of the BAC into infectious virus. These methods greatly facilitate and accelerate production of recombinant MVA, including markerless constructs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MVA and NYVAC as vaccines against emergent infectious diseases and cancer.

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    Gómez, Carmen E; Nájera, José L; Krupa, Magdalena; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-06-01

    Recombinants based on poxviruses have been used extensively as gene delivery systems to study many biological functions of foreign genes and as vaccines against many pathogens, particularly in the veterinary field. Based on safety record, efficient expression and ability to trigger specific immune responses, two of the most promising poxvirus vectors for human use are the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the Copenhagen derived NYVAC strains. Because of the scientific and clinical interest in these two vectors, here we review their biological characteristics, with emphasis on virus-host cell interactions, viral immunomodulators, gene expression profiling, virus distribution in animals, and application as vaccines against different pathogens and tumors.

  13. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara triggers type I IFN production in murine conventional dendritic cells via a cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway.

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    Peihong Dai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is an attenuated poxvirus that has been engineered as a vaccine against infectious agents and cancers. Our goal is to understand how MVA modulates innate immunity in dendritic cells (DCs, which can provide insights to vaccine design. In this study, using murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, we assessed type I interferon (IFN gene induction and protein secretion in response to MVA infection. We report that MVA infection elicits the production of type I IFN in murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, but not in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. Transcription factors IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3 and IRF7, and the positive feedback loop mediated by IFNAR1 (IFN alpha/beta receptor 1, are required for the induction. MVA induction of type I IFN is fully dependent on STING (stimulator of IFN genes and the newly discovered cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. MVA infection of cDCs triggers phosphorylation of TBK1 (Tank-binding kinase 1 and IRF3, which is abolished in the absence of cGAS and STING. Furthermore, intravenous delivery of MVA induces type I IFN in wild-type mice, but not in mice lacking STING or IRF3. Treatment of cDCs with inhibitors of endosomal and lysosomal acidification or the lysosomal enzyme Cathepsin B attenuated MVA-induced type I IFN production, indicating that lysosomal enzymatic processing of virions is important for MVA sensing. Taken together, our results demonstrate a critical role of the cGAS/STING-mediated cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway for type I IFN induction in cDCs by MVA. We present evidence that vaccinia virulence factors E3 and N1 inhibit the activation of IRF3 and the induction of IFNB gene in MVA-infected cDCs.

  14. The EB66® cell line as a valuable cell substrate for MVA-based vaccines production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Arnaud; David, Anne-Laure; Madeline, Brice; Guianvarc'h, Laurence; Dureau, Elodie; Champion-Arnaud, Patrick; Hebben, Matthias; Huss, Thierry; Chatrenet, Benoît; Schwamborn, Klaus

    2016-11-21

    The selection of a cell substrate is a critical step for the development and manufacturing of a viral vaccine candidate. Several parameters such as cell susceptibility and permissiveness to the viral pathogens but also performance in terms of viral antigens quality and production yields are important considerations when identifying the ideal match between a viral vaccine and cell substrate. The modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-deficient viral vector that holds great promise as a vaccine platform, however only limited cell substrates have been tested or are available for industrialization. Here we evaluate the duck embryo-derived EB66® cell line as potential cell substrate for MVA production. To this end, we used two recombinant MVA constructs and demonstrated that EB66® cells are propagating the tested MVA viruses very efficiently, while preserving viral attenuation and transgene expression for up to 20 serial passages. Furthermore we developed upstream and downstream processes that enable industrialization of the virus production. In conclusion, we showed that EB66® cells can be used as potent cell substrate for MVA-based vaccines and represent therefore an attractive alternative for vaccine production. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Traditional Sof Weavings of Ankara

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    Feriha Akpınarlı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Angora goat is an important goat breed which is specifically raised in Ankara and its surroundings. Mohair, a kind of fiber obtained from the Angora goat, has an important place in the textile industry, due to its length, strength, and brightness. Consumption patterns change every year according to current fashions. Mohair, which is the primary raw material for weaving and knitting, is also a source of income for people living in rural areas of Anatolia. Ankara sof is a type of fabric woven from mohair. Sof is made by spinning the mohair fiber into yarn, weaving the fabric from this yarn and then dyeing it. Sof fabric was preferred by the elite segments of society as a unique handcraft specific to Ankara and the Central Anatolia Region. Unfortunately, this is no longer woven and can now only be seen in museums. In this respect, Ankara sof has become part of the cultural heritage of the region.The literature review indicates that there are two samples of sof fabric in the Ankara Ethnographic Museum while in the Sadberk Hanım Museum there is one. However, a study conducted in the Ankara Ethnographic Museum revealed three more samples of sof fabric in addition to the two in the literature. Considering the above, sof is culturally important and should be protected even though it is no longer woven today. This study intends to analyze the characteristics of Ankara sof by examining the five sof fabric examples in the Ankara Ethnographic Museum in terms of width, height, weft-warp density, and weaving thickness. These characteristics are analyzed, documented and information about the weaving looms is also provided.

  16. Effects of MVA85A vaccine on tuberculosis challenge in animals: systematic review

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    Kashangura, Rufaro; Sena, Emily S; Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The existing Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccination provides partial protection against tuberculosis (TB). The modified vaccinia ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) aims to boost BCG immunity. We evaluated the animal evidence supporting the testing of MVA85A in humans. Methods: Our protocol included in vivo preclinical studies of the MVA85A booster with BCG compared with BCG alone, followed by a TB challenge. We used standard methods for systematic review of animal studies, and summarized mortality, measures of pathology and lung bacterial load. The comprehensive literature search was to September 2014. Two independent investigators assessed eligibility and performed data extraction. We assessed study quality and pooled bacteria load using random effect meta-analysis. Findings: We included eight studies in 192 animals. Three experiments were in mice, two in guinea pigs, two in macaques and one in calves. Overall, study quality was low with no randomization, baseline comparability not described and blinding not reported. For animal death (including euthanasia due to severe morbidity), studies were underpowered, and overall no benefit demonstrated. No difference was shown for lung pathology measured on an ordinal scale or bacterial load. The largest mortality trial carried out in macaques had more deaths in the MVA85A vaccine group, and was published after a trial in South Africa had started recruiting children. Conclusions: This independent assessment of the animal data does not provide evidence to support efficacy of MVA85A as a BCG booster. More rigorous conduct and reporting of preclinical research are warranted, and we believe the results of studies should be publicly available before embarking on trials in humans, irrespective of the findings. PMID:26351306

  17. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

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    Joseph W Golden

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV nonhuman primate (NHP challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  18. Activation of cross-reactive mucosal T and B cell responses in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue in vitro by Modified Vaccinia Ankara-vectored influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Jennifer; Ahmed, Muhammed S; Sharma, Ravi; Upile, Navdeep; Beer, Helen; Achar, Priya; Puksuriwong, Suttida; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel; McNamara, Paul; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Zhang, Qibo

    2016-03-29

    Recent efforts have been focused on the development of vaccines that could induce broad immunity against influenza virus, either through T cell responses to conserved internal antigens or B cell response to cross-reactive haemagglutinin (HA). We studied the capacity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-vectored influenza vaccines to induce cross-reactive immunity to influenza virus in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in vitro. Adenotonsillar cells were isolated and stimulated with MVA vaccines expressing either conserved nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1) (MVA-NP-M1) or pandemic H1N1 HA (MVA-pdmH1HA). The MVA vaccine uptake and expression, and T and B cell responses were analyzed. MVA-vectored vaccines were highly efficient infecting NALT and vaccine antigens were highly expressed by B cells. MVA-NP-M1 elicited T cell response with greater numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and tissue-resident memory T cells than controls. MVA-pdmH1HA induced cross-reactive anti-HA antibodies to a number of influenza subtypes, in an age-dependent manner. The cross-reactive antibodies include anti-avian H5N1 and mainly target HA2 domain. MVA vaccines are efficient in infecting NALT and the vaccine antigen is highly expressed by B cells. MVA vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens induce cross-reactive T and B cell responses in human NALT in vitro, suggesting the potential as mucosal vaccines for broader immunity against influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MVA recombinants expressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes of PPRV protects goats against virulent challenge.

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    Chandran, Dev; Reddy, Kolli Bhaktavatsala; Vijayan, Shahana Pallichera; Sugumar, Parthasarthy; Rani, Gudavalli Sudha; Kumar, Ponsekaran Santha; Rajendra, Lingala; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2010-09-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious animal disease caused by the Peste des Petits Ruminants virus (PPRV) belonging to the genus morbillivirus and family Paramyxoviridae. The disease results in high morbidity and mortality in goats, sheep and in some small wild ruminants. The presence of large number of small ruminants reared in endemic areas makes PPR a notorious disease threatening the livelihood of poor farmers. Conventional vaccination using a live, attenuated vaccine gives adequate protection but cannot be used in case of eradication of the disease due to difficulty in differentiation of infected animals from the vaccinated ones.In the present study, we constructed two recombinant viruses using attenuated Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara virus (MVA) namely MVA-F and MVA-H expressing the full length PPRV fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) glycoproteins, respectively. Goats were vaccinated intramuscularly with 105 plaque forming units (PFU) each of the recombinant viruses and a live attenuated vaccine (RAKSHA PPR) and challenged 4 months later with PPRV challenge virus (10(3) goat LD(50)). All goats were completely protected from the clinical disease. This study gave an indication that mass vaccination of small ruminants with either of the above or both recombinant inexpensive virus vaccines could help in possible eradication of PPRV from endemic countries like India and subsequent seromonitoring of the disease for differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated ones.

  20. Market implementation of the MVA platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines: A quantitative key opinion leader analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Claassen, E

    2015-08-20

    A quantitative method is presented to rank strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to achieve pairwise comparisons among SWOT factors in order to prioritize them. Key opinion leaders (KOLs) in the influenza vaccine field were interviewed to collect a unique dataset to evaluate the market potential of this platform. The purpose of this study, to evaluate commercial potential of the MVA platform for the development of novel generation pandemic influenza vaccines, is accomplished by using a SWOT and AHP combined analytic method. Application of the SWOT-AHP model indicates that its strengths are considered more important by KOLs than its weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Particularly, the inherent immunogenicity capability of MVA without the requirement of an adjuvant is the most important factor to increase commercial attractiveness of this platform. Concerns regarding vector vaccines and anti-vector immunity are considered its most important weakness, which might lower public health value of this platform. Furthermore, evaluation of the results of this study emphasizes equally important role that threats and opportunities of this platform play. This study further highlights unmet needs in the influenza vaccine market, which could be addressed by the implementation of the MVA platform. Broad use of MVA in clinical trials shows great promise for this vector as vaccine platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza and threats by other respiratory viruses. Moreover, from the results of the clinical trials seem that MVA is particularly attractive for development of vaccines against pathogens for which no, or only insufficiently effective vaccines, are available. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Market implementation of the MVA platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines: A quantitative key opinion leader analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S.; Kreijtz, Joost H.C.M.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Claassen, E.

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative method is presented to rank strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as a platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to achieve pairwise comparisons among SWOT factors in order to prioritize them. Key opinion leaders (KOLs) in the influenza vaccine field were interviewed to collect a unique dataset to evaluate the market potential of this platform. The purpose of this study, to evaluate commercial potential of the MVA platform for the development of novel generation pandemic influenza vaccines, is accomplished by using a SWOT and AHP combined analytic method. Application of the SWOT–AHP model indicates that its strengths are considered more important by KOLs than its weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Particularly, the inherent immunogenicity capability of MVA without the requirement of an adjuvant is the most important factor to increase commercial attractiveness of this platform. Concerns regarding vector vaccines and anti-vector immunity are considered its most important weakness, which might lower public health value of this platform. Furthermore, evaluation of the results of this study emphasizes equally important role that threats and opportunities of this platform play. This study further highlights unmet needs in the influenza vaccine market, which could be addressed by the implementation of the MVA platform. Broad use of MVA in clinical trials shows great promise for this vector as vaccine platform for pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza and threats by other respiratory viruses. Moreover, from the results of the clinical trials seem that MVA is particularly attractive for development of vaccines against pathogens for which no, or only insufficiently effective vaccines, are available. PMID:26048779

  2. Effect of vaccine dose on the safety and immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG vaccinated UK adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathan, Ansar A; Minassian, Angela M; Sander, Clare R; Rowland, Rosalind; Porter, David W; Poulton, Ian D; Hill, Adrian V S; Fletcher, Helen A; McShane, Helen

    2012-08-17

    A non-randomised, open-label, Phase I safety and immunogenicity dose-finding study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the candidate TB vaccine Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara expressing Antigen 85A (MVA85A) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in healthy adult volunteers previously vaccinated with BCG. Healthy BCG-vaccinated volunteers were vaccinated with either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. All adverse events were documented and antigen specific T cell responses were measured using an ex vivo IFN-γ ELISPOT assay. Safety and immunogenicity were compared between the 2 dose groups and with a previous trial in which a dose of 5×10(7)PFU MVA85A had been administered. There were no serious adverse events recorded following administration of either 1×10(7) or 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. Systemic adverse events were more frequently reported following administration of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A when compared to either 5×10(7) or 1×10(7)PFU of MVA85A but were mild or moderate in severity and resolved completely within 7 days of immunisation. Antigen specific T cell responses as measured by the IFN-γ ELISPOT were significantly higher following immunisation in adults receiving 1×10(8)PFU compared to the 5×10(7) and 1×10(7) doses. Additionally, a broader range of Ag85A epitopes are detected following 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A. A higher dose of 1×10(8)PFU of MVA85A is well-tolerated, increases the frequency of IFN-γ secreting T cells detected following immunisation and broadens the range of Ag85A epitopes detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaccination with Combination DNA and Virus-Like Particles Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses upon Boost with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja Gangadhara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterologous prime boost with DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1. To further enhance the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination, we investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after three sequential immunizations with DNA, a combination of DNA and virus-like particles (VLP, and rMVA expressing HIV-1 89.6 gp120 envelope proteins (Env. DNA prime and boost with a combination of VLP and DNA vaccines followed by an rMVA boost induced over a 100-fold increase in Env-specific IgG antibody titers compared to three sequential immunizations with DNA and rMVA. Cellular immune responses were induced by VLP-DNA and rMVA vaccinations at high levels in CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreting interferon (IFN-γ, and spleen cells producing interleukin (IL-2, 4, 5 cytokines. This study suggests that a DNA and VLP combination vaccine with MVA is a promising strategy in enhancing the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination against HIV-1.

  4. Different patterns of expansion, contraction and memory differentiation of HIV-1 Gag-specific CD8 T cells elicited by adenovirus type 5 and modified vaccinia Ankara vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vinod Kumar Bhaskara; Kannanganat, Sunil; Penaloza-Macmaster, Pablo; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Robinson, Harriet L; Blackwell, Jerry; Amara, Rama Rao

    2011-07-26

    The magnitude and functional quality of antiviral CD8 T cell responses are critical for the efficacy of T cell based vaccines. Here, we investigate the influence of two popular viral vectors, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), on expansion, contraction and memory differentiation of HIV-1 Gag insert-specific CD8 T cell responses following immunization and show different patterns for the two recombinant viral vectors. The Ad5 vector primed 6-fold higher levels of insert-specific CD8 effector T cells than the MVA vector. The Ad5-primed effector cells also underwent less contraction (cells (>5-fold). The Ad5-primed memory cells were predominantly CD62L negative (effector memory) whereas the MVA-primed memory cells were predominantly CD62L positive (central memory). Consistent with their memory phenotype, MVA-primed CD8 T cells underwent higher fold expansion than Ad5-primed CD8 T cells following a homologous or heterologous boost. Impressively, the Ad5 boost changed the quality of MVA-primed memory response such that they undergo less contraction with effector memory phenotype. However, the MVA boost did not influence the contraction and memory phenotype of Ad5-primed response. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that vaccine vector strongly influences the expansion, contraction and the functional quality of insert-specific CD8 T cell responses and have implications for vaccine development against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of pre- and post-treatment markers, clinical, and laboratory parameters associated with outcome in renal cancer patients treated with MVA-5T4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eAmato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent approvals of immunotherapeutic agents (Sipuleucel-T and Ipilimumab for the treatment of different solid tumors gave a boost to the growing cancer immunotherapy field, even though few immunotherapy studies have demonstrated convincingly that there is a direct link between the predicted mode of action of an immunological compound and therapeutic benefit. MVA-5T4 (Trovax® is a novel vaccine combining the tumor-associated antigen 5T4 to an engineered vector-modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA. MVA helps to express the oncofetal 5T4 antigen and subsequently trigger a tumor-directed immune reaction. The safety and clinical benefit reported in multiple phase I and II clinical trials using MVA-5T4 were encouraging; immune responses were induced in almost all treated patients, and associations between 5T4-specific cellular or humoral responses and clinical benefit were reported in most of the nine phase II trials. In particular, clinical studies conducted in renal cell carcinoma (RCC patients have demonstrated an association between 5T4-specific (but not MVA antibody responses and enhanced survival. This review describes the clinical studies using MVA-5T4 conducted in RCC that convincingly demonstrated that an antigen-specific immune response induced by vaccination is associated with enhanced patient survival and is not simply a function of the general health of patients. We will also provide our expert opinions on possible future better-designed clinical trials based on relevant biomarkers. In addition, various combinations of MVA-5T4 and different and newer immunomodulator agents with promising clinical benefit will be discussed.

  6. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is ideal for surgical uterine evacuation in low-resource settings such as Ghana, but developing a sustainable supply to MVA has been challenging. In 2007 a situational analysis was conducted in Ghana to identify barriers to sustainable MVA supply.

  7. A modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine vector expressing a mosaic H5 hemagglutinin reduces viral shedding in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W Florek

    Full Text Available The rapid antigenic evolution of influenza viruses requires frequent vaccine reformulations. Due to the economic burden of continuous vaccine reformulation and the threat of new pandemics, there is intense interest in developing vaccines capable of eliciting broadly cross-reactive immunity to influenza viruses. We recently constructed a "mosaic" hemagglutinin (HA based on subtype 5 HA (H5 and designed to stimulate cellular and humoral immunity to multiple influenza virus subtypes. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA expressing this H5 mosaic (MVA-H5M protected mice against multiple homosubtypic H5N1 strains and a heterosubtypic H1N1 virus. To assess its potential as a human vaccine we evaluated the ability of MVA-H5M to provide heterosubtypic immunity to influenza viruses in a non-human primate model. Rhesus macaques received an initial dose of either MVA-H5M or plasmid DNA encoding H5M, followed by a boost of MVA-H5M, and then were challenged, together with naïve controls, with the heterosubtypic virus A/California/04/2009 (H1N1pdm. Macaques receiving either vaccine regimen cleared H1N1pdm challenge faster than naïve controls. Vaccination with H5M elicited antibodies that bound H1N1pdm HA, but did not neutralize the H1N1pdm challenge virus. Plasma from vaccinated macaques activated NK cells in the presence of H1N1pdm HA, suggesting that vaccination elicited cross-reactive antibodies capable of mediating antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC. Although HA-specific T cell responses to the MVA-H5M vaccine were weak, responses after challenge were stronger in vaccinated macaques than in control animals. Together these data suggest that mosaic HA antigens may provide a means for inducing broadly cross-reactive immunity to influenza viruses.

  8. Vectors based on modified vaccinia Ankara expressing influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin induce substantial cross-clade protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are continuing to evolve with a potential threat for an influenza pandemic. So far, the H5N1 influenza viruses have not widely circulated in humans and therefore constitute a high risk for the non immune population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-protective potential of the hemagglutinins of five H5N1 strains of divergent clades using a live attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vector vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The replication-deficient MVA virus was used to express influenza hemagglutinin (HA proteins. Specifically, recombinant MVA viruses expressing the HA genes of the clade 1 virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (VN/1203, the clade 2.1.3 virus A/Indonesia/5/2005 (IN5/05, the clade 2.2 viruses A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (TT01/05 and A/chicken/Egypt/3/2006 (CE/06, and the clade 2.3.4 virus A/Anhui/1/2005 (AH1/05 were constructed. These experimental live vaccines were assessed in a lethal mouse model. Mice vaccinated with the VN/1203 hemagglutinin-expressing MVA induced excellent protection against all the above mentioned clades. Also mice vaccinated with the IN5/05 HA expressing MVA induced substantial protection against homologous and heterologous AH1/05 challenge. After vaccination with the CE/06 HA expressing MVA, mice were fully protected against clade 2.2 challenge and partially protected against challenge of other clades. Mice vaccinated with AH1/05 HA expressing MVA vectors were only partially protected against homologous and heterologous challenge. The live vaccines induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies, mainly directed against the homologous challenge virus, and high levels of HA-specific IFN-γ secreting CD4 and CD8 T-cells against epitopes conserved among the H5 clades and subclades. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The highest level of cross-protection was induced by the HA derived from the VN/1203 strain, suggesting that pandemic H5 vaccines

  9. Improving the MVA vaccine potential by deleting the viral gene coding for the IL-18 binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Falivene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA is an attenuated strain of Vaccinia virus (VACV currently employed in many clinical trials against HIV/AIDS and other diseases. MVA still retains genes involved in host immune response evasion, enabling its optimization by removing some of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate cellular immune responses (CIR induced by an IL-18 binding protein gene (C12L deleted vector (MVAΔC12L. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were immunized with different doses of MVAΔC12L or MVA wild type (MVAwt, then CIR to VACV epitopes in immunogenic proteins were evaluated in spleen and draining lymph nodes at acute and memory phases (7 and 40 days post-immunization respectively. Compared with parental MVAwt, MVAΔC12L immunization induced a significant increase of two to three-fold in CD8(+ and CD4(+ T-cell responses to different VACV epitopes, with increased percentage of anti-VACV cytotoxic CD8(+ T-cells (CD107a/b(+ during the acute phase of the response. Importantly, the immunogenicity enhancement was also observed after MVAΔC12L inoculation with different viral doses and by distinct routes (systemic and mucosal. Potentiation of MVA's CIR was also observed during the memory phase, in correlation with a higher protection against an intranasal challenge with VACV WR. Of note, we could also show a significant increase in the CIR against HIV antigens such as Env, Gag, Pol and Nef from different subtypes expressed from two recombinants of MVAΔC12L during heterologous DNA prime/MVA boost vaccination regimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the relevance of IL-18 bp contribution in the immune response evasion during MVA infection. Our findings clearly show that the deletion of the viral IL-18 bp gene is an effective approach to increase MVA vaccine efficacy, as immunogenicity improvements were observed against vector antigens and more importantly to HIV antigens.

  10. Modified vaccinia virus ankara recombinants are as potent as vaccinia recombinants in diversified prime and boost vaccine regimens to elicit therapeutic antitumor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, James W; Poole, Diane J; Aarts, Wilhelmina M; Gómez Yafal, Alicia; Gritz, Linda; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2003-11-15

    Cancer vaccine regimens use various strategies to enhance immune responses to specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), including the increasing use of recombinant poxviruses [vaccinia (rV) and fowlpox (rF)] for delivery of the TAA to the immune system. However, the use of replication competent vectors with the potential of adverse reactions have made attenuation a priority for next-generation vaccine strategies. Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a replication defective form of vaccinia virus. Here, we investigated the use of MVA encoding a tumor antigen gene, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in addition to multiple costimulatory molecules (B7-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3 designated TRICOM). Vaccination of mice with MVA-CEA/TRICOM induced potent CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific for CEA. MVA-CEA/TRICOM could be administered twice in vaccinia naïve mice and only a single time in vaccinia-immune mice before being inhibited by antivector-immune responses. The use of MVA-CEA/TRICOM in a diversified prime and boost vaccine regimen with rF-CEA/TRICOM, however, induced significantly greater levels of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific for CEA than that seen with rV-CEA/TRICOM prime and rF-CEA/TRICOM boost. In a self-antigen tumor model, the diversified MVA-CEA/TRICOM/rF-CEA/ TRICOM vaccination regimen resulted in a significant therapeutic antitumor response as measured by increased survival, when compared with the diversified prime and boost regimen, rV-CEA/TRICOM/rF-CEA/TRICOM. The studies reported here demonstrate that MVA, when used as a prime in a diversified vaccination, is clearly comparable with the regimen using the recombinant vaccinia in both the induction of cellular immune responses specific for the "self"-TAA transgene and in antitumor activity.

  11. FWI and MVA the natural way

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Integrating migration velocity analysis (MVA) and full waveform inversion (FWI) can help reduce the high nonlinearity of the classic FWI objective function. The combination of inverting for the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model using a dual objective function that is sensitive to both components is still very expensive and have produced mixed results. We develop an approach that includes both components integrated to complement each other. We specifically utilize the image to generate reflections in our synthetic data only when the velocity model is not capable of producing such reflections. As a result, we get the MVA working when we need it, and mitigate it\\'s influence when the velocity model produces accurate reflections (possible first for the low frequencies). Applications to a layered model, as well as, the Marmousi model demonstrate some of the approach features.

  12. A fusion protein of HCMV IE1 exon4 and IE2 exon5 stimulates potent cellular immunity in an MVA vaccine vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhou, W.; Srivastava, T.; La Rosa, C.; Mandarino, A.; Forman, S.J.; Zaia, J.A.; Britt, W.J.; Diamond, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    A therapeutic CMV vaccine incorporating an antigenic repertoire capable of eliciting a cellular immune response has yet to be successfully implemented for patients who already have acquired an infection. To address this problem, we have developed a vaccine candidate derived from modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that expresses three immunodominant antigens (pp65, IE1, IE2) from CMV. The novelty of this vaccine is the fusion of two adjacent exons from the immediate-early region of CMV, their successful expression in MVA, and robust immunogenicity in both primary and memory response models. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the viral vaccine in mouse models shows that it can stimulate primary immunity against all three antigens in both the CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets. Evaluation of human PBMC from healthy CMV-positive donors or patients within 6 months of receiving hematopoietic cell transplant shows robust stimulation of existing CMV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets

  13. Impact of isoniazid preventive therapy on the evaluation of long-term effectiveness of infant MVA85A vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyasi, E W; Luabeya, A K K; Tameris, M; Geldenhuys, H; Mulenga, H; Landry, B S; Scriba, T J; Schmidt, B-M; Hanekom, W A; Mahomed, H; McShane, H; Hatherill, M

    2017-07-01

    South Africa. To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of infant modified vaccinia Ankara virus-expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A) vaccination against tuberculosis (TB). We analysed data from a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled Phase 2b MVA85A infant TB vaccine trial (2009-2012), with extended post-trial follow-up (2012-2014). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) was provided by public health services according to national guidelines. The primary outcome was curative treatment for TB disease. Survival analysis and Poisson regression were used for study analysis. Total follow-up was 10 351 person-years of observation (pyo). Median follow-up age was 4.8 years (interquartile range 4.4-5.2). There were 328 (12%) TB cases. TB disease incidence was 3.2/100 pyo (95%CI 2.8-3.5) overall, and respectively 3.3 (95%CI 2.9-3.9) and 3.0 (95%CI 2.6-3.5)/100 pyo in the MVA85A vaccine and placebo arms. A total of 304 children (11%) received IPT, with respectively 880 and 9471 pyo among IPT and non-IPT recipients. There were 23 (7.6%) TB cases among 304 IPT recipients vs. 305 (12.9%) among 2374 non-IPT recipients (P = 0.008). IPT effectiveness was 85% (95%CI 76-91). Extended follow-up confirms no long-term effectiveness of infant MVA85A vaccination, but a six-fold reduction in TB risk can be attributed to IPT. National TB programmes in high TB burden countries should ensure optimal implementation of IPT for eligible children.

  14. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating excess early double-stranded RNA transiently activates protein kinase R and triggers enhanced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; Hausmann, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-β in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-β induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-α, IFN-γ, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral

  15. The impact of the manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) technique on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the impact of the manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) technique on health care services and its acceptability to patients and staff. Design. Prospective descriptive survey. Setting. The university teaching hospital, Blantyre, Malawi. Participants. All 456 patients who had MVA for treatment or investigation ...

  16. The impact of the manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) technique on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess the impact of the manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) technique on health care services and its acceptability to patients and staff. Design. Prospective descriptive survey. Setting. The university teaching hospital, Blantyre,. Malawi. Participants. All 456 patients who had MVA for treatment or investigation ...

  17. Executive compensation and the EVA and MVA performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    as different 'lenses' to look at executive remuneration, namely the principal-agent, ... Alshimmiri (2004: 117) investigated the real estate investment .... real options'. 1. Low. 1. Low. High. 1. MVA. Source: Adapted from Fatemi et al. (2003: 171). Figure 1: EVA and MVA grid. The categorisation of companies according to the ...

  18. A single immunization with MVA expressing GnGc glycoproteins promotes epitope-specific CD8+-T cell activation and protects immune-competent mice against a lethal RVFV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena López-Gil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne pathogen causing an important disease in ruminants often transmitted to humans after epizootic outbreaks in African and Arabian countries. To help combat the spread of the disease, prophylactic measures need to be developed and/or improved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant plasmid DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vectored vaccines against Rift Valley fever in mice. These recombinant vaccines encoded either of two components of the Rift Valley fever virus: the viral glycoproteins (Gn/Gc or the nucleoprotein (N. Following lethal challenge with live RVFV, mice immunized with a single dose of the rMVA-Gn/Gc vaccine showed no viraemia or clinical manifestation of disease, but mounted RVFV neutralizing antibodies and glycoprotein specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Neither DNA-Gn/Gc alone nor a heterologous prime-boost immunization schedule (DNA-Gn/Gc followed by rMVAGn/Gc was better than the single rMVA-Gn/Gc immunization schedule with regards to protective efficacy. However, the rMVA-Gn/Gc vaccine failed to protect IFNAR(-/- mice upon lethal RVFV challenge suggesting a role for innate responses in protection against RVFV. Despite induction of high titer antibodies against the RVFV nucleoprotein, the rMVA-N vaccine, whether in homologous or heterologous prime-boost schedules with the corresponding recombinant DNA vaccine, only conferred partial protection to RVFV challenge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given the excellent safety profile of rMVA based vaccines in humans and animals, our data supports further development of rMVA-Gn/Gc as a vaccine strategy that can be used for the prevention of Rift Valley fever in both humans and livestock.

  19. MVA.85A boosting of BCG and an attenuated, phoP deficient M. tuberculosis vaccine both show protective efficacy against tuberculosis in rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Verreck

    Full Text Available Continuous high global tuberculosis (TB mortality rates and variable vaccine efficacy of Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG motivate the search for better vaccine regimes. Relevant models are required to downselect the most promising vaccines entering clinical efficacy testing and to identify correlates of protection.Here, we evaluated immunogenicity and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rhesus monkeys with two novel strategies: BCG boosted by modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA.85A, and attenuated M. tuberculosis with a disrupted phoP gene (SO2 as a single-dose vaccine. Both strategies were well tolerated, and immunogenic as evidenced by induction of specific IFNgamma responses. Antigen 85A-specific IFNgamma secretion was specifically increased by MVA.85A boosting. Importantly, both MVA.85A and SO2 treatment significantly reduced pathology and chest X-ray scores upon infectious challenge with M. tuberculosis Erdman strain. MVA.85A and SO2 treatment also showed reduced average lung bacterial counts (1.0 and 1.2 log respectively, compared with 0.4 log for BCG and significant protective effect by reduction in C-reactive protein levels, body weight loss, and decrease of erythrocyte-associated hematologic parameters (MCV, MCH, Hb, Ht as markers of inflammatory infection, all relative to non-vaccinated controls. Lymphocyte stimulation revealed Ag85A-induced IFNgamma levels post-infection as the strongest immunocorrelate for protection (spearman's rho: -0.60.Both the BCG/MVA.85A prime-boost regime and the novel live attenuated, phoP deficient TB vaccine candidate SO2 showed significant protective efficacy by various parameters in rhesus macaques. Considering the phylogenetic relationship between macaque and man and the similarity in manifestations of TB disease, these data support further development of these primary and combination TB vaccine candidates.

  20. Turkey: the smog buster is a big hit in Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalor, A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of Ankara's natural gas distribution system, and the closure of the city's lignite-burning town gas plants are discussed. The significant reduction in air pollution levels and reduced energy costs are noted, and the planned supply of gas to 450,000 dwelling in Ankara and the conversion of Ankara's buses to natural gas are considered. (UK)

  1. 19th Century Ankara Through Historical Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A city is a place whose meaning is found in the poetry created there. In Kevin Lynch’s words, a city presents the imagination with an unlimited potential for “readability”. If we consider this unlimited readability through poetry, it can be said that attempts to find the zeitgeist of a city at a certain time through literary texts must evaluate the poetry, the city and the time. This is because poetry (or literature in general, just like a city, has an important memory which oscillates through ideas of its past and future. In this sense, divan poetry and one particular example of it—historical “manzume” poems—are memories which richly illustrate the ‘continuity’ and ‘change’ within a period. This work, on 19th century Ankara, aims to evaluate the traces reflected in historical manzume poems of the time they were written. Five historical manzume poems in three texts out of seventy 19th century divan collections scanned for this work were found to be about Ankara. Two of these manzumes are by Cazib, one by Ziver Pasha, and one by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha. The first of these is on Ankara’s dervish lodge; the second on a barracks being built in Ankara; the third on Vecihi Pasha’s governorship of Ankara; the fourth on the the Mayoral Residence. In addition to these, a manzume on the construction of Hamidiye Caddesi by Mahmud Celaleddin Pasha is discovered with in scope of the work. The aim of this work is to provide a contribution to city history through a commentary on elements of 19th century poetry concerning Ankara.

  2. Sub-pixel-based MVA LCTV characterization and color modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaying; Feng, Xiaofan; Daly, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, multi-domain vertical alignment (MVA) LCD technology is becoming the mainstream approach for LCTV industry due to its high contrast ratio and wide viewing angle property. However, like many other types of LCD devices, MVA still has the problem of color shift, namely color washout, between normal and oblique viewing angle. In particular, MVA shows an evident gamma curve distortion at large oblique viewing angle. This paper formulates the MVA LCTV color performance in two stages. First, an in-depth LCD characterization was performed on an MVA LCTV with consideration of spectral characteristic, backlight leakage, sub-pixel crosstalk, primary shift. Also, micrograph based sub-pixel analysis was employed and suggested that the off-axis color shift problem of MVA can be improved by using dual sub-pixel technology. Next, a generic LCD color model was proposed to relate the RGB input with the output tristimulus value in XYZ. Sub-pixel based image rendering was performed and the results show the feasibility of LCD color prediction with high colorimetric accuracy both at on-axis and off-axis viewing condition by using the proposed generic color model.

  3. A Multicenter, Open-Label, Controlled Phase II Study to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of MVA Smallpox Vaccine (IMVAMUNE in 18-40 Year Old Subjects with Diagnosed Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Greenberg

    Full Text Available Replicating smallpox vaccines can cause severe complications in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD. Prior studies evaluating Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA, a non-replicating vaccine in humans, showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in healthy volunteers.This Phase II study compared the safety and immunogenicity of MVA enrolling groups of 350 subjects with AD (SCORAD ≤ 30 and 282 healthy subjects.Subjects were vaccinated twice with MVA, each dose given subcutaneously 4 weeks apart. Adverse events, cardiac parameters, and the development of vaccinia virus humoral immune responses were monitored.The overall safety of the vaccine was similar in both groups. Adverse events affecting skin were experienced significantly more often in subjects with AD, but the majority of these events were mild to moderate in intensity. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers for total and neutralizing vaccinia-specific antibodies in the AD group were non-inferior compared to the healthy subjects.The size of the study population limited the detection of serious adverse events occurring at a frequency less than 1%.MVA has a favorable safety profile and the ability to elicit vaccinia-specific immune responses in subjects with AD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316602.

  4. HIV-1 Subtype C Mosaic Gag Expressed by BCG and MVA Elicits Persistent Effector T Cell Responses in a Prime-Boost Regimen in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsungai Ivai Jongwe

    Full Text Available Over 90% of HIV/AIDS positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with highly heterogeneous HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C viruses. One of the best ways to reduce the burden of this disease is the development of an affordable and effective prophylactic vaccine. Mosaic immunogens are computationally designed to overcome the hurdle of HIV diversity by maximizing the expression of potential T cell epitopes. Mycobacterium bovis BCG ΔpanCD auxotroph and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1C mosaic Gag (GagM were tested in a prime-boost regimen to demonstrate immunogenicity in a mouse study. The BCG-GagM vaccine was stable and persisted 11.5 weeks post vaccination in BALB/c mice. Priming with BCG-GagM and boosting with MVA-GagM elicited higher Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses than the BCG-GagM only and MVA-GagM only homologous vaccination regimens. The heterologous vaccination also generated a more balanced and persistent CD4+ and CD8+ T cell Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT response with a predominant effector memory phenotype. A Th1 bias was induced by the vaccines as determined by the predominant secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2. This study shows that a low dose of MVA (104 pfu can effectively boost a BCG prime expressing the same mosaic immunogen, generating strong, cellular immune responses against Gag in mice. Our data warrants further evaluation in non-human primates. A low dose vaccine would be an advantage in the resource limited countries of sub-Saharan Africa and India (where the predominating virus is HIV-1 subtype C.

  5. Potent functional antibody responses elicited by HIV-I DNA priming and boosting with heterologous HIV-1 recombinant MVA in healthy Tanzanian adults.

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    Agricola Joachim

    Full Text Available Vaccine-induced HIV antibodies were evaluated in serum samples collected from healthy Tanzanian volunteers participating in a phase I/II placebo-controlled double blind trial using multi-clade, multigene HIV-DNA priming and recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (HIV-MVA virus boosting (HIVIS03. The HIV-DNA vaccine contained plasmids expressing HIV-1 gp160 subtypes A, B, C, Rev B, Gag A, B and RTmut B, and the recombinant HIV-MVA boost expressed CRF01_AE HIV-1 Env subtype E and Gag-Pol subtype A. While no neutralizing antibodies were detected using pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl cell assay, this prime-boost vaccination induced neutralizing antibodies in 83% of HIVIS03 vaccinees when a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC assay using luciferase reporter-infectious molecular clones (LucR-IMC was employed. The serum neutralizing activity was significantly (but not completely reduced upon depletion of natural killer (NK cells from PBMC (p=0.006, indicating a role for antibody-mediated Fcγ-receptor function. High levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC-mediating antibodies against CRF01_AE and/or subtype B were subsequently demonstrated in 97% of the sera of vaccinees. The magnitude of ADCC-mediating antibodies against CM235 CRF01_AE IMC-infected cells correlated with neutralizing antibodies against CM235 in the IMC/PBMC assay. In conclusion, HIV-DNA priming, followed by two HIV-MVA boosts elicited potent ADCC responses in a high proportion of Tanzanian vaccinees. Our findings highlight the potential of HIV-DNA prime HIV-MVA boost vaccines for induction of functional antibody responses and suggest this vaccine regimen and ADCC studies as potentially important new avenues in HIV vaccine development.Controlled-Trials ISRCTN90053831 The Pan African Clinical Trials Registry ATMR2009040001075080 (currently PACTR2009040001075080.

  6. A novel replication-competent vaccinia vector MVTT is superior to MVA for inducing high levels of neutralizing antibody via mucosal vaccination.

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    Xiaoxing Huang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination offers great advantage for inducing protective immune response to prevent viral transmission and dissemination. Here, we report our findings of a head-to-head comparison of two viral vectors modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and a novel replication-competent modified vaccinia Tian Tan (MVTT for inducing neutralizing antibodies (Nabs via intramuscular and mucosal vaccinations in mice. MVTT is an attenuated variant of the wild-type VTT, which was historically used as a smallpox vaccine for millions of Chinese people. The spike glycoprotein (S of SARS-CoV was used as the test antigen after the S gene was constructed in the identical genomic location of two vectors to generate vaccine candidates MVTT-S and MVA-S. Using identical doses, MVTT-S induced lower levels ( approximately 2-3-fold of anti- SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies (Nabs than MVA-S through intramuscular inoculation. MVTT-S, however, was capable of inducing consistently 20-to-100-fold higher levels of Nabs than MVA-S when inoculated via either intranasal or intraoral routes. These levels of MVTT-S-induced Nab responses were substantially (approximately 10-fold higher than that induced via the intramuscular route in the same experiments. Moreover, pre-exposure to the wild-type VTT via intranasal or intraoral route impaired the Nab response via the same routes of MVTT-S vaccination probably due to the pre-existing anti-VTT Nab response. The efficacy of intranasal or intraoral vaccination, however, was still 20-to-50-fold better than intramuscular inoculation despite the subcutaneous pre-exposure to wild-type VTT. Our data have implications for people who maintain low levels of anti-VTT Nabs after historical smallpox vaccination. MVTT is therefore an attractive live viral vector for mucosal vaccination.

  7. A Photographer From Ankara: Osman Darcan

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    Gülseren Mungan Yavuztürk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces Osman Darcan, an important name in the history of Ankara photography studios. Darcan followed in the footsteps of famous Austrian photographer Othmar Pferschy, whom he met in Istanbul, to go on to create his own valuable work. On leaving the Public Press Authority Photo Film Center, where he worked as a newsreel photographer and film operator, in 1943 he began taking photographs at the Tatbikat Theater at the Ankara State Conservatoire, where he continued as the photographer for the State Theater until the end of his life. At the same time, this master photographer took the pictures of a select coterie of Ankara’s leading individuals and well-known performers at a studio he opened on Anafartalar Caddesi. In both these roles, his photographs evoke admiration thanks to Darcan’s professional abilities and level of artistry.

  8. Public Library System in Ankara: A Quantitative Analysis

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    Bülent Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 42 public libraries in 25 central districts within the boundaries of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality in respect of five factors according to national and international standards quantitatively. The findings show that public libraries in Ankara are insufficient with respect to the number of buildings, users, staff and collection and also in terms of standards. Therefore, it has been suggested that an urgent planning is necessary for public libraries in Ankara.

  9. A pandemic influenza H1N1 live vaccine based on modified vaccinia Ankara is highly immunogenic and protects mice in active and passive immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Hessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel influenza vaccines inducing a broad immune response is an important objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate live vaccines which induce both strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses against the novel human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, and to show protection in a lethal animal challenge model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this purpose, the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of the influenza A/California/07/2009 (H1N1 strain (CA/07 were inserted into the replication-deficient modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA virus--a safe poxviral live vector--resulting in MVA-H1-Ca and MVA-N1-Ca vectors. These live vaccines, together with an inactivated whole virus vaccine, were assessed in a lung infection model using immune competent Balb/c mice, and in a lethal challenge model using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice after passive serum transfer from immunized mice. Balb/c mice vaccinated with the MVA-H1-Ca virus or the inactivated vaccine were fully protected from lung infection after challenge with the influenza H1N1 wild-type strain, while the neuraminidase virus MVA-N1-Ca induced only partial protection. The live vaccines were already protective after a single dose and induced substantial amounts of neutralizing antibodies and of interferon-gamma-secreting (IFN-gamma CD4- and CD8 T-cells in lungs and spleens. In the lungs, a rapid increase of HA-specific CD4- and CD8 T cells was observed in vaccinated mice shortly after challenge with influenza swine flu virus, which probably contributes to the strong inhibition of pulmonary viral replication observed. In addition, passive transfer of antisera raised in MVA-H1-Ca vaccinated immune-competent mice protected SCID mice from lethal challenge with the CA/07 wild-type virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The non-replicating MVA-based H1N1 live vaccines induce a broad protective immune response and are promising vaccine candidates for

  10. An intact signal peptide on dengue virus E protein enhances immunogenicity for CD8(+) T cells and antibody when expressed from modified vaccinia Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinan, Bárbara R; Flesch, Inge E A; Pinho, Tânia M G; Coelho, Fabiana M; Tscharke, David C; da Fonseca, Flávio G

    2014-05-23

    Dengue is a global public health concern and this is aggravated by a lack of vaccines or antiviral therapies. Despite the well-known role of CD8(+) T cells in the immunopathogenesis of Dengue virus (DENV), only recent studies have highlighted the importance of this arm of the immune response in protection against the disease. Thus, the majority of DENV vaccine candidates are designed to achieve protective titers of neutralizing antibodies, with less regard for cellular responses. Here, we used a mouse model to investigate CD8(+) T cell and humoral responses to a set of potential DENV vaccines based on recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA). To enable this study, we identified two CD8(+) T cell epitopes in the DENV-3 E protein in C57BL/6 mice. Using these we found that all the rMVA vaccines elicited DENV-specific CD8(+) T cells that were cytotoxic in vivo and polyfunctional in vitro. Moreover, vaccines expressing the E protein with an intact signal peptide sequence elicited more DENV-specific CD8(+) T cells than those expressing E proteins in the cytoplasm. Significantly, it was these same ER-targeted E protein vaccines that elicited antibody responses. Our results support the further development of rMVA vaccines expressing DENV E proteins and add to the tools available for dengue vaccine development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based influenza virus nucleoprotein vaccines are differentially immunogenic in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, A F; Magnusson, S E; Bosman, F; Stertman, L; de Vries, R D; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2017-10-01

    Because of the high variability of seasonal influenza viruses and the eminent threat of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, there is great interest in the development of vaccines that induce broadly protective immunity. Most probably, broadly protective influenza vaccines are based on conserved proteins, such as nucleoprotein (NP). NP is a vaccine target of interest as it has been shown to induce cross-reactive antibody and T cell responses. Here we tested and compared various NP-based vaccine preparations for their capacity to induce humoral and cellular immune responses to influenza virus NP. The immunogenicity of protein-based vaccine preparations with Matrix-M™ adjuvant as well as recombinant viral vaccine vector modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the influenza virus NP gene, with or without modifications that aim at optimization of CD8 + T cell responses, was addressed in BALB/c mice. Addition of Matrix-M™ adjuvant to NP wild-type protein-based vaccines significantly improved T cell responses. Furthermore, recombinant MVA expressing the influenza virus NP induced strong antibody and CD8 + T cell responses, which could not be improved further by modifications of NP to increase antigen processing and presentation. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Development and Test of a Prototype 100MVA Superconducting Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogarty, James M.; Bray, James W.

    2007-05-25

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: • Identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator. • Develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology. • Perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE’s proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept. • Design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables.

  13. A MVA construct expressing a secretable form of the Dengue virus 3 envelope protein protects immunized mice from dengue-induced encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinan, Bárbara R; Versiani, Alice Freitas; da Fonseca, Flávio G

    2016-12-07

    Dengue is no longer restricted to tropical developing countries, but is now a major global public health problem. Despite the recent license approval of the CYD-TDV vaccine in some countries, efforts to develop a more efficient vaccine against Dengue virus (DENV) continue. Herein, we evaluate the immunogenicity and level of protection of two potential vaccines against DENV based on recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA). The vaccine addressing the Envelope protein from DENV serotype 3 to the endoplasmic reticulum elicited neutralizing antibodies titers which correlate with protection, and also confers protection upon challenge in a mouse model. Our results support the development of a tetravalent dengue vaccine with the further construction of rMVAs expressing proteins from the other DENV serotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

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    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  15. Executive compensation and the EVA and MVA performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The media regularly report a growing incidence of non-alignment of executive pay and performance, and in some cases, no link between the two whatsoever. The advent of new measures of shareholder wealth such as economic value added (EVA) and market value added (MVA) have allowed some companies to link ...

  16. Asfalto modificado com polimero SBS para pavimentos drenantes

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Zamiro Machado

    2007-01-01

    Resumo: O polímero SBS - Estireno-Butadieno-Estireno tem sido muito empregado para modificar o asfalto, tanto para pavimentação como para aplicações industrial. Nessa pesquisa foi abordado o estudo do asfalto modificado com polímeros SBS, apresentando comportamento melhor que asfalto convencional, mostrando-se como o polímero se comporta ao ser misturado com o asfalto e quais características são melhoradas. O asfalto modificado com polímero SBS tem uma vida útil muito superior ao asfalto conv...

  17. Engineering characteristics of Ankara Greywacke under the foundation of the Beytepe open air theatre, Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, H.; Gurkan, B.; Sonmez, B.

    2008-08-01

    The construction of a large open air theatre having with an audience capacity of 7,000 is planned at the Beytepe Campus of Hacettepe University located near Ankara, Turkey, in the heart of Anatolia. The foundation of the open air theatre is composed of weak and heavily jointed Ankara Greywacke. An estimation of the strength and deformation of the Ankara Greywacke was required for assessments of short- and long-term stability. Accordingly, rock mass characterization of the Ankara Greywacke was investigated in detail by scan-line surveys and back-analyses of in situ tests performed on the excavated surface of the rock mass. The final version of the Hoek and Brown Criterion (Hoek et al., In: Proceedings of the north American rock mechanics society meeting, Toronto, Canada, pp 1 6, 2002) together with and improvements proposed by Sonmez and Gokceoglu (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci, 43:671 676, 2006) were considered together for the back analyses of small slope benches subjected to plate loading test loaded to failure. In addition, the plate loading test data were used with some well-known empirical equations for predicting of deformation modulus of rock masses to calculate ranges of values of the Geological Strength Index (GSI) The static and pseudostatic slope stabilities of the audience seating structures to be supported by benches excavated into the rock were also analyzed. The stability assessments revealed the unlikelihood of large rock mass failures for the short-term construction stages or for the long-term, as-constructed conditions under static or pseudo-static conditions. Additionally, the analyses showed that there was no need for anchors between the concrete seating structures and greywacke rock mass.

  18. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Industry analysis: hotel management segment of tourism sector in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Bütüner, Hakan

    1990-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Management and Graduate School of Business Administration, Bilkent Univ., 1990. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1990. Includes bibliographical refences. Bütüner, Hakan M.S.

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of a modified-vaccinia-virus-Ankara-based influenza A H5N1 vaccine: a randomised, double-blind phase 1/2a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, Joost H C M; Goeijenbier, Marco; Moesker, Fleur M; van den Dries, Lennert; Goeijenbier, Simone; De Gruyter, Heidi L M; Lehmann, Michael H; Mutsert, Gerrie de; van de Vijver, David A M C; Volz, Asisa; Fouchier, Ron A M; van Gorp, Eric C M; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Sutter, Gerd; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-12-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising viral vector platform for the development of an H5N1 influenza vaccine. Preclinical assessment of MVA-based H5N1 vaccines showed their immunogenicity and safety in different animal models. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the MVA-haemagglutinin-based H5N1 vaccine MVA-H5-sfMR in healthy individuals. In a single-centre, double-blind phase 1/2a study, young volunteers (aged 18-28 years) were randomly assigned with a computer-generated list in equal numbers to one of eight groups and were given one injection or two injections intramuscularly at an interval of 4 weeks of a standard dose (10(8) plaque forming units [pfu]) or a ten times lower dose (10(7) pfu) of the MVA-H5-sfMR (vector encoding the haemagglutinin gene of influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 virus [H5N1 subtype]) or MVA-F6-sfMR (empty vector) vaccine. Volunteers and physicians who examined and administered the vaccine were masked to vaccine assignment. Individuals who received the MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine were eligible for a booster immunisation 1 year after the first immunisation. Primary endpoint was safety. Secondary outcome was immunogenicity. The trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Register, number NTR3401. 79 of 80 individuals who were enrolled completed the study. No serious adverse events were identified. 11 individuals reported severe headache and lightheadedness, erythema nodosum, respiratory illness (accompanied by influenza-like symptoms), sore throat, or injection-site reaction. Most of the volunteers had one or more local (itch, pain, redness, and swelling) and systemic reactions (rise in body temperature, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, chills, malaise, and fatigue) after the first, second, and booster immunisations. Individuals who received the 10(7) dose had fewer systemic reactions. The MVA-H5-sfMR vaccine at 10(8) pfu induced significantly higher antibody responses after one and two immunisations than did 10(7) pfu when

  1. Subtype C gp140 Vaccine Boosts Immune Responses Primed by the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative DNA-C2 and MVA-C HIV Vaccines after More than a 2-Year Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Glenda E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Elizaga, Marnie L; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Allen, Mary; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David; De Rosa, Stephen C; Sato, Alicia; Gu, Niya; Tomaras, Georgia D; Tucker, Timothy; Barnett, Susan W; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Shen, Xiaoying; Downing, Katrina; Williamson, Carolyn; Pensiero, Michael; Corey, Lawrence; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-06-01

    A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing matched antigens. Following the finding of partial protective efficacy in the RV144 HIV vaccine efficacy trial, a protein boost with HIV-1 subtype C V2-deleted gp140 with MF59 was added to the regimen. A total of 48 participants (12 U.S. participants and 36 Republic of South Africa [RSA] participants) were randomized to receive 3 intramuscular (i.m.) doses of SAAVI DNA-C2 of 4 mg (months 0, 1, and 2) and 2 i.m. doses of SAAVI MVA-C of 1.45 × 10(9) PFU (months 4 and 5) (n = 40) or of a placebo (n = 8). Approximately 2 years after vaccination, 27 participants were rerandomized to receive gp140/MF59 at 100 μg or placebo, as 2 i.m. injections, 3 months apart. The vaccine regimen was safe and well tolerated. After the DNA-MVA regimen, CD4(+) T-cell and CD8(+) T-cell responses occurred in 74% and 32% of the participants, respectively. The protein boost increased CD4(+) T-cell responses to 87% of the subjects. All participants developed tier 1 HIV-1C neutralizing antibody responses as well as durable Env binding antibodies that recognized linear V3 and C5 peptides. The HIV-1 subtype C DNA-MVA vaccine regimen showed promising cellular immunogenicity. Boosting with gp140/MF59 enhanced levels of binding and neutralizing antibodies as well as CD4(+) T-cell responses to HIV-1 envelope. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00574600 and NCT01423825.). Copyright © 2016 Gray et al.

  2. Enhancing production of bio-isoprene using hybrid MVA pathway and isoprene synthase in E. coli.

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    Jianming Yang

    Full Text Available The depleting petroleum reserve, increasingly severe energy crisis, and global climate change are reigniting enthusiasm for seeking sustainable technologies to replace petroleum as a source of fuel and chemicals. In this paper, the efficiency of the MVA pathway on isoprene production has been improved as follows: firstly, in order to increase MVA production, the source of the "upper pathway" which contains HMG-CoA synthase, acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and HMG-CoA reductase to covert acetyl-CoA into MVA has been changed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Enterococcus faecalis; secondly, to further enhance the production of MVA and isoprene, a alanine 110 of the mvaS gene has been mutated to a glycine. The final genetic strain YJM25 containing the optimized MVA pathway and isoprene synthase from Populus alba can accumulate isoprene up to 6.3 g/L after 40 h of fed-batch cultivation.

  3. Ankara Orogenic Phase, Its Age and Transition From Thrusting-dominated Paleotectonic Period to the Strike-slip Neotectonic Period, Ankara (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    DEVECİ, ALİ KOÇYİĞİT & ŞULE

    2008-01-01

    The Ankara section of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) is characterized by two major groups of contractional structures, namely the Ankara forced folds-monoclines and the southward-verging foreland fold-imbricate thrust to reverse fault zone (AFITFZ). In the Ankara region, one of the areas where the various phases of deformation and related structures are particularly well-preserved and exposed is the Edige (Elmadağ) area, 48 km east-southeast of the city of Ankara. The youngest ...

  4. Improved survival in rhesus macaques immunized with modified vaccinia virus Ankara recombinants expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope correlates with reduction in memory CD4+ T-cell loss and higher titers of neutralizing antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourmanov, Ilnour; Kuwata, Takeo; Goeken, Robert; Goldstein, Simoy; Iyengar, Ranjani; Buckler-White, Alicia; Lafont, Bernard; Hirsch, Vanessa M

    2009-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that immunization of macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag-Pol and Env recombinants of the attenuated poxvirus modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) provided protection from high viremia and AIDS following challenge with a pathogenic strain of SIV. Although all animals became infected, plasma viremia was significantly reduced in animals that received the MVA-SIV recombinant vaccines compared with animals that received nonrecombinant MVA. Most importantly, the reduction in viremia resulted in a significant increase in median and cumulative survival. Continued analysis of these animals over the subsequent 9 years has shown that they maintain a survival advantage, although all but two of the macaques have progressed to AIDS. Importantly, improved survival correlated with preservation of memory CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood. The greatest survival advantage was observed in macaques immunized with regimens containing SIV Env, and the titer of neutralizing antibodies to the challenge virus prior to or shortly following challenge correlated with preservation of CD4(+) T cells. These data are consistent with a role for neutralizing antibodies in nonsterilizing protection from high viremia and associated memory CD4(+) T-cell loss.

  5. Mucosal immunization with PLGA-microencapsulated DNA primes a SIV-specific CTL response revealed by boosting with cognate recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Sally; Hanke, Tomas; Tinsley-Bown, Anne; Dennis, Mike; Dowall, Stuart; McMichael, Andrew; Cranage, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Systemically administered DNA encoding a recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) derived immunogen effectively primes a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in macaques. In this further pilot study we have evaluated mucosal delivery of DNA as an alternative priming strategy. Plasmid DNA, pTH.HW, encoding a multi-CTL epitope gene, was incorporated into poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles of less than 10 μm in diameter. Five intrarectal immunizations failed to stimulate a circulating vaccine-specific CTL response in 2 Mamu-A*01 + rhesus macaques. However, 1 week after intradermal immunization with a cognate modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine MVA.HW, CTL responses were detected in both animals that persisted until analysis postmortem, 12 weeks after the final boost. In contrast, a weaker and less durable response was seen in an animal vaccinated with the MVA construct alone. Analysis of lymphoid tissues revealed a disseminated CTL response in peripheral and regional lymph nodes but not the spleen of both mucosally primed animals

  6. Preferential Targeting of Conserved Gag Regions after Vaccination with a Heterologous DNA Prime-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Boost HIV-1 Vaccine Regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Asli; Podola, Lilli; Mann, Philipp; Missanga, Marco; Haule, Antelmo; Sudi, Lwitiho; Nilsson, Charlotta; Kaluwa, Bahati; Lueer, Cornelia; Mwakatima, Maria; Munseri, Patricia J; Maboko, Leonard; Robb, Merlin L; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Kijak, Gustavo; Marovich, Mary; McCormack, Sheena; Joseph, Sarah; Lyamuya, Eligius; Wahren, Britta; Sandström, Eric; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Hoelscher, Michael; Bakari, Muhammad; Kroidl, Arne; Geldmacher, Christof

    2017-09-15

    Prime-boost vaccination strategies against HIV-1 often include multiple variants for a given immunogen for better coverage of the extensive viral diversity. To study the immunologic effects of this approach, we characterized breadth, phenotype, function, and specificity of Gag-specific T cells induced by a DNA-prime modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccination strategy, which uses mismatched Gag immunogens in the TamoVac 01 phase IIa trial. Healthy Tanzanian volunteers received three injections of the DNA-SMI vaccine encoding a subtype B and AB-recombinant Gag p37 and two vaccinations with MVA-CMDR encoding subtype A Gag p55 Gag-specific T-cell responses were studied in 42 vaccinees using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After the first MVA-CMDR boost, vaccine-induced gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) Gag-specific T-cell responses were dominated by CD4 + T cells ( P viruses. While including multiple variants for a given immunogen in prime-boost vaccination strategies is one approach that aims to improve coverage for global virus variants, the immunologic consequences of this strategy have been poorly defined so far. It is unclear whether inclusion of multiple variants in prime-boost vaccination strategies improves recognition of variant viruses by T cells and by which mechanisms this would be achieved, either by improved cross-recognition of multiple variants for a given antigenic region or through preferential targeting of antigenic regions more conserved between prime and boost. Engineering vaccines to induce adaptive immune responses that preferentially target conserved antigenic regions of viral vulnerability might facilitate better immune control after preventive and therapeutic vaccination for HIV and for other variable viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Historical and Traditional Basics of Ankara Folk Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Can Satır

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study is to reveal the musical life of the region through identifying all dynamics constituting the traditional music culture of Ankara in the light of historical sources and by means of the relationship of these dynamics. Hence, this study is an objective research concerning the general assessment within the descriptive framework in which information for identifying the situation via the documental screening (document review method. In the light of obtained findings, Ankara folk music is based on two basic dimensions: central and environmental dimensions. While the central factor is an important determinant of the musical identity of the city due to the strong Seymen tradition within, the environmental factor is the most important obstacle for the standardization of Ankara folk music. Ankara is not all about folk music in the historical process. The music practices of the non-Muslim subjects lived in the beginning of the last century and the "alaturka music" embraced by the civilian and military bureaucracy prior to the Classical Western music together purport to prove the multicultural musical life in Ankara.

  8. Detection of urban heat island in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, I.; Dogan, U.

    2006-01-01

    Ankara is the second largest city in Turkey after Istanbul, and the rate of population increase and urbanization are quite high. In this study, the effects of urbanization on temperature variation due to urbanization in Ankara were investigated. The intensities of urban heat island (UHI) for long and short term were analyzed. Analysis of both long- and short-term data revealed that there is a significant increase in the intensity of UHI (AT(u-r)) in winter during the period analyzed. Analysis of data collected for period of October 2001-September 2002 shows that intensity of maximum UHI is in February. In this month, positive UHI was observed in 26 nights and on all these days wind speed was less than 0.5ms.1. UHI is positive in all seasons and frequency and intensity of UHI in winter are higher than in the other seasons. This characteristic makes Ankara different from other temperate latitude cities

  9. Enhanced cell surface expression, immunogenicity and genetic stability resulting from a spontaneous truncation of HIV Env expressed by a recombinant MVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, Linda S.; Belyakov, Igor M.; Earl, Patricia L.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Moss, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    During propagation of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding HIV 89.6 Env, a few viral foci stained very prominently. Virus cloned from such foci replicated to higher titers than the parent and displayed enhanced genetic stability on passage. Sequence analysis showed a single nucleotide deletion in the 89.6 env gene of the mutant that caused a frame shift and truncation of 115 amino acids from the cytoplasmic domain. The truncated Env was more highly expressed on the cell surface, induced higher antibody responses than the full-length Env, reacted with HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and mediated CD4/co-receptor-dependent fusion. Intramuscular (IM), intradermal (ID) needleless, and intrarectal (IR) catheter inoculations gave comparable serum IgG responses. However, intraoral (IO) needleless injector route gave the highest IgA in lung washings and IR gave the highest IgA and IgG responses in fecal extracts. Induction of CTL responses in the spleens of individual mice as assayed by intracellular cytokine staining was similar with both the full-length and truncated Env constructs. Induction of acute and memory CTL in the spleens of mice immunized with the truncated Env construct by ID, IO, and IR routes was comparable and higher than by the IM route, but only the IR route induced CTL in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Thus, truncation of Env enhanced genetic stability as well as serum and mucosal antibody responses, suggesting the desirability of a similar modification in MVA-based candidate HIV vaccines

  10. Organismos geneticamente modificados e agro-indústria

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, José Luís

    2006-01-01

    Um organismo geneticamente modificado (OGM) é um ser vivo cujo genoma – definido como o conjunto de todos os genes que estão nas células de um ser vivo – foi submetido a uma transformação realizada pelo ser humano através da engenharia genética. A engenharia genética tem a capacidade de transferir genes entre seres vivos totalmente distintos, de um modo inteiramente afastado dos métodos ancestrais de reprodução selectiva e hibridação.

  11. Blood Parasites of Wild Pigeons in Ankara District

    OpenAIRE

    GICIK, Yunus; ARSLAN, M. Özkan

    2001-01-01

    A total of 200 wild pigeons, 82 young and 118 adults, captured from 12 localities in Ankara District, were examined for blood parasites. Haemoproteus columbae was found in 57% (114/200) of the pigeons examined, and no other blood parasites were detected.

  12. Monocytes Phenotype and Cytokine Production in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Patients Receiving a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Based HIV-1 Vaccine: Relationship to CD300 Molecules Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vitallé

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A modified vaccinia Ankara-based HIV-1 vaccine clade B (MVA-B has been tested for safety and immunogenicity in low-risk human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-uninfected individuals and as a therapeutic vaccine in HIV-1-infected individuals on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. As a therapeutic vaccine, MVA-B was safe and broadly immunogenic; however, patients still showed a viral rebound upon treatment interruption. Monocytes are an important part of the viral reservoir and several studies suggest that they are partly responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in cART-treated HIV-infected people. The CD300 family of receptors has an important role in several diseases, including viral infections. Monocytes express CD300a, c, e, and f molecules and lipopolysaccharide (LPS and other stimuli regulate their expression. However, the expression and function of CD300 receptors on monocytes in HIV infection is still unknown. In this work, we investigated for the first time the expression of CD300 molecules and the cytokine production in response to LPS on monocytes from HIV-1-infected patients before and after vaccination with MVA-B. Our results showed that CD300 receptors expression on monocytes from HIV-1-infected patients correlates with markers of HIV infection progression and immune inflammation. Specifically, we observed a positive correlation between the expression of CD300e and CD300f receptors on monocytes with the number of CD4+ T cells of HIV-1-infected patients before vaccination. We also saw a positive correlation between the expression of the inhibitory receptor CD300f and the expression of CD163 on monocytes from HIV-1-infected individuals before and after vaccination. In addition, monocytes exhibited a higher cytokine production in response to LPS after vaccination, almost at the same levels of monocytes from healthy donors. Furthermore, we also described a correlation in the expression of CD300e and CD300f receptors with TNF

  13. Comparing adjuvanted H28 and modified vaccinia virus ankara expressingH28 in a mouse and a non-human primate tuberculosis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Billeskov

    Full Text Available Here we report for the first time on the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a vaccine strategy involving the adjuvanted fusion protein "H28" (consisting of Ag85B-TB10.4-Rv2660c and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara expressing H28. We show that a heterologous prime-boost regimen involving priming with H28 in a Th1 adjuvant followed by boosting with H28 expressed by MVA (H28/MVA28 induced the highest percentage of IFN-γ expressing T cells, the highest production of IFN-γ per single cell and the highest induction of CD8 T cells compared to either of the vaccines given alone. In contrast, in mice vaccinated with adjuvanted recombinant H28 alone (H28/H28 we observed the highest production of IL-2 per single cell and the highest frequency of antigen specific TNF-α/IL-2 expressing CD4 T cells pre and post infection. Interestingly, TNF-α/IL-2 expressing central memory-like CD4 T cells showed a significant positive correlation with protection at week 6 post infection, whereas the opposite was observed for post infection CD4 T cells producing only IFN-γ. Moreover, as a BCG booster vaccine in a clinically relevant non-human primate TB model, the H28/H28 vaccine strategy induced a slightly more prominent reduction of clinical disease and pathology for up to one year post infection compared to H28/MVA28. Taken together, our data showed that the adjuvanted subunit and MVA strategies led to different T cell subset combinations pre and post infection and that TNF-α/IL-2 double producing but not IFN-γ single producing CD4 T cell subsets correlated with protection in the mouse TB model. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the H28 vaccine antigen was able to induce strong protection in both a mouse and a non-human primate TB model.

  14. An MVA Approach to Missing $E_T$

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, Theodor Christian

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of an analysis of the missing transverse energy (MET) resolution in the CMS detector studying $Z\\to\\mu\\mu$ decay events as a part of the University of Michigan Summer REU Program. We make use of boosted decision trees and specialized recoil variables in an attempt to isolate separate effects contributing to the detector resolution such as pileup, the underlying event, and detector inefficiencies. A metric is developed to study the body of high-MET events in the distribution. Emphasis is placed on constructing a multivariate analysis that effectively models and corrects these `tail' regions, resulting in an overall improvement in our MET resolution. In Monte-Carlo simulation, we see an improvement from a mean value of MET = 18.12 GeV to MET= 8.14 GeV with full MVA corrections.

  15. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: hypotension after a MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 25 year old woman was a restrained driver in a rollover motor vehicle accident (MVA and suffered a C5-C6 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord injury. She was lucid and able to follow commands and could move her upper extremities but not her lower extremities. She was given approximately 6 liters of fluid but required vasopressors to maintain her blood pressure. Initial ECG revealed a normal sinus rhythm without significant ST changes (Figure 1. Upon initial evaluation her blood pressure was low. Bedside ultrasound of the left anterior second intercostal space revealed a sliding lung sign and a 4 chamber view of her heart was performed (Figure 2. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her hypotension? 1. Blunt cardiac injury; 2. Intravascular volume depletion; 3. Neurogenic stunned myocardium; 4. Pericardial tamponade; 5. Pneumothorax ...

  16. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melanie; Heath, Sonya L; Sweeton, Bentley; Williams, Kathy; Cunningham, Pamela; Keele, Brandon F; Sen, Sharon; Palmer, Brent E; Chomont, Nicolas; Xu, Yongxian; Basu, Rahul; Hellerstein, Michael S; Kwa, Suefen; Robinson, Harriet L

    2016-01-01

    GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost vaccine (GOVX-B11), was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI). Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  17. Ozone profiles and structure of lamination in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, C.; Demirhan, D.; Topcu, S.; Incecik, S.

    2003-04-01

    The existence of the laminar layers with depleted and enhanced ozone mixing ratios in the vertical profiles of ozone has been received scientific attention. Due to the influences of the dynamic processes on the ozone mixing ratio in the lower stratosphere, laminar features are used in relation to the filaments of air shed from the dynamic processes. Stratospheric ozone observations are based on ozonesonde flown from Ankara (40^oN; 33^oE) by Turkish State Meteorological Service. Measurements of the ozone profile using ECC balloon-borne ozonesonde have been made since January 1994 at Ankara, Turkey weekly or twice in month. In this study, about 151 soundings in the measured program (Jan.1994- Dec.2001) were used for the analysis. The total ozone characteristics of Ankara are similar to the stations of located in mid-latitudes of Eastern Europe. The average value of total column ozone amount by ozone sounding is found with a 320 DU ± 43 in the period of 1994-2001 in Ankara. The laminae features in Ankara reflect the similar characteristics obtained in European mid-latitude stations. The seasonal distributions of laminae at Ankara show a peak occurrence in Spring. The numbers of laminae are found as 45, 58, 17 and 18 for winter, spring, summer and fall seasons respectively. The most of the laminae are found below 13 km. Frequency distribution magnitudes of laminae indicates 21% in 26-30 nb class. The mean magnitude and depth of the laminae is found as 45 nb and 1.1km respectively. In order to understand the influence of tropopause heights on the laminae structure, the number of laminae has been grouped according to high and low tropopause heights. The frequency of laminae for both lower and higher tropopause groups for winter and spring seasons are close. However the laminae disappearances in both summer and fall seasons for only in case of the lower tropopause. The days with the maximum laminae which are mostly occurred in winter and spring seasons have been examined

  18. A Novel AT-Rich DNA Recognition Mechanism for Bacterial Xenogeneic Silencer MvaT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Ding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial xenogeneic silencing proteins selectively bind to and silence expression from many AT rich regions of the chromosome. They serve as master regulators of horizontally acquired DNA, including a large number of virulence genes. To date, three distinct families of xenogeneic silencers have been identified: H-NS of Proteobacteria, Lsr2 of the Actinomycetes, and MvaT of Pseudomonas sp. Although H-NS and Lsr2 family proteins are structurally different, they all recognize the AT-rich DNA minor groove through a common AT-hook-like motif, which is absent in the MvaT family. Thus, the DNA binding mechanism of MvaT has not been determined. Here, we report the characteristics of DNA sequences targeted by MvaT with protein binding microarrays, which indicates that MvaT prefers binding flexible DNA sequences with multiple TpA steps. We demonstrate that there are clear differences in sequence preferences between MvaT and the other two xenogeneic silencer families. We also determined the structure of the DNA-binding domain of MvaT in complex with a high affinity DNA dodecamer using solution NMR. This is the first experimental structure of a xenogeneic silencer in complex with DNA, which reveals that MvaT recognizes the AT-rich DNA both through base readout by an "AT-pincer" motif inserted into the minor groove and through shape readout by multiple lysine side chains interacting with the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. Mutations of key MvaT residues for DNA binding confirm their importance with both in vitro and in vivo assays. This novel DNA binding mode enables MvaT to better tolerate GC-base pair interruptions in the binding site and less prefer A tract DNA when compared to H-NS and Lsr2. Comparison of MvaT with other bacterial xenogeneic silencers provides a clear picture that nature has evolved unique solutions for different bacterial genera to distinguish foreign from self DNA.

  19. Reabilitação de pavimentos utilizando misturas betuminosas com betumes modificados

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, Carlos C.; Pereira, Pedro A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2006-01-01

    Na reabilitação estrutural do pavimento do lanço CRIL-Loures da A8, a Auto-Estradas do Atlântico utilizou duas soluções distintas de reforço recorrendo a misturas betuminosas com betumes modificados. No sentido Norte-Sul foi utilizada uma mistura betuminosa com betume modificado com borracha reciclada de pneus usados (BMB) e no sentido Sul-Norte foi utilizada uma mistura betuminosa com um betume modificado com polímeros (SBS). O betume com polímeros foi utilizado num betão betu...

  20. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)/IMVAMUNE (registered trademark) Against Aerosolized Rabbitpox Virus in a Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    euthanized ith an administration of intravenous pentobarbital solution. .8. DNA isolation and real-time PCR Starting the day before exposure and...intravenous administration of pentobarbital solution as described above. Although a complete gross necropsywas performed on each of these animals, no...research methodology and animal models. Boca Raton , FL: CRC Press; 2006. p. 61–76. 15] KuleshDA,BakerRO, LovelessBM,NorwoodD, Zwiers SH,MuckerE, et al

  1. Strategies to obtain multiple recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vectors. Applications to influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Andrea; Panigada, Maddalena; Soprana, Elisa; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Gubinelli, Francesco; Bernasconi, Valentina; Recagni, Marta; Donatelli, Isabella; Castrucci, Maria R; Siccardi, Antonio G

    2018-01-01

    As a vaccination vector, MVA has been widely investigated both in animal models and humans. The construction of recombinant MVA (rMVA) relies on homologous recombination between an acceptor virus and a donor plasmid in infected/transfected permissive cells. Our construction strategy "Red-to-Green gene swapping" - based on the exchange of two fluorescent markers within the flanking regions of MVA deletion ΔIII, coupled to fluorescence activated cell sorting - is here extended to a second insertion site, within the flanking regions of MVA deletion ΔVI. Exploiting this strategy, both double and triple rMVA were constructed, expressing as transgenes the influenza A proteins HA, NP, M1, and PB1. Upon validation of the harbored transgenes co-expression, double and triple recombinants rMVA(ΔIII)-NP-P2A-M1 and rMVA(ΔIII)-NP-P2A-M1-(ΔVI)-PB1 were assayed for in vivo immunogenicity and protection against lethal challenge. In vivo responses were identical to those obtained with the reported combinations of single recombinants, supporting the feasibility and reliability of the present improvement and the extension of Red-to-Green gene swapping to insertion sites other than ΔIII. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tropopause Height's influences on vertical ozone structure in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, D.; Kahya, C.; Topcu, S.; Incecik, S.

    2003-04-01

    The changes in ozone and the temperature profiles in mid-latitudes of lower stratosphere are consistent with the assumption of a change in vertical transport. The variability of total ozone in these latitudes may be related to the tropopause heights. Stratospheric ozone observations based on balloon-borne ozonesonde from Ankara (40^oN;33^oE) by Turkish State Meteorological Service (TSMS) began in January 1994. The measurement program is currently continuing at taken State Meteorological Station. The ECC ozonesonde has been used by chemical means as the instrument ascents through the atmosphere by balloon. In this study, we attempt to present the results of analyses of tropopause heights and their influences on total ozone variability in Ankara. Due to the strong dynamical processes, and associated atmospheric transport, which are the main reasons of the variability in the vertical ozone profiles in mid-latitudes, the tropopause heights and temperature and ozone mixing ratio profiles in Ankara were examined. It is founded that the average value of total column ozone amount by ozonesounding is 320 DU with a standard deviation ± 43 in the period of 1994-2001 in Ankara. The monthly average total column ozone varied in between 250 to 419 DU. In this study, we have considered a classification of the observed data according to the low and high tropopause heights corresponding to ozone mixing ratio profiles for the winter (DJF) and the summer (JJA). For this purpose we assumed a range in between 8.5-10.0 km heights for low tropopause; 10.0 km and higher for high tropopause respectively. About 151 soundings from January 1994 to December 2001 are used in this analysis. Of all 151 sounding used, 47 fall in winter period and 29 in summer period. Furthermore 43 from total sounding correspond to the lower tropopause height and 108 to the higher class. Furthermore, the average ozone mixing ratio profiles for the low and high tropopause groups are obtained. The correlation

  3. An Investigation on Satisfaction of Domestic Tourist from Ankara Shopping Fest under the Tourism of Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TAYFUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of Tourism mostly in coastal of Turkey, in certain centers and in summer season stands out as a major problem. A tourism mobility that, spread over 12 months, and including inner zones is emphasized also in 2023 Tourism Strategy of Turkey. Therefore, increasing the diversity of tourism such as festivals, which started to increase number of events. Hence, investigated in this study, satisfaction levels from Ankara Shopping Fest of domestic tourists, who came to Ankara during "Ankara Shopping Fest" which, organized in Ankara on 8 June to 1 July 2012 period. Descriptive research method used in the study. The aims in this study, determination of the views of local tourists about Ankara Shopping Fest and to investigate the satisfaction from the festival. 336 domestic tourists as visitors during the festival in Ankara were the sample of research. Questionnaire technique was used as a data collection technique. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, the first section was demographic variables. The second section was located expressions for Ankara Shopping Fest. Some statical analysis made to data in the result of research. These analyses were frequecy analysis, t tests and ANOVA tests. As a result of the t-tests and ANOVA tests significant differences were found between gender, age, level of income and civil staus of domestic tourists who came to Ankara during the festival.

  4. TLR1/2 activation during heterologous prime-boost vaccination (DNA-MVA enhances CD8+ T Cell responses providing protection against Leishmania (Viannia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jayakumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Viannia parasites present particular challenges, as human and murine immune responses to infection are distinct from other Leishmania species, indicating a unique interaction with the host. Further, vaccination studies utilizing small animal models indicate that modalities and antigens that prevent infection by other Leishmania species are generally not protective.Using a newly developed mouse model of chronic L. (Viannia panamensis infection and the heterologous DNA prime - modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA boost vaccination modality, we examined whether the conserved vaccine candidate antigen tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP could provide protection against infection/disease.Heterologous prime - boost (DNA/MVA vaccination utilizing TRYP antigen can provide protection against disease caused by L. (V. panamensis. However, protection is dependent on modulating the innate immune response using the TLR1/2 agonist Pam3CSK4 during DNA priming. Prime-boost vaccination using DNA alone fails to protect. Prior to infection protectively vaccinated mice exhibit augmented CD4 and CD8 IFNγ and memory responses as well as decreased IL-10 and IL-13 responses. IL-13 and IL-10 have been shown to be independently critical for disease in this model. CD8 T cells have an essential role in mediating host defense, as CD8 depletion reversed protection in the vaccinated mice; vaccinated mice depleted of CD4 T cells remained protected. Hence, vaccine-induced protection is dependent upon TLR1/2 activation instructing the generation of antigen specific CD8 cells and restricting IL-13 and IL-10 responses.Given the general effectiveness of prime-boost vaccination, the recalcitrance of Leishmania (Viannia to vaccine approaches effective against other species of Leishmania is again evident. However, prime-boost vaccination modality can with modulation induce protective responses, indicating that the delivery system is critical. Moreover, these results suggest that

  5. Reduced Life- and Healthspan in Mice Carrying a Mono-Allelic BubR1 MVA Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshake, Tobias; Malureanu, Liviu A.; Baker, Darren J.; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; van de Sluis, Bart; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Mosaic Variegated Aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by inaccurate chromosome segregation and high rates of near-diploid aneuploidy. Children with MVA syndrome die at an early age, are cancer prone, and have progeroid features like facial dysmorphisms,

  6. Hepatitis A seroprevalence and demographics in Turkish children in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sac, Rukiye U; Bostanci, Ilknur; Dallar, Yildiz; Cihan, Goksin; Atli, Ozlem

    2009-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the most common cause of hepatitis in childhood and an important public health problem. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A and patient demographics in children between 1 and 15 years old who were admitted to a pediatric outpatient clinic in Ankara, Turkey. Hepatitis IgM and G antibodies were determined in the sera of children who attended the outpatient clinic. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects or their parents. The mean age of the children (n = 335) was 7.9 +/- 2.1 years; 47.5% of them were girls. The overall anti-HAV IgG prevalence in children aged 1-15 years was 47.2%. The positivity of hepatitis A IgM was highest in the 6-10 years age group (22.7%; P hepatitis in their families was 6.9%. Hepatitis A is intermediate endemic in Ankara and children must be vaccinated before school age, in addition to health education and improved sanitation.

  7. Comparison of tissue adequacy for histologic examination from Ipas MVA plus and Wallach Endocell in women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanijasombutti, Paphada; Imruetaicharoenchok, Arinporn; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Loharamtaweethong, Kongsak; Phuriputt, Napaporn; Phaloprakarn, Chadakarn

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare endometrial tissue adequacy sampling by Wallach Endocell and manual vacuum aspiration (Ipas MVA plus) in women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Pain and immediate complications from each method were also compared. Two hundred and forty women with abnormal uterine bleeding were randomly assigned to two methods of endometrial sampling: MVA (n = 122) and Endocell (n = 118). The basic characteristic features of the women, the difficulty of the procedure, pain score by visual analogue scale, immediate complications, and treatment were recorded. Endometrial tissue adequacy and histopathologic diagnoses were evaluated. The adequacy of tissue samples was 81.1% in the MVA group and 85.6% in the Endocell group (P = 0.356). There was a significant difference in the rates of difficult procedure between the two groups (27.0% in MVA vs 14.4% in Endocell; P = 0.016). Moderate to severe pain was significantly higher in the MVA group compared to the Endocell group: 60.7% and 19.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). Other immediate minor complications were also observed to be significantly higher in the MVA group (44.3%) than in the Endocell group (30.5%) (P = 0.028). Although medication required for pain was higher in the MVA group (23.0%) than in the Endocell group (12.0%), the difference was not significant (P = 0.130). The two most common histopathologic findings obtained from MVA and Endocell specimens were proliferative endometrium (32.4%) and atrophic endometrium (27.1%). MVA was comparable to Endocell in terms of tissue adequacy. Moderate to severe pain was experienced significantly more in the MVA group; however, the requirement of pain treatment was not significantly different between the groups. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Priming with a recombinant pantothenate auxotroph of Mycobacterium bovis BCG and boosting with MVA elicits HIV-1 Gag specific CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamund Chapman

    Full Text Available A safe and effective HIV vaccine is required to significantly reduce the number of people becoming infected with HIV each year. In this study wild type Mycobacterium bovis BCG Pasteur and an attenuated pantothenate auxotroph strain (BCGΔpanCD that is safe in SCID mice, have been compared as vaccine vectors for HIV-1 subtype C Gag. Genetically stable vaccines BCG[pHS400] (BCG-Gag and BCGΔpanCD[pHS400] (BCGpan-Gag were generated using the Pasteur strain of BCG, and a panothenate auxotroph of Pasteur respectively. Stability was achieved by the use of a codon optimised gag gene and deletion of the hsp60-lysA promoter-gene cassette from the episomal vector pCB119. In this vector expression of gag is driven by the mtrA promoter and the Gag protein is fused to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19 kDa signal sequence. Both BCG-Gag and BCGpan-Gag primed the immune system of BALB/c mice for a boost with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing Gag (MVA-Gag. After the boost high frequencies of predominantly Gag-specific CD8(+ T cells were detected when BCGpan-Gag was the prime in contrast to induction of predominantly Gag-specific CD4(+ T cells when priming with BCG-Gag. The differing Gag-specific T-cell phenotype elicited by the prime-boost regimens may be related to the reduced inflammation observed with the pantothenate auxotroph strain compared to the parent strain. These features make BCGpan-Gag a more desirable HIV vaccine candidate than BCG-Gag. Although no Gag-specific cells could be detected after vaccination of BALB/c mice with either recombinant BCG vaccine alone, BCGpan-Gag protected mice against a surrogate vaccinia virus challenge.

  9. The candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, induces highly durable Th1 responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tameris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccination against tuberculosis (TB should provide long-term protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb. The current TB vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG, protects against disseminated childhood TB, but protection against lung TB in adolescents and adults is variable and mostly poor. One potential reason for the limited durability of protection may be waning of immunity through gradual attrition of BCG-induced T cells. We determined if a MVA85A viral-vector boost could enhance the durability of mycobacteria-specific T cell responses above those induced by BCG alone. METHODS: We describe a long-term follow-up study of persons previously vaccinated with MVA85A. We performed a medical history and clinical examination, a tuberculin skin test and measured vaccine-specific T cell responses in persons previously enrolled as adults, adolescents, children or infants into three different Phase II trials, between 2005 and 2011. RESULTS: Of 252 potential participants, 183 (72.6% consented and completed the study visit. Vaccine-induced Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell responses were remarkably persistent in healthy, HIV-uninfected adults, adolescents, children and infants, up to 6 years after MVA85A vaccination. Specific CD4+ T cells expressed surface markers consistent with either CD45RA-CCR7+ central memory or CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory T cells. Similarly durable Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell responses were detected in HIV-infected persons who were on successful antiretroviral therapy when MVA85A was administered. By contrast, Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell frequencies in untreated MVA85A-vaccinated HIV-infected persons were mostly undetectable 3-5 years after vaccination. CONCLUSION: MVA85A induces remarkably durable T cell responses in immunocompetent persons. However, results from a recent phase IIb trial of MVA85A, conducted in infants from the same geographic area and study population, showed no vaccine efficacy, suggesting

  10. Hepatitis A seroprevalence among infants aged 12 months in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Osman Tolga; Yalçin, S Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye; Ozmert, Elif N

    2011-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies in various age groups contribute to a better understanding of hepatitis A infection and response to hepatitis A immunization. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in 12-month-old infants from Ankara was studied. Among 601 healthy infants, overall hepatitis A seropositivity was found to be 23.5%. There were no gender differences in seropositivity (22.6% for male and 24.5% for female infants). Although vaccination of infants would be an ideal prevention strategy, presence of maternal anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody interferes with the immune response to hepatitis A vaccine in infants and young children. Therefore, further knowledge about decay of maternal antibody in infants is important in determining the optimal age for vaccination against hepatitis A. There is no recommendation for routine hepatitis A vaccination in Turkey. However, we need more seroprevalence studies in different age groups to decide the appropriate timing/age of vaccination.

  11. Coprodiagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs from Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öge, Hatice; Öge, Semih; Gönenç, Bahadır; Sarımehmetoğlu, Oğuz; Özbakış, Gökben

    2017-08-15

    The present study were undertaken to compare two isolation techniques (centrifugal flotation and sedimentation) for recovering taeniid eggs from faecal samples, to identify E. granulosus DNA from taeniid eggs by PCR, and to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in dogs in villages. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dogs in Ankara province. Taenia spp. eggs were found in 27% of dogs faeces. Echinococcus granulosus-specific PCR was obtained in 14 (51.85%) of the taeniid eggs-positive samples. As well as finding Taenia eggs in dogs' faeces, we also found eggs of some helminthic parasites; such as Dipylidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Filaroides sp., Dioctophyme renale, Linguatula serrata, hookworm, Dicrocoelium sp., Fasciola sp. and Ascaridia galli. Significantly, more dogs excreting taeniid eggs were diagnosed with the sedimentation method (n=27) as compared to the flotation method (n=10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulation of ischemic cell death by the lipoic acid-palladium complex, Poly MVA, in gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonawich, Francis J; Fiore, Susan M; Welicky, Lauren M

    2004-09-01

    Modulation of ischemic cell death can be accomplished via a multitude of mechanisms, such as quenching radical species, providing alternative energy sources, or altering glutamate excitation. Transient cerebral ischemia will induce apoptotic cell death selectively to hippocampal cornus ammon's field 1 of the hippocampus (CA1) pyramidal cells, while neighboring CA3 and dentate neurons are spared. Poly MVA is a dietary supplement based on the nontoxic chemotherapeutic lipoic acid-palladium complex (LAPd). LAPd is a liquid crystal that works in cancer cells by transferring excess electrons from membrane fatty acids to DNA via the mitochondria. Therefore, by its structural nature and action as a redox shuttle, it can both quench radicals as well as provide energy to the mitochondria. To understand the role of LAPd in regulating ischemic cell death, we studied Poly MVA. Male Mongolian gerbils were subjected to 5 min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion under a controlled temperature environment (37.0-38.0 degrees C). Animals were injected with physiological saline or either 30, 50, or 70 mg/kg of Poly MVA every 24 h beginning immediately after the occlusion until being sacrificed on experimental day 4. Damage was evaluated by analyzing nesting behavior and conducting blinded measures of viable CA1 lengths. All Poly MVA treatment dosages significantly (p transient global ischemia, only the LAPd complex, which quenches radicals and provides energy to stabilize the mitochondria, offers such significant protection. Thus, the administration of Poly MVA may be a potent neuroprotective agent for victims of transient ischemic attack (TIA), cardiac arrest, anesthetic accidents, or drowning.

  13. Risk-Informed Monitoring, Verification and Accounting (RI-MVA). An NRAP White Paper Documenting Methods and a Demonstration Model for Risk-Informed MVA System Design and Operations in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Sadovsky, Artyom; Sullivan, E. C.; Anderson, Richard M.

    2011-09-30

    This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.

  14. Jurados ciudadanos y organismos genéticamente modificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Emilio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Apolitical sociology of food must look into the processes whereby regulatory decisions on food are made, and also into the democratic potential of their alternatives. Five "experiments in democracy" are described, in which a promising deliberative device has been used: citizens' juries. Indian and Brazilian peasants, on the one hand, and British consumers in the other took part in them, and they focused on Genetically Modified Organisms. These processes, whose defining trait is granting jurors access to expert witnesses presented by all stakeholders in the controversy, show the impressive ability of ordinary citizens to articulate their analysis of complex issues, a reassessment of risks, and a recontextualization of the use of GMOs. At any rate, deliberative democracy is not a magic bullet for the epistemic and political crisis that underlies food crisis; instead, it points at a paradigm change towards an experimental democratic polity in which the instances of representation of the public and publics are multiplied.

    Una sociología política de la alimentación debe analizar los procesos a través de los cuales se alcanzan las decisiones de regulación y control alimentario y examinar el potencial de sus alternativas. Se describen aquí cinco experimentos democráticos en los que se ha empleado uno de los dispositivos deliberativos más prometedores en condiciones de alta complejidad cognitiva, los llamados jurados ciudadanos, con la participación de campesinos hindúes y brasileños y consumidores británicos, y centrados en los Organismos Genéticamente Modificados. Estos procesos, caracterizados por el acceso de los miembros del jurado a testigos expertos presentados por los distintos participantes en la controversia, muestran la enorme capacidad de los ciudadanos "de a pie" para articular el análisis de un problema complejo, reevaluar sus riesgos y recontextualizar el uso de los OGM. En todo caso, la democracia deliberativa no es

  15. DNA/MVA Vaccination of HIV-1 Infected Participants with Viral Suppression on Antiretroviral Therapy, followed by Treatment Interruption: Elicitation of Immune Responses without Control of Re-Emergent Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Thompson

    Full Text Available GV-TH-01, a Phase 1 open-label trial of a DNA prime—Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA boost vaccine (GOVX-B11, was undertaken in HIV infected participants on antiretroviral treatment (ART to evaluate safety and vaccine-elicited T cell responses, and explore the ability of elicited CD8+ T cells to control viral rebound during analytical treatment interruption (TI. Nine men who began antiretroviral therapy (ART within 18 months of seroconversion and had sustained plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL for at least 6 months were enrolled. Median age was 38 years, median pre-ART HIV-1 RNA was 140,000 copies/ml and mean baseline CD4 count was 755/μl. Two DNA, followed by 2 MVA, inoculations were given 8 weeks apart. Eight subjects completed all vaccinations and TI. Clinical and laboratory adverse events were generally mild, with no serious or grade 4 events. Only reactogenicity events were considered related to study drug. No treatment emergent viral resistance was seen. The vaccinations did not reduce viral reservoirs and virus re-emerged in all participants during TI, with a median time to re-emergence of 4 weeks. Eight of 9 participants had CD8+ T cells that could be stimulated by vaccine-matched Gag peptides prior to vaccination. Vaccinations boosted these responses as well as eliciting previously undetected CD8+ responses. Elicited T cells did not display signs of exhaustion. During TI, temporal patterns of viral re-emergence and Gag-specific CD8+ T cell expansion suggested that vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells had been stimulated by re-emergent virus in only 2 of 8 participants. In these 2, transient decreases in viremia were associated with Gag selection in known CD8+ T cell epitopes. We hypothesize that escape mutations, already archived in the viral reservoir, plus a poor ability of CD8+ T cells to traffic to and control virus at sites of re-emergence, limited the therapeutic efficacy of the DNA/MVA vaccine.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01378156.

  16. Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Plan, its Characteristics, and Rationales for its Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tuncer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a comprehensive evaluation of the 1: 5000 Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development Plan and the 1: 1000 Conservation Implementation Plans, which have become a matter of litigation against the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality, filed by various non-governmental organizations, universities, the Union of Chambers of Turkish Architects and Engineers (TMMOB and public institutions; in terms of the environment, transportation and traffic as regards the entirety of the planned location, and the integrity of the plan, based on conservation-reclamation planning essentials and public interest. Thus the Ulus Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development and Implementation Plan and Plan Notes as ratified by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality and Conservation Board, are examined in this context in terms of restoration site, protected site, conservation site, interaction and transition sites and historic and cultural properties.

  17. Riesgos sobre la salud de los alimentos modificados genéticamente: una revision bibliografica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Domingo Roig

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de 1999, se ha venido intensificando el debate sobre la seguridad de los alimentos modificados genéticamente, una importante y compleja área de investigación científica, la cual demanda unos estándares rigurosos. Diversos grupos, incluyendo asociaciones de consumidores y Organizaciones no Gubernamentales (ONGs han sugerido que todos los alimentos modificados genéticamente deberían ser sometidos a estudios a largo plazo con animales antes de su aprobación para el consumo humano. El principal objetivo de la presente revisión ha sido conocer cual es el estado actual de la cuestión en lo referente a los potenciales efectos adversos sobre la salud de los alimentos modificados genéticamente. Dos bases de datos, Medline y Toxline, así como una serie de direcciones de internet, han sido empleadas para la obtención de bibliografía. Aunque son numerosos los comentarios, noticias generales y cartas al Editor aparecidos en prestigiosas revistas, los artículos referentes a estudios experimentales sobre la seguridad de los alimentos modificados genéticamente son, sorprendentemente, muy escasos. Si se han obtenido resultados procedentes de la evaluación toxicológica de estos alimentos, no han sido publicados en revistas científicas y, por lo tanto, no han podido ser debidamente juzgados o contrastados.

  18. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Utilization by Syrian Refugees Residing in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıner, Ali Osman; Yeşil, Sıdıka Tekeli

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Many Syrians have left their country and migrated to other countries since March 2011, due to the civil war. As of March 2016, a total of 2,747,946 Syrian refugees had immigrated to Turkey. Some Syrian refugees have been living in camps, while 2,475,134 have been living in metropolitan areas, such as Ankara. Study Objective This study investigated Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization among Syrian refugees residing in Ankara. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional database analysis using data obtained from the Department of EMS of the Ankara Provincial Health Directorate. Five stations in the Altındağ region of Ankara responded to 42% of all calls from Syrian refugees. Prehospital EMS in Ankara have been used mostly by Syrian refugees younger than 18-years-old. Study findings also suggest that medical staff in regions where Syrian refugees are likely to be treated should be supported and provided with the ability to overcome language barriers and cultural differences. Altıner AO , Tekeli Yeşil S . Emergency Medical Service (EMS) utilization by Syrian refugees residing in Ankara, Turkey. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):160-164.

  19. Evaluation of the site effects of the Ankara basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçkar, M. K.; Akgün, H.

    2012-08-01

    Recent major earthquakes have explicitly demonstrated that near-surface local site conditions that can generate significant amplifications and spatial variations of earthquake ground motion play a major role in the level of ground shaking and in gathering information on soft soil response. It is therefore highly desirable to develop methods to identify and characterize regions that are prone to this type of site amplification. To determine the subsurface sediment characteristics over a wide area, measurement and analyses of microtremor have been widely employed. Considered to be a relatively easy and economically attractive method for collecting relevant information especially in urbanized areas, microtremor involves utilization of ambient seismic noise to evaluate the local site effects reliably which is one of the vital aspects of seismic hazard assessment. This paper aims to investigate the site response of the sediment characteristics in Ankara, the capital of Turkey through conducting short-period noise recordings of microtremor measurements. A total of 352 microtremor measurements have been performed in the project site within the Plio-Pleistocene fluvial and Quaternary alluvial and terrace sediments in the western part of the Ankara basin. The spectral ratio between the horizontal and vertical components (H/V) of the microtremor measurements at the ground surface has been used to estimate the fundamental periods and amplification factors of the site. The microtremor study was also correlated and complemented by in-situ seismic measurements of dynamic properties, geologic information, and some geotechnical boring information in the project area for evaluating site conditions in an account to estimate site effects. The results of this study identified three main factors that influence site response, namely, the age of the local geological formation, the depth of the soil thickness and soil characteristics in the younger sediments, and non-uniform subsurface

  20. Eksplorasi Mikoriza Vesikular Arbuskular (MVA) Indigenous pada Tanah Regosol di Pamekasan, Madura

    OpenAIRE

    Muhibuddin, Anton; Nurhatika, Sri; Nurhalimah, Siti

    2014-01-01

    Mikoriza merupakan simbiosis mutualistik antara jamur dengan akar tanaman. Kondisi lingkungan yang bervariasi di Indonesia seperti jenis tanah dapat memungkinkan beranekaragamnya jenis mikoriza pada suatu lahan. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui genus Vesikular Arbuskular Mikoriza (MVA) indigenous pada jenis tanah regosol di Pamekasan Madura. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara acak. Dari hasil isolasi sampel tanah melalui proses penyaringan basah dan bertingkat dan d...

  1. Archaeometric exploration at Akköprü in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akın Akyol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The archaeometric exploration was conducted by surveying and sampling studies on the stone, and mortar samples from Akköprü in Ankara. Spot salt test and conductometric analysis were applied to get water soluble salt content of stone samples. The aggregate and binder part of the mortars were determined by the analyses of acidic aggregate & binder, aggregate granulometry, thin section optic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the physical conditions of the stones were determined by some physical tests. The results of archaeometrical data showed that the constructive stone material was mainly andesite besides ignimbrite and dacite, and the original binder material was lime mortar. The cement content of the binder of mortars reveals the recent interventions on Akköprü. In the light of petrographic studies it was understood that the source of the original constructive raw material reflects the local formation. The high soluble salt content and the bad physical conditions of some stones also showed that they are undergoing a decomposition process of different degrees.

  2. Globalisation Reflected onto Architecture: Tall Buildings of Ankara-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanju Gültekin, Ahmet

    2017-10-01

    Policy switching, radical socioeconomic changes, integration and globalisation were started in 1980s. New urban space developments have been accelerated in 1990s and provided urban space identity policies in 2000s. Luxurious shopping malls, hotels, and ultra-posh residences within the city and gated communities on city peripheries have been formed. Thus, the urban geography, urban silhouette and urban identity are being converted through tall buildings that signify the created prestige, status, and power in competition with the global capital. By the globalisation foresight the cities which have gotten ahead of the nation-state was seen. The buildings that converted into a symbolic (iconic) global product leads to an advantage in the race for attracting global investments and tourism, on behalf of the cities/urban districts. This process, which was initiated haphazardly in Turkey in the 1980s, has been on-going throughout the 1990s and especially in 2000s by means of the re-structuring of the government on a neo-liberal basis. The process is concurrently observable through the tall buildings and/or building blocks which match with urban regeneration projects, urban zoning plan revisions and fragmented zoning plans. In this study, the new global world order is evaluated by their status and architectural properties of selected tall and iconic/ultra-modern buildings in Ankara.

  3. HEALTH BEHAVIOURS OF THE PERSONNEL OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife AK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of study is to define the health behaviour profile of the personnel of primary schools as well as to define the topics to be given priority in health education activities. The research population consisted of all personnel of 564 primary schools in Ankara province. The study group (30 schools was estimated by cluster sampling method. The Health Behaviours Questionnaire, which consists of 47 items on health behaviours and demographic characteristics, was used for data collection. In the study, 849 school workers (67,5% female were interviewed. Teachers constituted the largest group (82,3% while the cleaning staff (7.0%, school administrators (6.3%, and other personnel (4.4% were sharing the rest in small proportions. Of the study group 41,7 % are cigarette smokers and of them 67.3% smoke every time and 11,9% sometime in school. Very few school personnel (14,8% do physical exercise regularly. Majority of school personnel (71,3% stated that they brush their teeth at least twice a day regularly. However, only 23,7% of school personnel go to have regular dental control. All results were discussed in details considering the effects of health behaviours of school personnel on students, and some recommendations were developed for health education activities in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 83-93

  4. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  5. Optimizing the coefficients of the leading terms of the Born Series: FWI+MVA+more

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-05-26

    The scattering series theoretically utilizes a model perturbation framework to explain the difference between the seismic modeled data corresponding to a background model and those measured in the field corresponding to the real Earth. These perturbations include short wavelength features like those predicted by full waveform inversion (FWI) gradients, and long wavelength features often constrained by migration velocity analysis (MVA) objectives. The Born series, however, is not a convergent series. If the perturbations are large, we probably will not be able to explain the data difference. Thus, using the leading terms of the Born in an iterative process, in which they are scaled properly, allows us to avoid such limitations and update the short and long wavelength components of the velocity model. In fact, the FWI update is manifested in the first term of the Born series, and the MVA update is represented by the transmission (first Fresnel zone) part of the second term. In this case, FWI and MVA are code names for dividing the optimized update to reflectivity based portions and those adequate for the background, respectively. Examples on synthetic and real data demonstrate this logic.

  6. Estudio preliminar sobre micorriza versículo – Arbuscular (MVA en lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieverding Ewald

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se determinó el carácter (obligado o facultativo de la asociación micorrícica y se evaluó la eficiencia de nueve cepas de micorriza en dos tipos de oxisoles con fertilidad baja y moderada y en presencia de tres niveles de fósforo (0,50 Y 100 kg/ha. El lulo es una especie micotrófica facultativa, ya que con adecuados niveles de fósforo asimilable en el suelo su desarrollo no depende de la asociación micorrícica, mientras que con bajos niveles sucede lo contrario. En general, la inoculación con MVA incrementó el desarrollo del lulo tanto en semilleros como en plántulas. Los mejores aislamientos de MVA fueron una mezcla de Acaulospora spp y Glomus sp y Entrophospora colombiana. En general, la efectividad de la MVA incrementó con niveles bajos y medios de fósforo y se deprimió con el nivel alto, El desarrollo del lulo y la efectividad de la micorriza fue mayor en la localidad más cálida (1050 m, 24°C y 60 % HR que en la más templada (2100 m, 14°C Y 80 % HR.A preliminary study to determine the character (obligate or facultative of the mycorrhizal association in, "naranjilla" (Solanum quitoense L. and an evaluation of nine mycorrhiza stock, was carried out at Palmira (1050 m, 24°C and R.H. of 60 % and Jamundí (2100 m, 14°C and R.H. of 80 %. The trial was held on two oxyzole having a lowand moderate fertility, with 3 levels of phosphorus (0,50 Y 100 kq/ha. The "naranjilla" is a facultative mycotrophic specie. In general, the inoculation with MVA fungi, increased the development of the "naranjilla" in seed beds as well as transplanted seed lings. The effectivity of MVA was dependent on the fungus specie, its origin, the phosphorus levels in the soil and the weather of both Iocalities. The development of the "naranjilla" and the effectivity of the mycorrhiza was superior at the locality (14°C. In general, the isolations which showed the best behavior were a mixture of Acaulospora spp and Glomus sp, and

  7. COMPORTAMIENTO DE UN CEMENTO ASFÁLTICO MODIFICADO CON UN DESECHO DE PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Alberto Reyes Lizcano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades físicas y reológicas a altas temperaturas de servicio de un cemento asfáltico (CA modificado con un desecho de policloruro de vinilo (PVC fueron evaluadas y son presentadas en el artículo. Adicionalmente se presenta la influencia del tiempo de mezcla del CA con el PVC y el envejecimiento a corto plazo. Un incremento notable en la rigidez y la resistencia a fluir se reporta cuando se adiciona el desecho de PVC a un CA 80-100. De la misma forma, se reporta un incremento en la temperatura máxima de operación en servicio del ligante modificado.

  8. ACTITUD DEL CONSUMIDOR FRENTE A LOS ALIMENTOS GENÉTICAMENTE MODIFICADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Viedma Viedma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los grandes retos en materia de seguridad alimentaria con los que se enfrenta la sociedad del siglo XXI es la aparición de una gran variedad de nuevos alimentos entre los que se encuentran los alimentos genéticamente modificados. Sin embargo, el futuro de estos alimentos va a depender de cómo sean percibidos por los consumidores y de la aceptación de los mismos. En este trabajo se analiza el grado de conocimiento que el consumidor de la Región de Murcia tiene sobre los alimentos genéticamente modificados y el nivel de aceptación de los mismos. Los resultados muestran que el consumidor de la Región de Murcia carece de conocimientos suficientes sobre este tipo de alimentos, lo que lo lleva a considerarlos poco seguros. Pero a pesar de ello, manifiesta una actitud positiva frente a su consumo. Lo que hemos podido concluir en este estudio es que el nivel de conocimiento de los consumidores sobre los alimentos genéticamente modificados es bajo y que a mayor conocimiento, mayor aceptación de los mismos.

  9. Immunogenic profiling in mice of a HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate (MVA-B expressing four HIV-1 antigens and potentiation by specific gene deletions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García-Arriaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The immune parameters of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates that might be relevant in protection against HIV-1 infection are still undefined. The highly attenuated poxvirus strain MVA is one of the most promising vectors to be use as HIV-1 vaccine. We have previously described a recombinant MVA expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (referred as MVA-B, that induced HIV-1-specific immune responses in different animal models and gene signatures in human dendritic cells (DCs with immunoregulatory function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an effort to characterize in more detail the immunogenic profile of MVA-B and to improve its immunogenicity we have generated a new vector lacking two genes (A41L and B16R, known to counteract host immune responses by blocking the action of CC-chemokines and of interleukin 1beta, respectively (referred as MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. A DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol was used to compare the adaptive and memory HIV-1 specific immune responses induced in mice by the parental MVA-B and by the double deletion mutant MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that both vectors triggered HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, with the CD8(+ T-cell compartment responsible for >91.9% of the total HIV-1 responses in both immunization groups. However, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4(+ and CD8(+ T-cell immune responses. HIV-1-specific CD4(+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional and preferentially Env-specific in both immunization groups. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R induced more GPN-specific CD8(+ T-cell responses, with an enhanced polyfunctional pattern. Both vectors were capable of producing similar levels of antibodies against Env. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings revealed that MVA-B and MVA-B DeltaA41L/DeltaB16R

  10. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA [monitoring, verification, and accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Erik [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  11. Design of double-fed control system for J-TEXT 100 MVA pulse generator unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jianming; Yu, Kexun; Zhang, Ming; Zhuang, Ge; Xiao, Zhiguo; Jiang, Guozhong; Yang, Cheng; Xu, Jiayu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A double-fed control system is designed for J-TEXT 100 MVA pulse generator unit. ► The double-fed system can control the motor speed and reactive power individually. ► Experiment on a prototype motor shows a good control result. -- Abstract: The 100 MVA pulse generator unit is the main power supply of J-TEXT. This unit supplies energy for the toroidal coil, the ohmic heat coil and the divertor coil, with the maximum stored energy 185 MJ. For the difference of grid frequency between China and USA, the rotational speed and stored energy of this unit are less than the designed value. A double-fed control system for the unit is designed to raise them. This double-fed system has applied a control method using a rotational reference frame oriented by stator flux. With this control system, the speed and reactive power of motor could be controlled individually. Experiments on a prototype motor show a good control result

  12. A New Understanding of Ankara Music within the Context of Global Cultural Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Can Satır

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to consider a new understanding of the complex and multilayered structure of Ankara music, which is situated between tradition and modernity and has become an important form of popular culture in the region, in the context of local and global relationships.. The theoretical framework of the study is based on Appadurai’s “global cultural flow” model. The ethnoscape, finanscape, mediascape, technoscape and ideoscape of Ankara music is examined in accordance with this approach to reveal the dynamics that make this music different. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the ethnoscape of Ankara music is based on a broad demographic coalition that has created an independent music industry with a finanscape depending on production, distribution and consumption. While this type of music is represented through a network-based social structure, it gains legitimacy outside its bounds within the media environment. The “Ankara” genre and its quest for authenticity described in this work reveal the ideoscape of the new Ankara music.

  13. Service Quality of State Universities in Turkey: The Case of Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is determine the service quality perceptions of students being educated at state universities in Ankara. The sample of the study is composed of final grade students of faculties of Economics and Administrative Sciences. The sample of the study is composed of a total of randomly selected students. There were 416 returned…

  14. Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management methods: Ankara case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeler, D; Yetiş, U; Demirer, G N

    2006-04-01

    Different solid waste management system scenarios were developed and compared for the Municipal Solid Waste Management System of Ankara by using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The solid waste management methods considered in the scenarios were collection and transportation of wastes, source reduction, Material Recovery Facility (MRF)/Transfer Stations (TS), incineration, anaerobic digestion and landfilling. The goal of the study was to determine the most environmentally friendly option of MSWM system for Ankara. The functional unit of the study was the amount of solid waste generated in the system area of concern, which are the districts of Ankara. The life cycle inventory analysis was carried out by IWM Model-1. The inputs and outputs of each management stage were defined and the inventory emissions calculated by the model were classified in to impact categories; non-renewable energy sources exhausting potential, final solid waste as hazardous and non-hazardous, global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity. The impacts were quantified with the weighing factors of each category to develop the environmental profiles of each scenario. In most of the categories, Source Reduction Scenario was found to be the most feasible management method, except the global warming category. The lowest contribution to GWP was calculated for the anaerobic digestion process. In the interpretation and improvement assessment stage, the results were further evaluated and recommendations were made to improve the current solid waste management system of Ankara.

  15. Highlight: Ankara workshop puts minimum wage on the G-20 radar ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A recent JustJobs Network workshop, held before the meetings of G-20 labour and finance ministers in Ankara, focused on policy responses to curb inequality among G-20 countries. One response is a proper minimum wage strategy. The absence of this type of strategy is bad for workers and businesses: either wages are ...

  16. A novel structural risk index for primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Ankara Numune Risk Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, Yucel; Peri, Neslihan Gulay; Kocer, Bulent; Kaplan, Tevfik; Alhan, Aslihan

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to reveal a novel risk index as a structural risk marker for primary spontanoeus pneumothorax using body mass index and chest height, structural risk factors for pneumothorax development. Records of 86 cases admitted between February 2014 and January 2015 with or without primary spontaneous pneumothorax were analysed retrospectively. The patients were allocated to two groups as Group I and Group II. The patients were evaluated with regard to age, gender, pneumothorax side, duration of hospital stay, treatment type, recurrence, chest height and transverse diameter on posteroanterior chest graphy and body mass index. Body mass index ratio per cm of chest height was calculated by dividing body mass index with chest height. We named this risk index ratio which is defined first as 'Ankara Numune Risk Index'. Diagnostic value of Ankara Numune Risk Index value for prediction of primary spontaneous pneumothorax development was analysed with Receiver Operating Characteristics curver. Of 86 patients, 69 (80.2%) were male and 17 (19.8%) were female. Each group was composed of 43 (50%) patients. When Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis was done for optimal limit value 0.74 of Ankara Numune Risk Index determined for prediction of pneumothorax development risk, area under the curve was 0.925 (95% Cl, 0.872-0.977, p Ankara Numune Risk Index is one of the structural risk factors for prediction of primary spontaneous pneumothorax development however it is insufficient for determining recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Internet Use Habits of Students of the Department of Information Management, Hacettepe University, Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, Nazan Ozenc

    2007-01-01

    The frequency and other characteristics of Internet use of students studying at the Department of Information Management at Hacettep University in Ankara, Turkey, are examined. According to the findings, students prefer electronic media to printed media, they find the easy accessibility of the information more important than the other qualities,…

  18. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Quality of School Life in Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Figen; Bilasa, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to measure the perception of middle school students in Ankara regarding the quality of school life. According to the findings obtained, the students have moderate level perceptions about the quality of school life. Their perceptions about sub-dimensions vary. While the students have the highest perceptions about…

  19. 76 FR 537 - Eurasian Oil and Gas Suppliers Mission to Almaty, Kazakhstan Ankara and Istanbul Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ..., Kazakhstan Jennifer Kane, Senior Commercial Officer or Azhar Kadrzhanova, Commercial Specialist, U.S... (727) 250-0777, E-mail: Jennifer.Kane@trade.gov and [email protected] . U.S. Commercial Service Ankara, Turkey Michael Lally, Senior Commercial Officer or Serdar Cetinkaya, Senior Commercial...

  20. ANALISIS PENGARUH EVA DAN MVA TERHADAP RETURN SAHAM PADA INDUSTRI PROPERTI DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA PERIODE 2007-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pahlawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis: (1 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap return saham (2 pengaruh Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham (3 pengaruh Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap return saham antara variabel kinerja keuangan industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia pada periode 2007-2012. Kegunaan teoritis adalah untuk memberikan kontribusi tentang pengetahuan manajemen keuangan, yang dapat digunakan sebagai acuan untuk penelitian berikutnya kinerja keuangan terutama tentang industri properti di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Kegunaan praktis adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh tingkat Economic Value Added (EVA dan Market Value Added (MVA terhadap kinerja keuangan untuk kontribusi memberi kepada manajemen properti umum dalam mengelola variabel kinerja industri properti Bursa Efek Indonesia.Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang dikumpulkan dari data Bursa Efek Indonesia, dan Departemen Riset menurut sifat laporan keuangan pada periode 2007-2012. Sampel adalah 54 variabel dan dianalisis dengan regresi berganda metode statistik linier. Total nilai determinasi adalah 0,368, artinya ini adalah 36,8% informasi dalam data dapat dijelaskan oleh model dan 63,2% di bawah variabel lain dan error. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah: (1 Variabel Economic Value Added (EVA berpengaruh positif terhadap return saham; (2 Variabel Market Value Added (MVA memiliki pengaruh negatif terhadap Return Saham; Mengacu pada kesimpulan penelitian diatas maka disarankan adalah: (1 Dioptimalkan Economic Value Added (EVA untuk mencapai pendapatan dan keuntungan dari return saham (2 Mengelola Variabel Market Value Added (MVA pada kondisi baik untuk menjaga stabilitas keuangan dan mendapatkan dipercaya dari investor Bursa Efek Indonesia (3 Fokus ke Manajemen Risiko, Jasa, perusahaan Visi & Misi, dan Active keterampilan dan pengetahuan karyawan perusahaan yang lebih tinggi untuk

  1. Método isotónico modificado para la Medida de actividades de electrolitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Blanco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El método Isopléstico tradicional fue modificado en varios aspectos, siendo el más Importante el de reemplazar las celdas de metales preciosos por celdas de acero Inoxidable. Se adicionó un manómetro para poder detectar cambios bruscos de la presión, se cambió la agitación continua a esporádica y se estableció un control de la temperatura del aire. Los resultados obtenidos fueron comparables con los reportados en la literatura.

  2. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  3. Aspects regarding the Calculation of the Dielectric Loss Angle Tangent between the Windings of a Rated 40 MVA Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Popescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to identify how to determine the dielectric loss angle tangent of the electric transformers from the transformer stations. Autors of the paper managed a case study on the dielectric established between high respectively medium voltage windings of an electrical rated 40 MVA transformer.

  4. Biochemical and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase, mvaS, by Hymeglusin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaff, D. Andrew; Ramyar, Kasra X.; McWhorter, William J.; Barta, Michael L.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Miziorko, Henry M. (UMKC)

    2012-07-25

    Hymeglusin (1233A, F244, L-659-699) is established as a specific {beta}-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMGCS). Inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. In contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial HMG-CoA synthase, mvaS, have been minimally characterized. Hymeglusin blocks growth of Enterococcus faecalis. After removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0.7 h for the uninhibited control). Upon hymeglusin inactivation of purified E. faecalis mvaS, the thioester adduct is more stable than that measured for human HMGCS. Hydroxylamine cleaves the thioester adduct; substantial enzyme activity is restored at a rate that is 8-fold faster for human HMGCS than for mvaS. Structural results explain these differences in enzyme-inhibitor thioester adduct stability and solvent accessibility. The E. faecalis mvaS-hymeglusin cocrystal structure (1.95 {angstrom}) reveals virtually complete occlusion of the bound inhibitor in a narrow tunnel that is largely sequestered from bulk solvent. In contrast, eukaryotic (Brassica juncea) HMGCS binds hymeglusin in a more solvent-exposed cavity.

  5. INFORMAÇÃO COLORIMÉTRICA DE MORANGOS REVESTIDOS COM AMIDO MODIFICADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Inacio Alves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho se objetivou utilizar o processamento digital de imagens para avaliar, ao longo do tempo de armazenamento, a qualidade de morangos revestidos com amido modificado. O experimento foi desenvolvido na Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Amostras de morango foram imersas em revestimento à base de amido, sendo o grupo controle (sem revestimento imerso em água destilada estéril, nas mesmas condições. Os morangos foram avaliados quanto à reflectância nos comprimentos de onda do espectro eletromagnético do visível (400 a 700nm, através do processamento digital de imagens. Foram obtidas imagens em três épocas distintas ao longo do período de armazenamento dos morangos. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. A utilização de técnicas de processamento digital de imagens foi eficiente para estudar o comportamento de morangos durante o período de armazenamento. O biofilme comestível à base de amido modificado apresentou melhores resultados que a testemunha, retardando o apodrecimento dos morangos e mantendo, por mais tempo, a qualidade dos frutos.

  6. MVA amplifier used for plasma position control in the WEGA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, G.

    1982-02-01

    A new amplifier has been developed for the control of the plasma positron in the WEGA III tokomak acting on the vertical magnetic field. In the high power domain thyristor choppers are usually applied. Unfortunately their response time is quite long and does not yet correspond to the WEGA demand. Therefore transistors have been used to build a fast switching amplifier of the H-bridge type, delivering a power of 1 MVA, by switching 2500 A at 400 V. Because of the duty cycle of the plasma (0,12 s every 240 s) the necessary average power to the amplifier supply is only 500 VA. An intermediate energy storage in an electrolytic capacitor bank is therefore used. As the switching transistors must operate under extreme conditions of voltage and current, precautions must be taken to limit the overvoltage and the overcurrent, to prevent oscillations and to assure power and control equilibrium among the transistors

  7. The impact of the Lagos manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) training courses on medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, O K; Giwa-Osagie, O F; Usifoh, C A; Solanke, O

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos commenced training programmes in the use of manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) for the treatment of septic abortion in 1989. The courses were evaluated using pre-tests and post-tests, and those of the participants from the first 5 years were analysed. 142 doctors and 72 nurses were trained from teaching hospitals, parastatal and private hospitals. The results of 154 participants (71%) were recovered and analysed. The training courses significantly increased the medical knowledge of both doctors and nurses; those from the Teaching Hospitals appearing to gain more. The amount of knowledge gained by those from the private sector, although showing a statistically significant increase was much less than the other participants. More emphasis should be placed on improving the performance of those from the private sector.

  8. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Dendritic cells exposed to MVA-based HIV-1 vaccine induce highly functional HIV-1-specific CD8(+ T cell responses in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Climent

    Full Text Available Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-α. MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8(+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8(+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, MIP-1β, MIP-1α, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B.

  10. Performance of masonry buildings during the 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala (Ankara earthquakes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adanur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of masonry buildings during the 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala (Ankara earthquakes. Bala is a township located 50 km southeast from Ankara city in Turkey. The majority of the buildings in the affected region are built in masonry. Most of masonry buildings were formed with random or coursed stone and mud brick walls without any reinforcement. Many of these buildings were damaged or had collapsed. The cracking and failure patterns of the buildings are examined and interpreted according to current provisions for earthquake resistance of masonry structures. The damages are due to several reasons such as poor construction quality and poor workmanship of the buildings. In addition to these reasons, the two earthquakes hit the buildings within seven days, causing progressive damage.

  11. Operational Risk Management in Hotel Establishments: A Study on Four and Five Star Hotels in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Pelit, Elbeyi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the applications of hotel establishments in the scope of operational risk. In this context, a survey was applied to the managers of four and five star hotel establishments in Ankara/Turkey. According to the factor analysis done after the literature search and questionnaire, four risks types (staff, technological, organizational and legal risks) have been found in the scope of operational risk, and their applications towards these risk types in hotel e...

  12. An Investigation in the Playgrounds of Public and Private Preschools in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Olgan, Refika; Kahriman Öztürk, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the current status of 17 public and 17 private preschool playgrounds in Ankara, Turkey. The “Playground Rating System” was used to evaluate the playground environment and their equipment. According to the results, it is concluded that maintenance and safety issues were of the utmost importance. Unfortunately, the current status of the playground environment and equipment in the public and private schools as covered in this study were incapable of enhancing childr...

  13. The analysis of impact of urbanization on the bioclimatic conditions in the scale of Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Necla Türkoğlu; Onur Çalışkan; İhsan Çiçek; Erkan Yılmaz

    2012-01-01

    In this study the biclimatological conditions of Ankara urban area have been analyzed from the data which has been acquired from areas having different land cover and use. The hourly thermal perceptions of six meteorology stations have been calculated by using the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index that could involve not only the meteorological parameters but also human energy balance in calculations. The spatial distribution of values has been carried out by the multiple l...

  14. Safety and tolerability of conserved region vaccines vectored by plasmid DNA, simian adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus ankara administered to human immunodeficiency virus type 1-uninfected adults in a randomized, single-blind phase I trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma-Jo Hayton

    Full Text Available HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported.Local and systemic reactogenicity data were collected using structured interviews and study-specific diary cards. Data on all other adverse events were collected using open questions. Serum neutralizing antibody titres to ChAdV-63 were determined before and after vaccination.Two volunteers withdrew for vaccine-unrelated reasons. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or reactions occurred during 190 person-months of follow-up. Local and systemic events after vaccination occurred in 27/32 individuals and most were mild (severity grade 1 and predominantly transient (<48 hours. Myalgia and flu-like symptoms were more strongly associated with MVA than ChAdV63 or DNA vectors and more common in vaccine recipients than in placebo. There were no intercurrent HIV-1 infections during follow-up. 2/24 volunteers had low ChAdV-63-neutralizing titres at baseline and 7 increased their titres to over 200 with a median (range of 633 (231-1533 post-vaccination, which is of no safety concern.These data demonstrate safety and good tolerability of the pSG2

  15. Giulio Mongeri, an Architect Efficient in the Building of Capital City Ankara and his Biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla Çinici

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is about Giulio Mongeri (1873 – 1951 who was the architect of Ottoman Bank (1926, Ziraat Bank (1926 – 1929, Monopolies Chief Directorate (1928 and Türkiye İş Bank (1929 buildings in Ankara in the first years of the Republic. Giulio Mongeri was one of the architects prominent in architectural activities both in the last years of Ottoman Empire and first years of the Republic and undertook an effective role in the architectural understanding of the next generation by raising the architects of the future as an instructor of the Academy of Fine Arts. In the study, it is aimed to gain especially the sketches and photos obtained from his diary and not published anywhere else to the scientific world as a new contribution to the knowledge in the available publications. Giulio Mongeri himself, his family and environs in which he was raised, his personality and attitude as a trainer have been appraised in the light of new information. The buildings of Mongeri in Ankara have been studied comparatively with the other buildings in Ankara in this period and an attempt is made to assess the differences in his approach.

  16. Migrations to Ankara by Railway and Settlement Policy (1890-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Seddar Kaynar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Anatolian Railway began running between Ankara and Haydarpaşa in Istanbul via İzmit and Eskişehir in early 1893, making transportation from Istanbul to the interior of Anatolia very easy. In late 1892, before the railroad was opened, policymakers prepared official reports on the resettlement of migrants along the rail route from Eskişehir to Ankara; and made regulations accordingly. This studyexamines the route of this migration, which first run to the port of İzmit by sea and then reached Ankara by rail. This article discusses the politics of resettlement and the conditions of migrants settled on the railway route during the twenty-year period between 1890 and 1910, when the Balkan Wars provoked mass migration to Anatolia from the Balkans. It analyzes the locations of the new settlements, the conditions in newly founded villages, and the habitability of the wasteland along the railway route. Daily rations, state aid for housing, types of production, agricultural styles, and the position of artisans will also be considered.

  17. Prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors among adolescents in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sırma; Dallar, Yıldız Bilge; Önen, Serdar; Engiz, Özlem

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and the risk factors associated with obesity among adolescents in Ankara, Turkey. The study was conducted in 26 schools in Ankara during the time period from September 2010 to March 2011. A total of 8848 adolescents aged 11-18 years were chosen using a population-based stratified cluster sampling method. Body mass index (BMI) of the participants was compared with the BMI references for Turkish children and adolescents to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity. A standardized questionnaire aiming to determine the sociodemographic characteristics, computer use, television (TV) watching, physical activity, and presence of obesity in the family was applied to the study group. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among adolescents was 7.7% (8.4 % for females and 7.0% for males). It was observed that BMI increased as computer use increased. A greater proportion of the overweight and obese adolescents watched TV and use computer for more than 2 hours/day as compared to their normal-weight counterparts. The normal-weight subjects were found to show a higher participation in regular physical activity. Obesity prevalence among the families of obese adolescents was 56.5%. The prevalence of adolescent obesity in Ankara, Turkey is lower as compared to many European countries and to the United States. Computer use, watching TV, physical activity and family factors are important risk factors for obesity.

  18. Estimating high-risk cannabis and opiate use in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Ludwig; Hay, Gordon; Richardson, Clive; Yargic, Ilhan; Ilhan, Mustafa Necmi; Ay, Pinar; Karasahin, Füsun; Pinarci, Mustafa; Tuncoglu, Tolga; Piontek, Daniela; Schulte, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    Information on high-risk drug use in Turkey, particularly at the regional level, is lacking. The present analysis aims at estimating high-risk cannabis use (HRCU) and high-risk opiate use (HROU) in the cities of Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir. Capture-recapture and multiplier methods were applied based on treatment and police data stratified by age and gender in the years 2009 and 2010. Case definitions refer to ICD-10 cannabis (F.12) and opiate (F.11) disorder diagnoses from outpatient and inpatient treatment records and illegal possession of these drugs as recorded by the police. High-risk cannabis use was estimated at 28 500 (8.5 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 7.3-10.3) and 33 400 (11.9 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 10.7-13.5) in Ankara and Izmir, respectively. Using multipliers based on capture-recapture estimates for Izmir, HRCU in Istanbul was estimated up to 166 000 (18.0 per 1000; range: 2.8-18.0). Capture-recapture estimates of HROU resulted in 4800 (1.4 per 1000; 95% confidence interval 0.9-1.9) in Ankara and multipliers based on these gave estimates up to 20 000 (2.2 per 1000; range: 0.9-2.2) in Istanbul. HROU in Izmir was not estimated due to the low absolute numbers of opiate users. While HRCU prevalence in both Ankara and Izmir was considerably lower in comparison to an estimate for Berlin, the rate for Istanbul was only slightly lower. Compared with the majority of European cities, HROU in these three Turkish cities may be considered rather low. [Kraus L, Hay G, Richardson C, Yargic I, Ilhan N M, Ay P, Karasahin F, Pinarci M, Tuncoglu T, Piontek D, Schulte B Estimating high-risk cannabis and opiate use in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;00:000-000]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. A candidate HIV/AIDS vaccine (MVA-B lacking vaccinia virus gene C6L enhances memory HIV-1-specific T-cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan García-Arriaza

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus (VACV C6 protein has sequence similarities with the poxvirus family Pox_A46, involved in regulation of host immune responses, but its role is unknown. Here, we have characterized the C6 protein and its effects in virus replication, innate immune sensing and immunogenicity in vivo. C6 is a 18.2 kDa protein, which is expressed early during virus infection and localizes to the cytoplasm of infected cells. Deletion of the C6L gene from the poxvirus vector MVA-B expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B ΔC6L had no effect on virus growth kinetics; therefore C6 protein is not essential for virus replication. The innate immune signals elicited by MVA-B ΔC6L in human macrophages and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs are characterized by the up-regulation of the expression of IFN-β and IFN-α/β-inducible genes. In a DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol in mice, flow cytometry analysis revealed that MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by the CD8+ T-cell compartment with an effector phenotype. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env- and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, MVA-B ΔC6L induced more Gag-Pol-Nef-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. Furthermore, MVA-B ΔC6L enhanced the levels of antibodies against Env in comparison with MVA-B. These findings revealed that C6 can be considered as an immunomodulator and that deleting C6L gene in MVA-B confers an immunological benefit by enhancing IFN-β-dependent responses and increasing the magnitude and quality of the T-cell memory immune responses to HIV-1 antigens. Our observations are relevant for the improvement of MVA vectors as HIV-1 vaccines.

  20. Deposição de folhedo e fluxo de nutrientes em eucalipto geneticamente modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Ferraresso Conti Júnior

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A deposição de folhedo é um dos principais indicadores de ciclagem de nutrientes em plantios florestais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica de deposição de folhedo, o fluxo dos nutrientes copa-solo via folhedo e a decomposição desse material em um plantio experimental de eucalipto geneticamente modificado. Não foram observadas alterações significativas na produção de folhedo ou no fluxo de nutrientes devido à transformação do eucalipto. As maiores variações observadas foram entre os dois clones estudados, mas foram inferiores às observadas comumente com as mudanças dos tratos silviculturais.

  1. Predictor de Smith modificado mediante un modelo interno, robusto a perturbaciones externas no medibles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castillo García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Se propone una modificación de la estructura del predictor de Smith mediante un modelo interno que posibilita aumentar su rechazo al efecto de las per-turbaciones externas no medibles en comparación con la estructura clásica del predictor de Smith. Los resultados obtenidos se aplican en el diseño de un sistema de control del proceso de variación de la temperatura del jugo en los calentadores de una fábrica de azúcar. Los resultados de la simulación del sistema diseñado mostraron su efectividad y robustez en cuanto al rechazo de perturbaciones externas no medibles. Palabras claves: Predictor de Smith, predictor de Smith modificado, rechazo a perturbaciones externas no medibles, robustez de los sistemas de control.

  2. Fluorescent lighting system of modified fast starting system; Sistema de alumbrado fluorescente de arranque rapido modificado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza E, Ernesto J. [Manufacturera De Reactores, S. A., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper puts into perspective the possible energy saving in using hybrid ballasts for the operation of fast starting lamps. It presents in summarized form some fundamentals of the fluorescent lamps operation, as well as the fast starting modified systems. Also the results of field operation are shown, as well as the effects on the useful life of the lamp T12 as well as the T8. [Espanol] Este trabajo pone en perspectiva el ahorro de energia posible, al emplear balastros hibridos para operar lamparas de arranque rapido. Presenta en forma resumida algunos fundamentos de la operacion de lamparas fluorescentes, asi como de los sistemas de arranque rapido modificado. Se muestran tambien resultados de operacion de campo, asi como los efectos sobre la vida util de las lamparas, tanto T12 como T8.

  3. Performance of the ±80MVA GCT STATCOM Under Commercial Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Chisyaki, Hirokazu; Teramoto, Hitoshi; Sato, Tadashi; Matsushita, Yoshinao; Shinki, Yoriko; Funahashi, Sadao; Morishima, Naoki

    This paper presents a newly developed an 80MVA GCT STATCOM for the Kanzaki substation of the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The commercial operation was started in June, 2004. The main purpose of the STATCOM is to maintain voltage during single circuit connection of source to the substation resulting from an AC system fault in order not to break down load system of the substation. The developed STATCOM has three distinctive features: (1) a high-efficient, compact and AC filter-less system using multistage three-level GCT converter and customized harmonics reduction PWM; (2) a coordinated voltage regulator with tap control of main transformers; and (3) a continuous operation from a single phase-ground fault through reclosing of the faulted circuit by limiter adjustments of the reactive current reference. This paper describes characteristics of the coordinated voltage control in the substation, and shows performance of the continuous operation during AC system faults using data of commercial operations and the simulation results.

  4. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance of Listeria Spp. Isolated from Ready-to-Eat Foods in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    ŞİRELİ, Ufuk Tansel; GÜCÜKOĞLU, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this study the presence of Listeria spp. is tested in 100 ready-to-eat food samples purchased from different stores and traditional food shops in the province of Ankara. The tested materials were 20 each of the following: mayonnaise based salad, kadınbudu köfte (fried meatball), fried liver, rice stuffed mussel, and green salad. Microbiological analyzes showed that 13 of 100 salad samples (13%) were contaminated with Listeria spp. while 10 of 100 salad samples (10%) were contaminated with ...

  5. GEOLOGY AND PETROGRAPHY OF OYMAAÐAÇ (BEYPAZARI ANKARA) GRANITOID

    OpenAIRE

    ZOROĞLU, Oğuz; KADIĞOLU, Yusuf Kağan

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe study area comprises a part of the Beypazarı granitoids and is exposed in Oymaağaç and its vicinity, appoximately to 50 km south of Beypazarı (Ankara).On the basis of field observation and petrographical features, the granitoid is differentiated into Oymaağaç granodiorite, İsmailkayası granodiorite, Tavuktaşı granodiorite and Çayırpınar alkali feldspar granite. The latter forms the youngest unit, cutting all the other subunits in the form of apliti...

  6. Development of a geotechnical and geophysical database for seismic zonation of the Ankara Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçkar, Mustafa K.; Akgün, Haluk

    2008-07-01

    Engineering geological and geotechnical site characteristics were assessed and seismic hazard studies performed for the Upper Pliocene to Pleistocene fluvial and Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits for a site west of Ankara, Turkey. Sediment conditions were determined and a soil profile was characterized by surface geophysical methods. These studies were integrated with existing in-situ characterization studies to create a seismic and geotechnical database for the site. A seismic zonation map of the site was then prepared. Site classification systems were assigned to account for site effects in relation to seismic hazard assessments. The consequences of the seismic hazards were investigated and recommendations were presented.

  7. Los usuarios ante los alimentos genéticamente modificados y su información en el etiquetado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Itxaso Sebastian-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO : Analizar la opinión que los usuarios tienen sobre alimentos genéticamente modificados y su información en el etiquetado. MÉTODOS : Realizada revisión sistemática de la literatura científica sobre los alimentos transgénicos y el etiquetado a partir de la consulta de las bases de datos bibliográficas: Medline (vía PubMed, EMBASE, ISI-Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, FSTA, LILACS, CINAHL y AGRICOLA. Los descriptores seleccionados fueron: «organisms, genetically modified » y «food labeling». La búsqueda se realizó desde la primera fecha disponible hasta junio de 2012, seleccionando los artículos pertinentes escritos en inglés, portugués y castellano. RESULTADOS : Se seleccionaron 40 artículos. En todos ellos, se debía haber realizado una intervención poblacional enfocada al conocimiento de los consumidores sobre los alimentos genéticamente modificados y su necesidad, o no, de incluir información en el etiquetado. El consumidor expresa su preferencia por el producto no-genéticamente modificado, y apunta que está dispuesto a pagar algo más por él, pero, en definitiva compra el artículo que está a mejor precio en un mercado que acoge las nuevas tecnologías. En 18 artículos la población se mostraba favorable a su etiquetado obligatorio y seis al etiquetado voluntario; siete trabajos demostraban el poco conocimiento de la población sobre los transgénicos y, en tres, la población subestimó la cantidad que consumía. En todo caso, se observó la influencia del precio del producto genéticamente modificado. CONCLUSIONES : La etiqueta debe ser homogénea y aclarar el grado de tolerancia en humanos de alimentos genéticamente modificados en comparación con los no modificados. Asimismo, debe dejar claro su composición, o no, de alimento genéticamente modificado y la forma de producción de estos artículos de consumo. La etiqueta también debe ir acompañada de un sello de certificación de una agencia

  8. A T cell-inducing influenza vaccine for the elderly: safety and immunogenicity of MVA-NP+M1 in adults aged over 50 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Antrobus

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines have reduced immunogenicity and are of uncertain efficacy in older adults. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-NP+M1, a viral-vectored influenza vaccine designed to boost memory T cell responses, in a group of older adults.Thirty volunteers (aged 50-85 received a single intramuscular injection of MVA-NP+M1 at a dose of 1·5×10(8 plaque forming units (pfu. Safety and immunogenicity were assessed over a period of one year. The frequency of T cells specific for nucleoprotein (NP and matrix protein 1 (M1 was determined by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ ELISpot, and their phenotypic and functional properties were characterized by polychromatic flow cytometry. In a subset of M1-specific CD8(+ T cells, T cell receptor (TCR gene expression was evaluated using an unbiased molecular approach.Vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 was well tolerated. ELISpot responses were boosted significantly above baseline following vaccination. Increases were detected in both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell subsets. Clonality studies indicated that MVA-NP+M1 expanded pre-existing memory CD8(+ T cells, which displayed a predominant CD27(+CD45RO(+CD57(-CCR7(- phenotype both before and after vaccination.MVA-NP+M1 is safe and immunogenic in older adults. Unlike seasonal influenza vaccination, the immune responses generated by MVA-NP+M1 are similar between younger and older individuals. A T cell-inducing vaccine such as MVA-NP+M1 may therefore provide a way to circumvent the immunosenescence that impairs routine influenza vaccination.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00942071.

  9. Comportamiento de tejas de cubierta tipo multicapa fabricadas con asfalto crudo y modificado cuando son sometidas a cargas constantes

    OpenAIRE

    López Bula, Pedro Javier

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo, analiza las propiedades viscoelasticas de diferentes materiales asfalticos después de ser sometidos a cargas permanentes y a diferente temperatura -- Estas cargas simulan las que eventualmente se pueden presentar en la aplicacion y fabricación de productos asfalticos ampliamente utilizados en el sector de la construcción -- Para este estudio se utilizó asfalto crudo y modificado con diferentes polímeros: Cera de polietileno (CERA), caucho molido de llanta (CR), copolimero...

  10. Organismos modificados genéticamente: una nueva amenaza para la seguridad alimentaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Spendeler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza todos los aspectos referentes a la seguridad alimentaria relacionados con la introducción de los organismos modificados genéticamente en la agricultura y la alimentación. Se discuten las incertidumbres asociadas a la inserción de genes extra- ños en organismos, facilitando ejemplos de efectos imprevistos e indeseados y de inestabilidades de los organismos así fabricados artificialmente. Luego se aportan datos tanto de agencias oficiales como de la literatura existente, que cuestionan la seriedad y fiabilidad de los análisis de riesgo sobre la inocuidad para la salud de estos organismos y se discute la falta casi absoluta de estudios científicos que analicen la seguridad/peligrosidad de los alimentos transgénicos para la salud. Dadas todas estas incógnitas, se tienen que tomar en cuenta otros factores, en particular la contaminación genética de los cultivos no modificados genéticamente, que empieza a ser generalizada en algunas partes del mundo. No poder dar marcha atrás en caso de problemas resulta irresponsable. Otros elementos importantes son los impactos sobre el medio ambiente (como la aparición de resistencias en insectos, la pérdida de biodiversidad, el aumento de los productos químicos empleados con repercusiones indirectas sobre la salud y/o la futura producción de alimentos. Por último se introducen elementos de discusión sobre la seguridad alimentaria en términos de disponibilidad de alimentos y soberanía alimentaria, dado que el mercado de las semillas transgénicas y los agroquímicos asociados está copado por cinco grandes empresas transnacionales. La conclusi ón hace un análisis de la contribución de la agricultura biotecnoló- gica a la sostenibilidad.

  11. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care

  12. Prevalence and Demographics of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Turkish Women in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Erkuran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization during the first six months of life. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more for optimal growth, development and health while it is suggested to start supplementary foods beginning from seventh month. The study aimed to determine frequency and examine the affecting factors of EBF in infants who were admitted to a pediatric outpatient clinic in Ankara, Turkey.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six months period among 603 breastfeeding mothers, with infants aged 6–24 months, who attended to the well-baby clinic. Mothers’ perceptions about breastfeeding, complementary feeding practices and demographic characteristics were collected by interviewing with mothers.Results: Six months EBF rate was 38%. Median week of EBF was 16 weeks (1-40 weeks. Mothers giving birth at younger (≤19 or older (≥35 ages, and mothers having chronic diseases had shorter median week of EBF (p<0.05. Median duration of breastfeeding was 9 months (0-24 months. When mothers who interrupted EBF were asked why they had introduced supplementary foods early, the most frequent reason was mother’s perceptions of having inadequate breast milk (42.5%.Conclusions: The study indicates that frequency of 6 month EBF (38% and median duration of breastfeeding (16 weeks are low in our region, in Ankara. We must develop a local strategy to overcome mothers’ negative perceptions about EBF.

  13. An Analysis of the Twitter Accounts of University Libraries in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Keleş

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been touched upon that web 2.0 creates a strong and positive image for libraries, and provides a convenient environment for marketing of the information services. Therefore, the interaction and communication that the twitter increased among the libraries and their users and the benefits the twitter has created has been mentioned. The importance of measuring the impact score of the use of social network platforms has been emphasized by referring to the works done previously on Twitter accounts. Seven official accounts were examined in order to find answers to the questions regarding the Twitter use in the university libraries in Ankara. The 15 different features of the accounts and data collected from those accounts were analyzed by making comparison. The collected data are visualized and shared in the findings. It has been found out that the library accounts with a high number of followers and tweets have a high impact score in general. In accordance with this hypothesis, the Twitter account of Bilkent University Library became the second account with the highest impact factor in Ankara. Even though it ranks low on many qualities, Gazi University Library has ranked second on impact score due to its high likes and interactions stimulated by its tweets.

  14. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

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    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  15. Tectonic Evolution of the Çayirhan Neogene Basin (Ankara), Central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Bezhan; Koral, Hayrettin; İşb&idot; l, Duygu; Karaaǧa; ç, Serdal

    2016-04-01

    Çayırhan (Ankara) is located at crossroads of the Western Anatolian extensional region, analogous to the Basin and Range Province, and suture zone of the Neotethys-Ocean, which is locus of the North Anatolian Transform since the Late Miocene. To the north of Çayırhan (Ankara), a Neogene sedimentary basin comprises Lower-Middle Miocene and Upper Miocene age formations, characterized by swamp, fluvial and lacustrine settings respectively. This sequence is folded and transected by neotectonic faults. The Sekli thrust fault is older than the Lower-Middle Miocene age formations. The Davutoǧlan fault is younger than the Lower-Middle Miocene formations and is contemporaneous to the Upper Miocene formation. The Çatalkaya fault is younger than the Upper Miocene formation. The sedimentary and tectonic features provide information on mode, timing and evolution of this Neogene age sedimentary basin in Central Turkey. It is concluded that the region underwent a period of uplift and erosion under the influence of contractional tectonics prior to the Early-Middle Miocene, before becoming a semi-closed basin under influence of transtensional tectonics during the Early-Middle Miocene and under influence of predominantly extensional tectonics during the post-Late Miocene times. Keywords: Tectonics, Extension, Transtension, Stratigraphy, Neotectonic features.

  16. Plastic Surgery Management of Victims of Terrorist Violence in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İğde, Murat; Kaplan, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Terror attacks have been progressively increasing worldwide through the present era. The management of the consequences of terrorism events is under debate in almost every scientific area. The organization and advancement of health services constitute important components of the crisis management. Similar to other specialty areas in medicine, the medical management of terrorist attacks is becoming important in terms of plastic and reconstructive surgery.Ankara, the capital of Turkey, has been subject to 2 terrorist events in public places within a year. The total number of patients involved in both cases was 434. Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital is a tertiary health care institution and one of the most important trauma centers in the region. A total of 178 Patients exposed to these events referred to our hospital. Of the total, 34 patients were completely or partially treated in the plastic and reconstructive surgery clinic. In this study, we tried to discuss the difficulties encountered in the classification of patients and plastic surgery during the treatment period of patients who experienced these attacks.Data were obtained from The National News Agency, hospital, and our own clinic registries. Patient classification was based on the injured parts of the body. Statistical analysis was performed for all data. In conclusion, the role and the importance of plastic surgery department especially in trauma management have been emphasized in the light of our findings.

  17. Nitrogen utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and eventually to identify the best N fertilizer rate greenhouse experiments were conducted for two years. Yazgi F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be the suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. Five N treatments [N 0 =0, N 1 =150, N 2 =300, and N 3 =450 kg/ha; also, soil N application treatment (N soil ) equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 300 kg/ha was included for tomato and pepper, however N rates for cucumber was 131, 266 and 339 kg N/ha; N soil being 266 kg N/ha] were investigated using 15 N labeled urea fertilizer. Significantly higher marketable fresh fruit and total dry matter yields and N uptakes values were obtained from N 3 treatments for tomato and cucumber, but from N 2 treatment for pepper. Also, significantly higher yields, N uptakes and % NUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. (author)

  18. Client preferences and acceptability for medical abortion and MVA as early pregnancy termination method in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Mary T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing access to safe abortion services is the most effective way of preventing the burden of unsafe abortion, which is achieved by increasing safe choices for pregnancy termination. Medical abortion for termination of early abortion is said to safe, effective, and acceptable to women in several countries. In Ethiopia, however, medical methods have, until recently, never been used. For this reason it is important to assess women's preferences and the acceptability of medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration (MVA in the early first trimester pregnancy termination and factors affecting acceptability of medical and MVA abortion services. Methods A prospective study was conducted in two hospitals and two clinics from March 2009 to November 2009. The study population consisted of 414 subjects over the age of 18 with intrauterine pregnancies of up to 63 days' estimated gestation. Of these 251 subjects received mifepristone and misoprostol and 159 subjects received MVA. Questionnaires regarding expectations and experiences were administered before the abortion and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Results The study groups were similar with respect to age, marital status, educational status, religion and ethnicity. Their mean age was about 23, majority in both group completed secondary education and about half were married. Place of residence and duration of pregnancy were associated with method choice. Subjects undergoing medical abortions reported significantly greater satisfaction than those undergoing surgical abortions (91.2% vs 82.4%; P Conclusions Women receiving medical abortion were more satisfied with their method and more likely to choose the same method again than were subjects undergoing surgical abortion. We conclude that medical abortion can be used widely as an alternative method for early pregnancy termination.

  19. Analisis Economic Value Added (EVA) Dan Market Value Added (MVA) Sebagai Alat Pengukur Kinerja Keuangan PT SA

    OpenAIRE

    Gulo, Wilmar Amonio; Ermawati, Wita Juwita

    2011-01-01

    The company should demonstrate good financial performance to attract investors by financial performance based on value-added and market value. The objectives of this study at PT SA limited were: (1) To analyze the financial performance by Economic Value Added (EVA) method, (2) To analyze the financial performance by Market Value Added (MVA) method. The results showed the company was not able to add economic value to the company, which proved by EVA in 2008 was higher than in 2009. It is concl...

  20. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with DNA and MVA vaccines, expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag virus-like particles, is highly immunogenic in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros Chapman

    Full Text Available In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM. Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice. In this study immune responses to the DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM vaccines were evaluated in homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. The DNA homologous prime boost vaccination elicited predominantly CD8+ T cells while the homologous MVA vaccination induced predominantly CD4+ T cells. A heterologous DNA-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost induced strong, more balanced Gag CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and that were predominantly of an effector memory phenotype. The immunogenicity of the mosaic Gag (GagM was compared to a naturally occurring subtype C Gag (GagN using a DNA homologous vaccination regimen. DNA-GagN expresses a natural Gag with a sequence that was closest to the consensus sequence of subtype C viruses sampled in South Africa. DNA-GagM homologous vaccination induced cumulative HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-γ ELISPOT responses that were 6.5-fold higher than those induced by the DNA-GagN vaccination. Similarly, DNA-GagM vaccination generated 7-fold higher levels of cytokine-positive CD8+ T cells than DNA-GagN, indicating that this subtype C mosaic Gag elicits far more potent immune responses than a consensus-type Gag. Cells transfected and infected with DNA-GagM and MVA-GagM respectively, expressed high levels of GagM and produced budding virus-like particles. Our data indicates that a heterologous prime boost regimen using DNA and MVA vaccines expressing HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag is highly

  1. MODELOS CONSTITUTIVOS DRUCKER PRAGER EXTENDIDO Y DRUCKER PRAGER MODIFICADO PARA SUELOS RHODIC FERRALSOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar González Cueto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available La aplicación del Método de Elementos Finitos (MEF a la solución de problemas de compactación del suelo, para las condiciones tropicales, necesita de modelos constitutivos validados para estos tipos de suelos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue validar los modelos constitutivos Drucker Prager Extendido (DPE y Drucker Prager Modificado (DPM para un suelo Rhodic Ferralsol. La metodología empleada incluyó el desarrollo, en el software Abaqus/Standard 6.8-1, de un modelo en MEF que simula un ensayo triaxial, a partir del cual se predijo la curva esfuerzo-deformación del suelo. Las propiedades del material se representaron con los modelos constitutivos DPE y DPM. Para la validación de los modelos se realizaron ensayos triaxiales a probetas remoldeadas del suelo objeto de estudio. Los estadísticos de Kolmogorov-Smirnov (P < 0.05, demostraron el adecuado ajuste entre resultados experimentales y predicciones, cuando se utilizan los modelos constitutivos DPE y DPM para representar la respuesta mecánica del suelo Rhodic Ferralsol, tanto en condiciones de falla frágil como plástica. Los resultados validan ambos modelos constitutivos para su empleo como modelos del material en la implementación del MEF a la solución de problemas de compactación del suelo. El modelo DPE demanda menor capacidad computacional, requiere menor cantidad de parámetros constitutivos y estos se puedan obtener con el equipamiento tradicionalmente disponible en los laboratorios de mecánica de suelos, lo cual lo hace más asequible para su utilización.

  2. Economic Value Added (EVA and Market Value Added (MVA in the function of creating value for shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić-Pupovac Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the value for the key stakeholders, i.e. shareholders, is one of the most important goals of a modern corporation. A new concept based on the value, so-called, Economic Value Added - EVA is a derived internal measure of value creation that helps managers in their decision-making processes which incorporate two basic principles of finance: the maximization of shareholders' wealth and that the value of the company depends on investor expectations that the future profits will exceed the cost of the capital. EVA is directly related to the external performance of the company in the capital market, i.e. Market Value Added - MVA. MVA is the assessment of the capital markets, within a specified period of time and reflects the success with which the company invested capital in the past and expectations of the success of performance of investing capital in the future, which affects the value of the company, and thus a shareholder value, as well.

  3. An examination of the Apo-1/Fas promoter Mva I polymorphism in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabe Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apo-1/Fas (CD95 molecule is an apoptosis-signaling cell surface receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor family. Both Fas and Fas ligand (FasL are expressed in activated mature T cells, and prolonged cell activation induces susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis. The Apo-1/Fas gene is located in a chromosomal region that shows linkage in multiple sclerosis (MS genome screens, and studies indicate that there is aberrant expression of the Apo-1/Fas molecule in MS. Methods Mva I polymorphism on the Apo-1/Fas promoter gene was detected by PCR-RFLP from the DNA of 114 Japanese patients with conventional MS and 121 healthy controls. We investigated the association of the Mva I polymorphism in Japanese MS patients using a case-control association study design. Results We found no evidence that the polymorphism contributes to susceptibility to MS. Furthermore, there was no association between Apo-1/Fas gene polymorphisms and clinical course (relapsing-remitting course or secondary-progressive course. No significant association was observed between Apo-1/Fas gene polymorphisms and the age at disease onset. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that Apo-1/Fas promoter gene polymorphisms are not conclusively related to susceptibility to MS or the clinical characteristics of Japanese patients with MS.

  4. Neonatal outcomes of Syrian refugees delivered in a tertiary hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüktiryaki, Mehmet; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Alyamaç Dizdar, Evrim; Okur, Nilüfer; Kadıoğlu Şimşek, Gülsüm

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all Syrian immigrants from the TurkishSyrian border who delivered the Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity and Teaching Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Ankara, Turkey. Between January 2013 and December 2014 a total of 36,346 women gave birth at this center. Of these, 457 women were Syrian immigrants, comprising 1.2 % (457/36,346) of all deliveries. The number of births among Syrian refugees in Turkey appears to be increasing. Further research is needed to understand the relative morbidity of babies born to Syrian refugees compared to the local population, as well as the economic impact on facilities treating these cases.

  5. Secondary standard dosimetry laboratory Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.

    2014-01-01

    Turkish Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANA) was founded in 2005. In 2014 the company PTW Freiburg in cooperation with VF Cerna Hora started the construction of a comprehensive national metrology laboratories of ionizing radiation 'Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory' (SSDL). The laboratory will be located in the area of 'Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center' in Ankara in Turkey. SSDL will be equipped with metrology departments for calibration and measurement of standard required quantities of metrology of ionizing radiation: - Neutron workplace; Gamma workplace (low-energy X-ray, gamma Standard Cs-137 and high dose rate, Co-60); - Beta workplace; - Control system of metrology laboratories and irradiation VF DARS; - Radiation monitoring system VF RMS; - Camera and security system; - Measuring instruments (ionization chambers, electrometers, monitors for environmental measurements ...) with the appropriate phantoms and other systems.

  6. An Assessment for Soft Drink Consumption of Individuals in Centre Town of Ankara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Central district of Ankara (Çankaya, Etimesgut, Gölbaşı, Keçiören, Mamak, Polatlı, Sincan and Yenimahalle districts carbonated drink consumption situation of consumers were examined. The data obtained from questionnaires conducted with 272 families were used in this study. Data were collected in April-May 2012.Between carbonated drink consumption and some demographic characteristics of consumers were tested by chi-square analysis of whether a statistical association. According to the survey; It was determined that 71.69% of the families consume carbonated drink. The vast majority of consumers (94.87%, carbonated drinks they consume more during the summer and is harmful to health (81.03% had continued to consume despite expressing. In addition, consumption of carbonated drinks with gender, age was found to be a statistically significant relationship between marital status and spouse's employment status.

  7. Lean Body Mass as a Predictive Value of Hypertension in Young Adults, in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAZIRI, Yashar; BULDUK, Sidika; SHADMAN, Zhaleh; BULDUK, Emre Ozgur; HEDAYATI, Mehdi; KOC, Haluk; ER, Fatmanur; ERDOGAN, Ceren Suveren

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive capacity of body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to identify abnormal blood pressure in physical education and sport teaching students in the city of Ankara. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained in the city of Ankara in 2014. A total of 133 students aged 20–35 yr participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were measured. Body composition was assessed by BIA. Physical activity level (PAL) and usual dietary intake were assessed. Pre-hypertension and hypertension were defined, respectively, as BP ≥120 and/or 80, and ≥140 and /or 90 mmHg. Results: More overweight students showed abnormal BP especially SBP (P=0.005 and 0.002, respectively). Age adjusted regression showed significant association between arm circumference (β= 0.176, P 0.044), mid arm muscle circumference (MAMC) (β= 0.235, P 0.007), lean body mass (LBM) (β= 0.238, P 0.006), basal metabolism rate (BMR) (β= 0.219, P 0.012) and SBP and, also, MAMC (β= 0.201, P 0.022), LBM (β= 0.203, P 0.021), BMR (β= 0.189, P 0.030) and DBP. Fat intake was associated with DBP (β= 0.14, P =0.040). Multivariate regression models adjusted for age, BMI, WC and fat intake/kg body weight showed positive association of SBP with MAMC, BMR and LBM (P<0.05). Conclusion: The relationship between blood pressure and body composition in young adults may be associated to LBM and MAMC. LBM or MAMC in this population may be indirect indicators of heart muscle mass and heart pumping power. PMID:26811815

  8. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

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    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  9. The first Koç Han: Pioneering modern architecture in Ankara

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    Oya Atalay Franck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Koç Holding is the most established conglomerate in Turkey. Th e company’s beginnings date from the mid 1920s, when Ahmet Vehbi Koç, founder of Koç Holding, had his first own company registered with the Ankara Chamber of Commerce. In 1932, Koç moved his business from his father’s store on Anafartalar Street to a new building, the first Koç Han, erected the same year on Çankırı Street Nr.13 in Ulus. Th e building’s designer was Swiss-Austrian architect Ernst Arnold Egli, who had come to Turkey only five years earlier upon invitation by the government to work as chief architect of the Ministry of National Education. During his stay, which lasted from 1927 until 1940, Egli realized about 40 projects and worked on many more. Koç Han is the rare example of a commercial building by Egli. At a time when the urban aspect of the old town center of Ankara consisted mostly of one-or two-storeyed stone-and-wood houses, the first Koç Han represented an altogether new building type for the town, in being a multipurpose edifice with space for shops at street level, with large storage facilities below ground, and providing off ices and housing on the upper fl oors. Th e functional rigor of the plan and the sober modernism of the building’s facades contrasted strongly with the architecture of the time. In this respect, the first Koç Han was a strong statement regarding Ahmet Vehbi Koç’s belief in a modern Turkey and to the contribution of the building’s architect, Ernst Arnold Egli, to this project.

  10. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE ALMIDONES DE YUCA NATIVOS Y MODIFICADOS PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE EMPAQUES BIODEGRADABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO ENRÍQUEZ C.

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las propiedades fisicoquímicas de tres variedades de almidón de yuca (Manihot sculenta Crantz nativas y modificadas por hidroxipropilación.Las variedades estudiadas estaban nombradas con los códigos CM 7138-7, CUMBRE 3 y SM 707-17.Se determinó el grado de modificación de los almidones, se desarrollaron curvas de empastamiento de almidones, se obtuvieron propiedades térmicas mediante calorimetría de barrido diferencial (DSC y termogravimetría (TGA y se generaron espectros de absorción de los almidones por espectroscopía infrarroja con transformada de Fourier (FT-IR. Respecto a los almidones nativos, se identificaron diferencias entre éstos en las curvas de empastamiento, en la temperatura de transición vítrea (Tg y en la temperatura de fusión (Tm;en cuanto a los almidones modificados, se identificaron diferencias entre éstos en el grado de sustitución molar, en las curvas de empastamiento, en la Tg, la Tm y en los espectros obtenidos mediante FT-IR; en ambos casos estas diferencias fueron atribuidas al contenido de amilosa y amilopectina de los almidones. Respecto a las diferencias entre almidones nativos y modificados, el proceso de hidroxipropilación generó cambios en las propiedades estudiadas. Debido a su contenido de amilosa, menor viscosidad y Tg de su almidón modificado, la variedad CM 7138-7fue aquella que posiblemente presentó mejor potencial para ser empleada en la elaboración de empaques biodegradables.

  11. [Índice de Saturación Modificado y Ambulancias (ISMA): Ambulance assignment and remote Emergency Room Bed Reservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-González, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In most places all over the world–including our country–services in emergency rooms are oversaturated. This situation frequently forces the continuously arriving ambulances to be redirected to other medical units, delaying the admission of patients moved and thus adversely affecting their physical condition. To introduce an improvement to the Índicede Saturación Modificado computational system, which monitors the degree of saturation of a network of emergency medical services, to include a network of ambulances, enabling in the system: (i) the effective allocation of ambulances to the site of the accident, or severe clinical event, and (ii) the remote booking of beds in the nearest and least saturated emergency room available. The evaluation and connectivity of the computational improvement to the Índicede Saturación Modificado system was carried out with a computational test verifying these two aspects, using only differences in postal codes, for time measuring. The verification of its sustainability online showed the new Índice de Saturación Modificado y Ambulancias system (ISMA) has a robust structure capable of being adapted to mobile phones, laptops or tablets, and can efficiently administrate: (i) the quantification of excessive demand in the emergency room services of a hospital network, (ii) the allocation of ambulances attending the site of the event or contingency, and (iii) the allocation of ambulances and patients, in the best distance-time conditions, from the site of the accident or clinical event to the nearest and least saturated emergency room service. This administrative management tool is efficient and simple to use, and it optimally relates independent service networks.

  12. Caracterización fisicoquímico y morfológica de asfaltos modificados con material reclicado.

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Infante, Ana Sofía; Fonseca Santanilla, Elsa Beatriz; Reyes Lizcano, Fredy Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Desde hace más de 30 años en la elaboración de pavimentos flexibles se han empleado asfaltos modificados, obtenidos por adición de polímeros tipo elastómero y plastómero. Sin embargo, el elevado costo de los modificadores ha hecho que su empleo no se haya masificado como ebiera; entre tanto, no se ha encontrado un método satisfactorio de disposición final para los grandes volúmenes de residuos poliméricos generados por el consumo de productos desechables. Este trabajo presenta la posibilidad ...

  13. Determinación de la densidad de entrecruzamiento de poliuretanos obtenidos a partir de aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación

    OpenAIRE

    Valero,Manuel F.; Pulido,Jorge E.; Ramírez,Álvaro; Cheng,Zhengdong

    2009-01-01

    Se obtuvo una gama de polioles a partir del aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritriol y glicerina. Los productos resultantes fueron caracterizados físico-químicamente. Se sintetizaron elastómeros de poliuretano a partir de los polioles derivados del aceite de ricino modificado. La densidad de entrecruzamiento se determinó por ensayos de hinchamiento a partir de la ecuación de Flory-Rehner apoyada en la espectroscopia MALDI TOF MS para determinar la estructura quími...

  14. Es el reimplante valvular mejor que el bentall biológico modificado para tratar aneurismas de la raíz asociados a insuficiencia?

    OpenAIRE

    Obando López, Carlos Eduardo; Bresciani, Renato; Camacho, Jaime; Carreño Jaimes, Marisol; Gutiérrez, Héctor; Sandoval, Néstor; Umaña Mallarino, Juan Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Es el reimplante valvular mejor que el Bentall Biológico Modificado para tratar aneurismas de la raíz asociados a insuficiencia? Obando CE; Gutiérrez HF; Santamaría G, Bresciani R; Camacho J; Sandoval N; Umaña J. Departamento de Cirugía Cardiovascular, Fundación Cardio Infantil, Bogotá, Colombia. Objetivo: comparar resultados funcionales, morbilidad y sobrevida a corto y mediano plazo, tras la realización de Bentall modificado con prótesis Freestyle vs reimplante valvular de Tirone David, en ...

  15. Laceração canicular: a utilização do bastão de Veirs modificado

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    Silvia Helena Tavares Lorena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem a utilização do bastão de Veirs modificado como modelador intracanalicular, facilitando a sutura do canalículo lacrimal e evitando a sua estenose. A técnica consiste na introdução do bastão de Veirs modificado no lúmen canalicular pelo ponto lacrimal, em direção ao saco lacrimal. A seguir as terminações distal e proximal do canalículo lesado são identificadas e a região lateral e medial da mucosa canalicular são suturadas boca a boca, com pontos separados de polivicryl 8.0, deixando bem coaptadas as bordas da ferida, ao redor do bastão. A reconstrução da ferida é completada por planos. O fio de mononylon 6.0 do bastão que se exterioriza pelo ponto lacrimal será fixado à pele da pálpebra em ângulo reto. O bastão permanece por 4 a 6 semanas no lúmen canalicular.

  16. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Demirhan, Burak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan; Abbasoglu, Ufuk

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in chicken and beef used in Ankara, Turkey. Total number of 127 chicken and 104 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local markets for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. One hundred eighteen of 231 (51.1%) examined chicken meat and beef samples were found to contain quinolone antibiotic residue. Among the chicken meat and beef samples, 58 (45.7%) of chicken meat samples and 60 (57.7%) of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones, respectively. The mean levels (±SE) of quinolones were found to be 30.81 ± 0.45 µg/kg and 6.64 ± 1.11 µg/kg in chicken and beef samples, respectively. This study indicated that some chicken and beef meat sold in Ankara contains residues of quinolone antibiotics.

  17. Petrology and geochemistry of the Neo-Tethyan volcanism as revealed in the Ankara melange, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankut, Ayla; Dilek, Yıldırım; Önen, Pırıl

    1998-10-01

    The Ankara melange in north-central Turkey represents a typical convergent margin melange which was developed within the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone as the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys closed between the Rhodope-Pontide continental fragment in the north and the Kirsehir metamorphic massif in the south. From north to south, the Ankara melange includes three mappable units, a metamorphic block melange, limestone block melange, and ophiolitic melange, that are distinguished based on the nature of their constituent block types. The ophiolitic melange occurs in a structurally lowermost tectonic position as part of a south-directed imbricate thrust system and contains two separate groups of magmatic rocks characterizing different modes of volcanism in the Neo-Tethys. One group contains several incomplete fragments of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere that are considered as ophiolite massifs and mafic and ultramafic rock clasts in a serpentinized matrix. The ophiolitic massifs (Edige and Kalecik) consist of lower crustal and upper mantle units of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere that are intruded at all structural levels by doleritic to microgabbroic dike swarms. The other group of rocks includes mainly basaltic massive to pillow-lava flows locally intercalated with turbiditic limestone, red argillite, and radiolarite breccias and occurs as clasts and individual megablocks in a tuffaceous-shaly matrix. Dike intrusions in the ophiolitic massifs fall into two separate geochemical groups on the basis of their rock chemistry. One group of dikes, combined with basaltic lava fragments from the melange, has subalkaline characteristics and shows incompatible element abundances characteristic of N-MORB chemistry. The second group of dikes displays typical island-arc tholeiite signatures with large-ion lithophile (LIL) enrichment and high-field strength element (HFS) depletion compared to N-MORB. Mafic extrusive rocks of the second group of magmatic rocks in the

  18. Determining Irrigation Possibilities and Agricultural Problems in the Wheat Growing Areas of Ankara, Konya and Eskişehir Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    DERNEK, Zeynep

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the agricultural technical conditions and irrigation systems for obtaining high yields in wheat production. A questionnaire was prepared and applied to farmers growing wheat in Ankara, Konya and Eskişehir in 1996. After analyzing the data, we determined the water resources, the amount of water used for wheat production, the allocation of crops, and the technical and financial problems faced by farmers in the research area. The findings of the study showed...

  19. CD40L-adjuvanted DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara simian immunodeficiency virus SIV239 vaccine enhances SIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity and improves protection against a heterologous SIVE660 mucosal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwa, Suefen; Lai, Lilin; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Siddiqui, Mariam; Pillai, Vinod B; Labranche, Celia; Yu, Tianwei; Moss, Bernard; Montefiori, David C; Robinson, Harriet L; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Amara, Rama Rao

    2014-09-01

    It remains a challenge to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine that is capable of preventing infection. Here, we utilized the benefits of CD40L, a costimulatory molecule that can stimulate both dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, as an adjuvant for our simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine in rhesus macaques. We coexpressed the CD40L with our DNA/SIV vaccine such that the CD40L is anchored on the membrane of SIV virus-like particle (VLP). These CD40L containing SIV VLPs showed enhanced activation of DCs in vitro. We then tested the potential of DNA/SIV-CD40L vaccine to adjuvant the DNA prime of a DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccine in rhesus macaques. Our results demonstrated that the CD40L adjuvant enhanced the functional quality of anti-Env antibody response and breadth of anti-SIV CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, significantly delayed the acquisition of heterologous mucosal SIV infection, and improved viral control. Notably, the CD40L adjuvant enhanced the control of viral replication in the gut at the site of challenge that was associated with lower mucosal CD8 immune activation, one of the strong predictors of disease progression. Collectively, our results highlight the benefits of CD40L adjuvant for enhancing antiviral humoral and cellular immunity, leading to enhanced protection against a pathogenic SIV. A single adjuvant that enhances both humoral and cellular immunity is rare and thus underlines the importance and practicality of CD40L as an adjuvant for vaccines against infectious diseases, including HIV-1. Despite many advances in the field of AIDS research, an effective AIDS vaccine that can prevent infection remains elusive. CD40L is a key stimulator of dendritic cells and B cells and can therefore enhance T cell and antibody responses, but its overly potent nature can lead to adverse effects unless used in small doses. In order to modulate local expression of CD40L at relatively lower levels, we expressed

  20. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  1. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  2. Soil erosion assessment using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) study from Ankara-Guvenc Basin, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengiz, Orhan; Yakupoglu, Tugrul; Baskan, Oguz

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this research was to assess vulnerable soil erosion risk with qualitative approach using GIS in Ankara-Guvenc Basin. The study area is located about 44 km north of Ankara and covers 17.5 km2. The selected theme layers of this model include topographic factor, soil factors (depth, texture, impermeable horizon) and land use. Slope layer and land use-land cover data were prepared by using DEM and Landsat-TM satellite image. According to land use classification, the most common land use type and land cover are rangeland (50.5%) then, rainfed (36.4%), week forest land (3.2%), irrigated land (0.7%) and other various lands (rock out crop and lake) (9.2%). Each land characteristic is also considered as a thematic layer in geographical information systems (GIS) process. After combination of the layers, soil erosion risk map was produced. The results showed that 44.4% of the study area is at high soil erosion risk, whereas 42% of the study area is insignificantly and slightly susceptible to erosion risk. In addition, it was found that only 12.6% of the total area is moderately susceptible to erosion risk. Furthermore, conservation land management measures were also suggested for moderate, high and very high erosion risk areas in Ankara-Guvenc Basin.

  3. Cultivos genéticamente modificados: las promesas y las buenas intenciones no bastan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E García G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se refutan y cuestionan los razonamientos expuestos por las autoras en el artículo "Relación de los cultivos modificados genéticamente con el ambiente y la salud de la población costarricense" publicado en esta revista por Espinoza et al. (52: 727-732, 2004. Para ello se contraponen éstos con las evidencias expuestas y analizadas tanto por científicos como por organizaciones nacionales e internacionales independientes de diverso tipo en diferentes lugares del mundo (e.g. Organización Mundial de la Salud, internacional de Consumidores, Médicos y Científicos por una Aplicación Responsable de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Unión internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Consejo Universitario de la Universidad de Costa Rica y el Panel de Ciencias independiente, que confirman la incertidumbre y limitaciones actuales de la ciencia en esta área, así como de los mecanismos de bioseguridad propuestos y puestos en vigor. En materias tan importantes y básicas para la supervivencia como las que nos ocupan -el ambiente, la biodiversidad y la seguridad alimentaria- no es prudente apostar a promesas basadas en la misma lógica promocionada desde hace poco más de cinco décadas por la denominada "revolución verde". Es necesario continuar este debate basado en el análisis holístico de los hechos, así como en razonamientos éticos, evitando caer en posiciones emocionales que llegan a confundir la realidad virtual con la verdadera realidad.Genetically modified crops: promises and good intentions are not enough (refutation to Espinoza et al. 2004, Rev. Biol. Trop. 52 (3: 727-732. The arguments presented by Espinoza et al. in their paper "Relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the Costa Rican human population" published in this journal (Rev. Biol. Trop. 52: 727-732, 2004 are questioned and refuted. The arguments are confronted with evidence offered by scientists and national and international

  4. Polycentric Development for Sustainable Cities: An Evaluation for the Ankara Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aydan Sat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban population growth and the accompanying urban growth and expansion are seen as the main problems of metropolitan cities; this keeps the issues of how to consider the social, economic, spatial and environmental dimensions of cities within the framework of a concept of sustainability, and how to shape cities within this context, on the agenda. In today’s world, cities are accepted as the main hubs of energy consumption and environmental pollution, as centers of capital, culture and innovation, and as the places of residence of millions of people. Expanding and sprawling urban forms are seen as unsustainable in terms of land use, energy and the consumption of environmental resources. Thus, the question ‘How should the urban development model be applied to create sustainable cities?’ is on the agenda of theorists, politicians and practitioners alike. Taking these discussions into consideration, this study searches for an answer to the question of whether the polycentric urban development model can be used as a tool for sustainable cities by taking into account the current literature and practices, and evaluating the case of the Ankara metropolitan area.

  5. [The prevalance of Enterobius vermicularis in primary school which have different socioecomic level in Ankara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Nevin; Ay Bektaş, Ayla

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of E. vermicularis and its relation with socioeconomic level, age, race, gender, mother's and father's educational level, income status, and housing type were investigated among 1729 students who were between ages 6-12 at 8 different elementary schools (Eryaman Türkkent, Tahsin Şahinkaya, Şahin, Beytepe, Azmi Ertuğrul, Ege, Semiha İsen, Samime Talat Primary School) in Kazan, Etimesgut, Çankaya, Pursaklar, Mamak, and Sincan in Ankara. A questionnaire form and cellophane-taped slides with locked bags were provided for students between November 2010 and May 2011. In total, 874 (50.5%) of students were female and 855 (49.5%) of them were male. According to the questionnaire, 197 (11.4%) of students had low, 986 (57.1%) moderate, and 545 (31.5%) high income levels. Also, 148 students out of 1729 were found to be infected with E. vermicularis, and the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis was found 86%; 81% (9.5%) of the infected were male and 67 (7.7%) was female. As the result of study, a significant difference was found between the presence of E. vermicularis and socio-demographic properties. However, there was no significant difference between presence of E. vermicularis and gender. These results show that the importance of socio-demographic properties on the presence of E. vermicularis.

  6. Consumer Decision - Making Process in E - Commerce: Case of Salzburg - Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gürbüz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized world, companies need to track the changes occur in their internal and external stakeholders in order to develop consistent strategies, structures and systems for success in e-commerce. Tracking and researching the existing and potential customers and companies as external stakeholders has become very important. This study aims to reveal a scientific approach about the purchasing decisions of e-commerce companies’ customers, to carry the e-commerce applications in Austria to Turkey, to transfer the e-commerce applications in Turkey to Austria and to contribute for the development of e-commerce. To achieve this, in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 female e-commerce users in Ankara/Turkey and in Salzburg/Austria to reveal the similarities and differences between the purchasing decision processes of different countries’ citizens. Similarities and differences in the purchasing decision process of customers were determined for the dimensions of price compatibility, practicality, accessibility, speed, comfort, convenience and cost and suggestions are offered for the development of e-commerce in Turkey.

  7. Consumers’ Determination of Red Meat and Meat Products Purchase Behaviour – City of Ankara Sample

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    Hasan Arısoy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, meat consuming level is an indicator of development of countries. The reason for this is the importance of animal proteins such as meat, milk and egg in human nutrition. People in Turkey do not get enough animal protein. Increase of meat and meat related product prices is effective on this. The purpose of this study is to bring up the purchase and consume behavior of consumers. Surveys completed in urban areas around city of Ankara are used primarily. Using Main Mass Ratio Based Simple Occurrence Probability Sampling method 338 families were interviewed. Completed surveys were separated into 3 groups; high, middle, low. As a result of the research, expense for food in total income is around %34. This ratio for families with low income is %53, for families with middle income is %35 and for families with high income is %33. It is found that as income levels of consumers raised, food expenses raise as well. But it shows that as income level increases, expense ratio for food decreases. Food reliability is the most effective factor on consumers’ decision of purchase. Studies show doubts of consumers about food reliability. It is understood that legal adjustments are not applied enough. Especially tight food inspections would be positive on consumer behavior.

  8. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pediatric Patients in a Single Tertiary Hospital in Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaman, Ayşe; Tanır, Gönül; Gayretli Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Metin, Özge; Aydın Teke, Türkan; Öz, Fatma Nur; Mungan, Mesut

    2017-12-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is caused by a protozoan parasite of the Leishmania genus and that occurs worldwide. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southeastern Turkey and the neighboring Middle Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A total of 16 CL patients [11 (69%) boys and five (31%) girls] were admitted between January 2014 and December 2015. The data of the patients were retrospectively recorded from their medical records. Their mean age was 74.3±32.3 months (range: 1-10.5 years). Double lesions were most commonly seen in eight (50%) patients. The face and neck was the most commonly involved site (87.5% of the patients). Skin smears for a parasitological examination were positive in nine (56%) patients. Two patients (12.5%) with limb lesions were treated with intralesional meglumine antimoniate. Fourteen patients were treated with systemic agents. We felt that the increase in human movement that include travels and forced migration due to the war might make it possible for CL to appear in non-endemic provinces such as Ankara. In particular, in patients with painless cutaneous lesion(s) who came from endemic areas such as Syria, CL should be kept in mind by the clinicians that residing in even non-endemic areas .

  9. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  10. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear research center in agriculture and animal science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  11. A Review of the Scientific Misconduct Inquiry Process, Ankara Chamber of Medicine, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçay, Banu; Arda, Berna

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to review the inquiry process used in scientific misconduct cases in the Ankara Chamber of Medicine between the years 1998 and 2012. The violations of the "Disciplinary Regulations of the Turkish Medical Association" have been examined by keeping the names of the people, institutions, associations and journals secret. In total, 31 files have been studied and 11 of these files have been identified as related to scientific misconduct. The methods of inquiry, the decisions about the need for an investigation process, the types of scientific misconduct, and the adjudication processes have all been reported. Furthermore, the motives of researchers who made allegations, the study approaches of investigators, and the objections to the decisions about guilt and innocence have also been examined. Based on the findings obtained, the reasons for scientific misconduct and the distribution of responsibilities among the people in the inquiry process have been discussed. A major conclusion is the need to standardize the process of conducting inquiries about scientific misconduct cases for the regional chambers of medicine in Turkey.

  12. On-going research projects at Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The research and development activities of Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Science(ANRCAA) are concentrated on the contribution of atomic energy to peace by the use of nuclear and related techniques in food, agriculture and animal science. Nuclear techniques are used in the above fields in two ways: in vitro or in vivo radio tracing the substances and processes of biological importance, and irradiation of biological materials for preservation and quality modification. Research projects are carried out by interdisciplinary studies with well equipped laboratories at the Center. The projects in progress conducted by the Center comprises nuclear-aided researches in soil fertility, plant nutrition, plant protection, improvement of field crops, improvement of horticultural plants and forest trees by mutation breeding, in vitro culture technique with mutagen treatments, use of phosphogypsum in soil amelioration, sterilization of medical supplies, wastewater treatment, animal nutrition, animal health and productivity and accreditation. The on-going projects with the above subjects will be summarized for possible collaborations

  13. Análise do risco do escorregamento epifisário femoral proximal contralateral pelo escore de Oxford modificado

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    Jamil Faissal Soni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available r e s u m o Objetivo: Determinar a aplicacão do escore de Oxford modificado em pacientes com escorre gamento epifisário femoral proximal (EEFP no auxílio da indicacão do tratamento cirúrgico profilático dos quadris contralaterais. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários dos pacientes atendidos na instituicão na qual os autores trabalham. Foram selecionados aqueles com um tempo de seguimento mínimo de dois anos, atendidos de 2008 até 2011, que apresentaram EEPF unilateral. Os cri térios de exclusão foram pacientes com doenca endócrina ou metabólica, síndrome de Down e aqueles com radiografias inadequadas para determinar a pontuacão no escore de Oxford modificado. As radiografias iniciais receberam uma pontuacão que varia de 16 a 26. A aná lise estatística foi usada para determinar se a pontuacão foi preditiva do desenvolvimento futuro de deslizamento contralateral. Resultados: Dos 15 pacientes selecionados com EEFP unilateral, cinco (33,3% evoluíram para o escorregamento contralateral. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, qua tro pacientes foram considerados de risco e desses três desenvolveram o escorregamento contralateral. No grupo sem risco havia 11 pacientes, dois evoluíram para o escorregamento contralateral. Nota-se assim uma tendência de que pacientes do grupo que desenvolveu a doenca difiram do grupo que não desenvolveu em relacão à classificacão de risco. Conclusão: Apesar de na nossa amostra a aplicacão do escore de Oxford modificado não ter sido estatisticamente significativa, notamos uma tendência para o escorregamento contra lateral nos quadris com escore baixo.

  14. Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.

    2009-04-01

    Transparent 3D Visualization of Archaeological Remains in Roman Site in Ankara-Turkey with Ground Penetrating Radar Method Selma KADIOGLU Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 06100 Tandogan/ANKARA-TURKEY kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr Anatolia has always been more the point of transit, a bridge between West and East. Anatolia has been a home for ideas moving from all directions. So it is that in the Roman and post-Roman periods the role of Anatolia in general and of Ancyra (the Roman name of Ankara) in particular was of the greatest importance. Now, the visible archaeological remains of Roman period in Ankara are Roman Bath, Gymnasium, the Temple of Augustus of Rome, Street, Theatre, City Defence-Wall. The Caesar Augustus, the first Roman Emperor, conquered Asia Minor in 25 BC. Then a marble temple was built in Ancyra, the administrative capital of province, today the capital of Turkish Republic, Ankara. This monument was consecrated to the Empreror and to the Goddess Rome. This temple is supposed to have built over an earlier temple dedicated to Kybele and Men between 25 -20 BC. After the death of the Augustus in 14AD, a copy of the text of "Res Gestae Divi Augusti" was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin, whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. In the 5th century, it was converted in to a church by the Byzantines. The aim of this study is to determine old buried archaeological remains in the Augustus temple, Roman Bath and in the governorship agora in Ulus district. These remains were imaged with transparent three dimensional (3D) visualization of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. Parallel two dimensional (2D) GPR profile data were acquired in the study areas, and then a 3D data volume were built using parallel 2D GPR data. A simplified amplitude-colour range and appropriate opacity function were constructed and transparent 3D image were obtained to activate buried

  15. Remoción de cromo vi de soluciones acuosas por adsorción sobre carbones activados modificados

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes, Nubia; Valencia, Jesús; Díaz, José de Jesús

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se determina la adsorción de Cr6+ de disoluciones acuosas en dos carbones activados comerciales en función del grado de modificación (reducción, oxidación) de la superficie de los adsorbentes con tratamientos térmicos en presencia de hidrógeno, oxígeno y ácido nítrico. La química superficial de los carbones activados originales y modificados se examina por los métodos de titulaciones de Böehm y descomposición con temperatura programada (DTP). Los ensayos de evaluación de la c...

  16. Avaliação de risco dos organismos geneticamente modificados Risk assessment of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde o começo de sua comercialização, em 1996, a área global de plantações transgênicas aumentou mais de cinquenta vezes. Nas duas últimas décadas, organizações governamentais e intergovernamentais têm planejado estratégias e protocolos para o estudo da segurança de alimentos derivados de cultivos geneticamente modificados. Os testes de segurança são realizados caso a caso e conduzidos de acordo com as características específicas das culturas modificadas e as mudanças introduzidas através da modificação genética, levando em conta o conceito de equivalência substancial. No presente trabalho, estão relatadas algumas abordagens de avaliação de risco de alimentos geneticamente modificados, assim como alguns problemas relacionados à construção genética ou mesmo à expressão do gene inseridoSince the commercial approve in 1996, the global area of transgenic crops has raised more than 50 times. In the last two decades, governments have been planning strategies and protocols for safety assessment of food and feed genetically modified (GM. Evaluation of food safety should be taken on a case-by-case analysis depending on the specific traits of the modified crops and the changes introduced by the genetic modification, using for this the concept of substantial equivalence. This work presents approaches for the risk assessment of GM food, as well as some problems related with the genetic construction or even with the expression of the inserted gene

  17. Sequential Immunization with gp140 Boosts Immune Responses Primed by Modified Vaccinia Ankara or DNA in HIV-Uninfected South African Participants.

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    Gavin Churchyard

    Full Text Available The safety and immunogenicity of SAAVI DNA-C2 (4 mg IM, SAAVI MVA-C (2.9 x 109 pfu IM and Novartis V2-deleted subtype C gp140 (100 mcg with MF59 adjuvant in various vaccination regimens was evaluated in HIV-uninfected adults in South Africa.Participants at three South African sites were randomized (1:1:1:1 to one of four vaccine regimens: MVA prime, sequential gp140 protein boost (M/M/P/P; concurrent MVA/gp140 (MP/MP; DNA prime, sequential MVA boost (D/D/M/M; DNA prime, concurrent MVA/gp140 boost (D/D/MP/MP or placebo. Peak HIV specific humoral and cellular responses were measured.184 participants were enrolled: 52% were female, all were Black/African, median age was 23 years (range, 18-42 years and 79% completed all vaccinations. 159 participants reported at least one adverse event, 92.5% were mild or moderate. Five, unrelated, serious adverse events were reported. The M/M/P/P and D/D/MP/MP regimens induced the strongest peak neutralizing and binding antibody responses and the greatest CD4+ T-cell responses to Env. All peak neutralizing and binding antibody responses decayed with time. The MVA, but not DNA, prime contributed to the humoral and cellular immune responses. The D/D/M/M regimen was poorly immunogenic overall but did induce modest CD4+ T-cell responses to Gag and Pol. CD8+ T-cell responses to any antigen were low for all regimens.The SAAVI DNA-C2, SAAVI MVA-C and Novartis gp140 with MF59 adjuvant in various combinations were safe and induced neutralizing and binding antibodies and cellular immune responses. Sequential immunization with gp140 boosted immune responses primed by MVA or DNA. The best overall immune responses were seen with the M/M/P/P regimen.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01418235.

  18. Tectonic evolution of the Cretaceous Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange during the Late Cretaceous to pre-Miocene interval in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2013-04-01

    The chaotic tectonic belt, which is distinguished in northern Anatolia, is called the - Ankara Accretionary Complex - in the Ankara region, central Anatolia. The belt is differentiated into three imbricated tectonic subbelts, namely, pre-Triassic metamorphics, Mélange with calcareous blocks and Cretaceous mélange with ophiolitic blocks (Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange). The Ankara Ophiolitic Mélange (AOM) is a chaotic tectono-sedimentary mixture made up of detached blocks of Mesozoic ultramafic rocks, Cretaceous pillow basalts, Cretaceous radiolarites, Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones and closely associated Upper Cretaceous basinal sequences. The detached and dismembered blocks lie within a highly sheared and brecciated ophiolitic detrital matrix or a block-on-block to sheared sedimentary matrix that varies along the mélange belt. Cenomanian-Turonian and Turonian-Santonian trench-linked basin deposits onlap the Cenomanian sedimentary and Cretaceous ophiolitic mélanges. The elements of the ophiolitic mélange were comixed as a result of tectonic recycling in the accretionary wedge. The belt is unconformably overlain by Campanian-Maastrichtian to Paleogene accretionary fore-arc basin deposits. The AOM developed in an accretionary wedge setting in which oceanic leading edge of the Anatolide-Tauride platform subducted toward north during the post-Barremian-pre-Campanian period. The AOM emplaced episodically and progressively as a result of in thrust tectonics with vergence ranging from SSW to SE during the post-Turonian to pre-Miocene in the Ankara terrain.

  19. MvaT Family Proteins Encoded on IncP-7 Plasmid pCAR1 and the Host Chromosome Regulate the Host Transcriptome Cooperatively but Differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Takahashi, Yurika; Shintani, Masaki; Takeda, Toshiharu; Suzuki-Minakuchi, Chiho; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2016-02-01

    MvaT proteins are members of the H-NS family of proteins in pseudomonads. The IncP-7 conjugative plasmid pCAR1 carries an mvaT-homologous gene, pmr. In Pseudomonas putida KT2440 bearing pCAR1, pmr and the chromosomally carried homologous genes, turA and turB, are transcribed at high levels, and Pmr interacts with TurA and TurB in vitro. In the present study, we clarified how the three MvaT proteins regulate the transcriptome of P. putida KT2440(pCAR1). Analyses performed by a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) suggested that the binding regions of Pmr, TurA, and TurB in the P. putida KT2440(pCAR1) genome are almost identical; nevertheless, transcriptomic analyses using mutants with deletions of the genes encoding the MvaT proteins during the log and early stationary growth phases clearly suggested that their regulons were different. Indeed, significant regulon dissimilarity was found between Pmr and the other two proteins. Transcription of a larger number of genes was affected by Pmr deletion during early stationary phase than during log phase, suggesting that Pmr ameliorates the effects of pCAR1 on host fitness more effectively during the early stationary phase. Alternatively, the similarity of the TurA and TurB regulons implied that they might play complementary roles as global transcriptional regulators in response to plasmid carriage. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Two doses of candidate TB vaccine MVA85A in antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve subjects gives comparable immunogenicity to one dose in ART+ subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandakha N Dieye

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a global public health problem exacerbated by the HIV epidemic. Here we evaluate a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in a Phase I study in HIV-infected adults in Senegal. 24 patients were enrolled: Group 1∶12, antiretroviral therapy (ART naïve, adults, with CD4 counts >300 and HIV RNA load 300, and an undetectable HIV RNA load. Safety was evaluated by occurrence of local and systemic adverse events (AEs and by monitoring of CD4 count, HIV RNA load, haematology and biochemistry. Immunogenicity was evaluated by ex-vivo interferon-gamma ELISpot assay. 87.7% of AEs were mild; 11.6% were moderate; and 0.7% were severe. 29.2% of AEs were systemic; 70.8% were expected local AEs. There were no vaccine-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs or clinically significant effects on HIV RNA load or CD4 count. In ART naive subjects, the first MVA85A immunisation induced a significant immune response at 1 and 4 weeks post-immunisation, which contracted to baseline by 12 weeks. Durability of immunogenicity in subjects on ART persisted out to 24 weeks post-vaccination. A second dose of MVA85A at 12 months enhanced immunogenicity in ART naïve subjects. Subjects on ART had higher responses after the first vaccination compared with ART naïve subjects; responses were comparable after 2 immunisations. In conclusion, MVA85A is well-tolerated and immunogenic in HIV-infected subjects in Senegal. A two dose regimen in ART naïve subjects is comparable in immunogenicity to a single dose in subjects on ART. Clinicaltrials.gov trial identifier NCT00731471.

  1. Queratinocitos derivados de piel humana modificados por el vector retroviral FOCH 29-NeoR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Restrepo

    2000-02-01

    células (banco.

    Posteriormente, los queratinocitos en cultivo serán modificados con el vector retroviral anfotrópico FOCH 29-NeoR ya sea por cocultivo con la línea productora del virus Clon 26, o por infección con sobrenadante filtrado (0.45mm producido por la misma, en presencia de polybren.

    La eficiencia de la transducción se determinará mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con el ADN de las células post transducción, con cebadores específicos del gen de resistencia a la neomicina (NeoR; se incluirán tanto controles negativos (células no transducidas como positivos (plásmidos que contienen el gen NeoR o células de la línea productora del virus. Para demostrar funcionalmente la expresión del gen vectorizado se harán ensayos de resistencia a la G418 (500-1000 mg/ml.

    Confirmar que el vector FOCH29-NeoR transluce eficientemente los queratinocitos, permitirá utilizarlo posteriormente para vectorizar genes de interés para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades de la piel o bien factores de crecimiento tales como el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EGF y el factor de crecimiento derivado de plaquetas (PDGF, potenciadores de los procesos de epitelialización.

    Este trabajo sentará las bases para el desarrollo paulatino de esta tecnología en nuestro medio.

  2. An Example of a Gentrification: Unintended Consequences of an in Situ Rehabilitation Project in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhan Varlı Görk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is about an early example of gentrification processes in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. A unique form of the gentrification process is examined using a case study of a small inner-city neighborhood on Koza Street through the monitoring of the area between 1998 and 2016, and giving voice to both the gentrifiers and gentrified. Almost ninety percent of the population in the area was displaced despite the inclusionary principles of an in situ Rehabilitation Project which has led to a large scale transformation of the physical space of the street. The study includes four field studies conducted at different time intervals (1998, 2001, 2004, 2009 and a follow-up visit (2016 to the neighborhood, to critically assess the progression of gentrification in Turkey through its phases. Even though gentrification usually refers to the middle class invasion of urban land originally inhabited by the less privileged, our case reveals the effects of successive modes of a gentrification process which starts as an in situ rehabilitation project of a squatter prevention area initiated by a social democratic municipality with the “participation of local groups”, and turns into “gentrification by choice” in the successive years in the shadow of “Third Way” values. What is currently happening could be regarded as “gentrification by force” following urban renewal. In our case, however, the line between the two major components of gentrification, i.e., the “gentrifier” and the “gentrified”, seems to have become ambiguous, which calls for a further analysis of Turkey’s unique political and spatial dynamics.

  3. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

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    Melike Demir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p < 0.001. The independent risk factors for smoking were male gender, attending a vocational school, having a sibling who smokes, having a friend who smokes, and poor academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5% among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5% among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit.

  4. Assessment of Selânik Street/Ankara as a Living Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işıklar, Sena; Kırcı, Nazan

    2017-10-01

    Urban spaces create their physical existence through streets and the spaces left between the buildings. However, the user activities within the city avail a produced area consisting of streets and buildings to become a living space. According to Jacobs, the more the urban spaces are used, the livelier and more vivacious spaces are going to be provided. The use of space by individuals is in close connection with some characteristics of the space. Among these, the multi-functionality of the space, the regularity in its night and day utility patterns, and the availability of conditions of comfort and aesthetics, its adaptability depending on the requirements of time could be mentioned. In order to scrutinise the relationship between the spatial characteristics of a built-up space and its utility Selânik Street/Ankara was selected as our field of study. Firstly, the characteristics of living spaces have been defined within the study. Then the use of units and the structural analysis of Selânik Street was undertaken; and the area was studied in terms of the use of open spaces and conditions of comfort. The use of space by the users was revealed through observation. As a result of the assessments, the spatial deficiencies of the field of study was identified. Proposals were made for transforming Selânik Street into a living urban space, such as the organisation of its utility patterns, the addition of activities that draw the users to the area, providing conditions of comfort and increasing aesthetic values.

  5. The impact of anti-smoking laws on high school students in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melike; Karadeniz, Gulistan; Demir, Fikri; Karadeniz, Cem; Kaya, Halide; Yenibertiz, Derya; Taylan, Mahsuk; Yilmaz, Sureyya; Sen, Velat

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors affecting the smoking habits of high school students, their thoughts about changes resulting from anti-smoking laws, and how they are affected by those laws. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 11th-grade students at eight high schools in Ankara, Turkey, were invited to complete a questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 1,199 students completed the questionnaire satisfactorily. The mean age of the respondents was 17.0 ± 0.6 years; 56.1% were female, of whom 15.3% were smokers; and 43.9% were male, of whom 43.7% were smokers (p academic performance. Of the respondents, 74.7% were aware of the content of anti-smoking laws; 81.8% approved of the restrictions and fines; and 8.1% had quit smoking because of those laws. According to the respondents, the interventions that were most effective were the (television) broadcast of films about the hazards of smoking and the ban on cigarette sales to minors. The prevalence of smoking was highest (31.5%) among students attending vocational high schools but lowest (7.5%) among those attending medical vocational high schools. Although 57.1% of the smokers were aware of the existence of a smoking cessation helpline, only 3.7% had called, none of whom had made any attempt to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the students evaluated were aware of the harmful effects of smoking and approved of the anti-smoking laws, only a minority of those who smoked sought professional help to quit. PMID:26785961

  6. Attitudes of Drug use of an Elderly Population Living in Ankara

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    Fatma Arpaci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Dramatic changes in fertility and mortality rates during the 20 th century ensured that the world would aging rapidly during the 21 st century. If the decline in the physiological functions in elderly and its reflections on the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of the drugs are taken into consideration, it is clearly predicted that irrational prescribing of drugs will lead to severe problems in this population. METHOD: This study designed as a descriptive study, the research population is elderly people who live in Ankara, Kecioren. We used quota sampling and evaluate 300 elderly people. Data analysed by SPSS for Windows package programme. We used number and percentages for nominal variables ,and mean+standart deviation for scale variables as descriptive statistics. Chi square and t tests were used for statistical comparison. RESULTS: 56.3% of all group was male, 43.7% was female. The mean age of group was 67.7+5.5. The persantage of lower education then primary school was 4.3%. The drug use behaviours, which signed as “ever do” are “I signed my drugs in a schedule”, “I take some pills without doctors prescription” and “I take pills which were beneficial form y firends”. The drug use behaviours, which signed as “never do” are, “I dislike take pills”, “I preserve drugs in drug cabinet” and “I believe benefits of drugs”. CONCLUSION: Polifarmacie is frequent problem in our group. Therefore, the physicians and the other health professionals working in this chain should pay great attention for safe use of drugs in the elderly group. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 515-522

  7. Evaluation of the Current States of Older Employees: The Case in Ankara

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    Dr.Sc. Ertan Yesari Hastürk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed on the older employees who work in small and medium sized enterprises in Ankara in Turkey. This study involved a survey consisting of 16 questions that applied to the employees. 61 females and 103 males within a total 164 employees who were aged over 55 participated in the survey. Current situations which were about the demographic structures, working conditions, problems of workplace and health problems of the employees, were determined by the survey. 63% of the employees consist of workers who were previously entitled to pension. Moreover 64% of the employees were aged 55-59, 27% were 60-64 and 9% were over aged 65. There are no female employees aged over 65. All of the retired employees stated that their salaries were insufficient to meet the needs. 13% of the participants were white-collar worker, 50% of them have worked in the jobs needing physical power. 20% of the participants said that they benefited from their previous experiences. 69% of the employees complained about a chronic disease. There were no employees who work although it is prohibited due to the health problems. 14% of the employees stated that they will continue to work even if they have adequate financial means and none of them were female. It is observed that generally older employees encounter many problems. It is observed that it would be wrong that older employees were isolated from their work environments by improving their opportunities. Absolutely it should be exploited from the personal experiences of these employees.

  8. A survey of violence against staff working in the emergency department in ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Melek Serpil; Kocaöz, Semra; Akgüç, Selma

    2011-12-01

    Workplace violence in the emergency department is a significant problem world wide. The aims of this study were to identify the proportion of staff subjected to the types of violence, its sources, factors affecting violence experiences, reporting the incidence and the emotions of the victims after violence. This descriptive study was conducted between March and August 2009 in the the emergency department of six hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected from 270 staff working in various emergency settings. The instrument was a 36-item questionnaire on types of violence, its sources, feelings, and ways to cope with violent behaviors. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used for data analysis. The results showed 85.2% of participants had been subjected to at least one kind of violence: 41.1% to physical assault, 79.6% to verbal abuse, 55.5% to verbal threats and 15.9% to sexual harassment. Patients' companions (90.9%) were identified as the primary perpetrators of violence. The rates of violence types were highest towards security officers and housekeepers. The most common reactions to violence were sadness and anger. "Did nothing and keeping silent" was the coping method used most commonly by the staff. Participants exposed to physical assaults and verbal threat did not report the incidence of violence to managers were at 43.3% and 65.3% respectively. Based on results of the study, it is suggested that every hospital institute reliable reporting procedures that staff members feel comfortable using, and also provide a comprehensive program of support services for staff that has been assaulted. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Induced abortion frequency in Ankara, Turkey, before and after the legal regulation of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maral, Işil; Durukan, Elif; Albyrak, Selda; Oztimur, Neşe; Biri, Aydan; Bumin, M Ali

    2007-09-01

    To determine the effects of the 1983 law that legalized induced abortion on the number and place of abortions, and on the use of family planning (FP) methods before and after abortion, and to determine the demographic characteristics and reproductive health features according to the order of abortion. This study included 2455 married, widowed or divorced women presenting at Mother and Child Health-Family Planning Centres in Ankara. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Nearly three out of 10 (28.7%) of the women had undergone at least one induced abortion. In the age groups 45-54 and 55-64, 49 and 37.3%, respectively, had had one or more terminations of pregnancy (TOPs). The induced abortion rate increased following the enacting of the law. In the 15-24 and in the 55-64 age group, 55.6 and 89%, respectively, of the women had been aborted by a private physician. Before the index pregnancy, 63.1% were not using contraception compared with 37.3% thereafter. The rate of use of FP increased after the law was passed. Although the most common reason for having an abortion was unwanted pregnancy in all age groups and nearly 60.0% of the women aged less than 55 reported that they were not using any FP method at the time of the TOP, the proportion of women having undergone at least one of these procedures increased after the law was passed, indicating that abortion is used as a FP method.

  10. Personal Hygiene Behavior of Some High School Students in Ankara Province

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    Cigdem Simsek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This descriptive study aimed to determine the behavior of 11th class students (n=215 was related to personal hygiene at three high schools (one private high school, one health vocational high school, one industry vocational high school in the center of Ankara Province. METHOD: In order to analyze how changes hygiene-related behaviors of students with descriptive features, some behaviors related to hygiene, whether these points are being collected separately "total hygiene point" calculated asessment is made. RESULTS: 39.4% of students wash their hands 4-6 times 35.7% of students wash their hands 7-9 times a day. 40.5% of students wash their hands before meals, after toilet and when contamination. 40.6% of students have a bath 1-2 times 51.9% of students have a bath 3-6 times a week. 39.5% of students changes of underwear once daily or more frequent a day. 97.2% of students brushes their teeth. 59.1% of students brushes their teeth twice a day, 21.7% of students brushes their teeth three times a day or more. At the female students of private high school which providing general secondary education Mother's or father's education level is high, hygiene score is higher than the total ones (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Students, positive behavior changes related to personal hygiene, health education programs should be developed for the development of. Personal hygiene practices of families affected due to level of education clearly seen, the family also is important to be educated about personal hygiene. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 433-440

  11. The Prevalence of Obesity and Associated Factors in a Kindergarten in Ankara

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    Nurcan Yabanci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of obesity among preschool-age children and identify its associated factors. METHOD: This research has two steps, involving 375 preschool-age children ranging from 5 to 6 years-old, registered to a public kindergarten in Kecioren, Ankara. In the first step, measurements of weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were taken, body mass index (BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated, BMI according to age and gender was classified considering the reference data of WHO-2007, the results were evaluated ≥85-<95. percentile as overweight, and ≥95.percentile as obese. In the second stage, forms prepared by the researchers were given to parents and the data obtained were assessed by statistical methods. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight was 8.3%; the overall prevalence of obesity was 10.1%. The prevalence of overweight was higher in boys than in girls. The circumference of waist and hip of overweight/obese children were higher than other children (p<0.001. Negative and significant correlation was obtained (p<0.05 between the body weight and daily sportive activities of children and also between the period of exclusive breastfeeding. Moreover, positive correlation (p<0.01 was found between the body weight of children and the body weight of their parents. CONCLUSION: Obesity among preschool children is an important health problem. To evaluate obesity of children and encouraging them for having healthy eating behaviors and for doing sportive activities could contribute to prevent them to develop obesity in later ages. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 397-404

  12. Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Kütüphaneleri’nde Kataloglamada Uyumun Ölçülmesi / Measuring Cataloging Consistency in Health Sciences Faculty Libraries at Ankara University

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    Doğan Atılgan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the cataloging consistency between health sciences faculty libraries at Ankara University. Online catalogs at four faculty libraries are used to detect differencies in MARC records. Access points included AACR2, main entry, title statement and area of responsibility, edition statement, publication, distribution (etc., physical description area, series area, and added entries are compared. Findings showed certain amount of inconsistency among the access points analysed. Highest numbers of inconsistencies among all libraries were found in the title and responsibility statement fields.

  13. Modeling of a 22.9 kV 50 MVA superconducting power cable based on PSCAD/EMTDC for application to the Icheon substation in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yoon, J.; Lee, B.; Yang, B.

    2011-11-01

    Two projects for high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable have been carried out in Korea since 2001. One of them is a HTS cable project in DAPAS (Development of Advanced Power system by Applied Superconductivity technologies) program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. In this project, LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) jointly developed a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 100 m HTS cable using first generation (1G) HTS wire in 2006. The HTS cable system has been tested in a power test center of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). LSC and KEPCO have been developing a 22.9 kV, 50 MVA, 3 phase, 500 m HTS cable system using second generation (2G) HTS wire since 2008, based on the technology of the DAPAS project. This project is called as GENI (Green Superconducting Electric Power Network at the Icheon Substation) project. The target of GENI project is to install and operate the HTS cable system in the Icheon substation located in near Seoul. In order to analyze the Icheon substation power system employing the HTS cable, an analysis model of the HTS cable is necessary. This paper describes the development of an analysis model for the 22.9 kV, 50 MVA HTS cable that will be applied to the Icheon substation in Korea.

  14. Efficacy of different DNA and MVA prime-boost vaccination regimens against a Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) challenge in sheep 12 weeks following vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Gema; López-Gil, Elena; Ortego, Javier; Brun, Alejandro

    2018-02-21

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA and MVA vaccines encoding the RVFV glycoproteins Gn and Gc in an ovine model of RVFV infection. Adult sheep of both sexes were challenged 12 weeks after the last immunization and clinical, virological, biochemical and immunological consequences, were analyzed. Strategies based on immunization with homologous DNA or heterologous DNA/MVA prime-boost were able to induce a rapid in vitro neutralizing antibody response as well as IFNγ production after in vitro virus specific re-stimulation. In these animals we observed reduced viremia levels and less clinical signs when compared with mock-immunized controls. In contrast, sheep inoculated with a homologous MVA prime-boost showed increased viremia correlating with the absence of detectable neutralizing antibody responses, despite of inducing cellular responses after the last immunization. However, faster induction of neutralizing antibodies and IFNγ production after challenge were found in this group when compared to the mock vaccinated group, indicative of a primed immune response. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination strategies based on DNA priming were able to mount and maintain specific anti-RVFV glycoprotein immune responses upon homologous or heterologous booster doses, warranting further optimization in large animal models of infection.

  15. Determination of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Ankara Agglomerate Considering Fractal Geometry of Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aycan; Sonmez, Harun; Ercin Kasapoglu, K.; Ozge Dinc, S.; Celal Tunusluoglu, M.

    2010-05-01

    The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of rock material is a crucial parameter to be used for design stages of slopes, tunnels and foundations to be constructed in/on geological medium. However, preparation of high quality cores from geological mixtures or fragmented rocks such as melanges, fault rocks, coarse pyroclastic rocks, breccias and sheared serpentinites is often extremely difficult. According to the studies performed in literature, this type of geological materials may be grouped as welded and unwelded birmocks. Success of preparation of core samples from welded bimrocks is slightly better than unwelded ones. Therefore, some studies performed on the welded bimrocks to understand the mechanical behavior of geological mixture materials composed of stronger and weaker components (Gokceoglu, 2002; Sonmez et al., 2004; Sonmez et al., 2006; Kahraman, et al., 2008). The overall strength of bimrocks are generally depends on strength contrast between blocks and matrix; types and strength of matrix; type, size, strength, shape and orientation of blocks and volumetric block proportion. In previously proposed prediction models, while UCS of unwelded bimrocks may be determined by decreasing the UCS of matrix considering the volumetric block proportion, the welded ones can be predicted by considering both UCS of matrix and blocks together (Lindquist, 1994; Lindquist and Goodman, 1994; Sonmez et al., 2006 and Sonmez et al., 2009). However, there is a few attempts were performed about the effect of blocks shape and orientation on the strength of bimrock (Linqduist, 1994 and Kahraman, et al., 2008). In this study, Ankara agglomerate, which is composed of andesite blocks and surrounded weak tuff matrix, was selected as study material. Image analyses were performed on bottom, top and side faces of cores to identify volumetric block portions. In addition to the image analyses, andesite blocks on bottom, top and side faces were digitized for determination of fractal

  16. Modeling of Electric Field Around 100 MVA 150/20 kV Power Transformator using Charge Simulation Method

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    Noviadi Arief Rachman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Charge Simulation Method is one of the field theory that can be used as an approach to calculate the electromagnetic distribution on the electrical conductor. This paper discussed electric field modeling around power transformator by using Matlab to find the safety distance. The safe distance threshold of the electric field to human health refers to WHO and SNI was 5 kV/m. The specification of the power transformator was three phases, 150/20 kV, and 100 MVA. The basic concept is to change the distribution charge on the conductor or dielectric polarization charge with a set of discrete fictitious charge. The value of discrete fictitious charge was equivalent to the potential value of the conductor, and became a reference to calculate the electric field around the surface contour of the selected power transformator. The measurement distance was 5 meter on each side of the transformator surface. The results showed that the magnitude of the electric field at the front side was 5541 V/m, exceeding the safety limits.

  17. Pengaruh Pemberian Mikoriza Vesikula Arbuskula (MVA Campuran terhadap Kemunculan Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.

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    Najmah Farhati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo L. has economic potential to be cultivated because the fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphor, fiber, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, and niacin. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum will decrease melon crop production. One of controlling method to Fusarium wilt diseases on melon plants which safe for environtmental by using biological control. One of microorganisms which can be biological control agent is Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM. This research use experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design (CRD. The experimental treatment consists of two types of treatment which combine 5 doses of VAM mixture ( 0 g/plant, 10 g/plant, 12,5 g/plant, 15 g/plant, 17,5 g/plant and two inoculation method VAM is inoculated when seeds are planted and inoculation when the seedlings are replanted. Each treatment was repeated 3 times and each unit consist of three plant, so there are 30 units of experiments or 90 plants. The main variabels are observed consist of the incubation periode of the disease and the intensity of fusarium wilt and the supporting variabels consist of pH, temperature, humidity, and the scale of infection. The mixed MVA 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when seeds are planted and 15 g/plant dosage inoculated when the seedlings are replanted is the most effective to suppress incubation period of Fusarium wilt disease.

  18. Design of 154 kV class 100 MVA 3 phase HTS transformer on a common magnetic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Lee, S.; Park, M.; Kim, W.; Kim, S.; Han, J.; Lee, H.; Choi, K.

    2007-10-01

    We have proposed a high temperature superconducting (HTS) transformer which can substitute for a conventional oil transformer for power distribution in Korea. The conventional transformer is composed of three identical single phase transformers because of the limitations on volume and weight. Now the Korean power company has started to consider the possibility of a transformer on a common magnetic core because it can be a solution for the increment of capacity without new construction of substations. In this paper, we proposed an HTS transformer on a common core. Its capacity is the same as the previous HTS transformer, which was 100 MVA, 154 kV/22.9 kV. The former is smaller and lighter than the latter. We assumed a transformer tank which covers the common core and windings. The tank also acts as a vacuum seal for a cooling system and so the cryostats for the windings do not need to have vacuum layers. The design parameters are compared with those of both a conventional one and an HTS transformer with separate cores.

  19. Effects of depression and life factors on social network score in elderly people in Çankaya, Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    CANBAL, Metin; ŞENCAN, İrfan; ŞAHİN, Ayfer; KUNT, Şeyda; ÇAVUŞ, Umut Yücel; TEKİN, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Social interaction is an important factor in the physical and mental health of seniors. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effects of depression and life factors on the social networking scores of elderly people. Materials and methods: Tests for the Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were given to 116 elderly people (>=60 years) in the Çankaya area of Ankara between March and May of 2010. The effects of life factors and GDS scor...

  20. Kentlerin İklim Değişikliğinden Zarar Görebilirliğinin Belirlenmesi: Ankara Örneği

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    Pınar ÇOBANYILMAZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change affect all social, economical, environmental and institutional systems from global to urban levels. Coping and adaptive capacities of related systems exposed to climate change have impacts on subsistence today and in the future. For this reason determination of vulnerability of these systems to climate change is a vital issue of management. This research develops a method to exhibit vulnerabilities of cities to climate change in terms of social, economical, environmental, institutional and spatial aspects, and employs city of Ankara as a case. With this aim different vulnerability studies have been reviewed. Analysis of the vulnerability of Ankara to climate change has been based on a set of indicators. Findings indicate that the vulnerability of Ankara to climate change impacts is high

  1. Estudo das propriedades do cimento asfÃltico de petrÃleo modificado por copolÃmero de etileno e acetato de vinila(eva)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ellen Valentim de Alencar

    2005-01-01

    Cimento AsfÃltico de PetrÃleo (CAP), caracterizado como CAP 50/60, oriundo do Campo Fazenda Alegre, no estado do EspÃrito Santo, foi modificado por adiÃÃo de CopolÃmero de Etileno e Acetato de Vinila (EVA). Na modificaÃÃo foram incorporadas amostras do copolÃmero EVA puro e proveniente do resÃduo da indÃstria de calÃados (EVAR). Os CAPS, polÃmeros e CAPS modificados, foram inicialmente caracterizados por espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR) e ressonÃncia magnÃtica nuclear (RMN). AnÃlise tÃr...

  2. The Ankara Mélange: an indicator of Tethyan evolution of Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Üner; Üner, Tijen

    2016-08-01

    The Ankara Mélange is a complex formed by imbricated slices of limestone block mélanges (Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya Formations), Neotethyan ophiolites (Eldivan, Ahlat and Edige ophiolites), post-ophiolitic cover units (Mart and Kavak formations) and Tectonic Mélange Unit (Hisarköy Formation or Dereköy Mélange). The Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya formations are roughly similar and consist mainly of limestone block mélange. Nevertheless, they represent some important geological differences indicating different geological evolution. Consequently, the Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya formations are interpreted as Eurasian and Gondwanian marginal units formed by fragmentation of the Gondwanian carbonate platform during the continental rifting of the Neotethys in the Middle Triassic time. During the latest Triassic, Neotethyan lithosphere began to subduct beneath the Eurasian continent and caused intense deformation of the marginal units. The Eldivan, Ahlat and Edige ophiolites represent different fragments of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere emplaced onto the Gondwanian margin during the Albian-Aptian, middle Turonian and middle Campanian, respectively. The Eldivan Ophiolite is a NE-SW trending and a nearly complete assemblage composed, from bottom to top, of a volcanic-sedimentary unit, a metamorphic unit, peridotite tectonites, cumulates and sheeted dykes. The Eldivan Ophiolite is unconformably covered by Cenomanian-Lower Turonian sedimentary unit. The Eldivan Ophiolite is overthrust by the Ahlat Ophiolite in the north and Edige Ophiolite in the west. The Ahlat ophiolite is an east-west oriented assemblage comprised of volcanic-sedimentary unit, metamorphic unit, peridotite tectonites and cumulates. The Edige Ophiolite consists of a volcanic-sedimentary unit, peridotite tectonites, dunite, wherlite, pyroxenite and gabbro cumulates. The Tectonic Mélange Unit is a chaotic formation of various blocks derived from ophiolites, from the Karakaya and Hisarlıkaya formations and

  3. EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE STUDENTS IN A MEDICAL FACULTY IN ANKARA

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    Songul VAIZOÐLU

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The reseach is conducted to evaluate the environmental consciousness of the students in a medical faculty in Ankara. Materials and Methods: Of the 412 students, 342 (83.0% participated this cross-sectional study. Data were collected in August 2000 with ?Environmental Consciousness Research Form?, the questionnaire prepared by the researchers and analysed using EPI INFO 6.0, a statistical package programme. Results: Mean age of the study group was 23.71 and 54.7% were male. Most of the students (74.4% reported that they would go to school/work by bycle, bus or on foot, and 87.1 percent of them told they would prefer train. Of the participants, 72.3% think environmental problems are not the issues only governments would care about. While most of them (81.8% reported that they would give up buying the products harmful to the environment, only 18.8% told they would want to deliver brochures about environment to each house. Nearly half of the students reported that they wouldn?t spend their money for the solution of environmental problems. Most of the students reported that they didn?t admit to any official institution to get information on environmental pollution (90.3%, never attended a meeting on environment (85.6% and never subscribed to a publication about the environment (91.4%. The students knew the products containing mercury, the substances which do not dissepear in the ocean and about the ozone layer depletion. Environmental consciousness scores are calculated by grading the questions about environmental consciousness. Mean score was 27.47. Nearly half of the students (53.2% had a score over 28. Students reported that deforestation (10.1%, air pollution (8.0%, population explosion (7.8%, nuclear weapons (7.3% and industrial wastes (7.1% would be the most important problems in 21. century. Conclusion: Complementing the lack of knowledge determined in the study by planning educational programmes, considering the environmental

  4. EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCİOUSNESS OF THE STUDENTS IN A MEDICAL FACULTY IN ANKARA

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    Çağatay GÜLER

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The reseach is conducted to evaluate the environmental consciousness of the students in a medical faculty in Ankara. Materials and Methods: Of the 412 students, 342 (83.0% participated this cross-sectional study. Data were collected in August 2000 with ?Environmental Consciousness Research Form?, the questionnaire prepared by the researchers and analysed using EPI INFO 6.0, a statistical package programme. Results: Mean age of the study group was 23.71 and 54.7% were male. Most of the students (74.4% reported that they would go to school/work by bycle, bus or on foot, and 87.1 percent of them told they would prefer train. Of the participants, 72.3% think environmental problems are not the issues only governments would care about. While most of them (81.8% reported that they would give up buying the products harmful to the environment, only 18.8% told they would want to deliver brochures about environment to each house. Nearly half of the students reported that they wouldn?t spend their money for the solution of environmental problems. Most of the students reported that they didn?t admit to any official institution to get information on environmental pollution (90.3%, never attended a meeting on environment (85.6% and never subscribed to a publication about the environment (91.4%. The students knew the products containing mercury, the substances which do not dissepear in the ocean and about the ozone layer depletion. Environmental consciousness scores are calculated by grading the questions about environmental consciousness. Mean score was 27.47. Nearly half of the students (53.2% had a score over 28. Students reported that deforestation (10.1%, air pollution (8.0%, population explosion (7.8%, nuclear weapons (7.3% and industrial wastes (7.1% would be the most important problems in 21. century. Conclusion: Complementing the lack of knowledge determined in the study by planning educational programmes, considering the environmental

  5. Determining residential energy consumption-based CO2 emissions and examining the factors affecting the variation in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Melike; Akan, Perihan; Aydinalp Koksal, Merih; Gullu, Gulen

    2017-11-01

    Energy demand of Turkey has been showing a remarkable increase in the last two decades due to rapid increase in population and changes in consumption trends. In parallel to the increase in energy demand, the CO2 emissions in Turkey are also increasing dramatically due to high usage of fossil fuels. CO2 emissions from the residential sector covers almost one fourth of the total sectoral emissions. In this study, CO2 emissions from the residential sector are estimated, and the factors affecting the emission levels are determined for the residential sector in Ankara, Turkey. In this study, detailed surveys are conducted to more than 400 households in Ankara. Using the information gathered from the surveys, the CO2 emissions associated with energy consumption of the households are calculated using the methodology outlined at IPCC. The statistical analyses are carried out using household income, dwelling characteristics, and household economic and demographic data to determine the factors causing the variation in emission levels among the households. The results of the study present that the main factors impacting the amount of total energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions are household income, dwelling construction year, age, education level of the household, and net footage of the dwelling.

  6. Comparación entre los diagramas TTS obtenidos mediante los ensayos normalizados Huey y Strauss modificado para el acero inoxidable AISI 304

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    Otero, E.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comparison of Temperature-Time-Sensitization TTS diagrams obtained by Huey and modified Strauss standard, for detecting susceptibility to intergranular attack. The difference between these tests is the use of a strong or a slightly smooth oxidizing electrolyte. The diagrams obtained are different and if a sample tested by modified Strauss is sensitized, then it will be sensitized in the Huey test, but the contrary is not always true. This difference is because a sensitized sample has to have a continuous band lacking in chromium along the grain boundary in order to be sensitized in the modified Strauss test. This condition is not necessary in the Huey test.

    Se comparan los diagramas Temperatura-Tiempo-Sensibilización TTS, obtenidos mediante los ensayos normalizados de corrosión intergranular Huey y Strauss modificado, que, respectivamente, utilizan electrólitos fuerte y suavemente oxidantes, mostrándose que los diagramas obtenidos son diferentes. Si una muestra evaluada mediante el ensayo Strauss modificado se encuentra sensibilizada, entonces lo estará también en el ensayo Huey, pero no necesariamente ocurrirá lo contrario; esta diferencia se asocia a la necesidad de la existencia de una zona continua empobrecida en cromo a lo largo del límite de grano para que el material se sensibilice con respecto al ensayo Strauss modificado, condición innecesaria para el caso del ensayo Huey.

  7. Comportamento da parasitemia avaliada pelo método de Strout modificado em chagásicos agudos em tratamento

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    Cleudson Castro

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 18 pacientes com doença de Chagas aguda foi semiquantificada a parasitemia, pelo método de Strout modificado, antes e durante o tratamento. Antes da terapêutica a parasitemia variou entre 1 e 104 tripanossomos, e após o início do tratamento a parasitemia foi lida repetidamente com um intervalo, na maioria dos casos, entre dois e cinco dias, até a negativação. A dose inicial dos medicamentos foi de 10 a 15mg/kg/dia de Nifurtimox para sete pacientes, e 10 a 20mg/kg/dia de Benzonidazol para onze indivíduos. Após início do tratamento com Nifurtimox um paciente ficou o mínimo de cinco e dois o máximo de 23 dias com parasitemia enquanto com o Benzonidazol um paciente permaneceu o máximo de 15 dias.com parasitemia patente. O Benzonidazol baixou a parasitemia mais rapidamente que o Nifurtimox

  8. Jurassic-Paleogene intra-oceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, North-Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in North-Central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~179 Ma and ~80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shaly-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the Middle to Late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium-to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, REE and Pb, and initial ϵNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons) in the southern part. The Early to Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the Northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the Northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the Early Triassic. The Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with

  9. Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (∼ 179 Ma and ∼ 80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (∼ 67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shale-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and Pb, and initial ɛNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons) in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the northern

  10. A phase I randomized clinical trial of candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine MVA.HIVA administered to Gambian infants.

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    Muhammed O Afolabi

    Full Text Available A vaccine to decrease transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 during breast-feeding would complement efforts to eliminate infant HIV-1 infection by antiretroviral therapy. Relative to adults, infants have distinct immune development, potentially high-risk of transmission when exposed to HIV-1 and rapid progression to AIDS when infected. To date, there have been only three published HIV-1 vaccine trials in infants.We conducted a randomized phase I clinical trial PedVacc 001 assessing the feasibility, safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of candidate vaccine MVA.HIVA administered intramuscularly to 20-week-old infants born to HIV-1-negative mothers in The Gambia.Infants were followed to 9 months of age with assessment of safety, immunogenicity and interference with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI vaccines. The trial is the first stage of developing more complex prime-boost vaccination strategies against breast milk transmission of HIV-1.From March to October 2010, 48 infants (24 vaccine and 24 no-treatment were enrolled with 100% retention. The MVA.HIVA vaccine was safe with no difference in adverse events between vaccinees and untreated infants. Two vaccine recipients (9% and no controls had positive ex vivo interferon-γ ELISPOT assay responses. Antibody levels elicited to the EPI vaccines, which included diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and oral poliovirus, reached protective levels for the vast majority and were similar between the two arms.A single low-dose of MVA.HIVA administered to 20-week-old infants in The Gambia was found to be safe and without interference with the induction of protective antibody levels by EPI vaccines, but did not alone induce sufficient HIV-1-specific responses. These data support the use of MVA carrying other transgenes as a boosting vector within more complex prime-boost vaccine strategies against transmission of HIV-1 and

  11. Diseño del sistema de control y protección de una central hidráulica de 37 MVA

    OpenAIRE

    Feliz Juárez, Javier Fernando

    2013-01-01

    El presente Proyecto Fin de Carrera tiene como objetivo el estudio, diseño y valoración técnica y económica del Sistema de Control y Protección de Grupo de una central hidroeléctrica de 37 MVA. Este Sistema está compuesto por el conjunto de equipos eléctricos, electrónicos y mecánicos encargados del control y protección de los dispositivos e instalaciones existentes en la central y necesarias para el correcto funcionamiento de la unidad Turbina- Generador de la misma. Se han...

  12. The Effects of Using Geography Information Systems in Social Studies on Students Attitudes about Information Technology: Case of Ankara

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    Nihat ŞİMŞEK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The motivation and attention of students in the classroom are on the increase of using different methods. Like other lectures, in social studies using computers and information technologies is one of the methods that keeps the interest of students alive and increases participation of them. This study, aiming at measuring attitudes of 6th grade students to information technologies is conducted by using qualitative and quasi-experimental methods. The sample of this study is comprised by students of Cizmeci Elementary School, located in Ankara Kecioren. 33 students were chosen for experimental group and 35 students were chosen for control group, comprising a total of 68 students. As a result of the study, a significant difference between total computer attitude scale points of the pre and post-tests in both experimental and control groups was determined

  13. Determination of Phenological Properties and Effective Heat Summation Requirements of Some Apples Varieties in Ankara (Kalecik Conditions

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    Hülya Ünver

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the phenological characteristics of some apple varieties grown in the Kalecik district of Ankara province, the number of days between effective heat summation requirements, and phenological phases were determined. The research was conducted on Royal Gala, Granny Smith, Jersey Mac, Spur Golden and Red Chief apple varieties. The threshold temperature of +10°C was accepted as the temperature value for the determination of the heat summation requirements of the varieties. The effective heat summation above +10°C during the growing season of varieties was determined as 819.1-1986.3°C days in 2015 and 865.1-2031.2°C days in 2016. The number of days from full bloom to harvest was 85-75 days in 2015 and 132-219 days in 2016.

  14. Deletion of A44L, A46R and C12L Vaccinia Virus Genes from the MVA Genome Improved the Vector Immunogenicity by Modifying the Innate Immune Response Generating Enhanced and Optimized Specific T-Cell Responses

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    María Pía Holgado

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MVA is an attenuated vector that still retains immunomodulatory genes. We have previously reported its optimization after deleting the C12L gene, coding for the IL-18 binding-protein. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of MVA vectors harboring the simultaneous deletion of A44L, related to steroid synthesis and A46R, a TLR-signaling inhibitor (MVAΔA44L-A46R; or also including a deletion of C12L (MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R. The absence of biological activities of the deleted genes in the MVA vectors was demonstrated. Adaptive T-cell responses against VACV epitopes, evaluated in spleen and draining lymph-nodes of C57Bl/6 mice at acute/memory phases, were of higher magnitude in those animals that received deleted MVAs compared to MVAwt. MVAΔC12L/ΔA44L-A46R generated cellular specific memory responses of higher quality characterized by bifunctionality (CD107a/b+/IFN-γ+ and proliferation capacity. Deletion of selected genes from MVA generated innate immune responses with higher levels of determining cytokines related to T-cell response generation, such as IL-12, IFN-γ, as well as IL-1β and IFN-β. This study describes for the first time that simultaneous deletion of the A44L, A46R and C12L genes from MVA improved its immunogenicity by enhancing the host adaptive and innate immune responses, suggesting that this approach comprises an appropriate strategy to increase the MVA vaccine potential.

  15. Environmental and psychosocial factors affecting seat belt use among Turkish front-seat occupants in Ankara: two observation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simşekoğlu, Ozlem; Lajunen, Timo

    2008-01-01

    Low seat belt use rate among car occupants is one of the main problems contributing to low driver and passenger safety in Turkey, where injury and fatality rates of car occupants are very high in traffic crashes. The present article consists of two observation studies, which were conducted in Ankara. The first study aimed at investigating environmental factors and occupant characteristics affecting seat belt use among front-seat occupants, and the objective of the second study was to investigate the relationship between driver and front-seat passenger seat belt use. In the first study, 4, 227 front-seat occupants (drivers or front seat passengers) were observed on four different road sides and, in the second study 1, 398 front seat occupants were observed in car parks of five different shopping centers in Ankara. In both observations, front-seat occupants' seat bet use (yes, no), sex (male, female), and age ( 50 years) were recorded. The data were analyzed using chi-square statistics and binary logistic regression techniques. Results of the first study showed that seat belt use proportion among observed front seat occupants was very low (25%). Being female and traveling on intercity roads were two main factors positively related to use a seat belt among front-seat occupants. High correlations between seat belt use of the drivers and front-seat passengers were found in the second study. Overall, low seat belt use rate (25%) among the front-seat occupants should be increased urgently for an improved driver and passenger safety in Turkey. Seat belt campaigns especially tailored for male front-seat occupants and for the front-seat occupants traveling on city roads are needed to increase seat belt use rates among them. Also, both drivers and passengers may have an important role in enforcing seat belt use among themselves.

  16. Remoção de nitrato da água utilizando bagaço de caju quimicamente modificado

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    Raimundo Renato Melo Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O ânion nitrato (NO-3, devido sua alta solubilidade em água, é um contaminante de difícil remoção. Os métodos atualmente empregados para tratamento de água contaminada por nitrato possuem um elevado custo e não são muito eficientes, já que em alguns casos são gerados resíduos mais tóxicos que o próprio nitrato. Tecnologias contemporâneas empregadas para tratamento de efluentes aquosos têm seus mecanismos baseados no fenômeno de adsorção, em que um sólido poroso é capaz de adsorver determinadas substâncias, quando estas estão em contato. Estas tecnologias são economicamente rentáveis quando são empregados rejeitos agrícolas como adsorventes. Baseado no exposto este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de remoção de nitrato de água, utilizando bagaço de caju quimicamente modificado. Os estudos foram realizados em batelada. Os ensaios de adsorção evidenciaram que o tratamento do bagaço de caju com NaOH 0,1 mol.L-1  alcançou uma eficiência de remoção de 96%, enquanto que o bagaço sem tratamento obteve remoção de 22%. O mecanismo de adsorção modelou-se a uma cinética de pseudo-segunda ordem e foi mais bem correlacionado com a isoterma de Freundlich.  

  17. REMOCIÓN DE CROMO VI DE SOLUCIONES ACUOSAS POR ADSORCIÓN SOBRE CARBONES ACTIVADOS MODIFICADOS

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    Nubia Céspedes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determina la adsorción de Cr6+ de disoluciones acuosas en dos carbones activados comerciales en función del grado de modificación (reducción, oxidación de la superficie de los adsorbentes con tratamientos térmicos en presencia de hidrógeno, oxígeno y ácido nítrico. La química superficial de los carbones activados originales y modificados se examina por los métodos de titulaciones de Böehm y descomposición con temperatura programada (DTP. Los ensayos de evaluación de la capacidad de adsorción se realizan con soluciones modelo de ión cromato y bajo distintas condiciones de concentración inicial, tiempo de contacto, pH del medio, temperatura y masa de adsorbente. Se comprueba que la modificación de la superficie de los adsorbentes afecta el grado de adsorción del ión cromato en la medida en que los sólidos tratados con H2 muestran la mayor  capacidad de remoción. Las variables que afectan favorablemente la extensión de la remoción de cromo son: concentración inicial de 100 ppm,  pH  inicial de  2,0, temperatura de 25 °C y  masa de adsorbente de 100 mg. 

  18. DESARROLLO DE UN BIOMATERIAL A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN MODIFICADO DE YUCA, AGENTE ANTIMICROBIANO Y PLASTIFICANTE

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    MARIO GERMÁN ENRÍQUEZ-COLLAZOS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La mala disposición de materiales de empaquesderivados del petróleo ha causado gran impacto ambiental, por ello se han adelantado investigaciones para reemplazar estos materiales por productos biodegradables, siendo el almidón una alternativa para ello.En esta investigación se obtuvo y caracterizó un material por extrusión a partir dealmidón de yuca modificado, plastificante y un agente antimicrobiano para elaborar películas biodegradables. Se trabajaron como variables de procesamiento el perfil de temperatura,contenido de agente antimicrobiano y de plastificante. Se evaluaron las variedades de almidón de yuca CUMBRE 3, SM 707-17 y CM 7138-7; se determinaron propiedades térmicas, mecánicas, de superficie y las condiciones de operación óptimas para la obtención del biomaterial. Adicionalmente se realizó una prueba de inhibición microbiana. Cuando los contenidos de plastificante y de agente antimicrobiano se encontraron entre 20% y 25% y entre 0,1% y 0,2%, respectivamente y a una temperatura de proceso en las zonas del extrusor de 110ºC/120ºC/120ºC/110ºC, se obtuvo el mayor valor de tensión de las películas (2,393 MPa. La Tg de las películas de la variedad CM 7138-7 en el día 1 y el día 21 luego de obtenidaspresentó menor variación. La prueba antimicrobiana indicó que hubo inhibición del hongo Fusarium.

  19. "We have to what?": lessons learned about engaging support staff in an interprofessional intervention to implement MVA for management of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; VanDerhei, Deborah; Weaver, Marcia R; Stevens, Nancy G; Prager, Sarah W

    2013-08-01

    Including support staff in practice change initiatives is a promising strategy to successfully implement new reproductive health services. The Resident Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management (RTI-MM) is an intervention designed to facilitate implementation of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for management of spontaneous abortion. The purpose of this study was to identify training program components that enhanced interprofessional training and provide lessons learned for engaging support staff in implementing uterine evacuation services. We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data to identify themes within three broad areas: interprofessional education, the role of support staff, and RTI-MM program components that facilitated support staff engagement in the process of implementing MVA services. We identified three key themes around interprofessional training and the role of support staff: "Training together is rare," "Support staff are crucial to practice change," and "Transparency, peers and champions." We present lessons learned that may be transferrable to other clinic sites: engage site leadership in a commitment to interprofessional training; engage support staff as teachers and learners and in shared values and building professionalism. This manuscript adds to what is known about how to employ interprofessional education and training to engage support staff in reproductive health services practice change initiatives. Lessons learned may provide guidance to clinical sites interested in interprofessional training, improving service delivery, or implementing new services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of current Schistosoma mansoni infection on the immunogenicity of a candidate TB vaccine, MVA85A, in BCG-vaccinated adolescents: An open-label trial.

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    Anne Wajja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents.In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only. The primary outcome was immunogenicity measured by Ag85A-specific interferon gamma ELISpot assay. Tuberculosis and schistosome-specific responses were also assessed by whole-blood stimulation and multiplex cytokine assay, and by antibody ELISAs.Ag85A-specific cellular responses increased significantly following immunisation but with no differences between the two groups. Sm infection was associated with higher pre-immunisation Ag85A-specific IgG4 but with no change in antibody levels following immunisation. There were no serious adverse events. Most reactogenicity events were of mild or moderate severity and resolved quickly.The significant Ag85A-specific T cell responses and lack of difference between Sm-infected and uninfected participants is encouraging for tuberculosis vaccine development. The implications of pre-existing Ag85A-specific IgG4 antibodies for protective immunity against tuberculosis among those infected with Sm are not known. MVA85A was safe in this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02178748.

  1. Teores de ácidos graxos em ovos comerciais convencionais e modificados com ômega-3 Fatty acids levels in conventional and designer omega-3 commercial eggs

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    Thaiz Marinho Magalhães Cedro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os teores de ácidos graxos em ovos comerciais convencionais e em ovos modificados com ômega-3. Foram utilizadas 864 poedeiras da linhagem Isa Brown aleatoriamente distribuídas em dois grupos, de modo que cada gaiola com quatro aves foi considerada uma repetição, totalizando 216 repetições. No grupo para produção de ovos convencionais, as aves foram alimentadas durante toda a vida produtiva com ração à base de milho e farelo de soja, enquanto, no grupo para produção de ovos modificados, foram alimentadas, a partir da 22ª semana de idade, com ração contendo 1,5% de substrato de algas marinhas e 1,8% de óleo de peixe. Foram coletados, aleatoriamente, 180 ovos de cada grupo de poedeira (totalizando 360 ovos, que foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, considerando cada ovo uma repetição. Os ovos modificados com ômega-3 apresentaram menores de índice de gema, mas não diferiram dos ovos convencionais quanto aos demais parâmetros de qualidade. As médias de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados ômega-3 e de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados foram mais altas nos ovos modificados. As relações entre ácidos graxos poliinsaturados e saturados e entre ômega-6 e ômega-3 nos ovos modificados foram próximas ao ideal estimado para alimentação humana. As médias de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega-6 e de ácidos graxos saturados nos ovos convencionais foram significativamente maiores que dos ovos modificados com ômega-3.The objective of this work was to compare the levels of fatty acids between conventional commercial eggs and designer omega-3 eggs. It was used 864 Isa Brown line laying hens randomly distributed in two groups, so each cage with four birds was considered a replicate, totalizing 216 repetitions. In the group for production of conventional eggs, birds were fed corn- and soybean-based rations during the entire productive life while in the group for production of designer

  2. Estudo das propriedades mecânicas de filmes de proteína de soro de leite modificados com óleo de coco

    OpenAIRE

    Ampessan, Gabriel Augusto; Giarola, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    A utilização de embalagens sintéticas provoca problemas ambientais consideráveis, para tanto, acredita-se que os biopolímeros constituem uma forma alternativa para o desenvolvimento de embalagens por serem biodegradáveis, não causando impactos ao meio ambiente. Este trabalho teve por objetivo produzir e avaliar as propriedades mecânica e óptica de filme proteico de soro de leite, modificados com óleo de coco, para aplicação como embalagens alimentícias. Os biofilmes mostraram-se homogêneos e ...

  3. O processo produtivo capitalista na agricultura e a introdução dos organismos geneticamente modificados : o caso da cultura da soja Roundup Ready (RR) no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffoli, Pedro Ivan

    2010-01-01

    O estudo trouxe luz à questão da introdução dos Organismos Geneticamente Modificados na Agricultura Brasileira, em particular na cultura da Soja. Discute-se como as alterações promovidas nas normativas estadunidense e mundial sobre a legislação de propriedade intelectual possibilitaram a apropriação privada de parcela da mais-valia social gerada na agricultura, e também da natureza, pelo grande capital, afetando a vida e o modo de produção de milhões de agricultores por todo o planeta. Analis...

  4. Análisis de un asfalto modificado con icopor y su incidencia en una mezcla asfáltica densa en caliente

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofía Figueroa Infante; Fredy Alberto Reyes Lizcano; Diana Hernández Barrera; Christian Jiménez; Natalia Bohórquez

    2007-01-01

    En esta investigación se presentan los resultados obtenidos al elaborar una mezcla asfáltica MDC-2 con asfalto modificado con Icopor (poliestireno), resultado de la trituración de vasos desechables, con el ánimo de mejorar las propiedades mecánicas de las mezclas tipo rodadura y garantizar la durabilidad de las mismas bajo las solicitaciones impuestas en el período de diseño. Para el diseño se realizó la caracterización de los materiales pétreos, pertenecientes a una de las canteras de mayor ...

  5. El principio precautorio y el caso de los organismos genéticamente modificados en Argentina El principio precautorio y el caso de los organismos genéticamente modificados en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Gernaert Willmar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it inception, at the Rio de Janeiro summit in 1992, the precautionary principle has evolved in terms of its interpretation and application. Both have made some progress in relation to genetically-modified organisms (GMO and its consequences for the domestic and international markets in Argentina. As regards the normative framework, Argentina does not dispose yet of well-established rules as to how the principle should be applied. This opens up the debate about the political standing of the principle. As for as international trade is concerned, Argentina is an important GMO producer but, when incertitude is the key element regarding the application of precaution, crucial discrepancies about the possibility of transforming the principle in to a political tool, rather than in to a legal tool emerge. In the case of the municipal ordinance on compulsory identification of genetically-modified food, the lack of experience about conditions of application of the precautionary principle might have led to justify it on the grounds of European directives.Desde su esbozo en la Declaración de Río de Janeiro en 1992, el principio precautorio ha ido evolucionando en cuanto a su interpretación y aplicación. En la Argentina, ambos han progresada con relación al tema de los Organismos Genéticamente Modificados (OGM y de sus implicaciones para el comercio interno internacional. En cuanta al marco normativo argentino, no existe aún una práctica clara que especifique las condiciones de aplicación del principio y esta carencia abre la discusión sobre su relevancia política. En relación can el comercio exterior la Argentina es un productor importante de productos derivados de los OGM, y, cuando la incertidumbre prima como rasgo del principio, surgen discrepancias relativas a la posibilidad de que la aplicación de la precaución pueda transformarse básicamente en una herramienta política más que en un instrumento de regulación legal. En el estudio

  6. Tratamiento de lesiones cutáneas con un copolímero modificado: estudio clínico observacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Rueda López

    Full Text Available Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad en términos de cicatrización de un copolímero acrílico con un grupo amino modificado para el tratamiento de heridas cutáneas de diferente etiología en el ámbito de la atención primaria de salud. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo observacional, abierto, de medidas repetidas en una cohorte de pacientes que presentaban heridas cutáneas de diferente etiología. Se realizó un seguimiento de 4 semanas o hasta la cicatrización. Se estableció un procedimiento de curas cada 3 días, y contempló: limpieza, aplicación del producto de evaluación, cobertura con un tul graso, aplicación de gasa hidrófila y fijación con adhesivo de tejido no tejido. Resultados: Se incluyeron 16 lesiones y hubo tres pérdidas, por lo que se obtuvo una muestra final de 13 lesiones (5 lesiones por quemaduras de grado II, 3 lesiones traumáticas y 5 lesiones de evolución crónica. El 35,7% eran mujeres y la edad media de los pacientes era de 64,71 ± 19,37 (DE años. De las 13 lesiones, 11 cicatrizaron en menos de 4 semanas, con una tasa de cicatrización del 99,4%, y 2 lesiones cicatrizaron a los 32 días. El tiempo medio hasta la cicatrización fue de 16 ± 22,03 (DE días. Conclusiones: A pesar de disponer de una muestra muy reducida y lesiones heterogéneas por la etiología, los resultados han mostrado una elevada tasa de cicatrización y un buen comportamiento en el manejo del dolor.

  7. PbTiO3 modificado con Ca: de la cerámica a la lámina

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    Calzada, M. L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A review on calcium modified lead titanate, (Pb1-xCaxTiO3 bulk ceramics, through its structural and ferroelectric properties is described as well as the interest for the preparation of these materials as thin films. References to applications of these films, such as small electronic devices, are also reported. New experimental results on thin films with large Ca contents, fabricated by the sol-gel method, are reported. Results show that thin films have similar properties than bulk ceramics, but somewhat rather depressed. x-T phase diagram is discussed based on the current knowledge, on the relaxor phase appearance and on structural models. The singular dielectric properties of these thin films with x=0.5, are considered for applications in high density dynamic random access memories (DRAM and electronic components for high frequency (varactors.Se describe la evolución en el conocimiento sobre el titanato de plomo modificado con calcio, (Pb1-xCax TiO3, a través de sus propiedades estructurales y ferroeléctricas en forma cerámica hasta la actualidad y el interés por su conformación en láminas delgadas. Se hace referencia a su aplicabilidad en dispositivos electrónicos miniaturizados. Se aportan nuevos resultados experimentales en láminas delgadas de alto contenido en Ca, fabricadas mediante el método sol-gel. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto cómo las propiedades medidas en cerámica se mantienen en lámina, aunque algo deprimidas. Se discute a la luz de los conocimientos actuales el diagrama de fases x-T, con especial atención a la aparición de la fase relaxora y a los modelos estructurales propuestos. Debido a las peculiares propiedades dieléctricas de las láminas de PTCa con x = 0.50, se discute la posibilidad de emplearlas en la fabricación de memorias dinámicas de acceso aleatorio (DRAM de alta densidad y en la preparación de componentes electrónicos para alta frecuencia (varactores.

  8. Escore US7 modificado na avaliação de sinovite em pacientes com artrite reumatoide inicial

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    José Alexandre Mendonça

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o escore US7 modificado (escore MUS7 SIN na avaliação de pacientes com artrite reumatoide inicial (ARI. Além disso, foram examinados recessos dorsais e palmares dos punhos, bem como pequenas articulações das mãos e dos pés, para o diagnóstico de sinovite, mediante uma avaliação global das articulações. Métodos: A amostra do estudo compreendeu 32 pacientes tratados para artrite, com 13 meses como duração média da doença. Foi utilizado um aparelho de ultrassonografia (US com transdutor de alta frequência. As mãos dos participantes também foram radiografadas e analisadas pelo escore de Larsen. Resultados: Nas 832 articulações examinadas, detectou-se sinovite em 173 (20,79%, tenossinovite em 22 (4,91% e erosões em três (1,56%. A sinovite foi predominantemente detectada no recesso dorsal (73,38% das articulações MCF e IFP, quando comparado com o recesso palmar (26%. A presença de sinovite nas articulações avaliadas teve correlação com os resultados clínicos (HAQ-DI, DAS28, laboratoriais (anti-PCC, FR, PCR e ultrassonográficos (r = 0,37 a r = 0,42; p = 0,04 a p = 0,003. Encontramos correlação do escore MUS7 SIN para US na técnica da escala de cinzas (gray scale ou na técnica de Doppler de amplitude (power Doppler com os valores do instrumento DAS28 (PCR (r = 0,38; p = 0,0332 e com os resultados da PCR (r = 0,39; p = 0,0280, respectivamente. Conclusão: O recesso dorsal, o punho e as pequenas articulações podem ser considerados como locais importantes para a detecção de sinovite pelo escore MUS7 SIN em pacientes com ARI.

  9. Analysis of Long-Term Global Solar Radiation, Sunshine Duration and Air Temperature Data of Ankara and Modeling with Curve Fitting Methods

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    Mehmet YEŞİLBUDAK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The information about solar parameters is important in the installation of photovoltaic energy systems that are reliable, environmentally friendly and sustainable. In this study, initially, long-term global solar radiation, sunshine duration and air temperature data of Ankara are analyzed on the annual, monthly and daily basis, elaborately. Afterwards, three different empirical methods that are polynomial, Gaussian and Fourier are used for the purpose of modeling long-term monthly total global solar radiation, monthly total sunshine duration and monthly mean air temperature data. The coefficient of determination and the root mean square error are computed as statistical test metrics in order to compare data modeling performance of the mentioned empirical methods. The empirical methods that provide the best results enable to model the solar characteristics of Ankara more accurately and the achieved outcomes constitute the significant resource for other locations with similar climatic conditions.

  10. Depremde Zemin Davranısının Kestiriminde Yeni Bir Yöntem: Ankara Kenti Batı Kesimindeki Jeolojik Birimlere Uygulanması

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞOKUR, Ahmet Tuğrul

    2009-01-01

    Proje alanı, Ankara il merkezinde Etimesgut, Çuğlu, Macunköy ve Çukurambar sınırlarınıkapsar. Proje alanının hemen hemen tümünde, Ankara çayı yatağında depolanmış olanKuvaterner yaşlı alüvyonlar ile gölsel Üst Pliyosen çökelleri bulunmaktadır. Gerek bu birimlerinjeoteknik özelliklerini incelemek gerekse bölgenin depremselliğini tanımlamak ve zeminlerindinamik davranışlarını ortaya koymak amacıyla farklı disiplinlerin bir arada yer aldığı çok yönlübir araştırma gerçekleştirilmiştir.Bölgede dep...

  11. Combination of intratumoral injections of vaccinia virus MVA expressing GM-CSF and immunization with DNA vaccine prolongs the survival of mice bearing HPV16 induced tumors with downregulated expression of MHC class I molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němečková, Š.; Šmahel, M.; Hainz, P.; Macková, J.; Zurková, K.; Gabriel, P.; Indrová, Marie; Kutinová, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2007), s. 326-333 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : vaccinia virus MVA expressing GM-CSF * DNA vaccine * HPV16 induced tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2007

  12. MVA-based H5N1 vaccine affords cross-clade protection in mice against influenz a A/H5N1 viruses at low doses and after single immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); Y. Suezer; G. de Mutsert (Gerrie); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A. Scwantes (Astrid); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J. Löwer; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. Sutter (Gerd); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHuman infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype, frequently reported since 2003, result in high morbidity and mortality. It is feared that these viruses become pandemic, therefore the development of safe and effective vaccines is desirable. MVA-based

  13. High quality long-term CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory populations stimulated by DNA-LACK/MVA-LACK regimen in Leishmania major BALB/c model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Heterologous vaccination based on priming with a plasmid DNA vector and boosting with an attenuated vaccinia virus MVA recombinant, with both vectors expressing the Leishmania infantum LACK antigen (DNA-LACK and MVA-LACK), has shown efficacy conferring protection in murine and canine models against cutaneus and visceral leishmaniasis, but the immune parameters of protection remain ill defined. Here we performed by flow cytometry an in depth analysis of the T cell populations induced in BALB/c mice during the vaccination protocol DNA-LACK/MVA-LACK, as well as after challenge with L. major parasites. In the adaptive response, there is a polyfunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell activation against LACK antigen. At the memory phase the heterologous vaccination induces high quality LACK-specific long-term CD4(+) and CD8(+) effector memory cells. After parasite challenge, there is a moderate boosting of LACK-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Anti-vector responses were largely CD8(+)-mediated. The immune parameters induced against LACK and triggered by the combined vaccination DNA/MVA protocol, like polyfunctionality of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with an effector phenotype, could be relevant in protection against leishmaniasis.

  14. MVA-based H5N1 vaccine affords cross-clade protection in mice against influenza A/H5N1 viruses at low doses and after single immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost H C M Kreijtz

    Full Text Available Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype, frequently reported since 2003, result in high morbidity and mortality. It is feared that these viruses become pandemic, therefore the development of safe and effective vaccines is desirable. MVA-based H5N1 vaccines already proved to be effective when two immunizations with high doses were used. Dose-sparing strategies would increase the number of people that can be vaccinated when the amount of vaccine preparations that can be produced is limited. Furthermore, protective immunity is induced ideally after a single immunization. Therefore the minimal requirements for induction of protective immunity with a MVA-based H5N1 vaccine were assessed in mice. To this end, mice were vaccinated once or twice with descending doses of a recombinant MVA expressing the HA gene of influenza virus A/Vietnam/1194/04. The protective efficacy was determined after challenge infection with the homologous clade 1 virus and a heterologous virus derived from clade 2.1, A/Indonesia/5/05 by assessing weight loss, virus replication and histopathological changes. It was concluded that MVA-based vaccines allowed significant dose-sparing and afford cross-clade protection, also after a single immunization, which are favorable properties for an H5N1 vaccine candidate.

  15. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

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    Sumi Biswas

    Full Text Available The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii immunization and CHMI, and iii primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA, iv IgG avidity, and v isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM. These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  16. Método modificado de muestreo por conglomerados para la evaluación rápida de necesidades después de un desastre

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    Malilay J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El método de muestreo por conglomerados puede utilizarse para llevar a cabo la evaluación rápida de las necesidades de salud y de otro tipo en comunidades afectadas por desastres naturales. El método, que se basa en el modelo usado por el Programa Ampliado de Inmunización de la OMS para estimar la cobertura con vacunación, ha sido modificado para que proporcione 1 estimaciones de la población que queda en una zona determinada y 2 estimaciones del número de personas con necesidades específicas en la zona que ha sido afectada por un desastre. Este enfoque difiere del que se ha usado anteriormente a raíz de otros desastres en que las evaluaciones rápidas de las necesidades solo han consistido en estimar la proporción de la población con necesidades específicas. Aquí se propone un diseño de encuesta modificado que se basa en el uso de n x k para calcular la población restante, la gravedad del daño, la proporción y el número de personas con necesidades específicas, el número de domicilios dañados o destruidos y los cambios que sufren estas estimaciones en determinado período como parte de la encuesta.

  17. Determinação de fosfato por eletrodos modificados com quitosana - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i3.7235

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    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de biomassas como membranas seletivas à espécies químicas em eletrodos modificados tem avançado muito nos últimos anos, com a quitosana sendo um material barato, versátil e disponível como modificador. Este trabalho descreve a construção de um eletrodo modificado com quitosana como um sensor aos íons fosfato. Foram estudadas diferentes metodologias de preparação desses eletrodos, sendo que o construído com microesferas de quitosana e trocador iônico nitrato foi o mais eficiente, com correlação acima de 0,99 e faixa linear de concentração de fosfato entre 5,1 x 10-5 a 1,3 x 10-3 mol L-1. Não há interferência significativa de íons iodeto e brometo, mas os íons cloreto apresentam pequena interferência.

  18. Distribution of Spoligotyping Defined Genotypic Lineages among Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Clinical Isolates in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Ozgul; Tarhan, Gulnur; Gunal, Selami; Albay, Ali; Durmaz, Riza; Saribas, Zeynep; Zozio, Thierry; Alp, Alpaslan; Ceyhan, Ismail; Tombak, Ahmet; Rastogi, Nalin

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of genetic heterogeneity and spoligotype-defined lineages of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected during a three-year period in two university hospitals and National Tuberculosis Reference and Research Laboratory in Ankara, Turkey. Methods and Findings A total of 95 drug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates collected from three different centers were included in this study. Susceptibility testing of the isolates to four major antituberculous drugs was performed using proportion method on Löwenstein–Jensen medium and BACTEC 460-TB system. All clinical isolates were typed by using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods. Seventy-three of the 95 (76.8%) drug resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were isoniazid-resistant, 45 (47.4%) were rifampicin-resistant, 32 (33.7%) were streptomycin-resistant and 31 (32.6%) were ethambutol-resistant. The proportion of multidrug-resistant isolates (MDR) was 42.1%. By using spoligotyping, 35 distinct patterns were observed; 75 clinical isolates were grouped in 15 clusters (clustering rate of 79%) and 20 isolates displayed unique patterns. Five of these 20 unique patterns corresponded to orphan patterns in the SITVIT2 database, while 4 shared types containing 8 isolates were newly created. The most prevalent M. tuberculosis lineages were: Haarlem (23/95, 24.2%), ill-defined T superfamily (22/95, 23.2%), the Turkey family (19/95, 20%; previously designated as LAM7-TUR), Beijing (6/95, 6.3%), and Latin-America & Mediterranean (LAM, 5/95 or 5.3%), followed by Manu (3/95, 3.2%) and S (1/95, 1%) lineages. Four of the six Beijing family isolates (66.7%) were MDR. A combination of IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping reduced the clustering rate from 79% to 11.5% among the drug resistant isolates. Conclusions The results obtained showed that ill-defined T, Haarlem, the Turkey family (previously designated as LAM7-TUR family with high phylogeographical

  19. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Bilgi Okuryazarlığı Becerilerinin Değerlendirilmesi: Ankara Üniversitesi Örneği=Assessing Information Literacy Skills of Undergraduate Students: Sample of Ankara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzat Özel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilgi okuryazarlığı becerileri üniversitelerdeki öğrencilerin teknolojik yeniliklere ve değişime uyum sağlamaları, araştırma süreçlerini etkin bir biçimde yönetebilmeleri ve gelecekte yaşam boyu öğrenen bireyler olabilmeleri açısından oldukça önemlidir. Günümüz bilgi toplumunda bireylerin bilgi okuryazarı olması ve bu kapsamda bilgi gereksinimlerini tanımlayabilme, bilgi kaynaklarına erişebilme, bu kaynakları değerlendirebilme, yeni edinilen bilgiyi var olan bilgiyle bütünleştirebilme, bilgiyi uygun ve etik biçimde kullanabilme ve bilgiyi iletebilme/sunabilme becerilerine sahip olması beklenmektedir. Öğrencilerin bu becerilere sahip olmasında üniversite kütüphaneleri tarafından hazırlanacak bilgi okuryazarlığı eğitim programlarının önemli bir rolü bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmada, Ankara Üniversitesi lisans öğrencilerinin bilgi arama, erişim, değerlendirme, kullanma, iletme/sunma aşamalarında sahip oldukları becerileri ve bu konuya yönelik olarak onların eğitim alma durumlarını saptamak amaçlanmıştır. Betimleme yönteminin kullanıldığı araştırma, Ankara Üniversitesi’nde öğrenim gören 39.136 kişilik evrenden tabakalı rastgele örnekleme yoluyla seçilen 245 öğrenciden oluşan bir örneklem üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiş ve elde edilen veriler Predictive Analytics SoftWare 18 yazılımı yardımıyla analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda öğrencilerin ileri seviyedeki ve daha detaylı bilgi gerektiren konularda güçlüklerle karşılaştıkları, bilgi okuryazarlığı becerilerine yönelik olarak herhangi bir eğitim almadıkları ve bu konuda düzenlenecek eğitim etkinliklerine gereksinim duydukları saptanmıştır./ Information literacy skills are very important for students in universities in terms of technological innovations and change adaptability, effective management of research processes, and future life-long learning. In today's information

  20. The HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate MVA-B administered as a single immunogen in humans triggers robust, polyfunctional, and selective effector memory T cell responses to HIV-1 antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carmen Elena; Nájera, José Luis; Perdiguero, Beatriz; García-Arriaza, Juan; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Jiménez, Victoria; González-Sanz, Rubén; Jiménez, José Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles; López Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Guardo, Alberto C; García, Felipe; Gatell, José M; Plana, Montserrat; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-11-01

    Attenuated poxvirus vectors expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigens are considered promising HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Here, we describe the nature of T cell immune responses induced in healthy volunteers participating in a phase I clinical trial in Spain after intramuscular administration of three doses of the recombinant MVA-B-expressing monomeric gp120 and the fused Gag-Pol-Nef (GPN) polyprotein of clade B. The majority (92.3%) of the volunteers immunized had a positive specific T cell response at any time postvaccination as detected by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay. The CD4(+) T cell responses were predominantly Env directed, whereas the CD8(+) T cell responses were similarly distributed against Env, Gag, and GPN. The proportion of responders after two doses of MVA-B was similar to that obtained after the third dose of MVA-B vaccination, and the responses were sustained (84.6% at week 48). Vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells to HIV-1 antigens after 1 year were polyfunctional and distributed mainly within the effector memory (TEM) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) T cell populations. Antivector T cell responses were mostly induced by CD8(+) T cells, highly polyfunctional, and of TEMRA phenotype. These findings demonstrate that the poxvirus MVA-B vaccine candidate given alone is highly immunogenic, inducing broad, polyfunctional, and long-lasting CD4 and CD8 T cell responses to HIV-1 antigens, with preference for TEM. Thus, on the basis of the immune profile of MVA-B in humans, this immunogen can be considered a promising HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate.

  1. Publicidade: o corpo modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Márcia Cezar Hoff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, resultado parcial de uma pesquisa a respeito do imaginário do corpo na publicidade brasileira, analisamos alguns aspectos da representação de corpo em anúncios de clínicas de estética e de cirurgia plástica e também em depoimentos veiculados em revistas do mercado editorial brasileiro em janeiro e fevereiro de 2004. Nos referidos anúncios, identificamos uma desqualificação do corpo "natural" e uma necessidade de modificá-lo por meio de cirurgias. Também identificamos que a publicidade, associando os discursos médico e tecnológico, propõe um novo paradigma de corpo. Palavras-chaves: corpo, cirurgia, publicidade. ABSTRACT In this article, as apartial result of a research on the imaginary body in the Brazilian advertisement, we analyzed some aspects of body representation in advertising for a esthetic and lastic surgery clinics and also in narratives published in some magazines from the Brazilian editorial market during January and February of 2004. In the referred group of advertising, we identified the existence of a negative qualification of "natural" body and a necessity of modijying it through surgery. We also identified that the advertisement, associating the medical and technological discourses, proposes a new body paradigm. Keywords: body, cirurgic intervention, advertising.

  2. Precaución, riesgo y sostenibilidad en los organismos agrícolas modificados genéticamente Precaución, riesgo y sostenibilidad en los organismos agrícolas modificados genéticamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Tábara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo y la comercialización de Organismos Agrícolas Modificados Genéticamente (0MG es origen de multitud de importantes polémicas sociales, económicos y ecológicas, en cuya resolución a menudo se reclama la incorporación del principio y de prácticas de precaución. Este artículo introduce y analiza algunas de estas discusiones a partir de la perspectiva aportada por el proyecto europeo Precautionary Expertise for GM Crops (PEG sobre la aplicación de la precaución en el desarrollo y la comercialización de OMG agrícolas. A partir del material recogido en el caso español, los autores argumentan que gran parte de los desacuerdos que surgen de en la interpretación y aplicación de la precaución con relación a los OMG derivan de la adopción de una perspectiva más o menos reduccionista, o más o menos sistémica, tanto en la evaluación y regulación de los riesgos como en la bondad, los costes o los beneficios de su utilización. Por ello es posible detectar analíticamente, paro el caso español, una clara oposición entre aquellas interpretaciones de la precaución caso por caso, de aquellas que sostienen la necesidad de aplicar prácticas de evaluación y de gestión basadas en una precaución sistémica, más cercano a los principios y los postulados políticos de la sostenibilidad.The debate over GMO crops and their commercialisation becomes the source of a large number of conflicts with important social, economic and ecologic consequences the resolution of which often calls for the application of a precautionary approach and of the precautionary principle. This article introduces and analyses such discussions, and does so within the framework provided by the EU project Precautionary Expertise for GM (PEG. Based on first material gathered for the Spanish case study, the authors argue that a large majority of the disagreements around practical application of precaution over agricultural GMO in Spain come from a conception

  3. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE HEALTH TRANSFORMATION PROGRAM ON PUBLIC HOSPITALS AND HEALTH PROFESSIONALS (RESEARCH IN ANKARA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal TEKİN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of health applications of the Health Transformation Program (HTP on public hospitals and health professionals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive and seeking relations study was conducted with the health professionals who were working in 4 public hospitals located in Ankara province. The survey was administered to 335 health professionals by using stratified sampling method. Frequency analysis, factor analysis, correlation, and regression analysis methods were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Independent variables were infrastructure, health care delivery, and management. Dependent variables were digital displays and health professional variables. Two different regression models were developed. Multiple regression models which were designed for independent and dependent variables were statistically significant. Independent variables explained almost 14% of the total variance of the digital displays and 33% of the variance of the health professionals. CONCLUSION: The management and the representation of the health services are important forecasting tools for digital displays. However, the infrastructure of the health care does not have a significant effect. On the other hand, all of the independent variables are significant forecasting tools for health professionals and the Health Transformation Program (HTP affects the health professionals more than public hospitals.

  4. Reflection of Information Technologies over the Information Professionals in Terms of Status: A Survey on the Librarians in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanur Öztemiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order not to succumb to technologies that carry out tasks similar to those performed by humans, modern professional understanding makes it essential to adopt reconciliatory approaches. Because it requires less effort, the partnership between manpower and technology allows professional activities to be carried out in a shorter time and results in greater product or service output. In addition, this partnership deeply affects the workforce responsible for professional implementation. Developing technologies have brought about various changes in education and job titles and particularly in the professional specifications for information professionals. This study aims to set forth the reflections of change on the status extent, based on the information professionals ’ experiences. This study is based on descriptive methodology and covers 106 information professionals working in public libraries, university libraries and in the libraries of those institutions attached to the Prime Ministry in the Turkish capital city Ankara. This research finds that changes in information technologies have had meaningful impacts in terms of indicators of social status such as value, respectability, financial income and professional interest.

  5. Mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological evaluation of the Plio-Quaternary paleosols and calcretes from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükuysal, Ceren; Kapur, Selim

    2014-06-01

    We present the mineralogical, micromorphological, and geochemical characteristics of the paleosols and their carbonates from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey). The paleosols include calcretes of powdery to nodular forms and alternate with channel deposits. The presence of pedofeatures, such as clay cutans, floating grains, circumgranular cracks, MnO linings, secondary carbonate rims, traces of past bioturbation and remnants of root fragments are all the evidence of pedogenesis. Bw is the most common soil horizon showing subangular-angular blocky to granular or prismatic microstructures. Calcretes, on the other hand, are evaluated as semi-mature massive, nodular, tubular or powdery forms. The probable faunal and floral passages may also imply the traces of life from when these alluvial deposits were soil. The presence of early diagenetic palygorskite and dolomite together with high salinization, high calcification and low chemical index of alteration values are evidence of the formation of calcretes under arid and dry conditions. δ13C compositions of the carbonates ranging from -7.11 ‰ to -7.74 ‰ VPDB are comformable with the world pedogenic carbonates favouring the C4 vegetation; likely δ18O compositions of the carbonates are between -3.97 ‰ and -4.91 ‰ which are compatible with the paleosols formed under the influence of meteroic water in the vadose zone

  6. Mineralogical, geochemical and micromorphological evaluation of the Plio-Quaternary paleosols and calcretes from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küçükuysal Ceren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the mineralogical, micromorphological, and geochemical characteristics of the paleosols and their carbonates from Karahamzall, Ankara (Central Turkey. The paleosols include calcretes of powdery to nodular forms and alternate with channel deposits. The presence of pedofeatures, such as clay cutans, floating grains, circumgranular cracks, MnO linings, secondary carbonate rims, traces of past bioturbation and remnants of root fragments are all the evidence of pedogenesis. Bw is the most common soil horizon showing subangular-angular blocky to granular or prismatic microstructures. Calcretes, on the other hand, are evaluated as semi-mature massive, nodular, tubular or powdery forms. The probable faunal and floral passages may also imply the traces of life from when these alluvial deposits were soil. The presence of early diagenetic palygorskite and dolomite together with high salinization, high calcification and low chemical index of alteration values are evidence of the formation of calcretes under arid and dry conditions. δ13C compositions of the carbonates ranging from -7.11 ‰ to -7.74 ‰ VPDB are comformable with the world pedogenic carbonates favouring the C4 vegetation; likely δ18O compositions of the carbonates are between -3.97 ‰ and -4.91 ‰ which are compatible with the paleosols formed under the influence of meteroic water in the vadose zone

  7. Mapping Terrain Deformations after the 20th and 27th December 2007 Bala (Ankara, Turkey) Earthquakes with SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Magdalena; Perski, Zbigniew; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    Turkey is one of the most seismically active region of the Earth due to the fact that it is located on the Anatolian tectonic plate, in the transpression zone between Arabian and Eurasian plates. Continuous seismic observations in the region of Ankara confirmed permanent quakes occurrences, especially in Bala district.The aim of this study is to investigate possible terrain de- formation after earthquakes with magnitude 5.6 and 5.5 and following aftershocks which occurred in Bala region on December 20 and 27, 2007. The series of 10 ASAR Envisat images with the temporal baseline of 35 days was used for the verification of seismic and geological hypothesis and measurements. Coherence maps and interferograms were processed using DORIS (Delft Object- Oriented Radar Interferometric Software). The objective of our research was to use interferometric products like SAR inteferograms and coherence maps for the tectonical interpretation of Bala earthquakes in terms of local surface deformations. Unfortunately, due to the low coherence the interferometric products were hard to be interpreted and no deformation signal was identified. Possible causes of poor results are discussed.

  8. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  9. Natural radioactivity and metal concentrations in soil samples taken along the Izmir - Ankara E-023 highway, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.; Bassari, A.; Erees, F; Cam, S.

    2004-01-01

    The specific activity and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K) were determined in roadside soil obtained from fifteen sites along Izmir-Ankara Highway, using gamma-ray spectrometry. The soil activity ranged from 42.6 to 47.3 Bqkg -1 for 238 U, 31.8 to 36.3 Bqkg -1 for 232 Th, and 432 to 488 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. The highest mean value of 238 U was found in the soil samples obtained from a site close to the intersection of the roads. The study yielded an annual effective dose equivalent in the range of 58 - 80 μSv. The average value falls within the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in UNSCEAR-2000 publications. Also Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr concentrations were determined in roadside soil. Rb, Sr, Zr and Zn concentrations in roadside soil around the intersection of the roads were higher than maximum concentration levels of these heavy metals in normal soil

  10. Meio modificado de cultura para caracterização de Salmonella lactose positiva A modified culture medium for the characterization of positive lactose strains of Salmonella

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    Deise Pasetto Falcão

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um meio modificado de cultura para isolamento e caracterização de enterobactérias, visando especialmente salmonelas fermentadoras da lactose. No chamado "Meio modificado" as colônias das duas estirpes de Salmonella (lactose positivas e lactose negativas apresentam a morfologia idêntica, o que não ocorre quando são empregados os meios rotineiros à base de lactose, para isolamento de enterobactérias. Esse meio é uma modificação do meio de Hektoen Enteric Agar, do qual retirou-se lactose e adicionou-se xilose e L-lisina. Foi verificado que há possibilidade de diferenciar-se os diversos grupos de enterobactérias, empregando um meio de cultura sem lactose e usando como sistema diferenciador xilose e L-lisina. O meio modificado foi também avaliado quantitativamente comparando o seu poder enriquecedor ou inibitório, ao dos meios de Hektoen Enteric Agar, Brilliant Green Agar e SS Agar para diferentes grupos de enterobactérias.A modified culture medium was developed for the purpose of isolating and characterizing the enterobacterias, giving special attention to the Salmonella strains that ferment lactose. In this "Modified Medium" the colonies of the two strains of Salmonella show a morphological similarity. This does not occur with other culture media of enterobacteria, in which the basic carbohydrate is lactose. The Modified Medium is a modification of the Enteric Agar in which the lactose was substituted by xilose and L-lisine. It was verified that there is a possibility of differentiating between the different groups of enterobacteria by using a culture medium with no lactose and using xilose L-lisina as a differentiating system. The Modified Medium was also evaluated quantitatively comparing its enriching or inhibiting power with the Hektoen Enteric Agar, Brilliant Green Agar and the SS Agar media in relation to the different groups of enterobacteria.

  11. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Okuma Alışkanlığı: Ankara Üniversitesi Örneği / Reading Habit of University Students: The Model of Ankara University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Odabaş, Z. Canan Odabaş ve Coşkun Polat

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available [Turkish abstract]Okuma alışkanlığı, okuma eyleminin sürekli, düzenli ve eleştirel olarak sürdürülmesidir. Okuma alışkanlığının özünde sürdürülebilirlik yaklaşımı bulunmaktadır. Sürdürülebilir okuma alışkanlığı, bireyin yaşamının her döneminde okuma eylemini kalıcı ve düzenli olarak devam ettirmesini ifade eder. Türkiye’de okuma kültürünün gelişmiş ülke ortalamalarının oldukça altında olduğu bilinmektedir. Bu bakımdan çalışmanın temel amacı Türkiye’nin genel yapısında gözlemlenen bu olumsuz tablonun üniversite öğrencileri üzerine ne düzeyde yansıdığına ilişkin durum saptamasıdır. Çalışmada ilk olarak okuma alışkanlığı kavramsal olarak irdelenmekte, daha sonra Türkiye’de okuma alışkanlığının durumu ortaya konmakta ve son olarak da Ankara Üniversitesi lisans öğrencileri üzerinde yapılan anket uygulamasının sonuçları değerlendirilmektedir. Çıkan sonuçlar yüksek öğrenim boyunca öğrencilerin okuma becerisinde gelişme olduğunu, buna karşın yeterli okuma alışkanlığına sahip olmadıklarını göstermektedir. [English abstract] Reading habit is the realization of reading activity in a continuous, systematic and critical way. In the essence of this habit, the marking approach is sustainability. Sustainable reading habit is that an individual continues with his/her reading activity at every of his/her life’s phases, and in a permanent and proper form. It is known that, reading habit as a cultural attitude in Turkey is on the average lower than those being exercised in developed countries. This study aims at examining effects of this negative situation on university students. In the first part of the paper, conceptual analysis of reading habit is made and then, the intensity of the reading habit in Turkey is examined. Finally, the results of survey study conducted among Ankara University students are evaluated. Results reveal that

  12. Ansiedade nas avaliações escolares: uma abordagem psicoterapêutica sob estados modificados de consciência num grupo de alunos universitários

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Maria do Carmo Nunes de Aragão

    2009-01-01

    Fez-se um estudo sobre stress e ansiedade com alunos do ensino superior. O objectivo foi diminuir estes factores através da técnica Terapia por Reestruturação Vivencial e Cognitiva (TRVC) que consiste na indução do Estado Modificado de Consciência (EMC) através das técnicas de relaxamento e hipnose. O EMC facilita o acesso às memórias inconscientes. Procurou-se fazer a ligação do stress e ansiedade com os eventos traumáticos que estão na sua origem. A intervenção foi compost...

  13. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

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    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  14. Research of Stability Problems on Ankara-Konya High Speed Railway Line (Turkey) using Ground Penetrating Radar and Petrographical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, S.; Kadioglu, Y. K.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study is to research the stability problems according to rock properties and their discontinuities such as fractures, faults and karstic cavities on the new high-speed railway line between the capital city Ankara and the largest city Konya in Turkey. The Ankara-Konya high speed railway including a tunnel managed from The Turkish State Railways (TCDD). Geological surveys, polarizing microscope and confocal Raman spectrometry studies were used to determine rock properties. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) method was used to determine faults, fractures and karstic cavities. The railway line has been mainly constructed on inner Tauride Ocean suture of the Central Anatolia. The basement unit of the railway line mainly has been composed of ophiolitic complex of the inner Tauride Ocean. The main lithology of this ophiolitic complex has been formed by radiolarite, pelagic sediments, dolarite, gabbro, serpentinized peridotite and limestone blocks. The Jurassic alloctonous limestone which has been thrust on the ophiolitic complex. Neogene cover young units with minor amount of Alluvium deposits have been formed by the upper litholgy in the region. The serpentinite and altered radiolarite formation are formed by lubricous ground for the railway line in the region. A RAMAC CUII GPR system was used with a bi-static 100 MHz center band shielded antenna to acquire profile data. Totaly 35 km was surveyed on different parts of the railway line by considering the results of the geologic research and petrograpical studies. When we started to study, rail construction of some parts of the line had already been completed. Therefore, during studies, we gathered the data on the backfilled way on the three parallel profiles spaced 1m apart or on the service way next to the railway line. There was a tunnel on the line. We also gathered two parallel profiles data on the tunnel and four profiles data next to the tunnel to evaluate the stability according to the discontinuities

  15. Evaluation on Living Public Spaces and Their Qualities - Case Study from Ankara Konur, Karanfil and Yüksel Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Nilüfer; Imren Güzel, Burcu; Kavak, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Public spaces constitute one of the main elements of the living cities. They stand out as places reflecting the social structure of the society and the past values. They appear as the places one can observe the changes and modernity of the society as well as socializing places. Following to private and semi-private spaces, public spaces such as streets, squares and parks provide people a chance to be together and contact with each other. In living and vibrant places with these random appointments they feel that they belong to social urban life. Therefore, well-designed living public spaces are important indicators of the quality of life and user satisfaction. In the scope of this paper the basic principles and design criteria that create living public spaces and their effects on user satisfaction are discussed. By analysing the spatial reflections of used design criteria it is aimed to relate the existing arrangements to user satisfaction. For these analysis, Yüksel Street located at Kızılay Square in Ankara centre and side streets of Karanfil and Konur (all car-free) were selected as case study area. This area is one of the most important and most densely used pedestrian zone of the capital with its green pattern, location and crossroads. At the beginning, basic design criteria and implementation methods are detailed with the literature survey. Then basic criteria and design principles are verified by using field studies including a survey with randomly asked 270 questionnaires. For defining the user satisfaction and bringing out the qualifications and failures in the case study area user surveys are analysed by field study observations and SPSS Statistics software. Finally, practical suggestions which are believed to be useful for this type of public places in developing and less developed countries are proposed

  16. Frequency, risk factors and preventive approach to fall among aged population living in a nursing home in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Kibar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Increase in aged population in number brings along the risk of falls and fall-related injuries among elderly. It has been reported that almost 60% of falls occur in nursing homes and majority of admissions to emergency departments due to falls consist of elderly. The purpose of this study conducted in a nursing home in Ankara was to determine the frequency of falls and risk factors, and to clear out the opinions and views of the participants on planning and promoting interventions for prevention. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 60 years of age and older residents who lived in a nursing home. Data of the study was collected via face to face interviewing technique. The questionnaire consisted of four sections including socio-demographic characteristics, health status of the participants, healthy/risky behavior and fall related characteristics. RESULTS: Mean age of the 75 female and 59 male participants involved in the study was 73.99+/-7.18. Females were found to fall more in frequency than males (p>0.05. It was found that nearly half of the males (47.5% and more than half of the females (56.0% fell at least once within the previous year. Number of falls were higher among 75 years of age and older participants compared to the other age groups (p=0.003. Compared to the participants with fall background, aged people without fall background gave more correct answers in number to the questions which were asked to assess the knowledge on falls. Six out of 20 answers were statistically significantly correct (p <0.05. CONCLUSION: Individual and environmental interventions to be continued both inside and outside the institutions in order to prevent falls. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 23-32

  17. Modeling of lithology induced chemical anomalies in the aquifer systems of the Kazan Trona deposit area, Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camur, M. Zeki; Er, Cevat; Yazicigil, Hasan

    2008-04-01

    The study was carried out in order to investigate existing hydrogeochemical relationships between groundwater environment and geological units in the Kazan trona deposit area, Ankara, Turkey. Evaluations indicate that concentrations of alkalinity, boron, chloride and sodium in the upgradient groundwater of the Eocene sedimentary units gradually increase toward downgradient by the interactions of saline minerals (searlesite, shortite, northupite and pyrite) present in the secondary structures (microfractures and irregular voids) at various levels. Inverse modeling calculations suggest that the range of dissolved mass amounts in millimoles per kilogram of water for searlesite, shortite and northupite minerals are 0.05 28.67, 2.62 24.39 and 0.01 24.19, respectively, in the aquifer between the upgradient and downgradient locations. The ranges of accompanying calcite and dolomite precipitations are 4.54 48.71 and 2.16 24.08 mmol per kg of water, respectively. Chemical composition of the groundwater in the overlying Neogene sedimentary unit includes also higher concentrations of the major ions as measured in groundwater of the underlying units. However the lack of saline mineral zones in the Neogene unit indicates that upward groundwater mixing takes place from the underlying aquifer as also suggested by the measured upward gradient. The mixing percentage of the underlying groundwater as determined from the nested wells ranges from 2.7 to 48.3%, from upgradient to downgradient, respectively. The unconfined alluvium aquifer overlying the Neogene unit includes relatively dilute groundwater except in two locations, where high-ion concentrations detected in groundwater of the underlying units are also high in these locations, suggesting upward groundwater mixing from the underlying aquifer due to upward gradient. However, groundwater input investigations from the alluvium aquifer to the nearby Ova stream indicate that the detected high concentrations in these locations are

  18. ANKARA’DA ERKEN BİZANS DÖNEMİ MEZAR ALANI KAZISI / EARLY BYZANTINE CEMETERY EXCAVATION IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut AYDIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Roma Dönemi’nde Galatia Eyaleti’nin başkentliğini yapan Ankyra kentinin anıtsal yapıları ve diğer çarpıcı kalıntıları ile olası nekropol alanları genellikle Ankara’nın Erken Cumhuriyet Dönemi imar faaliyetleri sırasında gerçekleşen hafriyat çalışmaları ile açığa çıkarılmıştır. Ankara Celal Bayar Bulvarı üzerindeki Gazi Üniversitesi Sıhhiye Kampüsünde inşa edilen Mühendislik ve Mimarlık Fakültesindeki yapılaşma faaliyetleri sırasında ortaya çıkarılan Maltepe Erken Bizans Dönemi Mezar Alanı olasılıkla Ankyra kentinin daha önce bir bölümü tespit edilen güney nekropolü’nün devamı niteliğindedir. Gerçekleştirilen kurtarma kazısı sonucunda bu alanda tahrip edilmiş olası bir kilisenin küçük bir kısmı ve kilise cemaatine ait olması muhtemel beşik tonozlu bir mezar yapısı ortaya çıkarılmıştır.

  19. The Age and Geodynamic Evolution of the Metamorphic sole rocks from Izmir-Ankara-Erzıncan suture zone (Northern-Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melih Çörtük, Rahmi; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Özkan, Mutlu; Sherlock, Sarah C.; Marzoli, Andrea; Altıntaş, İsmail Emir; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-04-01

    The İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in northern Turkey is one of the major tectonic zones separating the Pontides to the North from the Anatolide-Tauride block and Kı rşehir Massif to the South. The accretionary complex of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, near Artova, is composed mainly of peridotites with varying degree serpentinization, metamorphic rocks, basalt, sandstones, pelagic and neritic limestones. The metamorphic rocks are represented by amphibolite, garnet micaschit, calc-schist and marble. The metamorphic rocks were interpreted as the metamorphic sole rocks. Because; (i) They are tectonically located beneath the serpentinized peridotites. (ii) Foliation planes of both the amphibolites and mantle tectonites are parallel to each other. (iii) The metamorphic rocks are crosscut by non-metamorphic dolerite dikes which exhibite Nb and Ta depletion relative to Th enrichment on the N-MORB normalized multi-element spider diagram. The dolerite dikes display flat REE patterns (LaN/YbN=0.85-1.24). These geochemical signatures of the dolerite dikes are indicative of subduction component during their occurrences. Geochemical observations of the amphibolites suggest E-MORB- and OIB-like signatures (LaN/SmN= 1.39-3.14) and their protoliths are represented by basalt and alkali basaltic rocks. Amphiboles from the amphibolites are represented by calcic amphiboles (magnesio-hornblende, tchermakite and tremolite) and they yielded 40Ar-39Ar ages between 157.8 ± 3.6 Ma and 139 ± 11 Ma. These cooling ages were interpreted to be the intra-oceanic subduction/thrusting time of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic domain. This study was funded by TÜBİTAK (Project no: 112Y123).

  20. Comparing adjuvanted H28 and modified vaccinia virus ankara expressingH28 in a mouse and a non-human primate tuberculosis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billeskov, Rolf; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Aagaard, Claus

    2013-01-01

    , in mice vaccinated with adjuvanted recombinant H28 alone (H28/H28) we observed the highest production of IL-2 per single cell and the highest frequency of antigen specific TNF-α/IL-2 expressing CD4 T cells pre and post infection. Interestingly, TNF-α/IL-2 expressing central memory-like CD4 T cells showed...... priming with H28 in a Th1 adjuvant followed by boosting with H28 expressed by MVA (H28/MVA28) induced the highest percentage of IFN-γ expressing T cells, the highest production of IFN-γ per single cell and the highest induction of CD8 T cells compared to either of the vaccines given alone. In contrast...... a significant positive correlation with protection at week 6 post infection, whereas the opposite was observed for post infection CD4 T cells producing only IFN-γ. Moreover, as a BCG booster vaccine in a clinically relevant non-human primate TB model, the H28/H28 vaccine strategy induced a slightly more...

  1. MODELACIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO REOLÓGICO DE ASFALTO CONVENCIONAL Y MODIFICADO CON POLÍMERO RECICLADO, ESTUDIADA DESDE LA RELACIÓN VISCOSIDAD-TEMPERATURA MODELAMENTO DO COMPORTAMENTO REOLÓGICO DE ASFALTO CONVENCIONAL E MODIFICADO COM POLÍMERO RECICLADO MODELING OF RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF CONVENTIONAL AND RECYCLED POLYMER MODIFIED ASPHALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleydi Cárdenas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades reológicas del asfalto dependen de las proporciones en que están presentes sus componentes, las cuales varían de acuerdo con el origen de los crudos de petróleo. El comportamiento reológico del ligante tiene una influencia significativa en las propiedades de la mezcla asfalto-agregado (ahuellamiento, fatiga y susceptibilidad térmica. Para describir el comportamiento reológico del asfalto proveniente del Complejo Industrial de Barrancabermeja (CIB y del asfalto modificado con material reciclado (poliestireno expandido y grano de caucho de llanta reciclada con control de granulometría y sin él, se realizaron mediciones de viscosidad a diferentes temperaturas (con intervalos de 2 ºC con el viscosímetro rotacional Brookfield, y a partir de estos datos se propusieron varias expresiones matemáticas que describen el comportamiento de la viscosidad en términos de la temperatura, se evaluaron en términos del coeficiente de determinación y se hallaron las temperaturas de mezclado y compactación. Los resultados indican que el mejor ajuste en los tres casos corresponde al modelo tipo Arrhenius truncado, con correlaciones entre 0,9945 y 0,9968. Las temperaturas de mezclado y compactación calculadas a partir de este modelo comparadas con las de las normas ASTM D2493 (2001 y AASHTO (2002 resultaron significativamente disímiles para el asfalto modificado (con polímeros de granulometría controlada pero similares para el asfalto original. De otra parte, con el fin de establecer la estructura química del asfalto original y modificado así como su influencia sobre la viscosidad, se realizó la separación de cada muestra de acuerdo con la norma ASTM D4124 (2001. Los resultados indicaron que sólo ocurrió cambio estructural en el asfalto modificado con polímeros de granulometría controlada, lo que muestra la relación entre la composición química y la viscosidad de los tres ligantes estudiados.As propriedades reológicas do

  2. Ankara Vespidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) Türleri Üzerine Faunistik Çalışmalar ve Ekolojik Gözlemler

    OpenAIRE

    TÜZÜN, Ayla; KEKİLLİOĞLU, Aysel

    2003-01-01

    Bu araştırma, 1998-2001 yılları arasında Türkiye’nin başkenti Ankara ili civarında yapılan arazi çalışmaları sonucunda elde edilen 683 örneğe dayanmaktadır. Çalışma sonucunda 4 cinse ait (Vespa, Vespula, Dolichovespula, Polistes ) 9 tür ve 1 alt tür; Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Vespula (Paravespula) germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespula (Paravespula) vulgaris (Linnaeus, 1758), Dolichovespula (Metavespula) slyvestris (Scopoli, 1763), Polistes (s.str.) gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767), Polistes (s...

  3. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan Dengan Menggunakan Metode Economic Value Added (Eva) Dan Metode Market Value Added (Mva) (Studi Pada PT Japfa Comfeed Indonesia Tbk. Dan PT Charoen Pokphand Indonesia Tbk. Di Bei Periode 2009-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Lutfiana, Lina

    2013-01-01

    The financial performance measurement can be done by various methods. In general, the most widely used is the financial ratio analysis method. Financial ratio analysis method not pay attention the cost of capital, so to overcome this weakness created a method of measuring financial performance by using value-added method, that is economic value added (EVA) and market value added methods (MVA). This study aims to determine the financial performance PT Japfa Comfeed Indonesia Tbk. and PT Charo...

  4. Examination of influenza specific T cell responses after influenza virus challenge in individuals vaccinated with MVA-NP+M1 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Timothy J; Peng, Yanchun; Berthoud, Tamara K; Blais, Marie-Eve; Lillie, Patrick J; Hill, Adrian V S; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; McMichael, Andrew J; Gilbert, Sarah C; Dong, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines stimulate neutralising antibody to the haemagglutinin antigen but as there is antigenic drift in HA it is difficult to prepare a vaccine in advance against an emergent strain. A potential strategy is to induce CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells that recognize epitopes within internal proteins that are less subject to antigenic drift. Augmenting humoral responses to HA with T cell responses to more conserved antigens may result in a more broadly protective vaccine. In this study, we evaluate the quality of influenza specific T cell responses in a clinical trial using MVA-NP+M1 vaccination followed by influenza virus challenge. In vaccinated volunteers, the expression of Granzyme A, Perforin and CD57 on influenza HLA A*02 M158-66 antigen specific cells was higher than non-vaccinated volunteers before and after challenge despite a similar frequency of antigen specific cells. BCL2 expression was lower in vaccinated volunteers. These data indicate that antigen specific T cells are a useful additional measure for use in human vaccination or immunization studies.

  5. Examination of influenza specific T cell responses after influenza virus challenge in individuals vaccinated with MVA-NP+M1 vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Powell

    Full Text Available Current influenza vaccines stimulate neutralising antibody to the haemagglutinin antigen but as there is antigenic drift in HA it is difficult to prepare a vaccine in advance against an emergent strain. A potential strategy is to induce CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells that recognize epitopes within internal proteins that are less subject to antigenic drift. Augmenting humoral responses to HA with T cell responses to more conserved antigens may result in a more broadly protective vaccine. In this study, we evaluate the quality of influenza specific T cell responses in a clinical trial using MVA-NP+M1 vaccination followed by influenza virus challenge. In vaccinated volunteers, the expression of Granzyme A, Perforin and CD57 on influenza HLA A*02 M158-66 antigen specific cells was higher than non-vaccinated volunteers before and after challenge despite a similar frequency of antigen specific cells. BCL2 expression was lower in vaccinated volunteers. These data indicate that antigen specific T cells are a useful additional measure for use in human vaccination or immunization studies.

  6. Development of cooling system for 66/6.9kV-20MVA REBCO superconducting transformers with Ne turbo-Brayton refrigerator and subcooled liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakuma, M.; Adachi, K.; Yun, K.; Yoshida, K.; Sato, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Umeno, T.; Konno, M.; Hayashi, H.; Eguchi, T.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a turbo-Brayton refrigerator with Ne gas as a working fluid for a 3 ϕ- 66/6.9kV-2MVA superconducting transformer with coated conductors which was bath-cooled with subcooled LN2. The two-stage compressor and expansion turbine had non-contact magnetic bearings for a long maintenance interval. In the future, we intend to directly install a heat exchanger into the Glass-Fiber-Reinforced-Plastics cryostat of a transformer and make a heat exchange between the working fluid gas and subcooled LN2. In this paper we investigate the behaviour of subcooled LN2 in a test cryostat, in which heater coils were arranged side by side with a flat plate finned-tube heat exchanger. Here a He turbo-Brayton refrigerator was used as a substitute for a Ne turbo-Brayton one. The pressure at the surface of LN2 in the cryostat was one atmosphere. Just under the LN2 surface, a stationary layer of LN2 was created over the depth of 20 cm and temperature dropped from 77 K to 65 K with depth while, in the lower level than that, a natural convection flow of LN2 was formed and temperature was almost uniform over 1 m depth. The boundary plane between the stationary layer and the natural convection region was visible.

  7. Afforestation areas defined by GIS in Gölbaşi specially protected area Ankara/Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, E Figen; Sahin, Sükran; Yilmazer, Ilyas

    2008-09-01

    This paper concentrates on determining the areas for afforestation and the development of conservation strategies and actions in the case where there is high demand for the conservation of a particular land area. The analysis of hydrological landscape structure and of erodibility was prerequisite in the methodological design considering the site-specific natural landscape characteristics of the study area. The Gölbaşi Specially Protected Area (SPA) being the case area has many local environmental disturbances, especially with respect to its hydrological system, and the area is beset by increasing demands for its use by the burgeoning human population. It is obviously clear that the present intensive demand for recreational use will be forecasted further increase in the future. The count of rural residences is estimated to increase by 50% over the next decade. This intensive demand shall further strain the carrying capacity of the ecological milieu, which has already suffered to a significant degree because of the present urban and rural activities. The Gölbaşi district is located only 20 km from the city center of Ankara, and its surroundings were legally designated to be a Specially Protected Area primarily for the existence of lacustral and fluvial systems where two interconnected lakes exist: Mogan and Eğmir Lakes. Essentially, the continuity of the lacustral and fluvial system of Lakes Mogan and Eğmir depends on the preservation and improvement of the water sources. However, interconnected surface water bodies of these lakes are actually quite contaminated, and a decline in the water flow from Mogan to Eğmir has been observed. For the elaboration of the present method, required conventional maps (at 1/25,000 scale) of topography (for slope analysis) and geology (for erodibility and permeability analysis) were transferred to computer media using AutoCAD R.14 software. The rectification of the transferred data was done using ERDAS Imagine 8.3. All data

  8. Measuring emotions in traffic : paper presented at the ESF Congress ‘Towards Safer Road Traffic in Southern Europe’, May 31st-June 2nd 2001, Ankara, Turkey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesken, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains the text of a presentation held at the European Science Foundation Congress ‘Towards Safer Road Traffic in Southern Europe’ (May 31st – June 2nd, 2001, Ankara , Turkey). In this paper, methods to measure emotions are reviewed and possible applications for traffic research are

  9. El derecho internacional del medio ambiente y el principio de precaución: una atención a los organismos vivos modificados (OVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ignacio González Arruti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores retos que afronta la humanidad en este siglo es el de lograr un crecimiento económico mundial sostenido que garantice la protección y conservación del medio ambiente y la seguridad alimentaria para las generaciones futuras. los problemas ambientales han dejado de ser un campo de construcción teórico, para convertirse en un referente de fenómeno real perceptible por sectores que resultan afectados en diversos intereses. el comercio de alimentos seguros y saludables es esencial tanto para empresarios como para autoridades y consumidores en todo el mundo. en la elaboración de las políticas alimentarias los estados deben asegurar un nivel de protección de la salud y vida de las personas, además de los intereses sociales y económicos, ya sea a nivel internacional o nacional. en este artículo analizaremos la función del principio de precaución en el ámbito de la diversidad biológica, poniendo especial énfasis en la regulación de los organismos vivos modificados.

  10. Uso de péptidos neurales modificados como tratamiento de una lesión en la médula espinal: una vision general

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Suárez-Meade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La lesión de la médula espinal ( lme es un fenómeno que daña al sistema nervioso central ( snc , y produce la pérdida de la actividad fisiológica por debajo del sitio de la lesión. Actualmente no existe algún tratamiento efectivo para la lme en el campo clínico. El papel del sistema inmune a través de la autorreactividad protectora ( ap —un fenómeno fisiológico desa - rrollado después de la lme — puede ser de gran importancia para inducir neuroprotección. La ap puede estimularse con el uso de péptidos neurales modificados ( pnm procedentes de componentes neurales como la proteína básica de la mielina. El presente artículo pretende dar una visión general de esta estrategia terapéutica innovadora que ofrece efectos bené - ficos y un futuro muy alentador. Se revisará el fundamento, los mecanismos y los hallazgos preclínicos más importantes utilizando el pnm a 91. Finalmente, se comentarán los obstáculos a vencer para su aplicación clínica.

  11. A falta de informação sobre os Organismos Geneticamente Modificados no Brasil The lack of information on Genetically Modified Organisms in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Geoffroy Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão sobre a rotulagem de produtos que apresentem em sua composição Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGM, também denominados de transgênicos. São abordadas as convenções, as leis e as normas referentes a esses produtos dispostos no mercado, a adequação dos mesmos às normas vigentes e sua aceitação pela sociedade. Dispõe também sobre a importância do princípio da precaução na avaliação da aplicação de novas tecnologias ou de tecnologias das quais não se conhece ou existam conhecimentos científicos relevantes quanto aos seus potenciais riscos ao meio ambiente, à saúde humana e à sociedade.This article presents a review about the labeling of products that have Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO, also called transgenic elements in their composition. It addresses the conventions, laws and regulations relating to such products currently governing the market, the adequacy of these existing standards and their acceptance by society. It also examines the importance of the cautionary principle when assessing the application of new technologies or technologies where little is known or where there is no relevant scientific knowledge about the potential risks to the environment, human health and society.

  12. Influência de Negro de Fumo Modificado com Polianilina na Estrutura de Compósitos com Poli(Fluoreto de Vinilideno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucolotto Valtencir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos condutores elétricos a base de poli(fluoreto de vinilideno (PVDF e negro de fumo modificado com polianilina (Eeonomer® foram preparados através do processamento por fusão. Resultados de reometria de torque indicaram que a presença de polianilina no negro de fumo é vantajosa ao processamento por fusão, reduzindo a viscosidade do fundido em comparação com a aditivação com negro de fumo puro. Compósitos contendo acima de 5% em peso de Eeonomer® apresentaram condutividade da ordem de 10-2 S/cm. Esse valor se manteve estável mesmo após tratamento térmico a 150degreesC por 170 h em atmosfera ambiente. Análises por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC e difração de Raios-X mostraram que o tipo e a quantidade de Eeonomer®, assim como a taxa de resfriamento da amostra, podem afetar a temperatura de fusão, o grau de cristalinidade e a fase cristalina do PVDF presente no compósito.

  13. Lithospheric convective removal related post-collisional middle Eocene magmatism along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (NE Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmengil, Gönenç; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, Ş. Can

    2017-04-01

    Obliteration of the Mesozoic Neo-Tethyan Ocean and succeeding collision of the micro plates along the northern part of Turkey lead the development of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ). The suturing and collision stages terminate with the amalgamation of the three different crustal blocks (Pontides, Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex and Anatolide-Tauride Block) in the Paleocene-Early Eocene period. After the collisional stage; a new phase of extension and magmatism concomitantly developed at the both sides and as well as along the IAESZ during the Middle Eocene period. However, the origin, mechanism and driving force of the post-collisional magmatism is still enigmatic. To understand and better constrain the syn-to post collisional evolutionary stages, we have carried out volcano-stratigraphy and geochemistry based study on the middle Eocene magmatic associations along a transect ( 100 km) from Pontides to the Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) at the NE part of the Turkey. Middle Eocene magmatic activity in the region has been represented by calc-alkaline, alkaline, shoshonitic volcanic and granitic rocks together with scarce gabbroic intrusions. We particularly focused on middle Eocene volcano-sedimentary successions (MEVSS) to constrain the tectono-magmatic evolution of the abovementioned transect. The volcano-sedimentary succsessions are coevally developed and cover the crustal blocks (Pontides and CACC) and the IAESZ with a region wide unconformity. We have differentiated three lava series (V1-V2-V3) and their sub-groups (V1a-V1b; V2a-V2b) in MEVSS. Generally, all lava series have middle-K to shoshonitic composition with distinct subduction characteristics. V1 series is marked by presence of hydrous phenocrysts such as amphibole+biotite. V1a sub-group constitute the first volcanic product and characterized by the high Mg# (42-69); alkaline basaltic andesite, and hawaiites. V1b sub-group is represented by calc-alkaline, low Mg# (24

  14. [Distribution of Enterobius vermicularis among the schoolchildren of two primary schools with different social-economic status in the Ankara province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazir, Canan; Gündeşli, Hülya; Ozkirim, Asli; Keskin, Nevin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 207 cellophane-tape specimens were taken from children at two different primary schools in Ankara province. Twenty two out of 207 samples were positive for Enterobius vermicularis (10.6%). A questionnaire including the major factors affecting the distribution of E. vermicularis such as the students' ages, genders and socio-economic status was made. No relationship was found between children's gender and E. vermicularis infection, whereas a higher infection rate was seen in the low-income families. When the 6-9 age group was taken into consideration, the incidence of E. vermicularis was higher for the 8-9 age group than for the 6-7 age group. Abdominal pain was the most common clinical symptom among the children.

  15. Comparison of Corporate Image a nd Patient Loyalty Perceptions of Outpatients and Inpatients: Example of a Training and Research Hospital in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Rıfkı Önder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the level of corporate image and patient loyalty of outpatients and inpatients who get services from a hospital and to evaluate the relationship between corporate images’ factors and patient loyalty. Totally 600 patients from a training and research hospitals in Ankara, formed the study sample. As a result, outpatients’ loyalty and image perceptions found medium level; while inpatients’ level found high. In addition, the effect of corporate image factors on patient loyalty was determined that there is a statistically significant , strong and positive correlation and 83% of patient loyalty is explained by corporate image factors. Based on the research findings, making improvements especially in quality and also physical, communication, social responsibility factors can obtain loyal patients. It is suggested to adopt different strategies to outpatients and inpatients while implementing these improvements.

  16. Ankara’daki Halk Kütüphanelerinde Halkla İlişkiler =Public Relations of Public Libraries in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadeniz, Şenol

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Ankara'daki halk kütüphanelerinin, kullanıcılarını sunulan hizmetler hakkında neden yeterince bilgilendiremedikleri ve kendilerini kullanıcılarına neden yeterince tanıtamadıkları konusu irdelenmiştir. Araştırmanın amacı, halk kütüphanelerinde uygulanabilecek halkla ilişkiler yöntemlerinin neler olduğunu, halk kütüphanelerinin planlı halkla ilişkiler faaliyetlerinde bulunmamalarının nedenlerini ve bu nedenlerin boyutunu, özelliklerini ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmanın evrenini Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi sınırları içinde hizmet veren Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı'na bağlı halk ve çocuk kütüphaneleri oluşturmaktadır. Önceden yapılandırılmış görüşme kapsamında halk kütüphanesi yöneticileriyle görüşülmüş, ayrıca araştırma kapsamındaki kütüphanelerde gözlem tekniği uygulanmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular ışığında, halk kütüphanelerinin sistematik halkla ilişkiler programları uygulamamaları nedeniyle, kütüphaneyi tanıtmada ve sunulan hizmetlere ilişkin kullanıcılarda olumlu görüş oluşturmada yetersiz kaldıkları anlaşılmıştır In this study the answers to the question "why the public libraries in Ankara could not inform their users about services off ered properly, and could not introduce themselves to users suffi ciently ?" were explicated. The goal of the study is to fi nd out which public relations methods can be used in libraries, and why libraries could not conduct planned public relations activities. The research universe consists of public libraries being administratively connected to Ministry of Culture and Tourism, which lie within the borders of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality. For the collection of data, pre-confi gured talks were applied to the managers who were working for the public libraries, and moreover the fulfi llment of library activities were observed. The fi ndings of the study indicate that, since

  17. Changing Perspectives on the Planning of Ankara (1924-2007 and Lessons for a New Master-Planning Approach to Developing Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgu Çalişkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As one of the newly planned capitals in the 20th century – like Islamabad, Canberra and Brazil –, Ankara represents an original case in planning history: from shaping a new town under the influence of early European urbanism to the control of a dynamic metropolitan form by structural planning approaches. Forming its urban core according to the initial planning perspectives between the beginning of 1930s and the mid-1970s, the city has entered a rapid phase of space production in its extensions for about the last thirty years.In the current period of development, highly fragmented urban peripheral formation has being occurred in Ankara. Since the existing trend on the dispersion of urban form lacking spatial coherence at different scale-levels causes the dominance of the private domain and a loss of urbanity, this trend might at first glance be considered as a break with the European tradition and the emergence of Anglo-Americanization in Turkish planning system in terms of looser development control approach on urban form.Before, coming to such a critical end-point, the paper prefers a closer look into the changing dynamics of master plans of the city. It is aimed to reveal the developmental logic of the city by means of master plan analysis. The comprehensive outlook – called plan matrix – is integrated into each master plan schema by correlating the basic components like main policy directions, depth of control, settlement typology, and city structure and form. Such a framework has a potential to be utilized for any kind of plan analysis at metropolitan scale for different cases. At the end of the analysis, the paper tends to address an alternative master planning approach for the similar types of developing cities striving for keeping its urban character within a fragmented urban body.

  18. Comparison of the levels of knowledge and approaches in relation with child abuse and neglect in residents of pediatrics, pediatricians and practitioners working in the province of Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Özlem; Çalışkan, Deniz; Suskan, Emine

    2014-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the levels of knowledge and approaches related with child abuse and neglect in pediatricians and practitioners who have a significant role in recognition and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Two hundred residents of pediatrics and 100 pediatricians working in university and education and research hospitals in the center of Ankara province and 250 practicioners working in primary health care centers were included in the study. A scale composed of five parts including history, physical examination, radiology, risk groups and symptoms was prepared to determine the level of knowledge of physician related with child abuse and neglect. The correct answers given to the questions included in the scale were added and knowledge scores for the subscales and the total score were calculated. Approval was obtained from Ankara University, Medical Faculty Ethics Committee for the study. The data were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test. A total of 550 physicians (339 female and 221 male) were included in the study. The mean total knowledge score related with child abuse and neglect was found to be 12.4±4.5 in residents of pediatrics, 13.7±2.8 in pediatricians and 13.6±2.8 in practitioners. The level of knowledge was found to be significantly higher in women, married physicians, physicians who received education before and after graduation, physician who confronted with cases of abuse or suspicious abuse and made a legal notice. In the light of these findings, child abuse and neglect should be included in education programs before and after graduation for physicians who have a key role in the subject of child abuse and neglect.

  19. Changing Cultural Spaces, Transformation of the Traditions: Hıdırellez Celebrations held in Ankara and Hamamönü Hıdırellez Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcan Gürçayır Teke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hıdırellez festival, one of the rituals that hails the start of summer, is celebrated widely across Anatolia. The belief thatwishes for the future will come true if certain actions are performed at Hıdırellez festival, may be seen as the basic motivation behind this ritual and the transmission of this tradition from generation to generation. Many practices at Hıdırellez are related to nature. The space to celebrate Hıdırellez is of the utmost importance due to the context of the ritual. There are many cultural spaces in Anatolia assigned for the celebration of Hıdırellez; these are selected based on the belief that they have been visited by Hızır. The cultural transmission of Hıdırellez celebrations is being hindered among an urbanizing population due to fewnew spaces being planned for them and a lack of protection for the existing spaces. This article focuses on the Hıdırellez festival spaces and the necessity of moving these spaces into cities in order to maintain the tradition. This article evaluates the basic importance of these spaces from the standpoint of sustainability and the formation of the tradition using the Hamamönü Hıdırellez festival, which is celebrated in Ankara. It discusses the variations of the participant profiles at the Sixth Hamamönü Hıdırellez festival, to be held in Ankara this year and the how their expectations have been shaped based on changing spaces. It concludes that besides the dimension of belief in the rituals, the dimension of entertainment is also prominent for participants at the Hamamönü Hıdırellez festival, and that various Hıdırellez traditions have found their way into popular culture.

  20. Priming with a simplified intradermal HIV-1 DNA vaccine regimen followed by boosting with recombinant HIV-1 MVA vaccine is safe and immunogenic: a phase IIa randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Munseri

    Full Text Available Intradermal priming with HIV-1 DNA plasmids followed by HIV-1MVA boosting induces strong and broad cellular and humoral immune responses. In our previous HIVIS-03 trial, we used 5 injections with 2 pools of HIV-DNA at separate sites for each priming immunization. The present study explores whether HIV-DNA priming can be simplified by reducing the number of DNA injections and administration of combined versus separated plasmid pools.In this phase IIa, randomized trial, priming was performed using 5 injections of HIV-DNA, 1000 μg total dose, (3 Env and 2 Gag encoding plasmids compared to two "simplified" regimens of 2 injections of HIV-DNA, 600 μg total dose, of Env- and Gag-encoding plasmid pools with each pool either administered separately or combined. HIV-DNA immunizations were given intradermally at weeks 0, 4, and 12. Boosting was performed intramuscularly with 108 pfu HIV-MVA at weeks 30 and 46.129 healthy Tanzanian participants were enrolled. There were no differences in adverse events between the groups. The proportion of IFN-γ ELISpot responders to Gag and/or Env peptides after the second HIV-MVA boost did not differ significantly between the groups primed with 2 injections of combined HIV-DNA pools, 2 injections with separated pools, and 5 injections with separated pools (90%, 97% and 97%. There were no significant differences in the magnitude of Gag and/or Env IFN-γ ELISpot responses, in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses measured as IFN-γ/IL-2 production by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS or in response rates and median titers for binding antibodies to Env gp160 between study groups.A simplified intradermal vaccination regimen with 2 injections of a total of 600 μg with combined HIV-DNA plasmids primed cellular responses as efficiently as the standard regimen of 5 injections of a total of 1000 μg with separated plasmid pools after boosting twice with HIV-MVA.World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry

  1. Modified crop model estimation of depleted and potential soybean yield=Modelo modificado de estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto Manfron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great importance of soybeans in Brazil, there have been few applications of soybean crop modeling on Brazilian conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to use modified crop models to estimate the depleted and potential soybean crop yield in Brazil. The climatic variable data used in the modified simulation of the soybean crop models were temperature, insolation and rainfall. The data set was taken from 33 counties (28 Sao Paulo state counties, and 5 counties from other states that neighbor São Paulo. Among the models, modifications in the estimation of the leaf area of the soybean crop, which includes corrections for the temperature, shading, senescence, CO2, and biomass partition were proposed; also, the methods of input for the model’s simulation of the climatic variables were reconsidered. The depleted yields were estimated through a water balance, from which the depletion coefficient was estimated. It can be concluded that the adaptation soybean growth crop model might be used to predict the results of the depleted and potential yield of soybeans, and it can also be used to indicate better locations and periods of tillage.Aplicações de modelos de previsão de produtividade na cultura da soja são muito raros. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar a estimação da produtividade deplecionada e potencial da cultura de soja, usando modelos de previsão modificados. Os dados climáticos utilizados nos modelos de simulação foram a temperatura, precipitação e insolação. Os dados foram proveniente de 33 municípios (28 do estado de São Paulo, e cinco municípios de estados vizinhos. Dentre os modelos propostos modificados está a estimação da área foliar da soja, com correções para temperatura, sombreamento, senescência, CO2, partição de biomassa, bem como os métodos de simulação das variávies climáticas do “input” para o modelo. As produções deplecionadas foram estimadas através do balan

  2. Análise do protocolo funcional de Lysholm modificado em pacientes com joelhos normais Analysis on the modified Lysholm functional protocol among patients with normal knees

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    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o protocolo de Lysholm modificado em pacientes com joelhos considerados normais (sem queixas ou doenças prévias nessa região. MÉTODO: No período de janeiro a março de 2010, foi realizado um estudo prospectivo com 300 pacientes que compareceram à emergência de nosso hospital com queixas ortopédicas em outras regiões do corpo. O critério de inclusão dos pacientes foi ausência de queixas ou cirurgia prévia no joelho considerado dominante. O limite de idade foi entre 16 e 40 anos, com média de 28,8 anos. Nossa pesquisa foi composta de 153 pacientes do sexo masculino e 147 pacientes do sexo feminino. No sistema Lysholm a pontuação máxima é de 100 pontos e inclui critérios funcionais e objetivos. Ao todo, 50% do total do escore é baseado nos sintomas de dor e instabilidade. RESULTADOS: A média do protocolo de Lysholm foi de 95 pontos em joelhos considerados normais. O sexo masculino obteve um escore superior quando comparado ao sexo feminino. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com joelho considerado normal não obtiveram a pontuação máxima na avaliação pelo protocolo modificado de Lysholm. O estudo sugere que esta linha de pesquisa sobre o sistema de avaliação funcional do joelho encontra-se aberta para novas avaliações. Assim como também devemos pesquisar a criação e a elaboração de novos formulários de avaliação funcional do joelho para a obtenção de um consenso mundial.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the modified Lysholm protocol among patients with knees that were considered to be normal (without previous complaints or pathological conditions in this region. METHOD: Between January 2010 and March 2010, a prospective study was conducted on 300 patients with orthopedic complaints in other regions of the body who came to the emergency service of our hospital. The inclusion criterion among these patients was the absence of complaints or previous surgery in the knee that was considered to be dominant. The age

  3. Avaliação do bagaço de cana natural e modificado como potencial sorvente de óleo vegetal

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    Viviane Vasques da Silva Guilarduci

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O óleo e a gordura vegetal residual, utilizados para a preparação de alimentos representam um perigoso poluente para as águas de córregos e rios. Um dos métodos mais utilizados nas últimas décadas para limpeza da água oleosa é a aplicação de biossorventes, pois apresentam facilidade para remoção e recuperação do óleo. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência das modificações do bagaço de cana com anidrido acético (acetilação e com 3-aminopropiltrietoxisilano (silanização sob a sorção de óleo vegetal. A modificação das fibras foi avaliada pelas técnicas de espectroscopia no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR, análise termogravimétrica (TG, difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e análise de área superficial e porosidade. Os resultados obtidos indicaram maior sorção de óleo vegetal para o bagaço de cana modificado com anidrido acético (BCA, 667 mg.g-1, seguido pelo bagaço de cana sem modificação (BCN com sorção de 576 mg.g-1. O bagaço de cana modificado com 3-aminopropiltrietoxisilano (BCS apresentou menor sorção, 425 mg.g-1, o que foi atribuído à sua maior hidrofilicidade.Evaluation of natural and modified sugarcane bagasse as sorbent of vegetable oil Abstract: The oil and the residual vegetable fat, used for the preparation of foods represent a dangerous pollutant for the waters of streams and rivers. One of the most used methods in the last decades for cleaning the oily water is the application of biosorbents, since they are easy to remove and recover the oil. In this sense, the purpose of this work was to determine the influence of the modifications of sugarcane bagasse with acetic anhydride (acetylation and with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (silanization under sorption of vegetable oil. The BCN and the grafted products were further characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning

  4. CONSUMIR O NO ALIMENTOS MODIFICADOS GENÉTICAMENTE?, UNA CONTROVERSIDA SOCIENTIFÍCA PARA CONTRIBUIR A LA FORMACIÓN SCOIOPOLÍTICA EN LA CLASE DE CIENCIAS

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    Daniel Cano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como propósito, contribuir a la formación sociopolítica de los estudiantes a partir de una propuesta pedagógica, en  la cual se incentivan discusiones y debates sobre la producción y el consumo de alimentos modificados genéticamente. Dicho estudio atiende al llamado de Derek Hodson (En sus textos (2003, 2004 y 2010  en el cual se atiende el hecho de ir más allá del enfoque Ciencia Tecnología Sociedad, para formar científica y críticamente a la ciudadanía, a partir de un currículo que tenga en cuenta siete áreas de preocupación, en este caso con la controversia sociocientíficaque se abordo, toma en cuenta dos áreas que son: - salud humana; alimentación y agricultura-. El estudio se realizó con un grupo de estudiantes del grado octavo de la Institución Educativa Comercial Antonio Roldan Betancur, del municipio de Bello,  Antioquia; esta propuesta de formación busca alejarse de la enseñanza tradicional de la ciencia para promover la formación de ciudadanos críticos e informados. La metodología de investigación acoge el paradigma cualitativo cuyo método elegido es el estudio de caso instrumental (Stake, 1998.   Para analizar la información registrada durante las actividades se retomó la estrategia análisis de contenido (Piñuel, 2002, se eligieron los enunciados construidos por los estudiantes como unidad de análisis y se extrajo de las actividades donde surgen dichas aseveraciones la unidad de contexto. Se plantearon tres categorías de análisis con sus respectivas subcategorías que fueron diseñadas a la luz de los referentes teóricos y con base en los objetivos de investigación propuestos, dichas categorías se relacionan con el uso de conceptos científicos, reflexiones sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia y llamados a la acción sociopolíticas en posturas y puntos de vista de las estudiantes. Gracias a estos enunciados se permitirá construir conclusiones de como una propuesta

  5. Pesquisa de oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp em fezes: comparação entre os métodos de Kinyoun modificado e de heine

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Para diagnosticar a infecção intestinal pelo Cryptosporidium sp, hoje bastante em foco pela não incomum participação no contexto da síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS, várias técnicas têm sido indicadas. Com o intuito de esclarecer vantagens e desvantagens, envolvendo quantificação, morfologia, durabilidade do esfregaço e tempo de preparação, comparamos os resultados obtidos mediante emprego de dois desses processos, ou seja, de Kinyoun modificado e de Heine, aplicados em amostras fecais de pacientes com AIDS. A sensibilidade foi bastante semelhante e a escolha deve depender da valorização das virtudes de cada uma das técnicas, que são: quanto â de Kinyoun modificada, a durabilidade dos esfregaços e, a propósito da de Heine, a rapidez com que se dã o preparo, aliada â superioiidade quando o parâmetro é a quantidade de oocistos encontrados, mais freqüentemente verificada.The diagnosis of intestinal infection by Cryptosporidium sp is crucial today; with the progression of the AIDS epidemic, many cases of cryptosporidiosis have appeared in this setting and in other immunodeficiency diseases. We compared the advantages and disadvantages of Heine's method and modified Kinyoun's method in the following parameters: morphology of the parasite, quantitation of cysts, stability of the staining characteristics timewise on the slides and time spend at staining. All positive fecal smears were obtained from patients with AIDS. The sensitivity of these two techniques was the same. The choice should be made by the best aspects of each method. Heine's was better for quantitation of the cysts and was faster. Kinyoun's was better for conserving the stained smear.

  6. Modelo de Whiten (1972 modificado para modelación de la trituración de la antracita residual de Nicaro

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    Andrey Leyva-Mormul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de modelar el proceso de trituración del carbón antracita en trituradores de cono se tomó como punto de partida el modelo de Whiten sustituyendo las funciones de clasificación y de distribución de la fragmentación por las ecuaciones de Whiten y White (1979 y Austin y Luckie (1972. Para la determinación de ambas funciones y la identificación de sus coeficientes de forma conjunta fue utilizado un algoritmo desarrollado por Hechavarría (2011. Los resultados mostraron que la función de clasificación coincide con la forma de la función cuadrática reportada por Vogel y Peukert (2005 y Coello et al. (2011. La función de distribución de la fragmentación acumulativa para las diferentes clases de tamaño obtenida confirma la validez del modelo teórico propuesto por Austin y Luckie. La composición granulométrica del producto triturado obtenida por el modelo sigue patrones similares a la curva granulométrica obtenida por el muestreo en la instalación estudiada. Los valores del coeficiente de correlación (0,9826 y del estadígrafo de Chi-cuadrado confirma la validez del modelo de Whiten modificado para la modelación de la trituración de la antracita de la instalación del Centro de Investigaciones Siderúrgicas de Nicaro.

  7. Evaluación analítica para la determinación de sulfatos en aguas por método turbidimétrico modificado

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    Carlos A. Severiche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La meta de un análisis químico de aguas es generar resultados correctos y confiables, siendo la validación de ensayos uno de los aspectos más importantes para conseguir este propósito; además constituye un factor clave para la prestación de servicios analíticos. La determinación de ion sulfato en aguas es una de las metodologías analíticas más discutidas que se conoce en el ámbito científico técnico del análisis de aguas, principalmente, por las desventajas que presentan los métodos aceptados internacionalmente (gravimétrico, turbidimétrico y cromatográfico. En el presente estudio se hizo la evaluación del método analítico turbidimétrico, para la determinación de sulfatos en aguas; el objetivo de este trabajo fue incluir una modificación al método estandarizado y confirmar correctamente la aplicación del método modificado para el análisis de aguas. Se trabajaron muestras de diferentes tipos de agua: potable, residual, superficial, de pozo y de piscina, siguiéndose estrictamente los protocolos de validación. Se encontraron resultados satisfactorios en precisión y exactitud con el fin de emitir resultados confiables y reales de la muestra analizada.

  8. Optimización del juego de reactivos para la determinación de urea en suero: Método Berthelot modificado

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    Mariela G Sijó Yero

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló el proceso de optimización en una técnica de análisis y una formulación, basado en el método Berthelot modificado con salicilato de sodio, el cual se diseñó para la determinación de dicho analito en suero. Los objetivos evaluados fueron: solución reactivo color, solución reactivo alcalino, temperatura de reacción, tiempo de desarrollo del color, tiempo de hidrólisis, actividad enzimática de la ureasa y longitud de onda. Se establecieron los valores óptimos de cada uno de los parámetros analizados; se logró linealidad en un rango de concentraciones de urea desde 3,33 hasta 26,6 mmol/L y se realizó un estudio de precisión donde se obtuvo un coeficiente de variación de 4,8 %.The process of optimization was developed in a technique of analysis and in one formulation based on the Berthelot method modified with sodium salicilate, which was designed for the determination of such analyte in serum. The objectives evaluated were the following: color reactive solution, alkaline reactive solution, reaction temperature, color development time, hydrolisis time, enzimatic activity of urease, and wave lenght. The optimal values of each of these parameters were established. Lineality was attained in a range of urea concentrations from 3.33 to 26.6 mmo/L. A variation coefficient of 4.8 % was obtained in an accuracy study

  9. MORTERO DE CEMENTO PÓRTLAND Y ARENA, MODIFICADO POR LA ADICIÓN DE PARTÍCULAS DE BAMBÚ / PORTLAND CEMENT MORTAR MODIFIED BY BAMBOO PARTICLES

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    ANTONIO BERALDO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENComo una consecuencia del desarrollo industrial, se generan cantidades significativas de residuos de las más variadas naturalezas. Además, se marcha para un rápido agotamiento de los recursos naturales, pues la mayoría de ellos no es obtenida de fuente renovable. Por su vez, el bambú presentase como una excelente alternativa para disminuir la explotación de las florestas nativas; todavia, diversos sectores tecnológicos brasileños aún no despertaron para las potencialidades de esa materia prima. Además también se destaca la posibilidad de utilización de particulas de bambú en el remplazo parcial o total de los agregados de origen mineral (arena y ripio. El objetivo de ese trabajo fue la evaluación de las características físicas y mecanicas de compuestos a base de mortero de cemento Portland y arena, modificado por la adición de partículas de bambú. El compuesto fue sometido a los ensayos de absorción del agua, de la velocidad del pulso ultrasónico (VPU y de las resistencias a la comprensión simple y diametral. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron el efecto del tratamiento aplicado a las particulas de bambú, del tipo de cemento empleado y del tipo de cemento empleado  del contenido de las particulas de bambú en las propiedades del compuesto. Palabras-llave: bambú, compuesto, VPU, END 

  10. Características físico-químicas e utilização em alimentos de amidos modificados por tratamento oxidativo Obtention, physicochemical characterization and applications in foods of starches modified by oxidative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Ayumi Shirai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de amidos modificados em alimentos tem sido uma alternativa para melhorar as características que os amidos nativos não podem conferir. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: avaliar características físico-químicas de amidos modificados com peróxido de hidrogênio, utilizar os amidos obtidos para a elaboração de doce de leite e bala de goma americana e verificar a aceitação sensorial destes produtos. Para obtenção das amostras modificadas, os amidos foram suspensos em solução de Fe2SO4.7H2O 0,01% e, em seguida, adicionou-se peróxido de hidrogênio 1,25%, ajustou-se o pH para 3,0, deixou-se reagir a 45 °C/15 minutos, lavou-se e secou-se a amostra em estufa de ventilação forçada a 45 °C/24 horas. Os amidos modificados apresentaram maior expansão, conteúdo de carboxilas, poder redutor e susceptibilidade à sinérese. Em relação à viscosidade aparente, verificou-se que com a modificação química houve diminuição no pico de viscosidade, especialmente quando as amostras foram analisadas em pH 7,0. A análise sensorial do doce de leite revelou que houve preferência pelas amostras elaboradas com amido de mandioquinha-salsa modificado e com o amido de milho regular ácido-modificado. A bala de goma produzida com amido de mandioquinha-salsa modificado ocupou o segundo lugar entre a preferência dos julgadores.The use of modified starches in foods is made to improve characteristics that the native cannot confer. The objective of this work was to evaluate physicochemical characteristics of starches from several botanical sources after chemical modification with H2O2 considering technological properties of interest to the food industry. The modified starches were used in dulce de leche and starch gum and the sensorial acceptance of these products was verified. The chemical treatment included the suspension of the native starches in a 0.01% Fe2SO4, followed by addition of 1.25% H2O2 at pH 3.0 and reaction time of 15 min

  11. “We have to what?”: lessons learned about engaging support staff in an interprofessional intervention to implement MVA for management of spontaneous abortion☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G.; VanDerhei, Deborah; Weaver, Marcia R.; Stevens, Nancy G.; Prager, Sarah W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Including support staff in practice change initiatives is a promising strategy to successfully implement new reproductive health services. The Resident Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management (RTI-MM) is an intervention designed to facilitate implementation of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for management of spontaneous abortion. The purpose of this study was to identify training program components that enhanced interprofessional training and provide lessons learned for engaging support staff in implementing uterine evacuation services. Study design We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data to identify themes within three broad areas: interprofessional education, the role of support staff, and RTI-MM program components that facilitated support staff engagement in the process of implementing MVA services. Results We identified three key themes around interprofessional training and the role of support staff: “Training together is rare,” “Support staff are crucial to practice change,” and “Transparency, peers and champions.” Conclusions We present lessons learned that may be transferrable to other clinic sites: engage site leadership in a commitment to interprofessional training; engage support staff as teachers and learners and in shared values and building professionalism. Implications This manuscript adds to what is known about how to employ interprofessional education and training to engage support staff in reproductive health services practice change initiatives. Lessons learned may provide guidance to clinical sites interested in interprofessional training, improving service delivery, or implementing new services. PMID:23876430

  12. Opacidad, translucidez y fluorescencia del dióxido de zirconio monolitico modificado mediante la técnica de stains frente a una cerámica de disilicato de litio

    OpenAIRE

    Espitia Parra, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la translucidez, opacidad y fluorescencia del dióxido de zirconio monolítico modificado por caracterización bajo la técnica de stains, frente a una cerámica de disilicato de litio y determinar si la técnica de stains resulta útil para lograr mejores resultados estéticos para este tipo de restauraciones. Métodos: Veinte muestras fueron obtenidas de Zirconia monolítica y divididas en 2 grupos (n=10). El primer grupo tenía muestras de dióxido de...

  13. Estudo do comportamento f?sico, qu?mico e reol?gico de ligante asf?ltico modificado com pol?mero e materiais advindos de plantas amaz?nicas para aplica??o em revestimento asf?ltico

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Tayana Mara Freitas da

    2011-01-01

    comercializado em Manaus (CAP 50/70-REMAN), e quando modificado com os agentes: pol?mero sint?tico - copol?mero de estireno e butadieno (SBS), fibra natural oriunda da casca da castanha de cutia (FCC) - Couepia edulis (Prance) e com aditivo antioxidante - gordura de Virola surinamensis ucu?ba (GU), visando trazer benef?cios ao asfalto utilizado na regi?o, quanto ao efeito oxidativo e t?rmico, bem como quanto a um melhor desempenho das misturas asf?lticas empregadas nas vias manauaras. Fo...

  14. Desenvolvimento e validação de testes de fluxo lateral para a detecção de cultivares geneticamente modificados e de aflatoxinas em produtos agrícolas

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelista, Vanessa Olinto dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    A expansão agrícola utilizando cultivares geneticamente modificados (GM) é fenômeno mundial. Esse fato tem impulsionado a implementação de legislações regulatórias para monitorar à presença de variedades GM em culturas agrícolas. Outra importante demanda mundial está relacionada ao consumo de alimentos contaminados por aflatoxinas. Essas moléculas constituem um classe de compostos extremamente tóxicos que causam efeitos danosos para a saúde humana e animal. Por isso, a segurança e qualidade d...

  15. Efecto de la motivación sobre la higiene oral: valoración mediante el índice de placa de Quigley-Hein modificado por Turesky

    OpenAIRE

    Poyato Ferrera, Manuel María; Segura-Egea, Juan J; Bullon, Pedro

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo. Estudiar el efecto de una intensa motivación sobre la higiene oral de los pacientes. Pacientes. Cuarenta y seis alumnos del primer curso del ciclo superior “Higiene Bucodental” del IES Santa Aurelia de Sevilla, 10 hombres (21,73%) y 36 mujeres (78,26%), con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 30 años.Material y métodos. Se ha utilizado como índice de higiene oral el índice de placa de Quigley-Hein modificado por Turesky (IPQHT). La motivación se mantuvo de forma muy intensa (al menos...

  16. CPP Detector Design Using MVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-09-01

    The Charged Pion Polarizability(CPP) experiment is approved to run in Hall-D at Jefferson Lab using the GlueX detector. CPP requires that π+π- production events be distinguished from μ+μ- to better than 99% accuracy. This drives the design of a new MWPC-based detector capable of separating the π events from the μ events. A multivariate analysis of simulated data was initially done to study the feasibility of a detector with this level of performance. More recently, the design parameters of the detector have been refined using a similar technique. Details on the initial study and how machine learning has contributed to the detector design will be presented.

  17. Ankara’da ebeveynlerin rotavirüs hakkında bilgi düzeyleri ve çocukların rotavirüs aşılanma oranları

    OpenAIRE

    KÖKSAL, Ali Osman; KÖKSAL, Tülin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the information level of parents about rotavirus gastroenteritis, rotavirus vaccine, and the incidence of rotavirus vaccination in Ankara. 500 patients with the age of more than 4 months who admitted to our outpatient clinic in 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. We asked parents whether they have any information about rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus vaccine, and their children had the first dose of rotavirus vaccination or not. When the pa...

  18. Modified E-test by the addition of EDTA-Tris and dimethyl sulfoxide on the potentiation of the effects of some antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis E-test modificado pela adição de Tris-EDTA e dimetilsulfóxido na potencialização do efeito de antimicrobianos em linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Ribeiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A concentração inibitória mínima-MIC em 30 estirpes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina foi avaliada utilizando o E-test padrão e o método modificado, pela adição de Tris-EDTA e DMSO. Os métodos modificados apresentaram redução significativa da MIC das estirpes utilizando a gentamicina, a ciprofloxacina e a norfloxacina.

  19. Stratigraphy and Folding in the Cenozoic Cover of a Fold-Thrust Belt in the Nallıhan Region (Ankara, Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaǧaç, Serdal; Koral, Hayrettin

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates stratigraphy and structural features in the Cenozoic sedimentary sequence of the fold-thrust belt of the Nallıhan-Ankara region, located to the north of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone. Permian-Triassic age marble intercalated with schist-phyllites, the upper Jurassic-lower Cretaceous age limestone and the upper Cretaceous age sandstone-shale alternation compose the basement in the study area. These rocks are unconformably overlain by the Cenozoic age terrestrial sedimentary and volcanic units. The Cenozoic stratigraphy begins with the Paleocene-Eocene age coal-bearing, at times, volcanic intercalated conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone alternation of alluvial-fluvial origins (Aksaklar Formation) and the tuff intercalated with lacustrine limestone, bituminous limestone (Kabalar Formation). These units are conformably overlain by the Eocene age basalt-andesite and pyroclastic rocks (Meyildere volcanics). The Paleocene-Eocene aged units are unconformably overlain by the conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone-marl of a lower-middle Miocene lacustrine environment (Hançili Formation). The terrestrial conglomerate-sandstone alternation (Örencik Formation) is the youngest unit in the Cenozoic stratigraphy, and is assumed to be of Pliocene age based its stratigraphic position on older units. Field study shows existence of both folds and faults in the sedimentary cover. Stereographic projections of bedding measured in the field shows N25W/45NW and N60W/4SE-oriented fold axes in the Paleocene-Eocene age units. There are also N76W/12SE and N88E/8NE-oriented folds. The difference in fold-axis orientations suggests that some folds may have been rotated in blocks bound by faults during the post-Paleocene/Eocene period. Whereas, the lower-middle Miocene units manifest N88W/13SE-oriented fold axes. It is thus proposed that the observed difference in the azimuth of fold axes represent two different folding phases, one with NE-SW and the other with N

  20. Performance investigation of a wind turbine–solar photovoltaic panels–fuel cell hybrid system installed at İncek region – Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrim, Yılser; Bilir, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid system with a wind turbine, photovoltaic panels and a fuel cell was studied. • 3 kW wind turbine, 17.97 m 2 photovoltaics, 1.2 kW fuel cell and 4.7 kW electrolyzer was used. • The system can meet the entire demand of a residential house in Ankara, Turkey. • Only exception is in November, when the energy lack can be compensated from the grid. - Abstract: Renewable energy use in the world increases year by year. However, in many cases it is not possible to cover the electrical energy need of even a single house using only one renewable energy resource due to its intermittent nature. At this point, hybrid systems are applied to overcome this problem. This study focuses on the combination of photovoltaic solar panels, a small scale wind turbine, an electrolyzer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell hybrid system for electrical power generation for an average house of 150 m 2 located at İncek region of Ankara, Turkey. Solar and wind energies were used as primary sources and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is used as the backup power. The hybrid system was modeled and the results indicate that the use of the selected wind turbine with a 3 kW capacity along with photovoltaic panels with 17.97 m 2 area is sufficient to provide the required 5 h operation of the electrolyzer, which in turn provides the necessary hydrogen and oxygen to the fuel cell. Since the daily energy needed by the investigated house was taken as 5 kW h, the fuel cell with a net power output of 1 kW supplies all electrical demand with its 5 h operation. The outcomes show that the hybrid system is capable to provide all electrical need of the house all year round, except November. The electrical energy production of the proposed system is considerably higher than the demand in many months and this surplus electricity can be used in order to support the cooling and heating system of the considered house.

  1. Modelo experimental de trauma medular agudo produzido por aparelho estereotáxico modificado Experimental model of acute spinal cord injury produced by modified steriotaxic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.J. Torres

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 55 ratos machos da espécie Rattus novergicus, variedade Wistar, com o objetivo de propor um modelo experimental de trauma medular produzido por aparelho estereotáxico modificado, capaz de reproduzir clinicamente lesões medulares padronizadas. Após realização de laminectomia dorsal de T13, utilizou-se peso compressivo de 50,5g (25 animais - grupo I ou 70,5g (30 animais - grupo II, durante cinco minutos, comprimindo a medula espinhal. Os animais foram assistidos durante oito dias, por meio de testes comportamentais para avaliar a sensibilidade dolorosa, a capacidade motora, o posicionamento tátil e proprioceptivo e a capacidade de manter-se em plano inclinado. No grupo I, observaram-se déficits neurológicos moderados e transitórios, que variaram entre os animais. No grupo II, foi possível obter um trauma padronizado, caracterizado por paraplegia bilateral e simétrica dos membros posteriores, perda de propriocepção e da sensibilidade dolorosa de todos os animais. A utilização do aparelho estereotáxico desenvolvido permite reproduzir clinicamente trauma medular padronizado em ratos, de maneira simples, econômica e satisfatória, o que poderá proporcionar avanços nas investigações terapêuticas, abrangendo doenças neurodegenerativas, como é o caso do trauma medular agudo.Fifty-five male rats (Rattus novergicus, Wistar variety, were used with the purpose of suggesting an experimental model of spinal cord trauma performed by using a modified stereotaxic equipment capable to reproduce clinically (standardized pattern spinal cord injury. After dorsal laminectomy of T13, a compression was performed with 50.5g (25 animals - group I or 70.5g (30 animals - group II during five minutes on spinal cord. The animals were assisted during eight days by behavioral tests to evaluate painful sensibility, motor capacity, proprioceptive and tactil placing, and stability on inclined plan. In the group I, moderate and transitory

  2. Análisis de un asfalto modificado con icopor y su incidencia en una mezcla asfáltica densa en caliente

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    Ana Sofía Figueroa Infante

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se presentan los resultados obtenidos al elaborar una mezcla asfáltica MDC-2 con asfalto modificado con Icopor (poliestireno, resultado de la trituración de vasos desechables, con el ánimo de mejorar las propiedades mecánicas de las mezclas tipo rodadura y garantizar la durabilidad de las mismas bajo las solicitaciones impuestas en el período de diseño. Para el diseño se realizó la caracterización de los materiales pétreos, pertenecientes a una de las canteras de mayor utilización en la Sabana de Bogotá, del asfalto producido en Barrancabermeja, Santander, y del poliestireno obtenido de los desechos no biodegradables. El método em-pleado para la obtención de los porcentajes óptimos de asfalto-agregados-icopor, fue el Marshall. Se realizaron los siguientes ensayos: el estudio del asfalto teniendo en cuenta el envejecimiento, el comportamiento dinámico de la mezcla a partir de los ensayos de fatiga trapezoidal para 20°C y 30°C y para deformaciones de 90x10-6, 150x10-6 y 220x10-6m, ahuellamiento para una carga de 13 toneladas, similar a la del eje más pesado de un bus de Transmilenio, módulo dinámico para 15°C, 20°C y 30°C y para las frecuencias de 2.5, 5 y 10Hz. Los resultados obtenidos se contrastaron con los de una mezcla asfáltica convencional. Como conclusiones de esta investigación se destacan: la disminución en más de un 50% de la deformación plástica ocurrida por el paso de vehículos de 13 ton, de acuerdo con el modelo utilizado, el aumento de la estabilidad de la mezcla asfáltica conservando un menor peso y la posibilidad de inclusión de estos materiales de desecho que impactan el am-biente pero contribuyen con la resistencia de un material como el concreto asfáltico, entre otros.

  3. Avaliação da força muscular pelo teste do esfigmomanômetro modificado: uma revisão da literatura

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    Lucas Araújo Castro e Souza

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O Teste do esfigmomanômetro modificado (TEM tem potencial de ampla aplicação clínica para mensuração da força muscular. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma ampla revisão da literatura para descrever como o TEM vem sendo utilizado para avaliação da força muscular, bem como suas propriedades de medida. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados MEDLINE/LILACS/SciELO/PEDro com combinação de termos específicos, sem restrições quanto ao idioma e publicados até novembro/2011, seguida de busca manual ativa. Todos os estudos encontrados foram analisados por dois examinadores independentes. RESULTADOS: Dos 24 estudos incluídos, 11 investigaram alguma propriedade psicométrica (validade de critério concorrente e confiabilidade e reportaram resultados adequados. O TEM já foi utilizado para avaliação da força muscular de crianças, adultos e idosos, saudáveis ou acometidos por alguma condição de saúde; doenças reumáticas e dor lombar foram as mais comuns. Já foi utilizado para avaliação dos músculos do tronco e membros; os membros superiores foram os mais avaliados (79,16%, principalmente os preensores palmares. Todos realizaram adaptação no esfigmomanômetro, a maioria utilizou contração muscular por 5 segundos, pré-insuflação do equipamento de 20 mmHg e não foi reportado o tempo de repouso nem o número de repetições. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: Apesar de apresentar adequadas propriedades de medida e ampla aplicabilidade clínica, o TEM ainda é pouco utilizado para avaliação da força muscular e não foi empregado em estudos com indivíduos em que este desfecho é comumente avaliado. A falta de padronização e/ou descrição dos procedimentos adotados dificulta a replicação dos métodos para utilização do TEM na prática clínica.

  4. Influência da concentração de soro de leite e de amido modificado sobre algumas características de composição de bebidas lácteas não fermentadas

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    Shana P. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência da concentração de soro de leite (26, 30, 40, 50 e 54% e de amido modificado (0,1; 0,2; 0,4; 0,6 e 0,7% sobre os teores de lactose, sólidos totais e acidez titulável de bebidas lácteas não fermentadas. Foram elaboradas 11 formulações empregando-se o planejamento estatístico Delineamento Composto Central Rotacional (DCCR para avaliar a influência dos fatores estudados, sobre as variáveis avaliadas. Para análise estatística dos resultados realizou-se análise de regressão. Constatou-se que as concentrações de soro avaliadas apresentaram efeito significativo sobre os teores de lactose, sólidos totais e acidez titulável, e o amido modificado não apresentou efeito significativo.

  5. Molecular and Cellular Dynamics in the Skin, the Lymph Nodes, and the Blood of the Immune Response to Intradermal Injection of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccine

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    Pierre Rosenbaum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available New vaccine design approaches would be greatly facilitated by a better understanding of the early systemic changes, and those that occur at the site of injection, responsible for the installation of a durable and oriented protective response. We performed a detailed characterization of very early infection and host response events following the intradermal administration of the modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a live attenuated vaccine model in non-human primates. Integrated analysis of the data obtained from in vivo imaging, histology, flow cytometry, multiplex cytokine, and transcriptomic analysis using tools derived from systems biology, such as co-expression networks, showed a strong early local and systemic inflammatory response that peaked at 24 h, which was then progressively replaced by an adaptive response during the installation of the host response to the vaccine. Granulocytes, macrophages, and monocytoid cells were massively recruited during the local innate response in association with local productions of GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP1α, MIP1β, and TNFα. We also observed a rapid and transient granulocyte recruitment and the release of IL-6 and IL-1RA, followed by a persistent phase involving inflammatory monocytes. This systemic inflammation was confirmed by molecular signatures, such as upregulations of IL-6 and TNF pathways and acute phase response signaling. Such comprehensive approaches improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal orchestration of vaccine-elicited immune response, in a live-attenuated vaccine model, and thus contribute to rational vaccine development.

  6. Ankara Üniversitesi Kriz Merkezine başvuran yas olguları üzerine bir çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENELMİŞ, Halil

    2006-01-01

    Ankara Üniversitesi Kriz Merkezi'ne BaşvuranYas Olguları Üzerine Bir ÇalışmaSosyal bir varlık olan insan yaşam süreci içerisinde zorlayıcı, yıpratıcı, tehdit edicibirçok olay ve sorunla karşılaşır. Her zaman sorunlar karşısında kullandığı çözüm yollarınınişe yaramadığını gören kişi, kendisini çaresiz hisseder. Bu yaşanan bir kriz durumudur. Krizçeşitli duygusal zorlanmalar sonunda meydana gelen akut ve süresi sınırlı bir dengebozukluğudur.Kişinin yaşamı boyunca karşılaştı...

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE PELÍCULAS BIODEGRADABLES A PARTIR DE ALMIDÓN MODIFICADO DE YUCA, AGENTE ANTIMICROBIANO Y PLASTIFICANTE CARACTERIZAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE FILMES BIODEGRADÁVEIS A PARTIR DE AMIDO MODIFICADO DE MANDIOCA, AGENTE ANTIMICROBIANO E PLASTIFICANTE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE FILMS MADE FROM MODIFIED CASSAVA STARCH, ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT AND PLASTICIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REINALDO VELASCO M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la morfología superficial de almidones termoplásticos (TPS obtenidos de tres variedades de almidón modificado de yuca, plastificante y un agente antimicrobiano. Las películas fueron obtenidas por extrusión soplado, se acondicionaron a una temperatura de 25°C y humedad relativa de 50% durante 48 horas y se extendieron sobre un portaobjetos; se procedió a tomar las fotomicrografías con los objetivos de 4x y 10x. Se usó la técnica microscopia óptica de alta resolución (MOAR para caracterizar las imágenes. La técnica mostró que la adición del plastificante afecta la microestructura de películas de almidón de yuca demostrando una falta de homogeneidad, sin embargo se presentaron regiones lisas relacionadas con el tamaño y forma del gránulo de almidón, la concentración del plastificante y las condiciones del proceso de extrusión como la velocidad del tornillo y el perfil de temperatura. Esta investigación contribuyó a caracterizar las propiedades microestructurales de los almidones termoplásticos, que son imprescindibles para la continuidad en el estudio de películas biodegradables.Avaliou-se a morfologia superficial dos amidos termoplásticos (TPS obtidos de três variedades de amido modificado da mandioca, plastificante e um agente antimicrobiano. Os filmes foram obtidos por extrusão soprada e espalhados sobre uma lâmina; passou - se a tomar as fotomicrografias com os objetivos de 4x e 10x. Foi usada a técnica da microscopia óptica de alta resolução (MOAR para caracterizar as imagens. A técnica mostrou que a adição do plastificante afeta a microestrutura dos filmes de amido de mandioca mostrando uma falta de homogeneidade, no entanto presentearam - se regiões lisas relacionadas com o tamanho y forma do granulo do amido, a concentração de plastificante e as condições do processo de extrusão como a velocidade do parafuso e o perfil de temperatura. Esta pesquisa contribuiu a caracterizar as

  8. Durabilidade de compósito biomassa vegetal-cimento modificado por polímero Durability of cellulose-cement composites modified by polymer

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    Lia L. Pimentel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A durabilidade de compósito biomassa vegetal-cimento é um dos fatores mais importantes para a colocação desse material no mercado consumidor. A utilização de polímeros em concreto e argamassa, com o objetivo de melhorar sua durabilidade, é cada vez mais freqüente. Este estudo visou à caracterização de propriedades físicas e mecânicas de compósito biomassa vegetal-cimento modificado com polímeros e a análise da durabilidade desse compósito. Foi testado um polímero de base acrílica em compósitos produzidos com resíduo de Pinus caribaea. Foram realizados ensaios de envelhecimento acelerado, por meio de ciclos de molhamento e secagem, por imersão em água quente e ensaio de envelhecimento natural. As propriedades físicas do compósito avaliadas foram a massa específica aparente e a absorção total de água por imersão. As propriedades mecânicas foram determinadas por meio de ensaios de resistência à tração na flexão, analisando-se a tensão e a energia de ruptura. Os corpos-de-prova foram extraídos de placas executadas por simples prensagem. Ensaios de microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram utilizados para observar o estado da fibra e da matriz após os processos de envelhecimento. O uso de polímero melhorou o desempenho mecânico do compósito nas primeiras idades e também promoveu significativa redução da capacidade de absorção de água, demonstrando que o uso desse material pode vir a melhorar a durabilidade desses compósitos, uma vez que reduziu sensivelmente sua capacidade de absorção.The durability of the cellulose-cement composites is a decisive factor to introduce such material in the market. Polymers have been used in concrete and mortar production to increase its durability. The goal of this work was the physical and mechanical characterization of cellulose-cement composites modified by a polymer and the subsequent durability evaluation. The work also evaluated the dispersion of acrylic

  9. Estudo de misturas asfálticas com ligante modificado pelo polímero EVA para pavimentos urbanos de Manaus - AM Study of asphalt mixtures containing a binder modified with EVA polymer for use in urban pavements in Manaus

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    Daniela M. G. D'Antona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa buscou soluções com materiais alternativos visando à construção de pavimentos urbanos para Manaus (AM com maior vida útil e condizente com as suas condições de serviço, em particular, o seu desempenho mecânico frente às temperaturas regionais. Estudou-se o ligante regional, CAP 50/70, misturado com 4% do polímero EVA, e como partícipe em compósitos asfálticos. A incorporação do mencionado polímero teve como objetivo melhorar suas propriedades reológicas e, por conseguinte, o comportamento mecânico desse compósito - concreto asfáltico, empregado como revestimento nas vias urbanas da Capital do Estado do Amazonas. Os ligantes (virgem e modificado foram caracterizados conforme a especificação da ANP e a metodologia Superpave. As misturas asfálticas foram avaliadas pelo ensaio de fluência por compressão axial, com carregamento dinâmico à temperatura de 40 ºC. O material asfáltico modificado com EVA (AMP EVA demonstrou melhores propriedades reológicas ou equivalentes ao asfalto convencional (REMAN, ao longo de todos os ensaios de caracterização. As misturas alternativas compostas com o CAP modificado (SEVA obtiveram desempenho mecânico superior ao de misturas com cimento asfáltico habitualmente comercializado na região (SMAN.In this research we investigated alternative materials to build urban pavements in Manaus, seeking for pavements with longer lifetime for usage and suitable mechanical properties to withstand the local temperatures. The asphaltic mixtures contained a regional binder, namely CAP 50/70, mixed with 4% of EVA polymer. The incorporation of the latter polymer was aimed at improving the rheological properties of asphaltic concrete used in roads in the Amazonas' capital. The asphalt binders (original and modified were characterized in accordance with the ANP (National Petroleum Agency specification and the Superpave methodology. The asphalt mixtures had their mechanical properties

  10. Araştırma Görevlilerinin Bilgi Okuryazarlığı Becerileri ve Eğitim Gereksinimleri: Ankara Üniversitesi Örneği=Information Literacy Skills of Research Assistants and Their Educational Needs: Sample of Ankara University

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    Nevzat Özel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin sürekli gelişimi, bilgi edinme ve öğrenme ortamlarının, bu ortamlar için kullanılan araçların, uygulamaların ve hizmetlerin yapısını yeniden şekillendirmektedir. Bu durum, yaşam boyu öğrenme kapsamında bireylerin bilgi okuryazarlığı becerilerine sahip olmasını zorunlu kılmaktadır. Belirtilen becerilerin bireylere kazandırılmasında kütüphaneler tarafından düzenlenecek eğitim etkinliklerinin önemli katkıları bulunmaktadır. Bu araştırmada, Ankara Üniversitesi araştırma görevlilerinin kütüphanelerden yararlanma durumları ile bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri bağlamında bilgi okuryazarlığı beceri düzeylerini belirlemek ve bu konulara yönelik olarak eğitim beklentilerini saptamak amaçlanmıştır. Ankara Üniversitesi’nde görev yapan toplam 1028 araştırma görevlisinden çalışmaya katılan 556 kişi üzerinde gerçekleştirilen araştırmada betimleme yöntemi kullanılmış, veri toplama tekniği olarak anketten yararlanılmıştır. Veriler, PASW (Predictive Analytics SoftWare adlı yazılım yardımıyla analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, Ankara Üniversitesi araştırma görevlilerinin araştırma süreçlerinin tüm aşamalarında zorlandıkları ve kütüphaneler tarafından hazırlanacak bilgi okuryazarlığı eğitim etkinliklerine gereksinim duydukları saptanmıştır./The continuous development in information and communication technologies has directly affected the environment for acquisition of information and learning as well as reshaping the structure of this environment. Thus the resources, tools, applications and services applied in this environment have also changed and they have been digitally presented. These innovations have made individuals adapt to the new environments in the context of lifelong learning. In other words, it becomes necessary for people to be equipped with “information literacy skills” including

  11. Evaluation of DNA Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. by Comet Assay for Determination of Possible Pollution in Lake Mogan (Ankara

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    İsmet Çok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of the aquatic environment with various concentrations of pollutants results in unexpected threats to humans and wildlife. The consequences of exposure and metabolism of pollutants/xenobiotics, especially carcinogens and mutagens, can be suitably assessed by investigating severe events, such as DNA damage; for example, DNA adducts and DNA strand breaks. One of the commonly used techniques to detect DNA damage in aquatic organisms is single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay. This study was carried out using Cyprinus carpio in order to identify the possible pollution in Lake Mogan, near Ankara, Turkey, where the city's sewer system and pesticides used in agriculture are believed to be the common causes of pollution. From the comet assay, the tail length (μm, tail intensity (%, and tail moment values of fish caught from Lake Mogan were found to be 31.10 ± 10.39, 7.77 ± 4.51, 1.50 ± 1.48, respectively, whereas for clean reference sites they were found to be 22.80 ± 1.08, 3.47 ± 1.59, 0.40 ± 0.51, respectively. The values are statistically different from each other (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0013, respectively. These results indicate that Lake Mogan may be polluted with substances that have genotoxic effects and constitute an early warning for the lake system. Further detailed research is needed to establish the source of the pollution and the chemicals responsible.

  12. Ankara Piyasasından Temin Edilen Sofralık Siyah Zeytin Salamuralarının Mikrobiyolojik Analizi

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    Rabia Sarıkaya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Ankara piyasasından temin edilen sofralık siyah zeytin salamuralarının mikrobiyolojik analizi yapıldı. Toplam 16 farklı semt pazarından sağlanan salamura örnekleri steril kavanozlara alındı, etiketlendi ve laboratuvara getirildi. Zeytin sularının desimal dilüsyonları uygun besiyerlerine ekildi ve inkübasyona bırakıldı. İnkübasyon sonrasında elde edilen koloni sayımlarına göre örneklerdeki laktik asit bakteri sayısı 8.1 x 101 - 9.1 x 105 kob/ml; toplam aerobik mezofilik bakteri sayısı 4.3 x 101 - 5.1 x 105 kob/ml; maya-küf sayısı 3.3 x 101 - 1.6 x 105 kob/ml arasında bulundu. Koliform bakteri üremesine incelenen örneklerin sadece bir tanesinde rastlandı (2.9 x 101 kob/ml. Örneklerdeki pH, tuz konsantrasyonu (% ve laktik asit değerleri (mol/L sırasıyla 3.12 - 5.15; 5.3 - 17; 0.27 - 1.36 arasında ölçüldü.

  13. Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Cevdetx C; Nisancı, Recep

    2008-05-19

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have been gaining a growing interest in Turkey. Many local governments and public agencies have been struggling to set up such systems to serve the needs and meet public requirements. Urban life shelters the advertisement reality which is presented at various places, on vehicles, shops etc. in daily life. It can be said that advertisement is a part of daily life in urban area, especially in city centers. In addition, one of the main sources of revenue for municipalities comes from advertising and notices. The advertising sector provides a great level of income today. Therefore advertising is individually very important for local governments and urban management. Although it is valuable for local governments, it is also very important for urban management to place these advertisement signs and billboards in an orderly fashion which is pleasing to the eye. Another point related to this subject is the systematic control mechanism which is necessary for collecting taxes regularly and updating. In this paper, first practical meaning of notice and advertisement subject, problem definition and objectives are described and then legal support and daily practice are revised. Current practice and problems are mentioned. Possibilities of measuring and obtaining necessary information by using digital images and transferring them to spatial databases are studied. By this study, a modern approach was developed for urban management and municipalities by using information technology which is an alternative to current application. Criteria which provide environmental harmony such as urban beauty, colour, compatibility and safety were also evaluated. It was finally concluded that measuring commercial signs and keeping environmental harmony under control for urban beauty can be provided by Digital Photogrammetry (DP) technique and GIS capabilities which were studied with pilot applications in the city center of Ankara.

  14. Environmental Harmony and Evaluation of Advertisement Billboards with Digital Photogrammetry Technique and GIS Capabilities: A Case Study in the City of Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Nisancı

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Geographical Information Systems (GIS have been gaining a growing interest in Turkey. Many local governments and public agencies have been struggling to set up such systems to serve the needs and meet public requirements. Urban life shelters the advertisement reality which is presented at various places, on vehicles, shops etc. in daily life. It can be said that advertisement is a part of daily life in urban area, especially in city centers. In addition, one of the main sources of revenue for municipalities comes from advertising and notices. The advertising sector provides a great level of income today. Therefore advertising is individually very important for local governments and urban management. Although it is valuable for local governments, it is also very important for urban management to place these advertisement signs and billboards in an orderly fashion which is pleasing to the eye. Another point related to this subject is the systematic control mechanism which is necessary for collecting taxes regularly and updating. In this paper, first practical meaning of notice and advertisement subject, problem definition and objectives are described and then legal support and daily practice are revised. Current practice and problems are mentioned. Possibilities of measuring and obtaining necessary information by using digital images and transferring them to spatial databases are studied. By this study, a modern approach was developed for urban management and municipalities by using information technology which is an alternative to current application. Criteria which provide environmental harmony such as urban beauty, colour, compatibility and safety were also evaluated. It was finally concluded that measuring commercial signs and keeping environmental harmony under control for urban beauty can be provided by Digital Photogrammetry (DP technique and GIS capabilities which were studied with pilot applications in the city center of Ankara.

  15. Caracterização de amidos de mandioca nativos e modificados e utilização em produtos panificados Characterization of native and modified cassava starches and their use in baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krischina Singer Aplevicz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O amido de mandioca é utilizado como ingrediente principal na fabricação de biscoitos e pão de queijo. O polvilho azedo é um produto artesanal, sem padrão de qualidade estabelecido, com problemas de higiene em seu processamento e de oferta. O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar amidos de mandioca nativos e modificados e testá-los na elaboração de pão de queijo e biscoito de polvilho. As principais características que diferem o polvilho azedo do amido de mandioca nativo, também denominado polvilho doce são: acidez, grau de expansão, viscosidade, claridade de pasta, sinérese e poder redutor. Foram aplicados nos produtos panificados quatro tipos de amidos, sendo polvilho doce, azedo, amido modificado com peróxido de hidrogênio e amido modificado comercial Expandex® 160003. Obtidos os produtos panificados, foi determinada a composição físico-química e observado que os tipos de amidos influenciaram nas características internas, externas e no sabor. Os produtos panificados foram submetidos à análise sensorial de aceitabilidade, utilizando-se a escala hedônica de nove pontos, com provadores não-treinados. As amostras de pão de queijo contendo amido modificado oxidado com peróxido de hidrogênio foram as que apresentaram o melhor resultado entre as formulações. Para as amostras de biscoito de polvilho, as elaboradas com polvilho azedo e com Expandex® 160003 foram superiores e não diferiram estatisticamente.Cassava starch is used as the main ingredient in the production of biscuits and Brazilian cheese bread. The processing and sale of sour cassava starch - an artisanal product with no established standard of quality - is marked by hygiene problems and its commercial availability is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to characterize native and modified cassava starches and test them in cheese bread and cassava starch biscuit recipes. The main characteristics that differentiate sour starch from native cassava

  16. Método de ensayo para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa del contenido de polímero presente en ligantes asfálticos modificados

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Delgado, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    En Costa Rica, como en muchos países, se está implementando el uso de asfaltos modificados con polímeros en la construcción de carreteras, el mercado creciente ofrece varios tipos de polímeros que mejoran notablemente las propiedades reológicas de los asfaltos, comúnmente del tipo SBR, SBS, polvo de hule de llanta, EMA, EVA entre otros. Los porcentajes de modificación con respecto al ligante asfáltico están entre el 1% al 5% m/m. Sin embargo, a pesar del hecho anterior, poca investigación se ...

  17. Preparação e caracterização de eletrodos modificados mistos e seu uso em hidrogenação eletrocatalítica de substratos orgânicos

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel de Campos Ferreira Costa

    2006-01-01

    Esta Tese descreve a preparação de novos eletrodos modificados (EMs) fazendo uso de um método novo, a deposição de partículas de metais nobres, como níquel, paládio e platina sobre partículas de metais comuns, como cobre e ferro. Este método leva aos denominados EMs mistos, que podem apresentar características diferentes e mais eficientes que os EMs Ni, Pd e Pt já estudados, sendo a principal aplicação nas reações de hidrogenação eletrocatalítica (HEC) de substratos orgânicos insaturados. A ...

  18. Rotulagem de alimentos que contém Organismos Geneticamente Modificados: políticas internacionais e Legislação no Brasil Labeling of food containing Genetically Modified Organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo Costa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da área de superfície plantada com as culturas geneticamente modificadas, com a consequente liberação dessas lavouras para o ambiente e para a comercialização, levantou questionamentos sobre a segurança destes produtos. A entrada em vigor do Protocolo de Cartagena sobre Biossegurança , fez com que houvesse a necessidade de aquisição de informações e capacitação nesta área para a implementação de políticas de biossegurança e para tomadas de decisões por partes dos governos em níveis nacionais, regionais e internacionais. O presente artigo apresenta as duas principais vertentes políticas sobre rotulagem de produtos geneticamente modificados (uma adotada pelos Estados Unidos da América e outra pela União Europeia, assim como a posição adotada pelo Brasil e sua atual legislação acerca de rotulagem e liberação comercial de produtos geneticamente modificados (GM.The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union, as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM products.

  19. Emprego do método Z-Buffer modificado na detecção de oclusões de edificações para geração de ortoimagens verdadeiras

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    Marcis Gualberto Mendonça Júnior

    Full Text Available O uso de modelos digitais de superfície (MDS aliado a existência de áreas oclusas faz com que, na geração de ortoimagens verdadeiras, ocorra a formação de um fenômeno conhecido como "duplo mapeamento". Para evitá-lo é necessária à detecção das áreas oclusas existentes, e o método mais utilizado na atualidade tem origem na Computação Gráfica, e se denomina Método Z-Buffer. Esse artigo apresenta a implementação de algoritmos para ortorretificação de fotografias aéreas, com emprego do método inverso, e para detecção de áreas oclusas, com base em uma modificação do Z-Buffer, denominada de Método Z-Buffer Modificado. Como áreas de estudo foram utilizadas duas áreas da cidade de Curitiba - PR, que possuíam recobrimento fotogramétrico e MDS disponíveis. Os resultados obtidos possibilitaram identificar o comportamento do Método Z-Buffer Modificado na detecção das áreas oclusas, e como sua principal limitação, denominada de Porção M, influência na supressão dos Duplos Mapeamentos formados durante a geração das ortoimagens verdadeiras.

  20. Ankara 1 Çocuk Ağır Ceza Mahkemesi’nde akran istismarı nedeniyle yargılanan çocukların değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Şengül, Hasan Atakan; Cantürk, Nergis; Cantürk, Gürol; Dağalp, Rukiye

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Children performing acts defined as criminal law are the children who are dragged into crime When the victim of the identified actions are children both the number of children who need protection and who are dragged into crime increases and the victim of both sides in the incident become children Material and Method: The case files and cartons of decisions of 188 events sentenced in the Ankara 1st Children rsquo;s High Criminal Court for 4 year period between 2007 2010 in which victims a...

  1. Relación de los cultivos modificados genéticamente con el ambiente y la salud de la población costarricense

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    Ana M Espinoza

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La ingeniería genética y los alimentos derivados de los cultivos genéticamente modificados (CGMs han sido objeto de debate a escala mundial, como ocurre históricamente con el surgimiento de tecnologías novedosas. Se cuestiona si los CGMs son seguros al ambiente y si los productos derivados de ellos son inocuos para los consumidores. Sobre la primera de esas inquietudes, la práctica se ha orientado a estudiar caso por caso, según las propias características del CGM, para minimizar su impacto en el ambiente. Estudios científicos en diversas latitudes han demostrado que no ha habido efectos dañinos en este particular. En cuanto a los alimentos derivados de los CGMs se han desarrollado sistemas de evaluación rigurosa para permitir su consumo y comercialización, y hay protocolos aprobados por la FAO y la OMS para garantizar su inocuidad. Hasta el momento, en ningún caso se han detectado contraindicaciones para la salud humana en los productos disponibles hoy en el mercado. Por su parte, Costa Rica estableció desde los años 90 un marco regulatorio en bioseguridad que se encarga de garantizar la seguridad para la salud y el ambiente en el manejo de los CGMs. Asimismo, se ha hecho una gran inversión estatal y privada en esta área, lo que le permitió a Costa Rica posicionarse en la región como uno de los primeros países con fortalezas en materia de bioseguridad y de investigación en ingeniería genética en centros de investigación nacionales. Cualquier intento de restringir o prohibir dicha actividad pondría en riesgo esa inversión, afectaría la generación de nuevo conocimiento para la toma de decisiones y el liderazgo alcanzado en el campo y nos privaría de los beneficios de esta prometedora tecnología.Relationship of genetically modified crops with the environment and health of the Costa Rican human population. Genetic engineering and the food derived from genetically modified crops (GMCs have been the center of debate

  2. IL-12 and GM-CSF in DNA/MVA immunizations against HIV-1 CRF12_BF Nef induced T-cell responses with an enhanced magnitude, breadth and quality.

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    Ana María Rodríguez

    Full Text Available In Argentina, the HIV epidemic is characterized by the co-circulation of subtype B and BF recombinant viral variants. Nef is an HIV protein highly variable among subtypes, making it a good tool to study the impact of HIV variability in the vaccine design setting. We have previously reported a specific cellular response against NefBF with low cross-reactivity to NefB in mice. The aim of this work was to analyze whether the co-administration of IL-12 and GM-CSF, using DNA and MVA vaccine vectors, could improve the final cellular response induced. Mice received three DNA priming doses of a plasmid that express NefBF plus DNAs expressing IL-12 and/or GM-CSF. Afterwards, all the groups were boosted with a MVAnefBF dose. The highest increase in the magnitude of the NefBF response, compared to that induced in the control was found in the IL-12 group. Importantly, a response with higher breadth was detected in groups which received IL-12 or GM-CSF, evidenced as an increased frequency of recognition of homologous (BF and heterologous (B Nef peptides, as well as a higher number of other Nef peptide pools representing different viral subtypes. However, these improvements were lost when both DNA cytokines were simultaneously administered, as the response was focused against the immunodominant peptide with a detrimental response towards subdominant epitopes. The pattern of cytokines secreted and the specific-T-cell proliferative capacity were improved in IL-12 and IL-12+GM-CSF groups. Importantly IL-12 generated a significant higher T-cell avidity against a B heterologous peptide.This study indicates that the incorporation of DNA expressing IL-12 in DNA/MVA schemes produced the best results in terms of improvements of T-cell-response key properties such as breadth, cross-reactivity and quality (avidity and pattern of cytokines secreted. These relevant results contribute to the design of strategies aimed to induce T-cell responses against HIV antigens with

  3. Ankara Çayı’na ait Pleistosen Yaşlı Teras Çökellerinin Jeokimyasal Özellikleri

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    Çiğdem SAYDAM EKER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Ankara Çayı’na ait Pleistosen yaşlı teras çökellerinin jeokimyasal özelliklerinin belirlenmesi ve buna bağlı olarak kaynak alanındaki ayrışma derecesi, sedimanter döngü tarihçesi ve kaynak kayaların belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. İncelenen çökellerin CIA, PIA ve ICV değerleri sırasıyla 58.6, 58.7 ve 1.58 olarak belirlenmiştir. Söz konusu çökellerin genel olarak basit sedimanter döngüye maruz kaldığı ve kaynak alanından çok uzaklara taşınmadığı için çökellerin kimyasal bileşimlerinin çoğunlukla kaynak kaya bileşiminin kontrolü altında olduğu saptanmıştır. İncelen örneklerin Al2O3/TiO2, La/Sc, Co/Th ve Th/Sc oranlarının sırasıyla 8-21, 2.52-4.4, 1.50-2.19 ve 0.70-1.03 arasında değiştiği belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, çökeller negatif Eu anomalisi ve yüksek HNTE/ANTE oranları içermektedir. Bu veriler doğrultusunda, çalışma alanında muhtemelen, zayıf-orta kimyasal ayrışma, zaman zaman yüksek tektonik aktivite ve yüksek erozyon olduğu, teras çökellerin ortaç veya felsik-mafik bileşimli kaynaktan malzeme aldığı ve kimyasal olarak olgun olmadığı kanısına varılmıştır.

  4. Petrological Features of The Post-Collisional Volcanics on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone at Around Almus and Yıldızeli Regions, NE Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmengil, G.; Karacik, Z.; Genç, Ş. C.

    2014-12-01

    Following the closure of the northern Neo-Tethyan ocean, post-collisional magmatism developed both on the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) and the northern (Pontides) and southern (Kırşehir block) continents. Cenozoic volcanics (particularly Middle to Upper Eocene) from the Almus and Yıldızeli regions (NE, Turkey) have poorly known and exposed along the northern and southern part of the IAESZ respectively. In this presentation; we present geological, geochemical and isotopic data of these volcanic rocks to characterize the petrological evolution and petrogenesis on the different tectonic blocks. Almus region, have a composite basement of Mesozoic metamorphic and ophiolitic rocks. Volcanic and sedimentary units of the Middle Eocene covering the basement units have a stratigraphic sequence of: a basal conglomerate; fossiliferous sandstone/shale; epiclastic rocks; auto-brecciated lavas with basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows. All these units are cut by trachyte stocks. Besides, basement of Yıldızeli region consisting of Cretaceous Kırşehir block metamorphics with IAESZ melangé and flysch units. Volcanic and sedimentary units covers the basement are trachyte-trachyandesite lavas; fossiliferous limestone; basalt/basaltic andesite lava flows; pyroclastic units with dacitic lavas. Basalt/basaltic andesites from Almus region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline and display middle to high-K character. REE data display relative enrichments in LILE (Sr, K, Rb, Ba, Th) together with negative anomalies of Nb, Ta and P. Trachyte stocks are shoshonitic and display LILE enrichment together with negative patters of Nb, Ta, P and Eu. Besides, trachyte-trachyandesite and basalt/basaltic andesite from Yıldızeli region are sub-alkaline/mildly alkaline with middle-K to shoshonitic character. REE patterns show enrichments in LILE and depletion of Nb, Ta, P and Ti for both rock suites. The 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd ratios of volcanic rocks from both regions, range from 0

  5. Phase 1 safety and immunogenicity evaluation of ADMVA, a multigenic, modified vaccinia Ankara-HIV-1 B'/C candidate vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Vasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We conducted a Phase I dose-escalation trial of ADMVA, a Clade-B'/C-based HIV-1 candidate vaccine expressing env, gag, pol, nef, and tat in a modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector. Sequences were derived from a prevalent circulating HIV-1 recombinant form in Yunnan, China, an area of high HIV incidence. The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ADMVA in human volunteers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ADMVA or placebo was administered intramuscularly at months 0, 1 and 6 to 50 healthy adult volunteers not at high risk for HIV-1. In each dosage group [1x10(7 (low, 5x10(7 (mid, or 2.5x10(8 pfu (high] volunteers were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to receive ADMVA or placebo in a double-blinded design. Subjects were followed for local and systemic reactogenicity, adverse events including cardiac adverse events, and clinical laboratory parameters. Study follow up was 18 months. Humoral immunogenicity was evaluated by anti-gp120 binding ELISA, immunoflourescent staining, and HIV-1 neutralization. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNgamma ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Anti-vaccinia binding titers were measured by ELISA. ADMVA was generally well-tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events or cardiac adverse events. Local or systemic reactogenicity events were reported by 77% and 78% of volunteers, respectively. The majority of events were of mild intensity. The IFNgamma ELISpot response rate to any HIV antigen was 0/12 (0% in the placebo group, 3/12 (25% in the low dosage group, 6/12 (50% in the mid dosage group, and 8/13 (62% in the high dosage group. Responses were often multigenic and occasionally persisted up to one year post vaccination. Antibodies to gp120 were detected in 0/12 (0%, 8/13 (62%, 6/12 (50% and 10/13 (77% in the placebo, low, mid, and high dosage groups, respectively. Antibodies persisted up to 12 months after vaccination, with a trend toward agreement

  6. Tectonic Evolution of the Izmir Ankara Suture Zone in Northwest Turkey Using Zircon U-Pb Geochronology and Zircon Lu-Hf Isotopic Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C.; Taylor, M. H.; Licht, A.; Mueller, M.; Ocakglu, F.; Moeller, A.; Metais, G.; Beard, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Detrital zircons from a Cretaceous forearc basin and Tertiary foreland basin located along the Sakarya Zone of the Western Pontides were analyzed to better understand the closure history of the Tethyan oceans. The Variscan Orogeny is characterized by abundant 350-300 Ma U-Pb ages and vertical ɛHf arrays, consistent with a mature magmatic arc that emplaced plutons through a southward growing accretionary margin. An ɛHf pull-up is observed from 300-250 Ma interpreted as rifting of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The Cimmerian Orogeny is characterized by a 250-230 Ma ɛHf pull-down, followed by a 230-200 Ma magmatic gap consistent with underthrusting of the Karakaya Complex. From 200-120 Ma another magmatic lull is observed. The Alpine Orogeny is characterized by an ɛHf pull-down from 120-85 Ma within Cretaceous forearc sediments and a 100 Ma deviant ɛHf vertical array within Tertiary foreland basin sediments. Minor zircon U-Pb age peaks and contrasting inter-basinal ɛHf evolution are interpreted to represent onset of Andean-style subduction along the southern margin of the Sakarya Zone at 120 Ma followed by crustal thickening until 85 Ma. The deviant 100 Ma ɛHf vertical array within foreland basin detritus is interpreted as initiation of intra-oceanic subduction within the Izmir-Ankara Ocean. An 85-75 Ma ɛHf pull-up from forearc basin sediments is interpreted as slab roll-back along the southern margin of the Sakarya Zone, responsible for final rifting of the Western Black Sea. At 80 Ma, a vertical ɛHf array from Tertiary foreland basin deposits is interpreted to represent synchronous melting of the Tavsanli Zone and intra-oceanic slab break-off. A single 66 Myr pre-collisional grain defines a sharp ɛHf pull-down immediately prior to total arc shut-off, interpreted to represent incipient collision between the Sakarya and Tavsanli zones. A 52 Ma syn-collisional tuff yields minimally intermediate ɛHf values followed by a slight 48 Ma ɛHf pull-down, interpreted as a

  7. Descriptive Features of Mesothelioma Cases Diagnosed in a Special Hospital in Ankara and Assessment of Domestic Environmental Exposure to Asbestosis and Erionite: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, E.; Özden, A.; Aydogdu, K.; Polat, A.; Findik, G.; Agackiran, Y.; Ozaydin, S.; Ozturk, M.; Acikel, C.

    2013-05-01

    Background: Unlike Western countries where asbestosis and erionite exposure is industrial, domestic exposure of these chriystals is common in central and eastern Turkey where they are used as a constrcution material for houses. This life-long exposure to these materials has been showed to be causing endemies of mesothelioma at younger ages in central Turkey. In this study it was aimed to assess the descriptive features of malignant mesothelioma cases and evaluate the domestic exposure of asbestosis and erionite. Method: Data were obtained through retrospective reviewing of the patient files of a pulmonary disease hospital in Ankara. Demographical features such as age, gender, the place of birth, migration and living, age of diagnosis and some clinical features were evaluated. Results: A total of 44 files of patients diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma were screened. The female to male ratio was 19/25. Of the patients 43 (97 %) were born in asbestosis-rich and only one (3 %)was born in erionite-rich region. All of the patients had resided in asbestosis-rich regions where they were born and the places where some of the patients moved were known to be rich for asbestosis as well. The age of diagnosis was between 32 and 78 years and the median age of diagnosis was 54,5 years. Family history of malignancy was negative in 39 patients (88.6%) and was positive in 5 patients (11.4%). History for smoking was 40.9%. The 81.1 % of the patients applied with the complaint of dispnea; 48.8 % with cough and 45.5 % with chest pain. Median time period between the date of disease onset and diagnosis was 91 days. The most rapid diagnosis was made as early as 28 days. Pleural fluid was seen in 95.5 % while pleural thickening was seen in 29,5 % of the patients. Respiratory funcitons were found to be deteriorated in 86.4 %. The histological types of epitheloid and mixt mesothelioma were seen with the percentages of 69 % and 31 % respectively. Conclusion: This was a descriptive study

  8. [An imported Chikungunya fever case from New Delhi, India to Ankara, Turkey: the first imported case of Turkey and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağcı Çağlayık, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Ertek, Mustafa; Unal, Serhat

    2012-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes an acute febrile illness, chikungunya fever. CHIKV virus is geographically distributed in Africa, India, and South-East Asia. Chikungunya fever outbreaks have been reported from India since 2006. The incubation period is 3-7 days, and the disease is characterized by sudden onset of high fever and severe arthralgia. Other symptoms can be rash, headache, fatigue, nausea-vomiting, and myalgias. Here, we report the first Chikungunya case imported from India, New-Delhi to Ankara, Turkey. In December 2010, a 55-year-old female Turkish government employee living in urban area of New Delhi for the last 3 years had sudden onset fever up to 38.4°C for 2 days. Itching rash and arthralgia also developed. Symptomatic treatment was given to patient in New Delhi. She returned to Turkey and was admitted to Hacettepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, since arthralgia has continued on the 26th day of her complaints. Hepatomegaly and tenosynovitis were detected in her physical examination. Serum sample sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory, yielded negative results for specific IgM and IgG antibodies against Hantavirus and Dengue virus types 1-4; however, the results were positive for CHIKV specific IgM and IgG antibodies by commercial immunofluorescence method (Euroimmun, Germany). CHIKV RNA which was searched by in-house real-time RT-PCR was negative. The second serum sample obtained three weeks later also found positive for CHIKV specific IgM and IgG antibodies. This was the first laboratory confirmed imported Chikungunya case in Turkey. There are predictions regarding the presence of Aedes species mosquitos that can transmit this virus in Turkey. This case report will be an alarming signal for the clinicians in our country to consider Chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients

  9. Ankara Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Programına Katılan Öğrencilerin Akademik Başarılarını Yordayan Faktörler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Şenel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the factors predicting academic achievement of Ankara University Distance Education students. The study group of the research consists of 302 first grade students from Ankara University Distance Education Center (ANKUZEM 2010-2011 associate degree programs. Data were formed in four groups respectively “individual characteristics”, “characteristics related with family and working environment”, “characteristics related with usage of information and communication technologies” and “characteristics related with education”. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. According to the results, individual characteristics as “age”, “working in a full time job” and “being divorced” were found as predictors of students’ academic achievement. Additionally, characteristics related with family and working place as “number of family members living with”, “mothers’ full time working” and “mothers’ graduation type” were other variables predicting academic achievement of students. The characteristics related with education; graduation from “college” and “vocational high school”, “studying with different methods“, “choosing distance education as a university degree”, “studying for getting a degree” are also predictors of academic achievement of students. The characteristics of students related with usage of information and communication technologies were not predictors of academic achievement of students.

  10. Experiences of social harm and changes in sexual practices among volunteers who had completed a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial employing HIV-1 DNA priming and HIV-1 MVA boosting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, Edith A M; Munseri, Patricia; Aboud, Said; Bakari, Muhammad; Mhalu, Fred; Sandstrom, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Volunteers in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials are assumed to be at low risk of acquiring HIV infection and are expected to have normal lives in the community. However, during participation in the trials, volunteers may encounter social harm and changes in their sexual behaviours. The current study aimed to study persistence of social harm and changes in sexual practices over time among phase I/II HIV vaccine immunogenicity (HIVIS03) trial volunteers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A descriptive prospective cohort study was conducted among 33 out of 60 volunteers of HIVIS03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who had received three HIV-1 DNA injections boosted with two HIV-1 MVA doses. A structured interview was administered to collect data. Analysis was carried out using SPSS and McNemars' chi-square (χ2) was used to test the association within-subjects. Participants reported experiencing negative comments from their colleagues about the trial; but such comments were less severe during the second follow up visits (χ2 = 8.72; Pstigma (χ2 = 6.06; Ptowards the HIV vaccine trial (χ2 = 4.9; Pcounselling and support appears important to minimize risky sexual behaviour among volunteers after participation in HIV Vaccine trials.

  11. Hydrolyzed collagen, modified starch and guar gum addition in turkey ham Adição de colágeno hidrolisado, amido modificado e goma guar em presunto de peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cristina Prestes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main problems observed in cooked hams are bad sliceability and excessive fluid loss after cooking. To reduce these problems the industry uses non-meat ingredients such as soy protein and carrageenan, but under Brazilian law, it is not allowed to add starch or modified starch in hams. Three ingredients were tested in the present research: modified starch (0 to 2.0%, gum guar (0 to 0.30% and hydrolyzed collagen (0 to 2.0%, following a 2³ full factorial design with five repetitions in the central point. The guar gum produced low resistance to reheating, however in losses by cooling, the results were adequate. The hydrolyzed collagen tested did not give satisfactory results, showing low acceptance due to formation of gel in the ham and high losses. The developed products were not different from the commercial product in relation to texture (P>0.05. The formulation F6 (2.0% of modified starch was the one with the best results and greater acceptance as detected by the tasters. Based on the results obtained it seems appropriate to propose the legal permission of starch in ham or the creation of a new class of product in which starch addition would be allowed.Os principais problemas observados em presuntos são a má fatiabilidade e a perda excessiva de líquidos após o cozimento. Para reduzir esses problemas, a indústria utiliza ingredientes não cárneos, tais como a proteína de soja e a carragena, porém, segundo a legislação brasileira, não é permitida a adição de amido ou amido modificado. Neste trabalho, foram testados três ingredientes, em presunto cozido de peru: amido modificado (0 a 2,0%, goma guar (0 a 0,30% e colágeno hidrolisado (0 a 2,0%, seguindo um delineamento fatorial completo 2³ com cinco repetições no ponto central. A goma guar apresentou baixa resistência ao reaquecimento, no entanto, nas perdas por resfriamento, os resultados foram adequados. O colágeno hidrolisado testado não proporcionou resultados satisfat

  12. Retention of oral microorganisms on conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements Retenção de microrganismos bucais em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais e modificados por resina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise PEDRINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries are a worldwide public and socioeconomic problem. The placement of restorations can lead to the development of environmental conditions favorable to microbial colonization, especially on the tooth/restoration interface, which is a predisposing factor for secondary caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial retention on conventional (Chelon-Fil and Vidrion R and resin-modified (Vitremer and Fuji II LC glass-ionomer cements, in situ, using a hybrid composite resin (Z100 as a control. Twelve volunteers wore Hawley appliances with specimens made of all tested filling materials for 7 days. The specimens were then removed from the appliances and transferred to tubes containing 2.0 ml of Ringer-PRAS. Microorganisms from the samples were inoculated onto blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and incubated under anaerobiosis (90% N2, 10% CO2, at 37°C, for 10 and 2 days, respectively. The resin-modified glass-ionomer cements and the composite resin retained the same levels of microorganisms on their surfaces. The resin-modified glass-ionomers retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin and conventional glass-ionomer cements. The conventional glass-ionomer cements retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin, but that difference was not statistically significant.A cárie secundária representa problema de saúde pública e socioeconômico no mundo. A restauração de dentes acometidos por cárie pode criar condições favoráveis à proliferação microbiana na superfície do material restaurador ou na interface dente/restauração, criando ambiente propício para o estabelecimento de cárie secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade de retenção de placa bacteriana em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais (Chelon-Fil e Vidrion R e modificados por resina (Vitremer e Fuji II LC e de resina composta híbrida (Z100, utilizada como controle. Nos testes de reten

  13. Avaliação do uso do anel endocapsular modificado em casos de subluxação traumática do cristalino Evaluation of the modified capsular tension ring in cases of traumatic lens subluxation

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    Daniela Meira Villano Marques

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o comportamento do anel modificado de tensão capsular em cataratas traumáticas com subluxação, analisando a acuidade visual, centração do saco capsular, pseudofacodonese, seguimento pós-operatório, e complicações intra e pós-operatórias. LOCAL: Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois olhos de 22 pacientes com perda traumática de suporte zonular foram submetidos à facoemulsificação utilizando lente intra-ocular de câmara posterior e o implante do anel capsular modificado. O exame pré-operatório incluiu melhor acuidade visual corrigida (MAVC, a presença ou ausência de facodonese, descentração do cristalino e prolapso vítreo. A avaliação pós-operatória incluiu MAVC, presença de pseudofacodonese, centração do implante, necessidade de vitrectomia e outras complicações. RESULTADOS: Vinte e um olhos (95,45% tiveram melhora da MAVC. O exame pré-operatório revelou facodonese em 11 olhos (50% e nenhum olho apresentou pseudofacodonese. No exame pré-operatório, a descentração sintomática estava presente em 10 olhos (45,45%. Todos os olhos apresentaram centração do complexo saco capsular/LIO no pós-operatório. Prolapso vítreo foi diagnosticado antes da cirurgia em 9 olhos (40,90% e a vitrectomia foi necessária em 11 olhos (50%. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do anel modificado de tensão capsular resultou em boa centração do complexo saco capsular/lente intra-ocular nos olhos estudados com catarata traumática e perda de suporte zonular.PURPOSE: To evaluate the behavior of the modified capsular tension ring (MCTR in traumatic subluxated cataracts analyzing the visual acuity, centration of the capsular bag, pseudophacodonesis, postoperative follow-up and intra- and postoperative complications. SETTING: Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. METHODS: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with traumatic loss of zonular support had phacoemulsification using PCIOL and MCTR

  14. Aspectos epidemiológicos da dirofilariose canina no perímetro urbano de Cuiabá, Mato Grosso: emprego do "Immunoblot" e do teste de Knott modificado

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    Cláudia Gorgulho Nogueira Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho refere-se a pesquisa dos aspectos epidemiológicos da dirofilariose canina no perímetro urbano de Cuiabá, através de exame de sangue e sorologia. Examinou-se o sangue de 822 cães: em 11,81% das amostras, detectaram-se, por meio de "Immunoblot", anticorpos contra antígenos de Dirofilaria immitis adulto, enquanto em 0,41% foram encontradas, por meio do teste de Knott modificado, microfilárias de D. immitis. A prevalência da dirofilariose canina em Cuiabá, no período de junho a novembro de 1997, e com a metodologia aplicada, foi de 120,8 casos em cada 1.000 animais. O "Immunoblot" diagnosticou como positivas 11,27% das amostras que estavam consideradas negativas pelo teste de Knott modificado. Os autores analisaram estatisticamente informações sobre raça, sexo, idade e região administrativa de origem dos cães pesquisados. Foi questionada a possibilidade de que os animais pesquisados tivessem viajado a regiões endêmicas, usado microfilaricidas, ou apresentado sintomatologia compatível, bem como estudadas as características ecológicas do local de moradia. Cães com idade variando entre um e nove anos e residentes na região Centro-Oeste apresentaram maior índice de positividade. A maioria não apresentava sintomatologia compatível com a doença, não tinha história clínica do uso de microfilaricidas e/ou preventivos contra dirofilariose canina e nunca havia saído do perímetro urbano de Cuiabá, mas residiam em bairros próximos a rios ou córregos e/ou em casas contíguas a áreas de vegetação nativa. Pela primeira vez, o "Immunoblot" foi empregado no diagnóstico de dirofilariose canina no Brasil.

  15. Determinación de la densidad de entrecruzamiento de poliuretanos obtenidos a partir de aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación Determination of crosslink density of polyurethanes obtained from castor oil modified by transesterification

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    Manuel F. Valero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvo una gama de polioles a partir del aceite de ricino modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritriol y glicerina. Los productos resultantes fueron caracterizados físico-químicamente. Se sintetizaron elastómeros de poliuretano a partir de los polioles derivados del aceite de ricino modificado. La densidad de entrecruzamiento se determinó por ensayos de hinchamiento a partir de la ecuación de Flory-Rehner apoyada en la espectroscopia MALDI TOF MS para determinar la estructura química de la unidad repetitiva promedio del poliuretano. Se estudió la variación de la densidad de entrecruzamiento de los poliuretanos con base en el índice de hidroxilo del poliol utilizado en la síntesis. Los resultados muestran que los PU obtenidos a través de la modificación del aceite con pentaeritriol tienen una mayor densidad de entrecruzamiento que los PU obtenidos a partir del aceite original y de los polioles derivados de la reacción de transesterificación del aceite con glicerina, debido a que estos polioles poseen una mayor funcionalidad hidroxílica.Two series of polyols were obtained from castor oil modified by transesterification with various amounts of pentaerythritol and glycerol. The resultant polyol properties were characterized as a function of the hydroxyl functionality. Polyurethane elastomers (PU were synthesized from the two series of polyols obtained. The crosslink density of those polyurethanes was determined by swelling tests data adjusted to the Flory-Rehner's equation and according to the elasticity theory. The variation of the crosslink density of polyurethanes was studied by following the hydroxyl value of the modified polyol utilized in the synthesis and based on the average structure of each polyurethane repeating unit, as determined by the method of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI TOF MS. The results show that the PU obtained through castor oil modified with

  16. Impacto do esvaziamento cervical radical modificado no número de linfonodos recuperados, recorrência e sobrevida Impact of modified radical neck dissections on the number of retrieved nodes, recurrence and survival

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    Hugo Fontan Kohler

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O esvaziamento cervical é parte integral dos tumores de cabeça e pescoço. Ao longo de sua história, passou por mudanças procurando a melhora do resultado funcional sem perda da eficiência oncológica. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar que os esvaziamentos radicais modificados apresentam um resultado oncológico comparável ao esvaziamento radical clássico. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos os pacientes com carcinomas epidermoides do andar inferior de boca e orofaringe, submetidos a esvaziamento cervical radical clássico ou modificado. Foram excluídos desta análise pacientes submetidos a tratamento prévio ou a esvaziamentos cervicais ampliados. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Retrospectivo, envolvendo uma instituição. RESULTADOS: Identificou-se 481 pacientes que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão, correspondendo a 521 esvaziamentos. O número médio de linfonodos dissecados foi de 44,92 (SD 16.45 linfonodos para o ECR; 44,16 (SD 15,76 para o ECRM +XI e 56,02 (SD 22,91 para o ECRM VJI+XI. A ANOVA indicou uma diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (pNeck dissection is an integral part of head and neck tumors. Throughout its history, it has undergone changes looking for an improvement in functional outcome without loss of oncologic efficiency. AIM: Demonstrate that the modified radical neck dissection have an oncologic results comparable to classical radical dissection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower floor of the mouth and oropharynx, who underwent radical classic or modified neck dissection. We excluded from this analysis those patients who had undergone previous treatment or extended neck dissection. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study, involving an institution. RESULTS: We identified 481 patients who met the inclusion criteria, corresponding to 521 dissections. The average number of lymph nodes dissected was 44.92 (SD 16:45 lymph nodes to the RCT, 44.16 (SD 15.76 for the MRND + XI

  17. Avaliação da confiabilidade do Método Merle d'Aubigné e Postel Modificado Evaluation of the reliability of the Modified Merle d·Aubigné and Postel Method

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    Fernanda Kazue Ugino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade inter-avaliadores do Método Merle d'Aubigné e Postel Modificado. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 45 pacientes, com média de idade de 57,93(+13,35, submetidos à artroplastia total de quadril. Todos foram avaliados por três pesquisadores, os quais receberam treinamento para uniformizar seus critérios. Realizou-se a avaliação pelo Método Merle d'Aubigné e Postel Modificado (associação dos prefixos A, B e C, no mesmo dia de forma aleatória, e os pesquisadores não se comunicaram durante as avaliações. Para avaliação da mobilidade, foram realizados movimentos passivos do quadril e mensurados pelo goniômetro universal. A análise estatística foi tratada com o Teste de Cronbach (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the inter-evaluator reproducibility of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method. METHOD: Forty-five patients took part in the study, with a mean age of57.93 (±13,35 who underwent total hip arthroplasty. All were evaluated by three researchers, who received training to standardize their criteria. The evaluation was held by the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method (association of prefixes A, B and C the same day at random, and the researchers did not report to one another throughout the evaluations. For mobility assessment, passive hip movements were performed and measured with the universal goniometer. The statistical analysis was carried out by the Cronbach Test (p<0,05 and 0,7<α<1,0. RESULTS: The statistical analysis showed significantly high inter-evaluators reliability for the items: prefix (p<0,001; α = 0,961, pain (p <0,001; α= 0,892, gait (p<0,001; α= 0,898, mobility (p<0,001; α=0,810 and total score (p <0,001; α=0,917. CONCLUSION: There was high significance and reliability among the three evaluators for all items of the Modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel Method, suggesting that this method is reliable, provided its items are parameterized and previous training of

  18. Strategies to improve road safety : how to learn from Dutch experiences? Lecture held at the Seminar on Road Safety "Stategies to improve road safety: How to learn from Dutch experiences?", Ankara/Istanbul, Turkey, 6-7 November 2012. [a.k.a. as: Improving road safety : experiences from The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    On the occasion of the visit of the Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte to Turkey, The Netherlands embassy in Ankara and the consulate-general in Istanbul are organising a half-day seminar on the successful road safety strategy of the Netherlands on 6 and 7 November 2012. During these events road safety

  19. Detecção e quantificação de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos e ingredientes alimentares Detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms in food and food ingredients

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    Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O cumprimento da legislação que regulamenta a comercialização de alimentos e ingredientes contendo Organismos Geneticamente Modificados (OGMs é totalmente dependente da sensibilidade e confiabilidade dos métodos de detecção e quantificação de OGMs. Na presente revisão, foram discutidos os métodos mais relevantes para tais fins, especialmente aqueles que se baseiam na detecção da proteína ou do DNA recombinante, destacando as suas principais propriedades, limitações e vantagens. A regulamentação e algumas sugestões de métodos alternativos para a detecção de OGMs também são abordadas.The enforcement of legislation that regulates the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food and food ingredients is totally dependent on the sensitivity and reliability of the GMO testing methods. In this review, the most relevant methods such as recombinant proteins or DNA-based methods were discussed, emphasizing their main properties, limitations and advantages. The regulamentation and some suggestions of alternative methods for the detection of GMOs were also discussed.

  20. A problemática dos organismos geneticamente modificados e a formação científica do cidadão comum: um estudo com alunos de escolas portuguesas

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    Luís Dourado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual depara-se com assuntos mediáticos e controversos, de raiz científica, de que é exemplo a problemática sobre os organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM. Estes organismos são, para uns, uma mais-valia e, para outros, algo perigoso, o que tem motivado um debate a nível científico, político e económico, do qual os cidadãos não se devem abster. Para tal, estes indivíduos devem ser pessoas informadas, responsáveis e ativas, aspetos para os quais contribui a formação em ciências. A investigação realizada centrou-se na problemática dos OGMs e envolveu a aplicação de um questionário a 175 alunos de escolas portuguesas sobre as suas concepções e opiniões em relação aos OGM. Este estudo demonstrou que a maioria dos alunos tem ideias vagas, nem sempre cientificamente corretas, sobre o tema, e que não rejeita os OGMs, apesar de não ter muitas certezas em relação à utilização dos mesmos.

  1. EXPLORACIÓN DE DIFERENCIAS NORMATIVAS EN EL SISTEMA DE CALIFICACIÓN CUALITATIVA PARA EL TEST GESTÁLTICO DE BENDER MODIFICADO/ EXPLORING NORMATIVE DIFFERENCES IN QUALITATIVE SCORING SYSTEM FOR MODIFIED THE BENDER GESTALT TEST

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    César Merino Soto*

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEl presente estudio explora la magnitud de las diferencias en los puntajes del Sistema de Calificación Cualitativa parael Test Gestáltico de Bender Modificado, usando diferente información normativa proveniente de Perú, Estados Unidos yChina. En una muestra de 324 niños(as peruanos entre 5 y 6 años de edad, se analizaron las potenciales diferencias en ladensidad, tendencia central, dispersión y clasificaciones de rendimiento visomotor. Se hallaron grandes diferenciasnormativas, y por lo tanto, el desempeño en los participantes se vio altamente sobreestimado o subestimado dependiendode la norma usada. Se discute el impacto de estos resultados en la apropiada práctica evaluativa en niños.ABSTRACTThis study explores the magnitude of difference in scores from Qualitative Scoring System to Bender Gestalt TestModified using different normative data from Peru, USA and China. In a sample of 324 children (boys and girls between5 and 6 ages, we analyzed the potential differences in density, central tendency, dispersion and visual motor performanceclassifications. It was found large normative differences, and therefore, performance in participants was highlyoverestimated or underestimated depending on the standard used. It discusses the impact of these results in the appropriateassessment practice in children.

  2. ÇOCUK OYUN ALANLARI ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA İSTANBUL, İSPARTA, ESKİŞEHİR, ERZURUM, KAYSERİ, ANKARA, ZONGULDAK VE TRABZON İLLERİ ÖRNEĞİ

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    Yıldız AKSOY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Çocukluk dönemi sonraki yaşlardaki kişilik ve zihinsel yeteneklerin gelişmesinin temelinin atıldığı dönemdir. Bu yeteneklerin gelişmesindeki en önemli alan şüphe yok ki özgürce kendilerini ifade ettikleri çocuk oyun alanlarıdır. Türkiye'de 8 ilde (Isparta, Eskişehir, Erzurum, Kayseri, Ankara, İstanbul, Trabzon ve Zonguldak yapılan araştırmaların yer aldığı bu çalışmada çocuk oyun alanlarının yetersizliğinden bahsedilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler sonucunda; Türkiye'de çocuk başına düşen metrekare alanın diğer ülkelere göre daha az olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Isparta, Eskişehir, Erzurum, Kayseri, Ankara, İstanbul illerindeki araştırmalarda çocuklarla birebir anket ve gözlem yapılarak sonuca ulaşılmıştır. Çocukların sosyal, duygusal ve zihinsel yönden gelişimlerinin olumsuz yönde etkilendiği gözlenmiş, gözlem sonucunda elde edilen veriler analiz edilip, öneriler sunulmuştur.

  3. Extended follow-up following a phase 2b randomized trial of the candidate malaria vaccines FP9 ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP among children in Kenya.

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    Philip Bejon

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available "FFM ME-TRAP" is sequential immunisation with two attenuated poxvirus vectors (FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara delivering the pre-erythrocytic malaria antigen ME-TRAP. Over nine months follow-up in our original study, there was no evidence that FFM ME-TRAP provided protection against malaria. The incidence of malaria was slightly higher in children who received FFM ME-TRAP, but this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3. Although the study was unblinded, another nine months follow-up was planned to monitor the incidence of malaria and other serious adverse events.405 children aged 1-6 yrs were initially randomized to vaccination with either FFM ME-TRAP or control (rabies vaccine. 380 children were still available for follow-up after the first nine months. Children were seen weekly and whenever they were unwell for nine months monitoring. The axillary temperature was measured, and blood films taken when febrile. The primary analysis was time to parasitaemia >2,500/microl. During the second nine months monitoring, 49 events met the primary endpoint (febrile malaria with parasites >2,500/microl in the Intention To Treat (ITT group. 23 events occurred among the 189 children in the FFM ME-TRAP group, and 26 among the 194 children in the control group. In the full 18 months of monitoring, there were 63 events in the FFM ME-TRAP group and 60 in the control group (HR = 1.2, CI 0.84-1.73, p = 0.35. There was no evidence that the HR changed over the 18 months (test for interaction between time and vaccination p = 0.11.Vaccination with FFM ME-TRAP was not protective against malaria in this study. Malaria incidence during 18 months of surveillance was similar in both vaccine groups.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88335123.

  4. THE RESTORATION OF PAINTING “NUDE” BY SAİP TUNA FOUND IN COLLECTION OF THE ANKARA STATE MUSEUM OF PAINTINGS AND SCULPTURES [Tr: ANKARA DEVLET RESİM VE HEYKEL MÜZESİ KOLEKSİYONUNDA BULUNAN, SAİP TUNA’YA AİT “NÜ” İSİMLİ TABLONUN RESTORASYONU

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    Berna ÇAĞLAR ERYURT

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil painting conservation is a conservation field which is considerably sensitive and requires different fields of specialization from storage to exhibition, from transportation to packaging, from cleaning to retouching. In our country, the fewness of specialists and insufficiency of researches and publications in this field is noticeable and it is observed that the few works that are conducted are not based on scientific foundations. In our museums, many artworks which were subject to false applications by non-specialists or which were harmed because they were not kept in appropriate conditions are encountered. One of these artworks is the oil painting titled “Nu” by one of the important Republican artists, Saip Tuna (1904-1974 found in the storage room of Ankara State Museum of Paintings and Sculptures. In this study, examination and documentation procedures along with conservation and restoration methods carried out with scientific methods on this painting are discussed. Within this scope, the painting in question was examined by non-destructive (visual and microscopic methods, the deteriorations and previous restorations in the constituting layers of the painting were detected with the help of inclined light, illumination from behind and ultraviolet light. It was observed that the previous restoration treatments made by using materials/methods, such as an intense varnishing application and a faulty retouching, which are not suitable for the original structure of the artwork along with the problems arising from the unfavourable storing conditions had caused deteriorations/damages on the artwork. Restoration works of the painting were carried out according to the detected deteriorations and damages. The data obtained through this work exhibit the importance of the field specialization in the success of conservation and restoration applications as much as the necessity of detection and diagnosis based on scientific research and examination

  5. Comunidade bacteriana como indicadora do efeito de feijoeiro geneticamente modificado sobre organismos não alvo Bacterial community as an indicator of genetically modified common bean effect on nontarget organisms

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    Adriano Moreira Knupp

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do feijoeiro geneticamente modificado quanto à resistência ao Bean Golden Mosaic Vírus, BGMV (Olathe M1-4, sobre organismos não alvo. De um experimento implantado no campo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos (Olathe Pinto e evento elite Olathe M1-4, dois períodos amostrais (estádio V4 e R6 e dez repetições, obtiveram-se células bacterianas cultivadas e não cultivadas da rizosfera e do solo não rizosférico, para as quais se procedeu à extração de DNA total. A região V6-V8 do 16S rDNA foi amplificada para a comunidade bacteriana total, e também realizou-se amplificação com iniciadores específicos para o subgrupo alfa (α do filo Proteobacteria a partir de células não cultivadas. Foram obtidos dendrogramas comparativos entre a variedade Olathe Pinto (convencional e o evento elite Olathe M1-4 (geneticamente modificado utilizando-se o coeficiente de Jaccard e o método UPGMA (Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean. Os agrupamentos obtidos dos perfis de 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE indicam alterações na comunidade bacteriana da rizosfera em função da transformação das plantas são mais notáveis nos perfis obtidos para alfa-proteobacteria. A origem das amostras e o estágio de desenvolvimento das plantas afetam a comunidade bacteriana.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of genetically modified common bean for Bean Golden Mosaic Virus, BGMV, resistance (Olathe M1-4 on nontarget organisms. In a field experiment established in a completely randomized design with two treatments (Olathe Pinto cultivar and M1-4 Olathe elite event, two sampling periods (V4 and R6 stages and ten replicates, cultivated and non-cultivated bacterial cells from rhizosphere soil and bulk soil were obtained, and their total DNA was extracted. The V6-V8 region of 16S rDNA was amplified for the whole bacterial community, and primers specific for the alpha (

  6. Consumer preferences of genetically modified foods of vegetal and animal origin in Chile Preferências dos consumidores aos alimentos geneticamente modificados de origem animal e vegetal no Chile

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    Berta Schnettler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the debate generated by Genetically Modified (GM foods in developed and developing countries, the aim was to evaluate the importance of determining factors in the preference of consumers in Temuco and Talca in central-southern Chile for GM foods using conjoint analysis and to determine the existence of different market segments using a survey of 800 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was established that, in general, genetic modification was a more important factor than either brand or price in the consumer's decision to purchase either food. Cluster analysis identified three segments: the largest (51.4% assigned greatest importance to brand and preferred genetically modified milk and tomato sauce; the second group (41.0% gave greatest importance to the existence of genetic manipulation and preferred non-genetically modified foods; the smallest segment (7.6% mainly valued price and preferred milk and tomato sauce with no genetic manipulation. The three segments rejected the store brand and preferred to pay less for both foods. The results are discussed based on studies conducted in developed and developing countries.Com base no debate gerado pelos alimentos geneticamente modificados (GM, tanto em países desenvolvidos como em países em desenvolvimento, a partir do uso da conjoint analysis, o objetivo foi avaliar a importância dos fatores determinantes na preferência de alimentos GM pelos consumidores das cidades de Temuco e Talca, zona Centro-Sul do Chile, e a existência de diferentes segmentos de mercado, mediante uma enquete a 800 pessoas. Utilizando conjoint analysis, se determinou, em geral, que a existência de modificação genética foi mais importante que a marca e o preço na decisão de compra de ambos os alimentos. Mediante análise cluster, se distinguiram três segmentos, o mais numeroso (51,4% deu leve maior importância à marca e preferiu leite e molho de tomate geneticamente modificado. O segundo grupo (41,0% deu

  7. Eficiencia térmica en soldadura de la aleación AA6061-T6 por arco eléctrico indirecto modificado y digitalización de señales de intensidad de corriente

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    Ambriz, R. R.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of the thermal efficiency on welding by modified indirect electric arc technique (MIEA [1] of the 6061- T6 aluminum alloy are presented. These values are in a range of 90 to 94 %, which depend of the preheating employed. Thermal efficiency was obtained by means of a balance energy which considers the heat input, the amount of melted mass of the welding profiles, and welding parameters during the joining, especially of the arc current data acquisition. Also, some dimensionless parameters were employed in order to determine the approximation grade of the melted pool, the heat affected zone (HAZ, and their corresponding values with the experimental results.

    En el presente trabajo de investigación, se presentan los resultados de la eficiencia térmica en la soldadura de una aleación de aluminio 6061-T6 por medio de la técnica de arco eléctrico indirecto modificado (AEIM [1]. Los valores se encuentran en un rango de 90-94 % dependiendo de la temperatura de precalentamiento y fueron obtenidos a través de un balance térmico que considera a la energía aportada por el arco eléctrico, la cantidad de masa fundida de los perfiles de soldadura obtenidos y las variables operativas en el proceso de unión, poniendo especial atención en los datos recogidos en el proceso de digitalización para la intensidad de corriente del arco eléctrico. También se em - plearon algunos parámetros adimensionales para determinar el grado de aproximación de la porción del baño fundido, el ancho de la zona afectada por el calor (ZAC y sus correspondientes aproximaciones con los resultados experimentales.

  8. ELEMENTOS PARA EL DISEÑO DE UN SISTEMA DE INFORMACIÓN PARA LA TOMA DE DECISIONES EN ACTIVIDADES RELACIONADAS CON ORGANISMOS GENÉTICAMENTE MODIFICADOS: APORTES A PARTIR DE UN CASO DE ESTUDIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENAVIDES-MOLINEROS JULIA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, las actividades relacionadas con organismos genéticamente modificados (OGM deben estar respaldadas por evaluaciones de los riesgos que ellas puedan representar para la diversidad biológica, la salud humana y la producción agropecuaria. Con base en estas evaluaciones, las autoridades competentes toman decisiones consistentes principalmente en autorizar o negar las actividades solicitadas.En estas decisiones, la racionalidad del proceso está bastante bien determinada en lo que respecta a los efectos sobre la salud humana, en particular toxicidad y alergenicidad, pero no ocurre lo mismo con los efectos sobre la biodiversidad. Uno de los mayores problemas en este campo es la falta de definición de una metodología específica para la toma de decisiones, lo cual da como resultado que las decisiones sean tomadas de manera intuitiva y poco sistemática. Las autoridades competentes han reconocido la necesidad de contar con un sistema de información que contribuya a resolver esta situación.Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de la estructura básica de un sistema para la toma de decisiones orientado a las autoridades involucradas en el proceso. La propuesta se definió con base en una revisión de las principales metodologías para la evaluación de riesgos en materia de OGM y tomando como caso de estudio el flujo de genes desde OGM hacia parientes silvestres. La estructura está planteada como un modelo entidad-relación de carácter general a partir del cual puede desarrollarse el diseño detallado del sistema. La propuesta hace énfasis en la documentación de los protocolos de decisión y de la racionalidad de uso de los insumos de información.

  9. Evaluación de la resistencia a la corrosión erosión de recubrimientos de níquel modificados con nanopartículas de diamante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amira Torres Medina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación de nanopartículas de carburos, nitruros, óxidos o diamante en una matriz metálica, generalmente muestran mejoras en la dureza, en la resistencia al desgaste y a la corrosión, comparado con un recubrimiento del metal puro. Estos recubrimientos compuestos se pueden obtener mediante la técnica de electrodeposición, logrando economía y calidad en los depósitos. Los recubrimientos de níquel modificados con nanopartículas de diamante (Ni-D, fueron aplicados sobre un acero AISI SAE 1016 mediante la técnica de electrodeposición desde una solución típica Watts sin aditivos, que contiene nanopartículas de diamante. El efecto que ejercen algunas variables que intervienen en el proceso de electrodeposición como: densidad de corriente, velocidad de agitación y concentración de partículas en el baño, en la dureza y en la resistencia a la corrosión-erosión, se estudiaron mediante un diseño factorial completamente aleatorizado 2k. La resistencia a la corrosión- erosión se evaluó mediante el monitoreo del potencial de corrosión de las probetas con recubrimiento sometidas a un fluido corrosivo y abrasivo en movimiento. Los recubrimientos compuestos de Ni-D obtenidos presentan mejor resistencia a la corrosión-erosión que los recubrimientos de níquel puro. Los recubrimientos más resistentes a la corrosión-erosión fueron los obtenidos a 5 A/dm², 900 rpm y 10 g/L de diamante.

  10. Experiences of social harm and changes in sexual practices among volunteers who had completed a phase I/II HIV vaccine trial employing HIV-1 DNA priming and HIV-1 MVA boosting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith A M Tarimo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Volunteers in phase I/II HIV vaccine trials are assumed to be at low risk of acquiring HIV infection and are expected to have normal lives in the community. However, during participation in the trials, volunteers may encounter social harm and changes in their sexual behaviours. The current study aimed to study persistence of social harm and changes in sexual practices over time among phase I/II HIV vaccine immunogenicity (HIVIS03 trial volunteers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS AND RESULTS: A descriptive prospective cohort study was conducted among 33 out of 60 volunteers of HIVIS03 trial in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who had received three HIV-1 DNA injections boosted with two HIV-1 MVA doses. A structured interview was administered to collect data. Analysis was carried out using SPSS and McNemars' chi-square (χ2 was used to test the association within-subjects. Participants reported experiencing negative comments from their colleagues about the trial; but such comments were less severe during the second follow up visits (χ2 = 8.72; P<0.001. Most of the comments were associated with discrimination (χ2 = 26.72; P<0.001, stigma (χ2 = 6.06; P<0.05, and mistrust towards the HIV vaccine trial (χ2 = 4.9; P<0.05. Having a regular sexual partner other than spouse or cohabitant declined over the two follow-up periods (χ2 = 4.45; P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Participants in the phase I/II HIV vaccine trial were likely to face negative comments from relatives and colleagues after the end of the trial, but those comments decreased over time. In this study, the inherent sexual practice of having extra sexual partners other than spouse declined over time. Therefore, prolonged counselling and support appears important to minimize risky sexual behaviour among volunteers after participation in HIV Vaccine trials.

  11. Uso do índice de Kotelchuck modificado na avaliação da assistência pré-natal e sua relação com as características maternas e o peso do recém-nascido no Município do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Maria do Carmo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O índice de Kotelchuck (IK foi modificado e utilizado para avaliar a assistência pré-natal prestada no Município do Rio de Janeiro - Brasil, em uma amostra de 9920 puérperas de parto único. Regressões multivariadas logística ordinal (RMLO e linear (RML foram utilizadas para estimar a importância de fatores demográficos, psicossociais e obstétricos no IK modificado e seus efeitos no peso ao nascer (PN, respectivamente. Apenas 38,5% das parturientes do Município do Rio de Janeiro foram classificadas como de cuidado pré-natal adequado ou intensivo. Após ajustamento por outros preditores, mantiveram-se como variáveis explicativas do IK: o nível de instrução, viver com o pai do RN, tentar abortar, diabetes, satisfação com a gravidez, cor da pele, paridade, idade e local de residência. O PN associou-se com o IK modificado, mesmo após o controle de variáveis sociodemográficas, comportamentais e biológicas. A utilização adequada da assistência pré-natal no Município do Rio de Janeiro contribuiu na prevenção do PN e as mães que menos utilizaram os serviços pré-natais têm piores condições socioeducacionais, de apoio familiar e de risco obstétrico.

  12. Present-day chaotic formations around the Japanese trenches: Comparison to the on land examples from the Shimanto and Miura-Boso, and from the Franciscan, Mineoka and Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yujiro; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Mori, Ryota; Chiba, Tae; Sasaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-05-01

    Four different types of chaotic formations were recognized by the submersible observation around the Japanese trenches, including the Nankai and Sagami troughs, Boso triple junction, Japan trench, and Izu-Bonin arc, and each type is summarized and discussed in view of comparison to the on land examples, such as from the Franciscan, Shimanto and Miura-Boso belts in the circum Pacifc margins, and the Ankara. The submarine geologies are present actual examples to give us a critical key to understanding the formation processes and emplacement mechanisms for the so-called mélange bodies, either sedimentary, tectonic or diapiric. Some are made of alternated beds of sandstone and mudstone that show broken or block-in-matrix fashion, in most cases in muddy matrix. These are commonly developed on the trench landward slope toe of the Nankai and Sagami troughs and Boso triple junction area as well as the Japan trench slope. One type is from the landward slope, but another type is from the oceanward slopes. The former type is in places calcareous cemented, probably caused by hydraulic fracturing by high pore pressure along the thrust fault and oxidized methane-made carbonate precipitation. They are seen on the feet of the thrust-dominated slope and to be compared to the so-called sedimentary mélanges due to the gravitational sliding, which occur because of tectonically induced steep slopes. Most of such thrusts are related to large subduction type earthquakes, and await for further critical consideration on to the relation to the asperity problem. Some of large scale gravitational collapses may be related to the seamount or ridge subduction to the trench, both in case of accretionary and non-accretionary type margins, the former is for the examples from the Nankai and Sagami troughs and the Boso triple junction, latter for the Japan trench. In all cases on land and under the sea in the trench landward slope, some calcareous breccias are associated with methane

  13. Determinação da constante cinética de cristalização não-isotérmica de polipropilenos modificados com ácido acrílico e anidrido maleico Determination of the non-isothermal crystallization rate constant of grafted maleic anhydride and grafted acrylic acid polypropylenes

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamim de M. Carvalho; Rosario E. S. Bretas

    2006-01-01

    O propósito do presente trabalho foi testar a validade do Método da Curva Mestre para a determinação da constante de cristalização não-isotérmica de polipropilenos modificados com anidrido maleico e ácido acrílico. Experimentos de cristalização não-isotérmica foram realizados a diversas taxas de resfriamento por meio de Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC). Para serem usadas no Método da Curva Mestre, as curvas originais obtidas em DSC foram corrigidas em termos da defasagem de tempera...

  14. Deslizamientos epifisarios femorales proximales >30º. Procedimiento de Dunn modificado. Evaluación anatómica y funcional en una cohorte retrospectiva. [Slipped capital femoral epiphysis >30º. Modified Dunn procedure. Anatomical and functional evaluation in a retrospective cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Praglia; Daniel Visona Dallapozza; Jorge Sueiro; Eduardo Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Introducción La deformidad residual resultante de un deslizamiento epifisario femoral proximal moderado o grave conduce a osteoartritis prematura debida al choque femoroacetabular. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron evaluar la mejoría de la anatomía del fémur proximal y evaluar la función de la cadera en pacientes con deslizamiento epifisario femoral proximal >30 grados tratados con el procedimiento de Dunn modificado, a corto plazo. Material y Métodos Cohorte retrospectiva de ...

  15. Heterologous Prime/Boost Immunization with p53-based Vaccines Combined with Toll-Like Receptor Stimulation Enhances Tumor Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizaki, Hidenobu; Song, Guang-Yun; Srivastava, Tumul; Carroll, Kyla Driscoll; Shahabi, Vafa; Manuel, Edwin R.; Diamond, Don J.; Ellenhorn, Joshua D.I.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 gene product is overexpressed in ~50% of cancers, making it an ideal target for cancer immunotherapy. We previously demonstrated that a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine expressing human p53 (MVA-p53) was moderately active when given as a homologous prime/boost in a human p53 knock in (Hupki) mouse model. We needed to improve upon the inefficient homologous boosting approach, because development of neutralizing immunity to the vaccine viral vector backbone suppresses its immunoge...

  16. Utilização de um contêiner modelo Celle modificado para resfriamento e transporte de sêmen eqüino Use of a Celle modified container for equine semen cooling and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Valle

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se o contêiner modelo Celle modificado para o resfriamento e transporte de sêmen eqüino. O contêiner possibilitou a inseminação de 100 éguas de diversas categorias reprodutivas, em 148 ciclos estrais. Foram utilizadas doses inseminantes de 400 milhões de espermatozóides móveis em 15ml de sêmen diluído em diluidor de leite em pó desnatado/glicose, transportado por um período médio de 215 minutos e temperatura final de 14ºC. As taxas de concepção ao primeiro ciclo e concepção/ciclo foram de 56 e 52%, respectivamente. O contêiner propiciou, durante seu uso em campo, taxa de resfriamento de -0,03ºC/min entre 19ºC e 9ºC, faixa do choque térmico. No entanto, avaliada em condições de laboratório, a taxa de resfriamento foi mais acelerada. O contêiner utilizado permite o resfriamento simultâneo de oito doses inseminantes individualizadas e com mínima aeração.A modified Celle container was developed for equine semen cooling and transportation. It was possible to inseminate 100 mares with 148 estral cycles. Each inseminating dose contained 400 million motile spermatozoa in 15ml extended semen in dry skim milk-glucose extender, transported for 215 min at 14ºC. The conception rates, at first cycle, and conception/cycle were 56 and 52%, respectively. During a field trial, the container propitiated a cooling rate of -0,03ºC/min between 19ºC and 9ºC, the cold shock zone. However, in a laboratory assessment the cooling rate was more accelerated. The container allowed cooling, simultaneously, of eight individual insemination doses with minimal aeration.

  17. Efecto de los ciclos térmicos de soldadura por arco eléctrico indirecto modificado (AEIM en las propiedades mecánicas de la aleación AA6061-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambriz, Ricardo R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Results of temperature measurements during welding of 12.7 mm thick AA6061-T6 alloy plates by modified indirect electric arc (MIEA are presented. This study describes the thermal cycles of the heat affected zone (HAZ and also in the fusion zone. Depending upon the position of the transducers, the maximum temperatures measured in the HAZ range from 308 to 693 °C, these measurements were related with the tensile test results, and the failure zone reported previously by the authors [1]. It was observed that, there is a decrease in the mechanical strength of the welded joints, due to the microstructural changes suffered by AA6061-T6 alloy in which formation of the β’ occurs according to the TTT transformation diagram. The inherent cooling conditions of the weld pool observed for the MIEA technique (only one pass of welding, have permitted to establish the characteristics of solidification and microstructure for a specific cooling rate.

    Se presentan los resultados de medición de temperatura durante la soldadura por arco eléctrico indirecto modificado (AEIM de la aleación AA6061-T6. Éstas, describen los ciclos térmicos de la zona afectada por el calor (ZAC y en la zona de fusión. Los resultados muestran que las temperaturas máximas medidas en la ZAC se encuentran en un rango de 308 a 693 °C, dependiendo de la posición de los sensores, estas mediciones fueron correlacionadas con los resultados de resistencia a la tracción y la zona de fallo, reportados previamente por los autores[1]. Se observó que existe una disminución en la resistencia mecánica de las uniones, debido a los cambios microestructurales por la formación de precipitados sobreenvejecidos, β’, de acuerdo con su diagrama de transformación (TTT. Las condiciones de enfriamiento en el baño fundido inherentes a la técnica por AEIM (un solo paso de soldadura, permitieron establecer las características de solidificación y microestructura esperada

  18. Estudio del equilibrio y cinética de adsorción de Cd(II, Ni(II y Cr(VI usando Quitosano y Quitosano modificado con cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benavente

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se estudió el equilibrio y la cinética de adsorción de Cd(II, Ni(II en quitosano y Cr(VI en quitosano modificado con cobre. Para ello, soluciones de iones metálicos a diferentes concentraciones, fueron puestas en contacto con el adsorbente y se agitaron por un período de 3 – 4 h. Al final del proceso, las muestras fueron analizadas en un espectrómetro de absorción atómica. Los datos experimentales del equilibrio de adsorción de los iones metálicos fueron evaluados aplicando las isotermas de Langmuir y Freundlich; mientras los datos cinéticos fueron evaluados utilizando los modelos cinéticos de pseudo-primer orden y pseudo-segundo orden. Los resultados del proceso demostraron que los iones fueron eficazmente adsorbidos por el quitosano (Cd y Ni y por el Cu-quitosano (Cr. Además, se comprobó que los datos experimentales del equilibrio de adsorción de Cr(VI y Ni(II se ajustan al modelo de Langmuir; mientras que los datos experimentales del Cd(II fueron mejor ajustados por el modelo de Freundlich. Mediante el uso de la isoterma de Langmuir se determinó la capacidad máxima de adsorción de cromo (29.7 mg/g Cu-quitosano, cadmio (102.0 mg/g quitosano y níquel (83.31 mg/g quitosano. Los resultados de la cinética de adsorción de los iones metálicos mostraron que los datos experimentales fueron mejor ajustados por el modelo de pseudo-segundo orden; es decir, el paso limitante en la velocidad es la reacción de adsorción y no la transferencia de masa.

  19. Uso de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para estimar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Dias Novaes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionais de dissector atualmente requerem consideráveis custos financeiros, técnicos e operacionais para estimar o número de células, incluindo cardiomiócitos, em uma área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar a microscopia de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para determinar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco em condições normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo empregou camundongos Wistar machos com quatro meses de idade e peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados em grupos controles (GC, n = 8 e infectados (GI, n = 8. Os animais do GI foram inoculados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g. Após oito semanas, os animais foram pesados e sacrificados. Os Ventrículos Esquerdos (VE foram removidos para análise estereológica da densidade numérica de cardiomiócitos (Nv [c] e o número total dessas células no VE (N [c]. Esses parâmetros foram estimados usando um dissector fluorescente (DF e comparados com os métodos convencionais de dissector óptico (DO e dissector físico (DFi. RESULTADOS: Em ambos os métodos de dissector, os animais do GI apresentaram queda significativa de Nv[c] e N[c] em comparação com os animais do GC (P > 0,05. Uma correlação forte, igual ou superior a 96%, foi obtida entre DF, DO e DFi. CONCLUSÃO: O método DF parece ser igualmente confiável para determinar Nv[c] e N[c] em condições normais e patológicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais de dissector: redução de cortes histológicos e imagens na análise estereológica, redução do tempo de análise das imagens, a construção de DF em microscópios simples, utilizando o modo de epifluorescência, distinção de planos de dissector em ampliações inferiores.

  20. Design and simulation of 3½-cell superconducting gun cavity and beam dynamics studies of the SASE-FEL System at the Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, H. Duran; Cakir, R.; Porsuk, D.

    2015-01-01

    Design and simulation of a superconducting gun cavity with 3½ cells have been studied in order to give the first push to the electron beam for the linear accelerating system at The Institute of Accelerator Technologies at Ankara University. Electrons are accelerated through the gun cavity with the help of the Radiofrequency power suppliers from cryogenic systems. Accelerating gradient should be as high as possible to accelerate electron beam inside the cavity. In this study, electron beam reaches to 9.17 MeV energy at the end of the gun cavity with the accelerating gradient; E c =19.21 MV/m. 1.3 GHz gun cavity consists of three TESLA-like shaped cells while the special designed gun-cell includes a cathode plug. Optimized important beam parameters inside the gun cavity, average beam current 3 mA, transverse emittance 2.5 mm mrad, repetition rate 30 MHz and other parameters are obtained for the SASE-FEL System. The Superfish/Poisson program is used to design each cell of the superconducting cavity. Superconducting gun cavity and Radiofrequency properties are studied by utilizing 2D Superfish/Poisson, 3D Computer Simulation Technology Microwave Studio, and 3D Computer Simulation Technology Particle Studio. Superfish/Poisson is also used to optimize the geometry of the cavity cells to get the highest accelerating gradient. The behavior of the particles along the beamline is included in this study. ASTRA Code is used to track the particles

  1. Aplicabilidade da metodologia de reação de polimerase em cadeia em tempo real na determinação do percentual de organismos geneticamente modificados em alimentos Applicability of the real-time polymerase chain reaction based-methods in quantification of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Eudes Fagundes de Barros

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A detecção de organismos geneticamente modificados na cadeia alimentar é um aspecto importante para todos os assuntos envolvidos no controle de matéria-prima, na indústria de alimentos e na distribuição. A rotulagem e a rastreabilidade de organismos geneticamente modificados são questões atuais que são consideradas para o comércio e a regulamentação. Atualmente, a rotulagem de alimentos processados contendo material transgênico detectável é exigida pela legislação brasileira. O governo brasileiro publicou Decreto nº 4.680 em abril de 2003, que exige rotulagem para todos os alimentos ou ingredientes de alimento, com o limite para rotulagem de 1%. Embora a tecnologia de reação em cadeia da polimerase tenha algumas limitações, a alta sensibilidade e especificidade explicam sua escolha por parte dos laboratórios interessados em realizar análises de detecção de organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados. Entre os métodos atualmente disponíveis, aqueles baseados na reação em cadeia da polimerase geralmente são aceitos, considerando a sensibilidade e a confiabilidade na detecção de material geneticamente modificado-derivado em análises de rotina. Neste artigo, apresenta-se uma revisão de métodos atualmente disponíveis baseados na reação em cadeia da polimerase para detecção, identificação e quantificação de organismos geneticamente modificados e seus derivados, discutindo sua aplicabilidade e suas limitações.Detection of genetically modified organisms in the food chain is an important issue for all subjects involved in raw material control, food industry and distribution. Both labeling and traceability of genetically modified organisms are current issues that are considered for trade and regulation. Currently, labeling of genetically modified foods containing detectable transgenic material is required by the Brazilian legislation. The Brazilian government published the Decree nº 4.680 in April

  2. Progressive Subduction-Accretion Growth of the Late Paleozoic-Cretaceous Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone Melange in Northern Anatolia, Turkey, and a New Tectonic Model for the Evolution of Northern Neotethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Y.; Sarifakioglu, E.; Sevin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Seamount-oceanic plateau remnants and ophiolite fragments with MORB-like and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities occur as blocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in north-central Turkey, and provide temporal and geochemical evidence for magmatism associated with subduction initiation-evolution and convergent margin growth in the Northern Neotethys. Ophiolitic blocks and the serpentinite and/or greywacke matrix of the mélange are deformed and imbricated along generally south-directed thrust sheets as a result of the north-dipping subduction polarity and the continental collision tectonics in the early Paleogene. Plagiogranite dikes intruding the SSZ gabbros have revealed U/Pb zircon ages of 179 Ma; epi-ophiolitic pelitic rocks resting directly on various ophiolitic units, on the other hand, contain zircons with ages around 130 Ma. Upper Cretaceous flyschal deposits unconformably cover imbricate thrust sheets of the SSZ-type ophiolite and the ophiolitic mélange containing MORB-like ophiolitic slabs and seamount fragments. SSZ-type ophiolite blocks include upper mantle peridotites, cumulate to massive gabbros, sheeted diabase dykes, plagiogranite veins and stocks, and basalt-chert-radiolarite. MORB-like ophiolitic blocks mainly contain upper mantle peridotites, massive gabbros, basaltic lavas, and chert-radiolarite. TiO2 contents of the SSZ-type, diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas are between 0.2 - 0.93 wt.%, whereas those of the MORB-like basalts range between 0.85 - 5.05 wt.%. Nb contents of the SSZ-type diabasic dykes and basaltic lavas range between 0.1-2.5 ppm and of the MORB-like lavas between 3.7-5.4 ppm. SSZ-type basic rocks have Th/Yb ratios of 0.1-1 whereas the MORB-like basic rocks show Th/Yb values ranging from 0.01 to 0.3, suggesting enrichment by slab-derived fluids. The low TiO2 and Nb values, combined with higher Th/Yb ratios, indicate an IAT affinity of the SSZ rock suites in comparison to the tholeiitic features

  3. High to ultrahigh potassic alkaline volcanic belt along the Ankara-Erzincan suture (northern Turkey): new geochemical and Ar-Ar data constraining petrogenesis with implications for the late Cretaceous subduction of the Neotethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, S. Can; Gulmez, Fatma; Tuysuz, Okan; Karacik, Zekiye; Roden, Michael F.; Zeki Billor, M.; Hames, Willis E.

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of some high- to ultrahigh-K alkaline volcanic rocks crop out as isolated small and discontinuous bodies along the Ankara-Erzincan suture belt in northern Turkey. These rocks are represented by leucite-bearing lavas (LB), basaltic andesites, trachytes, monzonite/syenites) and lamprophyres. Leucite-bearing rocks are small stocks, dikes and lava flows. Pebbles and blocks of the LB are found in the coeval volcanic debris avalanche deposits and volcanoclastic breccias. Leucite-bearing rocks are mainly phonotephrite, tephriphonolite, trachyandesite and basaltic trachyandesites (shoshonite) and have mineral assemblages of lct + cpx + ol + pl + Kfs + mag+ ap. Leucites were almost totally analcimized. Trachytes and monzonite/syenites, which are seen as small stocks and dikes, are characterized by amp + bt + pl + Kfs + spn + ap + opq paragenesis. Lamprophyres are mica-rich melanocratic dikes, and include cpx + mica (phlogopitic) + Kfs + ap + opq. Rarely leucite, olivine and plagioclase are also present. Ar-Ar data reveal that this volcanic activity occurred between 73.6±0.18 and 76.78±0.19 Ma, corresponding to latest Cretaceous. All the samples from the high- and ultrahigh-K volcanic belt are alkaline in nature. Leucite-bearing lavas are characterized by their MgO (2.70-5.81, av. 4.58 wt.%), K2O (0.79-4.81, av. 2.35 wt.%), Na2O (4.86-7.48, av. 3.58 wt.%) and K2O/Na2O (0.13-0.92, av. 0.42 wt.%). The low K2O and K2O/Na2O contents of these rocks are due to extensive analcimization of the leucites. Major oxide contents in lamprophyric rocks are 3.25-7.48 (MgO), 1.35-7.76 (K2O), 1.77-4.00 (Na2O) and 0.31-2.69 (K2O/Na2O). The silica content of these rocks are variable and range from 47.18-50.26 (wt.%) (LB) to 39.14-53.28 (lamprophyres). Based on their major element contents, these rocks are classified as plagioleucitites or ultrapotassic rocks of the active orogenic zones (Foley, 1992). Leucite-bearing rocks, lamprophyres and the trachytes (with their hypabyssal

  4. Evaluación de la adherencia de uniones adhesivas metálicas con adhesivos epoxídicos modificados Evaluation of the adherence of bonded metallic joints with modified epoxy adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto González Garcia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo fueron evaluadas las propiedades adhesivas de la resina epoxídica del tipo éter diglicidílico del bisfenol A. La resina fue modificada con dos modificadores poliméricos, uno de ellos un copolímero derivado del butadieno, y el otro un copolímero acrílico con el propósito de aumentar la tenacidad de la resina. Tres aminas alifáticas primarias fueron utilizadas como agentes de curado, trietilentetramina, N-(2-aminoetilpiperazina e isoforondiamina. Las propiedades adhesivas fueron investigadas usando la resina pura, así como la resina modificada. Las propiedades adhesivas de la resina modificada y pura fueron estudiadas usando como adherente una aleación de acero (ASTM A36. La adherencia fue evaluada por ensayos de adhesión usando tres geometrías de uniones adhesivas de acero-acero. El comportamiento reológico de los adhesivos fue investigado en condiciones isotérmicas. Los parámetros reológicos relacionados con la reacción de polimerización tales como velocidad de reacción, tiempo de manipulación, y tiempo de gelación de los adhesivos puros fueron relacionados con la estructura química del agente de curado. El tiempo de separación de fases, y de gelación de los adhesivos modificados fue relacionado con la morfología generada, y con la velocidad de la reacción, respectivamente. La morfología fue caracterizada por microscopia electrónica de barrido. La adherencia de las uniones adhesivas sometidas a las diferentes solicitaciones mecánicas fue relacionada a la morfología generada por la fase dispersa de cada modificador, y con las estructuras de redes de los adhesivos.In this work the adhesive properties of epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A have been evaluated. The epoxy resin was modified with butadiene and acrylic copolymers to obtain toughened adhesives. The aliphatic primary amines triethylenetetramine, N-(2-aminoethylpiperazine and isophorone diamine were investigated as curing

  5. Water sorption of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements photoactivated with LED Sorção de água de cimentos de ionômero de vidro modificados por resina fotoativados com LED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Francisca Gigo Cefaly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Light Emitting Diodes (LED technology has been used to photoactivate composite resins and there is a great number of published studies in this area. However, there are no studies regarding resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGIC, which also need photoactivation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate water sorption of two RMGIC photoactivated with LED and to compare this property to that obtained with a halogen light curing unit. A resin composite was used as control. Five specimens of 15.0 mm in diameter x 1.0 mm in height were prepared for each combination of material (Fuji II LC Improved, Vitremer, and Filtek Z250 and curing unit (Radii and Optilight Plus and transferred to desiccators until a constant mass was obtained. Then the specimens were immersed into deionized water for 7 days, weighed and reconditioned to a constant mass in desiccators. Water sorption was calculated based on weight and volume of specimens. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p A tecnologia baseada em Diodos emissores de luz (LED tem sido utilizada para a fotoativação de resinas compostas e existe um grande número de estudos publicados a este respeito. Entretanto, não existem estudos envolvendo cimentos de ionômero de vidro modificados por resina (CIVMR, que também necessitam fotoativação. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a sorção de água de dois CIVMR fotoativados com LED e comparar essa propriedade com aquela obtida com unidade com lâmpada halógena. Uma resina composta foi utilizada como controle. Cinco espécimes com 15,0 mm diâmetro x 1,0 mm de altura foram preparados para cada combinação de material (Fuji II LC Improved, Vitremer e Filtek Z250 e fonte de luz (Radii e Optilight Plus e transferidos a dessecadores até a obtenção de massa constante. Em seguida, os espécimes foram imersos em água deionizada por 7 dias, pesados e recondicionados a uma massa constante em dessecadores. A sor

  6. Safety and High Level Efficacy of the Combination Malaria Vaccine Regimen of RTS,S/AS01B With Chimpanzee Adenovirus 63 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vectored Vaccines Expressing ME-TRAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampling, Tommy; Ewer, Katie J; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly M; Edwards, Nick J; Wright, Danny; Payne, Ruth O; Venkatraman, Navin; de Barra, Eoghan; Snudden, Claudia M; Poulton, Ian D; de Graaf, Hans; Sukhtankar, Priya; Roberts, Rachel; Ivinson, Karen; Weltzin, Rich; Rajkumar, Bebi-Yassin; Wille-Reece, Ulrike; Lee, Cynthia K; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Sinden, Robert E; Gerry, Stephen; Lawrie, Alison M; Vekemans, Johan; Morelle, Danielle; Lievens, Marc; Ballou, Ripley W; Cooke, Graham S; Faust, Saul N; Gilbert, Sarah; Hill, Adrian V S

    2016-09-01

    The need for a highly efficacious vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum remains pressing. In this controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study, we assessed the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of a schedule combining 2 distinct vaccine types in a staggered immunization regimen: one inducing high-titer antibodies to circumsporozoite protein (RTS,S/AS01B) and the other inducing potent T-cell responses to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) by using a viral vector. Thirty-seven healthy malaria-naive adults were vaccinated with either a chimpanzee adenovirus 63 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored vaccine expressing a multiepitope string fused to TRAP and 3 doses of RTS,S/AS01B (group 1; n = 20) or 3 doses of RTS,S/AS01B alone (group 2; n = 17). CHMI was delivered by mosquito bites to 33 vaccinated subjects at week 12 after the first vaccination and to 6 unvaccinated controls. No suspected unexpected serious adverse reactions or severe adverse events related to vaccination were reported. Protective vaccine efficacy was observed in 14 of 17 subjects (82.4%) in group 1 and 12 of 16 subjects (75%) in group 2. All control subjects received a diagnosis of blood-stage malaria parasite infection. Both vaccination regimens were immunogenic. Fourteen protected subjects underwent repeat CHMI 6 months after initial CHMI; 7 of 8 (87.5%) in group 1 and 5 of 6 (83.3%) in group 2 remained protected. The high level of sterile efficacy observed in this trial is encouraging for further evaluation of combination approaches using these vaccine types. NCT01883609. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. Deslizamientos epifisarios femorales proximales >30º. Procedimiento de Dunn modificado. Evaluación anatómica y funcional en una cohorte retrospectiva. [Slipped capital femoral epiphysis >30º. Modified Dunn procedure. Anatomical and functional evaluation in a retrospective cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Praglia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción La deformidad residual resultante de un deslizamiento epifisario femoral proximal moderado o grave conduce a osteoartritis prematura debida al choque femoroacetabular. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron evaluar la mejoría de la anatomía del fémur proximal y evaluar la función de la cadera en pacientes con deslizamiento epifisario femoral proximal >30 grados tratados con el procedimiento de Dunn modificado, a corto plazo. Material y Métodos Cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes con deslizamiento epifisario femoral proximal >30 grados, tratados con luxación controlada de cadera y el procedimiento de Dunn modificado. Se evaluaron mediciones clínicas y radiológicas preoperatorias y posoperatorias, hallazgos intraoperatorios y funcionalidad con los puntajes de Harris y de D’aubigne-Postel. Resultados Trece casos, mediana de edad 12 años y mediana de seguimiento 14 meses. El ángulo de deslizamiento de Southwick preoperatorio (75 grados, ri 67-85 y posoperatorio (10 grados, ri 5-17 mostró una disminución estadísticamente significativa (p <0,001. El offset radio cabeza-cuello preoperatorio (-0,13 versus el posoperatorio (0,12 obtuvo una mejoría significativa (p 0,002. El 69,2% de los pacientes presentó daño de alguna estructura intraarticular. Los puntajes promedio de funcionalidad fueron 14,6 (muy buena mejoría y 83,4 (bueno. Complicaciones: necrosis avascular 15,3% y condrólisis 15,3%. Conclusion Esta técnica restaura la anatomía del fémur proximal y la funcionalidad de la cadera a corto plazo. aunque no disponemos de resultados a largo plazo, al menos en teoría, serían buenos. Sin embargo, la luxación controlada con Dunn modificado no está exenta de complicaciones y el riesgo de necrosis avascular y condrólisis persiste.

  8. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO2 Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Sims, Kenneth [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined

  9. Uso de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para estimar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco Uso de fluorescencia en un método de disector modificado para estimar el número de miocitos en el tejido cardíaco Use of fluorescence in a modified disector method to estimate the number of myocytes in cardiac tissue

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    Rômulo Dias Novaes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionais de dissector atualmente requerem consideráveis custos financeiros, técnicos e operacionais para estimar o número de células, incluindo cardiomiócitos, em uma área de 3D. OBJETIVO: Usar a microscopia de fluorescência em um método de dissector modificado para determinar o número de miócitos no tecido cardíaco em condições normais e patológicas. MÉTODOS: O estudo empregou camundongos Wistar machos com quatro meses de idade e peso de 366,25 ± 88,21 g randomizados em grupos controles (GC, n = 8 e infectados (GI, n = 8. Os animais do GI foram inoculados com cepa Y de T. cruzi (300.000 tripomastigotas/50 g. Após oito semanas, os animais foram pesados e sacrificados. Os Ventrículos Esquerdos (VE foram removidos para análise estereológica da densidade numérica de cardiomiócitos (Nv [c] e o número total dessas células no VE (N [c]. Esses parâmetros foram estimados usando um dissector fluorescente (DF e comparados com os métodos convencionais de dissector óptico (DO e dissector físico (DFi. RESULTADOS: Em ambos os métodos de dissector, os animais do GI apresentaram queda significativa de Nv[c] e N[c] em comparação com os animais do GC (P > 0,05. Uma correlação forte, igual ou superior a 96%, foi obtida entre DF, DO e DFi. CONCLUSÃO: O método DF parece ser igualmente confiável para determinar Nv[c] e N[c] em condições normais e patológicas, apresentando algumas vantagens em relação aos métodos convencionais de dissector: redução de cortes histológicos e imagens na análise estereológica, redução do tempo de análise das imagens, a construção de DF em microscópios simples, utilizando o modo de epifluorescência, distinção de planos de dissector em ampliações inferiores.FUNDAMENTO: Métodos convencionales de disector actualmente requieren considerables costos financieros, técnicos y operativos para estimar el número de células, incluyendo cardiomiocitos, en un

  10. Erken Cumhuriyet Döneminde Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ile Sovyetler Birliği Arasındaki Sanatsal İlişkiler: “Ankara: Türkiye’nin Kalbi” Belgeseli Örneği / Artistic Relations between the Republic of Turkey and the Soviet Union in the Early Republican Era: The Case of the Documentary “Ankara: The Heart of Turkey”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın LÜLECİ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kurtuluş Savaşı’nın devam ettiği günlerde Batılı devletlere karşı Ankara Hükümeti ile Sovyet Rusya arasında kurulan yakın siyasi ilişkiler, Cumhuriyet’in 1923’teki ilanından II. Dünya Savaşı’nın 1945’te sona ermesine kadar devam etmiştir. Bahsedilen dönemde, iki ülke arasında gerçekleşen ve siyasi, askeri ve iktisadi yönleri ağır basan bu ilişkilerin bir boyutunu da sanat oluşturmuştur. Çarlık döneminden sanatsal açıdan önemli bir miras devralan ve sosyalist ideolojinin propagandasında sanata özel bir misyon yükleyen Sovyetler Birliği ile Batılı sanatların eğitimini yaygınlaştırmayı, sanatçıları desteklemeyi ve bunun sonucunda nitelikli sanat eserlerinin üretilmesini, bir “uygarlaşma” ölçüsü olarak gören ve Atatürk ilke ve inkılaplarını halka iletmekte sanatın propaganda gücünden faydalanmayı düşünen Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, özellikle 1930’lu yıllarda sanat alanında bir işbirliğinde bulunmuşlardır. Bu kapsamda, Türk hükümeti tarafından “Cumhuriyet’in Onuncu Yıl Kutlamaları” çerçevesinde Türkiye’ye davet edilen Sovyet sinemacılar tarafından çekimi gerçekleştirilen “Türkiye’nin Kalbi: Ankara” filmi, özel bir anlam ifade etmektedir. Bu çalışma, Cumhuriyetin ilk yıllarında Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ve Sovyetler Birliği arasında sanat alanında gerçekleşen işbirliği ve etkileşimi ele almakta ve bu ilişkinin boyutlarını kapsamlı olarak ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. / During the Independence War, the close political relations established between the governments of Ankara and Soviet Russia against western countries, continued from the declaration of the Republic in 1923 to the end of the World War II in 1945. In that era, the art constituted another dimension of the relations established by these countries that mainly focused on political, military and economic aspects. Both the Soviet Russia, which acquired an

  11. Confiabilidade e validade do teste do esfigmonômetro modificado para mensuração clínica da força muscular de membros inferiores e tronco de indivíduos na fase subaguda pós acidente vascular encefálico

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Maria Lara

    2015-01-01

    O teste do esfigmomanômetro modificado (TEM) demonstrou ser um método adequado para avaliar força muscular de indivíduos na fase crônica do acidente vascular encefálico (AVE). Dada a sua grande aplicabilidade clínica, pode também ser um método promissor para a avaliação da força muscular de indivíduos na fase subaguda pós-AVE. Esses indivíduos apresentam características específicas e distintas das apresentadas na fase crônica do AVE. Dessa forma, para que o TEM seja utilizado em indivíduos...

  12. Degradação eletroquímica dos corantes alimentícios amaranto e tartrazina utilizando H2O2 eletrogerado in situ em eletrodo de difusão gasosa (EDG) modificado com ftalocianina de cobalto (II) e cobre (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Willyam Róger Padilha Barros

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve o estudo da geração eletroquímica do H2O2 em eletrólito ácido (H2SO4 (0,1 mol L-1) + K2SO4 (0,1 mol L-1)) e eletrólito alcalino (KOH 1,0 mol L-1) utilizando eletrodo de difusão gasosa (EDG), sendo este fabricado com carbono Printex 6L e modificado com 3,0; 5,0 e 10,0% de ftalocianina de cobalto (II) ou cobre (II). Os experimentos foram realizados em uma célula eletroquímica de compartimento único contendo eletrodo de referência Ag/AgCl, contra eletrodo de Pt e como elet...

  13. Viral Booster Vaccines Improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Induced Protection Against Bovine Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work in small animal laboratory models of tuberculosis have shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to prime and Modified Vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad8...

  14. EULAR/PRINTO/PRES criteria for Henoch-Schönlein purpura, childhood polyarteritis nodosa, childhood Wegener granulomatosis and childhood Takayasu arteritis: Ankara 2008. Part I: Overall methodology and clinical characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruperto, Nicolino; Ozen, Seza; Pistorio, Angela; Dolezalova, Pavla; Brogan, Paul; Cabral, David A; Cuttica, Ruben; Khubchandani, Raju; Lovell, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Quartier, Pierre; Ravelli, Angelo; Iusan, Silvia M; Filocamo, Giovanni; Magalhães, Claudia Saad; Unsal, Erbil; Oliveira, Sheila; Bracaglia, Claudia; Bagga, Arvind; Stanevicha, Valda; Manzoni, Silvia Magni; Pratsidou, Polyxeni; Lepore, Loredana; Espada, Graciela; Kone-Paut, Isabella; Paut, Isabelle Kone; Zulian, Francesco; Barone, Patrizia; Bircan, Zelal; Maldonado, Maria del Rocio; Russo, Ricardo; Vilca, Iris; Tullus, Kjell; Cimaz, Rolando; Horneff, Gerd; Anton, Jordi; Garay, Stella; Nielsen, Susan; Barbano, Giancarlo; Martini, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    To report methodology and overall clinical, laboratory and radiographic characteristics for Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), childhood polyarteritis nodosa (c-PAN), c-Wegener granulomatosis (c-WG) and c-Takayasu arteritis (c-TA) classification criteria. The preliminary Vienna 2005 consensus conference, which proposed preliminary criteria for paediatric vasculitides, was followed by a EULAR/PRINTO/PRES - supported validation project divided into three main steps. Step 1: retrospective/prospective web-data collection for HSP, c-PAN, c-WG and c-TA, with age at diagnosis Ankara 2008 Consensus Conference and statistical evaluation (sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve, kappa-agreement) using as 'gold standard' the final consensus classification or original treating physician diagnosis. A total of 1183/1398 (85%) samples collected were available for analysis: 827 HSP, 150 c-PAN, 60 c-WG, 87 c-TA and 59 c-other. Prevalence, signs/symptoms, laboratory, biopsy and imaging reports were consistent with the clinical picture of the four c-vasculitides. A representative subgroup of 280 patients was blinded to the treating physician diagnosis and classified by a consensus panel, with a kappa-agreement of 0.96 for HSP (95% CI 0.84 to 1), 0.88 for c-WG (95% CI 0.76 to 0.99), 0.84 for c-TA (95% CI 0.73 to 0.96) and 0.73 for c-PAN (95% CI 0.62 to 0.84), with an overall kappa of 0.79 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84). EULAR/PRINTO/PRES propose validated classification criteria for HSP, c-PAN, c-WG and c-TA, with substantial/almost perfect agreement with the final consensus classification or original treating physician diagnosis.

  15. The Eldivan ophiolite and volcanic rocks in the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, Northern Turkey: Geochronology, whole-rock geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotope characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Chiaradia, Massimo; Marzoli, Andrea; Billor, Zeki; Marschik, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Gabbros and dolerite dikes of the Eldivan ophiolite and basaltic volcanic rocks of the ophiolitic mélange in the central part of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan (IAE) suture zone were investigated for their 40Ar/39Ar age and whole-rock-major-trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions. Based on geological and geochemical characteristics basaltic volcanic rocks in the ophiolitic mélange are subdivided into two groups (Groups I and II) with ocean island basalts or enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt characteristics, respectively. Gabbros and dolerite dikes of the Eldivan ophiolite (Groups III and IV) have instead geochemical compositions indicative of a subduction-related environment. The volcanic rocks of Group I have 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7037 and 0.7044, ƐNd(i)-DM of - 4.5 to - 5.6, and 206Pb/204Pb(i) ranging between 18.35 and 18.75. Group II volcanic rocks have higher 87Sr/86Sr(i) values (0.7049-0.7055), ƐNd(i)-DM ranging between - 5.4 and - 6.0, and 206Pb/204Pb(i) between 18.14 and 18.62. The Nd isotopic signatures and 207Pb/204Pb(i) values of the volcanic rocks of both groups point to a different source with respect to those of the Eldivan ophiolite. The low 206Pb/204Pb(i) values relative to the ophiolitic rocks seem to exclude a significant contribution from a HIMU reservoir, whereas the 207Pb/204Pb(i) values slightly above the NHRL might indicate some contribution from an EM2-type reservoir. Gabbros (Group III) of the Eldivan ophiolite and dolerite dikes (Group IV) cross-cutting the ultramafic part of the ophiolite show 87Sr/86Sr(i) between 0.7038 and 0.7053, ƐNd(i)-DM from - 2 to - 3.6 and 206Pb/204Pb(i) between 18.10 and 18.80. The gabbros yield ca. 150 Ma 40Ar/39Ar amphibole-plateau ages, which, together with the geochemical data, indicate that they were produced above subducted oceanic lithosphere in the IAE ocean domain in Late Jurassic times. Therefore, the Eldivan ophiolite in the IAE suture zone constitutes a link between the Hellenide

  16. Ankara Bölgesinde Tüketime Sunulan Bazı Gıda Maddelerinde Sentetik Boya Düzeylerinin Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülderen Yentür

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Ankara piyasasından sağlanan reçel, meyveli yoğurt, meyve suyu, alkolsüz içecek, elmalı şeker örneklerinden oluşan toplam 160 gıda maddesinde bazı sentetik boyaların saptanması amaçlanmıştır. Bütün örneklerde Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow F.C.F, Carmoisine, Ponceau 4R, Indigotin sentetik boya maddeleri yün boyama ve kâğıt kromatografisi yöntemiyle kalitatif olarak saptanmıştır. Kantitatif tayin birinci dereceden türev spektrofotometresi yöntemi kullanılarak yapılmıştır. 11 adet alkolsüz içecek örneğinde Ponceau 4R ve Carmoisine boyalarının ortalama değeri 49.2405±0.0002 mg/l olarak bulunmuştur. A ve B pastanelerine ait elmalı şekerlerde Ponceau 4R’nin ortalama düzeyleri sırasıyla 2265.3140±36.0215 mg/kg ve 584.4700±3.5281 mg/kg olarak saptanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre alkolsüz içeceklerdeki sentetik boya miktarlarının Türk Gıda Kodeksinin (TGK belirttiği sınırları aşmadığı ve elmalı şekerlerdeki Ponceau 4R miktarlarının ise Türk Gıda Kodeksinin sınır değerlerinin üzerinde olduğu bulunmuştur. Diğer gıda ve içecek örneklerinde ise sentetik boya varlığına rastlanmamıştır.

  17. Ns1 is a key protein in the vaccine composition to protect Ifnar(-/- mice against infection with multiple serotypes of African horse sickness virus.

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    Francisco de la Poza

    Full Text Available African horse sickness virus (AHSV belongs to the genus Orbivirus. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2 and NS1 proteins from AHSV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-NS1 from AHSV-4 in an heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of neutralizing antibodies specific of AHSV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific T cell responses against the virus. The vaccine elicited partial protection against an homologous AHSV-4 infection and induced cross-protection against the heterologous AHSV-9. Similarly, IFNAR((-/- mice vaccinated with an homologous prime-boost strategy with rMVA-VP2-NS1 from AHSV-4 developed neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against AHSV-4. Furthermore, the levels of immunity were very high since none of vaccinated animals presented viraemia when they were challenged against the homologous AHSV-4 and very low levels when they were challenged against the heterologous virus AHSV-9. These data suggest that the immunization with rMVA/rMVA was more efficient in protection against a virulent challenge with AHSV-4 and both strategies, DNA/rMVA and rMVA/rMVA, protected against the infection with AHSV-9. The inclusion of the protein NS1 in the vaccine formulations targeting AHSV generates promising multiserotype vaccines.

  18. El juego de baloncesto modificado como un medio recreativo para los jóvenes entre 17 y 23 años sexo masculino de la zona 24 de la circunscripción Ceferino Fernández del municipio pinar del Río

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    Marilin Páez Basabe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En los marcos específicos de la participación comunitaria esta se activa y se desarrolla en nexo con los objetivos de la política social estratégicamente diseñadas, nuestro país las investigaciones sobre las recreación física participativa surgen como una necesidad indispensable a consecuencia del proceso de desarrollo económico socia lo que ha  alcanzadas en últimos años la consolidación de la revolución cubana. La presente tesis tiene sus raíces en las contradicciones existentes entre lo ideal un disfrute pleno recreativo de los jóvenes a partir de su preferencias cubriendo en Gan medida sus necesidades , lo real la existencia de esas motivaciones  que  permitan  la  recreación física  placentera  acorde  a  los principios de la sociedad que permita elevar la calidad de vida de una forma sana  placentera  nos  proponemos  para  darle  tratamiento  al  problema presentado la utilización del juego de baloncesto como medio recreativo para los  jóvenes  entre  17  y  23  años  .Objetivos  general:  Diseñar  las  variantes manipulativas  a utilizar en  el juego de baloncesto modificado como un medio recreativo  para los jóvenes entre 17 y 23 años de edad del  sexo masculino de la zona 24 del circunscripción Ceferino Fernández  del municipio pinar del Rió Aportes  teóricos : Contribución a la  teoría: se definen los conceptos fundamentales que da origen ala investigación juego de baloncesto modificado como un medio recreativo y este lleva implicitotas definiciones a seguir en las variables  manipulativas  aporte  practico:  La  recreación  física   a  través  del deporte simplificado para la comunidad Novedad científica: La creación de una instalación de baloncesto rústica para el juego modificado dentro  de  la  comunidad  propiciando  a  diario  un  espectáculo  deportivo recreativo para todos en la actualidad. El rescate del deporte como medio de

  19. Genetic Parameters and Predictive Genetic Gain in Maize with Modified Recurrent Selection Method Parámetros Genéticos y Ganancia Genética Predicha en Maíz con el Método de Selección Recurrente Modificado

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    Anderson Afonso Doná

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified recurrent selection method suggests a less productive population to test the other population more productive and itself aiming to have more genetic gains than tradition recurrent selection method that uses one population to test the other one. The objectives of this work were to estimate the genetic components, to predict and to evaluate the genetic gains of the SynFlint and Syndent populations of maize (Zea mays L., applying a modified recurrent selection method. Two recombination cycles were carried out, with 144 Si progeny per cycle. These progenies were test crossed with SynFlint, generating a SynFlint x Syndent inter-population and a SynFlint x SynFlint intra-population. The progenies were evaluated in five environments in the first cycle of selection and in three in the second cycle of selection, in a 12 x 12 lattice. Genetic variability in plant height and ear height, ear weight and prolificacy was observed in the first cycle of selection and in plant height and ear height in the second cycle. The intensity of selection practiced in the first cycle exhausted the genetic variability in ear weight and prolificacy. It can conclude that the two maize populations evaluated do not show adequate levels of genetic variability and predicted genetics gains estimates to allow their use in breeding programs to obtain lines and superior hybrids; and the modified recurrent selection method is inefficient to increase in population performance per se for the two populations.El método de selección recurrente modificado sugiere el uso de una población menos productiva para probar otra población más productiva y a sí misma que difiere del método de selección recurrente tradicional en que usa una población para testar otra. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estimar los componentes genéticos, predecir y evaluar los avances de la ganancia genética y las poblaciones SynFlint y Syndent de maíz (Zea mays L. con un método modificado

  20. Effect of one-bottle adhesive systems on the fluoride release of a resin-modified glass ionomer Efeito dos sistemas adesivos de frasco único na liberação de flúor de um cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina

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    Linda Wang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A dhesive systems associated to resin-modified glass ionomer cements are employed for the achievement of a higher bond strength to dentin. Despite this benefit, other properties should not be damaged. This study aimed at evaluating the short-time fluoride release of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement coated with two one-bottle adhesive systems in a pH cycling system. Four combinations were investigated: G1: Vitremer (V; G2: Vitremer + Primer (VP; G3: Vitremer + Single Bond (VSB and G4: Vitremer + Prime & Bond 2.1 (VPB. SB is a fluoride-free and PB is a fluoride-containing system. After preparation of the Vitremer specimens, two coats of the selected adhesive system were carefully applied and light-cured. Specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 6 hours followed by immersion in remineralizing solution for 18 hours, totalizing the 15-day cycle. All groups released fluoride in a similar pattern, with a greater release in the beginning and decreasing with time. VP showed the greatest fluoride release, followed by V, with no statistical difference. VSB and VPB released less fluoride compared to V and VP, with statistical difference. Regardless the one-bottle adhesive system, application of coating decreased the fluoride release from the resin-modified glass ionomer cements. This suggests that this combination would reduce the beneficial effect of the restorative material to the walls around the restoration.Sistemas adesivos são associados aos cimentos de ionômero de vidro modificados por resina para a obtenção de maior resistência adesiva à dentina. Apesar deste benefício, outras propriedades não devem ser prejudicadas. Este estudo se propôs a avaliar a liberação de flúor a curto prazo de um cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina coberto com dois diferentes sistemas adesivos em um modelo de ciclagem de pH. Quatro associações foram testadas: G1: Vitremer (V; G2: Vitremer + Primer (VP; G3: Vitremer + Single

  1. Características físico-químicas de amidos modificados com permanganato de potássio/ácido lático e hipoclorito de sódio/ácido lático Physicochemical characteristics of starches modified with potassium permanganate/lactic acid and sodium hypochlorite/lactic acid

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    Roberto Marques Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amidos oxidados em elevadas concentrações produzem pastas fluidas, são estáveis à retrogradação e aplicados em indústrias de papel, têxtil e de alimentos. Esta propriedade é atribuída à presença de carboxilas, com cargas negativas e mais volumosas que as hidroxilas. Neste trabalho, amidos de batata, batata doce, mandioca, mandioquinha salsa, milho e milho ceroso foram modificados com KMnO4/ácido lático e NaOCl/ácido lático e caracterizados quanto ao teor de carboxilas, poder redutor, coloração diferencial, propriedade de expansão e propriedades viscoamilográficas, em água e tampões acetato (pH 4,0 e fosfato (pH 7,0. Amidos de milho ceroso e de mandioca modificados com KMnO4/ácido lático apresentaram elevadas expansões (25,8 e 24,1 mL.g-1, respectivamente. As pastas de amido de milho ceroso resistiram a ciclos de congelamento/descongelamento. A coloração diferencial e o teor de carboxilas não permitiram diferenciar as amostras; apenas o amido de batata reagiu com azul de metileno devido aos grupos fosfato. Quanto ao pH e acidez, as amostras apresentaram valores próximos da neutralidade, exceto o amido de milho e milho ceroso modificados com NaOCl. Amidos oxidados com KMnO4/ácido lático apresentaram picos de viscosidade inferiores aos tratados com NaOCl. Os picos de viscosidade em tampão fosfato foram inferiores aos em água e em tampão acetato.Oxidized starches produce low-viscosity pastes even in high concentrations, are stable to retrogradation and are used in the paper, textile and food industries. This property is attributed to the presence of carboxyl groups, which have negative charges and are bulkier than hydroxyls. In this work, potato, sweet potato, Peruvian carrot, cassava, corn and waxy corn starches were modified with oxidative reagents and characterized with respect to their carboxyl content, reducing power, differential dyeing, expansion power and viscographic properties, in water, acetate buffer (p

  2. Modeling precipitation of short duration by means of the modified Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model Modelagem da precipitação de curta duração por meio do modelo de pulsos retangulares de Bartlett-Lewis modificado

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    Álvaro José Back

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the mathematical modeling of rainfall of duration less than one hour using the modified Bartlett-Lewis model with six parameters. The data used were for the period October 1980 to December 2007, from recording rain gauges (pluviographs at the meteorological station of Epagri, Urussanga, south of Santa Catarina (latitude 28.31° S, longitude 48.19 ° W. Based on simulations of series with 100 years of data it can be concluded that: the adjustment of the parameters of the modified Bartlett-Lewis model enables the simulation of rain at intervals as small as 5 minutes of duration, preserving the statistical properties of precipitation over various intervals of aggregation in time. In general there was a tendency toward overestimation of the probability of dry periods and underestimation of the covariance for intervals of 24 hours, especially in summer. The total annual rainfall simulated for all time intervals examined remains within the confidence interval of 95%.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a modelagem matemática da precipitação pluviométrica de duração inferior a uma hora por meio do modelo de Bartlett-Lewis modificado com seis parâmetros. Foi utilizada a série de dados pluviográficos do período de outubro de 1980 a dezembro de 2007 da estação meteorológica da Epagri, Urussanga, Sul de Santa Catarina (latitude 28,31º S, longitude 48,19º W. Com base nas simulações de séries com 100 anos de dados pode-se concluir que: o ajuste dos parâmetros do modelo de Bartlett-Lewis modificado possibilita a simulação de chuvas com intervalos de duração de até 5 minutos preservando as propriedades estatísticas da precipitação em vários níveis de agregação temporal. De forma geral observou-se a tendência de superestimativa da probabilidade dos períodos serem secos e subestimativa da covariância para intervalos de 24 horas, principalmente no verão e que os totais anuais de

  3. Determinação da constante cinética de cristalização não-isotérmica de polipropilenos modificados com ácido acrílico e anidrido maleico Determination of the non-isothermal crystallization rate constant of grafted maleic anhydride and grafted acrylic acid polypropylenes

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    Benjamim de M. Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito do presente trabalho foi testar a validade do Método da Curva Mestre para a determinação da constante de cristalização não-isotérmica de polipropilenos modificados com anidrido maleico e ácido acrílico. Experimentos de cristalização não-isotérmica foram realizados a diversas taxas de resfriamento por meio de Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC. Para serem usadas no Método da Curva Mestre, as curvas originais obtidas em DSC foram corrigidas em termos da defasagem de temperatura entre a amostra polimérica e o forno do equipamento. A equação de Nakamura e a constante de cristalização determinada foram utilizadas para simular as curvas de cristalinidade relativa em função da temperatura para as diversas taxas de resfriamento. As curvas simuladas apresentaram boa concordância com as curvas experimentais para ambas as amostras de polipropileno modificado, mostrando que o Método da Curva Mestre pode ser empregado com sucesso para este polímero.The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the Master Curve Approach in the determination of the non-isothermal crystallization constant, for samples of two modified polypropylenes (grafted maleic anhydride and grafted acrylic acid polypropylenes. Non-isothermal crystallization experiments were carried out in a differential scanning calorimeter, DSC, at several cooling rates. The original DSC curves were corrected for the temperature lag between the sample and the DSC furnace. The Nakamura equation and the non-isothermal crystallization constant obtained by the Master Curve Approach were employed to simulate the curves of relative crystallinity as a function of temperature, for the different cooling rates. The generated curves presented good agreement with the experimental data for both samples of grafted polypropylene, showing that the Master Curve Approach can be successfully employed for these polymers.

  4. Tradução para a língua portuguesa e adaptação cultural do questionário Rowe modificado para atletas arremessadores Translation to portuguese language and cross-cultural adaptation of the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes

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    Freddy Beretta Marcondes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar a tradução e adaptação cultural do questionário Rowe modificado para atletas arremessadores. MÉTODOS: O processo de tradução e adaptação cultural envolveu as etapas de tradução, síntese, retrotradução e revisão pelo grupo de tradução. Foi então criada uma versão pré-final do questionário, sendo os domínios "função" e "dor" aplicados a 20 atletas que realizam movimentos de arremesso e que sofreram lesões do tipo SLAP no ombro dominante, e os domínios "teste de compressão ativa e teste de apreensão anterior" e "mobilidade" foram aplicados a 15 profissionais da saúde. RESULTADOS: Durante o processo de tradução foram realizadas pequenas alterações no questionário com o objetivo de adaptá-lo à cultura brasileira, sem alterar a semântica e o conceito idiomático originalmente descritos. CONCLUSÕES: O questionário foi facilmente compreendido pelos sujeitos do estudo, sendo possível obter a versão brasileira do questionário Rowe modificado para avaliar a capacidade funcional de atletas arremessadores que passaram por tratamento cirúrgico da lesão do tipo SLAP.OBJECTIVE: Study was to translate and culturally adapt the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes. METHODS: The translation and cultural adaptation process initially involved the stages of transla tion, synthesis, back-translation, and revision by the Translation Group. It was than created the pre-final version of the question naire, being the areas "function" and "pain" applied to 20 athletes that perform overhead movements and that suffered SLAP lesions in the dominant shoulder and the areas "active compression test and anterior apprehension test" and "motion" were applied to 15 health professionals. RESULTS: During the translation process there were made little modifications in the questionnaire in order to adapt it to Brazilian culture, without changing the semantics and the idiomatic concept originally described. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Efeito de sêmen resfriado e diluído em Beltsville Thawing Solution, Zorlesco-modificado e BTZOR no desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas suínas inseminadas Reproductive performance of swine females inseminated with cooled and diluted semen In Beltsville Thawing Solution, modified-Zorlesco and BTZOR

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    Ana Maria Martins Alves Vasconcelos

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 83 fêmeas, inseminadas com ejaculados de três cachaços, diluídos em Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, Zorlesco-modificado (ZOR e BTZOR (meio desenvolvido na Universidade Estadual de Maringá, sendo 28 fêmeas inseminadas com o diluente BTS, 28 com ZOR e 27 com BTZOR, com o objetivo de estudar os índices de retorno ao cio e de parição e os números médios de leitões nascidos e nascidos vivos das fêmeas inseminadas. As fêmeas inseminadas com ZOR apresentaram melhor índice de parição (92,9%, quando comparadas às inseminadas com BTZOR (70,4% e BTS (67,9%. O índice de retorno ao cio foi menor nas fêmeas inseminadas com ZOR (7,14% em comparação às inseminadas com BTZOR (29,6% e BTS (32,14%, não tendo diferença entre o BTS e o BTZOR. Concluiu-se que os melhores resultados quanto ao desempenho reprodutivo das fêmeas ocorreram nas inseminações realizadas com sêmen diluído em Zorlesco-modificado.Eighty-three swine females were inseminated with semen from three boars, diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, Modified-Zorlesco (ZOR and BTZOR (a medium developed at Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Twenty eight females were inseminated with BTS, 28 with ZOR and 27 with BTZOR, with the objective to evaluate the indexes of heat return and farrowing rate, and the averages numbers of born piglets and born alive piglets from the inseminated females. The females inseminated with ZOR showed the best farrowing rate index (92.9% when compared to those inseminated with BTZOR (70,4% and with BTS (67.9%. The lowest heat return rate was from inseminated females with ZOR (7.14% when compared to BTZOR (29.6% and BTS (32.14%, and there was no difference between BTS and BTZOR. The best reproductive performance results were observed for artificial inseminations with semen diluted in Modified-Zorlesco diluents.

  6. A problemática dos organismos geneticamente modificados e a formação científica do cidadão comum: um estudo com manuais escolares de Ciências Naturais do 9º ano adotados em Portugal

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    Luís Dourado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das aplicações da biotecnologia são os organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM, os quais têm uma utilização cada vez maior, apresentando vantagens, mas, também, sendo referidos como organismos potencialmente perigosos. Correspondendo a esses factos, os manuais de ciências dedicam algumas das suas páginas à biotecnologia, sendo os OGMs um dos aspetos focados. Nesse sentido e considerando a importância que o manual escolar tem na educação em ciências, procedemos a um estudo que envolveu a análise dos manuais escolares de ciências naturais do 9º ano adotados em Portugal, na parte respeitante aos OGMs. Neste estudo verificou-se que os manuais nem sempre apresentam a informação correta e necessária, de forma adequada, e que nem sempre lhe dão o devido destaque. Dado que a nossa investigação revela a existência de falhas ao nível dos manuais, as conclusões obtidas podem contribuir para uma melhoria dos mesmos e, consequentemente, da qualidade da educação em ciências.

  7. Remnants of the Rheic SSZ Oceanic Lithosphere (320 Ma) Within the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in NE Turkey: New Geochemical and Re-Os Isotope Data From the Rehafiye-Erzincan Ophiolite

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    Uysal, Ibrahim; Dilek, Yildirim; Sarifakioglu, Ender; Meisel, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    We report on new major-trace-REE and Re-Os isotope compositions and mineral chemistry data from upper mantle peridotites and ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks in the Rehafiye-Erzincan ophiolite (REO) in NE Turkey, and discuss their siginificance for the tectonic evolution of various oceanic tracts in the eastern Mediterranean region. The REO is part of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone (IAESZ) between the Gondwana-derived Tauride-South Armenian ribbon continent to the south and the Rhodope-Pontide micro-continent to the north. It shows bidivergent thrusting along its southern and northern boundaries, resting tectonically on the margins of these continental masses. The IAESZ includes fragments of oceanic lithosphere with WPB, MORB, IAT-Boninite, OIB and LIP affinities that range in age from the Permo-Triassic to the latest Crecateous, although it is commonly interpreted as Neotethyan in origin. The REO consists of upper mantle peridotites including harzburgite with dunite bands/lenses and crosscutting dolerite dikes, ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks making up a transitional Moho, isotropic gabbro, plagiogranites, and sheeted dikes. Extrusive rocks are missing in the ophiolite sequence but occur as blocks of pillow basalts in an ophiolitic mélange structurally beneath the REO. We have identified two types of upper mantle peridotites, abyssal and SSZ, in the REO. Less depleted, clinopyroxene-rich mantle harzburgites have higher concentrations of Al (1.75-2.12 wt.% Al2O3) and Ca (0.43-1.53 wt.% CaO) and contain spinel phases with Cr# ranging between 33.2 and 37.8. These abyssal peridotites represent a mantle residue of low degrees of partial melting of primitive upper mantle during MOR-type oceanic crust formation. Some peridotite samples, on the other hand, are highly depleted in clinopyroxene and display extremely low contents of Al (0.16-0.89 wt.% Al2O3) and Ca (0.07-0.77 wt.% CaO), characteristic of SSZ peridotites. Spinel phases in these samples have Cr# ranging

  8. Compressive strength of resin-modified glass ionomer restorative material: effect of P/L ratio and storage time Resistência à compressão de ionômeros de vidro modificados por resina: efeito da relação P/L e tempos de armazenagem

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    Mônica Aratani

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the compressive strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement Fuji II LC and Vitremer, in powder/liquid ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, at three periods (24 hours, 7 and 28 days of storage in distilled water at 37ºC. For each material, P/L ratio and storage time, 5 cylindrical specimens were prepared, with 4mm diameter and 6mm height, in silicon moulds. Specimens were light-cured for 40 seconds at each extremity, removed from the moulds and laterally light-cured (perpendicular to long axis for 40 seconds, protected as recommended by the manufacturers and immersed for the time tested. The specimens were submitted to compressive strength testing in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min until failure. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%, and showed that the compressive strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement was reduced when P/L ratio was reduced and that the storage in water had little influence on compressive strength.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência à compressão dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro modificados por resina Vitremer e Fuji II LC, nas relações pó/líquido 1:1, 1:2 e 1:3, por três períodos de armazenagem (24 horas, 7 e 28 dias em água destilada a 37 ºC. Para cada material, relação pó/líquido e tempo de armazenagem, cinco corpos-de-prova cilíndricos foram preparados com 4 mm de diâmetro por 6 mm de altura, em moldes de silicone. Os corpos-de-prova foram fotoativados por 40 segundos, em cada extremidade, removidos dos moldes, fotoativado lateralmente (perpendicular ao longo eixo por 40 segundos, protegidos conforme as instruções dos fabricantes e imersos pelo tempo de teste. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos à compressão em uma Instron, à velocidade de 1,0 mm/min até a falha. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey (5%, e mostraram que a resistência à compressão do cimento de ionômero de

  9. Estudo da validade e confiabilidade intra e interobservador da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado em indivíduos com lombalgia Study of validity and intra and inter-observer reliability of modified-modified Schöber test in subjects with low-back pain

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    Christiane de Souza Guerino Macedo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Em pacientes com lombalgia, mensura-se a amplitude de movimento (ADM da coluna lombar por meio da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado (MTSM, mas suas propriedades psicométricas não são comprovadas para uso clínico. Este estudo verificou a validade e confiabilidade intra e interobservador do MTSM em indivíduos com lombalgia, comparando as medidas da ADM com as obtidas por meio de radiografia, método considerado padrão-ouro. Participaram 20 voluntários com lombalgia, de ambos os sexos, funcionários de um Hospital Universitário. O MTSM foi aplicado duas vezes por dois avaliadores. As medidas obtidas pelo teste e por radiografia foram comparadas usando o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson, obtendo-se r=0,14, ou seja, correlação fraca. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (CCI dos MTSM intra-observador foi 0,96 (IC 95% 0,91;0,98 e interobservador 0,93 (IC 95% 0,84;0,97, indicando alta confiabilidade; o teste de Bland & Altman mostrou alta concordância intra e interobservador, com valores de -0,21 e -0,28, respectivamente. Embora tenha sido encontrada alta confiabilidade intra e interobservador na aplicação da versão modificada do teste de Schöber modificado, este apresentou baixa validade para medir a ADM da coluna lombar, quando comparado ao padrão-ouro.In patients with low-back pain the lumbar spine range of motion (ROM is often measured by the modified version of the modified Schöber test (MMST, but its psychometric properties have not been ascertained for clinical use. The purpose here was to verify intra and inter-observer validity and reliability of the MMST in subjects with low-back pain, and to compare obtained ROM measures to those obtained by radiography, taken as gold standard. The study involved 20 subjects with chronic low-back pain, of both sexes, employees at a university hospital. The MMST was applied twice by two examiners each. The Pearson correlation coefficient found when comparing

  10. Caracterización físico-mecánica, térmica y morfológica de polímeros de redes interpenetradas con base en poliuretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón modificados/polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA

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    Manuel F. Valero

    Full Text Available El aceite de ricino se modificó por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Paralelamente, se utilizó la reacción de glucosilación con glicerol para dividir el almidón en unidades monosacáridos. El glucósido obtenido reaccionó por transesterificación con el aceite modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Se determinó el índice de hidroxilo de los poliol-glucósidos en función del contenido de pentaeritritol y almidón utilizados en la síntesis. Se sintetizaron redes interpenetradas de polímero de manera simultánea (SINs con diferentes relaciones en peso poliuretano/PMMA de 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 y 50/50. Para la síntesis de la red de poliuretano (PU se utilizaron los poliol-glucósidos y diisocianato de isoforona (IPDI o con una relación NCO/OH = 1 y para la síntesis de la red de polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA se utilizó peróxido de benzoílo como agente iniciador y dimetacrilato de etilenglicol como agente entrecruzante. Los SINs se caracterizaron por sus propiedades fisicomecánicas como resistencia al ataque químico, dureza, resistencia a la tensión y elongación de ruptura. La estabilidad térmica de los SINs se determinó usando análisis termogravimétrico (TGA. La morfología de superficie se determinó usando microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM y mostró una morfología de dos fases para todos los SINs.

  11. Ankara’daki Üniversite ve Halk Kütüphanelerinde Çalışan Kütüphanecilerin İş Doyumları Üzerine Bir Araştırma =A Research on Job Satisfaction of Librarians Employed at University and Public Libraries in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz, Bülent

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kişinin yaptığı işten hoşnut olması anlamına gelen iş doyumu genelde ve kütüphanecilik alanı açısından işteki başarı ve verimliliği etkileyen, aynı zamanda insanın yaşamdan doyum almasına önemli katkıda bulunan çok boyutlu bir olgudur. Bu çalışmada, öncelikle iş doyumu hakkında genel ve kütüphanecilik temelli kuramsal bilgi verilmiştir. Daha sonra yapılan araştırma sonuçları değerlendirilmiş ve konu ile ilgili öneriler sunulmuştur. Bu çalışmaya konu olan araştırma Ankara'da bulunan üniversite ve halk kütüphanelerinde çalışan kütüphaneciler üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ankara'daki on üniversite kütüphanesinden 69, altı halk kütüphanesinden 20 olmak üzere toplam 89 kütüphaneciye Mayıs 2009 tarihinde anket uygulanmıştır. Anket için Spector'un "İş Doyumu Ölçeği" temel alınmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen sonuçlara göre, üniversite ve halk kütüphanelerinde çalışan kütüphanecilerin genelde iş doyumları arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark bulunmadığı, ancak, bazı unsurlar arasında anlamlı farklılıklar olduğu saptanmıştır.Job satisfaction, which signifi es an individual's happiness in his/her occupation, is a multidimensional case that aff ects success and productivity at work, in general terms and in the fi eld of librarianship. This article off ers primarily general information on job satisfaction and librarianship-based theoretical information. It also evaluates the conclusions of a questionnaire and off ers related suggestions. The research focused on the librarians employed at university and public libraries in Ankara. A questionnaire was administered in May 2009 to 69 university librarians and 20 others employed by public libraries, bringing the total to 89 professional men and women. The questionnaire has been based on the Spector's "Job Satisfaction Survey". According to the conclusions that may be derived from the research

  12. Load Flow Analysis of a 15Mva Injection Substation | Oshevire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This load flow helps to determine the state of the power system for a given load and generation distribution. This paper presents the computer aided power flow analysis of the existing Otovwodo33/11kV distribution network using the ETAP 7.0 software. The result showed that out of 91load feeders of which 6 is out of service, ...

  13. Poli(Álcool Vinílico Modificado com Cadeias Hidrocarbônicas: Avaliação do Balanço Hidrófilo/Lipófilo Chemical Modification of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol: Evaluation of Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabele B. Aranha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpolímeros de poli(álcool vinílico foram sintetizados por meio de reação de esterificação do PVA parcialmente hidrolisado com cloretos de ácidos graxos de comprimento de cadeia diferentes. O objetivo da síntese foi obter polímeros à base de PVA com pequenas variações no balanço hidrófilo/lipófilo e nas propriedades interfaciais de suas soluções. A modificação foi acompanhada por ressonância magnética nuclear de hidrogênio e as propriedades foram avaliadas pela variação na solubilidade e na tensão superficial. Foram obtidos polímeros modificados com baixos teores de grupamento hidrófobo. Testes de tensão superficial, realizados com os produtos solúveis em água, não mostraram variação dessa propriedade. A solubilidade dos produtos diminuiu sensivelmente mesmo para pequenas incorporações de grupamento hidrófobo. Foi observado que, para uma mesma massa, segmentos hidrófobos menores, distribuídos ao longo da cadeia, promovem maior modificação na solubilidade.Poly(vinyl alcohol terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of ¹H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups.

  14. Nuevo método gravimétrico, esencialmente modificado, para la determinación de sílice en silicatos atacables por ácido, basado en los nuevos conocimientos descubiertos en el estudio del comportamiento de los geles de sílice deshidratados en soluciones ácid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goma, F.

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableSe investigan, en primer lugar, las causas de error en la determinación de sílice que provienen de las condiciones externas al método en s% como son: la homogeneización, el estado de la muestra en el momento de la pesada para el análisis, y la influencia que tiene el contenido de los álcalis, parcialmente volátiles, sobre la determinación de la cantidad de materia fija después de la calcinación. Se establecen las condiciones previas del tratamiento de la muestra, según su naturaleza, para obtener siempre resultados reproducibles. Un estudio sistemático del comportamiento de los geles de sílice, obtenidos en las mismas condiciones que los que se producen en el análisis, ha permitido explicar, por primera vez, las causas que producen las llamadas "segundas sílices" y permite ver que el paso de sílice a la solución es debido a una disolución verdadera y no a un fenómeno coloidal. La aplicación al procedimiento clásico, de todos estos hechos experimentales hallados en estas investigaciones, ha permitido establecer un método simplificado y esencialmente modificado, que se describe. Se compara su alcance con los actuales métodos de mayor autoridad y se concluye que, con una sola extracción, se consigue: una recuperación prácticamente total de sílice y conocer la cantidad ''mínima y constante" de sílice que pasa al filtrado, con lo que se ha conseguido, además de la simplificación del método, un mayor grado de exactitud y un margen de reproducibilidad que es más estrecho en cualquier caso y cuando la sílice es componente mayoritario, como en los clínkeres y cementos portland, se estima es ± 0,05.

  15. Quantitative toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection by a modified Kato Katz test using Kinyoun staining (KKK in ME49 strain experimentally infected cats Detecção quantitativa de oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii, por um teste modificado de Kato Katz usando coloração de Kinyoun (KKK, em gatos infectados experimentalmente com a cepa ME49

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Regina Meireles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We detected Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in feces of experimentally infected cats, using a Kato Katz approach with subsequent Kinyoun staining. Animals serologically negative to T. gondii were infected orally with 5x10² mice brain cysts of ME49 strain. Feces were collected daily from the 3rd to the 30th day after challenge. Oocysts were detected by qualitative sugar flotation and the quantitative modified Kato Katz stained by Kinyoun (KKK. In the experimentally infected cats, oocysts were detected from the 7th to 15th day through sugar flotation technique, but oocysts were found in KKK from the 6th to 16th day, being sensitive for a larger period, with permanent documentation. The peak of oocysts excretion occurred between the 8th to 11th days after challenge, before any serological positive result. KKK could be used in the screening and quantification of oocysts excretion in feces of suspected animals, with reduced handling of infective material, decreasing the possibility of environmental and operator contamination.Detectamos oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii em fezes de gatos experimentalmente infectados, usando a abordagem de Kato Katz, com subseqüente coloração pelo método de Kinyoun. Animais sorologicamente negativos ao T. gondii foram infectados por via oral com 5x10² cistos da cepa ME49 de cérebros de camundongos. Fezes foram colhidas diariamente a partir do 3º até o 30º dia pós-infecção. Oocistos foram detectados por centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose qualitativa e pelo método quantitativo de Kato Katz modificado corado pela técnica de Kinyoun (KKK. Em gatos experimentalmente infectados, oocistos foram detectados do 7º ao 15º dia pela técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose, mas oocistos foram detectados do 6º ao 16º dia pelo KKK, sendo sensível por um período maior, com documentação permanente. O pico da excreção de oocistos ocorreu entre 8º a 11º dia pós-infecção, antes de resultado sorológico positivo

  16. Electrodos modificados y sus aplicaciones en electrocatálisis

    OpenAIRE

    Völker, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    La investigación básica y aplicada en electrodos funcionalizados ha ido incrementándose en los últimos 30 años debido a su diversidad de aplicaciones en catálisis, óptica, electrónica, protección contra la corrosión, etc. Existen diversas maneras en las cuales se puede modificar un electrodo, ya sea por deposición de películas por spin o dip coating, adsorción de monocapas autoensambladas, drop casting, autoensamblado capa‐por‐capa, etc. En esta tesis estudiamos la modificación química contro...

  17. Adjetivos modificados con per- y prae- en Tácito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Villalba Álvarez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Latinity it is a common opinion the intensive force of some preverbs like per- or prae-, when they form modified adjectives (seuerus-perseuerus. This paper tries to analyse such type of adjectives in the works of Tacitus. After explaining the origin of these formations (seemingly proceeding from the sermo plebeius, and their different phases of creation in Latin literature, we review aH the forms found in Tacitus (eight with per- and seventeen with prae-, in order to examine their superlative force, their uis intentiua.

  18. Effects of the high-flow modified to-and-fro anesthestic system on blood gas and respiratory rate in halothane anesthetized horses Efeitos do sistema anestésico de alto fluxo "to-and-fro" modificado sobre os gases sanguíneos e frequência respiratória em cavalos anestesiados com halotano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy adult horses male or female, mean body weight of 424±44.1kg, were anesthetized with romifidine, tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane for 60 minutes using a modified to-and-fro rebreathing anesthetic system, added of 1 liter mechanical dead space. The gas flow rate was 10 liters oxygen/minute during all inhalation anesthetic time. Variables analysed were arterial blood pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, and respiratory rate (RR. The horses were allowed to breath spontaneously, and were positioned in right lateral recumbency the arterial O2 values were significantly higher during halothane anesthesia when compared to the baseline values, and significantly lower after induction with tiletamine/zolazepam although arterial hypoxemia were not present. The arterial PaCO2 values were significantly higher from baseline values during halothane anesthesia occurring arterial hypercapnia and mild respiratory acidosis. The arterial pH changes paralleled the changes in PaCO2. Respiratory rate values were significantly lower during halothane anesthesia when compared to baseline values. All values remained within accepted range for lateral recumbent spontaneously breathing anesthetized horses.Dez cavalos adultos e sadios machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 424±44,1kg, foram anestesiados com romifidina, tiletamina/zolazepam e halotano por 60 minutos, sendo utilizado um sisterna anestésico reinalatório "to-and-fro" modificado pela adição de um litro de espaço morto mecânico. O fluxo de gás diluente foi de 10 litros de O2/minuto durante o período de anestesia com halotano. As variáveis estudadas no sangue arterial foram o pH, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pressão parcial de oxigênio (PO2 e freqüência respiratória (RR. Os cavalos foram mantidos sob respiração espontânea e posicionados em decúbito lateral direito. Os valores arteriais de oxigênio estiveram

  19. Avaliação físico-química de bolo de chocolate com coberturas comestíveis à base de gelatina, ácido esteárico, amido modificado ou cera de carnaúba Physical and chemical evaluation of chocolate cake covered with gelatin, stearic acid, modified starch or "carnaúba" wax edible icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Coberturas comestíveis biodegradáveis são uma alternativa às embalagens sintéticas, que causam preocupações ambientais. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de diferentes tipos de coberturas sobre propriedades físico-químicas de bolo de chocolate durante a estocagem, em comparação com bolo sem cobertura (CO e bolo sem cobertura embalado em polipropileno (EMB. As seguintes coberturas foram aplicadas sobre os bolos: 10% gelatina (GE, 10% gelatina com 10% ácido esteárico (GE + AE, 18% cera de carnaúba (CE, 10% amido modificado (AM e fondant (FO. Os bolos foram avaliados durante 10 dias de estocagem. FO e EMB apresentaram menor perda de massa, enquanto todos os demais tratamentos apresentaram valores superiores a CO. GE, GE + AE e EMB apresentaram a menor redução da atividade de água, enquanto CE e CO apresentaram a maior redução. As superfícies dos bolos recobertos estavam mais duras que as de CO e EMB. Os maiores valores para dureza e mastigabilidade foram encontrados para CE e CO e os menores, para EMB, GE e GE + AE. Em relação à cor, GE + AE foi diferente dos demais tratamentos, devido à presença do ácido esteárico. Os resultados indicam que a perda de massa dos bolos pode ser atribuída também à perda de água das coberturas.Biodegradable edible icing or frosting is an alternative to synthetic packaging that causes environmental concerns. This work evaluated the effect of different types of frosting on the physical-chemical properties of chocolate cake during storage in comparison to cakes without icing or frosting (C and cakes without frosting packed in polypropylene (CP. The following frostings were applied to the cakes: 10% gelatin (GE, 10% gelatin with 10% stearic acid (GE+SA, 18% "carnaúba" wax (CW, 10% modified starch (MS, and fondant (FO. The cakes were analyzed during 10 days of storage. FO and CP presented the lowest mass loss while all other treatments presented higher values than C. GE, GE+SA, and CP presented

  20. Cementos óseos acrílicos modificados con hidroxiapatita/acetato de vinilo: caracterización mecánica, termoanálitica y bioactividad in vitro Acrylic bone cement modified whit hydroxiapatyte/vinyl acetate: mechanical, thermoanalytical characterization and in vitro bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayrim B. Guerra

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los cementos óseos se han convertido en los últimos años en biomateriales de gran utilidad en la fijación de prótesis y en la reconstrucción del hueso. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar las propiedades termoanalíticas tales como temperatura máxima de polimerización y tiempo de fraguado en cementos óseos acrílicos modificados con hidroxiapatita/acetato de vinilo, determinar la resistencia a la compresión axial y realizar ensayos de bioactividad in vitro. Diferentes contenidos de acetato de vinilo fueron incorporados en cementos óseos acrílicos cargados todos con un 30 % de hidroxiapatita CORALINA® HAP-200. Las propiedades mecánicas y los parámetros de curado fueron evaluados cumpliendo lo establecido en la Norma ISO 5833 descrita para cementos óseos acrílicos. Se determinaron los parámetros termoanalíticos, obteniéndose tiempos de fraguados entre 3 y 6 minutos y los valores de temperaturas máximas de polimerización oscilan entre 66 y 88 °C. Se obtuvo formulaciones con valores de resistencia a la compresión superiores a lo establecido en la Norma ISO 5833. Se demostró la bioactividad de las formulaciones mediante la inmersión de las muestras en fluido biológico simulado, observándose en la superficie de las mismas la nucleación y el crecimiento de cristales con morfología similar a las apatitas biológicas.Bone cements have become biomaterials of great utility in the prosthesis fixation and as substitutes to the bone. The objective of this study is to evaluate the thermo analytical properties such as setting time and peak temperature of polymerization of acrylic bone cement modified with hydroxyapatite/vinyl acetate, to determine the compression strengths and perform in vitro bioactivity tests. Amounts of vinyl acetate component were incorporated in different percentages in acrylic bone cements, all loaded with 30 % of hydroxyapatite CORALINA® HAP-200. Curing parameters and mechanical properties were

  1. Confiabilidade e validade de um dinamômetro isométrico modificado na avaliação do desempenho muscular em indivíduos com reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior Reliability and validity of a modified isometric dynamometer in the assessment of muscular performance in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antunes de Vasconcelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a confiabilidade e validade de um dinamômetro isométrico modificado (DIM na avaliação dos déficits no desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho em indivíduos normais e com reconstrução do LCA. MÉTODOS: Foram convidados 60 voluntários do sexo masculino a participar do estudo, divididos em três grupos de 20 indivíduos: grupo controle (GC, grupo com reconstrução do LCA com tendão patelar (GTP e grupo com reconstrução do LCA com tendões flexores (GTF. Todos os indivíduos realizaram teste isométrico dos extensores e flexores do joelho no DIM; os déficits de força muscular coletados foram comparados posteriormente com os testes realizados no Biodex System 3 operando no modo isométrico e isocinético nas velocidades de 60º/s e 180º /s. Foram realizados cálculos de correlação intraclasse ICC para avaliar a confiabilidade do DIM, cálculos da especificidade, sensibilidade e coeficiente de concordância Kappa, respectivamente, para avaliar a validade do DIM em detectar déficits musculares e comparações intragrupos e intergrupos na realização dos quatro testes de força utilizando-se do método ANOVA. RESULTADOS: O DIM demonstrou excelente confiabilidade teste-reteste e validade na avaliação do desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho. Na comparação intergrupos. o GTP demonstrou déficits significativamente maiores dos extensores comparados com os grupos GC e GTF. CONCLUSÃO: Dinamômetros isométricos conectados em equipamentos de mecanoterapia podem ser uma alternativa para coletar dados referentes a déficits no desempenho muscular dos extensores e flexores do joelho em indivíduos com reconstrução do LCA.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a modified isometric dynamometer (MID in performance deficits of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in normal individuals and in those with ACL reconstructions. METHODS: Sixty male

  2. Polysaccharide production in batch process of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C comparing Frantz, modified Frantz and Cartlin 6 cultivation media Produção de polissacarídeo em processo de cultivo descontínuo de Neisseria meningitidis sorogrupo C comparando os meios de cultivo Frantz, Frantz modificado e Catlin 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fossa da Paz

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide of N. meningitidis serogroup C constitutes the antigen for the vaccine against meningitis. The goal of this work was to compare three cultivation media for production of this polysaccharide: Frantz, modified Frantz medium (with replacement of glucose by glycerol, and Catlin 6 (a synthetic medium with glucose. The comparative criteria were based on the final polysaccharide concentrations and the yield coefficient cell/polysaccharide (Y P/X. The kinetic parameters: pH, substrate consumption and cell growth were also determined. For this purpose, 9 cultivation runs were carried out in a 80 L New Brunswick bioreactor, under the following conditions: 42 L of culture medium, temperature 35ºC, air flow 5 L/min, agitation frequency 120 rpm and vessel pressure 6 psi, without dissolved oxygen or pH controls. The cultivation runs were divided in three groups, with 3 repetitions each. The cultivation using the Frantz medium presented the best results: average of final polysaccharide concentration = 0.134 g/L and Y P/X=0.121, followed by Catlin 6 medium, with results of 0.095 g/L and 0.067 respectively. Considering the principal advantages in the use of the synthetic medium, i.e. facilitation of a cultivation and purification steps of the polysaccharide production process, there is a possibility that in the near future, Catlin 6 will replace the traditional Frantz medium.O polissacarídeo de N. meningitidis sorogrupo C constitui o antígeno para a elaboração da vacina contra a meningite C. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar três meios de cultivo para produção desse polissacarídeo: Frantz, Frantz modificado (com a substituição de glicose por glicerol e Catlin 6 (meio sintético com glicose. Os critérios comparativos foram baseados nas concentrações finais de polissacarídeo e o fator de conversão célula/polissacarídeo (Y P/X. Também foram determinados os parâmetros cinéticos de pH, consumo de substrato e crescimento

  3. Relatório Modificado de auditoria: análise pré e pós-convergência aos padrões internacionais de contabilidade = Audit Modified Report: analysis pre and post-convergence to internacional accounting standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalene Olivia Silvestre

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Em uma realidade negocial internacionalizada, a divulgação de informações adequadas, transparentes e comparáveis se tornou essencial, concedendo grande importância às normas internacionais de contabilidade. A realização de auditoria independente e a consequente emissão de seu relatório conferem às demonstrações contábeis maior credibilidade. Assim, o presente estudo tem como objetivo verificar quais são os principais motivos que ocasionam a emissão de relatório de auditoria independente (RAI modificado, nas empresas listadas no segmento tradicional da BM&FBOVESPA, no período pré e pós-convergência aos padrões internacionais de contabilidade. Para atender ao objetivo, analisou-se os RAI emitidos entre os anos de 2004 a 2007, período pré-convergência, e os anos de 2010 a 2013, período pós-convergência. Foram coletados os RAI das 250 empresas listadas no segmento tradicional da BM&FBOVESPA, das quais 184 apresentaram os RAI referentes a todos os exercícios, foco do estudo, totalizando 1.472 relatórios. Do total dos RAI analisados 206 apresentaram modificações. Sobre esses, realizou-se análise dos motivos que justificaram a modificação e buscou-se a relação existente entre os motivadores do período pós-convergência e as normas internacionais. Os principais resultados demonstram que os motivos predominantes no período pré-convergência são investimentos e tributos; já no período pós-convergência são investimentos e continuidade. Quanto à relação entre os motivadores do período pós-convergência e as alterações trazidas pelas normas internacionais, verificou-se que do total de 213 motivadores, 36 referem-se às alterações, principalmente devido a teste de impairment, arrendamento mercantil, intangível e empréstimos e financiamentos.In an internationalized negotiating reality, the disclosure of suitable, transparent and comparable information has become essential, providing great importance to

  4. The Immunogenicity of the Tumor-Associated Antigen α-Fetoprotein Is Enhanced by a Fusion with a Transmembrane Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the ability of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vector to induce an immune response against a well-tolerated self-antigen. Methods. rMVA vectors expressing different form of α-fetoprotein (AFP were produced and characterized. Naïve mice were vaccinated with MVA vectors expressing the AFP antigen in either a secreted, or a membrane-bound, or an intracellular form. The immune response was monitored by an IFNΓ ELISpot assay and antibody detection. Results. Vaccination with the membrane-associated form of AFP induced a stronger CD8+ T-cell response compared to the ones obtained with the MVA encoding the secreted or the intracellular forms of AFP. Moreover, the vaccination with the membrane-bound AFP elicited the production of AFP-specific antibodies. Conclusions. The AFP transmembrane form is more immunogenic. Expressing a membrane-bound form in the context of an MVA vaccination could enhance the immunogenicity of a self-antigen.

  5. flying mammalian fauna of Ampijoroa, Ankara- fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG). Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. BP 3391. Antananarivo, 101 ..... occurring there is essential to ensure appropriate management for both conservation and tourism, such as efficient field guid- ing. Thus, further research on the biodiversity of ...

  6. Performance Appraisal at Four and Five Star Hotels: Ankara Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Arslantürk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, tourism establishments developing human resources and motivating will make it easier to reach their goals and those who cannot mange to do this will be obsolete in the ever-changing nature of the tourism business. The most important feature of the tourism sector is that it is based on human element and it s labor-intensive. Hence, human element is of great importance. This being the case, the customer satisfaction in accommodation establishments will be greatly dependent on the success of the personnel. Performance appraisal in this regard is a tool used to measure the performance of the employees in establishing job satisfaction and enhancing success. Performance appraisal indicates the performance of the individuals and gives insights as to what should be done to improve the performance. As well as promoting the communication between the employees and the establishment. From the perspectives of the managers, it paves the way for an efficient information flow about the performance of the personnel and makes job planning more rationally. This study first examines performance and performance appraisal. Then, through a field study, deficiencies in the application of performance appraisal were determined in the four and five star hotel establishments. According to the results obtained, some suggestions were put forward.

  7. A sociological study of adolescent health in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoğlu, M Aytül; Ecevit, Mehmet C

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to explore the associations between socio-demographic factors and subjective health complaints of adolescents in Turkey. A sample of 248 students in the 8th-grade from four primary schools with different socio-economic family backgrounds completed a questionnaire on their socio-demographic characteristics and health complaints. Findings revealed that adolescents are not homogeneous in terms of their socio-economical backgrounds and infra-structural living conditions. The distribution of illnesses/complaints compared among schools groups, only catching cold was significantly different. Factor analysis results showed that there are three groups of diseases that differ from one another namely psychological, physical and other. Adolescents' perception about their general health varied among the four schools. According to the regression analysis between three factor groups of illness/complains and socio-demographic and personal characteristics of students, only number of children and working status of fathers showed a significant difference among the socio-demographic characteristics, while weight and height among the personal characteristics. Although the first findings suggested that respondents' physical characteristics affected their physical complaints, it seemed that several complaints could also be affected by social and cultural context.

  8. Isotope Hydrology Studies of Beypazari Trona Mine Area,Ankara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezguer, C.; Goekmenoglu, O.; Erduran, B.

    2002-01-01

    Trona mine located in the Beypazari city and surrounded by the Basoeren, Bagoezue and Cakiloba villages, overlays an area of 9 km2 approximately. Aim of the study is to investigate the probable hydrogeology events during the mine management and determine solutions. Karadoruk and Cakiloba Formations are aquifers, concordancely overlaying the Hirka Formation in which Trona has occurred. These units are confined aquifers on areas bounded by discontinuities. Trona mine area is divided to two sectors, Elmabeli and Ariseki, according to the hydrogeologic events. Hydrogeological explorations have been carried out during 1984-1986 and 2000-2001, in the mentioned area. As a result of the studies, groundwater flow in the Elmabeli Sector is towards the K-25 spring (towards the shearing zone of the Zaviye and Kanliceviz Faults), and the average flow rate is 10-13 m/day. Groundwater flow in the Ariseki Sector is towards the Zaviye Fault with an average rate of 8-15 m/day. Groundwaters located in the area are found to be of shallow circulation and similar origin, due to the evaluation of the 34 water samples collected from 19 different locations durind the wet and dry season periods. Brine saples result as deep circulation components

  9. Development of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-based Influenza Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Altenburg (Arwen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses continuously circulate in the human population and are estimated to cause 3-5 million cases of severe respiratory illness annually worldwide of which 250.000-500.000 have a fatal outcome. Vaccination is the most efficient measure to control infectious diseases,

  10. Ecological Building Design Criteria: A Case Study in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    GULTEKIN, Arzuhan Burcu; Alparslan, Bengu

    2011-01-01

    Buildings cause environmental impacts through their life cycles. Ecological building design criteria, which appeared to decrease these impacts, aim to make designs sensitive to environmental problems, to protect the ecological balance, and to fulfill the required comfort and health conditions. In the context of this paper, ecological building design criteria were determined in global scale as energy conservation, water conservation, material conservation, and livable design, and applications ...

  11. Ecological Building Design Criteria: A Case Study in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    GULTEKIN, Arzuhan; Alparslan, Bengu

    2010-01-01

    Buildings cause environmental impacts through their life cycles. Ecological building design criteria, which appeared to decrease these impacts, aim to make designs sensitive to environmental problems, to protect the ecological balance, and to fulfill the required comfort and health conditions. In the context of this paper, ecological building design criteria were determined in global scale as energy conservation, water conservation, material conservation, and livable design, and applications ...

  12. ART DECO A FRUSTRATED STYLE AND REFLECTIONS FROM ANKARA - TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCAN, ZUHAL

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACTArchitecturecarries a strong effect on people as life passes physically between what is constructed.The ambience of the works of architecture differ in time,  place and society. These differences are observedand named as “styles” in general.  Theperiods that past styles have been exercised happened to be very slow in  Antiquity, in a world of tranquility andstability. Its accelaration increased with the technological developments andnow, it is nearly too hard to trace the differences ...

  13. Art Deco a Frustrated Style and Reflections from Ankara - Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZCAN, Zühal

    2018-01-01

    Architecturecarries a strong effect on people as life passes physically between what isconstructed. The ambience of the works of architecture differ in time, placeand society. These differences are observed and named as “styles” in general.  The periods that past styles have beenexercised happened to be very slow in Antiquity, in a world of tranquility andstability. Its acceleration increased with the technological developments andnow, it is nearly too hard to trace the differences occurring ...

  14. Nuclear power: A changing landscape. 7 July 2006, Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2006-01-01

    With this brief overview, I have tried to outline some of the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead, with respect to the role of nuclear energy as part of the global energy mix. With its recent decision to embark on a nuclear power programme, Turkey will be facing its own set of technological and institutional challenges. At the IAEA, we stand ready to work with you in finding the solutions that are best suited to your needs and priorities

  15. Business Management in Sustainable Buildings: Ankara-Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutay Karaca, Neşet; Burcu Gültekin, Arzuhan

    2017-10-01

    The concept of the sustainability is described as efficiently and effectively consuming of exhaustible and recyclable sources of the world. A sustainable building implements sustainability criteria in its life cycle, and business management is the process by which an organization uses its resources in the most efficient way to reach its goal. From the beginning, sustainable building proves their differences from the conventional buildings. Sustainable buildings are resource-efficient and environmentally responsible structures in terms of energy consumption, construction principles, siting, renovation and maintenance throughout its life cycle while conventional buildings are more traditional in these matters. The differences are observable especially in costs and expenditures. It is possible and feasible to compare and contrast the design, construction and management costs of both types of structures. Thence, contributions of sustainable buildings are priced favourably in terms of ecological and sociological aspects. In this context, a prospective projection can be made considering the extra costs of sustainable structures, as well as the consumption profits due to the use of less energy than conventional construction. Considering this, it is possible to project consumption savings in long term. By calculating a forward-looking net cash flow projection, it can be forecasted how much time it will take to cover the extra cost. When making decisions, investors always contemplate maximum profitability. Within the scope of this study, costs of sustainable and conventional buildings will be compared and contrasted through precedence of a sustainable building certificated and non-certificated building. It will be analysed in which time period the initial cost difference between them will be compensated totally and partially. Furthermore, an efficiency analyses will be done in the scope of the necessities and expenses of these businesses.

  16. Pojezd "Ankara - Brüssel" / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Türgi riigiminister Ali Babacan, kes on ka Türgi ja Euroopa Liidu vaheliste liitumisläbirääkimiste Türgi delegatsiooni juht, külastas Eestit ning rääkis Türgi reformidest Euroopa Liidu kandidaatriigina

  17. Clinical, manometric and profilometric evaluation after surgery for Hirschsprung's disease: comparison between the modified Duhamel and the transanal rectosigmoidectomy techniques Avaliação clínica, manométrica e profilométrica após correção cirúrgica para doença de Hirschsprung: comparação entre as técnicas de Duhamel modificado e a retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Soares Martins

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate fecal continence, anorectal manometry (AM and profilometry (P, in patients operated for congenital megacolon, using either the modified Duhamel technique (MDT or the modified transanal rectosigmoidectomy (MTR technique. METHODS: 42 patients were evaluated clinically and via AM and P, for postoperative control. The resting, coughing, voluntary contraction, maintained voluntary contraction and perianal stimulation pressures were investigated. The rectosphincteric reflex was tested and the simple and enhanced pressure curves were evaluated. The three-dimensional profilometric outline was produced. Student's t, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a continência fecal, a manometria anorretal (MAR e a profilometria (PFM, em pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico do megacolo congênito pelas técnicas de Duhamel modificado (DM ou de retossigmoidectomia transanal modificada (RTM. MÉTODOS: 42 pacientes foram clinicamente avaliados e submetidos à MAR e PFM para controle pós-operatório. Foram pesquisadas as pressões no repouso (PR, à tosse (T, à contração voluntária (CV, à contração voluntária mantida (CVM e à estimulação perianal (EPA. O reflexo reto-esficteriano (RRE foi testado e as curvas pressóricas simples e potencializada foram avaliadas. Foi elaborado traçado tridimensional de PFM. Utilizamos os testes t de Student, Qui-Quadrado e exato de Fisher para análise estatística (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A MAR mostrou médias de PR=53,44 mmHg para DM e 60,67 mmHg para RTM; CV média = 94,50 mmHg para o grupo DM e 95,47 mmHg para o grupo RTM. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos. A forma das CPS e CPP não apresentou diferença estatística, independentemente da técnica cirúrgica utilizada CONCLUSÃO: As duas técnicas operatórias foram manometricamente equivalentes. DM determinou maior incidência de constipação pós-operatória que RTM. A

  18. Análise inicial do uso de enxerto tubular orgânico L-D-Hydro - (Eato L-D-Hydro para realização de Blalock-Taussig modificado nas cardiopatias congênitas com hipofluxo pulmonar Initial analysis of the use of the L-D-Hydro (Eato L-D-Hydro organic tubular graft for performing the modified Blalock-Taussig procedure in congenital heart diseases with decreased pulmonary blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Luiz da Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados iniciais da utilização do enxerto tubular orgânico, utilizados para anastomoses sistêmico-pulmonares. MÉTODOS: De março/2002 a abril/2003, 10 pacientes foram submetidos à realização de shunt sistêmico pulmonar tipo Blalock-Taussig modificado utilizando um novo tipo de enxerto biológico originado da artéria mesentérica bovina tratada com poliglicol denominado L-D-Hydro. A idade variou de 3 dias a 7 anos e 60% dos pacientes eram do sexo masculino. O diagnóstico das cardiopatias foi determinado pela ecocardiografia, todos apresentando sinais clínicos de hipóxia severa (cianose. As cardiopatias foram: tetralogia de Fallot (40%, atresia tricúspide (50%, defeito do septo atrioventricular (10%. RESULTADOS: Em 10 pacientes, ocorreu um óbito por sepse e em nove houve melhora imediata na saturação de O2 ao oxímetro de pulso e da pressão parcial de oxigênio à gasometria arterial. Nenhum paciente apresentou obstrução do shunt no pós-operatório imediato ou qualquer outra complicação. Todos os pacientes mostraram shunt pérvio ao exame ecocardiográfico no pós-operatório imediato e tardio, realizado no 3º mês de pós-operatório. Nenhum paciente apresentou sangramento no intra e pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: O enxerto tubular L-D-HYDRO demonstrou ser promissor para a realização de shunt sistêmico pulmonar, como alternativa para produtos inorgânicos existentes no mercado, entretanto, temos de ter maior número de implantes e acompanhamento tardio para uma avaliação definitiva.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the initial results of the use of an organic tubular graft for systemic-pulmonary anastomoses. METHODS: From March 2002 to April 2003, 10 patients underwent systemic-pulmonary shunt of the modified Blalock-Taussig type, using a new type of biological graft originating from the bovine mesenteric artery treated with polyglycol, the so-called L-D-Hydro. The patients' ages ranged from 3 days to 7

  19. Caracterización físico-mecánica, térmica y morfológica de polímeros de redes interpenetradas con base en poliuretano obtenido a partir de aceite de ricino y almidón modificados/polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA Physico-mechanical, thermal and morphological Behaviour of simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyurethane from modified castor oiland starch/poly(Methyl Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel F. Valero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aceite de ricino se modificó por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Paralelamente, se utilizó la reacción de glucosilación con glicerol para dividir el almidón en unidades monosacáridos. El glucósido obtenido reaccionó por transesterificación con el aceite modificado por transesterificación con pentaeritritol. Se determinó el índice de hidroxilo de los poliol-glucósidos en función del contenido de pentaeritritol y almidón utilizados en la síntesis. Se sintetizaron redes interpenetradas de polímero de manera simultánea (SINs con diferentes relaciones en peso poliuretano/PMMA de 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 y 50/50. Para la síntesis de la red de poliuretano (PU se utilizaron los poliol-glucósidos y diisocianato de isoforona (IPDI o con una relación NCO/OH = 1 y para la síntesis de la red de polimetilmetacrilato (PMMA se utilizó peróxido de benzoílo como agente iniciador y dimetacrilato de etilenglicol como agente entrecruzante. Los SINs se caracterizaron por sus propiedades fisicomecánicas como resistencia al ataque químico, dureza, resistencia a la tensión y elongación de ruptura. La estabilidad térmica de los SINs se determinó usando análisis termogravimétrico (TGA. La morfología de superficie se determinó usando microscopia electrónica de barrido (SEM y mostró una morfología de dos fases para todos los SINs.Castor oil was modified by transesterification with pentaerithritol. In a parallel step, starch was divided into monosaccharide units by glycosylation in order to obtain products with high hydroxyl content. The values of hydroxyl index were measured according to the content of pentaerithritol and starch used in the synthesis. Novel simultaneous interpenetrating polymer networks (SINs of polyurethane (PU and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA in different weight ratios of 100/0, 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50 were prepared based on polyol-glucosides. The polyurethane network was created by

  20. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrei Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  1. Recombinant viruses obtained from co-infection in vitro with a live vaccinia-vectored influenza vaccine and a naturally occurring cowpox virus display different plaque phenotypes and loss of the transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Hilde; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Nilssen, Oivind; Traavik, Terje

    2004-12-09

    Some poxviruses are very attractive as transgenic vaccine vectors for humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Poxviridae family members circulate in different ecosystems and parts of the world, providing a pool of possible recombination partners for released or escaped genetically modified poxviruses. We performed in vitro double infections with a vaccinia virus strain Ankara (MVA) vectored influenza vaccine and a cowpox virus isolate from Norway, isolated hybrids, and further analyzed three hybrid viruses with different plaque phenotypes. One of the hybrids was genetically unstable, and during adaptation to new host cells its MVA derived influenza gene was deleted at a high frequency. This is significant in a risk assessment context, since the transgene would be the only logical tag for monitoring unwanted spread and non-target effects of a vaccine virus. Putative recombination events involving genetically modified and naturally occurring viruses should be included in health and environmental risk assessments.

  2. Development of improved therapeutic mesothelin-based vaccines for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael; Freistaedter, Andrew; Jones, Gwendolyn J B; Zervos, Emmanuel; Roper, Rachel L

    2018-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the 5th leading cause of cancer deaths, and there are no effective treatments. We developed a poxvirus platform vaccine with improved immunogenicity and insert