WorldWideScience

Sample records for anisotropy probe map

  1. Mapping the CMB with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary F.

    2007-01-01

    The data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite provide detailed full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and new full-sky maps of the polarization. Together, the data provide a wealth of cosmological information, including the age of the universe, the epoch when the first stars formed, and the overall composition of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy. The results also provide constraints on the period of inflationary expansion in the very first moments of time. These and other aspects of the mission results will be discussed and commented on. WMAP, part of NASA's Explorers program, was launched on June 30,200 1. The WMAP satellite was produced in a partnership between the Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP team also includes researchers at the Johns Hopkins University; the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics; University of Texas; University of Chicago; Brown University; University of British Columbia; and University of California, Los Angeles.

  2. A SEARCH FOR CONCENTRIC CIRCLES IN THE 7 YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE TEMPERATURE SKY MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehus, I. K.; Eriksen, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, we search for concentric circles with low variance in cosmic microwave background sky maps. The detection of such circles would hint at new physics beyond the current cosmological concordance model, which states that the universe is isotropic and homogeneous, and filled with Gaussian fluctuations. We first describe a set of methods designed to detect such circles, based on matched filters and χ 2 statistics, and then apply these methods to the best current publicly available data, the 7 year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) temperature sky maps. We compare the observations with an ensemble of 1000 Gaussian ΛCDM simulations. Based on these tests, we conclude that the WMAP sky maps are fully compatible with the Gaussian and isotropic hypothesis as measured by low-variance ring statistics.

  3. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Drive, Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Gold, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others

    2013-10-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C {sup –1} weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ΛCDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t {sub 0} = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H {sub 0} = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n{sub s} = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Ω{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor

  4. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Kogut, A.; Dunkley, J.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C –1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ΛCDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t 0 = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H 0 = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s –1 Mpc –1 . Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n s = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Ω k = -0.0027 +0.0039 -0.0038 ). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model

  5. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six

  6. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Beam Maps and Window Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Page, L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Nolta, M. R.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2009-02-01

    Cosmology and other scientific results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission require an accurate knowledge of the beam patterns in flight. While the degree of beam knowledge for the WMAP one-year and three-year results was unprecedented for a CMB experiment, we have significantly improved the beam determination as part of the five-year data release. Physical optics fits are done on both the A and the B sides for the first time. The cutoff scale of the fitted distortions on the primary mirror is reduced by a factor of ~2 from previous analyses. These changes enable an improvement in the hybridization of Jupiter data with beam models, which is optimized with respect to error in the main beam solid angle. An increase in main-beam solid angle of ~1% is found for the V2 and W1-W4 differencing assemblies. Although the five-year results are statistically consistent with previous ones, the errors in the five-year beam transfer functions are reduced by a factor of ~2 as compared to the three-year analysis. We present radiometry of the planet Jupiter as a test of the beam consistency and as a calibration standard; for an individual differencing assembly, errors in the measured disk temperature are ~0.5%. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  7. Spacecraft Charging and the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, VanSant J.; Neergaard, Linda F.

    1998-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a MIDEX mission built in partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), will study the cosmic microwave background. It will be inserted into a highly elliptical earth orbit for several weeks and then use a lunar gravity assist to orbit around the second Lagrangian point (L2), 1.5 million kilometers, anti-sunward from the earth. The charging environment for the phasing loops and at L2 was evaluated. There is a limited set of data for L2; the GEOTAIL spacecraft measured relatively low spacecraft potentials (approx. 50 V maximum) near L2. The main area of concern for charging on the MAP spacecraft is the well-established threat posed by the "geosynchronous region" between 6-10 Re. The launch in the autumn of 2000 will coincide with the falling of the solar maximum, a period when the likelihood of a substorm is higher than usual. The likelihood of a substorm at that time has been roughly estimated to be on the order of 20% for a typical MAP mission profile. Because of the possibility of spacecraft charging, a requirement for conductive spacecraft surfaces was established early in the program. Subsequent NASCAP/GEO analyses for the MAP spacecraft demonstrated that a significant portion of the sunlit surface (solar cell cover glass and sunshade) could have nonconductive surfaces without significantly raising differential charging. The need for conductive materials on surfaces continually in eclipse has also been reinforced by NASCAP analyses.

  8. B-mode contamination by synchrotron emission from 3-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carretti, E.; Bernardi, G.; Cortiglioni, S.

    2006-01-01

    We study the contamination of the B-mode of the cosmic microwave background polarization (CMBP) by Galactic synchrotron in the lowest emission regions of the sky. The 22.8-GHz polarization map of the 3-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data release is used to identify and analyse such

  9. Anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background after Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha

    2008-01-01

    We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter c vis , we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with c vis 2 >0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to c vis 2 >0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state

  10. Probing pre-inflationary anisotropy with directional variations in the gravitational wave background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Yu; Niiyama, Yuki; Sendouda, Yuuiti, E-mail: furuya@tap.st.hirosaki-u.ac.jp, E-mail: niiyama@tap.st.hirosaki-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sendouda@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyocho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan)

    2017-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis on a primordial gravitational-wave background amplified during a Kasner-like pre-inflationary phase allowing for general triaxial anisotropies. It is found that the predicted angular distribution map of gravitational-wave intensity on large scales exhibits topologically distinctive patterns according to the degree of the pre-inflationary anisotropy, thereby serving as a potential probe for the pre-inflationary early universe with future all-sky observations of gravitational waves. We also derive an observational limit on the amplitude of such anisotropic gravitational waves from the B -mode polarisation of the cosmic microwave background.

  11. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Calibration with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Using Cross-Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Amir; Acquaviva, Viviana; Ade, Peter A. R.; Aguirre, Paula; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John William; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Battistelli, Elia S.; Bond, John R.; Brown, Ben; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present a new calibration method based on cross-correlations with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and apply it to data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). ACT's observing strategy and mapmaking procedure allows an unbiased reconstruction of the modes in the maps over a wide range of multipoles. By directly matching the ACT maps to WMAP observations in the multipole range of 400 cosmological parameters estimated from the ACT power spectra. We also present a combined map based on ACT and WMAP data that has a high signal-to-noise ratio over a wide range of multipoles.

  12. Mass amplifying probe for sensitive fluorescence anisotropy detection of small molecules in complex biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Zou, Yuan; Lin, Ninghang; Zhu, Zhi; Jenkins, Gareth; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2012-07-03

    Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is a reliable and excellent choice for fluorescence sensing. One of the key factors influencing the FA value for any molecule is the molar mass of the molecule being measured. As a result, the FA method with functional nucleic acid aptamers has been limited to macromolecules such as proteins and is generally not applicable for the analysis of small molecules because their molecular masses are relatively too small to produce observable FA value changes. We report here a molecular mass amplifying strategy to construct anisotropy aptamer probes for small molecules. The probe is designed in such a way that only when a target molecule binds to the probe does it activate its binding ability to an anisotropy amplifier (a high molecular mass molecule such as protein), thus significantly increasing the molecular mass and FA value of the probe/target complex. Specifically, a mass amplifying probe (MAP) consists of a targeting aptamer domain against a target molecule and molecular mass amplifying aptamer domain for the amplifier protein. The probe is initially rendered inactive by a small blocking strand partially complementary to both target aptamer and amplifier protein aptamer so that the mass amplifying aptamer domain would not bind to the amplifier protein unless the probe has been activated by the target. In this way, we prepared two probes that constitute a target (ATP and cocaine respectively) aptamer, a thrombin (as the mass amplifier) aptamer, and a fluorophore. Both probes worked well against their corresponding small molecule targets, and the detection limits for ATP and cocaine were 0.5 μM and 0.8 μM, respectively. More importantly, because FA is less affected by environmental interferences, ATP in cell media and cocaine in urine were directly detected without any tedious sample pretreatment. Our results established that our molecular mass amplifying strategy can be used to design aptamer probes for rapid, sensitive, and selective

  13. Constraints on CPT violation from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe three year polarization data: A wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabella, Paolo; Silk, Joseph; Natoli, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    We perform a wavelet analysis of the temperature and polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) delivered by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe experiment in search for a parity-violating signal. Such a signal could be seeded by new physics beyond the standard model, for which the Lorentz and CPT symmetries may not hold. Under these circumstances, the linear polarization direction of a CMB photon may get rotated during its cosmological journey, a phenomenon also called cosmological birefringence. Recently, Feng et al. have analyzed a subset of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and BOOMERanG 2003 angular power spectra of the CMB, deriving a constraint that mildly favors a nonzero rotation. By using wavelet transforms we set a tighter limit on the CMB photon rotation angle Δα=-2.5±3.0 (Δα=-2.5±6.0) at the one (two) σ level, consistent with a null detection

  14. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Galactic Signal Contamination from Sidelobe Pickup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-09-01

    Since the Galactic center is ~1000 times brighter than fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), CMB experiments must carefully account for stray Galactic pickup. We present the level of contamination due to sidelobes for the first-year CMB maps produced by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observatory. For each radiometer, full 4π sr antenna gain patterns are determined from a combination of numerical prediction and ground-based and space-based measurements. These patterns are convolved with the WMAP first-year sky maps and observatory scan pattern to generate the expected sidelobe signal contamination, for both intensity and polarized microwave sky maps. When the main beams are outside of the Galactic plane, we find rms values for the expected sidelobe pickup of 15, 2.1, 2.0, 0.3, and 0.5 μK for the K, Ka, Q, V, and W bands, respectively. Except for at the K band, the rms polarized contamination is the Galactic pickup are presented. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  15. Evaluation of electrical resistivity anisotropy in geological mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Electrical resistivity anisotropy, radial vertical electrical sounding, anisotropy polygons. INTRODUCTION ... electrical resistivity survey in the geological interpretation ... resistivity and other electrical or electromagnetic based.

  16. Global universe anisotropy probed by the alignment of structures in the cosmic microwave background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiaux, Y; Vielva, P; Martínez-González, E; Vandergheynst, P

    2006-04-21

    We question the global universe isotropy by probing the alignment of local structures in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The original method proposed relies on a steerable wavelet decomposition of the CMB signal on the sphere. The analysis of the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data identifies a mean preferred plane with a normal direction close to the CMB dipole axis, and a mean preferred direction in this plane, very close to the ecliptic poles axis. Previous statistical anisotropy results are thereby synthesized, but further analyses are still required to establish their origin.

  17. Large-scale Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy as a Probe of Interstellar Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacinti, Gwenael; Kirk, John G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the large-scale cosmic-ray (CR) anisotropies predicted for a range of Goldreich–Sridhar (GS) and isotropic models of interstellar turbulence, and compare them with IceTop data. In general, the predicted CR anisotropy is not a pure dipole; the cold spots reported at 400 TeV and 2 PeV are consistent with a GS model that contains a smooth deficit of parallel-propagating waves and a broad resonance function, though some other possibilities cannot, as yet, be ruled out. In particular, isotropic fast magnetosonic wave turbulence can match the observations at high energy, but cannot accommodate an energy dependence in the shape of the CR anisotropy. Our findings suggest that improved data on the large-scale CR anisotropy could provide a valuable probe of the properties—notably the power-spectrum—of the interstellar turbulence within a few tens of parsecs from Earth.

  18. PROBING THE EPOCH OF PRE-REIONIZATION BY CROSS-CORRELATING COSMIC MICROWAVE AND INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.

    2014-01-01

    The epoch of first star formation and the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at that time are not directly observable with current telescopes. The radiation from those early sources is now part of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and, as these sources ionize the gas around them, the IGM plasma would produce faint temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (TSZ) effect. While these TSZ anisotropies are too faint to be detected, we show that the cross-correlation of maps of source-subtracted CIB fluctuations from Euclid, with suitably constructed microwave maps at different frequencies, can probe the physical state of the gas during reionization and test/constrain models of the early CIB sources. We identify the frequency-combined, CMB-subtracted microwave maps from space- and ground-based instruments to show that they can be cross-correlated with the forthcoming all-sky Euclid CIB maps to detect the cross-power at scales ∼5'-60' with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of up to S/N ∼ 4-8 depending on the contribution to the Thomson optical depth during those pre-reionization epochs (Δτ ≅ 0.05) and the temperature of the IGM (up to ∼10 4 K). Such a measurement would offer a new window to explore the emergence and physical properties of these first light sources

  19. Anisotropy and vortex behaviour in BiSrCaCuO thin films and multilayers probed by columnar pinning centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffy, H.; Murrills, C.D.; Pomar, A.; Stiufiuc, G.; Stiufiuc, R.; Li, Z.Z.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review typical mixed state transport results obtained on a variety of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O y thin films and artificial multilayers, which allowed us to cover the range from low to high anisotropy. The vortex behaviour, 2D or 3D, probed by the pinning properties of columnar defects, is shown to be highly dependant on the anisotropy, and therefore on the microstructure of the system. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. COBRAS/SAMBA: The European space mission to map the CBR anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bersanelli, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Cesarsky, C.

    1996-01-01

    COBRAS/SAMBA is an ESA mission designed for extensive, accurate mapping of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation, with angular sensitivity from sub-degree scales up to and overlapping with the COBE-DMR resolution. This will allow a fun identification of the primordial density pertur...... perturbations which grew to form the large-scale structures observed in the present universe. Here we present the scientific goals and the key characteristics of the model payload and observation strategy....

  1. Alternative mapping of probes to genes for Affymetrix chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Laurent; Møller, M.; Friis-Hansen, L.

    2004-01-01

    transcripts: the NCBI RefSeq database. We also built mappings and used them in place of the original probe to genes associations provided by the manufacturer of the arrays. Results: In a large number of cases, 36%, the probes matching a reference sequence were consistent with the grouping of probes...... by the manufacturer of the chips. For the remaining cases there were discrepancies and we show how that can affect the analysis of data. Conclusions: While the probes on Affymetrix arrays remain the same for several years, the biological knowledge concerning the genomic sequences evolves rapidly. Using up...

  2. Mapping Reflectance Anisotropy of a Potato Canopy Using Aerial Images Acquired with an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. J. Roosjen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Viewing and illumination geometry has a strong influence on optical measurements of natural surfaces due to their anisotropic reflectance properties. Typically, cameras on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs are affected by this because of their relatively large field of view (FOV and thus large range of viewing angles. In this study, we investigated the magnitude of reflectance anisotropy effects in the 500–900 nm range, captured by a frame camera mounted on a UAV during a standard mapping flight. After orthorectification and georeferencing of the images collected by the camera, we calculated the viewing geometry of all observations of each georeferenced ground pixel, forming a dataset with multi-angular observations. We performed UAV flights on two days during the summer of 2016 over an experimental potato field where different zones in the field received different nitrogen fertilization treatments. These fertilization levels caused variation in potato plant growth and thereby differences in structural properties such as leaf area index (LAI and canopy cover. We fitted the Rahman–Pinty–Verstraete (RPV model through the multi-angular observations of each ground pixel to quantify, interpret, and visualize the anisotropy patterns in our study area. The Θ parameter of the RPV model, which controls the proportion of forward and backward scattering, showed strong correlation with canopy cover, where in general an increase in canopy cover resulted in a reduction of backward scattering intensity, indicating that reflectance anisotropy contains information on canopy structure. In this paper, we demonstrated that anisotropy data can be extracted from measurements using a frame camera, collected during a typical UAV mapping flight. Future research will focus on how to use the anisotropy signal as a source of information for estimation of physical vegetation properties.

  3. Searching for cosmic strings in CMB anisotropy maps using wavelets and curvelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergt, Lukas; Amara, Adam; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Réfrégier, Alexandre; Brandenberger, Robert

    2017-01-01

    We use wavelet and curvelet transforms to extract signals of cosmic strings from simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps, and to study the limits on the cosmic string tension which various ongoing CMB temperature anisotropy experiments will be able to achieve. We construct sky maps with size and angular resolution corresponding to various experiments. These maps contain the signals of a scaling solution of long string segments with a given string tension G μ, the contribution of the dominant Gaussian primordial cosmological fluctuations, and pixel by pixel white noise with an amplitude corresponding to the instrumental noise of the various experiments. In the case that we include white noise, we find that using curvelets we obtain lower bounds on the string tension than with wavelets. For maps with Planck specification, we obtain bounds comparable to what was obtained by the Planck collaboration [1]. Experiments with better angular resolution such as the South Pole Telescope third generation (SPT-3G) survey will be able to yield stronger limits. For maps with a specification of SPT-3G we find that string signals will be visible down to a string tension of G μ = 1.4 × 10 −7 .

  4. Searching for cosmic strings in CMB anisotropy maps using wavelets and curvelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergt, Lukas; Amara, Adam; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Réfrégier, Alexandre [ETH Zurich, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Brandenberger, Robert, E-mail: hergtl@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: rhb@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: tomasz.kacprzak@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    We use wavelet and curvelet transforms to extract signals of cosmic strings from simulated cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps, and to study the limits on the cosmic string tension which various ongoing CMB temperature anisotropy experiments will be able to achieve. We construct sky maps with size and angular resolution corresponding to various experiments. These maps contain the signals of a scaling solution of long string segments with a given string tension G μ, the contribution of the dominant Gaussian primordial cosmological fluctuations, and pixel by pixel white noise with an amplitude corresponding to the instrumental noise of the various experiments. In the case that we include white noise, we find that using curvelets we obtain lower bounds on the string tension than with wavelets. For maps with Planck specification, we obtain bounds comparable to what was obtained by the Planck collaboration [1]. Experiments with better angular resolution such as the South Pole Telescope third generation (SPT-3G) survey will be able to yield stronger limits. For maps with a specification of SPT-3G we find that string signals will be visible down to a string tension of G μ = 1.4 × 10{sup −7}.

  5. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Jarosik, N.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ΛCDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, Ω b h 2 , Ω c h 2 , and Ω Λ , are each determined to a precision of ∼1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5σ level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ΛCDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ΛCDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r k = -0.0027 +0.0039 -0.0038 ; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Σm ν eff = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N eff and the primordial helium abundance, Y He , agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe

  6. Rapid tryptic mapping using enzymatically active mass spectrometer probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogruel, D.; Williams, P.; Nelson, R.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A method has been developed for rapid, sensitive, and accurate tryptic mapping of polypeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass analysis. The technique utilizes mass spectrometer probe tips which have been activated through the covalent immobilization of trypsin. The enzymatically active probe tips were used for the tryptic mapping of chicken egg lysozyme and the results compared with those obtained using either free trypsin or agarose-immobilized trypsin. A significant increase in the overall sensitivity of the process was observed using the active probe tips, as well as the production of more characteristic proteolytic fragments and the elimination of background signals due to the autolysis of the trypsin. Further, probe tip digestions were found to be rapid and convenient. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Spence, H. E.; Opher, M.; Kasper, J.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Mewaldt, R.

    2016-01-01

    Our piece of cosmic real estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence – an astrophysical case history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. By exploring our global heliosphere and its myriad interactions, we develop key physical knowledge of the interstellar interactions that influence exoplanetary habitability as well as the distant history and destiny of our solar system and world. IBEX is the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies (∼5-55 keV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. This paper summarizes the next quantum leap enabled by IMAP that will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP with 100 times the combined resolution and sensitivity of IBEX and INCA will discover the substructure of the IBEX ribbon and will reveal, with unprecedented resolution, global maps of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. Voyager 2 moves outward in the same region of sky covered by a portion of the IBEX ribbon. Voyager 2’s plasma measurements will create singular opportunities for discovery in the context of IMAP's global measurements. IMAP, like ACE before, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive measurements of interstellar neutral atoms and pickup ions, the solar wind distribution, composition, and magnetic field, as well as suprathermal ion

  8. Mapping local anisotropy axis for scattering media using backscattering Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghui; Sun, Minghao; Zeng, Nan; Du, E.; Guo, Yihong; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging techniques can be used to detect the micro-structure variations of superficial biological tissues, including the sizes and shapes of cells, the structures in cells, and the densities of the organelles. Many tissues contain anisotropic fibrous micro-structures, such as collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and muscle fibers. Changes of these fibrous structures are potentially good indicators for some pathological variations. In this paper, we propose a quantitative analysis technique based on Mueller matrix for mapping local anisotropy axis of scattering media. By conducting both experiments on silk sample and Monte Carlo simulation based on the sphere-cylinder scattering model (SCSM), we extract anisotropy axis parameters from different backscattering Mueller matrix elements. Moreover, we testify the possible applications of these parameters for biological tissues. The preliminary experimental results of human cancerous samples show that, these parameters are capable to map the local axis of fibers. Since many pathological changes including early stage cancers affect the well aligned structures for tissues, the experimental results indicate that these parameters can be used as potential tools in clinical applications for biomedical diagnosis purposes.

  9. Small-scale cosmic microwave background anisotropies as probe of the geometry of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1994-01-01

    We perform detailed calculations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies in a cold dark matter (CDM)-dominated open universe with primordial adiabatic density perturbations for a variety of reionization histories. The CMB anisotropies depend primarily on the geometry of the universe, which in a matter-dominated universe is determined by Omega and the optical depth to the surface of last scattering. In particular, the location on the primary Doppler peak depends primarily on Omega and is fairly insensitive to the other unknown parameters, such as Omega(sub b), h, Lambda, and the shape of the power spectrum. Therefore, if the primordial density perturbations are adiabatic, measurements of CMB anisotropies on small scales may be used to determine Omega.

  10. Exchange anisotropy as a probe of antiferromagnetism in expanded face-centered-tetragonal Mn(001) layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlhepp, J.T.; Wieldraaijer, H.; Jonge, de W.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) grows coherent and with an expanded metastable face-centered-tetragonal (e-fct) structure on ultrathin fct Co(001)/Cu(001) template layers. From the temp. dependence of the obsd. unidirectional Mn/Co interface exchange anisotropy, an antiferromagnetic state with a blocking temp.

  11. Mapping Rotational Wavepacket Dynamics with Chirped Probe Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Dmitri; Odhner, Johanan; Levis, Robert

    2014-05-01

    We develop an analytical model description of the strong-field pump-probe polarization spectroscopy of rotational transients in molecular gases in a situation when the probe pulse is considerably chirped: the frequency modulation over the pulse duration is comparable with the carrier frequency. In this scenario, a femtosecond pump laser pulse prepares a rotational wavepacket in a gas-phase sample at room temperature. The rotational revivals of the wavepacket are then mapped onto a chirped broadband probe pulse derived from a laser filament. The slow-varying envelope approximation being inapplicable, an alternative approach is proposed which is capable of incorporating the substantial chirp and the related temporal dispersion of refractive indices. Analytical expressions are obtained for the probe signal modulation over the interaction region and for the resulting heterodyned transient birefringence spectra. Dependencies of the outputs on the probe pulse parameters reveal the trade-offs and the ways to optimize the temporal-spectral imaging. The results are in good agreement with the experiments on snapshot imaging of rotational revival patterns in nitrogen gas. We gratefully acknowledge financial support through AFOSR MURI Grant No. FA9550-10-1-0561.

  12. Structural anisotropy in amorphous SnO2 film probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Ma, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Mason, T. O.

    2013-07-01

    Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption measurements reveal the existence of structural anisotropy in amorphous (a-) SnO2 film. The anisotropy is readily seen for the second neighbor interaction whose magnitude differs along three measured directions. The differences can be well accounted for by 10%-20% variation in the Debye-Waller factor. Instead of a single Gaussian distribution found in crystalline SnO2, the Sn-O bond distribution is bimodal in a-SnO2 whose separation shows a weak angular dependence. The oxygen vacancies, existing in the a-SnO2 film in the order of 1021 cm-3, distribute preferentially along the film surface direction.

  13. Pressure tuning of anisotropy barrier in Fe8 SMMs probed using high frequency EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Beedle, Christopher; Tozer, Stanley; Hill, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are spin systems with large spin ground state where quantum phenomena such as tunneling of magnetization via a considerable anisotropy barrier manifest. One such SMM that has been extensively studied is [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O, also known as Fe8, with a giant spin ground state of S=10. The eight Fe atoms bridged by the ligands form a butterfly structure where six Fe atoms have spins up and two spins down in the simplest model. This structure in fact gives rise to geometrical spin frustration effects within the cluster. By varying the interaction between the spins, manipulation of quantum tunneling in SMMs may be achieved. Typically, the manipulation of spin interactions is realized using chemical methods. As an alternative approach, we employ high pressure to induce changes in the ligand-field environment of the Fe atoms. In this presentation, the pressure-dependent changes in the anisotropy barrier in single crystal Fe8 SMMs investigated by high frequency electron paramagnetic resonance measurements will be discussed.

  14. Probing the Feature Map for Faces in Visual Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.

  15. Non-Neurotoxic Nanodiamond Probes for Intraneuronal Temperature Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, David A; Morrisroe, Emma; McCoey, Julia M; Lombard, Alain H; Mendis, Dulini C; Treussart, François; Hall, Liam T; Petrou, Steven; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2017-12-26

    Optical biomarkers have been used extensively for intracellular imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution. Extending the modality of these probes is a key driver in cell biology. In recent years, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in nanodiamond has emerged as a promising candidate for bioimaging and biosensing with low cytotoxicity and stable photoluminescence. Here we study the electrophysiological effects of this quantum probe in primary cortical neurons. Multielectrode array recordings across five replicate studies showed no statistically significant difference in 25 network parameters when nanodiamonds are added at varying concentrations over various time periods, 12-36 h. The physiological validation motivates the second part of the study, which demonstrates how the quantum properties of these biomarkers can be used to report intracellular information beyond their location and movement. Using the optically detected magnetic resonance from the nitrogen-vacancy defects within the nanodiamonds we demonstrate enhanced signal-to-noise imaging and temperature mapping from thousands of nanodiamond probes simultaneously. This work establishes nanodiamonds as viable multifunctional intraneuronal sensors with nanoscale resolution, which may ultimately be used to detect magnetic and electrical activity at the membrane level in excitable cellular systems.

  16. Driving Pressure Influence in Voltage Maps Measurement Process Using Advanced Pneumatic Mapping Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kukucka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper deals with the method of the voltage-impedance map measurement process as a method useful for the electric mapping of human skin. The area of research extends from the basic research to its practical application in acupuncture skin mapping and acupuncture point localization and visualization. The problem of sufficient skin coverage and electrical contact with measuring electrodes is solved by the conventional mechanical telescopic electrodes and by the pneumatic matrix electrode probe. A 2D or 3D voltage-impedance map of skin is an output of the measuring, interpretation and evaluation process. New pneumatic construction of measuring probe was implemented to achieve a better coverage of specified skin area and get a reduced force range of the touching electrodes allowing the steady contact of the skin-electrode. A skin contact is related to the driving pressure of touching electrodes. Our paper offers experimentally measured results, voltage maps of skin on specific areas, selected measured and described acupuncture points and their applications in electro-acupuncture.

  17. How to probe transverse magnetic anisotropy of a single-molecule magnet by electronic transport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, M.; Burzuri, E.; Gaudenzi, R.; Park, K.; Leijnse, M.; Wegewijs, M.; Paaske, J.; Cornia, A.; van der Zant, H.

    We propose an approach for in-situ determination of the transverse magnetic anisotropy (TMA) of an individual molecule by electronic transport measurements, see Phys. Rev. B 91, 035442 (2015). We study a Fe4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) captured in a gateable junction, a unique tool for addressing the spin in different redox states of a molecule. We show that, due to mixing of the spin eigenstates of the SMM, the TMA significantly manifests itself in transport. We predict and experimentally observe the pronounced intensity modulation of the Coulomb peak amplitude with the magnetic field in the linear-response transport regime, from which the TMA parameter E can be estimated. Importantly, the method proposed here does not rely on the small induced tunnelling effects and, hence, works well at temperatures and electron tunnel broadenings by far exceeding the tunnel splittings and even E itself. We deduce that the TMA for a single Fe4 molecule captured in a junction is substantially larger than the bulk value. Work supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Education as `Iuventus Plus' project (IP2014 030973) in years 2015-2016.

  18. Open-Source Automated Mapping Four-Point Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have begun using self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers to manufacture open source digital designs of scientific equipment. This approach is refined here to develop a novel instrument capable of performing automated large-area four-point probe measurements. The designs for conversion of a RepRap 3-D printer to a 2-D open source four-point probe (OS4PP measurement device are detailed for the mechanical and electrical systems. Free and open source software and firmware are developed to operate the tool. The OS4PP was validated against a wide range of discrete resistors and indium tin oxide (ITO samples of different thicknesses both pre- and post-annealing. The OS4PP was then compared to two commercial proprietary systems. Results of resistors from 10 to 1 MΩ show errors of less than 1% for the OS4PP. The 3-D mapping of sheet resistance of ITO samples successfully demonstrated the automated capability to measure non-uniformities in large-area samples. The results indicate that all measured values are within the same order of magnitude when compared to two proprietary measurement systems. In conclusion, the OS4PP system, which costs less than 70% of manual proprietary systems, is comparable electrically while offering automated 100 micron positional accuracy for measuring sheet resistance over larger areas.

  19. Open-Source Automated Mapping Four-Point Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Handy; Allen, Spencer W; Oberloier, Shane W; Bihari, Nupur; Gwamuri, Jephias; Pearce, Joshua M

    2017-01-26

    Scientists have begun using self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) 3-D printers to manufacture open source digital designs of scientific equipment. This approach is refined here to develop a novel instrument capable of performing automated large-area four-point probe measurements. The designs for conversion of a RepRap 3-D printer to a 2-D open source four-point probe (OS4PP) measurement device are detailed for the mechanical and electrical systems. Free and open source software and firmware are developed to operate the tool. The OS4PP was validated against a wide range of discrete resistors and indium tin oxide (ITO) samples of different thicknesses both pre- and post-annealing. The OS4PP was then compared to two commercial proprietary systems. Results of resistors from 10 to 1 MΩ show errors of less than 1% for the OS4PP. The 3-D mapping of sheet resistance of ITO samples successfully demonstrated the automated capability to measure non-uniformities in large-area samples. The results indicate that all measured values are within the same order of magnitude when compared to two proprietary measurement systems. In conclusion, the OS4PP system, which costs less than 70% of manual proprietary systems, is comparable electrically while offering automated 100 micron positional accuracy for measuring sheet resistance over larger areas.

  20. The usefulness of fractional anisotropy maps in localization of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H.K.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, D.I. [Dept. of Radiology and Research, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); JHeo, J.H. [Dept. of Neurology, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    We aimed in this study to assess the clinical usefulness of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in the evaluation of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients (18 mean, 10 women; mean age 63 years) who had acute lacunar infraction in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus on diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated in addition to conventional T2 weigthed images (T2WI) and trace masp of DWI. Two radiologists reviewed the location of infraction was determined by FA maps. i.e. on the white band of internal capsule. Accuracy and inter-observer agreement on determination of the location of interfraction was evaluated. Accuracy of infract localization by T2WI-DWI only was varied from 72 to 91% according to the observers. Inter-observer agreement value was moderate (Kappa=0.446), when images were interpreted by T2WI-DWI only. Clinical manifestation of each lesions wre varied, but sensory motor stroke was mainly observed in thalamic lesion (50%) while pure motor hemiparesis was predominant in the case of infract involving internal capsule, corona radiata (91%) and basal ganglia (83%). The FA maps is useful in the evaluation of lacunar lesions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. Clinical presentation varies according to the exact location of lacunar infractions, and more accurate diagnosis can be made by FA maps as well as conventional T2-weighted image and DWI.

  1. Mapping Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropies of White Matter in vivo in the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Vikram, Deepti S; Lim, Issel Anne L; Jones, Craig K; Farrell, Jonathan A.D.; van Zijl, Peter C. M.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance phase- or frequency- shift images acquired at high field show contrast related to magnetic susceptibility differences between tissues. Such contrast varies with the orientation of the organ in the field, but the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has made it possible to reproducibly image the intrinsic tissue susceptibility contrast. However, recent studies indicate that magnetic susceptibility is anisotropic in brain white matter and, as such, needs to be described by a symmetric second-rank tensor (χ¯¯). To fully determine the elements of this tensor, it would be necessary to acquire frequency data at six or more orientations. Assuming cylindrical symmetry of the susceptibility tensor in myelinated white matter fibers, we propose a simplified method to reconstruct the susceptibility tensor in terms of a mean magnetic susceptibility, MMS = (χ∥ + 2χ⊥)/3 and a magnetic susceptibility anisotropy, MSA = χ∥ − χ⊥, where χ∥ and χ⊥ are susceptibility parallel and perpendicular to the white matter fiber direction, respectively. Computer simulations show that with a practical head rotation angle of around 20°–30°, four head orientations suffice to reproducibly reconstruct the tensor with good accuracy. We tested this approach on whole brain 1×1×1 mm3 frequency data acquired from five healthy subjects at 7 T. The frequency information from phase images collected at four head orientations was combined with the fiber direction information extracted from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to map the white matter susceptibility tensor. The MMS and MSA were quantified for regions in several large white matter fiber structures, including the corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation and corpus callosum. MMS ranged from −0.037 to −0.053 ppm (referenced to CSF being about zero). MSA values could be quantified without the need for a reference and ranged between 0.004 and 0.029 ppm, in line with

  2. Correlated adiabatic and isocurvature cosmic microwave background fluctuations in the wake of the results from the wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väliviita, Jussi; Muhonen, Vesa

    2003-09-26

    In general correlated models, in addition to the usual adiabatic component with a spectral index n(ad1) there is another adiabatic component with a spectral index n(ad2) generated by entropy perturbation during inflation. We extend the analysis of a correlated mixture of adiabatic and isocurvature cosmic microwave background fluctuations of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) group, who set the two adiabatic spectral indices equal. Allowing n(ad1) and n(ad2) to vary independently we find that the WMAP data favor models where the two adiabatic components have opposite spectral tilts. Using the WMAP data only, the 2sigma upper bound for the isocurvature fraction f(iso) of the initial power spectrum at k(0)=0.05 Mpc(-1) increases somewhat, e.g., from 0.76 of n(ad2)=n(ad1) models to 0.84 with a prior n(iso)<1.84 for the isocurvature spectral index.

  3. Polarization-interference mapping of biological fluids polycrystalline films in differentiation of weak changes of optical anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, V. O.; Vanchuliak, O.; Sakhnovskiy, M. Y.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Grygoryshyn, P.; Soltys, I. V.; Olar, O. V.; Antoniv, A.

    2017-09-01

    The theoretical background of the azimuthally stable method of polarization-interference mapping of the histological sections of the biopsy of the prostate tissue on the basis of the spatial frequency selection of the mechanisms of linear and circular birefringence is presented. The diagnostic application of a new correlation parameter - complex degree of mutual anisotropy - is analytically substantiated. The method of measuring coordinate distributions of complex degree of mutual anisotropy with further spatial filtration of their high- and low-frequency components is developed. The interconnections of such distributions with parameters of linear and circular birefringence of prostate tissue histological sections are found. The objective criteria of differentiation of benign and malignant conditions of prostate tissue are determined.

  4. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Beam Profiles and Window Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, L.; Barnes, C.; Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2003-09-01

    Knowledge of the beam profiles is of critical importance for interpreting data from cosmic microwave background experiments. In this paper, we present the characterization of the in-flight optical response of the WMAP satellite. The main-beam intensities have been mapped to the satellite in the same observing mode as for CMB observations. The beam patterns closely follow the prelaunch expectations. The full width at half-maximum is a function of frequency and ranges from 0.82d at 23 GHz to 0.21d at 94 GHz; however, the beams are not Gaussian. We present (a) the beam patterns for all 10 differential radiometers, showing that the patterns are substantially independent of polarization in all but the 23 GHz channel; (b) the effective symmetrized beam patterns that result from WMAP's compound spin observing pattern; (c) the effective window functions for all radiometers and the formalism for propagating the window function uncertainty; and (d) the conversion factor from point-source flux to antenna temperature. A summary of the systematic uncertainties, which currently dominate our knowledge of the beams, is also presented. The constancy of Jupiter's temperature within a frequency band is an essential check of the optical system. The tests enable us to report a calibration of Jupiter to 1%-3% accuracy relative to the CMB dipole. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  5. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: PLANETS AND CELESTIAL CALIBRATION SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Greason, M. R.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ∼2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ∼30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau

  6. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Planets and Celestial Calibration Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ~2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ~30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau A

  7. Three-dimensional spin mapping of antiferromagnetic nanopyramids having spatially alternating surface anisotropy at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangkang; Smith, Arthur R

    2012-11-14

    Antiferromagnets play a key role in modern spintronic devices owing to their ability to modify the switching behavior of adjacent ferromagnets via the exchange bias effect. Consequently, detailed measurements of the spin structure at antiferromagnetic interfaces and surfaces are highly desirable, not only for advancing technologies but also for enabling new insights into the underlying physics. Here using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy at room-temperature, we reveal in three-dimensions an orthogonal spin structure on antiferromagnetic compound nanopyramids. Contrary to expected uniaxial anisotropy based on bulk properties, the atomic terraces are found to have alternating in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic anisotropies. The observed layer-wise alternation in anisotropy could have strong influences on future nanoscale spintronic applications.

  8. Mapping Inherited Fractures in the Critical Zone Using Seismic Anisotropy From Circular Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Christopher G.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Carr, Bradley J.; Pasquet, Sylvain; Okaya, David; Flinchum, Brady A.

    2018-04-01

    Weathering and hydrological processes in Earth's shallow subsurface are influenced by inherited bedrock structures, such as bedding planes, faults, joints, and fractures. However, these structures are difficult to observe in soil-mantled landscapes. Steeply dipping structures with a dominant orientation are detectable by seismic anisotropy, with fast wave speeds along the strike of structures. We measured shallow ( 2-4 m) seismic anisotropy using "circle shots," geophones deployed in a circle around a central shot point, in a weathered granite terrain in the Laramie Range of Wyoming. The inferred remnant fracture orientations agree with brittle fracture orientations measured at tens of meters depth in boreholes, demonstrating that bedrock fractures persist through the weathering process into the shallow critical zone. Seismic anisotropy positively correlates with saprolite thickness, suggesting that inherited bedrock fractures may control saprolite thickness by providing preferential pathways for corrosive meteoric waters to access the deep critical zone.

  9. Mapped DNA probes from Ioblolly pine can be used for restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping in other conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.R. Ahuja; M.E. Devey; A.T. Groover; K.D. Jermstad; D.B Neale

    1994-01-01

    A high-density genetic map based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) is being constructed for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Consequently, a large number of DNA probes from loblolly pine are potentially available for use in other species. We have used some of these DNA probes to detect RFLPs in 12 conifers and an angiosperm....

  10. Stable indications of relic gravitational waves in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and forecasts for the Planck mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2009-01-01

    The relic gravitational waves are the cleanest probe of the violent times in the very early history of the Universe. They are expected to leave signatures in the observed cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We significantly improved our previous analysis [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 79, 023002 (2009)] of the 5-year WMAP TT and TE data at lower multipoles l. This more general analysis returned essentially the same maximum likelihood result (unfortunately, surrounded by large remaining uncertainties): The relic gravitational waves are present and they are responsible for approximately 20% of the temperature quadrupole. We identify and discuss the reasons by which the contribution of gravitational waves can be overlooked in a data analysis. One of the reasons is a misleading reliance on data from very high multipoles l and another a too narrow understanding of the problem as the search for B modes of polarization, rather than the detection of relic gravitational waves with the help of all correlation functions. Our analysis of WMAP5 data has led to the identification of a whole family of models characterized by relatively high values of the likelihood function. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we formulated forecasts for Planck mission in the context of this family of models. We explore in detail various 'optimistic', 'pessimistic', and 'dream case' scenarios. We show that in some circumstances the B-mode detection may be very inconclusive, at the level of signal-to-noise ratio S/N=1.75, whereas a smarter data analysis can reveal the same gravitational wave signal at S/N=6.48. The final result is encouraging. Even under unfavorable conditions in terms of instrumental noises and foregrounds, the relic gravitational waves, if they are characterized by the maximum likelihood parameters that we found from WMAP5 data, will be detected by Planck at the level S/N=3.65.

  11. DETECTION OF ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PLEIADES REFLECTION NEBULA WITH WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE AND THE COSMOSOMAS EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genova-Santos, R.; Rebolo, R.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Lopez-Caraballo, C. H.; Hildebrandt, S. R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-12-10

    We present evidence for anomalous microwave emission (AME) in the Pleiades reflection nebula, using data from the seven-year release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and from the COSMOSOMAS (Cosmological Structures on Medium Angular Scales) experiment. The flux integrated in a 1 Degree-Sign radius around R.A. = 56.{sup 0}24, decl. = 23.{sup 0}78 (J2000) is 2.15 {+-} 0.12 Jy at 22.8 GHz, where AME is dominant. COSMOSOMAS data show no significant emission, but allow one to set upper limits of 0.94 and 1.58 Jy (99.7% confidence level), respectively, at 10.9 and 14.7 GHz, which are crucial to pin down the AME spectrum at these frequencies, and to discard any other emission mechanisms which could have an important contribution to the signal detected at 22.8 GHz. We estimate the expected level of free-free emission from an extinction-corrected H{alpha} template, while the thermal dust emission is characterized from infrared DIRBE data and extrapolated to microwave frequencies. When we deduct the contribution from these two components at 22.8 GHz, the residual flux, associated with AME, is 2.12 {+-} 0.12 Jy (17.7{sigma}). The spectral energy distribution from 10 to 60 GHz can be accurately fitted with a model of electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains distributed in two separated phases of molecular and atomic gas, respectively. The dust emissivity, calculated by correlating the 22.8 GHz data with 100 {mu}m data, is found to be 4.36 {+-} 0.17 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1}, a value considerably lower than in typical AME clouds, which present emissivities of {approx}20 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1}, although higher than the 0.2 {mu}K (MJy sr{sup -1}){sup -1} of the translucent cloud LDN 1780, where AME has recently been claimed. The physical properties of the Pleiades nebula, in particular its low extinction A{sub V} {approx} 0.4, indicate that this is indeed a much less opaque object than those where AME has usually been studied. This fact

  12. DETECTION OF ANOMALOUS MICROWAVE EMISSION IN THE PLEIADES REFLECTION NEBULA WITH WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE AND THE COSMOSOMAS EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Génova-Santos, R.; Rebolo, R.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; López-Caraballo, C. H.; Hildebrandt, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence for anomalous microwave emission (AME) in the Pleiades reflection nebula, using data from the seven-year release of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and from the COSMOSOMAS (Cosmological Structures on Medium Angular Scales) experiment. The flux integrated in a 1° radius around R.A. = 56. 0 24, decl. = 23. 0 78 (J2000) is 2.15 ± 0.12 Jy at 22.8 GHz, where AME is dominant. COSMOSOMAS data show no significant emission, but allow one to set upper limits of 0.94 and 1.58 Jy (99.7% confidence level), respectively, at 10.9 and 14.7 GHz, which are crucial to pin down the AME spectrum at these frequencies, and to discard any other emission mechanisms which could have an important contribution to the signal detected at 22.8 GHz. We estimate the expected level of free-free emission from an extinction-corrected Hα template, while the thermal dust emission is characterized from infrared DIRBE data and extrapolated to microwave frequencies. When we deduct the contribution from these two components at 22.8 GHz, the residual flux, associated with AME, is 2.12 ± 0.12 Jy (17.7σ). The spectral energy distribution from 10 to 60 GHz can be accurately fitted with a model of electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains distributed in two separated phases of molecular and atomic gas, respectively. The dust emissivity, calculated by correlating the 22.8 GHz data with 100 μm data, is found to be 4.36 ± 0.17 μK (MJy sr –1 ) –1 , a value considerably lower than in typical AME clouds, which present emissivities of ∼20 μK (MJy sr –1 ) –1 , although higher than the 0.2 μK (MJy sr –1 ) –1 of the translucent cloud LDN 1780, where AME has recently been claimed. The physical properties of the Pleiades nebula, in particular its low extinction A V ∼ 0.4, indicate that this is indeed a much less opaque object than those where AME has usually been studied. This fact, together with the broad knowledge of the stellar content of this region

  13. Transverse susceptibility as a probe of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy-driven phase transition in Pr0.5Sr0.5CoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey Huls, N. A.; Bingham, N. S.; Phan, M. H.; Srikanth, H.; Stauffer, D. D.; Leighton, C.

    2011-01-01

    Half-doped Pr1-xSrxCoO3 (x=0.5) displays anomalous magnetism, most notably manifest in the field-cooled magnetization versus temperature curves under different applied cooling fields. Recently, an explanation was advanced that a magnetocrystalline anisotropy transition driven by a structural transition at 120 K is the origin of this behavior. In this paper, we further elucidate the nature of the magnetic anisotropy across the low-temperature phase transition in this material by means of transverse susceptibility (TS) measurements performed using a self-resonant tunnel diode oscillator. TS probes magnetic materials by means of a small radio frequency oriented transverse to a dc field that sweeps from positive to negative saturation. TS scans as a function of field clearly reveal peaks associated with the anisotropy (HK) and switching fields (HS). When peak position is examined as a function of temperature, ˜120 K the signature of a ferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition is evident as a sharp feature in HK and a corresponding cusp in HS. A third TS peak (not previously observed in other classes of magnetic oxides such as manganites and spinel ferrites) is found to be correlated with the crossover field (Hcr) in the unconventional magnetization versus temperature [M(T)] behavior. We observe a strong temperature dependence of Hcr at ˜120 K using this technique, which suggests the magnetic-field-influenced magnetocrystalline anisotropy transition. We show the switching between the high-field magnetization state and the low-field magnetization state associated with the magnetocrystalline anisotropy transition is irreversible when the magnetic field is recycled. Finally, we demonstrate that the TS peak magnitude indicates easy axis switching associated with this phase transition, even in these polycrystalline samples. Our results further confirm that TS provides new insights into the magnetic behavior of complex oxides.

  14. Motion induced second order temperature and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of linear dipole in the CMB maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi

    2013-01-01

    y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional temperature and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few μK which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known linear dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired

  15. Mapping of coma anisotropies to plasma structures of weak comets: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gortsas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coma anisotropies on the plasma environment of comets have been studied by means of a 3-D hybrid model which treats electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas ion dynamics are covered by a kinetic approach. From Earth-based observations as well as from in-situ spacecraft measurements the shape of the coma of many comets is ascertained to be anisotropic. However, most plasma simulation studies deploy a spherically symmetric activity pattern. In this paper anisotropy is studied by considering three different coma shape models. The first model is derived from the Haser model and is characterised by spherically symmetry. This reference model is then compared with two different neutral gas shape models: the dayside restricted model with no nightside activity and a cone shaped model with opening angle of π/2. In all models the integrated surface activity is kept constant. The simulations have been done for the Rosetta target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two heliocentric distances, 1.30 AU and 3.25 AU. It is found that shock formation processes are modified as a result of increasing spatial confinement. Characteristic plasma structures of comets such as the bow shock, magnetic barrier region and the ion composition boundary exhibit a shift towards the sun. In addition, the cone shaped model leads to a strong increase of the mass-loaded region which in turn leads to a smooth deceleration of the solar wind flow and an increasing degree of mixture between the solar wind and cometary ion species. This creates an additional transport channel of the magnetic field from the magnetic barrier region away which in turn leads to a broadening of this region. In addition, it leads to an ion composition boundary which is only gradually developed.

  16. Validation of DNA probes for molecular cytogenetics by mapping onto immobilized circular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich-Bode, Karin; Wang, Mei; Rhein, Andreas; Weier, Jingly; Weier, Heinz-Ulli

    2008-12-16

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a sensitive and rapid procedure to detect gene rearrangements in tumor cells using non-isotopically labeled DNA probes. Large insert recombinant DNA clones such as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) or P1/PAC clones have established themselves in recent years as preferred starting material for probe preparations due to their low rates of chimerism and ease of use. However, when developing probes for the quantitative analysis of rearrangements involving genomic intervals of less than 100kb, careful probe selection and characterization are of paramount importance. We describe a sensitive approach to quality control probe clones suspected of carrying deletions or for measuring clone overlap with near kilobase resolution. The method takes advantage of the fact that P1/PAC/BAC's can be isolated as circular DNA molecules, stretched out on glass slides and fine-mapped by multicolor hybridization with smaller probe molecules. Two examples demonstrate the application of this technique: mapping of a gene-specific {approx}6kb plasmid onto an unusually small, {approx}55kb circular P1 molecule and the determination of the extent of overlap between P1 molecules homologous to the human NF-?B2 locus. The relatively simple method presented here does not require specialized equipment and may thus find widespread applications in DNA probe preparation and characterization, the assembly of physical maps for model organisms or in studies on gene rearrangements.

  17. Validation of DNA probes for molecular cytogenetics by mapping onto immobilized circular DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Wang, Mei; Rhein, Andreas P.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-12-04

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a sensitive and rapid procedure to detect gene rearrangements in tumor cells using non-isotopically labeled DNA probes. Large insert recombinant DNA clones such as bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) or P1/PAC clones have established themselves in recent years as preferred starting material for probe preparations due to their low rates of chimerism and ease of use. However, when developing probes for the quantitative analysis of rearrangements involving genomic intervals of less than 100kb, careful probe selection and characterization are of paramount importance. We describe a sensitive approach to quality control probe clones suspected of carrying deletions or for measuring clone overlap with near kilobase resolution. The method takes advantage of the fact that P1/PAC/BAC's can be isolated as circular DNA molecules, stretched out on glass slides and fine-mapped by multicolor hybridization with smaller probe molecules. Two examples demonstrate the application of this technique: mapping of a gene-specific {approx}6kb plasmid onto an unusually small, {approx}55kb circular P1 molecule and the determination of the extent of overlap between P1 molecules homologous to the human NF-{kappa}B2 locus. The relatively simple method presented here does not require specialized equipment and may thus find widespread applications in DNA probe preparation and characterization, the assembly of physical maps for model organisms or in studies on gene rearrangements.

  18. Large-scale anisotropy in the extragalactic gamma-ray background as a probe for cosmological antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi-Tian; Stecker, Floyd W.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Cline, David B.

    1990-01-01

    Intrinsic anisotropies in the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), which should be detectable with the forthcoming Gamma Ray Observatory, can be used to examine some of the mechanisms proposed to explain its origin, one of which, the baryon-symmetric big bang (BSBB) model, is investigated here. In this simulation, large domains containing matter and antimatter galaxies produce gamma rays by annihilation at the domain boundaries. This mechanism can produce mountain-chain-shaped angular fluctuations in the EGB flux.

  19. Seniority mappings for probing phenomenological nuclear boson models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kock, E.A.

    1988-12-01

    The interacting boson model (IBM) and interacting boson-fermion model (IBFM) are discussed. The main ideas of boson mapping of fermion systems are introduced using Holstein-Primakoff and Dyson-Maleev mappings of angular momentum operators. Generalized Dyson-Maleev (GDM) and Holstein-Primakoff (GHP) mappings are included. In fermoin problems, the degrees of freedom of collective motion are described by a collective subalgebra of the complete bifermion subalgebra. GDM mapping of Sp(6) generators, the transformation to collect bosons and truncation to these bosons led to collective sd-boson realization of Sp(6) algebra. This resulted in an IBM-like description of the collective subspace. Non-hermitian and existing hermitian forms are indicated in the assumed structure of an IBM Hamiltonian Boson mapping based on seniority considerations and involving single-j shell approximations of the shell model are examined. One method utilized truncation of a shell model space to a space spanned by monopole (S) and quadrupole (D) pairs. The association between states in truncated fermion and sd-boson spaces constructs boson images of fermion operators by equating boson and fermion matrix elements. To obtain boson images with IBM-like structures, a zero-order approximation was adopted. This approximation retains only N-body terms in the images of N-body fermion operators. A similarity transformation re-expressing GDM images of single-j shell fermion operators in seniority bosons was applied to the GDM image of a general shell model Hamiltonian. Numerical results for the surface-delta interaction show that truncation to s- and d-bosons in the seniority image of a two-body operator is not allowed if N≥2. This transformation was extended to odd fermion systems and applied to the image of the quadrupole pairing interaction. 79 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. A Filtering Method to Reveal Crystalline Patterns from Atom Probe Microscopy Desorption Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-26

    reveal crystalline patterns from atom probe microscopy desorption maps Lan Yao Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann...reveal the crystallographic information present in Atom Probe Microscopy (APM) data is presented. Themethod filters atoms based on the time difference...between their evaporation and the evaporation of the previous atom . Since this time difference correlates with the location and the local structure of

  1. Calibrated work function mapping by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Garrillo, Pablo A.; Grévin, Benjamin; Chevalier, Nicolas; Borowik, Łukasz

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate the implementation of an alternative work function tip calibration procedure for Kelvin probe force microscopy under ultrahigh vacuum, using monocrystalline metallic materials with known crystallographic orientation as reference samples, instead of the often used highly oriented pyrolytic graphite calibration sample. The implementation of this protocol allows the acquisition of absolute and reproducible work function values, with an improved uncertainty with respect to unprepared highly oriented pyrolytic graphite-based protocols. The developed protocol allows the local investigation of absolute work function values over nanostructured samples and can be implemented in electronic structures and devices characterization as demonstrated over a nanostructured semiconductor sample presenting Al0.7Ga0.3As and GaAs layers with variable thickness. Additionally, using our protocol we find that the work function of annealed highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is equal to 4.6 ± 0.03 eV.

  2. Probing in-plane anisotropy in few-layer ReS2 using low frequency noise measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Richa; Jariwala, Bhakti; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Das, Anindya

    2018-04-01

    ReS2, a layered two-dimensional material popular for its in-plane anisotropic properties, is emerging as one of the potential candidates for flexible electronics and ultrafast optical applications. It is an n-type semiconducting material having a layer independent bandgap of 1.55 eV. In this paper we have characterized the intrinsic electronic noise level of few-layer ReS2 for the first time. Few-layer ReS2 field effect transistor devices show a 1/f nature of noise for frequency ranging over three orders of magnitude. We have also observed that not only the electrical response of the material is anisotropic; the noise level is also dependent on direction. In fact the noise is found to be more sensitive towards the anisotropy. This fact has been explained by evoking the theory where the Hooge parameter is not a constant quantity, but has a distinct power law dependence on mobility along the two-axes direction. The anisotropy in 1/f noise measurement will pave the way to quantify the anisotropic nature of two-dimensional (2D) materials, which will be helpful for the design of low-noise transistors in future.

  3. Mapping and correcting respiration-induced field changes in the brain using fluorine field probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads; Madsen, Kristoffer; Hanson, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    strength values from signal phase by linear fitting. Ahead of imaging, the field probe positions were determined for each subject, by applying known gradients in all three dimensions while measuring with the field probes. Experiments: Measurements were performed in 4 male subjects instructed to hold...... software was updated with f0 and first order shim values, before the acquisition of every volume. Evaluation: To assess whether the dynamic field changes were captured by the field probe data, the field probe fitted fields were subtracted from the scanner B0 maps to model shimming. We then assessed whether......Purpose. Breathing induced dynamic B0 field perturbations in the head can lead to artefacts in ultra-high field MR by causing line broadening in spectroscopy and signal dropout, ghosting, displacement artifacts and blurring in imaging. It has recently been proposed to continuously stabilize...

  4. Mechanical Anisotropy and Pressure Induced Structural Changes in Piroxicam Crystals Probed by In Situ Indentation and Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimunda, Praveena; Hintsala, Eric; Asif, Syed; Mishra, Manish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The ability to correlate mechanical and chemical characterization techniques in real time is both lacking and powerful tool for gaining insights into material behavior. This is demonstrated through use of a novel nanoindentation device equipped with Raman spectroscopy to explore the deformation-induced structural changes in piroxicam crystals. Mechanical anisotropy was observed in two major faces ( 0bar{1}1 ) and (011), which are correlated to changes in the interlayer interaction from in situ Raman spectra recorded during indentation. The results of this study demonstrate the considerable potential of an in situ Raman nanoindentation instrument for studying a variety of topics, including stress-induced phase transformation mechanisms, mechanochemistry, and solid state reactivity under mechanical forces that occur in molecular and pharmaceutical solids.

  5. Polarized Neutron Diffraction to Probe Local Magnetic Anisotropy of a Low-Spin Fe(III) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Mondal, Abhishake; Boilleau, Corentin; Cador, Olivier; Gillon, Béatrice; Chaboussant, Grégory; Le Guennic, Boris; Costuas, Karine; Lescouëzec, Rodrigue

    2016-03-14

    We have determined by polarized neutron diffraction (PND) the low-temperature molecular magnetic susceptibility tensor of the anisotropic low-spin complex PPh4 [Fe(III) (Tp)(CN)3]⋅H2O. We found the existence of a pronounced molecular easy magnetization axis, almost parallel to the C3 pseudo-axis of the molecule, which also corresponds to a trigonal elongation direction of the octahedral coordination sphere of the Fe(III) ion. The PND results are coherent with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, magnetometry, and ab initio investigations. Through this particular example, we demonstrate the capabilities of PND to provide a unique, direct, and straightforward picture of the magnetic anisotropy and susceptibility tensors, offering a clear-cut way to establish magneto-structural correlations in paramagnetic molecular complexes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Slow aggregation of lysozyme in alkaline pH monitored in real time employing the fluorescence anisotropy of covalently labelled dansyl probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchaudhuri, Lopamudra; Kumar, Satish; Swaminathan, Rajaram

    2006-04-03

    The onset of hen egg white lysozyme aggregation on exposure to alkaline pH of 12.2 and subsequent slow growth of soluble lysozyme aggregates (at 298 K) was directly monitored by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of covalently attached dansyl probe over a period of 24 h. The rotational correlation time accounting for tumbling of lysozyme in solution (40 microM) increased from approximately 3.6 ns (in pH 7) to approximately 40ns on exposure to pH 12.2 over a period of 6 h and remained stable thereafter. The growth of aggregates was strongly concentration dependent, irreversible after 60 min and inhibited by the presence of 0.9 M l-arginine in the medium. The day old aggregates were resistant to denaturation by 6 M guanidine.HCl. Our results reveal slow segmental motion of the dansyl probe in day old aggregates in the absence of L-arginine (0.9 M), but a much faster motion in its presence, when growth of aggregates is halted.

  7. PROBING THE DARK FLOW SIGNAL IN WMAP 9 -YEAR AND PLANCK COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atrio-Barandela, F. [Física Teórica, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Kashlinsky, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and SSAI, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ebeling, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fixsen, D. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and UMCP, Observational Cosmology Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kocevski, D., E-mail: atrio@usal.es, E-mail: Alexander.Kashlinsky@nasa.gov, E-mail: ebeling@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: Dale.Fixsen@nasa.gov, E-mail: dale.kocevski@colby.edu [Physics and Astronomy, 5800 Mayflower Hill, Waterville, ME 04901 (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The “dark flow” dipole is a statistically significant dipole found at the position of galaxy clusters in filtered maps of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. The dipole measured in WMAP 3-, 5-, and 7- year data releases was (1) mutually consistent, (2) roughly aligned with the all-sky CMB dipole, and (3) correlated with clusters’ X-ray luminosities. We analyzed WMAP 9 -year and Planck 1st- year data releases using a catalog of 980 clusters outside of the Kp0 mask to test our earlier findings. The dipoles measured on these new data sets are fully compatible with our earlier estimates, are similar in amplitude and direction to our previous results, and are in disagreement with the results of an earlier study by the Planck Collaboration. Furthermore, in the Planck data sets dipoles are found to be independent of frequency, ruling out the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich as the source of the effect. In the data of both WMAP and Planck we find a clear correlation between the dipole measured at the cluster location in filtered maps and the average anisotropy on the original maps, further proving that the dipole is associated with clusters. The dipole signal is dominated by the most massive clusters, with a statistical significance that is better than 99%, slightly larger than in WMAP. Since both data sets differ in foreground contributions, instrumental noise, and other systematics, the agreement between the WMAP and Planck dipoles argues against them being due to systematic effects in either of the experiments.

  8. Probing the Cosmic X-Ray and MeV Gamma-Ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Murase, Kohta [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Madejski, Grzegorz M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Uchiyama, Yasunobu [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once the future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve the sensitivity better than 10-12 erg/cm2/s-1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV - although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors - angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  9. Probing the cosmic x-ray and MeV gamma ray background radiation through the anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Murase, Kohta [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Madejski, Grzegorz M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Uchiyama, Yasunobu [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-09-24

    While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to originate from individual Seyfert galaxies, the origin of the cosmic hard X-ray and MeV gamma-ray background is not fully understood. It is expected that Seyferts including Compton thick population may explain the cosmic hard X-ray background. At MeV energy range, Seyferts having non-thermal electrons in coronae above accretion disks or MeV blazars may explain the background radiation. We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the cosmic X-ray and MeV gamma-ray backgrounds will be key to deciphering these backgrounds and the evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). As AGNs trace the cosmic large-scale structure, spatial clustering of AGNs exists. We show that e-ROSITA will clearly detect the correlation signal of unresolved Seyferts at 0.5-2 keV and 2-10 keV bands and will be able to measure the bias parameter of AGNs at both bands. Once future hard X-ray all sky satellites achieve a sensitivity better than 10–12 erg cm–2 s–1 at 10-30 keV or 30-50 keV—although this is beyond the sensitivities of current hard X-ray all sky monitors—angular power spectra will allow us to independently investigate the fraction of Compton-thick AGNs in all Seyferts. We also find that the expected angular power spectra of Seyferts and blazars in the MeV range are different by about an order of magnitude, where the Poisson term, so-called shot noise, is dominant. Current and future MeV instruments will clearly disentangle the origin of the MeV gamma-ray background through the angular power spectrum.

  10. Mapping the antioxidant activity of apple peels with soft probe scanning electrochemical microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tzu-En; Lesch, Andreas; Li, Chi-Lin; Girault, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    We present a non-invasive electrochemical strategy for mapping the antioxidant (AO) activity of apple peels, which counterbalances oxidative stress caused by various external effectors. Soft carbon microelectrodes were used for soft probe scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) enabling the gentle and scratch-free in contact mode scanning of the rough and delicate apple peels in an electrolyte solution. The SECM feedback mode was applied using ferrocene methanol (FcMeOH) as redox mediator ...

  11. NHS-Esters As Versatile Reactivity-Based Probes for Mapping Proteome-Wide Ligandable Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Carl C; Kleinman, Jordan I; Nomura, Daniel K

    2017-06-16

    Most of the proteome is considered undruggable, oftentimes hindering translational efforts for drug discovery. Identifying previously unknown druggable hotspots in proteins would enable strategies for pharmacologically interrogating these sites with small molecules. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) has arisen as a powerful chemoproteomic strategy that uses reactivity-based chemical probes to map reactive, functional, and ligandable hotspots in complex proteomes, which has enabled inhibitor discovery against various therapeutic protein targets. Here, we report an alkyne-functionalized N-hydroxysuccinimide-ester (NHS-ester) as a versatile reactivity-based probe for mapping the reactivity of a wide range of nucleophilic ligandable hotspots, including lysines, serines, threonines, and tyrosines, encompassing active sites, allosteric sites, post-translational modification sites, protein interaction sites, and previously uncharacterized potential binding sites. Surprisingly, we also show that fragment-based NHS-ester ligands can be made to confer selectivity for specific lysine hotspots on specific targets including Dpyd, Aldh2, and Gstt1. We thus put forth NHS-esters as promising reactivity-based probes and chemical scaffolds for covalent ligand discovery.

  12. Final report: Mapping Interactions in Hybrid Systems with Active Scanning Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezovsky, Jesse [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This project aimed to study and map interactions between components of hybrid nanodevices using a novel scanning probe approach. To enable this work, we initially constructed a flexible experimental apparatus allowing for simultaneous scanning probe and confocal optical microscopy measurements. This setup was first used for all-optical measurements of nanostructures, with the focus then shifting to hybrid devices in which single coherent electron spins are coupled to micron-scale ferromagnetic elements, which may prove useful for addressing single spins, enhanced sensing, or spin-wave-mediated coupling of spins for quantum information applications. A significant breakthrough was the realization that it is not necessary to fabricate a magnetic structure on a scanning probe – instead a ferromagnetic vortex core can act as an integrated, solid state, scanning probe. The core of the vortex produces a very strong, localized fringe field which can be used analogously to an MFM tip. Unlike a traditional MFM tip, however, the vortex core is scanned within an integrated device (eliminating drift), and can be moved on vastly faster timescales. This approach allows the detailed investigation of interactions between single spins and complex driven ferromagnetic dynamics.

  13. Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J.-P.; Spinicelli, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Jacques, V. [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan and CNRS UMR 8537, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Dal Savio, C.; Karrai, K. [Attocube systems AG, Koeniginstrasse 11A RGB, Munich 80539 (Germany); Dantelle, G. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Ecole Polytechnique and CNRS UMR 7643, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Thiaville, A.; Rohart, S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-Sud and CNRS UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2012-04-09

    We demonstrate quantitative magnetic field mapping with nanoscale resolution, by applying a lock-in technique on the electron spin resonance frequency of a single nitrogen-vacancy defect placed at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip. In addition, we report an all-optical magnetic imaging technique which is sensitive to large off-axis magnetic fields, thus extending the operation range of diamond-based magnetometry. Both techniques are illustrated by using a magnetic hard disk as a test sample. Owing to the non-perturbing and quantitative nature of the magnetic probe, this work should open up numerous perspectives in nanomagnetism and spintronics.

  14. Mueller-matrix mapping of biological tissues in differential diagnosis of optical anisotropy mechanisms of protein networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushenko, V A; Sidor, M I [Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Marchuk, Yu F; Pashkovskaya, N V; Andreichuk, D R [Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2015-03-31

    We report a model of Mueller-matrix description of optical anisotropy of protein networks in biological tissues with allowance for the linear birefringence and dichroism. The model is used to construct the reconstruction algorithms of coordinate distributions of phase shifts and the linear dichroism coefficient. In the statistical analysis of such distributions, we have found the objective criteria of differentiation between benign and malignant tissues of the female reproductive system. From the standpoint of evidence-based medicine, we have determined the operating characteristics (sensitivity, specificity and accuracy) of the Mueller-matrix reconstruction method of optical anisotropy parameters and demonstrated its effectiveness in the differentiation of benign and malignant tumours. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  15. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  16. Nanoscale Surface Photovoltage Mapping of 2D Materials and Heterostructures by Illuminated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Shearer, Melinda J.

    2018-02-01

    Nanomaterials are interesting for a variety of applications, such as optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, they often have spatial heterogeneity, i.e. composition change or physical change in the topography or structure, which can lead to varying properties that would influence their applications. New techniques must be developed to understand and correlate spatial heterogeneity with changes in electronic properties. Here we highlight the technique of surface photovoltage-Kelvin probe force microscopy (SPV-KFM), which is a modified version of non-contact atomic force microscopy capable of imaging not only the topography and surface potential, but also the surface photovoltage on the nanoscale. We demonstrate its utility in probing monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructures, which form an ultrathin p-n junction promising for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. We show surface photovoltage maps highlighting the different photoresponse of the two material regions as a result of the effective charge separation across this junction. Additionally, we study the variations between different heterostructure flakes and emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis and transfer of these materials to obtain consistent properties and measurements.

  17. Nanoscale Surface Photovoltage Mapping of 2D Materials and Heterostructures by Illuminated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Shearer, Melinda J.; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Jin, Song; Hamers, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    Nanomaterials are interesting for a variety of applications, such as optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, they often have spatial heterogeneity, i.e. composition change or physical change in the topography or structure, which can lead to varying properties that would influence their applications. New techniques must be developed to understand and correlate spatial heterogeneity with changes in electronic properties. Here we highlight the technique of surface photovoltage-Kelvin probe force microscopy (SPV-KFM), which is a modified version of non-contact atomic force microscopy capable of imaging not only the topography and surface potential, but also the surface photovoltage on the nanoscale. We demonstrate its utility in probing monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructures, which form an ultrathin p-n junction promising for photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications. We show surface photovoltage maps highlighting the different photoresponse of the two material regions as a result of the effective charge separation across this junction. Additionally, we study the variations between different heterostructure flakes and emphasize the importance of controlling the synthesis and transfer of these materials to obtain consistent properties and measurements.

  18. Mapping energetics of atom probe evaporation events through first principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Joaquín; Broderick, Scott R; Rajan, Krishna

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to use atomistic modeling to determine accurate inputs into the atom probe tomography (APT) reconstruction process. One of these inputs is evaporation field; however, a challenge occurs because single ions and dimers have different evaporation fields. We have calculated the evaporation field of Al and Sc ions and Al-Al and Al-Sc dimers from an L1₂-Al₃Sc surface using ab initio calculations and with a high electric field applied to the surface. The evaporation field is defined as the electric field at which the energy barrier size is calculated as zero, corresponding to the minimum field that atoms from the surface can break their bonds and evaporate from the surface. The evaporation field of the surface atoms are ranked from least to greatest as: Al-Al dimer, Al ion, Sc ion, and Al-Sc dimer. The first principles results were compared with experimental data in the form of an ion evaporation map, which maps multi-ion evaporations. From the ion evaporation map of L1₂-Al₃Sc, we extract relative evaporation fields and identify that an Al-Al dimer has a lower evaporation field than an Al-Sc dimer. Additionally, comparatively an Al-Al surface dimer is more likely to evaporate as a dimer, while an Al-Sc surface dimer is more likely to evaporate as single ions. These conclusions from the experiment agree with the ab initio calculations, validating the use of this approach for modeling APT energetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Flexibility of Enzymes Suspended in Organic Solvents Probed by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy. Evidence That Enzyme Activity and Enantioselectivity Are Directly Related to Enzyme Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, Jaap; Visser, Antonie J.W.G.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Verboom, Willem; Hoek, Arie van; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1995-01-01

    A time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy study on the molecular flexibility of active-site labeled anthraniloyl-α-chymotrypsin, dansylsubtilisin Carlsberg, and native subtilisin Carlsberg, suspended in organic solvents, is described. The internal rotational mobility of the fluorophore in the

  20. Probing anisotropies of gravitational-wave backgrounds with a space-based interferometer: Geometric properties of antenna patterns and their angular power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudoh, Hideaki; Taruya, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the sensitivity to anisotropies of stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds (GWBs) observed via space-based interferometer. In addition to the unresolved galactic binaries as the most promising GWB source of the planned Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), the extragalactic sources for GWBs might be detected in the future space missions. The anisotropies of the GWBs thus play a crucial role to discriminate various components of the GWBs. We study general features of antenna pattern sensitivity to the anisotropies of GWBs beyond the low-frequency approximation. We show that the sensitivity of space-based interferometer to GWBs is severely restricted by the data combinations and the symmetries of the detector configuration. The spherical harmonic analysis of the antenna pattern functions reveals that the angular power of the detector response increases with frequency and the detectable multipole moments with effective sensitivity h eff ∼10 -20 Hz -1/2 may reach l∼8-10 at f∼f * =10 mHz in the case of the single LISA detector. However, the cross correlation of optimal interferometric variables is blind to the monopole (l=0) intensity anisotropy, and also to the dipole (l=1) in some case, irrespective of the frequency band. Besides, all the self-correlated signals are shown to be blind to the odd multipole moments (l=odd), independently of the frequency band

  1. Polarized Neutron Diffraction as a Tool for Mapping Molecular Magnetic Anisotropy: Local Susceptibility Tensors in Co(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridier, Karl; Gillon, Béatrice; Gukasov, Arsen; Chaboussant, Grégory; Cousson, Alain; Luneau, Dominique; Borta, Ana; Jacquot, Jean-François; Checa, Ruben; Chiba, Yukako; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Mikuriya, Masahiro

    2016-01-11

    Polarized neutron diffraction (PND) experiments were carried out at low temperature to characterize with high precision the local magnetic anisotropy in two paramagnetic high-spin cobalt(II) complexes, namely [Co(II) (dmf)6 ](BPh4 )2 (1) and [Co(II) 2 (sym-hmp)2 ](BPh4 )2 (2), in which dmf=N,N-dimethylformamide; sym-hmp=2,6-bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)methylaminomethyl]-4-methylphenolate, and BPh4 (-) =tetraphenylborate. This allowed a unique and direct determination of the local magnetic susceptibility tensor on each individual Co(II) site. In compound 1, this approach reveals the correlation between the single-ion easy magnetization direction and a trigonal elongation axis of the Co(II) coordination octahedron. In exchange-coupled dimer 2, the determination of the individual Co(II) magnetic susceptibility tensors provides a clear outlook of how the local magnetic properties on both Co(II) sites deviate from the single-ion behavior because of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Vibration-dependent angular anisotropy in the photodetachment of O{sub 2}{sup -}, viewed with velocity-map imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, S T; Cavanagh, S J; Lewis, B R [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gascooke, J R [School of Chemistry, Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University, SA 5001 (Australia); Mabbs, R [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St Louis MO 63930-4899 (United States); Sanov, A, E-mail: Stephen.Gibson@anu.edu.a, E-mail: Steven.Cavanagh@anu.edu.a [Department of Chemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721-0041 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The photodetachment spectrum of O{sub 2}{sup -} has been measured at a number of wavelengths using velocity-map imaging. The electron kinetic-energy resolution (< 5 meV) is sufficient to resolve the anion fine-structure splitting, vibrational and electronic structure. The electron angular distribution varies with the electron kinetic-energy, with a different behaviour for each vibronic band.

  3. A new method for mapping the three-dimensional atomic distribution within nanoparticles by atom probe tomography (APT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Ho; Kang, Phil Woong; Park, O Ok; Seol, Jae-Bok; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Lee, Ji Yeong; Choi, Pyuck-Pa

    2018-07-01

    We present a new method of preparing needle-shaped specimens for atom probe tomography from freestanding Pd and C-supported Pt nanoparticles. The method consists of two steps, namely electrophoresis of nanoparticles on a flat Cu substrate followed by electrodeposition of a Ni film acting as an embedding matrix for the nanoparticles. Atom probe specimen preparation can be subsequently carried out by means of focused-ion-beam milling. Using this approach, we have been able to perform correlative atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscopy analyses on both nanoparticle systems. Reliable mass spectra and three-dimensional atom maps could be obtained for Pd nanoparticle specimens. In contrast, atom probe samples prepared from C-supported Pt nanoparticles showed uneven field evaporation and hence artifacts in the reconstructed atom maps. Our developed method is a viable means of mapping the three-dimensional atomic distribution within nanoparticles and is expected to contribute to an improved understanding of the structure-composition-property relationships of various nanoparticle systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probing the Chaotic Dynamics of Fluids using Insights from Coupled Map Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbish, Johnathon; Xu, Mu; Paul, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Many difficult fluid challenges exhibit high-dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. Natural examples include the dynamics of the atmosphere and oceans. New insights have been gained by studying canonical fluid problems such as Rayleigh-Bénard convection where significant progress has been made using large-scale computations of the partial differential equations that describe the fluid flow. However, these computations remain very expensive which makes it difficult, if not currently impossible, to explore new ideas that require large sample sets, vast sweeps of parameter space, and long-time statistics. We study these questions using coupled map lattices (CML) in one and two dimensions. We compute the covariant Lyapunov vectors to probe fundamental features of the CML's including the Lyapunov spectrum, fractal dimension, and the principal angle between the stable and unstable manifolds. We are particularly interested in the role of a conservation law on the chaotic dynamics, the use of ideas from equilibrium thermodynamics to yield a coarse-grained representation, and in the development of reduced order models. This work is supported by NSF DMS-1622299.

  5. Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy of Magnetic Grains in Co80Pt20:Oxide Thin Films Probed by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Morton, S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.; Arenholz, E.; Lu, B.; Cheng, T. Y.; Xu, Y. B.; Laan, G. van der; Hu, X.F

    2011-01-12

    Using angle-dependent x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we have measured magnetic hysteresis loops at the Co L2,3 edges of oxide-doped Co80Pt20 thin films. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of the Co atoms, which is the main source of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the CoPt magnetic grains, has been determined directly from these element-specific hysteresis loops. When the oxide volume fraction (OVF) is increased from 16.6% to 20.7%, the Co MAE has been found to decrease from 0.117 meV/atom to 0.076 meV/atom. While a larger OVF helps one to achieve a smaller grain size, it reduces the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, as demonstrated unambiguously from the direct Co MAE measurements. Our results suggest that those Co80Pt20:oxide films with an OVF between 19.1% and 20.7% are suitable candidates for high-density magnetic recording.

  6. Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.A.; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Kuipers, L.; van Hulst, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    The most difficult task in near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is to make a high quality subwavelength aperture probe, Recently we have developed high definition NSOM probes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. These probes have a higher brightness, better polarization characteristics,

  7. Utility of fractional anisotropy imaging analyzed by statistical parametric mapping for detecting minute brain lesions in chronic-stage patients who had mild or moderate traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Okumura, Ayumi; Aki, Tatsuki; Takenaka, Shunsuke; Miwa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Mikito; Ito, Takeshi; Yokohama, Kazutoshi

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has recently evolved as valuable technique to investigate diffuse axonal injury (DAI). This study examined whether fractional anisotropy (FA) images analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (FA-SPM images) are superior to T 2 *-weighted gradient recalled echo (T2*GRE) images or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images for detecting minute lesions in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. DTI was performed in 25 patients with cognitive impairments in the chronic stage after mild or moderate TBI. The FA maps obtained from the DTI were individually compared with those from age-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based analysis and FA-SPM images (p<0.001). Abnormal low-intensity areas on T2*GRE images (T2* lesions) were found in 10 patients (40.0%), abnormal high-intensity areas on FLAIR images in 4 patients (16.0%), and areas with significantly decreased FA on FA-SPM image in 16 patients (64.0%). Nine of 10 patients with T2* lesions had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM lesions topographically included most T2* lesions in the white matter and the deep brain structures, but did not include T2* lesions in the cortex/near-cortex or lesions containing substantial hemosiderin regardless of location. All 4 patients with abnormal areas on FLAIR images had FA-SPM lesions. FA-SPM imaging is useful for detecting minute lesions because of DAI in the white matter and the deep brain structures, which may not be visualized on T2*GRE or FLAIR images, and may allow the detection of minute brain lesions in patients with post-traumatic cognitive impairment. (author)

  8. Swelling-induced optical anisotropy of thermoresponsive hydrogels based on poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate): deswelling kinetics probed by quantitative Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nagaraj; Soni, Jalpa; Ghosh, Nirmalya; De, Priyadarsi

    2012-11-29

    Thermodynamically favored polymer-water interactions below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) caused swelling-induced optical anisotropy (linear retardance) of thermoresponsive hydrogels based on poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate). This was exploited to study the macroscopic deswelling kinetics quantitatively by a generalized polarimetry analysis method, based on measurement of the Mueller matrix and its subsequent inverse analysis via the polar decomposition approach. The derived medium polarization parameters, namely, linear retardance (δ), diattenuation (d), and depolarization coefficient (Δ), of the hydrogels showed interesting differences between the gels prepared by conventional free radical polymerization (FRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) and also between dry and swollen state. The effect of temperature, cross-linking density, and polymerization technique employed to synthesize hydrogel on deswelling kinetics was systematically studied via conventional gravimetry and corroborated further with the corresponding Mueller matrix derived quantitative polarimetry characteristics (δ, d, and Δ). The RAFT gels exhibited higher swelling ratio and swelling-induced optical anisotropy compared to FRP gels and also deswelled faster at 30 °C. On the contrary, at 45 °C, deswelling was significantly retarded for the RAFT gels due to formation of a skin layer, which was confirmed and quantified via the enhanced diattenuation and depolarization parameters.

  9. Probing primordial non Gaussianity in the BOOMERanG CMB maps: an analysis based on analytical Minkowski functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliaccio, M.; Natoli, P.; De Troia, G.; Hikage, C.; Komatsu, E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; Contaldi, C.R.; Crill, B.P.; Bernardis, P. de; Gasperis, G. de; Oliveira-Costa, A. de; Di Stefano, G.; Hivon, E.; Kisner, T.S.; Jones, W.C.; Lange, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Minkowski functionals are a powerful tool to constrain the Gaussianity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In the limit of a weakly non Gaussian field, a perturbative approach can be derived [Hikage C., Komatsu E., and Matsubara T., 2006, ApJ, 653, 11] that is completely based on analytical formulae without requiring computationally intensive, dedicated Monte Carlo non Gaussian simulations of the CMB anisotropy. We apply this machinery to an intensity map derived from the 1998 and 2003 flights of BOOMERanG, analyzed here together for the first time. We set limits on the non-linear coupling parameter f NL as -1020 NL <390 at 95% CL, markedly improving the previous constraints set by [De Troia G. et al., 2007, ApJ, 670, L73] whose analysis was limited to the BOOMERanG 2003 dataset. These limits are the most stringent ever set among suborbital experiments.

  10. Probing primordial non Gaussianity in the BOOMERanG CMB maps: an analysis based on analytical Minkowski functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliaccio, M.; Natoli, P.; De Troia, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 I-00133 Roma (Italy); Hikage, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Komatsu, E. [Texas Cosmology Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ade, P.A.R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Bock, J.J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bond, J.R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Borrill, J. [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boscaleri, A. [IFAC-CNR, Firenze (Italy); Contaldi, C.R. [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Crill, B.P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bernardis, P. de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); Gasperis, G. de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1 I-00133 Roma (Italy); Oliveira-Costa, A. de [Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Di Stefano, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 00143 Rome (Italy); Hivon, E. [Institut d' Astrophysique, Paris (France); Kisner, T.S. [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jones, W.C. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 0854 (United States); Lange, A.E. [Observational Cosmology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Minkowski functionals are a powerful tool to constrain the Gaussianity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). In the limit of a weakly non Gaussian field, a perturbative approach can be derived [Hikage C., Komatsu E., and Matsubara T., 2006, ApJ, 653, 11] that is completely based on analytical formulae without requiring computationally intensive, dedicated Monte Carlo non Gaussian simulations of the CMB anisotropy. We apply this machinery to an intensity map derived from the 1998 and 2003 flights of BOOMERanG, analyzed here together for the first time. We set limits on the non-linear coupling parameter f{sub NL} as -1020

  11. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  12. SPECTROSCOPIC INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING AS A PROBE OF GRAIN GROWTH IN IRDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Wanggi [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Carey, Sean J. [Infrared Processing Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present spectroscopic tests of MIR to FIR extinction laws in IRDC G028.36+00.07, a potential site of massive star and star cluster formation. Lim and Tan developed methods of FIR extinction mapping of this source using Spitzer-MIPS 24 μm and Herschel-PACS 70 μm images, and by comparing to MIR Spitzer-IRAC 3–8 μm extinction maps, found tentative evidence for grain growth in the highest mass surface density regions. Here we present results of spectroscopic infrared extinction mapping using Spitzer-IRS (14–38 μm) data of the same Infrared dark cloud (IRDC). These methods allow us to first measure the SED of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium that is in the foreground of the IRDC. We then carry out our primary investigation of measuring the MIR to FIR opacity law and searching for potential variations as a function of mass surface density within the IRDC. We find relatively flat, featureless MIR–FIR opacity laws that lack the ∼12 and ∼35 μm features associated with the thick water ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. Their thin ice mantle models and the coagulating aggregate dust models of Ormel et al. are a generally better match to the observed opacity laws. We also find evidence for generally flatter MIR to FIR extinction laws as mass surface density increases, strengthening the evidence for grain and ice mantle growth in higher density regions.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING AS A PROBE OF GRAIN GROWTH IN IRDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Carey, Sean J.; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    We present spectroscopic tests of MIR to FIR extinction laws in IRDC G028.36+00.07, a potential site of massive star and star cluster formation. Lim and Tan developed methods of FIR extinction mapping of this source using Spitzer-MIPS 24 μm and Herschel-PACS 70 μm images, and by comparing to MIR Spitzer-IRAC 3–8 μm extinction maps, found tentative evidence for grain growth in the highest mass surface density regions. Here we present results of spectroscopic infrared extinction mapping using Spitzer-IRS (14–38 μm) data of the same Infrared dark cloud (IRDC). These methods allow us to first measure the SED of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium that is in the foreground of the IRDC. We then carry out our primary investigation of measuring the MIR to FIR opacity law and searching for potential variations as a function of mass surface density within the IRDC. We find relatively flat, featureless MIR–FIR opacity laws that lack the ∼12 and ∼35 μm features associated with the thick water ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. Their thin ice mantle models and the coagulating aggregate dust models of Ormel et al. are a generally better match to the observed opacity laws. We also find evidence for generally flatter MIR to FIR extinction laws as mass surface density increases, strengthening the evidence for grain and ice mantle growth in higher density regions

  14. Mapping degenerate vortex states in a kagome lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, C.; Ge, J.-Y.; He, A.; Zharinov, V. S.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Zhou, Y. H.; Silhanek, A. V.; Van de Vondel, J.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the degeneracy of the superconducting vortex matter ground state by directly visualizing the vortex configurations in a kagome lattice of elongated antidots via scanning Hall probe microscopy. The observed vortex patterns, at specific applied magnetic fields, are in good agreement with the configurations obtained using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations. Both results indicate that the long-range interaction in this nanostructured superconductor is unable to lift the degeneracy between different vortex states and the pattern formation is mainly ruled by the nearest-neighbor interaction. This simplification makes it possible to identify a set of simple rules characterizing the vortex configurations. We demonstrate that these rules can explain both the observed vortex distributions and the magnetic-field-dependent degree of degeneracy.

  15. Probing the statistics of transport in the Hénon Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alus, O.; Fishman, S.; Meiss, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    The phase space of an area-preserving map typically contains infinitely many elliptic islands embedded in a chaotic sea. Orbits near the boundary of a chaotic region have been observed to stick for long times, strongly influencing their transport properties. The boundary is composed of invariant "boundary circles." We briefly report recent results of the distribution of rotation numbers of boundary circles for the Hénon quadratic map and show that the probability of occurrence of small integer entries of their continued fraction expansions is larger than would be expected for a number chosen at random. However, large integer entries occur with probabilities distributed proportionally to the random case. The probability distributions of ratios of fluxes through island chains is reported as well. These island chains are neighbours in the sense of the Meiss-Ott Markov-tree model. Two distinct universality families are found. The distributions of the ratio between the flux and orbital period are also presented. All of these results have implications for models of transport in mixed phase space.

  16. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  17. Anisotropy in the deep Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, Barbara; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been found in many regions of the Earth's interior. Its presence in the Earth's crust has been known since the 19th century, and is due in part to the alignment of anisotropic crystals in rocks, and in part to patterns in the distribution of fractures and pores. In the upper mantle, seismic anisotropy was discovered 50 years ago, and can be attributed for the most part, to the alignment of intrinsically anisotropic olivine crystals during large scale deformation associated with convection. There is some indication for anisotropy in the transition zone, particularly in the vicinity of subducted slabs. Here we focus on the deep Earth - the lower mantle and core, where anisotropy is not yet mapped in detail, nor is there consensus on its origin. Most of the lower mantle appears largely isotropic, except in the last 200-300 km, in the D″ region, where evidence for seismic anisotropy has been accumulating since the late 1980s, mostly from shear wave splitting measurements. Recently, a picture has been emerging, where strong anisotropy is associated with high shear velocities at the edges of the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the central Pacific and under Africa. These observations are consistent with being due to the presence of highly anisotropic MgSiO3 post-perovskite crystals, aligned during the deformation of slabs impinging on the core-mantle boundary, and upwelling flow within the LLSVPs. We also discuss mineral physics aspects such as ultrahigh pressure deformation experiments, first principles calculations to obtain information about elastic properties, and derivation of dislocation activity based on bonding characteristics. Polycrystal plasticity simulations can predict anisotropy but models are still highly idealized and neglect the complex microstructure of polyphase aggregates with strong and weak components. A promising direction for future progress in understanding the origin of seismic anisotropy in the deep mantle

  18. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  19. On the retrieval of crystallographic information from atom probe microscopy data via signal mapping from the detector coordinate space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Nathan D; Ceguerra, Anna V; Breen, Andrew J; Ringer, Simon P

    2018-06-01

    Atom probe tomography is a powerful microscopy technique capable of reconstructing the 3D position and chemical identity of millions of atoms within engineering materials, at the atomic level. Crystallographic information contained within the data is particularly valuable for the purposes of reconstruction calibration and grain boundary analysis. Typically, analysing this data is a manual, time-consuming and error prone process. In many cases, the crystallographic signal is so weak that it is difficult to detect at all. In this study, a new automated signal processing methodology is demonstrated. We use the affine properties of the detector coordinate space, or the 'detector stack', as the basis for our calculations. The methodological framework and the visualisation tools are shown to be superior to the standard method of crystallographic pole visualisation directly from field evaporation images and there is no requirement for iterations between a full real-space initial tomographic reconstruction and the detector stack. The mapping approaches are demonstrated for aluminium, tungsten, magnesium and molybdenum. Implications for reconstruction calibration, accuracy of crystallographic measurements, reliability and repeatability are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy.

  1. Extracting foreground-obscured μ-distortion anisotropies to constrain primordial non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remazeilles, M.; Chluba, J.

    2018-04-01

    Correlations between cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature, polarization and spectral distortion anisotropies can be used as a probe of primordial non-Gaussianity. Here, we perform a reconstruction of μ-distortion anisotropies in the presence of Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds, applying the so-called Constrained ILC component separation method to simulations of proposed CMB space missions (PIXIE, LiteBIRD, CORE, PICO). Our sky simulations include Galactic dust, Galactic synchrotron, Galactic free-free, thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, as well as primary CMB temperature and μ-distortion anisotropies, the latter being added as correlated field. The Constrained ILC method allows us to null the CMB temperature anisotropies in the reconstructed μ-map (and vice versa), in addition to mitigating the contaminations from astrophysical foregrounds and instrumental noise. We compute the cross-power spectrum between the reconstructed (CMB-free) μ-distortion map and the (μ-free) CMB temperature map, after foreground removal and component separation. Since the cross-power spectrum is proportional to the primordial non-Gaussianity parameter, fNL, on scales k˜eq 740 Mpc^{-1}, this allows us to derive fNL-detection limits for the aforementioned future CMB experiments. Our analysis shows that foregrounds degrade the theoretical detection limits (based mostly on instrumental noise) by more than one order of magnitude, with PICO standing the best chance at placing upper limits on scale-dependent non-Gaussianity. We also discuss the dependence of the constraints on the channel sensitivities and chosen bands. Like for B-mode polarization measurements, extended coverage at frequencies ν ≲ 40 GHz and ν ≳ 400 GHz provides more leverage than increased channel sensitivity.

  2. Theoretical analysis of a dual-probe scanning tunneling microscope setup on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen R; Petersen, Dirch H; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-03-07

    Experimental advances allow for the inclusion of multiple probes to measure the transport properties of a sample surface. We develop a theory of dual-probe scanning tunneling microscopy using a Green's function formalism, and apply it to graphene. Sampling the local conduction properties at finite length scales yields real space conductance maps which show anisotropy for pristine graphene systems and quantum interference effects in the presence of isolated impurities. Spectral signatures in the Fourier transforms of real space conductance maps include characteristics that can be related to different scattering processes. We compute the conductance maps of graphene systems with different edge geometries or height fluctuations to determine the effects of nonideal graphene samples on dual-probe measurements.

  3. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in multiconnected flat spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazuelo, Alain; Weeks, Jeffrey; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Lehoucq, Roland; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the signature of the seventeen multiconnected flat spaces in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. For each such space it recalls a fundamental domain and a set of generating matrices, and then goes on to find an orthonormal basis for the set of eigenmodes of the Laplace operator on that space. The basis eigenmodes are expressed as linear combinations of eigenmodes of the simply connected Euclidean space. A preceding work, which provides a general method for implementing multiconnected topologies in standard CMB codes, is then applied to simulate CMB maps and angular power spectra for each space. Unlike in the 3-torus, the results in most multiconnected flat spaces depend on the location of the observer. This effect is discussed in detail. In particular, it is shown that the correlated circles on a CMB map are generically not back to back, so that negative search of back-to-back circles in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data does not exclude a vast majority of flat or nearly flat topologies

  4. Absorption anisotropy studies of polymethine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepkowicz, Richard S.; Cirloganu, Claudiu M.; Przhonska, Olga V.; Hagan, David J.; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Bondar, Mikhail V.; Slominsky, Yuriy L.; Kachkovski, Alexei D.; Mayboroda, Elena I.

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the spectral position of the excited states and orientation of the transition dipole moments of polymethine molecules is experimentally measured using two methods: the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy method, and a two-color polarization-resolved pump-probe method. This novel use of the pump-probe method is described in detail and a comparison to the fluorescence method is given. Quantum-chemical modeling on the effects of the bridge structure in the polymethine chromophore on the linear absorption spectrum is also discussed

  5. Neurite density imaging versus imaging of microscopic anisotropy in diffusion MRI: A model comparison using spherical tensor encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Björn; Szczepankiewicz, Filip; Mårtensson, Johan; van Westen, Danielle; Sundgren, Pia C; Nilsson, Markus

    2017-02-15

    In diffusion MRI (dMRI), microscopic diffusion anisotropy can be obscured by orientation dispersion. Separation of these properties is of high importance, since it could allow dMRI to non-invasively probe elongated structures such as neurites (axons and dendrites). However, conventional dMRI, based on single diffusion encoding (SDE), entangles microscopic anisotropy and orientation dispersion with intra-voxel variance in isotropic diffusivity. SDE-based methods for estimating microscopic anisotropy, such as the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) method, must thus rely on model assumptions to disentangle these features. An alternative approach is to directly quantify microscopic anisotropy by the use of variable shape of the b-tensor. Along those lines, we here present the 'constrained diffusional variance decomposition' (CODIVIDE) method, which jointly analyzes data acquired with diffusion encoding applied in a single direction at a time (linear tensor encoding, LTE) and in all directions (spherical tensor encoding, STE). We then contrast the two approaches by comparing neurite density estimated using NODDI with microscopic anisotropy estimated using CODIVIDE. Data were acquired in healthy volunteers and in glioma patients. NODDI and CODIVIDE differed the most in gray matter and in gliomas, where NODDI detected a neurite fraction higher than expected from the level of microscopic diffusion anisotropy found with CODIVIDE. The discrepancies could be explained by the NODDI tortuosity assumption, which enforces a connection between the neurite density and the mean diffusivity of tissue. Our results suggest that this assumption is invalid, which leads to a NODDI neurite density that is inconsistent between LTE and STE data. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the NODDI assumptions result in parameter bias that precludes the use of NODDI to map neurite density. With CODIVIDE, we found high levels of microscopic anisotropy in white matter

  6. CMB anisotropies at all orders: the non-linear Sachs-Wolfe formula

    OpenAIRE

    Roldan, Omar

    2017-01-01

    We obtain the non-linear generalization of the Sachs-Wolfe + integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) formula describing the CMB temperature anisotropies. Our formula is valid at all orders in perturbation theory, is also valid in all gauges and includes scalar, vector and tensor modes. A direct consequence of our results is that the maps of the logarithmic temperature anisotropies are much cleaner than the usual CMB maps, because they automatically remove many secondary anisotropies. This can for instan...

  7. Simulated cosmic microwave background maps at 0.5 deg resolution: Basic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.

    1995-01-01

    We have simulated full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy expected from cold dark matter (CDM) models at 0.5 deg and 1.0 deg angular resolution. Statistical properties of the maps are presented as a function of sky coverage, angular resolution, and instrument noise, and the implications of these results for observability of the Doppler peak are discussed. The rms fluctuations in a map are not a particularly robust probe of the existence of a Doppler peak; however, a full correlation analysis can provide reasonable sensitivity. We find that sensitivity to the Doppler peak depends primarily on the fraction of sky covered, and only secondarily on the angular resolution and noise level. Color plates of the simulated maps are presented to illustrate the anisotropies.

  8. MALDI MS peptide mapping performance by in-gel digestion on a probe with prestructured sample supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klenø, Tina Guldberg; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Kjeldal, Helle Ørsted

    2004-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (tandem) mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is widely used in protein chemistry and proteomics research for the identification and characterization of proteins isolated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In an effort to minimize sample handling and increa......-probe digestion protocol combined with MALDI tandem mass spectrometry provides a robust platform for proteomics research, including protein identification and determination of posttranslational modifications....

  9. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  10. Plasma sheet pressure anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiles, G.S.; Hones, E.W. Jr; Bame, S.J.; Asbridge, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The ecliptic plane components of the pressure tensors for low-energy ( or =1.2 approximately 25% of the time. Due to the low energy density of the electrons, however, this anisotropy is not itself sufficient to balance the tension of the magnetic field

  11. CMB anisotropies interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinger, S.; Delabrouille, Jacques; Roux, Michel; Maitre, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of the interpolation of irregularly spaced spatial data, applied to observation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. The well-known interpolation methods and kriging are compared to the binning method which serves as a reference approach. We analyse kriging

  12. Probing High School Students' Cognitive Structures and Key Areas of Learning Difficulties on Ethanoic Acid Using the Flow Map Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Tingting; Zheng, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was primarily to explore high school students' cognitive structures and to identify their learning difficulties on ethanoic acid through the flow map method. The subjects of this study were 30 grade 1 students from Dong Yuan Road Senior High School in Xi'an, China. The interviews were conducted a week after the students…

  13. Dark matter electron anisotropy. A universal upper limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, Enrico; Maccione, Luca; Cuoco, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are affected by large uncertainties, coming both from the DM side, and from poor understanding of the astrophysical backgrounds. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons does not suffer from these unknowns. Furthermore, if contributions from possible local sources are neglected, the intrinsic DM anisotropy sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if some anisotropy larger than the DM upper bound is detected, its origin could not be ascribed to DM, and would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete sources of high energy electrons and positrons. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years. (orig.)

  14. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2005-12-01

    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  15. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia (Canada); Zhou, H. [CTF Systems, Inc., British Columbia (Canada)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B{sub z} (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B{sub z} distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B{sub x,y}) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B{sub x,y}/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  16. Study by Hall probe mapping of the trapped flux modification produced by local heating in YBCO HTS bulks for different surface/volume ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Ph; Mathieu, J-P; Mattivi, B; Fagnard, J-F; Meslin, S; Noudem, J G; Ausloos, M; Cloots, R; Vanderbemden, Ph

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this report is to compare the trapped field distribution under a local heating created at the sample edge for different sample morphologies. Hall probe mappings of the magnetic induction trapped in YBCO bulk samples maintained out of thermal equilibrium were performed on YBCO bulk single domains, YBCO single domains with regularly spaced hole arrays, and YBCO superconducting foams. The capability of heat draining was quantified by two criteria: the average induction decay and the size of the thermally affected zone caused by a local heating of the sample. Among the three investigated sample shapes, the drilled single domain displays a trapped induction which is weakly affected by the local heating while displaying a high trapped field. Finally, a simple numerical modelling of the heat flux spreading into a drilled sample is used to suggest some design rules about the hole configuration and their size

  17. Quarkonium dissociation by anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We compute the screening length for quarkonium mesons moving through an anisotropic, strongly coupled mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary velocities and orientations of the mesons, as well as for arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic screening length can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. For generic motion we find that: (i) mesons dissociate above a certain critical value of the anisotropy, even at zero temperature; (ii) there is a limiting velocity for mesons in the plasma, even at zero temperature; (iii) in the ultra-relativistic limit the screening length scales as (1 - v 2)ɛ with ɛ = 1 /2, in contrast with the isotropic result ɛ = 1 /4.

  18. Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2017-10-01

    We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.

  19. Sun-induced fluorescence - a new probe of photosynthesis: First maps from the imaging spectrometer HyPlant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascher, U; Alonso, L; Burkart, A; Cilia, C; Cogliati, S; Colombo, R; Damm, A; Drusch, M; Guanter, L; Hanus, J; Hyvärinen, T; Julitta, T; Jussila, J; Kataja, K; Kokkalis, P; Kraft, S; Kraska, T; Matveeva, M; Moreno, J; Muller, O; Panigada, C; Pikl, M; Pinto, F; Prey, L; Pude, R; Rossini, M; Schickling, A; Schurr, U; Schüttemeyer, D; Verrelst, J; Zemek, F

    2015-12-01

    Variations in photosynthesis still cause substantial uncertainties in predicting photosynthetic CO2 uptake rates and monitoring plant stress. Changes in actual photosynthesis that are not related to greenness of vegetation are difficult to measure by reflectance based optical remote sensing techniques. Several activities are underway to evaluate the sun-induced fluorescence signal on the ground and on a coarse spatial scale using space-borne imaging spectrometers. Intermediate-scale observations using airborne-based imaging spectroscopy, which are critical to bridge the existing gap between small-scale field studies and global observations, are still insufficient. Here we present the first validated maps of sun-induced fluorescence in that critical, intermediate spatial resolution, employing the novel airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. HyPlant has an unprecedented spectral resolution, which allows for the first time quantifying sun-induced fluorescence fluxes in physical units according to the Fraunhofer Line Depth Principle that exploits solar and atmospheric absorption bands. Maps of sun-induced fluorescence show a large spatial variability between different vegetation types, which complement classical remote sensing approaches. Different crop types largely differ in emitting fluorescence that additionally changes within the seasonal cycle and thus may be related to the seasonal activation and deactivation of the photosynthetic machinery. We argue that sun-induced fluorescence emission is related to two processes: (i) the total absorbed radiation by photosynthetically active chlorophyll; and (ii) the functional status of actual photosynthesis and vegetation stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. General quadrupolar statistical anisotropy: Planck limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, S. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Viale Francesco Crispi 7, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Rubtsov, G. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospect of the 60th Anniversary of October 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thorsrud, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Østfold University College, P.O. Box 700, 1757 Halden (Norway); Urban, F.R., E-mail: sabir.ramazanov@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: grisha@ms2.inr.ac.ru, E-mail: mikjel.thorsrud@hiof.no, E-mail: federico.urban@kbfi.ee [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-03-01

    Several early Universe scenarios predict a direction-dependent spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations. This translates into the violation of the statistical isotropy of cosmic microwave background radiation. Previous searches for statistical anisotropy mainly focussed on a quadrupolar direction-dependence characterised by a single multipole vector and an overall amplitude g {sub *}. Generically, however, the quadrupole has a more complicated geometry described by two multipole vectors and g {sub *}. This is the subject of the present work. In particular, we limit the amplitude g {sub *} for different shapes of the quadrupole by making use of Planck 2015 maps. We also constrain certain inflationary scenarios which predict this kind of more general quadrupolar statistical anisotropy.

  1. Flow stress anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    1996-01-01

    stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...

  2. Probing the communication of deoxythymidine triphosphate in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by communication maps and interaction energy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Ramachandran

    2017-11-08

    We calculate communication maps for HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT) to elucidate energy transfer pathways between deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) and other parts of the protein. This approach locates energy transport channels from the dTTP to remote regions of the protein via residues and water molecules. We examine the water dynamics near the catalytic site of HIV-1 RT by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that, within the catalytic site, the relaxation of water molecules is similar to that of the hydration water molecules present in other proteins and the relaxation time scale is fast enough to transport energy and helps in communication between dTTP and other residues in the system. To quantify energy transfer, we also calculate the interaction energies of dTTP, 2Mg 2+ , doxy-guanosine nucleotide (DG22) with their surrounding residues by using the B3LYP-D3 method. The results, from classical vibrational energy diffusivity and QM interaction energy, are complementary to identify the important residues involved in the process of polymerization. The positive and negative interactions by dTTP with different types of residues in the catalytic region make the residues transfer energy through vibrational communication.

  3. Asymmetric beams and CMB statistical anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Duncan; Lewis, Antony; Challinor, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Beam asymmetries result in statistically anisotropic cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. Typically, they are studied for their effects on the CMB power spectrum, however they more closely mimic anisotropic effects such as gravitational lensing and primordial power asymmetry. We discuss tools for studying the effects of beam asymmetry on general quadratic estimators of anisotropy, analytically for full-sky observations as well as in the analysis of realistic data. We demonstrate this methodology in application to a recently detected 9σ quadrupolar modulation effect in the WMAP data, showing that beams provide a complete and sufficient explanation for the anomaly.

  4. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  5. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  6. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  7. Comparative mapping of DNA probes derived from the V{sub k} immunoglobulin gene regions on human and great ape chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, N.; Wienberg, J.; Ermert, K. [Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cosmid clones of human V{sub K} gene regions to human and primate chromosomes contributed to the dating of chromosome reorganizations in evolution. A clone from the K locus at 2p11-p12 (cos 106) hybridized to the assumed homologous chromosome bands in the chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (PTR) and P. paniscus (PPA), the Gorilla gorilla (GGO), and the orangutan Pongo Pygmaeus (PPY). Human and both chimpanzees differed from gorilla and orangutan by the mapping of cos 170, a clone derived from chromosome 2cen-q11.2; the transposition of this orphon to the other side of the centromere can, therefore, be dated after the human/chimpanzee and gorilla divergence. Hybridization to homologous bands was also found with a cosmid clone containing a V{sub K}I orphon located on chromosome 1 (cos 115, main signal at 1q31-q32), although the probe is not fully unique. Also, a clone derived from the orphon V{sub K} region on chromosome 22q11 (cos 121) hybridized to the homologous bands in the great apes. This indicates that the orphons on human chromosomes 1 and 22 had been translocated early in primate evolution. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Cosmic ray anisotropy searches with AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeissler, Stefan; Gebauer, Iris; Trumpf, Ricarda [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state-of-the-art particle detector designed to operate as an external module on the International Space Station (ISS). In this unique space environment cosmic particles can be measured with high precision over an energy range from GeV up to TeV. The AMS collaboration provided precise measurements of the electron and positron fluxes, which indicate an additional source of positrons among the various cosmic particles. Possible candidates for this source are local pulsars, a local source of positrons produced in proton-gas interactions or dark matter annihilation. In the first two cases a possible anisotropy in the electrons and positrons incoming direction at Earth might be detectable. To determine the level of isotropy the measured data is compared to reference maps, which simulate the measurement of an isotropic sky. A common choice of reference maps are proton count maps or shuffled maps, which redistribute measured incoming directions over the whole measuring time. Both choices lead to difficulties in the reconstruction of a marginal signal with a big expansion over the galactic sky as it would be the case for charged cosmic particles. We developed a method to construct reference maps based on fundamental detector characteristics such as the lifetime and the geometric acceptance. Using this we are able to reconstruct the isotropic sky as it would be seen by the detector. We demonstrate the performance of the method using AMS-02 data.

  9. Measuring the cosmological lepton asymmetry through the CMB anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, W H; Kinney, William H.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    A large lepton asymmetry in the Universe is still a viable possibility and leads to many interesting phenomena such as gauge symmetry nonrestoration at high temperature. We show that a large lepton asymmetry changes the predicted cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and that any degeneracy in the relic neutrino sea will be measured to a precision of 1% or better when the CMB anisotropy is measured at the accuracy expected to result from the planned satellite missions MAP and Planck. In fact, the current measurements already put an upper limit on the lepton asymmetry of the Universe which is stronger than the one coming from considerations of primordial nucleosynthesis and structure formation.

  10. A Bayesian method to quantify azimuthal anisotropy model uncertainties: application to global azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle and transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, K.; Beghein, C.

    2018-04-01

    Seismic anisotropy is a powerful tool to constrain mantle deformation, but its existence in the deep upper mantle and topmost lower mantle is still uncertain. Recent results from higher mode Rayleigh waves have, however, revealed the presence of 1 per cent azimuthal anisotropy between 300 and 800 km depth, and changes in azimuthal anisotropy across the mantle transition zone boundaries. This has important consequences for our understanding of mantle convection patterns and deformation of deep mantle material. Here, we propose a Bayesian method to model depth variations in azimuthal anisotropy and to obtain quantitative uncertainties on the fast seismic direction and anisotropy amplitude from phase velocity dispersion maps. We applied this new method to existing global fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps to assess the likelihood of azimuthal anisotropy in the deep upper mantle and to determine whether previously detected changes in anisotropy at the transition zone boundaries are robustly constrained by those data. Our results confirm that deep upper-mantle azimuthal anisotropy is favoured and well constrained by the higher mode data employed. The fast seismic directions are in agreement with our previously published model. The data favour a model characterized, on average, by changes in azimuthal anisotropy at the top and bottom of the transition zone. However, this change in fast axes is not a global feature as there are regions of the model where the azimuthal anisotropy direction is unlikely to change across depths in the deep upper mantle. We were, however, unable to detect any clear pattern or connection with surface tectonics. Future studies will be needed to further improve the lateral resolution of this type of model at transition zone depths.

  11. Sixty-five radiation hybrids for the short arm of human chromosome 6: their value as a mapping panel and as a source for rapid isolation of new probes using repeat element-mediated PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, H.Y.; McCall, A.E.; LeBorgne-Demarquoy, F.

    1991-01-01

    We have used an irradiation and fusion procedure to generate somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 6 (6p). To identify hybrids retaining human material, we performed repeat element-mediated PCR on crude lysates of cells from individual clones. Sixty-five hybrids were shown to contain human material and fifty of those contained one or more 6p-specific probes. Detailed characterization of these hybrids identified a subset that divides 6p into ten mapping intervals. Using repeat element-mediated PCR, we were able to isolate and map 61 new DNA fragments from specific regions of 6p. Fifteen of these fragments were used to screen for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and nine identified RFLPs with one or more enzymes. The radiation hybrids described in this study provide a valuable resource for high-resolution mapping of 6p and for the rapid isolation of region-specific markers

  12. Simultaneous determination of glycols based on fluorescence anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Sanchez, F.; Navas Diaz, A.; Lopez Guerrero, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of non-fluorescent glycols in mixtures without separation or chemical transformation steps is described. Two methods based in the measure of fluorescence anisotropy of a probe such as fluorescein dissolved in the analyte or analyte mixtures are described. In the first method, the anisotropy spectra of pure and mixtures of analytes are used to quantitative determination (if the fluorophor concentration is in a range where fluorescence intensity is proportional to concentration). In the second method, a calibration curve anisotropy-concentration based on the application of the Perrin equation is established. The methods presented here are capable of directly resolving binary mixtures of non-fluorescent glycols on the basis of differences on the fluorescence anisotropy of a fluorescence tracer. Best analytical performances were obtained by application of the method based on Perrin equation. This method is simple, rapid and allows the determination of mixtures of glycols with reasonable accuracy and precision. Detection limits are limited by the quantum yield and anisotropy values of the tracer in the solvents. Recovery values are related to the differences in anisotropy values of the tracer in the pure solvents. Mixtures of glycerine/ethylene glycol (GL/EG), ethylene glycol/1,2-propane diol (EG/1,2-PPD) and polyethylene glycol 400/1,2-propane diol (PEG 400/1,2-PPD) were analysed and recovery values are within 95-120% in the Perrin method. Relative standard deviation are in the range 1.3-2.9% and detection limits in the range 3.9-8.9%

  13. The Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe - A Mission to Discover the Origin of Particle Acceleration and its Fundamental Connection to the Global Interstellar Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, N.

    2017-12-01

    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence - an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies ( 5-55 keV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The global structure of the heliosphere is highly complex and influenced by competing factors ranging from the local interstellar magnetic field, suprathermal populations both within and beyond the heliopause, and the detailed flow properties of the LISM. Global heliospheric structure and microphysics in turn influences the acceleration of energetic particles and creates feedbacks that modify the interstellar interaction as a whole. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics and probe the acceleration of suprathermal and higher energy particles at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP ultimately connects the acceleration processes observed directly at 1 AU with unprecedented sensitivity and temporal resolution with the global structure of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. IMAP, like ACE before it, will be a keystone of the Heliophysics System Observatory by providing comprehensive energetic particle, pickup ion, suprathermal ion, neutral atom, solar wind, solar wind heavy ion, and magnetic field observations to diagnose

  14. Magnetization switching behavior with competing anisotropies in epitaxial Co3FeN /MnN exchange-coupled bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiri, T.; Yoshida, T.; Jaiswal, S.; Filianina, M.; Borie, B.; Ando, H.; Asano, H.; Zabel, H.; Kläui, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report unusual magnetization switching processes and angular-dependent exchange bias effects in fully epitaxial Co3FeN /MnN bilayers, where magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange coupling compete, probed by longitudinal and transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry. The MOKE loops show multistep jumps corresponding to the nucleation and propagation of 90∘ domain walls in as-grown bilayers. By inducing exchange coupling, we confirm changes of the magnetization switching process due to the unidirectional anisotropy field of the exchange coupling. Taking into account the experimentally obtained values of the fourfold magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the unidirectional anisotropy field, the exchange-coupling constant, and the uniaxial anisotropy including its direction, the calculated angular-dependent exchange bias reproduces the experimental results. These results demonstrate the essential role of the competition between magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange coupling for understanding and tailoring exchange-coupling phenomena usable for engineering switching in fully epitaxial bilayers made of tailored materials.

  15. Magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As: Influence of epitaxial strain and hole concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glunk, M.; Daeubler, J.; Dreher, L.; Schwaiger, S.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.; Brandlmaier, A.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.

    2009-05-01

    We present a systematic study on the influence of epitaxial strain and hole concentration on the magnetic anisotropy in (Ga,Mn)As at 4.2 K. The strain was gradually varied over a wide range from tensile to compressive by growing a series of (Ga,Mn)As layers with 5% Mn on relaxed graded (In,Ga)As/GaAs templates with different In concentration. The hole density, the Curie temperature, and the relaxed lattice constant of the as-grown and annealed (Ga,Mn)As layers turned out to be essentially unaffected by the strain. Angle-dependent magnetotransport measurements performed at different magnetic-field strengths were used to probe the magnetic anisotropy. The measurements reveal a pronounced linear dependence of the uniaxial out-of-plane anisotropy on both strain and hole density. Whereas the uniaxial and cubic in-plane anisotropies are nearly constant, the cubic out-of-plane anisotropy changes sign when the magnetic easy axis flips from in-plane to out-of-plane. The experimental results for the magnetic anisotropy are quantitatively compared with calculations of the free energy based on a mean-field Zener model. Almost perfect agreement between experiment and theory is found for the uniaxial out-of-plane and cubic in-plane anisotropy parameters of the as-grown samples. In addition, magnetostriction constants are derived from the anisotropy data.

  16. What have we learnt from Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    data: the temperature-polarization correlation, correlations with large scale structure, the large-scale power deficit and its implications, and the search for non-Gaussianity. Keywords. Cosmology; cosmic microwave background. PACS Nos 95.85.Bh; 98.80.Es. 1. What makes the WMAP data so special? Just over a year ago, ...

  17. Surface energy anisotropy of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R; Grenga, H E [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA). School of Chemical Engineering

    1976-10-01

    Field-ion microscopy was used to study the faceting behavior and/or surface energy anisotropy of tungsten in vacuum and in hydrogen. In vacuum below 1700 K the activation energy for (110) facet growth agreed with values previously reported for surface diffusion on tungsten. The observed anisotropy values at 0.5 Tsub(m), where Tsub(m) is the absolute melting temperature of tungsten (approximately 3680 K), were different from those previously reported at higher temperatures and more nearly agreed with broken bond calculations based on Mie potential using m=5, n=8, and a 1.5% lattice expansion. Hydrogen appeared to have a negligible effect on surface energy anisotropy, but did preferentially increase surface diffusion rates on (310) regions.

  18. Modeling, analysis, and visualization of anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Özarslan, Evren; Hotz, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the modeling, processing and visualization of anisotropy, irrespective of the context in which it emerges, using state-of-the-art mathematical tools. As such, it differs substantially from conventional reference works, which are centered on a particular application. It covers the following topics: (i) the geometric structure of tensors, (ii) statistical methods for tensor field processing, (iii) challenges in mapping neural connectivity and structural mechanics, (iv) processing of uncertainty, and (v) visualizing higher-order representations. In addition to original research contributions, it provides insightful reviews. This multidisciplinary book is the sixth in a series that aims to foster scientific exchange between communities employing tensors and other higher-order representations of directionally dependent data. A significant number of the chapters were co-authored by the participants of the workshop titled Multidisciplinary Approaches to Multivalued Data: Modeling, Visualization,...

  19. A map of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), showing the large-scale fluctuations (the quadrupole and octopole) isolated by an analysis done partly by theorists at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A recent analysis, in part by theorists working at CERN, suggests a new view of the cosmic microwave background radiation. It seems the solar system, rather than the universe, causes the radiation's large-scale fluctuations, similar to the bass in a song.

  20. Momentum anisotropy at freeze out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feld, S.; Borghini, N.; Lang, C.

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a hydrodynamical modeling to a particle-based approach is a crucial element of the description of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Assuming this “freeze out” happens instantaneously at each point of the expanding medium, we show that the local phase-space distribution of the emitted particles is asymmetric in momentum space. This suggests the use of anisotropic hydrodynamics for the last stages of the fluid evolution. We discuss how observables depend on the amount of momentum-space anisotropy at freeze out and how smaller or larger anisotropies allow for different values of the freeze-out temperature. (paper)

  1. Effect of defects, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and shape anisotropy on magnetic structure of iron thin films by magnetic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructures of magnetic materials, including defects and crystallographic orientations, are known to strongly influence magnetic domain structures. Measurement techniques such as magnetic force microscopy (MFM thus allow study of correlations between microstructural and magnetic properties. The present work probes effects of anisotropy and artificial defects on the evolution of domain structure with applied field. Single crystal iron thin films on MgO substrates were milled by Focused Ion Beam (FIB to create different magnetically isolated squares and rectangles in [110] crystallographic orientations, having their easy axis 45° from the sample edge. To investigate domain wall response on encountering non-magnetic defects, a 150 nm diameter hole was created in the center of some samples. By simultaneously varying crystal orientation and shape, both magnetocrystalline anisotropy and shape anisotropy, as well as their interaction, could be studied. Shape anisotropy was found to be important primarily for the longer edge of rectangular samples, which exaggerated the FIB edge effects and provided nucleation sites for spike domains in non-easy axis oriented samples. Center holes acted as pinning sites for domain walls until large applied magnetic fields. The present studies are aimed at deepening the understanding of the propagation of different types of domain walls in the presence of defects and different crystal orientations.

  2. Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.

    1990-01-01

    The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ < 3.00). Flow stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial t...

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. L.

    1994-12-01

    The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.

  4. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  5. Exhaustive Study of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies in Quintessential Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Riazuelo, A; Brax, Philippe; Martin, Jerome; Riazuelo, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Recent high precision measurements of the CMB anisotropies performed by the BOOMERanG and MAXIMA-1 experiments provide an unmatched set of data allowing to probe different cosmological models. Among these scenarios, motivated by the recent measurements of the luminosity distance versus redshift relation for type Ia supernovae, is the quintessence hypothesis. It consists in assuming that the acceleration of the Universe is due to a scalar field whose final evolution is insensitive to the initial conditions. Within this framework we investigate the cosmological perturbations for two well-motivated potentials: the Ratra-Peebles and the SUGRA tracking potentials. We show that the solutions of the perturbed equations possess an attractor and that, as a consequence, the insensitivity to the initial conditions is preserved at the perturbed level. Then, we study the predictions of these two models for structure formation and CMB anisotropies and investigate the general features of the multipole moments in the presenc...

  6. Ginzburg-Landau theory of the superheating field anisotropy of layered superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liarte, Danilo B.; Transtrum, Mark K.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effects of material anisotropy on the superheating field of layered superconductors. We provide an intuitive argument both for the existence of a superheating field, and its dependence on anisotropy, for κ =λ /ξ (the ratio of magnetic to superconducting healing lengths) both large and small. On the one hand, the combination of our estimates with published results using a two-gap model for MgB2 suggests high anisotropy of the superheating field near zero temperature. On the other hand, within Ginzburg-Landau theory for a single gap, we see that the superheating field shows significant anisotropy only when the crystal anisotropy is large and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ is small. We then conclude that only small anisotropies in the superheating field are expected for typical unconventional superconductors near the critical temperature. Using a generalized form of Ginzburg Landau theory, we do a quantitative calculation for the anisotropic superheating field by mapping the problem to the isotropic case, and present a phase diagram in terms of anisotropy and κ , showing type I, type II, or mixed behavior (within Ginzburg-Landau theory), and regions where each asymptotic solution is expected. We estimate anisotropies for a number of different materials, and discuss the importance of these results for radio-frequency cavities for particle accelerators.

  7. Gaps, tears and seismic anisotropy around the subducting slabs of the Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaphorst, David; Kendall, J.-Michael; Baptie, Brian; Latchman, Joan L.; Tait, Steve

    2017-02-01

    Seismic anisotropy in and beneath the subducting slabs of the Antilles is investigated using observations of shear-wave splitting. We use a combination of teleseismic and local events recorded at three-component broadband seismic stations on every major island in the area to map anisotropy in the crust, the mantle wedge and the slab/sub-slab mantle. To date this is the most comprehensive study of anisotropy in this region, involving 52 stations from 8 seismic networks. Local event delay times (0.21 ± 0.12 s) do not increase with depth, indicating a crustal origin in anisotropy and an isotropic mantle wedge. Teleseismic delay times are much larger (1.34 ± 0.47 s), with fast shear-wave polarisations that are predominantly parallel to trend of the arc. These observations can be interpreted three ways: (1) the presence of pre-existing anisotropy in the subducting slab; (2) anisotropy due to sub-slab mantle flow around the eastern margin of the nearly stationary Caribbean plate; (3) some combination of both mechanisms. However, there are two notable variations in the trench-parallel pattern of anisotropy - trench-perpendicular alignment is observed in narrow regions east of Puerto Rico and south of Martinique. These observations support previously proposed ideas of eastward sublithospheric mantle flow through gaps in the slab. Furthermore, the pattern of anisotropy south of Martinique, near Saint Lucia is consistent with a previously proposed location for the boundary between the North and South American plates.

  8. CMB statistical anisotropy from noncommutative gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Ricciardone, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Mota, David F. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Arroja, Frederico, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: angelo.ricciardone@pd.infn.it, E-mail: arroja@pd.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Primordial statistical anisotropy is a key indicator to investigate early Universe models and has been probed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. In this paper, we examine tensor-mode CMB fluctuations generated from anisotropic gravitational waves, parametrised by P{sub h}(k) = P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) [ 1 + ∑{sub LM} f{sub L}(k) g{sub LM} Y{sub LM} ( k-circumflex )], where P{sub h}{sup (0)}(k) is the usual scale-invariant power spectrum. Such anisotropic tensor fluctuations may arise from an inflationary model with noncommutativity of fields. It is verified that in this model, an isotropic component and a quadrupole asymmetry with f{sub 0}(k) = f{sub 2}(k) ∝ k{sup -2} are created and hence highly red-tilted off-diagonal components arise in the CMB power spectra, namely ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 2 in TT, TE, EE and BB, and ℓ{sub 2} = ℓ{sub 1} ± 1 in TB and EB. We find that B-mode polarisation is more sensitive to such signals than temperature and E-mode polarisation due to the smallness of large-scale cosmic variance and we can potentially measure g{sub 00} = 30 and g{sub 2M} = 58 at 68% CL in a cosmic-variance-limited experiment. Such a level of signal may be measured in a PRISM like experiment, while the instrumental noise contaminates it in the Planck experiment. These results imply that it is impossible to measure the noncommutative parameter if it is small enough for the perturbative treatment to be valid. Our formalism and methodology for dealing with the CMB tensor statistical anisotropy are general and straightforwardly applicable to other early Universe models.

  9. Anisotropy of acoustic properties in paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parygin, Vladimir N.

    1996-01-01

    One of the peculiarities of the TeO 2 crystal consists of its strong acoustic anisotropy. This anisotropy demonstrates itself by acoustic energy walk-off and anisotropic distortion of an acoustic beam. Four constants completely characterise the acoustic anisotropy of the medium. In this paper these constants are calculated for various directions of the acoustic beam in crystal. (authors)

  10. Reconstruction of CMB temperature anisotropies with primordial CMB induced polarization in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Chin; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2016-07-01

    Scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation in galaxy clusters induces polarization signals determined by the quadrupole anisotropy in the photon distribution at the location of clusters. This `remote quadrupole' derived from the measurements of the induced polarization in galaxy clusters provides an opportunity to reconstruct local CMB temperature anisotropies. In this Letter, we develop an algorithm of the reconstruction through the estimation of the underlying primordial gravitational potential, which is the origin of the CMB temperature and polarization fluctuations and CMB induced polarization in galaxy clusters. We found a nice reconstruction for the quadrupole and octopole components of the CMB temperature anisotropies with the assistance of the CMB induced polarization signals. The reconstruction can be an important consistency test on the puzzles of CMB anomalies, especially for the low-quadrupole and axis-of-evil problems reported in Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and Planck data.

  11. Plasma currents and anisotropy in the tail-dipole transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A.; Zhang, X. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Runov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Using conjugated THEMIS and Van Allen Probes observations in the nightside magnetosphere, we examine statistically plasma and magnetic field characteristics at multiple locations simultaneously across the 3-10 RE region (i.e., across the tail-dipole transition region, whose location depends on tail flux loading and the strength of global convection). We find that the spatial distributions of ion and electron anisotropies vary significantly but systematically with radial distance and geomagnetic activity. For low Kp (4), the anisotropy profiles for ions and electrons reverse: ions are isotropic closer to the Earth and field-aligned in the tail, whereas electrons are transversely anisotropic closer to Earth but isotropic in the tail. Using the measured plasma anisotropy radial profiles we estimate the currents from curvature drifts and compare them with diamagnetic currents. We also discuss the implications of the observed plasma anisotropies for the presence and spatial distribution of field-aligned electric fields.

  12. A review of the analysis of complex time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements (TRAMs) are widely used to probe the dynamics of the various processes that can lead to the depolarisation of emission following photoselection by polarised excitation. The most commonly investigated of these emission depolarising phenomena is molecular rotational motion, but TRAMs are very useful for determining the kinetics of a host of other processes. In this paper we review several examples for which we have observed in our laboratories initially unexpectedly complex temporal behaviour of the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy signal from relatively ‘simple’ chemical systems. In certain circumstances the anisotropy (i) decays on timescales when superficially it might be thought it should remain constant, (ii) shows marked ‘dip and rise’ behaviour in its intensity, or (iii) can change sign as the anisotropy evolves in time. Fundamentally simple processes, including molecular rotational motion, energy migration and excited state photophysics, can cause such behaviour. (topical review)

  13. Fourier-transform infrared anisotropy in cross and parallel sections of tendon and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidthanapally Aruna

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging (FTIRI is used to investigate the amide anisotropies at different surfaces of a three-dimensional cartilage or tendon block. With the change in the polarization state of the incident infrared light, the resulting anisotropic behavior of the tissue structure is described here. Methods Thin sections (6 μm thick were obtained from three different surfaces of the canine tissue blocks and imaged at 6.25 μm pixel resolution. For each section, infrared imaging experiments were repeated thirteen times with the identical parameters except a 15° increment of the analyzer's angle in the 0° – 180° angular space. The anisotropies of amide I and amide II components were studied in order to probe the orientation of the collagen fibrils at different tissue surfaces. Results For tendon, the anisotropy of amide I and amide II components in parallel sections is comparable to that of regular sections; and tendon's cross sections show distinct, but weak anisotropic behavior for both the amide components. For articular cartilage, parallel sections in the superficial zone have the expected infrared anisotropy that is consistent with that of regular sections. The parallel sections in the radial zone, however, have a nearly isotropic amide II absorption and a distinct amide I anisotropy. Conclusion From the inconsistency in amide anisotropy between superficial to radial zone in parallel section results, a schematic model is used to explain the origins of these amide anisotropies in cartilage and tendon.

  14. To the problem of the secondary CMB anisotropy separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhodanov Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study contribution to the secondary anisotropy maps of cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation which difficult to account for faint sources. Two effects are investigated. They are the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect connected with the inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons on hot electrons of cluster of galaxies, and contamination of the background by weak extragalctic sources. First, we study fields of the Planck CMB maps around radio sources of the RATAN-600 catalog. We see weak microwave sources which make an additional contribution to the secondary anisotropy on angular small scales (< 7′. An algorithm for selecting candidate objects with the Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect was proposed, based on the use of data on the radio spectral indices and the signal in cosmic-microwave background maps. Second, applying the stacking method, we examine the areas of the CMB maps, constructed according to the Planck Space Observatory data in the neighborhood of different populations of radio sources and giant elliptical galaxies. The samples of objects include giant radio galaxies (GRG, radio sources, selected by the radio spectral index and redshift, as well as the gammaray bursts, used as a secondary comparative sample. The signal from this objects exists on CMB maps and its difference in the neighborhood of GRGs from the other types of objects was discovered.

  15. Magnetic anisotropy of lecithin membranes. A new anisotropy susceptometer

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, F.; Boroske, E.; Helfrich, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cylindrical giant vesicles prepared from egg lecithin and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) are oriented in an external magnetic field and observed by phase contrast microscopy. The anisotropic part of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the lecithin membrane is determined from the distribution of angles between the magnetic field and the long cylinder axis due to thermal fluctuations. The anisotropy of DMPC is found to be larger by a factor of 2 than that of egg lecithin. This...

  16. Global imaging of the Earth's deep interior: seismic constraints on (an)isotropy, density and attenuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trampert, J.; Fichtner, A.

    2013-01-01

    Seismic tomography is the principal tool to probe the deep interior of the Earth. Models of seismic anisotropy induced by crystal alignment provide insight into the underlying convective motion, and variations of density allow us to discriminate between thermal and compositional heterogeneities.

  17. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy on Angular Scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P. G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V. V.; Jaffe, A. H.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C. D.; Wu, J. H. P.

    2005-06-04

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions.

  18. Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada

    2017-01-01

    Designing novel diffusion-weighted NMR and MRI pulse sequences aiming to probe tissue microstructure with techniques extending beyond the conventional Stejskal-Tanner family is currently of broad interest. One such technique, multidimensional diffusion MRI, has been recently proposed to afford...... model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...

  19. Anisotropy of domain wall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret; Samson; Warin; Marty; Ott; Sondergard; Klein; Fermon

    2000-10-30

    The resistive effect of domain walls in FePd films with perpendicular anisotropy was studied experimentally as a function of field and temperature. The films were grown directly on MgO substrates, which induces an unusual virgin magnetic configuration composed of 60 nm wide parallel stripe domains. This allowed us to carry out the first measurements of the anisotropy of domain wall resistivity in the two configurations of current perpendicular and parallel to the walls. At 18 K, we find 8.2% and 1.3% for the domain wall magnetoresistance normalized to the wall width (8 nm) in these two respective configurations. These values are consistent with the predictions of Levy and Zhang.

  20. Loss of long-range magnetic order in a nanoparticle assembly due to random anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, C; Howes, P B; Baker, S H; Marchetto, H; Potenza, A; Steadman, P; Dhesi, S S; Roy, M; Everard, M J; Rushforth, A

    2008-01-01

    We have used soft x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) combined with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry to probe the magnetic ground state in Fe thin films produced by depositing size-selected gas-phase Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of 1.7 nm (∼200 atoms) onto Si substrates. The depositions were carried out in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and thicknesses of the deposited film in the range 5-50 nm were studied. The magnetometry data are consistent with the film forming a correlated super-spin glass with a magnetic correlation length ∼5 nm. The XPEEM magnetic maps from the cluster-assembled films were compared to those for a conventional thin Fe film with a thickness of 20 nm produced by a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) source. Whereas a normal magnetic domain structure is observed in the conventional MBE thin film, no domain structure could be observed in any of the nanoparticle films down to the resolution limit of the XMCD based XPEEM (100 nm) confirming the ground state indicated by the magnetometry measurements. This observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction that an arbitrarily weak random anisotropy field will destroy long-range magnetic order

  1. Planck early results. XVIII. The power spectrum of cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Natoli, P.; Polenta, G.

    2011-01-01

    Using Planck maps of six regions of low Galactic dust emission with a total area of about 140 deg2, we determine the angular power spectra of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies from multipole = 200 to = 2000 at 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz. We use 21-cm observations of Hi as a tracer...... of thermal dust emission to reduce the already low level of Galactic dust emission and use the 143 GHz Planck maps in these fields to clean out cosmic microwave background anisotropies. Both of these cleaning processes are necessary to avoid significant contamination of the CIB signal. We measure correlated...

  2. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  3. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  4. Anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CBR) are reviewed, focusing on intrinsic anisotropies caused by primordial matter fluctuations. The basic elements of the CBR are outlined and the contributions to anisotropy at different angular scales are discussed. Possible fluctuation spectra that can generate the observed large-scale structure of the universe through gravitational instability and nonlinear evolution are examined and compared with observational searches for cosmic microwave anisotropies. 21 refs

  5. On the origin of high transient anisotropies: An exemplification in a Cd-porphyrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yu; Klinger, Melanie; Unterreiner, Andreas-Neil; Schalk, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Transient anisotropy is a widely used spectroscopic method to access the polarization dynamics of a molecular sample. In this contribution, we present results on 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-porphyrinato cadmium (II) in tetrahydrofuran which exhibits values exceeding the typical range between 0.4 and −0.2 in dependence of the probe wavelength. These findings are explained by varying contributions from excited state absorption and ground state bleaching/stimulated emission. Model calculations show that time zero values and time decays are complex values that often do not correlate with the underlying physical processes. As a consequence, the interpretation of anisotropy experiments necessitates extreme care

  6. Large area quantitative X-ray mapping of (U,Pu)O2 nuclear fuel pellets using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremier, S.; Haas, D.; Somers, J.; Walker, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    The work presented is an example of how large area compositional mapping (≥1 mm 2 ) can be used to provide quantitative information on element distribution and specimen homogeneity. High-resolution was accomplished by producing a collage of X-ray maps acquired using classical conditions; magnification x400, spatial resolution 256x256 pixels. The individual images, each measuring roughly 250x250 μm, were converted to quantitative maps using the HIMAX reg software package and the XMAS reg matrix correction from SAMx. The quantitative gray-level large area X-ray picture was pieced together using the 'Multiple Image Alignment' function of the ANALYSIS reg image processing software. This software was also used to convert the gray-level pictures to false color images. The specimens investigated were transverse sections of MOX fuel pellets. Results are presented for the distribution of Pu by area fraction and cumulative area fraction, the size distribution of regions of high Pu concentration and average separation of these regions

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Xia, H.

    1997-01-01

    The magnetic anisotropy of Ni/Cr multilayers has been investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and ferromagnetic resonance techniques (FMR). The FMR spectra are obtained as a function of the orientation of the applied magnetic field from in-plane to out-of-plane. The results are fitted theoretically to determine the magnetic anisotropy. From VSM and FMR, a positive value for Ni/Cr interface anisotropy is obtained, which favours a perpendicular easy axis. The possible mechanism for the perpendicular anisotropy has been discussed and it may be attributed to the magnetostriction, caused by intrinsic stress due to lattice mismatch. (orig.). With 005 figs., 001 tabs

  8. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...... to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning....

  9. Optical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, J.; Decaudin, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The probe includes optical means of refractive index n, refracting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n1>n and reflecting an incident light beam from a medium with a refractive index n2 [fr

  10. Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li

    2014-06-01

    The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (pT) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v2) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √{sNN}=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and 39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v2 is mainly due to the average pT increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v3) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v3 is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v2{2} and v2{4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √{sNN}=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v2{2} and v2{4}.

  11. Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Li

    2014-06-15

    The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (p{sub T}) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v{sub 2}) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √(s{sub NN})=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v{sub 2} is mainly due to the average p{sub T} increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v{sub 3}) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v{sub 3} is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v{sub 2}{2} and v{sub 2}{4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √(s{sub NN})=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v{sub 2}{2} and v{sub 2}{4}.

  12. Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Li

    2014-01-01

    The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (p T ) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v 2 ) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √(s NN )=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v 2 is mainly due to the average p T increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v 3 ) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v 3 is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v 2 {2} and v 2 {4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √(s NN )=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v 2 {2} and v 2 {4}

  13. CMB anisotropies at all orders: the non-linear Sachs-Wolfe formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roldan, Omar, E-mail: oaroldan@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-08-01

    We obtain the non-linear generalization of the Sachs-Wolfe + integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) formula describing the CMB temperature anisotropies. Our formula is valid at all orders in perturbation theory, is also valid in all gauges and includes scalar, vector and tensor modes. A direct consequence of our results is that the maps of the logarithmic temperature anisotropies are much cleaner than the usual CMB maps, because they automatically remove many secondary anisotropies. This can for instance, facilitate the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in future works. It also disentangles the non-linear ISW from other effects. Finally, we provide a method which can iteratively be used to obtain the lensing solution at the desired order.

  14. CMB anisotropies at all orders: the non-linear Sachs-Wolfe formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, Omar

    2017-01-01

    We obtain the non-linear generalization of the Sachs-Wolfe + integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) formula describing the CMB temperature anisotropies. Our formula is valid at all orders in perturbation theory, is also valid in all gauges and includes scalar, vector and tensor modes. A direct consequence of our results is that the maps of the logarithmic temperature anisotropies are much cleaner than the usual CMB maps, because they automatically remove many secondary anisotropies. This can for instance, facilitate the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in future works. It also disentangles the non-linear ISW from other effects. Finally, we provide a method which can iteratively be used to obtain the lensing solution at the desired order.

  15. Highly anisotropic mobility in solution processed TIPS-pentacene film studied by independently driven four GaIn probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Shinya; Takahashi, Kohtaro; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamada, Hiroko; Miyahara, Ryosuke; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshinobu, Jun

    2017-08-01

    We have studied in-plane anisotropy in the field-effect mobility of solution-processed organic semiconductor 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene by using independently driven four gallium indium (Ga-In) probes. Liquid-metal Ga-In probes are highly effective for reproducible conductivity measurements of organic thin films. We demonstrated that a high mobility anisotropy of 44 was obtained by using a square four-probe method and a feedback circuit to keep the channel potential constant. The present method minimized the influences of the contact resistance and the insensitivity of anisotropy in a linear arrangement in two-dimensional field-effect transistors.

  16. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B. F.; Povey, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design.

  17. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B F; Povey, T

    2017-01-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design. (paper)

  18. Higher-order anisotropies in the blast-wave model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimerman, Jakub [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Comenius University, FMPI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tomasik, Boris [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Csanad, Mate; Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-08-15

    We formulate a generalisation of the blast-wave model which is suitable for the description of higher-order azimuthal anisotropies of the hadron production. The model includes anisotropy in the density profile as well as an anisotropy in the transverse expansion velocity field. We then study how these two kinds of anisotropies influence the single-particle distributions and the correlation radii of two-particle correlation functions. Particularly we focus on the third-order anisotropy and consideration is given averaging over different orientations of the event plane. (orig.)

  19. Planck intermediate results: XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature maps, we separate Galactic thermal dust emission from cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored component-separation method, the so-called generalized needlet internal linear combinati...

  20. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  1. DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelino, J

    1993-12-31

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with {sup 32}P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism`s genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens 10 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Deformation in D″ Beneath North America From Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, A. J.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    same but with a tilted axis is possible (TTI) and would be consistent with inclusions of seismically-distinct material such as melt. TTI planes of isotropy dip south beneath Florida, southwest beneath western USA and southeast beneath Yucatan. However we test other slip systems in MgO, pv and ppv to determine if deformation in these phases can account for the observed anisotropy. The systems [100](010) and [1̅10](110) in ppv are consistent everywhere; pv is not beneath Yucatan. If we assume a general downwelling and displacement of mantle material in the seismically fast D″, corresponding to the impingement of slab material, slip along [100](010) seems more likely, with the possibility that slip along (110) as a transformation texture also occurs in the seismically fastest regions (Walte et al, GRL, 2009). With a new breed of detailed mantle deformation models, or experimental evidence of which system dominates, seismic anisotropy may be used to map deformation in D″ and provide greater insight into Earth's convecting interior.

  3. D" anisotropy and slip systems in post-perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Andy; Wookey, James; Kendall, J.-Michael

    2010-05-01

    -distinct material such as melt. TTI planes of isotropy dip south beneath Florida, southwest beneath western USA and southeast beneath Yucatan. However we test other slip systems in MgO, pv and ppv to determine if deformation in these phases can account for the observed anisotropy. The systems [100](010) and [¯110](110) in ppv are consistent everywhere; pv is not beneath Yucatan. If we assume a general downwelling and displacement of mantle material in the seismically fast D″, corresponding to the impingement of slab material, slip along [100](010) seems more likely. With a new breed of detailed mantle deformation models, or experimental evidence of which slip system dominates, seismic anisotropy may be used to map deformation in D″ and provide greater insight into Earth's convecting interior.

  4. Micron-scale mapping of megagauss magnetic fields using optical polarimetry to probe hot electron transport in petawatt-class laser-solid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Gourab; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Robinson, A P L; Blackman, D; Booth, N; Culfa, O; Dance, R J; Gizzi, L A; Gray, R J; Green, J S; Koester, P; Kumar, G Ravindra; Labate, L; Lad, Amit D; Lancaster, K L; Pasley, J; Woolsey, N C; Rajeev, P P

    2017-08-21

    The transport of hot, relativistic electrons produced by the interaction of an intense petawatt laser pulse with a solid has garnered interest due to its potential application in the development of innovative x-ray sources and ion-acceleration schemes. We report on spatially and temporally resolved measurements of megagauss magnetic fields at the rear of a 50-μm thick plastic target, irradiated by a multi-picosecond petawatt laser pulse at an incident intensity of ~10 20 W/cm 2 . The pump-probe polarimetric measurements with micron-scale spatial resolution reveal the dynamics of the magnetic fields generated by the hot electron distribution at the target rear. An annular magnetic field profile was observed ~5 ps after the interaction, indicating a relatively smooth hot electron distribution at the rear-side of the plastic target. This is contrary to previous time-integrated measurements, which infer that such targets will produce highly structured hot electron transport. We measured large-scale filamentation of the hot electron distribution at the target rear only at later time-scales of ~10 ps, resulting in a commensurate large-scale filamentation of the magnetic field profile. Three-dimensional hybrid simulations corroborate our experimental observations and demonstrate a beam-like hot electron transport at initial time-scales that may be attributed to the local resistivity profile at the target rear.

  5. A Pilot Study of Laparoscopic Doppler Ultrasound Probe to Map Arterial Vascular Flow within the Neurovascular Bundle during Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan K. Badani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report on the feasibility of a new Laparoscopic Doppler ultrasound (LDU technology to aid in identifying and preserving arterial blood flow within the neurovascular bundle (NVB during robotic prostatectomy (RARP. Materials and Methods. Nine patients with normal preoperative potency and scheduled for a bilateral nerve-sparing procedure were prospectively enrolled. LDU was used to measure arterial flow at 6 anatomic locations alongside the prostate, and signal intensity was evaluated by 4 independent reviewers. Measurements were made before and after NVB dissection. Modifications in nerve-sparing procedure due to LDU use were recorded. Postoperative erectile function was assessed. Fleiss Kappa statistic was used to evaluate inter-rater agreement for each of the 12 measurements. Results. Analysis of Doppler signal intensity showed maintenance of flow in 80% of points assessed, a decrease in 16%, and an increase in 4%. Plane of NVB dissection was altered in 5 patients (56% on the left and in 4 patients (44% on the right. There was good inter-rater reliability for the 4 reviewers. Use of the probe did not significantly increase operative time or result in any complications. Seven (78% patients had recovery of erections at time of the 8-month follow-up visit. Conclusions. LDU is a safe, easy to use, and effective method to identify local vasculature and anatomic landmarks during RARP, and can potentially be used to achieve greater nerve preservation.

  6. Search for Cosmic-Ray Electron and Positron Anisotropies with Seven Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope that has collected the largest ever sample of high-energy cosmic-ray electron and positron events since the beginning of its operation. Potential anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic-ray electrons or positrons could be a signature of the presence of nearby sources. We use almost seven years of data with energies above 42 GeV processed with the Pass 8 reconstruction. The present data sample can probe dipole anisotropies down to a level of 10"-"3. We take into account systematic effects that could mimic true anisotropies at this level. We present a detailed study of the event selection optimization of the cosmic-ray electrons and positrons to be used for anisotropy searches. Since no significant anisotropies have been detected on any angular scale, we present upper limits on the dipole anisotropy. Lastly, the present constraints are among the strongest to date probing the presence of nearby young and middle-aged sources.

  7. Electron anisotropy: A tool to discriminate dark matter in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borriello, Enrico; Maccione, Luca; Cuoco, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are typically affected by large uncertainties. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons (CRE) is basically model independent and offers a straightforward criterion to discriminate among CRE from DM or from local discrete sources, like e.g. pulsars. In particular, in absence of the latter, DM sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if a larger anisotropy is detected, this would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete CRE sources. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years.

  8. An investigation of Oxygen adsorption on W(110) using reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeybek, O.

    2004-01-01

    The probe of metal surface electronic structure and results of the oxidation of a BCC material and the first Joint Density of States interpretation of the spectrum from same metal have been presented. The surface sensitivity of RAS has been exploited when applied to a cubic single crystal to study the surface electronic structure of W(110) and the resulting chemisorption-induced changes upon exposure to oxygen. Oxidation of the surface is monitored until a final exposure of 10 Langmuirs is reached. A decrease of reflectance anisotropy signal is obtained with increasing oxygen coverage on the substrate and a coverage of ∼0.75 ML results in zero anisotropy over the reflectance anisotropy energy range

  9. An investigation of Oxygen adsorption on W(110) using reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeybek, O [Department of Physics, Balikesir University, Balikesir (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    The probe of metal surface electronic structure and results of the oxidation of a BCC material and the first Joint Density of States interpretation of the spectrum from same metal have been presented. The surface sensitivity of RAS has been exploited when applied to a cubic single crystal to study the surface electronic structure of W(110) and the resulting chemisorption-induced changes upon exposure to oxygen. Oxidation of the surface is monitored until a final exposure of 10 Langmuirs is reached. A decrease of reflectance anisotropy signal is obtained with increasing oxygen coverage on the substrate and a coverage of {approx}0.75 ML results in zero anisotropy over the reflectance anisotropy energy range.

  10. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background from dark matter with Fermi LAT: a closer look

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Sellerholm, A.; Conrad, J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sensitivity to the anisotropies related to dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT). For the first time, we take into account the effects of the Galactic foregrounds...... of the detector are taken into account by convolving the model maps with the Fermi LAT instrumental response. We then use the angular power spectrum to characterize the anisotropy properties of the simulated data and to study the sensitivity to DM. We consider DM anisotropies of extragalactic origin...

  11. Sentinel lymph node mapping using SPECT/CT and gamma probe in endometrial cancer: an analysis of parameters affecting detection rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahbai, Samine; La Fougere, Christian; Dittmann, Helmut [University Hospital Tuebingen, Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Tuebingen (Germany); Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara [University Hospital Tuebingen, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, Annette [University Hospital Tuebingen, Pathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    SPECT/CT after pericervical injection of technetium-99 m-nanocolloid was shown to be suitable for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in endometrial cancer (EC). The aim of this study was to analyze factors affecting successful SLN detection by means of SPECT/CT such as imaging findings, patient characteristics and tumor biology in a large cohort of patients. One hundred and forty-five consecutive patients suffering from EC who received pre-surgical SLN mapping at our institution between 2011 and 2016 were included in this analysis. SPECT/CT data of abdomen and pelvis (mean 4:20 ± 1:20 h p.i.) were acquired after pericervical injection of technetium-99 m-nanocolloid (mean 230 ± 45 MBq) in all patients. Surgical staging was performed on the day after. Acquisition parameters, patient characteristics, SPECT/CT findings as well as histopathological results were collected. A total of 282 SLNs were identified by means of SPECT/CT. Overall, preoperative and intraoperative SLN detection rates were 86%, 76% and 74% respectively. The most important factor associated with failure to detect SLNs was the presence of high bone marrow on SPECT/CT (p = 0.005). Peritoneal/abdominal radioactivity was also associated with missed SLN detection in SPECT/CT (p = 0.02). However, the presence of liver/spleen uptake on its own was not predictive for detection failure. Low numbers of detected SLNs in SPECT/CT were slightly related with older age and lower injected activity. No significant influence was found for the parameters of tumor histology and stage, lymph node involvement and the time gap between injection and imaging. Venous drainage as indicated by bone marrow uptake is the most important factor associated with scintigraphic SLN detection failure. Moreover, high peritoneal and abdominal activity was also associated with detection failure. Thus, meticulous application of the radiotracer is crucial in EC. (orig.)

  12. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Quantitative assessment of submicron scale anisotropy in tissue multifractality by scattering Mueller matrix in the framework of Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-04-01

    A number of tissue-like disordered media exhibit local anisotropy of scattering in the scaling behavior. Scaling behavior contains wealth of fractal or multifractal properties. We demonstrate that the spatial dielectric fluctuations in a sample of biological tissue exhibit multifractal anisotropy. Multifractal anisotropy encoded in the wavelength variation of the light scattering Mueller matrix and manifesting as an intriguing spectral diattenuation effect. We developed an inverse method for the quantitative assessment of the multifractal anisotropy. The method is based on the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in Fourier domain by using Born approximation, followed by the multifractal analysis. The approach promises for probing subtle micro-structural changes in biological tissues associated with the cancer and precancer, as well as for non-destructive characterization of a wide range of scattering materials.

  14. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  15. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar Abolhasani, Ali; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2014-05-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations.

  16. Primordial anisotropies in gauged hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    We study primordial anisotropies generated in the model of gauged hybrid inflation in which the complex waterfall field is charged under a U(1)gauge field. Primordial anisotropies are generated either actively during inflation or from inhomogeneities modulating the surface of end of inflation during waterfall transition. We present a consistent δN mechanism to calculate the anisotropic power spectrum and bispectrum. We show that the primordial anisotropies generated at the surface of end of inflation do not depend on the number of e-folds and therefore do not produce dangerously large anisotropies associated with the IR modes. Furthermore, one can find the parameter space that the anisotropies generated from the surface of end of inflation cancel the anisotropies generated during inflation, therefore relaxing the constrains on model parameters imposed from IR anisotropies. We also show that the gauge field fluctuations induce a red-tilted power spectrum so the averaged power spectrum from the gauge field can change the total power spectrum from blue to red. Therefore, hybrid inflation, once gauged under a U(1) field, can be consistent with the cosmological observations

  17. Probing lipid membrane electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi

    The electrostatic properties of lipid bilayer membranes play a significant role in many biological processes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is highly sensitive to membrane surface potential in electrolyte solutions. With fully characterized probe tips, AFM can perform quantitative electrostatic analysis of lipid membranes. Electrostatic interactions between Silicon nitride probes and supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) were measured by AFM. Classical Gouy-Chapman theory was used to model the membrane electrostatics. The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation was numerically solved with finite element method to provide the potential distribution around the AFM tips. Theoretical tip-sample electrostatic interactions were calculated with the surface integral of both Maxwell and osmotic stress tensors on tip surface. The measured forces were interpreted with theoretical forces and the resulting surface charge densities of the membrane surfaces were in quantitative agreement with the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation. It was demonstrated that the AFM can quantitatively detect membrane surface potential at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the AFM probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by external field created by the internai membrane dipole moment. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported DOPC membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole density in a noninvasive manner will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. Finally, heterogeneous model membranes were studied with fluid electric force microscopy (FEFM). Electrostatic mapping was demonstrated with 50 nm resolution. The capabilities of quantitative electrostatic measurement and lateral charge density mapping make AFM a unique and powerful

  18. A perturbative DFT approach for magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoo, Khoong Hong; Laskowski, Robert, E-mail: rolask@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg

    2017-04-15

    We develop a perturbative formalism for computing magnetocrystalline anisotropy within density functional theory and the magnetic force theorem. Instead of computing eigenvalues of the spin–orbit Hamiltonian for selected spin polarizations, as in the conventional “force theorem” approach, we show that the effect can be cast into a redefined form of the spin–orbit operator. This allows to separate the large eigenvalue shift due to spin-orbit interaction common for both polarizations from the much smaller magnetic anisotropy splitting. As a consequence the anisotropy splitting may by considered as a perturbation.

  19. System of multifunctional laser polarimetry of phase and amplitude anisotropy in the diagnosis of endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu. O.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Olar, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The theoretical background of azimuthally stable method Jones matrix mapping of histological sections of biopsy of uterine neck on the basis of spatial-frequency selection of the mechanisms of linear and circular birefringence is presented. The comparative results of measuring the coordinate distributions of complex degree of mutual anisotropy formed by polycristalline networks of blood plasma layers of donors (group 1) and patients with endometriosis (group 2). The values and ranges of change of the statistical (moments of the 1st - 4th order) parameters of complex degree of mutual anisotropy coordinate distributions are studied. The objective criteria of diagnostics of the pathology and differentiation of its severity degree are determined.

  20. Multifunctional polarization tomography of optical anisotropy of biological layers in diagnosis of endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, O. G.; Koval, L. D.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Savich, V. O.; Sidor, M. I.; Marchuk, Yu. F.

    2015-09-01

    The theoretical background of azimuthally stable method Jones matrix mapping of histological sections of biopsy of uterine neck on the basis of spatial-frequency selection of the mechanisms of linear and circular birefringence is presented. The comparative results of measuring the coordinate distributions of complex degree of mutual anisotropy formed by polycristalline networks of blood plasma layers of donors (group 1) and patients with endometriosis (group 2). The values and ranges of change of the statistical (moments of the 1st - 4th order) parameters of complex degree of mutual anisotropy coordinate distributions are studied. The objective criteria of diagnostics of the pathology and differentiation of its severity degree are determined.

  1. Structure in the lowermost mantle from seismic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, J.; Wookey, J. M.; Nowacki, A.; Walker, A.; Kendall, J. M.; Masters, G.; Forte, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Anisotropy is well established in D'' and places important constraints on the nature and dynamics of this elusive region. We present the results of a recent study probing anisotropy in D'', over a large area, using shear wave splitting on core-reflected ScS phases. Our dataset contains laterally continuous coverage beneath a large swath of east Asia - extending about 3000 km along the CMB - from south-east Asia to the north-east Pacific. The centre of this area represents a large down-welling core for subduction that has occurred over several super-continent cycles. In the centre of this region we observe a clear VSV}>V{SH fabric, in direct conflict with the prevailing view that fast, `cold', regions are associated with VSH}>V{SV fabric. Furthermore, systematic rotation of the fast axis traces out an apparent dome-like feature extending over thousands of km, albeit complicated by some short-scale variability. The dataset also samples regions where slab material may be actively impinging on the CMB; and a region corresponding to the edge of the Pacific LLSVP. We interpret our results in light of a combined computational geodynamic-petrofabric-seismic study designed to test the possibility that anisotropy is caused by the lattice preferred orientation of post-perovskite. We take into account the important finite-frequency effects of wave propagation in our synthetics by using the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE code; this can lead to drastically different results when compared to the less accurate ray theory.

  2. Exploring the Tectonic Evolution of the Seafloor using Roughness, Covariance, and Anisotropy in Bathymetry and Marine Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnins, L. M.; Simons, F.

    2017-12-01

    Between the vastness of the oceans and the technological challenges water poses, data scarcity is frequently a limiting factor in studying the tectonic and morphological evolution of the seafloor. It is therefore essential to extract maximum information from the available gravity and bathymetry data, whilst also retaining realistic estimates of uncertainties. Here, we use a frequency-domain maximum-likelihood procedure to map the roughness structure and the nature of the topographic covariance of the seafloor. Rather than requiring us to assume the covariance is Gaussian or exponential, the flexibility of the Matérn form's parameterisation (variance, range, and differentiability) lets us solve for the shape of the covariance and map out its changes without a priori assumptions.We also examine the relationship between gravity and bathymetry through their coherence and admittance, particularly the anisotropy in the relationship. We extend the robust analysis developed to map anisotropy in lithospheric strength in the continents (Kalnins et al., 2015) to the oceanic domain. This method lets us separate out measurements of anisotropy likely to be linked to anisotropy in the long-term mechanical strength of the lithosphere itself; those aligned with anisotropies in the input gravity and bathymetry data; and those that are mathematically significant, but unexplained. Ultimately, we aim to use the statistical analyses to infer geophysical parameters of interest, such as oceanic spreading rate, level of volcanic activity, and potential for energy dissipation in ocean circulation. Our first results show a general alignment of strong directions ridge-parallel and weak directions ridge-perpendicular, suggesting widespread mechanical anisotropy derived from the lithosphere's highly anisotropic formation at mid-ocean ridges. However, this pattern changes markedly near sites of significant intraplate volcanism, where little to no robust anisotropy in strength is recovered. This

  3. Exchange anisotropy pinning of a standing spin-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, R.; Kennewell, K.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Ali, M.; Greig, D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Standing spin waves in a thin film are used as sensitive probes of interface pinning induced by an antiferromagnet through exchange anisotropy. Using coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance, pinning of the lowest energy spin-wave thickness mode in Ni80Fe20/Ir25Mn75 exchange-biased bilayers was studied for a range of Ir25Mn75 thicknesses. We show that pinning of the standing mode can be used to amplify, relative to the fundamental resonance, frequency shifts associated with exchange bias. The shifts provide a unique “fingerprint” of the exchange bias and can be interpreted in terms of an effective ferromagnetic film thickness and ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface anisotropy. Thermal effects are studied for ultrathin antiferromagnetic Ir25Mn75 thicknesses, and the onset of bias is correlated with changes in the pinning fields. The pinning strength magnitude is found to grow with cooling of the sample, while the effective ferromagnetic film thickness simultaneously decreases. These results suggest that exchange bias involves some deformation of magnetic order in the interface region.

  4. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Michael A., E-mail: mroger09@uoguelph.ca [Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N3C3X9 (Canada); Corradini, Maria G. [Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Emge, Thomas [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  5. Solvent induced supramolecular anisotropy in molecular gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Michael A.; Corradini, Maria G.; Emge, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Herein is the first report of solvent induced anisotropy in 12-hydroxystearic acid self-assembled fibrillar networks. Increasing the chain length of polar solvent, such as nitriles and ketones, tailored the anisotropy of the fibrillar aggregates. 12HSA molecular gels, comprised of alkanes, exhibited an isotropic fibrillar network irrespective of the alkane chain length. In polar solvents, anisotropy, observed using 2D powder x-ray diffraction profiles, is correlated to a fibrillar supramolecular morphologies in long chain nitriles and ketones while sphereulitic crystals are correlated to x-ray diffraction patterns with an isotropic scatter intensity in short chain ketones and nitriles. These changes directly modify the final physical properties of the gels. - Highlights: • 12-HSA self-assembles into crystalline supramolecular morphologies depending on the solvent. • Alkanes, short chain nitriles and ketones led to 12-HSA displaying supramolecular isotropy. • In long chain nitriles and ketones, 12-HSA displays supramolecular anisotropy.

  6. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Kets, Frans; Lehr, Christian; Wirth, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub

  7. Cellulose and the Control of Growth Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias I. Baskin

    2004-04-01

    The authors research aims to understand morphogenesis, focusing on growth anisotropy, a process that is crucial to make organs with specific and heritable shapes. For the award, the specific aims were to test hypotheses concerning how growth anisotropy is controlled by cell wall structure, particularly by the synthesis and alignment of cellulose microfibrils, the predominant mechanical element in the cell wall. This research has involved characterizing the basic physiology of anisotropic expansion, including measuring it at high resolution; and second, characterizing the relationship between growth anisotropy, and cellulose microfibrils. Important in this relationship and also to the control of anisotropic expansion are structures just inside the plasma membrane called cortical microtubules, and the research has also investigated their contribution to controlling anisotropy and microfibril alignment. In addition to primary experimental papers, I have also developed improved methods relating to these objectives as well as written relevant reviews. Major accomplishments in each area will now be described.

  8. Higher-order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Csanad, Mate [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Csoergo, Tamas [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary); KRF, Gyoengyoes (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii. (orig.)

  9. Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal

  10. Strain-dependent magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAs on InGaAs templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler, Joachim; Glunk, Michael; Schwaiger, Stephan; Dreher, Lukas; Schoch, Wladimir; Sauer, Rolf; Limmer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We have systematically studied the influence of strain on the magnetic anisotropy of GaMnAs by means of HRXRD reciprocal space mapping and angle-dependent magnetotransport. For this purpose, a series of GaMnAs layers with Mn contents of {proportional_to}5% was grown by low-temperature MBE on relaxed InGaAs/GaAs templates with different In concentrations, enabling us to vary the strain in the GaMnAs layers continuously from tensile to compressive, including the unstrained state. Considering both, as-grown and annealed samples, the anisotropy parameter describing the uniaxial out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy has been found to vary linearly with hole density and strain. As a consequence, the out-of-plane direction gradually undergoes a transition from a magnetic hard axis to a magnetic easy axis from compressive to tensile strain.

  11. Exploring the Large Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation at 170 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga, Kenneth Matthew

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis, data from the Far Infra-Red Survey (FIRS), a balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the large scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation, are analyzed. The FIRS operates in four frequency bands at 170, 280, 480, and 670 GHz, using an approximately Gaussian beam with a 3.8 deg full-width-at-half-maximum. A cross-correlation with the COBE/DMR first-year maps yields significant results, confirming the DMR detection of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Analysis of the FIRS data alone sets bounds on the amplitude of anisotropy under the assumption that the fluctuations are described by a Harrison-Peebles-Zel'dovich spectrum and further analysis sets limits on the index of the primordial density fluctuations for an Einstein-DeSitter universe. Galactic dust emission is discussed and limits are set on the magnitude of possible systematic errors in the measurement.

  12. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A.T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient

  13. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  14. Northern Sky Galactic Cosmic Ray Anisotropy between 10 and 1000 TeV with the Tibet Air Shower Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amenomori, M. [Department of Physics, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Bi, X. J.; Chen, W. Y.; Ding, L. K.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; He, H. H.; Hu, H. B.; Huang, J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, D. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Chen, T. L.; Danzengluobu; Hu, Haibing [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Tibet University, Lhasa 850000 (China); Cui, S. W.; He, Z. T. [Department of Physics, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China); Feng, C. F. [Department of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Z. Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Hibino, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Hotta, N. [Faculty of Education, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505 (Japan); Collaboration: Tibet AS γ Collaboration; and others

    2017-02-20

    We report on the analysis of the 10–1000 TeV large-scale sidereal anisotropy of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) with the data collected by the Tibet Air Shower Array from 1995 October to 2010 February. In this analysis, we improve the energy estimate and extend the decl. range down to −30°. We find that the anisotropy maps above 100 TeV are distinct from that at a multi-TeV band. The so-called tail-in and loss-cone features identified at low energies get less significant, and a new component appears at ∼100 TeV. The spatial distribution of the GCR intensity with an excess (7.2 σ pre-trial, 5.2 σ post-trial) and a deficit (−5.8 σ pre-trial) are observed in the 300 TeV anisotropy map, in close agreement with IceCube’s results at 400 TeV. Combining the Tibet results in the northern sky with IceCube’s results in the southern sky, we establish a full-sky picture of the anisotropy in hundreds of TeV band. We further find that the amplitude of the first order anisotropy increases sharply above ∼100 TeV, indicating a new component of the anisotropy. All these results may shed new light on understanding the origin and propagation of GCRs.

  15. Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezania, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.

  16. Spin structure factors of Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of anisotropy and magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com

    2017-02-01

    We have theoretically studied the spin structure factors of spin chain in the presence of longitudinal field and transverse anisotropy. The possible effects of easy axis magnetization are investigated in terms of anisotropy in the Heisenberg interactions. This anisotropy is considered for exchange coupling constants perpendicular to magnetic field direction. The original spin model hamiltonian is mapped to a bosonic model via a hard core bosonic transformation where an infinite hard core repulsion is imposed to constrain one boson occupation per site. Using Green's function approach, the energy spectrum of quasiparticle excitation has been obtained. The spectrum of the bosonic gas has been implemented in order to obtain two particle propagator which corresponds to spin structure factor of original Heisenberg chain model Hamiltonian. The results show the position of peak in the longitudinal structure factor at fixed value for anisotropy moves to higher frequency with magnetic field. Also the intensity of dynamical structure factor decreases with magnetic field. A small dependence of longitudinal dynamical spin structure factor on the anisotropy is observed for fixed value of magnetic field. Our results show longitudinal static structure factor is found to be monotonically increasing with magnetic field due to increase of spins aligning along magnetic field. Furthermore the dispersion behaviors of static longitudinal and transverse structure factors for different magnetic fields and anisotropy parameters are addressed. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of anisotropy spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain. • The investigation of the effect of magnetic field on spin structure factors of Heisenberg chain.

  17. Anisoft - Advanced Treatment of Magnetic Anisotropy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadima, M.

    2017-12-01

    Since its first release, Anisoft (Anisotropy Data Browser) has gained a wide popularity in magnetic fabric community mainly due to its simple and user-friendly interface enabling very fast visualization of magnetic anisotropy tensors. Here, a major Anisoft update is presented transforming a rather simple data viewer into a platform offering an advanced treatment of magnetic anisotropy data. The updated software introduces new enlarged binary data format which stores both in-phase and out-of-phase (if measured) susceptibility tensors (AMS) or tensors of anisotropy of magnetic remanence (AMR) together with their respective confidence ellipses and values of F-tests for anisotropy. In addition to the tensor data, a whole array of specimen orientation angles, orientation of mesoscopic foliation(s) and lineation(s) is stored for each record enabling later editing or corrections. The input data may be directly acquired by AGICO Kappabridges (AMS) or Spinner Magnetometers (AMR); imported from various data formats, including the long-time standard binary ran-format; or manually created. Multiple anisotropy files can be combined together or split into several files by manual data selection or data filtering according to their values. Anisotropy tensors are conventionally visualized as principal directions (eigenvectors) in equal-area projection (stereoplot) together with a wide array of quantitative anisotropy parameters presented in histograms or in color-coded scatter plots showing mutual relationship of up to three quantitative parameters. When dealing with AMS in variable low fields, field-independent and field-dependent components of anisotropy can be determined (Hrouda 2009). For a group of specimens, individual principal directions can be contoured, or a mean tensor and respective confidence ellipses of its principal directions can be calculated using either the Hext-Jelinek (Jelinek 1978) statistics or the Bootstrap method (Constable & Tauxe 1990). Each graphical

  18. A two-fluid approximation for calculating the cosmic microwave background anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljak, Uros

    1994-01-01

    We present a simplified treatment for calculating the cosmic microwave background anisotropy power spectrum in adiabatic models. It consists of solving for the evolution of a two-fluid model until the epoch of recombination and then integrating over the sources to obtain the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. The approximation is useful both for a physical understanding of CMB anisotropies as well as for a quantitative analysis of cosmological models. Comparison with exact calculations shows that the accuracy is typically 10%-20% over a large range of angles and cosmological models, including those with curvature and cosmological constant. Using this approximation we investigate the dependence of the CMB anisotropy on the cosmological parameters. We identify six dimensionless parameters that uniquely determine the anisotropy power spectrum within our approximation. CMB experiments on different angular scales could in principle provide information on all these parameters. In particular, mapping of the Doppler peaks would allow an independent determination of baryon mass density, matter mass density, and the Hubble constant.

  19. A MEASUREMENT OF ARCMINUTE ANISOTROPY IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND WITH THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH ARRAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Matthew K.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; Pryke, Clem; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Muchovej, Stephen; Woody, David; Joy, Marshall; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2010-01-01

    We present 30 GHz measurements of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) obtained with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array. The measurements are sensitive to arcminute angular scales, where secondary anisotropy from the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) is expected to dominate. For a broad bin centered at multipole 4066, we find 67 +77 -50 μK 2 ; of which 26 ± 5 μK 2 is the expected contribution from primary CMB anisotropy and 80 ± 54 μK 2 is the expected contribution from undetected radio sources. These results imply an upper limit of 155 μK 2 (95% CL) on the secondary contribution to the anisotropy in our maps. This level of SZE anisotropy power is consistent with expectations based on recent determinations of the normalization of the matter power spectrum, i.e., σ 8 ∼ 0.8.

  20. Theory of Langmuir probes in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudit, I.D.; Woods, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    A theory has been developed for electron retardation by Langmuir probes of several geometries in a general anisotropic plasma with arbitrary probe orientation and valid for any sheath thickness. Electron densities and electron velocity distribution functions (EVDFs) are obtained from the second derivative of probe I-V curves, as in Druyvesteyn's original method, which was developed for isotropic plasmas. Fedorov had extended the latter method in the context of a thin sheath approximation, to axisymmetric plasmas, in which the EVDF is expanded in a series of Legendary polynomials. In the present work an expansion in a series of spherical harmonics is employed, and the coordinate transformations are handled using the irreducible representation of the three dimensional rotation group. It is shown that the Volterra integral equations that must be solved to obtain the expansion coefficients of the EVDF from the second derivative data are no more complicated in the general case that hose for the axisymmetric plasma. Furthermore in the latter case the results can be shown to be equivalent to Fedrov's thin sheath expression. For the case of planar probes a formulation based on first derivatives of the I-V curves has been obtained. If data is obtained at enough different probe orientation of a one sided planar disc probe, any number of spherical harmonic coefficient functions may be obtained by inverting a set of linear equations and the complete EVDF deduced. For a cylindrical probe or a two-sided planar disc probe the integration of the second derivative of the probe current gives the exact electron density with any arbitrary probe orientation and any degree of plasma anisotropy

  1. Crustal anisotropy across northern Japan from receiver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, I; Bokelmann, G; Shiomi, K

    2015-07-01

    Northern Japan is a tectonically active area, with the presence of several volcanoes, and with frequent earthquakes among which the destructive M w  = 8.9-9.0 Tohoku-oki occurred on 11 March 2011. Tectonic activity leaves an imprint on the crustal structures, on both the upper and the lower layers. To investigate the crust in northern Japan, we construct a receiver function data set using teleseismic events recorded at 58 seismic stations belonging to the Japanese National (Hi-net) network. We isolate the signals, in the receiver function wavelet, that witness the presence of anisotropic structures at depth, with the aim of mapping the variation of anisotropy across the northern part of the island. This study focuses on the relation among anisotropy detected in the crust, stresses induced by plate convergence across the subduction zone, and the intrinsic characteristics of the rocks. Our results show how a simple velocity model with two anisotropic layers reproduces the observed data at the stations. We observe a negligible or small amount of signal related to anisotropy in the eastern part of the study area (i.e., the outer arc) for both upper and lower crust. Distinct anisotropic features are observed at the stations on the western part of the study area (i.e., the inner arc) for both upper and lower crust. The symmetry axes are mostly E-W oriented. Deviation from the E-W orientation is observed close to the volcanic areas, where the higher geothermal gradient might influence the deformation processes.

  2. Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2017-09-20

    Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to [Formula: see text] facets on the surface.

  3. Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Dixit, Gopal; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2017-09-01

    Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the Ge0.25 Si0.75 on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to facets on the surface.

  4. Change of diffusion anisotropy in patients with acute cerebral infarction using statistical parametric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Naomi; Harada, Masafumi; Uno, Masaaki; Furutani, Kaori; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    We conducted statistical parametric comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) images and quantified FA values to determine whether significant change occurs in the ischemic region. The subjects were 20 patients seen within 24 h after onset of ischemia. For statistical comparison of FA images, a sample FA image was coordinated by the Talairach template, and each FA map was normalized. Statistical comparison was conducted using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 99. Regions of interest were set in the same region on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and FA maps, the region being consistent with the hyperintense region on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs). The contralateral region was also measured to obtain asymmetry ratios of ADC and FA. Regions with areas of statistical significance on FA images were found only in the white matter of three patients, although the regions were smaller than hyperintense regions on DWIs. The mean ADC and FA ratios were 0.64±0.16 and 0.93±0.09, respectively, and the degree of FA change was less than that of the ADC change. Significant change in diffusion anisotropy was limited to the severely infarcted core of the white matter. We believe statistical comparison of FA maps to be useful for detecting different regions of diffusion anisotropy. (author)

  5. Heterogeneous seismic anisotropy in the transition zone and uppermost lower mantle: evidence from South America, Izu-Bonin and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynner, Colton; Long, Maureen D.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of seismic anisotropy are commonly used to constrain deformation in the upper mantle. Observations of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths are, however, relatively sparse. In this study we probe the anisotropic structure of the mid-mantle (transition zone and uppermost lower mantle) beneath the Japan, Izu-Bonin, and South America subduction systems. We present source-side shear wave splitting measurements for direct teleseismic S phases from earthquakes deeper than 300 km that have been corrected for the effects of upper mantle anisotropy beneath the receiver. In each region, we observe consistent splitting with delay times as large as 1 s, indicating the presence of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths. Clear splitting of phases originating from depths as great as ˜600 km argues for a contribution from anisotropy in the uppermost lower mantle as well as the transition zone. Beneath Japan, fast splitting directions are perpendicular or oblique to the slab strike and do not appear to depend on the propagation direction of the waves. Beneath South America and Izu-Bonin, splitting directions vary from trench-parallel to trench-perpendicular and have an azimuthal dependence, indicating lateral heterogeneity. Our results provide evidence for the presence of laterally variable anisotropy and are indicative of variable deformation and dynamics at mid-mantle depths in the vicinity of subducting slabs.

  6. Radical probing of spliceosome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Charnpal S; Kent, Oliver A; MacMillan, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Here we describe the synthesis and use of a directed hydroxyl radical probe, tethered to a pre-mRNA substrate, to map the structure of this substrate during the spliceosome assembly process. These studies indicate an early organization and proximation of conserved pre-mRNA sequences during spliceosome assembly. This methodology may be adapted to the synthesis of a wide variety of modified RNAs for use as probes of RNA structure and RNA-protein interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Tumors Electrical Conductivity Anisotropy Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Numerical Modeling on Electroporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazikhanlou-sani K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is many ways to assessing the electrical conductivity anisotropy of a tumor. Applying the values of tissue electrical conductivity anisotropy is crucial in numerical modeling of the electric and thermal field distribution in electroporation treatments. This study aims to calculate the tissues electrical conductivity anisotropy in patients with sarcoma tumors using diffusion tensor imaging technique. Materials and Method: A total of 3 subjects were involved in this study. All of patients had clinically apparent sarcoma tumors at the extremities. The T1, T2 and DTI images were performed using a 3-Tesla multi-coil, multi-channel MRI system. The fractional anisotropy (FA maps were performed using the FSL (FMRI software library software regarding the DTI images. The 3D matrix of the FA maps of each area (tumor, normal soft tissue and bone/s was reconstructed and the anisotropy matrix was calculated regarding to the FA values. Result: The mean FA values in direction of main axis in sarcoma tumors were ranged between 0.475–0.690. With assumption of isotropy of the electrical conductivity, the FA value of electrical conductivity at each X, Y and Z coordinate axes would be equal to 0.577. The gathered results showed that there is a mean error band of 20% in electrical conductivity, if the electrical conductivity anisotropy not concluded at the calculations. The comparison of FA values showed that there is a significant statistical difference between the mean FA value of tumor and normal soft tissues (P<0.05. Conclusion: DTI is a feasible technique for the assessment of electrical conductivity anisotropy of tissues. It is crucial to quantify the electrical conductivity anisotropy data of tissues for numerical modeling of electroporation treatments.

  8. Shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonay, O.; Kondovych, S.; Loktev, V.

    2014-01-01

    High fraction of the surface atoms considerably enhances the influence of size and shape on the magnetic and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Shape effects in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are well understood and allow us to set and control the parameters of a sample that affect its magnetic anisotropy during production. In the present paper we study the shape effects in the other widely used magnetic materials – antiferromagnets, – which possess vanishingly small or zero macroscopic magnetization. We take into account the difference between the surface and bulk magnetic anisotropy of a nanoparticle and show that the effective magnetic anisotropy depends on the particle shape and crystallographic orientation of its faces. The corresponding shape-induced contribution to the magnetic anisotropy energy is proportional to the particle volume, depends on magnetostriction, and can cause formation of equilibrium domain structure. Crystallographic orientation of the nanoparticle surface determines the type of domain structure. The proposed model allows us to predict the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles depending on their shape and treatment. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that the shape effects in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles stem from the difference of surface and bulk magnetic properties combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. • We predict shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic particles with large aspect ratio. • We predict different types of domain structures depending on the orientation of the particle faces

  9. Lowermost mantle anisotropy near the eastern edge of the Pacific LLSVP: constraints from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Long, Maureen D.; Creasy, Neala; Wagner, Lara; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estela

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been documented in many portions of the lowermost mantle, with particularly strong anisotropy thought to be present along the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The region surrounding the Pacific LLSVP, however, has not yet been studied extensively in terms of its anisotropic structure. In this study, we use seismic data from southern Peru, northern Bolivia and Easter Island to probe lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean, mostly relying on data from the Peru Lithosphere and Slab Experiment and Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography experiments. Differential shear wave splitting measurements from phases that have similar ray paths in the upper mantle but different ray paths in the lowermost mantle, such as SKS and SKKS, are used to constrain anisotropy in D″. We measured splitting for 215 same station-event SKS-SKKS pairs that sample the eastern Pacific LLSVP at the base of the mantle. We used measurements of splitting intensity(SI), a measure of the amount of energy on the transverse component, to objectively and quantitatively analyse any discrepancies between SKS and SKKS phases. While the overall splitting signal is dominated by the upper-mantle anisotropy, a minority of SKS-SKKS pairs (∼10 per cent) exhibit strongly discrepant splitting between the phases (i.e. the waveforms require a difference in SI of at least 0.4), indicating a likely contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy. In order to enhance lower mantle signals, we also stacked waveforms within individual subregions and applied a waveform differencing technique to isolate the signal from the lowermost mantle. Our stacking procedure yields evidence for substantial splitting due to lowermost mantle anisotropy only for a specific region that likely straddles the edge of Pacific LLSVP. Our observations are consistent with the localization of deformation and anisotropy near the eastern boundary of the Pacific LLSVP

  10. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Measurements Using Tetrapole Probe Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNairnay, Paul

    A magnetic Barkhausen noise (MBN) testing system was developed for Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) to perform MBN measurements on the Royal Canadian Navy's Victoria class submarine hulls that can be correlated with material properties, including residual stress. The DRDC system was based on the design of a MBN system developed by Steven White at Queen's University, which was capable of performing rapid angular dependent measurements through the implementation of a flux controlled tetrapole probe. In tetrapole probe designs, the magnetic excitation field is rotated in the surface plane of the sample under the assumption of linear superposition of two orthogonal magnetic fields. During the course of this work, however, the validity of flux superposition in ferromagnetic materials, for the purpose of measuring MBN, was brought into question. Consequently, a study of MBN anisotropy using tetrapole probes was performed. Results indicate that MBN anisotropy measured under flux superposition does not simulate MBN anisotropy data obtained through manual rotation of a single dipole excitation field. It is inferred that MBN anisotropy data obtained with tetrapole probes is the result of the magnetic domain structure's response to an orthogonal magnetization condition and not necessarily to any bulk superposition magnetization in the sample. A qualitative model for the domain configuration under two orthogonal magnetic fields is proposed to describe the results. An empirically derived fitting equation, that describes tetrapole MBN anisotropy data, is presented. The equation describes results in terms of two largely independent orthogonal fields, and includes interaction terms arising due to competing orthogonally magnetized domain structures and interactions with the sample's magnetic easy axis. The equation is used to fit results obtained from a number of samples and tetrapole orientations and in each case correctly identifies the samples' magnetic easy axis.

  11. Large Friction Anisotropy of a Polydiacetylene Monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, A.R.; Carpick, R.W.; Sasaki, D.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Friction force microscopy measurements of a polydiacetylene monolayer film reveal a 300% friction anisotropy that is correlated with the film structure. The film consists of a monolayer of the red form of N-(2-ethanol)- 10,12 pentacosadiynamide, prepared on a Langmuir trough and deposited on a mica substrate. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the monolayer consists of domains of linearly oriented conjugated backbones with pendant hydrocarbon side chains above and below the backbones. Maximum friction occurs when the sliding direction is perpendicular to the backbone. We propose that the backbones impose anisotropic packing of the hydrocarbon side chains which leads to the observed friction anisotropy. Friction anisotropy is therefore a sensitive, optically-independent indicator of polymer backbone direction and monolayer structural properties

  12. Measurements of magnetic anisotropy in sickle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo Souza, L.H. de.

    1982-03-01

    Room temperature magnetic measurements in deoxigenated sickle cells showed the existence of magnetic anisotropy, Δchi=1,29 x 10 -3 . This effect was supposed paramagnetic and considered to be due to the iron atoms of the hemoglobin molecules which are one over the other, forming ordered chains inside the erythrocytes. Low temperature (liquid He - 4,2K) measurements of the magnetic anisotropy of sickle cells and normal red blood cells diluted in a cryoprotector was made to confirm the paramagnetic origin of the fenomena. For that purpose it was used a superconductor magnetometer coupled to a SQUID, developed in the 'Laboratorio do Estado Solido do Departamento de Fisica da PUC-RJ'. The results obtained seem to confirm the expected paramagnetic anisotropy and, furthermore, suggest the presence of magnetic interactions among the iron atoms in the sickle cells samples. (Author) [pt

  13. COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT AND ANISOTROPIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia; Mandelartz, Matthias [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Seo, Eun-Suk [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    We show that the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at {approx}10 TeV can be explained by a modified Compton-Getting effect in the magnetized flow field of old supernova remnants. Cosmic rays arrive isotropically to the flow field and are then carried along with the flow to produce a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival direction. This approach suggests an optimum energy scale for detecting the anisotropy. Two key assumptions are that propagation is based on turbulence following a Kolmogorov law and that cosmic-ray interactions are dominated by transport via cosmic-ray-excited magnetic irregularities through the stellar wind of an exploding star and its shock shell. A prediction is that the amplitude is smaller at lower energies due to incomplete sampling of the velocity field and also smaller at larger energies due to smearing.

  14. Direct fluorescence anisotropy assay for cocaine using tetramethylrhodamine-labeled aptamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiong; Zhao, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Development of simple, sensitive, and rapid method for cocaine detection is important in medicine and drug abuse monitoring. Taking advantage of fluorescence anisotropy and aptamer, this study reports a direct fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for cocaine by employing an aptamer probe with tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) labeled on a specific position. The binding of cocaine and the aptamer causes a structure change of the TMR-labeled aptamer, leading to changes of the interaction between labeled TMR and adjacent G bases in aptamer sequence, so FA of TMR varies with increasing of cocaine. After screening different labeling positions of the aptamer, including thymine (T) bases and terminals of the aptamer, we obtained a favorable aptamer probe with TMR labeled on the 25th base T in the sequence, which exhibited sensitive and significant FA-decreasing responses upon cocaine. Under optimized assay conditions, this TMR-labeled aptamer allowed for direct FA detection of cocaine as low as 5 μM. The maximum FA change reached about 0.086. This FA method also enabled the detection of cocaine spiked in diluted serum and urine samples, showing potential for applications. Graphical Abstract The binding of cocaine to the TMR-labeled aptamer causes conformation change and alteration of the intramolecular interaction between TMR and bases of aptamer, leading to variance of fluorescence anisotropy (FA) of TMR, so direct FA analyis of cocaine is achieved.

  15. Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Toneev, V.D.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna

    1994-01-01

    Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e + e - pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed

  16. Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Toneev, V.D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1994-11-07

    Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed.

  17. Anisotropy of the Topopah Spring Member Tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J. III; Boyd, P.J.; Haupt, R.W.; Price, R.H.

    1992-07-01

    Mechanical properties of the tuffaceous rocks within Yucca Mountain are needed for near and far-field modeling of the potential nuclear waste repository. If the mechanical properties are significantly anisotropic (i.e., direction-dependent), a more complex model is required. Relevant data from tuffs tested in earlier studies indicate that elastic and strength properties are anisotropic. This scoping study confirms the elastic anisotropy and concludes some tuffs are transversely isotropic. An approach for sampling and testing the rock to determine the magnitude of the anisotropy is proposed

  18. Magnetocrystalline and configurational anisotropies in Fe nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavassori, P.; Bisero, D.; Carace, F.; Liberati, M.; Di Bona, A.; Gazzadi, G.C.; Valeri, S.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of single-crystal Fe micron and submicron squares and disks, have been fabricated using a focused ion beam apparatus from a film epitaxially grown on MgO. The hysteresis loops of the patterned areas differ from those of the continuous film as a consequence of the different reversal determined by the lateral confinement of the Fe film. By means of modulated field magneto-optical anisometry measurements we studied the symmetry and the strength of the overall anisotropy. For the smaller square elements we observed a higher-order term in the overall anisotropy with eightfold symmetry arising from the configurational contribution

  19. Crustal Seismic Anisotropy: Implications for Understanding Crustal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, A.; Christensen, N.; Okaya, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Nanga Parbat - Haramosh massif, in the core of the western syntaxis of the Himalaya, represents a unique exposure of mid-lower continental crust from beneath a collisional orogen. The exhumed core of the massif forms a large scale antiformal structure with axial orientation of N10E and associated lineation directed north-south with near-vertical dips. Laboratory measurements of seismic velocity on a suite of quartzofeldspathic gneisses from the massif show a relatively strong degree of anisotropy, up to 12.5% for compressional waves and up to 21% for shear waves. The degree of velocity anisotropy is primarily a function of mica content and rock fabric strength. The strong anisotropy measured in these rocks should be observable in recorded seismic field data and provides a means of mapping rock fabric at depth provided the rock fabric is coherent over appropriate length scales. An IRIS/PASSCAL deployment of 50 short period instruments recorded local and regional earthquakes to characterize seismicity and determine crustal structure beneath the massif as part of a multidisciplinary NSF Continental Dynamics study investigating the active tectonic processes responsible for exhumation and crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat. Microseismicity at Nanga Parbat is distributed along strike beneath the massif but exhibits a sharp drop-off laterally into adjacent terranes and with depth. This data set is ideal for studying crustal seismic anisotropy because the raypaths are restricted to the crust, sharp onsets in P and S allow for clear identification of arrivals, and source-receiver geometries sample a range of azimuths with respect to structure. Preliminary analysis indicates that the majority of local events exhibit some degree of splitting and that splitting patterns, while complicated, are coherent. While splitting delay normally increases with distance traveled through anisotropic material, the range of delay times can be due to heterogeneity in composition, lateral

  20. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  1. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  2. Measuring the Alfvénic nature of the interstellar medium: Velocity anisotropy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, A.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Esquivel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) are strongly affected by turbulence, which shows increased anisotropy in the presence of a magnetic field. We expand upon the Esquivel and Lazarian method to estimate the Alfvén Mach number using the structure function anisotropy in velocity centroid data from Position-Position-Velocity maps. We utilize three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of fully developed turbulence, with a large range of sonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers, to produce synthetic observations of velocity centroids with observational characteristics such as thermal broadening, cloud boundaries, noise, and radiative transfer effects of carbon monoxide. In addition, we investigate how the resulting anisotropy-Alfvén Mach number dependency found in Esquivel and Lazarian might change when taking the second moment of the Position-Position-Velocity cube or when using different expressions to calculate the velocity centroids. We find that the degree of anisotropy is related primarily to the magnetic field strength (i.e., Alfvén Mach number) and the line-of-sight orientation, with a secondary effect on sonic Mach number. If the line of sight is parallel to up to ≈45 deg off of the mean field direction, the velocity centroid anisotropy is not prominent enough to distinguish different Alfvénic regimes. The observed anisotropy is not strongly affected by including radiative transfer, although future studies should include additional tests for opacity effects. These results open up the possibility of studying the magnetic nature of the ISM using statistical methods in addition to existing observational techniques.

  3. Understanding Seismic Anisotropy in Hunt Well of Fort McMurray, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malehmir, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic imaging plays vital role in geothermal systems as a sustainable energy resource. In this paper, we acquired and processed zero-offset and walk-away VSP and logging as well as surface seismic in Athabasca oil sand area, Alberta. Seismic data were highly processed to make better image geothermal system. Through data processing, properties of natural fractures such as orientation and width were studied and high probable permeable zones were mapped along the deep drilled to the depth of 2363m deep into crystalline basement rocks. In addition to logging data, seismic data were processed to build a reliable image of underground. Velocity analysis in high resolution multi-component walk-away VSP informed us about the elastic anisotropy in place. Study of the natural and induced fracture as well as elastic anisotropy in the seismic data, led us to better map stress regime around the well bore. The seismic image and map of fractures optimizes enhanced geothermal stages through hydraulic stimulation. Keywords: geothermal, anisotropy, VSP, logging, Hunt well, seismic

  4. Steady-state acceptor fluorescence anisotropy imaging under evanescent excitation for visualisation of FRET at the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Devauges

    Full Text Available We present a novel imaging system combining total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy with measurement of steady-state acceptor fluorescence anisotropy in order to perform live cell Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET imaging at the plasma membrane. We compare directly the imaging performance of fluorescence anisotropy resolved TIRF with epifluorescence illumination. The use of high numerical aperture objective for TIRF required correction for induced depolarization factors. This arrangement enabled visualisation of conformational changes of a Raichu-Cdc42 FRET biosensor by measurement of intramolecular FRET between eGFP and mRFP1. Higher activity of the probe was found at the cell plasma membrane compared to intracellularly. Imaging fluorescence anisotropy in TIRF allowed clear differentiation of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor from negative control mutants. Finally, inhibition of Cdc42 was imaged dynamically in live cells, where we show temporal changes of the activity of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor.

  5. Acoustic axes in weak triclinic anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 2 (2005), s. 629-638 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : elastic-wave theory * perturbation methods * seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2005

  6. Empirical evidence for inertial mass anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Siemieniec, G.

    1985-01-01

    A several attempts at measuring the possible deviations from inertial mass isotropy caused by a non-uniform distribution of matter are reviewed. A simple model of the inertial mass anisotropy and the results of the currently performed measurements concerning this effect are presented. 34 refs. (author)

  7. Anisotropy of Wood in the Microwave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Sasa; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Cepic, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of…

  8. What we learn from CMB Anisotropies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    George Smoot shared the 2006 Nobel Prize with John Mathere for the discovery of the fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background. In this talk (which will not be the same as the Nobel lecture), he will discuss what we have learned about the universe in the recent past from these anisotropies.

  9. Pseudospin anisotropy classification of quantum Hall ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 3 (2000), s. 035305-1 - 035305-9 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/0085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnets * anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2000

  10. Cosmology with cosmic microwave background anisotropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements of CMB anisotropy and, more recently, polarization have played a very important role in allowing precise determination of various parameters of the `standard' cosmological model. The expectation of the paradigm of inflation and the generic prediction of the simplest realization of inflationary scenario in the ...

  11. Magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1970-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the energy of long- wavelength magnons in Tb-10%Ho has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The results agree with the `frozen-lattice' model, provided that the second-order magnetoelastic effect is taken into account. The planar anisotropy is almost...

  12. Azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching at LHC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We analyze the azimuthal anisotropy of jet spectra due to energy loss of hard partons in quark–gluon plasma, created initially in nuclear overlap zone in collisions with non-zero impact parameter. The calculations are performed for semi-central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy.

  13. Relative sensitivity of formability to anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.W.; Maker, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    This work compares the relative importance of material anisotropy in sheet forming as compared to other material and process variables. The comparison is made quantitative by the use of normalized dependencies of depth to failure (forming limit is reached) on various measures of anisotropy, as well as strain and rate sensitivity, friction, and tooling. Comparisons are made for a variety of forming processes examined previously in the literature as well as two examples of complex stampings in this work. 7 The examples rover a range from nearly pure draw to nearly pure stretch situations, and show that for materials following a quadratic yield criterion, anisotropy is among the most sensitive parameters influencing formability. For materials following higher-exponent yield criteria, the dependency is milder but is still of the order of most other process parameters. However, depending on the particular forming operation, it is shown that in some cases anisotropy may be ignored, whereas in others its consideration is crucial to a good quality analysis

  14. Effective anisotropy through traveltime and amplitude matching

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui

    2014-08-05

    Introducing anisotropy to seismic wave propagation reveals more realistic physics of our Earth\\'s subsurface as compared to the isotropic assumption. However wavefield modeling, the engine of seismic inverse problems, in anisotropic media still suffers from computational burdens, in particular with complex anisotropy such as transversely isotropic (TI) and Orthorhombic anisotropy. We develop effective isotropic velocity and density models to package the effects of anisotropy such that the wave propagation behavior using these effective models approximate those of the original anisotropic model. We build these effective models through the high frequency asymptotic approximation based on the eikonal and transport equations. We match the geometrical behavior of the wave-fields, given by traveltimes, from the anisotropic and isotropic eikonal equations. This matching yields the effective isotropic velocity that approximates the kinematics of the anisotropic wavefield. Equivalently, we calculate the effective densities by equating the anisotropic and isotropic transport equations. The effective velocities and densities are then fed into the isotropic acoustic variable density wave equation to obtain cheaper anisotropic wavefields. We justify our approach by testing it on an elliptical anisotropic model. The numerical results demonstrate a good matching of both traveltime and amplitude between anisotropic and effective isotropic wavefields.

  15. Measurements of the cosmic-ray electron and positron spectrum and anisotropies with the Fermi LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loparco, F.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite is a pair-conversion telescope for high-energy gamma rays of astrophysical origin. Although it was designed to be a high-sensitivity gamma-ray telescope, the LAT has proved to be an excellent electron/positron detector. It has been operating in low Earth orbit since June 2008 and has collected more than 16 million cosmic-ray electron and positron (CRE) events in its first seven years of operation. The huge data sample collected by the LAT enables a precise measurement of the CRE energy spectrum up to the TeV region. A search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of CREs was also performed. The upper limits on the dipole anisotropy probe the presence of nearby young and middle-aged CRE sources.

  16. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  17. What does anisotropy measure? Insights from increased and decreased anisotropy in selective fiber tracts in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A De Erausquin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a common, severe and chronically disabling mental illness of unknown cause. Recent MRI studies have focused attention on white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Indices commonly derived from DTI include (a mean diffusivity, independent of direction, (b fractional anisotropy (FA or relative anisotropy (RA, (c axial diffusivity, and (d radial diffusivity. In cerebral white matter, contributions to these indices come from fiber arrangements, degree of myelination, and axonal integrity. Relatively pure deficits in myelin result in a modest increase in radial diffusivity, without affecting axial diffusivity and with preservation of anisotropy. Although schizophrenia is not characterized by gross abnormalities of white matter, it does involve a profound dysregulation of myelin-associated gene expression, reductions in oligodendrocyte numbers, and marked abnormalities in the ultrastructure of myelin sheaths. Since each oligodendrocyte myelinates as many as 40 axon segments, changes in the number of oligodendrocytes, and/or in the integrity of myelin sheaths, and/or axoglial contacts can have a profound impact on signal propagation and the integrity of neuronal circuits. Whereas a number of studies have revealed inconsistent decreases in anisotropy in schizophrenia, we and others have found increased fractional anisotropy in key subcortical tracts associated with the circuits underlying symptom generation in schizophrenia. We review data revealing increased anisotropy in dopaminergic tracts in the mesencephalon of schizophrenics and their unaffected relatives, and discuss the possible biological underpinnings and physiological significance of this finding.

  18. Signal processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birac, C.; David, D.; Lamant, D.

    1987-01-01

    Digital processing of eddy current three-dimensional maps improves accuracy of detection: flattening, filtering, computing deconvolution, mapping new variables,.., give new possibilities for difficult test problems. With simulation of defects, probes, probe travels, it is now possible to compute new eddy current processes, without machining defects or building probes

  19. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  20. Probe Techniques. Introductory Remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emeleus, K. G. [School of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Queen' s University, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1968-04-15

    In this brief introduction to the session on probes, the history of theii development is first touched on briefly. Reference is then made to the significance of the work to be described by Medicus, for conductivity and recombination calculations, and by Lam and Su, for a wide range of medium and higher pressure plasmas. Finally, a number of other probe topics are mentioned, including multiple probes; probes in electronegative plasmas; resonance probes; probes in noisy discharges; probes as oscillation detectors; use of probes where space-charge is not negligible. (author)

  1. Cross-correlation studies between CMB temperature anisotropies and 21 cm fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2004-01-01

    During the transition from a neutral to a fully reionized universe, scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons via free electrons leads to a new anisotropy contribution to the temperature distribution. If the reionization process is inhomogeneous and patchy, the era of reionization is also visible via brightness temperature fluctuations in the redshifted 21 cm line emission from neutral hydrogen. Since regions containing electrons and neutral hydrogen are expected to trace the same underlying density field, the two are (anti)correlated and this is expected to be reflected in the anisotropy maps via a correlation between arcminute-scale CMB temperature and the 21 cm background. In terms of the angular cross-power spectrum, unfortunately, this correlation is insignificant due to a geometric cancellation associated with second-order CMB anisotropies. The same cross correlation between ionized and neutral regions, however, can be studied using a bispectrum involving large-scale velocity field of ionized regions from the Doppler effect, arcminute-scale CMB anisotropies during reionization, and the 21 cm background. While the geometric cancellation is partly avoided, the signal-to-noise ratio related to this bispectrum is reduced due to the large cosmic variance related to velocity fluctuations traced by the Doppler effect. Unless the velocity field during reionization can be independently established, it is unlikely that the correlation information related to the relative distribution of ionized electrons and regions containing neutral hydrogen can be obtained with a combined study involving CMB and 21 cm fluctuations

  2. Reduction of anisotropy influence and contacting effects in in-vitro bioimpedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, M; Kanoun, O; Derbel, N

    2013-01-01

    Experimental procedure is a decisive part in in-vitro bioimpedance measurement in order to get reproducible measurements. An electrode configuration is proposed to avoid several disadvantages produced by needle electrodes and circular non-penetrating electrode. The proposed electrode geometry reduces the influence of anisotropy and allows simultaneously a good probe contacting. We propose an experimental method to avoid the appearance of bacteria and to reduce water loss in meat during experiment post-mortem. The results show that electrode configuration with the developed experimental method have ensured reproducible measurements during a long period of 14 days post-mortem.

  3. Reduction of anisotropy influence and contacting effects in in-vitro bioimpedance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, M.; Kanoun, O.; Derbel, N.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental procedure is a decisive part in in-vitro bioimpedance measurement in order to get reproducible measurements. An electrode configuration is proposed to avoid several disadvantages produced by needle electrodes and circular non-penetrating electrode. The proposed electrode geometry reduces the influence of anisotropy and allows simultaneously a good probe contacting. We propose an experimental method to avoid the appearance of bacteria and to reduce water loss in meat during experiment post-mortem. The results show that electrode configuration with the developed experimental method have ensured reproducible measurements during a long period of 14 days post-mortem.

  4. Anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background in nonstandard cold dark matter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorio, Nicola; Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Small angular scale cosmic microwave anisotropies in flat, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter cosmological models which fit large-scale structure observations and are consistent with a high value for the Hubble constant are reexamined. New predictions for CDM models in which the large-scale power is boosted via a high baryon content and low H(0) are presented. Both classes of models are consistent with current limits: an improvement in sensitivity by a factor of about 3 for experiments which probe angular scales between 7 arcmin and 1 deg is required, in the absence of very early reionization, to test boosted CDM models for large-scale structure formation.

  5. Strain-induced fermi contour anisotropy of GaAs 2D holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, J; Shayegan, M; Winkler, R

    2008-03-07

    We report measurements of magnetoresistance commensurability peaks, induced by a square array of antidots, in GaAs (311)A two-dimensional holes as a function of applied in-plane strain. The data directly probe the shapes of the Fermi contours of the two spin subbands that are split thanks to the spin-orbit interaction and strain. The experimental results are in quantitative agreement with the predictions of accurate energy band calculations, and reveal that the majority spin subband has a severely distorted Fermi contour whose anisotropy can be tuned with strain.

  6. Evaluation of anisotropy of J c in silver-sheathed Bi-2223 tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeda, Y.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Matsushita, T.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic field angle dependence of J c was measured by four probe method and DC magnetization method. The latter measurement was used for the specimen before and after bending to break the intergrain current in order to investigate only the intragrain current. It was found that the intragrain critical current density could be increased by a factor 2.7 in a parallel magnetic field when the c-axis misorientation could be improved. From the field angle dependence of the intragrain critical current density, the anisotropy parameter was estimated as 20.4

  7. Friction Anisotropy with Respect to Topographic Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjiao; Wang, Q. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Friction characteristics with respect to surface topographic orientation were investigated using surfaces of different materials and fabricated with grooves of different scales. Scratching friction tests were conducted using a nano-indentation-scratching system with the tip motion parallel or perpendicular to the groove orientation. Similar friction anisotropy trends were observed for all the surfaces studied, which are (1) under a light load and for surfaces with narrow grooves, the tip motion parallel to the grooves offers higher friction coefficients than does that perpendicular to them, (2) otherwise, equal or lower friction coefficients are found under this motion. The influences of groove size relative to the diameter of the mating tip (as a representative asperity), surface contact stiffness, contact area, and the characteristic stiction length are discussed. The appearance of this friction anisotropy is independent of material; however, the boundary and the point of trend transition depend on material properties. PMID:23248751

  8. Destabilization of TAE modes by particle anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    Plasmas heated by ICRF produce energetic particle distribution functions which are sharply peaked in pitch-angle, and the authors show that at moderate toroidal mode numbers, this anisotropy is a competitive and even dominant instability drive when compared with the universal instability drive due to spatial gradient. The universal drive, acting along, destabilizes only co-propagating waves (i.e., waves propagating in the same toroidal direction as the diamagnetic flow of the energetic particles), but stabilizes counter-propagating waves (i.e., waves propagating in the opposite toroidal direction as the diamagnetic flow of the energetic particles). Nonetheless, the authors show that in a tokamak, it is possible that particle anisotropy can produce a larger linear growth rate for counter-propagating waves, and provide a mechanism for preferred destabilization of the counter-propagating TAE modes that are sometimes experimentally observed

  9. Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.

    1998-02-01

    Anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) contain a wealth of information about the past history of the universe and the present values of cosmological parameters. I online some of the theoretical advances of the last few years. In particular, I emphasize that for a wide class of cosmological models, theorists can accurately calculate the spectrum to better than a percent. The spectrum of anisotropies today is directly related to the pattern of inhomogeneities present at the time of recombination. This recognition leads to a powerful argument that will enable us to distinguish inflationary models from other models of structure formation. If the inflationary models turn out to be correct, the free parameters in these models will be determined to unprecedented accuracy by the upcoming satellite missions

  10. Microwave background anisotropies in quasiopen inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Garriga, Jaume; Montes, Xavier

    1999-10-01

    Quasiopenness seems to be generic to multifield models of single-bubble open inflation. Instead of producing infinite open universes, these models actually produce an ensemble of very large but finite inflating islands. In this paper we study the possible constraints from CMB anisotropies on existing models of open inflation. The effect of supercurvature anisotropies combined with the quasiopenness of the inflating regions make some models incompatible with observations, and severely reduces the parameter space of others. Supernatural open inflation and the uncoupled two-field model seem to be ruled out due to these constraints for values of Ω0<~0.98. Others, such as the open hybrid inflation model with suitable parameters for the slow roll potential can be made compatible with observations.

  11. Seismic anisotropy in deforming salt bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, P.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.; Dutko, M.

    2017-12-01

    Salt is often involved in forming hydrocarbon traps. Studying salt dynamics and the deformation processes is important for the exploration industry. We have performed numerical texture simulations of single halite crystals deformed by simple shear and axial extension using the visco-plastic self consistent approach (VPSC). A methodology from subduction studies to estimate strain in a geodynamic simulation is applied to a complex high-resolution salt diapir model. The salt diapir deformation is modelled with the ELFEN software by our industrial partner Rockfield, which is based on a finite-element code. High strain areas at the bottom of the head-like strctures of the salt diapir show high amount of seismic anisotropy due to LPO development of halite crystals. The results demonstrate that a significant degree of seismic anisotropy can be generated, validating the view that this should be accounted for in the treatment of seismic data in, for example, salt diapir settings.

  12. Experimental investigation of ultrasonic velocity anisotropy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/077/02/0345-0355. Keywords. Magnetic fluids; ultrasonic wave; sound velocity; anisotropy. Abstract. Magnetic field-induced dispersion of ultrasonic velocity in a Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 fluid (applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the ultrasonic propagation vector) is ...

  13. Transfer anisotropy effect in a turbulent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Gradov, O.M.; Silin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A theory is developed of transfer phenomena with pronounced ion-sound turbulence. A transfer anisotropy effect is observed which is due to the temperature gradient. The corresponding fluxes across the effective force vector generating the turbulence are found to be considerably greater than the longitudinal fluxes in a plasma with a comparatively low degree of nonisothermality. In a strongly nonisothermal plasma the suppression of transverse fluxes occurs, corresponding to the growth of thermal insulation of the current-carrying plasma filaments

  14. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  15. Anisotropy of dark matter velocity distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Keiko I.

    2018-01-01

    Direct detection of dark matter with directional sensitivity has the potential to discriminate the dark matter velocity distribution. Especially, it will be suitable to discriminate isotropic distribution from anisotropic one. Analyzing data produced with Monte-Carlo simulation, required conditions for the discrimination is estimated. If energy threshold of detector is optimized, $O(10^3-10^4)$ event number is required to discriminate the anisotropy.

  16. Assessment of velocity anisotropy in rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Goel, R. K.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Dwivedi, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 57, January (2013), s. 142-152 ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/08/0676; GA AV ČR IAA300130906; GA ČR(CZ) GAP104/12/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : elastic anisotropy * acoustic emission * uniaxial loading * hydrostatic loading Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2013

  17. Engineering functional anisotropy in fibrocartilage neotissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBarb, Regina F; Chen, Alison L; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2013-12-01

    The knee meniscus, intervertebral disc, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc all possess complex geometric shapes and anisotropic matrix organization. While these characteristics are imperative for proper tissue function, they are seldom recapitulated following injury or disease. Thus, this study's objective was to engineer fibrocartilages that capture both gross and molecular structural features of native tissues. Self-assembled TMJ discs were selected as the model system, as the disc exhibits a unique biconcave shape and functional anisotropy. To drive anisotropy, 50:50 co-cultures of meniscus cells and articular chondrocytes were grown in biconcave, TMJ-shaped molds and treated with two exogenous stimuli: biomechanical (BM) stimulation via passive axial compression and bioactive agent (BA) stimulation via chondroitinase-ABC and transforming growth factor-β1. BM + BA synergistically increased Col/WW, Young's modulus, and ultimate tensile strength 5.8-fold, 14.7-fold, and 13.8-fold that of controls, respectively; it also promoted collagen fibril alignment akin to native tissue. Finite element analysis found BM stimulation to create direction-dependent strains within the neotissue, suggesting shape plays an essential role toward driving in vitro anisotropic neotissue development. Methods used in this study offer insight on the ability to achieve physiologic anisotropy in biomaterials through the strategic application of spatial, biomechanical, and biochemical cues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What does anisotropy measure? Insights from increased and decreased anisotropy in selective fiber tracts in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Ferrara, L M; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common, severe, and chronically disabling mental illness of unknown cause. Recent MRI studies have focused attention on white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Indices commonly derived from DTI include (1) mean diffusivity, independent of direction, (2) fractional anisotropy (FA) or relative anisotropy (RA), (3) axial diffusivity, and (4) radial diffusivity. In cerebral white matter, contributions to these indices come from fiber arrangements, degree of myelination, and axonal integrity. Relatively pure deficits in myelin result in a modest increase in radial diffusivity, without affecting axial diffusivity and with preservation of anisotropy. Although schizophrenia is not characterized by gross abnormalities of white matter, it does involve a profound dysregulation of myelin-associated gene expression, reductions in oligodendrocyte numbers, and marked abnormalities in the ultrastructure of myelin sheaths. Since each oligodendrocyte myelinates as many as 40 axon segments, changes in the number of oligodendrocytes (OLG), and/or in the integrity of myelin sheaths, and/or axoglial contacts can have a profound impact on signal propagation and the integrity of neuronal circuits. Whereas a number of studies have revealed inconsistent decreases in anisotropy in schizophrenia, we and others have found increased FA in key subcortical tracts associated with the circuits underlying symptom generation in schizophrenia. We review data revealing increased anisotropy in dopaminergic tracts in the mesencephalon of schizophrenics and their unaffected relatives, and discuss the possible biological underpinnings and physiological significance of this finding.

  19. Shallow crustal radial anisotropy beneath the Tehran basin of Iran from seismic ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Taghi; Shomali, Z. Hossein

    2014-06-01

    We studied the shear wave velocity structure and radial anisotropy beneath the Tehran basin by analyzing the Rayleigh wave and Love wave empirical Green's functions obtained from cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise. Approximately 199 inter-station Rayleigh and Love wave empirical Green's functions with sufficient signal-to-noise ratios extracted from 30 stations with various sensor types were used for phase velocity dispersion analysis of periods ranging from 1 to 7 s using an image transformation analysis technique. Dispersion curves extracted from the phase velocity maps were inverted based on non-linear damped least squares inversion method to obtain a quasi-3D model of crustal shear wave velocities. The data used in this study provide an unprecedented opportunity to resolve the spatial distribution of radial anisotropy within the uppermost crust beneath the Tehran basin. The quasi-3D shear wave velocity model obtained in this analysis delineates several distinct low- and high-velocity zones that are generally separated by geological boundaries. High-shear-velocity zones are located primarily around the mountain ranges and extend to depths of 2.0 km, while the low-shear-velocity zone is located near regions with sedimentary layers. In the shallow subsurface, our results indicate strong radial anisotropy with negative magnitude (VSV > VSH) primarily associated with thick sedimentary deposits, reflecting vertical alignment of cracks. With increasing depth, the magnitude of the radial anisotropy shifts from predominantly negative (less than -10%) to predominantly positive (greater than 5%). Our results show a distinct change in radial anisotropy between the uppermost sedimentary layer and the bedrock.

  20. Radial anisotropy of Northeast Asia inferred from Bayesian inversions of ambient noise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. J.; Kim, S.; Rhie, J.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of the Eurasia plate exhibits complex tectonic settings due to interactions with the subducting Pacific and Philippine Sea plates and the colliding India plate. Distributed extensional basins and intraplate volcanoes, and their heterogeneous features in the region are not easily explained with a simple mechanism. Observations of radial anisotropy in the entire lithosphere and the part of the asthenosphere provide the most effective evidence for the deformation of the lithosphere and the associated variation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). To infer anisotropic structures of crustal and upper-mantle in this region, radial anisotropy is measured using ambient noise data. In a continuation of previous Rayleigh wave tomography study in Northeast Asia, we conduct Love wave tomography to determine radial anisotropy using the Bayesian inversion techniques. Continuous seismic noise recordings of 237 broad-band seismic stations are used and more than 55,000 group and phase velocities of fundamental mode are measured for periods of 5-60 s. Total 8 different types of dispersion maps of Love wave from this study (period 10-60 s), Rayleigh wave from previous tomographic study (Kim et al., 2016; period 8-70 s) and longer period data (period 70-200 s) from a global model (Ekstrom, 2011) are jointly inverted using a hierarchical and transdimensional Bayesian technique. For each grid-node, boundary depths, velocities and anisotropy parameters of layers are sampled simultaneously on the assumption of the layered half-space model. The constructed 3-D radial anisotropy model provides much more details about the crust and upper mantle anisotropic structures, and about the complex undulation of the LAB.

  1. Millimeter Wavelength Observations of Galactic Sources with the Mobile Anisotropy Telescope (MAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, K. L.; Caldwell, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dorwart, W. B.; Herbig, T.; Miller, A. D.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J. L.; Torbet, E.; Tran, H. T.

    1999-12-01

    The Mobile Anisotropy Telescope (MAT) has completed two observing seasons (1997 and 1998) in Chile from the Cerro Toco site. Although the primary goal of MAT was to measure anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the chosen observation scheme also allowed daily viewing of the Galactic Plane. We present filtered maps at 30, 40 and 144 GHz of a region of the Galactic Plane which contains several millimeter-bright regions including the Carinae nebula and IRAS 11097-6102. We report the best fit brightness temperatures as well as the total flux densities in the MAT beams (0.9, 0.6 and 0.2 degrees FWHM) . The data are calibrated with respect to Jupiter whose flux is known to better than 8% in all frequency bands. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation and the Packard Foundation.

  2. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  3. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  4. Synchronous Measurement of Ultrafast Anisotropy Decay of the B850 in Bacterial LH2 Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun-Peng; Du Lu-Chao; Zhu Gang-Bei; Wang Zhuan; Weng Yu-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast anisotropic decay is a prominent parameter revealing ultrafast energy and electron transfer; however, it is difficult to be determined reliably owing to the requirement of a simultaneous availability of the parallel and perpendicular polarized decay kinetics. Nowadays, any measurement of anisotropic decay is a kind of approach to the exact simultaneity. Here we report a novel method for a synchronous ultrafast anisotropy decay measurement, which can well determine the anisotropy, even at a very early time, as the rising phase of the excitation laser pulse. The anisotropic decay of the B850 in bacterial light harvesting antenna complex LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in solution at room temperature with coherent excitation is detected by this method, which shows a polarization response time of 30 fs, and the energy transfer from the initial excitation to the bacteriochlorophylls in B850 ring takes about 70 fs. The anisotropic decay that is probed at the red side of the absorption spectrum, such as 880 nm, has an initial value of 0.4, corresponding to simulated emission, while the blue side with an anisotropy of 0.1 contributes to the ground-state bleaching. Our results show that the coherent excitation covering the whole ring might not be realized owing to the symmetry breaking of LH2: from C_9 symmetry in membrane to C_2 symmetry in solution. (atomic and molecular physics)

  5. Synchronous Measurement of Ultrafast Anisotropy Decay of the B850 in Bacterial LH2 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Du, Lu-Chao; Zhu, Gang-Bei; Wang, Zhuan; Weng, Yu-Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Ultrafast anisotropic decay is a prominent parameter revealing ultrafast energy and electron transfer; however, it is difficult to be determined reliably owing to the requirement of a simultaneous availability of the parallel and perpendicular polarized decay kinetics. Nowadays, any measurement of anisotropic decay is a kind of approach to the exact simultaneity. Here we report a novel method for a synchronous ultrafast anisotropy decay measurement, which can well determine the anisotropy, even at a very early time, as the rising phase of the excitation laser pulse. The anisotropic decay of the B850 in bacterial light harvesting antenna complex LH2 of Rhodobacter sphaeroides in solution at room temperature with coherent excitation is detected by this method, which shows a polarization response time of 30 fs, and the energy transfer from the initial excitation to the bacteriochlorophylls in B850 ring takes about 70 fs. The anisotropic decay that is probed at the red side of the absorption spectrum, such as 880 nm, has an initial value of 0.4, corresponding to simulated emission, while the blue side with an anisotropy of 0.1 contributes to the ground-state bleaching. Our results show that the coherent excitation covering the whole ring might not be realized owing to the symmetry breaking of LH2: from C9 symmetry in membrane to C2 symmetry in solution.

  6. Impacts of dark matter particle annihilation on recombination and the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Le; Chen Xuelei; Lei Yian; Si Zongguo

    2006-01-01

    The recombination history of the Universe provides a useful tool for constraining the annihilation of dark matter particles. Even a small fraction of dark matter particles annihilated during the cosmic dark age can provide sufficient energy to affect the ionization state of the baryonic gas. Although this effect is too small for neutralinos, lighter dark matter particle candidates, e.g. with mass of 1-100 MeV, which was proposed recently to explain the observed excess of positrons in the galactic center, may generate observable differences in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies. The annihilations at the era of recombination affects mainly the CMB anisotropy at small angular scales (large l), and is distinctively different from the effect of early reionization. We perform a multiparameter analysis of the CMB data, including both the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) first year and three year data, and the ACBAR, Boomerang, CBI, and VSA data. Assuming that the observed excess of e + e - pairs in the galactic center region is produced by dark matter annihilation, and that a sizable fraction of the energy produced in the annihilation is deposited in the baryonic gas during recombination, we obtain a 95% dark matter mass limit of M<8 MeV with the current data set

  7. Magnetic anisotropy and magnetization switching in ferromagnetic GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Characteristic features of semiconductor spintronics such as the anisotropic magnetoresistance or the spin-polarization of charge carriers are intimately connected with the macroscopic magnetization in a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The orientation of the magnetization is controlled by magnetic anisotropy which predominantly ar ises from crystal symmetry, sample geometry, and strain. A detailed knowledge of this anisotropy is indispensable for the design of novel spintronic devices. In this talk, angle-dependent magnetotransport is demonstrated to be an excellent tool for probing magnetic anisotropy as an alternative to the standard ferromagnetic-resonance method. Moreover, its ability to trace the movement of the magnetization vector in a variable external magnetic field makes it ideally suitable f or studying magnetization switching, a potential basic effect in future logical devices. Experimental data recorded from a variety of different GaMnAs samples a re analyzed by means of model calculations which are based on a series expansion of the resistivity tensor, a numerical minimization of the free enthalpy with respect to the magnetization orientation, and the assumption that the GaMnAs laye rs under study consist of single ferromagnetic domains.

  8. Analysis of Hall Probe Precise Positioning with Cylindrical Permanent Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicev, P.; Vorozhtsov, A.S.; Vorozhtsov, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    Precise positioning of a Hall probe for cyclotron magnetic field mapping, using cylindrical permanent magnets, was analyzed. The necessary permanent magnet parameters in order to achieve ±20 μm position precision, were determined. (author)

  9. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  10. Anisotropy effect on strengths of metamorphic rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özbek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0° and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90° to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist. The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.

  11. Global Transition Zone Anisotropy and Consequences for Mantle Flow and Earth's Deep Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2011-12-01

    The transition zone has long been at the center of the debate between multi- and single-layered convection models that directly relate to heat transport and chemical mixing throughout the mantle. It has also been suggested that the transition zone is a reservoir that collects water transported by subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Since water lowers mantle minerals density and viscosity, thereby modifying their rheology and melting behavior, it likely affects global mantle dynamics and the history of plate tectonics. Constraining mantle flow is therefore important for our understanding of Earth's thermochemical evolution and deep water cycle. Because it can result from deformation by dislocation creep during convection, seismic anisotropy can help us model mantle flow. It is relatively well constrained in the uppermost mantle, but its presence in the transition zone is still debated. Its detection below 250 km depth has been challenging to date because of the poor vertical resolution of commonly used datasets. In this study, we used global Love wave overtone phase velocity maps, which are sensitive to structure down to much larger depths than fundamental modes alone, and have greater depth resolution than shear wave-splitting data. This enabled us to obtain a first 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy for the upper 800km of the mantle. We inverted the 2Ψ terms of anisotropic phase velocity maps [Visser, et al., 2008] for the first five Love wave overtones between 35s and 174s period. The resulting model shows that the average anisotropy amplitude for vertically polarized shear waves displays two main stable peaks: one in the uppermost mantle and, most remarkably, one in the lower transition zone. F-tests showed that the presence of 2Ψ anisotropy in the transition zone is required to improve the third, fourth, and fifth overtones fit. Because of parameter trade-offs, however, we cannot exclude that the anisotropy is located in the upper transition zone as

  12. Anisotropy in cohesive, frictional granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luding, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of cohesive, frictional granular materials with a discrete particle molecular dynamics is reviewed. From the structure of the quasi-static granular solid, the fabric, stress, and stiffness tensors are determined, including both normal and tangential forces. The influence of the material properties on the flow behaviour is also reported, including relations between the microscopic attractive force and the macroscopic cohesion as well as the dependence of the macroscopic friction on the microscopic contact friction coefficient. Related to the dynamics, the anisotropy of both structure and stress are exponentially approaching the maximum

  13. Influence of spin on fission fragments anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Omid N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of selected fission fragment angular distribution when at least one of the spins of the projectile or target is appreciable in induced fission was made by using the statistical scission model. The results of this model predicate that the spins of the projectile or target are affected on the nuclear level density of the compound nucleus. The experimental data was analyzed by means of the couple channel spin effect formalism. This formalism suggests that the projectile spin is more effective on angular anisotropies within the limits of energy near the fusion barrier.

  14. Transfer anisotropy in a turbulent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Y.; Gradov, O.M.; Silin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    We formulate a theory for transfer phenomena in a plasma with developed ion-sound turbulence. A transfer anisotropy effect caused by a temperature gradient is revealed. The corresponding fluxes transverse to the effective force vector (1) which generates the turbulence turn out to be considerably larger than the longitudinal fluxes in a plasma with a relatively small degree of nonisothermality. For a strongly nonisothermal plasma a suppression of the transverse fluxes takes place and corresponds to a growth of the thermal insulation of the current-carrying plasma filaments

  15. Fusion barrier distributions and fission anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Dasgupta, M.; Leigh, J.R.; Lestone, J.P.; Lemmon, R.C.; Mein, J.C.; Newton, J.O.; Timmers, H.; Rowley, N.; Kruppa, A.T.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion excitation functions for 16,17 O+ 144 Sm have been measured to high precision. The extracted fusion barrier distributions show a double-peaked structure interpreted in terms of coupling to inelastic collective excitations of the target. The effect of the positive Q-value neutron stripping channel is evident in the reaction with 17 O. Fission and evaporation residue cross-sections and excitation functions have been measured for the reaction of 16 O+ 208 Pb and the fusion barrier distribution and fission anisotropies determined. It is found that the moments of the fusion l-distribution determined from the fusion and fission measurements are in good agreement. ((orig.))

  16. Cosmic anisotropy with reduced relativistic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castardelli dos Reis, Simpliciano [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shapiro, Ilya L. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2018-02-15

    The dynamics of cosmological anisotropies is investigated for Bianchi type I universe filled by a relativistic matter represented by the reduced relativistic gas model (RRG), with equation of state interpolating between radiation and matter. Previously it was shown that the interpolation is observed in the background cosmological solutions for homogeneous and isotropic universe and also for the linear cosmological perturbations. We extend the application of RRG to the Bianchi type I anisotropic model and find that the solutions evolve to the isotropic universe with the pressureless matter contents. (orig.)

  17. Large-angle cosmic microwave background anisotropies in an open universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Spergel, David N.

    1994-01-01

    If the universe is open, scales larger than the curvature scale may be probed by observation of large-angle fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We consider primordial adiabatic perturbations and discuss power spectra that are power laws in volume, wavelength, and eigenvalue of the Laplace operator. Such spectra may have arisen if, for example, the universe underwent a period of `frustated' inflation. The resulting large-angle anisotropies of the CMB are computed. The amplitude generally increases as Omega is decreased but decreases as h is increased. Interestingly enough, for all three Ansaetze, anisotropies on angular scales larger than the curvature scale are suppressed relative to the anisotropies on scales smaller than the curvature scale, but cosmic variance makes discrimination between various models difficult. Models with 0.2 approximately less than Omega h approximately less than 0.3 appear compatible with CMB fluctuations detected by Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) and the Tenerife experiment and with the amplitude and spectrum of fluctuations of galaxy counts in the APM, CfA, and 1.2 Jy IRAS surveys. COBE normalization for these models yields sigma(sub 8) approximately = 0.5 - 0.7. Models with smaller values of Omega h when normalized to COBE require bias factors in excess of 2 to be compatible with the observed galaxy counts on the 8/h Mpc scale. Requiring that the age of the universe exceed 10 Gyr implies that Omega approximately greater than 0.25, while requiring that from the last-scattering term in the Sachs-Wolfe formula, large-angle anisotropies come primarily from the decay of potential fluctuations at z approximately less than 1/Omega. Thus, if the universe is open, COBE has been detecting temperature fluctuations produced at moderate redshift rather than at z approximately 1300.

  18. THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND INTENSITY AND ANISOTROPIES DURING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooray, Asantha; Gong Yan; Smidt, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Santos, Mario G. [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal)

    2012-09-01

    A fraction of the extragalactic near-infrared (near-IR) background light involves redshifted photons from the ultraviolet (UV) emission from galaxies present during reionization at redshifts above 6. The absolute intensity and the anisotropies of the near-IR background provide an observational probe of the first-light galaxies and their spatial distribution. We estimate the extragalactic background light intensity during reionization by accounting for the stellar and nebular emission from first-light galaxies. We require the UV photon density from these galaxies to generate a reionization history that is consistent with the optical depth to electron scattering from cosmic microwave background measurements. We also require the bright-end luminosity function (LF) of galaxies in our models to reproduce the measured Lyman-dropout LFs at redshifts of 6-8. The absolute intensity is about 0.1-0.4 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at the peak of its spectrum at {approx}1.1 {mu}m. We also discuss the anisotropy power spectrum of the near-IR background using a halo model to describe the galaxy distribution. We compare our predictions for the anisotropy power spectrum to existing measurements from deep near-IR imaging data from Spitzer/IRAC, Hubble/NICMOS, and AKARI. The predicted rms fluctuations at tens of arcminute angular scales are roughly an order of magnitude smaller than the existing measurements. While strong arguments have been made that the measured fluctuations do not have an origin involving faint low-redshift galaxies, we find that measurements in the literature are also incompatible with galaxies present during the era of reionization. The measured near-IR background anisotropies remain unexplained with an unknown origin.

  19. Capacitance and effective area of flush monopole probes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Morris, Marvin E.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Lehr, Jane Marie; Higgins, Matthew B.

    2004-08-01

    Approximate formulas are constructed and numerical simulations are carried out for electric field derivative probes that have the form of flush mounted monopoles. Effects such as rounded edges are included. A method is introduced to make results from two-dimensional conformal mapping analyses accurately apply to the three-dimensional axisymmetric probe geometry

  20. Independent sources of anisotropy in visual orientation representation: a visual and a cognitive oblique effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikou, Panagiota; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Mantas, Asimakis; Moutoussis, Konstantinos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    The representation of visual orientation is more accurate for cardinal orientations compared to oblique, and this anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a low-level visual process (visual, "class 1" oblique effect). The reproduction of directional and orientation information also leads to a mean error away from cardinal orientations or directions. This anisotropy has been hypothesized to reflect a high-level cognitive process of space categorization (cognitive, "class 2," oblique effect). This space categorization process would be more prominent when the visual representation of orientation degrades such as in the case of working memory with increasing cognitive load, leading to increasing magnitude of the "class 2" oblique effect, while the "class 1" oblique effect would remain unchanged. Two experiments were performed in which an array of orientation stimuli (1-4 items) was presented and then subjects had to realign a probe stimulus within the previously presented array. In the first experiment, the delay between stimulus presentation and probe varied, while in the second experiment, the stimulus presentation time varied. The variable error was larger for oblique compared to cardinal orientations in both experiments reproducing the visual "class 1" oblique effect. The mean error also reproduced the tendency away from cardinal and toward the oblique orientations in both experiments (cognitive "class 2" oblique effect). The accuracy or the reproduced orientation degraded (increasing variable error) and the cognitive "class 2" oblique effect increased with increasing memory load (number of items) in both experiments and presentation time in the second experiment. In contrast, the visual "class 1" oblique effect was not significantly modulated by any one of these experimental factors. These results confirmed the theoretical predictions for the two anisotropies in visual orientation reproduction and provided support for models proposing the categorization of

  1. Molecular anisotropy effects in carbon K-edge scattering: depolarized diffuse scattering and optical anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Kevin H.

    2014-07-14

    Some polymer properties, such as conductivity, are very sensitive to short- and intermediate-range orientational and positional ordering of anisotropic molecular functional groups, and yet means to characterize orientational order in disordered systems are very limited. We demonstrate that resonant scattering at the carbon K-edge is uniquely sensitive to short-range orientation correlations in polymers through depolarized scattering at high momentum transfers, using atactic polystyrene as a well-characterized test system. Depolarized scattering is found to coexist with unpolarized fluorescence, and to exhibit pronounced anisotropy. We also quantify the spatially averaged optical anisotropy from low-angle reflectivity measurements, finding anisotropy consistent with prior visible, x-ray absorption, and theoretical studies. The average anisotropy is much smaller than that in the depolarized scattering and the two have different character. Both measurements exhibit clear spectral signatures from the phenyl rings and the polyethylene-like backbone. Discussion focuses on analysis considerations and prospects for using this depolarized scattering for studies of disorder in soft condensed matter.

  2. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  3. Electrical resistivity characterization of anisotropy in the Biscayne Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah-Forson, Albert; Whitman, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Electrical anisotropy occurs when electric current flow varies with azimuth. In porous media, this may correspond to anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity resulting from sedimentary fabric, fractures, or dissolution. In this study, a 28-electrode resistivity imaging system was used to investigate electrical anisotropy at 13 sites in the Biscayne Aquifer of SE Florida using the rotated square array method. The measured coefficient of electrical anisotropy generally ranged from 1.01 to 1.12 with values as high as 1.36 found at one site. The observed electrical anisotropy was used to estimate hydraulic anisotropy (ratio of maximum to minimum hydraulic conductivity) which ranged from 1.18 to 2.83. The largest values generally were located on the Atlantic Coastal Ridge while the lowest values were in low elevation areas on the margin of the Everglades to the west. The higher values of anisotropy found on the ridge may be due to increased dissolution rates of the oolitic facies of the Miami formation limestone compared with the bryozoan facies to the west. The predominate trend of minimum resistivity and maximum hydraulic conductivity was E-W/SE-NW beneath the ridge and E-W/SW-NE farther west. The anisotropy directions are similar to the predevelopment groundwater flow direction as indicated in published studies. This suggests that the observed anisotropy is related to the paleo-groundwater flow in the Biscayne Aquifer. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  4. Origin of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co/Ni multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, M.; Hübner, R.; Suess, D.; Heinrich, B.; Girt, E.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the variation in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of (111) textured Au /N ×[Co /Ni ]/Au films as a function of the number of bilayer repeats N . The ferromagnetic resonance and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer measurements show that the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co/Ni multilayers first increases with N for N ≤10 and then moderately decreases for N >10 . The model we propose reveals that the decrease of the anisotropy for N reduction in the magnetoelastic and magnetocrystalline anisotropies. A moderate decrease in the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for N >10 is due to the reduction in the magnetocrystalline and the surface anisotropies. To calculate the contribution of magnetoelastic anisotropy in the Co/Ni multilayers, in-plane and out-of-plane x-ray diffraction measurements are performed to determine the spacing between Co/Ni (111) and (220) planes. The magnetocrystalline bulk anisotropy is estimated from the difference in the perpendicular and parallel g factors of Co/Ni multilayers that are measured using the in-plane and out-of-plane ferromagnetic resonance measurements. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to estimate the multilayer film roughness. These values are used to calculate the roughness-induced surface and magnetocrystalline anisotropy coefficients as a function of N .

  5. Middle-energy electron anisotropies in the auroral region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Janhunen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned anisotropic electron distribution functions of T > T type are observed on auroral field lines at both low and high altitudes. We show that typically the anisotropy is limited to a certain range of energies, often below 1keV, although sometimes extending to slightly higher energies as well. Almost always there is simultaneously an isotropic electron distribution at higher energies. Often the anisotropies are up/down symmetrical, although cases with net upward or downward electron flow also occur. For a statistical analysis of the anisotropies we divide the energy range into low (below 100eV, middle (100eV–1keV and high (above 1keV energies and develop a measure of anisotropy expressed in density units. The statistical magnetic local time and invariant latitude distribution of the middle-energy anisotropies obeys that of the average auroral oval, whereas the distributions of the low and high energy anisotropies are more irregular. This suggests that it is specifically the middle-energy anisotropies that have something to do with auroral processes. The anisotropy magnitude decreases monotonically with altitude, as one would expect, because electrons have high mobility along the magnetic field and thus, the anisotropy properties spread rapidly to different altitudes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena. Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions; changed particle motion and acceleration

  6. Submicron scale tissue multifractal anisotropy in polarized laser light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Nandan Kumar; Dey, Rajib; Chakraborty, Semanti; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.; Meglinski, Igor; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-03-01

    The spatial fluctuations of the refractive index within biological tissues exhibit multifractal anisotropy, leaving its signature as a spectral linear diattenuation of scattered polarized light. The multifractal anisotropy has been quantitatively assessed by the processing of relevant Mueller matrix elements in the Fourier domain, utilizing the Born approximation and subsequent multifractal analysis. The differential scaling exponent and width of the singularity spectrum appear to be highly sensitive to the structural multifractal anisotropy at the micron/sub-micron length scales. An immediate practical use of these multifractal anisotropy parameters was explored for non-invasive screening of cervical precancerous alterations ex vivo, with the indication of a strong potential for clinical diagnostic purposes.

  7. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  8. Texture and anisotropy analysis of Qusaiba shales

    KAUST Repository

    Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn

    2011-02-17

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, microtomography and ultrasonic velocity measurements were used to characterize microstructures and anisotropy of three deeply buried Qusaiba shales from the Rub\\'al-Khali basin, Saudi Arabia. Kaolinite, illite-smectite, illite-mica and chlorite show strong preferred orientation with (001) pole figure maxima perpendicular to the bedding plane ranging from 2.4-6.8 multiples of a random distribution (m.r.d.). Quartz, feldspars and pyrite crystals have a random orientation distribution. Elastic properties of the polyphase aggregate are calculated by averaging the single crystal elastic properties over the orientation distribution, assuming a nonporous material. The average calculated bulk P-wave velocities are 6.2 km/s (maximum) and 5.5 km/s (minimum), resulting in a P-wave anisotropy of 12%. The calculated velocities are compared with those determined from ultrasonic velocity measurements on a similar sample. In the ultrasonic experiment, which measures the effects of the shale matrix as well as the effects of porosity, velocities are smaller (P-wave maximum 5.3 km/s and minimum 4.1 km/s). The difference between calculated and measured velocities is attributed to the effects of anisotropic pore structure and to microfractures present in the sample, which have not been taken into account in the matrix averaging. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  9. The Anisotropy of Replicated Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeny L. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The replication casting process gives the open-cell aluminum foams that can be used in many industrial applications as well as in filtering technology. The essential requirement for filters is the uniformity of filtering degree which is defined by the minimal pore size. However the structure of replication castings is often inhomogeneous and the minimal pore radius is decreasing in the direction of melt infiltration. The objective of this investigation is to study the dynamics of melt impregnation of the porous medium by vacuum suction to identify the possibility of reducing the anisotropy. Theoretical data illustrate the processes at the boundary between melt and gas medium. The experiments were carried out using the replication aluminum samples produced according to commercial technology. It was found that the permeability coefficient varies throughout the height of castings. A method for estimation of pressure on the line of melt movement was proposed. The resistance of NaCl layer and circular vents of the mold causes the inhomogeneity of castings. Finally the ways of minimizing the anisotropy were offered.

  10. Effects of pressure anisotropy on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawaideh, E.; Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    In a recent paper a new set of generalized two-field equations is derived which describes plasma transport along the field lines of a space and time dependent magnetic field. These equations are valid for collisional to weakly collisional plasmas; they reduce to the conventional fluid equations of Braginskii for highly collisional plasmas. An important feature of these equations is that the anisotropy in the ion pressure is explicitly included. In this paper, these generalized transport equations are applied to a model problem of plasma flow through a magnetic mirror field. The profiles of the plasma parameters (density, flow speed, and pressures) are numerically calculated for plasma in different collisionality regimes. These profiles are explained by examining the competing terms in the transport equation. The pressure anisotropy is found to profoundly impact the plasma flow behavior. As a result, the new generalized equations predict flow behavior more accurately than the conventional transport equations. A large density and pressure drop is predicted as the flow passes through a magnetic mirror. Further, the new equations uniquely predict oscillations in the density profile, an effect missing in results from the conventional equations

  11. Cosmic ray anisotropy along with interplanetary transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    The present work deals with the study of first three harmonics of low amplitude anisotropic wave trains of cosmic ray intensity over the period 1991-1994 for Deep River neutron monitoring station. It is observed that the diurnal time of maximum remains in the corotational direction; whereas, the time of maximum for both diurnal and semi-diurnal anisotropy has significantly shifted towards later hours as compared to the quiet day annual average for majority of the LAE events. It is noticed that these events are not caused either by the high-speed solar wind streams or by the sources on the Sun responsible for producing these streams; such as, polar coronal holes. The direction of the tri-diurnal anisotropy shows a good negative correlation with Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field. The occurrence of low amplitude events is dominant for positive polarity of Bz. The Disturbance Storm Time index i.e. Dst remains consistently negative only throughout the entire low amplitude wave train event.

  12. Scanning anisotropy parameters in complex media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-03-21

    Parameter estimation in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium offers many challenges; chief among them is the trade-off between inhomogeneity and anisotropy. It is especially hard to estimate the anisotropy anellipticity parameter η in complex media. Using perturbation theory and Taylor’s series, I have expanded the solutions of the anisotropic eikonal equation for transversely isotropic (TI) media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) in terms of the independent parameter η from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic medium background. This new VTI traveltime solution is based on a set of precomputed perturbations extracted from solving linear partial differential equations. The traveltimes obtained from these equations serve as the coefficients of a Taylor-type expansion of the total traveltime in terms of η. Shanks transform is used to predict the transient behavior of the expansion and improve its accuracy using fewer terms. A homogeneous medium simplification of the expansion provides classical nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, this formulation provides a tool to scan for anisotropic parameters in a generally inhomogeneous medium background. A Marmousi test demonstrates the accuracy of this approximation. For a tilted axis of symmetry, the equations are still applicable with a slightly more complicated framework because the vertical velocity and δ are not readily available from the data.

  13. Scanning anisotropy parameters in complex media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Parameter estimation in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium offers many challenges; chief among them is the trade-off between inhomogeneity and anisotropy. It is especially hard to estimate the anisotropy anellipticity parameter η in complex media. Using perturbation theory and Taylor’s series, I have expanded the solutions of the anisotropic eikonal equation for transversely isotropic (TI) media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) in terms of the independent parameter η from a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic medium background. This new VTI traveltime solution is based on a set of precomputed perturbations extracted from solving linear partial differential equations. The traveltimes obtained from these equations serve as the coefficients of a Taylor-type expansion of the total traveltime in terms of η. Shanks transform is used to predict the transient behavior of the expansion and improve its accuracy using fewer terms. A homogeneous medium simplification of the expansion provides classical nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, this formulation provides a tool to scan for anisotropic parameters in a generally inhomogeneous medium background. A Marmousi test demonstrates the accuracy of this approximation. For a tilted axis of symmetry, the equations are still applicable with a slightly more complicated framework because the vertical velocity and δ are not readily available from the data.

  14. Quantifying anisotropy and fiber orientation in human brain histological sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Budde

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI has provided unparalleled insight into the microscopic structure and organization of the central nervous system. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and other models of the diffusion MRI signal extract microstructural properties of tissues with relevance to the normal and injured brain. Despite the prevalence of such techniques and applications, accurate and large-scale validation has proven difficult, particularly in the human brain. In this report, human brain sections obtained from a digital public brain bank were employed to quantify anisotropy and fiber orientation using structure tensor analysis. The derived maps depict the intricate complexity of white matter fibers at a resolution not attainable with current DWI experiments. Moreover, the effects of multiple fiber bundles (i.e. crossing fibers and intravoxel fiber dispersion were demonstrated. Examination of the cortex and hippocampal regions validated specific features of previous in vivo and ex vivo DTI studies of the human brain. Despite the limitation to two dimensions, the resulting images provide a unique depiction of white matter organization at resolutions currently unattainable with DWI. The method of analysis may be used to validate tissue properties derived from DTI and alternative models of the diffusion signal.

  15. Large scale anisotropy studies with the Auger Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing Auger surface array data sample of the highest energy cosmic rays, large scale anisotropy studies at this part of the spectrum become a promising path towards the understanding of the origin of ultra-high energy cosmic particles. We describe the methods underlying the search for distortions in the cosmic rays arrival directions over large angular scales, that is, bigger than those commonly employed in the search for correlations with point-like sources. The widely used tools, known as coverage maps, are described and some of the issues involved in their calculations are presented through Monte Carlo based studies. Coverage computation requires a deep knowledge on the local detection efficiency, including the influence of weather parameters like temperature and pressure. Particular attention is devoted to a new proposed method to extract the coverage, based upon the assumption of time factorization of an extensive air shower detector acceptance. We use Auger monitoring data to test the goodness of such a hypothesis. We finally show the necessity of using more than one coverage to extract any possible anisotropic pattern on the sky, by pointing to some of the biases present in commonly used methods based, for example, on the scrambling of the UTC arrival times for each event. (author)

  16. Elastic anisotropy of polycrystalline Au films: Modeling and respective contributions of X-ray diffraction, nanoindentation and Brillouin light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurie, D.; Djemia, P.; Le Bourhis, E.; Renault, P.-O.; Roussigne, Y.; Cherif, S.M.; Brenner, R.; Castelnau, O.; Patriarche, G.; Goudeau, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    Elastic properties of non-textured and {1 1 1}-fiber-textured gold thin films were investigated experimentally by several complementary techniques, namely in situ tensile testing under X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation and Brillouin light scattering (BLS). Specimens were probed along different directions to reveal the strong effects of elastic anisotropy at the (local) grain and (global) film scales. XRD allows the investigation of both local and global anisotropies, while BLS and nanoindentation are limited to global analyses. A micromechanical model, based on the self-consistent scheme, and accounting for the actual microstructure of the films, is applied to interpret experimental data. Although different types of elastic constants can be determined with the used experimental techniques (static/dynamic, local/global), a good agreement is obtained, showing that comparison of these techniques is feasible when carried out carefully. In particular, the use of a micromechanical model to estimate the effects of the local elastic anisotropy at the film scale is unavoidable. The presented results show that XRD, BLS and nanoindentation should capture anisotropic texture effects on elastic constants measurements for materials with a Zener anisotropy index larger than 2. Conversely, the actual texture of a given specimen should be taken into account for a proper analysis of elastic constants measurements using those three experimental techniques.

  17. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  18. Probe-diverse ptychography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, I., E-mail: isaac.russellpeterson@rmit.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coherent X-ray Science, the University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Harder, R. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robinson, I.K. [Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    We propose an extension of ptychography where the target sample is scanned separately through several probes with distinct amplitude and phase profiles and a diffraction image is recorded for each probe and each sample translation. The resulting probe-diverse dataset is used to iteratively retrieve high-resolution images of the sample and all probes simultaneously. The method is shown to yield significant improvement in the reconstructed sample image compared to the image obtained using the standard single-probe ptychographic phase-retrieval scheme.

  19. Magnetic anisotropies in SmCo thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.

    1993-01-01

    A systemic study of the deposition processes and magnetic properties for the Sm-Co film system has been carried out. Films of Sm-Co system with various magnetic anisotropies have been synthesized through sputter deposition in both crystalline and amorphous phases. The origins of various anisotropies have been studied. Thermalized sputter deposition process control was used to synthesize Fe enriched Sm-Co films with rhombohedral Th 2 Zn 17 type structure. The film exhibited unusually strong textures with the crystallographic c axes of the crystallites aligned in the film plane. A large anisotropy was resulted with easy axis in the film plane. A well defined and large in-the-film-plane anisotropy of exceptionally high value of 3.3 x 10 6 erg/cm 3 has been obtained in the amorphous SmCo films by applying a magnetic field in the film plane during deposition. It was found that the in-the-film-plane anisotropy depended essentially on the applied field and Sm concentration. For films not synthesized through thermallized sputtering, the easy axis of the film could reoriented. A perpendicular anisotropy was also presented in the film synthesized through thermallized sputtering deposition. A large in-plane anisotropy was obtained in films deposited above ambient temperatures. It was concluded that the surface induced short range ordering was the origin of the in-the-film-phase anisotropy observed in amorphous film deposited in the presence of a magnetic field. The formation mechanism was different from that of the short range ordering induced by field annealing. The perpendicular anisotropy was shown to be growth induced. Large in-plane anisotropy in amorphous films was resulted form partial crystallization in the film. Both the formation of growth induced structure and partial crystallization in the film prevented the formation of the pair ordering and decreased in-the-film-plane anisotropy

  20. Investigating the spatial anisotropy of soil radioactivity in the region of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabesiranana, N.; Rasolonirina, M.; Solonjara, A.F.; Raoelina Andriambololona

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted in the region of Vinaninkarena-Antsirabe, to investigate the spatial distrubition of the environmental radioactivity. Forty-two (42) top soil samples were collected from two different sampling points. They were analyzed for uranium and thorium series by gamma spectrometry. In order to determine radioactivity spatial structure, semi-variance analysis was used. From 82 samples and 840 paired data, semi-variances were computed, variograms charted and modelled. Results showed that spatial dependance ranges vary from 100 m to 300m. Moreover, spatial anisotropy is also detected. Such result allows optimizing sampling design for future mapping of the environmental radioactivity of the region.

  1. Traversing probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashburn, D.N.; Stevens, R.H.; Woodall, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride. 10 claims, 6 figures

  2. Traversing probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Stevens, Richard H.; Woodall, Harold C.

    1977-01-01

    This invention comprises a rotatable annular probe-positioner which carries at least one radially disposed sensing probe, such as a Pitot tube having a right-angled tip. The positioner can be coaxially and rotatably mounted within a compressor casing or the like and then actuated to orient the sensing probe as required to make measurements at selected stations in the annulus between the positioner and compressor casing. The positioner can be actuated to (a) selectively move the probe along its own axis, (b) adjust the yaw angle of the right-angled probe tip, and (c) revolve the probe about the axis common to the positioner and casing. A cam plate engages a cam-follower portion of the probe and normally rotates with the positioner. The positioner includes a first-motor-driven ring gear which effects slidable movement of the probe by rotating the positioner at a time when an external pneumatic cylinder is actuated to engage the cam plate and hold it stationary. When the pneumatic cylinder is not actuated, this ring gear can be driven to revolve the positioner and thus the probe to a desired circumferential location about the above-mentioned common axis. A second motor-driven ring gear included in the positioner can be driven to rotate the probe about its axis, thus adjusting the yaw angle of the probe tip. The positioner can be used in highly corrosive atmosphere, such as gaseous uranium hexafluoride.

  3. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  4. Uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy correlates with typical use of reappraisal in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Lisette A; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ahs, Fredrik; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation refers to strategies through which individuals influence their experience and expression of emotions. Two typical strategies are reappraisal, a cognitive strategy for reframing the context of an emotional experience, and suppression, a behavioral strategy for inhibiting emotional responses. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate amygdala reactivity during both strategies, but relatively greater downregulation of the amygdala occurs during reappraisal. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that engagement of this modulatory circuitry varies as a function of gender. The uncinate fasciculus is a major structural pathway connecting regions of the anterior temporal lobe, including the amygdala to inferior frontal regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The objective of the current study was to map variability in the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus onto individual differences in self-reported typical use of reappraisal and suppression. Diffusion tensor imaging was used in 194 young adults to derive regional fractional anisotropy values for the right and left uncinate fasciculus. All participants also completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. In women but not men, self-reported typical reappraisal use was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in a region of the left uncinate fasciculus within the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, typical use of suppression was not significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy in any region of the uncinate fasciculus in either men or women. Our data suggest that in women typical reappraisal use is specifically related to the integrity of white matter pathways linking the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

  5. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  6. Expanding probe repertoire and improving reproducibility in human genomic hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Stephanie N.; Shirley, Ben C.; Knoll, Joan H. M.; Rogan, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostic DNA hybridization relies on probes composed of single copy (sc) genomic sequences. Sc sequences in probe design ensure high specificity and avoid cross-hybridization to other regions of the genome, which could lead to ambiguous results that are difficult to interpret. We examine how the distribution and composition of repetitive sequences in the genome affects sc probe performance. A divide and conquer algorithm was implemented to design sc probes. With this approach, sc probes can include divergent repetitive elements, which hybridize to unique genomic targets under higher stringency experimental conditions. Genome-wide custom probe sets were created for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray genomic hybridization. The scFISH probes were developed for detection of copy number changes within small tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes. The microarrays demonstrated increased reproducibility by eliminating cross-hybridization to repetitive sequences adjacent to probe targets. The genome-wide microarrays exhibited lower median coefficients of variation (17.8%) for two HapMap family trios. The coefficients of variations of commercial probes within 300 nt of a repetitive element were 48.3% higher than the nearest custom probe. Furthermore, the custom microarray called a chromosome 15q11.2q13 deletion more consistently. This method for sc probe design increases probe coverage for FISH and lowers variability in genomic microarrays. PMID:23376933

  7. Tools to probe the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.; Augueres, J.L.; Amiaux, J.; Cara, Ch.; Fontignie, J.; Rio, Y.; Fermon, C.; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; De Vismes, A.; Cordier, B.; Fesquet, M.; Ferrando, Ph.; Authier, M.; Pantin, E.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Boulade, O.; Refregier, A.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Agnese, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Agnese, P.; Pigot, C.; Duband, L.; Limousin, O.; Delagnes, E.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Carton, P.H.; Starck, J.L.; Bournaud, F.; Teyssier, R.; Audit, E.; Brun, A.S.; Leca, P.; Menache, Ch.; Pomarede, D.; Thooris, B.; Meis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of Clefs CEA journal is entirely devoted to astrophysics and to the exploration and probing of the Universe. The second part of this dossier, described here, makes a status of the tools used to probe the universe: telescopes, imaging spectrometers, data processing and simulation. Content: A - Telescopes of the future: 1. Seeing further out: JWST: looking back on a past 13 billion years old, Space specifics: the learning curve to know-how, Fabricating a corona-graph mask, SVOM, a satellite to detect the explosions of the first stars to be formed in the Universe; 2. Seeing more precisely: SIMBOL-X, pioneering formation flying, ELT/METIS, a 42-meter giant, One hundred telescopes for the CTA arrays; 3. Seeing wider: Euclid, mapping the extragalactic sky, ANTARES: the neutrino, another cosmic messenger; B - The new generation of imaging spectrometers: Observing the Universe in the submillimeter spectral region, The X-ray Universe, Space cryo-coolers, Out in the extreme, tumultuous Universe, Probing the Sun with GOLF-NG, Focus: From light to imagery; C - Data analysis in astrophysics; D - Numerical simulation in astrophysics: Information technology and theoretical predictions in astrophysics, Supercomputers for a better understanding of the Universe, The visualization of astrophysical simulations, Godunov, a numerical platform for education and research

  8. Transference of Fermi Contour Anisotropy to Composite Fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Insun; Rosales, K A Villegas; Mueed, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Baldwin, K W; Winkler, R; Padmanabhan, Medini; Shayegan, M

    2017-07-07

    There has been a surge of recent interest in the role of anisotropy in interaction-induced phenomena in two-dimensional (2D) charged carrier systems. A fundamental question is how an anisotropy in the energy-band structure of the carriers at zero magnetic field affects the properties of the interacting particles at high fields, in particular of the composite fermions (CFs) and the fractional quantum Hall states (FQHSs). We demonstrate here tunable anisotropy for holes and hole-flux CFs confined to GaAs quantum wells, via applying in situ in-plane strain and measuring their Fermi wave vector anisotropy through commensurability oscillations. For strains on the order of 10^{-4} we observe significant deformations of the shapes of the Fermi contours for both holes and CFs. The measured Fermi contour anisotropy for CFs at high magnetic field (α_{CF}) is less than the anisotropy of their low-field hole (fermion) counterparts (α_{F}), and closely follows the relation α_{CF}=sqrt[α_{F}]. The energy gap measured for the ν=2/3 FQHS, on the other hand, is nearly unaffected by the Fermi contour anisotropy up to α_{F}∼3.3, the highest anisotropy achieved in our experiments.

  9. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Resources with Additional Information * Videos 'George Smoot anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation." '1 Smoot previously won the Ernest Orlando . Smoot, blackbody, and anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation is available in full

  10. The role of layer-induced anisotropy in seismic exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hake, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on anisotropy caused by fine layering. We analyse the conditions that must be satisfied so that fine layering is equivalent to anisotropy. In the long-wavelength (or quasi-static) approximation an interval of thickness H, consisting of a sequence of layers, is effectively

  11. The role of layer-induced anisotropy in seismic exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hake, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    184In this thesis we focus on anisotropy caused by fine layering. We analyse the conditions that must be satisfied so that fine layering is equivalent to anisotropy. In the long-wavelength (or quasi-static) approximation an interval of thickness H, consisting of a sequence of layers, is

  12. Tuning the Magnetic Anisotropy at a Molecule-Metal Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Repain, V.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that a C60 overlayer enhances the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a Co thin film, inducing an inverse spin reorientation transition from in plane to out of plane. The driving force is the C60/Co interfacial magnetic anisotropy that we have measured quantitatively in situ...

  13. Magnetic anisotropy of YFe.sub.3./sub. compound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolyachkin, A.S.; Neznakhin, D.S.; Garaeva, T.V.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Bartashevich, M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 426, Mar (2017), s. 740-743 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03593S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * magnetization anisotropy * single crystal Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  14. Primordial statistical anisotropy generated at the end of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Soda, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    We present a new mechanism for generating primordial statistical anisotropy of curvature perturbations. We introduce a vector field which has a non-minimal kinetic term and couples with a waterfall field in a hybrid inflation model. In such a system, the vector field gives fluctuations of the end of inflation and hence induces a subcomponent of curvature perturbations. Since the vector has a preferred direction, the statistical anisotropy could appear in the fluctuations. We present the explicit formula for the statistical anisotropy in the primordial power spectrum and the bispectrum of curvature perturbations. Interestingly, there is the possibility that the statistical anisotropy does not appear in the power spectrum but does appear in the bispectrum. We also find that the statistical anisotropy provides the shape dependence to the bispectrum

  15. Primordial statistical anisotropy generated at the end of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shuichiro [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: shu@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    We present a new mechanism for generating primordial statistical anisotropy of curvature perturbations. We introduce a vector field which has a non-minimal kinetic term and couples with a waterfall field in a hybrid inflation model. In such a system, the vector field gives fluctuations of the end of inflation and hence induces a subcomponent of curvature perturbations. Since the vector has a preferred direction, the statistical anisotropy could appear in the fluctuations. We present the explicit formula for the statistical anisotropy in the primordial power spectrum and the bispectrum of curvature perturbations. Interestingly, there is the possibility that the statistical anisotropy does not appear in the power spectrum but does appear in the bispectrum. We also find that the statistical anisotropy provides the shape dependence to the bispectrum.

  16. Non-Gaussianity and the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, N; Riotto, A

    2010-01-01

    We review in a pedagogical way the present status of the impact of non-Gaussianity (NG) on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. We first show how to set the initial conditions at second-order for the (gauge invariant) CMB anisotropies when some primordial NG is present. However, there are many sources of NG in CMB anisotropies, beyond the primordial one, which can contaminate the primordial signal. We mainly focus on the NG generated from the post-inflationary evolution of the CMB anisotropies at second-order in perturbation theory at large and small angular scales, such as the ones generated at the recombination epoch. We show how to derive the equations to study the second-order CMB anisotropies and provide analytical computations to evaluate their contamination to primordial NG (complemented with numerical examples). We also offer a brief summary of other secondary effects. This review requires basic knowledge of the theory of cosmological perturbations at the linear level.

  17. Non-Gaussianity and the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bartolo

    2010-01-01

    microwave background (CMB anisotropies. We first show how to set the initial conditions at second order for the CMB anisotropies when some primordial NG is present. However, there are many sources of NG in CMB anisotropies, beyond the primordial one, which can contaminate the primordial signal. We mainly focus on the NG generated from the post inflationary evolution of the CMB anisotropies at second order in perturbation theory at large and small angular scales, such as the ones generated at the recombination epoch. We show how to derive the equations to study the second-order CMB anisotropies and provide analytical computations to evaluate their contamination to primordial NG (complemented with numerical examples. We also offer a brief summary of other secondary effects. This paper requires basic knowledge of the theory of cosmological perturbations at the linear level.

  18. Signatures of Beam - and Anisotropy Driven Oscillitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, K.; Dubinin, E.; McKenzie, J. F.

    Oscillitons represent a new class of stationary nonlinear waves, first found in bi-ion plasmas (Sauer et al., 1991) where mode splitting of the `individual' wave modes leads to conditions for phase- and group-standing waves near the `crossing points'. The corresponding structures have signatures of the usual solitons, superimposed by spatial oscillations. Oscillitons may also occur in single-ion plasmas, e.g. in the elec- tron whistler branch. The characteristic features of different types of oscillitons under realistic conditions in space plasmas including damping, beams and anisotropies are analyzed. Relevant mechanisms of coherent waves observed in different frequency ranges (Lion Roars at Earth, ion cyclotron waves near Io and Mars) are discussed.

  19. Cosmic ray anisotropies at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinic, N. J.; Alarcon, A.; Teran, F.

    1986-01-01

    The directional anisotropies of the energetic cosmic ray gas due to the relative motion between the observers frame and the one where the relativistic gas can be assumed isotropic is analyzed. The radiation fluxes formula in the former frame must follow as the Lorentz invariance of dp/E, where p, E are the 4-vector momentum-energy components; dp is the 3-volume element in the momentum space. The anisotropic flux shows in such a case an amplitude, in a rotating earth, smaller than the experimental measurements from say, EAS-arrays for primary particle energies larger than 1.E(14) eV. Further, it is shown that two consecutive Lorentz transformations among three inertial frames exhibit the violation of dp/E invariance between the first and the third systems of reference, due to the Wigner rotation. A discussion of this result in the context of the experimental anisotropic fluxes and its current interpretation is given.

  20. Classical anisotropies in models of open inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garriga, J.; Mukhanov, V.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the simplest model of open inflation there are two inflaton fields decoupled from each other. One of them, the tunneling field, produces a first stage of inflation which prepares the ground for the nucleation of a highly symmetric bubble. The other, a free field, drives a second period of slow-roll inflation inside the bubble. However, the second field also evolves during the first stage of inflation, which to some extent breaks the needed symmetry. We show that this generates large supercurvature anisotropies which, together with the results of Tanaka and Sasaki, rule out this class of simple models (unless, of course, Ω 0 is sufficiently close to 1). The problem does not arise in modified models where the second field does not evolve in the first stage of inflation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background from dark matter with Fermi LAT: A closer look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuoco, A.; Sellerholm, A.; Conrad, J.; Hannestad, S.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the sensitivity to the anisotropies related to dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi LAT). For the first time, we take into account the effects of the Galactic foregrounds and use a realistic representation of the Fermi LAT. We implement an analysis pipeline which simulates Fermi LAT data sets starting from model maps of the Galactic foregrounds, the Fermi-resolved point sources, the extragalactic diffuse emission and the signal from DM annihilation. The effects of the detector are taken into account by convolving the model maps with the Fermi LAT instrumental response. We then use the angular power spectrum to characterize the anisotropy properties of the simulated data and to study the sensitivity to DM. We consider DM anisotropies of extragalactic origin and of Galactic origin (which can be generated through annihilation in the Milky Way substructures) as opposed to a background of anisotropies generated by sources of astrophysical origin, blazars for example. We find that with statistics from 5 yr of observation, Fermi is sensitive to a DM contribution at the level of 1–10 per cent of the measured IGRB depending on the DM mass m χ and annihilation mode. In terms of the thermally averaged cross-section <σAv>, this corresponds to ~10 –25 cm 3 s –1 , i.e. slightly above the typical expectations for a thermal relic, for low values of the DM mass m χ ≲ 100 GeV. As a result, the anisotropy method for DM searches has a sensitivity comparable to the usual methods based only on the energy spectrum and thus constitutes an independent and complementary piece of information in the DM puzzle.

  2. Nanomagnets with high shape anisotropy and strong crystalline anisotropy: perspectives on magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanella, H; Llobet, J; Esteve, J; Plaza, J A; Jaafar, M; Vázquez, M; Asenjo, A; Del Real, R P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new approach for magnetic imaging, highly sensitive even in the presence of external, strong magnetic fields. Based on FIB-assisted fabricated high-aspect-ratio rare-earth nanomagnets, we produce groundbreaking magnetic force tips with hard magnetic character where we combine a high aspect ratio (shape anisotropy) together with strong crystalline anisotropy (rare-earth-based alloys). Rare-earth hard nanomagnets are then FIB-integrated to silicon microcantilevers as highly sharpened tips for high-field magnetic imaging applications. Force resolution and domain reversing and recovery capabilities are at least one order of magnitude better than for conventional magnetic tips. This work opens new, pioneering research fields on the surface magnetization process of nanostructures based either on relatively hard magnetic materials—used in magnetic storage media—or on materials like superparamagnetic particles, ferro/antiferromagnetic structures or paramagnetic materials.

  3. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Wolf, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Sagan et al. (1993) used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993) could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993) noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis) as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position) which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  4. Detecting 3D Vegetation Structure with the Galileo Space Probe: Can a Distant Probe Detect Vegetation Structure on Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Doughty

    Full Text Available Sagan et al. (1993 used the Galileo space probe data and first principles to find evidence of life on Earth. Here we ask whether Sagan et al. (1993 could also have detected whether life on Earth had three-dimensional structure, based on the Galileo space probe data. We reanalyse the data from this probe to see if structured vegetation could have been detected in regions with abundant photosynthetic pigments through the anisotropy of reflected shortwave radiation. We compare changing brightness of the Amazon forest (a region where Sagan et al. (1993 noted a red edge in the reflectance spectrum, indicative of photosynthesis as the planet rotates to a common model of reflectance anisotropy and found measured increase of surface reflectance of 0.019 ± 0.003 versus a 0.007 predicted from only anisotropic effects. We hypothesize the difference was due to minor cloud contamination. However, the Galileo dataset had only a small change in phase angle (sun-satellite position which reduced the observed anisotropy signal and we demonstrate that theoretically if the probe had a variable phase angle between 0-20°, there would have been a much larger predicted change in surface reflectance of 0.1 and under such a scenario three-dimensional vegetation structure on Earth could possibly have been detected. These results suggest that anisotropic effects may be useful to help determine whether exoplanets have three-dimensional vegetation structure in the future, but that further comparisons between empirical and theoretical results are first necessary.

  5. Dispersion of the electron g factor anisotropy in InAs/InP self-assembled quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belykh, V. V., E-mail: vasilii.belykh@tu-dortmund.de [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schindler, J. J. [Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universität Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Bree, J. van; Koenraad, P. M.; Silov, A. Yu., E-mail: A.Y.Silov@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics and COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Averkiev, N. S. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-28

    The electron g factor in an ensemble of InAs/InP quantum dots with emission wavelengths around 1.4 μm is measured using time-resolved pump-probe Faraday rotation spectroscopy in different magnetic field orientations. Thereby, we can extend recent single dot photoluminescence measurements significantly towards lower optical transition energies through 0.86 eV. This allows us to obtain detailed insight into the dispersion of the recently discovered g factor anisotropy in these infrared emitting quantum dots. We find with decreasing transition energy over a range of 50 meV a strong enhancement of the g factor difference between magnetic field normal and along the dot growth axis, namely, from 1 to 1.7. We argue that the g factor cannot be solely determined by the confinement energy, but the dot asymmetry underlying this anisotropy therefore has to increase with increasing dot size.

  6. Flow-induced elastic anisotropy of metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.H.; Concustell, A.; Carpenter, M.A.; Qiao, J.C.; Rayment, A.W.; Greer, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    As-cast bulk metallic glasses are isotropic, but anisotropy can be induced by thermomechanical treatments. For example, the diffraction halo in the structure function S(Q) observed in transmission becomes elliptical (rather than circular) after creep in uniaxial tension or compression. Published studies associate this with frozen-in anelastic strain and bond-orientational anisotropy. Results so far are inconsistent on whether viscoplastic flow of metallic glasses can induce anisotropy. Preliminary diffraction data suggest that the anisotropy, if any, is very low, while measurements of the elastic properties suggest that there is induced anisotropy, opposite in sign to that due to anelastic strain. We study three bulk metallic glasses, Ce 65 Al 10 Cu 20 Co 5 , La 55 Ni 10 Al 35 , and Pd 40 Ni 30 Cu 10 P 20 . By using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to determine the full elasticity tensor, the effects of relaxation and rejuvenation can be reliably separated from uniaxial anisotropy (of either sign). The effects of viscoplastic flow in tension are reported for the first time. We find that viscoplastic flow of bulk metallic glasses, particularly in tension, can induce significant anisotropy that is distinct from that associated with frozen-in anelastic strain. The conditions for inducing such anisotropy are explored in terms of the Weissenberg number (ratio of relaxation times for primary relaxation and for shear strain rate). There is a clear need for further work to characterize the structural origins of flow-induced anisotropy and to explore the prospects for improved mechanical and other properties through induced anisotropy.

  7. Gene probes : principles and protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 179

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapley, Ralph; Aquino de Muro, Marilena

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  8. Probing the cosmological initial conditions using the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit P. S.

    In the last few decades, advances in observational cosmology have given us a standard model of cosmology. The basic cosmological parameters have been laid out to high precision. Cosmologists have started asking questions about the nature of the cosmological initial conditions. Many ambitious experiments such as Planck satellite, EBEX, ACT, CAPMAP, QUaD, BICEP, SPIDER, QUIET, and GEM are underway. Experiments like these will provide us with a wealth of information about CMB polarization, CMB lensing, and polarization foregrounds. These experiments will be complemented with great observational campaigns to map the 3D structure in the Universe and new particle physics constraints from the Large Hadron Collider. In my graduate work I have made explicit how observations of the CMB temperature and E-polarization anisotropies can be combined to provide optimal constraints on models of the early universe at the highest energies. I have developed new ways of constraining models of the early universe using CMB temperature and polarization data. Inflation is one of the most promising theories of the early universe. Different inflationary models predict different amounts of non-Gaussian perturbations. Although any non-Gaussianity predicted by the canonical inflation model is very small, there exist models which can generate significant amounts of non-Gaussianities. Hence any characterization of non-Gaussianity of the primordial perturbations constrains the models of inflation. The information in the bispectrum (or higher order moments) is completely independent of the power spectrum constraints on the amplitude of primordial power spectrum (A), the scalar spectral index of the primordial power spectrum ns, and the running of the primordial power spectrum. My work has made it possible to extract the bispectrum information from large, high resolution CMB temperature and polarization data. We have demonstrated that the primordial adiabatic perturbations can be reconstructed using

  9. Planck 2015 results: X. Diffuse component separation: Foreground maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report that Planck has mapped the microwave sky in temperature over nine frequency bands between 30 and 857 GHz and in polarization over seven frequency bands between 30 and 353 GHz in polarization. In this paper we consider the problem of diffuse astrophysical component separation, and process these maps within a Bayesian framework to derive an internally consistent set of full-sky astrophysical component maps. Component separation dedicated to cosmic microwave background (CMB) reconstruction is described in a companion paper. For the temperature analysis, we combine the Planck observations with the 9-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps and the Haslam et al. 408 MHz map, to derive a joint model of CMB, synchrotron, free-free, spinning dust, CO, line emission in the 94 and 100 GHz channels, and thermal dust emission. Full-sky maps are provided for each component, with an angular resolution varying between 7.5 and 1deg. Global parameters (monopoles, dipoles, relative calibration, and bandpass errors) are fitted jointly with the sky model, and best-fit values are tabulated. For polarization, the model includes CMB, synchrotron, and thermal dust emission. These models provide excellent fits to the observed data, with rms temperature residuals smaller than 4μK over 93% of the sky for all Planck frequencies up to 353 GHz, and fractional errors smaller than 1% in the remaining 7% of the sky. The main limitations of the temperature model at the lower frequencies are internal degeneracies among the spinning dust, free-free, and synchrotron components; additional observations from external low-frequency experiments will be essential to break these degeneracies. The main limitations of the temperature model at the higher frequencies are uncertainties in the 545 and 857 GHz calibration and zero-points. For polarization, the main outstanding issues are instrumental systematics in the 100–353 GHz bands on large angular scales in the form of temperature

  10. Constraining the Mechanism of D" Anisotropy: Diversity of Observation Types Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasy, N.; Pisconti, A.; Long, M. D.; Thomas, C.

    2017-12-01

    A variety of different mechanisms have been proposed as explanations for seismic anisotropy at the base of the mantle, including crystallographic preferred orientation of various minerals (bridgmanite, post-perovskite, and ferropericlase) and shape preferred orientation of elastically distinct materials such as partial melt. Investigations of the mechanism for D" anisotropy are usually ambiguous, as seismic observations rarely (if ever) uniquely constrain a mechanism. Observations of shear wave splitting and polarities of SdS and PdP reflections off the D" discontinuity are among our best tools for probing D" anisotropy; however, typical data sets cannot constrain a unique scenario suggested by the mineral physics literature. In this work, we determine what types of body wave observations are required to uniquely constrain a mechanism for D" anisotropy. We test multiple possible models based on both single-crystal and poly-phase elastic tensors provided by mineral physics studies. We predict shear wave splitting parameters for SKS, SKKS, and ScS phases and reflection polarities off the D" interface for a range of possible propagation directions. We run a series of tests that create synthetic data sets by random selection over multiple iterations, controlling the total number of measurements, the azimuthal distribution, and the type of phases. We treat each randomly drawn synthetic dataset with the same methodology as in Ford et al. (2015) to determine the possible mechanism(s), carrying out a grid search over all possible elastic tensors and orientations to determine which are consistent with the synthetic data. We find is it difficult to uniquely constrain the starting model with a realistic number of seismic anisotropy measurements with only one measurement technique or phase type. However, having a mix of SKS, SKKS, and ScS measurements, or a mix of shear wave splitting and reflection polarity measurements, dramatically increases the probability of uniquely

  11. Probing the recreational home –The cultural probe as a communicative tool for researcher and user

    OpenAIRE

    Kristav, Per

    2005-01-01

    How can qualitative, ethnographic and emotional aspects from probe users be mapped at the same time as they get something meaningful in return? The emphasis is here on intellectual rewards during probe work rather than future good designs that in a long term perspective can be beneficial for the probe user. This case study has elaborated the traditional use of cultural probes [1] with a selection of ten families with small children in the Öresund region. The idea was to evoke thoughts abou...

  12. Protein rotational dynamics investigated with a dual EPR/optical molecular probe. Spin-labeled eosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, C E; Hustedt, E J; Beechem, J M; Beth, A H

    1993-01-01

    An acyl spin-label derivative of 5-aminoeosin (5-SLE) was chemically synthesized and employed in studies of rotational dynamics of the free probe and of the probe when bound noncovalently to bovine serum albumin using the spectroscopic techniques of fluorescence anisotropy decay and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and their long-lifetime counterparts phosphorescence anisotropy decay and saturation transfer EPR. Previous work (Beth, A. H., Cobb, C. E., and J. M. Beechem, 1992. Synthesis and characterization of a combined fluorescence, phosphorescence, and electron paramagnetic resonance probe. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Time-Resolved Laser Spectroscopy III. 504-512) has shown that the spin-label moiety only slightly altered the fluorescence and phosphorescence lifetimes and quantum yields of 5-SLE when compared with 5-SLE whose nitroxide had been reduced with ascorbate and with the diamagnetic homolog 5-acetyleosin. In the present work, we have utilized time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay and linear EPR spectroscopies to observe and quantitate the psec motions of 5-SLE in solution and the nsec motions of the 5-SLE-bovine serum albumin complex. Time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy decay and saturation transfer EPR studies have been carried out to observe and quantitate the microseconds motions of the 5-SLE-albumin complex in glycerol/buffer solutions of varying viscosity. These latter studies have enabled a rigorous comparison of rotational correlation times obtained from these complementary techniques to be made with a single probe. The studies described demonstrate that it is possible to employ a single molecular probe to carry out the full range of fluorescence, phosphorescence, EPR, and saturation transfer EPR studies. It is anticipated that "dual" molecular probes of this general type will significantly enhance capabilities for extracting dynamics and structural information from macromolecules and their functional

  13. Nanopatterning reconfigurable magnetic landscapes via thermally assisted scanning probe lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisetti, E.; Petti, D.; Pancaldi, M.; Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Curtis, J.; King, W. P.; Papp, A.; Csaba, G.; Porod, W.; Vavassori, P.; Riedo, E.; Bertacco, R.

    2016-06-01

    The search for novel tools to control magnetism at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of new paradigms in optics, electronics and spintronics. So far, the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures has been achieved mainly through irreversible structural or chemical modifications. Here, we propose a new concept for creating reconfigurable magnetic nanopatterns by crafting, at the nanoscale, the magnetic anisotropy landscape of a ferromagnetic layer exchange-coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. By performing localized field cooling with the hot tip of a scanning probe microscope, magnetic structures, with arbitrarily oriented magnetization and tunable unidirectional anisotropy, are reversibly patterned without modifying the film chemistry and topography. This opens unforeseen possibilities for the development of novel metamaterials with finely tuned magnetic properties, such as reconfigurable magneto-plasmonic and magnonic crystals. In this context, we experimentally demonstrate spatially controlled spin wave excitation and propagation in magnetic structures patterned with the proposed method.

  14. Daytime Thermal Anisotropy of Urban Neighbourhoods: Morphological Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scott Krayenhoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface temperature is a key variable in boundary-layer meteorology and is typically acquired by remote observation of emitted thermal radiation. However, the three-dimensional structure of cities complicates matters: uneven solar heating of urban facets produces an “effective anisotropy” of surface thermal emission at the neighbourhood scale. Remotely-sensed urban surface temperature varies with sensor view angle as a consequence. The authors combine a microscale urban surface temperature model with a thermal remote sensing model to predict the effective anisotropy of simplified neighbourhood configurations. The former model provides detailed surface temperature distributions for a range of “urban” forms, and the remote sensing model computes aggregate temperatures for multiple view angles. The combined model’s ability to reproduce observed anisotropy is evaluated against measurements from a neighbourhood in Vancouver, Canada. As in previous modeling studies, anisotropy is underestimated. Addition of moderate coverages of small (sub-facet scale structure can account for much of the missing anisotropy. Subsequently, over 1900 sensitivity simulations are performed with the model combination, and the dependence of daytime effective thermal anisotropy on diurnal solar path (i.e., latitude and time of day and blunt neighbourhood form is assessed. The range of effective anisotropy, as well as the maximum difference from nadir-observed brightness temperature, peak for moderate building-height-to-spacing ratios (H/W, and scale with canyon (between-building area; dispersed high-rise urban forms generate maximum anisotropy. Maximum anisotropy increases with solar elevation and scales with shortwave irradiance. Moreover, it depends linearly on H/W for H/W < 1.25, with a slope that depends on maximum off-nadir sensor angle. Decreasing minimum brightness temperature is primarily responsible for this linear growth of maximum anisotropy. These

  15. Determination of elastic anisotropy of rocks from P- and S-wave velocities: numerical modelling and lab measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitek, Tomáš; Vavryčuk, Václav; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Petružálek, Matěj

    2014-12-01

    The most common type of waves used for probing anisotropy of rocks in laboratory is the direct P wave. Information potential of the measured P-wave velocity, however, is limited. In rocks displaying weak triclinic anisotropy, the P-wave velocity depends just on 15 linear combinations of 21 elastic parameters, called the weak-anisotropy parameters. In strong triclinic anisotropy, the P-wave velocity depends on the whole set of 21 elastic parameters, but inversion for six of them is ill-conditioned and these parameters are retrieved with a low accuracy. Therefore, in order to retrieve the complete elastic tensor accurately, velocities of S waves must also be measured and inverted. For this purpose, we developed a lab facility which allows the P- and S-wave ultrasonic sounding of spherical rock samples in 132 directions distributed regularly over the sphere. The velocities are measured using a pair of P-wave sensors with the transmitter and receiver polarized along the radial direction and using two pairs of S-wave sensors with the transmitter and receiver polarized tangentially to the spherical sample in mutually perpendicular directions. We present inversion methods of phase and ray velocities for elastic parameters describing general triclinic anisotropy. We demonstrate on synthetic tests that the inversion becomes more robust and stable if the S-wave velocities are included. This applies even to the case when the velocity of the S waves is measured in a limited number of directions and with a significantly lower accuracy than that of the P wave. Finally, we analyse velocities measured on a rock sample from the Outokumpu deep drill hole, Finland. We present complete sets of elastic parameters of the sample including the error analysis for several levels of confining pressure ranging from 0.1 to 70 MPa.

  16. Magnetic anisotropy of ultrafine 316L stainless steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyr, Tien-Wei, E-mail: twshyr@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ju [Department of Fiber and Composite Materials, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wur, Ching-Shuei [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-12-01

    An as-received 316L stainless steel fiber with a diameter of 20 μm was drawn using a bundle drawing process at room temperature to form ultrafine stainless steel fibers with diameters of 12, 8, and 6 μm. The crystalline phases of the fibers were analyzed using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile fitting technique. The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to nanoscale sizes after the drawing process. XRD analysis and focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope observations showed that the newly formed α′-martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. The magnetic property was measured using a superconducting quantum interference device vibrating sample magnetometer. The magnetic anisotropy of the fibers was observed by applying a magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the fiber axis. The results showed that the microstructure anisotropy including the shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, and the orientation of the crystalline phases strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy. - Highlights: • The martensitic transformation of the 316L SS fiber occurred during the cold drawn. • The grain sizes of γ-austenite and α′-martensite were reduced to the nanoscale. • The newly formed martensitic grains were closely arrayed in the drawing direction. • The drawing process caused the magnetic easy axis to be aligned with the fiber axis. • The microstructure anisotropy strongly contributed to the magnetic anisotropy.

  17. System of multifunctional Jones matrix tomography of phase anisotropy in diagnostics of endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, V. O.; Koval, G. D.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Pidkamin, L. Y.; Sidor, M. I.; Vanchuliak, O.; Motrich, A. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Meglinskiy, I.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents the results of Jones-matrix mapping of uterine wall histological sections with second-degree and third-degree endometriosis. The technique of experimental measurement of coordinate distributions of the modulus and phase values of Jones matrix elements is suggested. Within the statistical and cross-correlation approaches the modulus and phase maps of Jones matrix images of optically thin biological layers of polycrystalline films of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are analyzed. A set of objective parameters (statistical and generalized correlation moments), which are the most sensitive to changes in the phase of anisotropy, associated with the features of polycrystalline structure of uterine wall histological sections with second-degree and third-degree endometriosis are determined.

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Heterotopia: Changes of Fractional Anisotropy during Radial Migration of Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion tensor imaging provides better understanding of pathophysiology of congenital anomalies, involving central nervous system. This study was aimed to specify the pathogenetic mechanism of heterotopia, proved by diffusion tensor imaging, and establish new findings of heterotopia on fractional anisotropy maps. Materials and Methods Diffusion-weighted imaging data from 11 patients (M : F = 7 : 4, aged from 1 to 22 years, mean = 12.3 years) who visited the epilepsy clinic and received a routine seizure protocol MRI exam were retrospectively analyzed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated from diffusion tensor imaging of 11 patients with heterotopia. Regions of interests (ROI) were placed in cerebral cortex, heterotopic gray matter and deep gray matter, including putamen. ANOVA analysis was performed for comparison of different gray matter tissues. Results Heterotopic gray matter showed signal intensities similar to normal gray matter on T1 and T2 weighted MRI. The measured FA of heterotopic gray matter was higher than that of cortical gray matter (0.236 ± 0.011 vs. 0.169 ± 0.015, p < 0.01, one way ANOVA), and slightly lower than that of deep gray matter (0.236 ± 0.011 vs. 0.259 ± 0.016, p < 0.01). Conclusion Increased FA of heterotopic gray matter suggests arrested neuron during radial migration and provides better understanding of neurodevelopment. PMID:20499428

  19. Geomechanical Anisotropy and Rock Fabric in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, K. A.; Connolly, P.; Thornton, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Digital rock physics (DRP) is an emerging area of qualitative and quantitative scientific analysis that has been employed on a variety of rock types at various scales to characterize petrophysical, mechanical, and hydraulic rock properties. This contribution presents a generic geomechanically focused DRP workflow involving image segmentation by geomechanical constituents, generation of finite element (FE) meshes, and application of various boundary conditions (i.e. at the edge of the domain and at boundaries of various components such as edges of individual grains). The generic workflow enables use of constituent geological objects and relationships in a computational based approach to address specific questions in a variety of rock types at various scales. Two examples are 1) modeling stress dependent permeability, where it occurs and why it occurs at the grain scale; 2) simulating the path and complexity of primary fractures and matrix damage in materials with minerals or intervals of different mechanical behavior. Geomechanical properties and fabric characterization obtained from 100 micron shale SEM images using the generic DRP workflow are presented. Image segmentation and development of FE simulation composed of relatively simple components (elastic materials, frictional contacts) and boundary conditions enable the determination of bulk static elastic properties. The procedure is repeated for co-located images at pertinent orientations to determine mechanical anisotropy. The static moduli obtained are benchmarked against lab derived measurements since material properties (esp. frictional ones) are poorly constrained at the scale of investigation. Once confidence in the input material parameters is gained, the procedure can be used to characterize more samples (i.e. images) than is possible from rock samples alone. Integration of static elastic properties with grain statistics and geologic (facies) conceptual models derived from core and geophysical logs

  20. Switching the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy by ion irradiation induced compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Amarouche, Teyri; Xu, Chi; Rushforth, Andrew; Böttger, Roman; Edmonds, Kevin; Campion, Richard; Gallagher, Bryan; Helm, Manfred; Jürgen von Bardeleben, Hans; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of GaMnAsP is modified by helium ion irradiation. According to the micro-magnetic parameters, e.g. resonance fields and anisotropy constants deduced from ferromagnetic resonance measurements, a rotation of the magnetic easy axis from out-of-plane [0 0 1] to in-plane [1 0 0] direction is achieved. From the application point of view, our work presents a novel avenue in modifying the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAsP with the possibility of lateral patterning by using lithography or focused ion beam.

  1. Magnetic transitions and phases in random-anisotropy magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellmyer, D.J.; Nafis, S.; O'Shea, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The generality and universality of the Ising spin-glass-like phase transitions observed in several rare-earth, random-anisotropy magnets are discussed. Some uncertainties and practical problems in determining critical exponents are considered, and a comparison is made to insulating spin glasses and crystalline spin glasses where an apparent anisotropy-induced crossover from Heisenberg to Ising-like behavior is seen. The observation of a reentrant transition in a weak anisotropy system and its correlation with the theory of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota [Phys. Rev. B 33, 251 (1986)] for the correlated spin glass is discussed

  2. Magnetic transitions and phases in random-anisotropy magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellmyer, D. J.; Nafis, S.; O'Shea, M. J.

    1988-04-01

    The generality and universality of the Ising spin-glass-like phase transitions observed in several rare-earth, random-anisotropy magnets are discussed. Some uncertainties and practical problems in determining critical exponents are considered, and a comparison is made to insulating spin glasses and crystalline spin glasses where an apparent anisotropy-induced crossover from Heisenberg to Ising-like behavior is seen. The observation of a reentrant transition in a weak anisotropy system and its correlation with the theory of Chudnovsky, Saslow, and Serota [Phys. Rev. B 33, 251 (1986)] for the correlated spin glass is discussed.

  3. Canonical Transform Method for Treating Strongly Anisotropy Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, J. F.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    An infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of magnetism in magnets with strong single-ion anisotropy is given. This approach is based on a canonical transformation of the system into one with a diagonal crystal field, an effective two-ion anisotropy, and reduced ground-state corrections....... A matrix-element matching procedure is used to obtain an explicit expression for the spin-wave energy to second order. The consequences of this theory are illustrated by an application to a simple example with planar anisotropy and an external magnetic field. A detailed comparison between the results...

  4. Helically symmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and incompressible plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelias, A.; Kuiroukidis, A.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N.

    2018-02-01

    We derive a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation governing helically symmetric equilibria with pressure anisotropy and incompressible flow of arbitrary direction. Through the most general linearizing ansatz for the various free surface functions involved therein, we construct equilibrium solutions and study their properties. It turns out that pressure anisotropy can act either paramegnetically or diamagnetically, the parallel flow has a paramagnetic effect, while the non-parallel component of the flow associated with the electric field has a diamagnetic one. Also, pressure anisotropy and flow affect noticeably the helical current density.

  5. Bianchi-V string cosmological model with dark energy anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, B.; Tripathy, S. K.; Ray, Pratik P.

    2018-05-01

    The role of anisotropic components on the dark energy and the dynamics of the universe is investigated. An anisotropic dark energy fluid with different pressures along different spatial directions is assumed to incorporate the effect of anisotropy. One dimensional cosmic strings aligned along x-direction supplement some kind of anisotropy. Anisotropy in the dark energy pressure is found to evolve with cosmic expansion at least at late times. At an early phase, the anisotropic effect due to the cosmic strings substantially affect the dynamics of the accelerating universe.

  6. Seismic Azimuthal Anisotropy of the Lower Paleozoic Shales in Northern Poland: can we reliably detect it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyz, Marta; Malinowski, Michał

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of the azimuthal anisotropy is an important aspect of characterization the Lower Paleozoic shale play in northern Poland, since it can be used to map pre-existing fracture networks or help in optimal placement of the horizontal wells. Previous studies employed Velocity versus Azimuth (VVAz) method and found that this anisotropy is weak - on the order of 1-2%, only locally - close to major fault zones - being higher (ca. 7%). This is consistent with the recent re-interpretation of the cross-dipole sonic data, which indicates average shear wave anisotropy of 1%. The problem with the VVAz method is that it requires good definition of the interval, for which the analysis is made and it should be minimum 100 ms thick. In our case, the target intervals are thin - upper reservoir (Lower Silurian Jantar formation) is 15 m thick, lower reservoir (Upper Ordovician Sasino formation) is 25 m thick. Therefore, we prefer to use the Amplitude vs Azimuth (AVAz) method, which can be applied on a single horizon (e.g. the base of the reservoir). However, the AVAz method depends critically on the quality of the seismic data and preservation of amplitudes during processing. On top of the above mentioned issues, physical properties of the Lower Paleozoic shales from Poland seem to be unfavourable for detecting azimuthal anisotropy. For example, for both target formations, parameter g=(Vs/Vp)2 is close to 0.32, which implies that the anisotropy expressed by the anisotropic gradient in the dry (i.e. gas-filled fractures) case is close to zero. In case of e.g. the Bakken Shale, g is much higher (0.38-0.4), leading to a detectable anisotropic signature even in the dry case. Modelling of the synthetic AVAz response performed using available well data suggested that anisotropic gradient in the wet (fluid-filled) case should be detectable even in case of the weak anisotropy (1-2%). This scenario is consistent with the observation, that the studied area is located in the liquid

  7. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  8. Optical anisotropy of quasi-1D rare-earth silicide nanostructures on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, S., E-mail: sandhya.chandola@isas.de [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V., Schwarzschildstraße 8, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Speiser, E.; Esser, N. [Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V., Schwarzschildstraße 8, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Appelfeller, S.; Franz, M.; Dähne, M. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) is capable of distinguishing optically between the semiconducting wetting layer and the metallic nanowires of rare earth (Tb and Dy) silicide nanostructures grown on vicinal Si(001). • The spectra of the wetting layer show a distinctive line shape with a large peak appearing at 3.8 eV, which is assigned to the formation of 2 × 3 and 2 × 4-like subunits of the 2 × 7 reconstruction. The spectra of the metallic nanowires show peaks at the E{sub 1} and E{sub 2} transitions of bulk Si which is assigned to strong substrate strain induced by the nanowires. • The optical anisotropy of the Tb nanowires is larger than for the Dy nanowires, which is related to the preferential formation of more strained bundles as well as larger areas of clean Si surfaces in the case of Tb. • RAS is shown to be a powerful addition to surface science techniques for studying the formation of rare-earth silicide nanostructures. Its surface sensitivity and rapidity of response make it an ideal complement to the slower but higher resolution of scanning probes of STM and AFM. - Abstract: Rare earth metals are known to interact strongly with Si(001) surfaces to form different types of silicide nanostructures. Using STM to structurally characterize Dy and Tb silicide nanostructures on vicinal Si(001), it will be shown that reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) can be used as an optical fingerprint technique to clearly distinguish between the formation of a semiconducting two-dimensional wetting layer and the metallic one-dimensional nanowires. Moreover, the distinctive spectral features can be related to structural units of the nanostructures. RAS spectra of Tb and Dy nanostructures are found to show similar features.

  9. Electron temperature anisotropy modeling and its effect on anisotropy-magnetic field coupling in an underdense laser heated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morreeuw, J.P.; Dubroca, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, 33 - Talence (France); Sangam, A.; Dubroca, B.; Charrier, P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., MAB, 33 - Talence (France)

    2006-06-15

    The laser interaction with an underdense plasma leads to an anisotropic laser heating of electrons. This temperature anisotropy gradient in turn is the source of an early magnetic field, which has an important effect on the plasma evolution, due to the thermal flux reduction. We describe the temperature anisotropy by an evolution equation including the anisotropy-magnetic field coupling and observe a rather efficient magnetic field generation. However at high anisotropy levels, a small-scale instability emerges, leading to a serious problem in numerical calculations. We introduce the kinetics effects, which fix the problem by the anisotropy diffusion through the heat flux tensor. A constant-coefficient Fokker-Planck model in the 2-dimensional geometry allows us to derive an anisotropy diffusion term. The diffusion coefficient is fitted from the kinetic theory of the collisional anisotropic (Weibel) instability growth rate. Such an anisotropy diffusion term wipes out the unphysical instability without any undesirable smoothing. This diffusion along with the viscosity term leads also to a quite good restitution of the Weibel instability growth rate and to the short wavelength cutoff, even in a weakly collisional situation. This allows us to use such a model to predict the emergence of the Weibel instability as well as its saturation. (authors)

  10. The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Shaul; Inflation Probe Mission Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins will map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background over the entire sky with unprecedented sensitivity. It will search for gravity wave signals from the inflationary epoch, thus probing quantum gravity and constraining the energy scale of inflation; it will test the standard model of particle physics by measuring the number of light particles in the Universe and the mass of the neutrino; it will elucidate the nature of dark matter and search for new forms of matter in the early Universe; it will constrain star formation history over cosmic time; and it will determine the mechanisms of structure formation from galaxy cluster to stellar scales. I will review the status of design of this probe-scale mission.

  11. Relationship between electrical conductivity anisotropy and fabric anisotropy in granular materials during drained triaxial compressive tests: a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qifei; Revil, André; Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Yu-Hsing

    2017-07-01

    The anisotropy of granular media and its evolution during shearing are important aspects required in developing physics-based constitutive models in Earth sciences. The development of relationships between geoelectrical properties and the deformation of porous media has applications to the monitoring of faulting and landslides. However, such relationships are still poorly understood. In this study, we first investigate the definition of the electrical conductivity anisotropy tensor of granular materials in presence of surface conductivity of the grains. Fabric anisotropy is related to the components of the fabric tensor. We define an electrical anisotropy factor based on the Archie's exponent second-order symmetric tensor m of granular materials. We use numerical simulations to confirm a relationship between the evolution of electrical and fabric anisotropy factors during shearing. To realize the simulations, we build a virtual laboratory in which we can easily perform synthetic experiments. We first simulate drained compressive triaxial tests of loose and dense granular materials (porosity 0.45 and 0.38, respectively) using the discrete element method. Then, the electrical conductivity tensor of a set of deformed synthetic samples is computed using the finite-difference method. The numerical results show that shear strains are responsible for a measurable anisotropy in the bulk conductivity of granular media. The observed electrical anisotropy response, during shearing, is distinct for dense and loose synthetic samples. Electrical and fabric anisotropy factors exhibit however a unique linear correlation, regardless of the shear strain and the initial state (porosity) of the synthetic samples. The practical implication of this finding confirms the usefulness of the electrical conductivity method in studying the fabric tensor of granular media. This result opens the door in using time-lapse electrical resistivity to study non-intrusively the evolution of anisotropy

  12. Twinning anisotropy of tantalum during nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Saurav, E-mail: S.GOEL@qub.ac.uk [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom); Beake, Ben [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dalton Research Institute, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M15GD (United Kingdom); Chan, Chi-Wai [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom); Haque Faisal, Nadimul [School of Engineering, Robert Gordon University, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ (United Kingdom); Dunne, Nicholas [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen' s University, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-11

    Unlike other BCC metals, the plastic deformation of nanocrystalline Tantalum (Ta) during compression is regulated by deformation twinning. Whether or not this twinning exhibits anisotropy was investigated through simulation of displacement-controlled nanoindentation test using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD data was found to correlate well with the experimental data in terms of surface topography and hardness measurements. The mechanism of the transport of material was identified due to the formation and motion of prismatic dislocations loops (edge dislocations) belonging to the 1/2〈111〉 type and 〈100〉 type Burgers vector family. Further analysis of crystal defects using a fully automated dislocation extraction algorithm (DXA) illuminated formation and migration of twin boundaries on the (110) and (111) orientation but not on the (010) orientation and most importantly after retraction all the dislocations disappeared on the (110) orientation suggesting twinning to dominate dislocation nucleation in driving plasticity in tantalum. A significant finding was that the maximum shear stress (critical Tresca stress) in the deformation zone exceeded the theoretical shear strength of Ta (Shear modulus/2π~10.03 GPa) on the (010) orientation but was lower than it on the (110) and the (111) orientations. In light of this, the conventional lore of assuming the maximum shear stress being 0.465 times the mean contact pressure was found to break down at atomic scale.

  13. Studies of anisotropy of iron based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jason A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To study the electronic anisotropy in iron based superconductors, the temperature dependent London penetration depth, Δλ(T), have been measured in several compounds, along with the angular dependent upper critical field, Hc2(T). Study was undertaken on single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 with x=0.108 and x=0.127, in the overdoped range of the doping phase diagram, characterized by notable modulation of the superconducting gap. Heavy ion irradiation with matching field doses of 6 T and 6.5 T respectively, were used to create columnar defects and to study their effect on the temperature Δλ(T). The variation of the low-temperature penetration depth in both pristine and irradiated samples was fitted with a power-law function Δλ(T) = ATn. Irradiation increases the magnitude of the pre-factor A and decreases the exponent n, similar to the effect on the optimally doped samples. This finding supports the universal s ± scenario for the whole doping range.

  14. Nanoscale magnetic ratchets based on shape anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jizhai; Keller, Scott M.; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2017-02-01

    Controlling magnetization using piezoelectric strain through the magnetoelectric effect offers several orders of magnitude reduction in energy consumption for spintronic applications. However strain is a uniaxial effect and, unlike directional magnetic field or spin-polarized current, cannot induce a full 180° reorientation of the magnetization vector when acting alone. We have engineered novel ‘peanut’ and ‘cat-eye’ shaped nanomagnets on piezoelectric substrates that undergo repeated deterministic 180° magnetization rotations in response to individual electric-field-induced strain pulses by breaking the uniaxial symmetry using shape anisotropy. This behavior can be likened to a magnetic ratchet, advancing magnetization clockwise with each piezostrain trigger. The results were validated using micromagnetics implemented in a multiphysics finite elements code to simulate the engineered spatial and temporal magnetic behavior. The engineering principles start from a target device function and proceed to the identification of shapes that produce the desired function. This approach opens a broad design space for next generation magnetoelectric spintronic devices.

  15. Wave anisotropy of shear viscosity and elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, O. V.; Sarvazyan, A. P.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the theory of shear wave propagation in a "soft solid" material possessing anisotropy of elastic and dissipative properties. The theory is developed mainly for understanding the nature of the low-frequency acoustic characteristics of skeletal muscles, which carry important diagnostic information on the functional state of muscles and their pathologies. It is shown that the shear elasticity of muscles is determined by two independent moduli. The dissipative properties are determined by the fourth-rank viscosity tensor, which also has two independent components. The propagation velocity and attenuation of shear waves in muscle depend on the relative orientation of three vectors: the wave vector, the polarization vector, and the direction of muscle fiber. For one of the many experiments where attention was distinctly focused on the vector character of the wave process, it was possible to make a comparison with the theory, estimate the elasticity moduli, and obtain agreement with the angular dependence of the wave propagation velocity predicted by the theory.

  16. Study on diffusion anisotropy of cerebral ischemia using diffusion weighted echo-planar MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajima, Toshio

    1997-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia was produced by occlusion of the intracranial main cerebral artery with a silicone cylinder in Wistar rats. Diffusion-weighted echo-planar images (DW-EPls) using the motion-probing gradient (MPG) method were acquired at 1-3 hours and 24-48 hours after occlusion. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were calculated from these images in ischemic lesions and in normal unoccluded regions. Results were as follows. Ischemic lesions could be detected on the DW-EPIs at 1 hour after occlusion. The ADC of water in the brain tissue was smaller than that of free water as a result of restricted diffusion. Anisotropic diffusion that probably can be attributed to the myelin sheath was observed in the normal white matter. In the ischemic lesions, the ADC decreased rapidly within 1-3 hours after occlusion and then decreased gradually after 24-48 hours. In the ischemic white matter, diffusion anisotropy disappeared at 24-48 hours after occlusion. Diffusion-weighted imaging may have applications in the examination of pathophysiological mechanisms in cerebral ischemia by means of evaluation of ADC and diffusion anisotropy. (author)

  17. Azadioxatriangulenium: exploring the effect of a 20 ns fluorescence lifetime in fluorescence anisotropy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogh, Sidsel A.; Bora, Ilkay; Rosenberg, Martin; Thyrhaug, Erling; Laursen, Bo W.; Just Sørensen, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Azaoxatriangulenium (ADOTA) has been shown to be highly emissive despite a moderate molar absorption coefficient of the primary electronic transition. As a result, the fluorescence lifetime is ~20 ns, longer than all commonly used red fluorescent organic probes. The electronic transitions in ADOTA are highly polarised (r 0  =  0.38), which in combination with the long fluorescence lifetime extents the size-range of biomolecular weights that can be detected in fluorescence polarisation-based experiments. Here, the rotational dynamics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) are monitored with three different ADOTA derivatives, differing only in constitution of the reactive linker. A detailed study of the degree of labelling, the steady-state anisotropy, and the time-resolved anisotropy of the three different ADOTA-BSA conjugates are reported. The fluorescence quantum yields (ϕ fl) of the free dyes in PBS solution are determined to be ~55%, which is reduced to ~20% in the ADOTA-BSA conjugates. Despite the reduction in ϕ fl, a ~20 ns intensity averaged lifetime is maintained, allowing for the rotational dynamics of BSA to be monitored for up to 100 ns. Thus, ADOTA can be used in fluorescence polarisation assays to fill the gap between commonly used organic dyes and the long luminescence lifetime transition metal complexes. This allows for efficient steady-state fluorescence polarisation assays for detecting binding of analytes with molecular weights of up to 100 kDa.

  18. The effect of anisotropy on the thermodynamics of the interacting holographic dark energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossienkhani, H.; Jafari, A.; Fayaz, V.; Ramezani, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    By considering a holographic model for the dark energy in an anisotropic universe, the thermodynamics of a scheme of dark matter and dark energy interaction has been investigated. The results suggest that when holographic dark energy and dark matter evolve separately, each of them remains in thermodynamic equilibrium, therefore the interaction between them may be viewed as a stable thermal fluctuation that brings a logarithmic correction to the equilibrium entropy. Also the relation between the interaction term of the dark components and this thermal fluctuation has been obtained. Additionally, for a cosmological interaction as a free function, the anisotropy effects on the generalized second law of thermodynamics have been studied. By using the latest observational data on the holographic dark energy models as the unification of dark matter and dark energy, the observational constraints have been probed. To do this, we focus on observational determinations of the Hubble expansion rate H( z). Finally, we evaluate the anisotropy effects (although low) on various topics, such as the evolution of the statefinder diagnostic, the distance modulus and the spherical collapse from the holographic dark energy model and compare them with the results of the holographic dark energy of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Λ CDM models.

  19. ENERGETIC PARTICLE ANISOTROPIES AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARY. II. TRANSIENT FEATURES AND RIGIDITY DEPENDENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florinski, V.; Roux, J. A. le; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    In the preceding paper, we showed that large second-order anisotropies of heliospheric ions measured by the Voyager 1 space probe during the August 2012 boundary crossing event could be explained by a magnetic shear across the heliopause preventing particles streaming along the magnetic field from escaping the inner heliosheath. According to Stone et al., the penetration distance of heliospheric ions into the outer heliosheath had a strong dependence on the particle’s Larmor radius. By comparing hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions with the same energy per nucleon, these authors argued that this effect must be attributed to larger cyclotron radii of heavier species rather than differences in velocity. We propose that gradient drift in a nonuniform magnetic field was the cause of both the large second-order anisotropies and the spatial differentiation based on the ion’s rigidity. A latitudinal gradient of magnetic field strength of about 10% per AU between 2012.7 and 2012.9 could have provided drift motion sufficient to match both LECP and CRS Voyager 1 observations. We explain the transient intensity dropout observed prior to the heliocliff using flux tube structures embedded in the heliosheath and magnetically connected to interstellar space. Finally, this paper reports a new indirect measurement of the plasma radial velocity at the heliopause on the basis of the time difference between two cosmic-ray telescopes measuring the same intensity dropout

  20. ENERGETIC PARTICLE ANISOTROPIES AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARY. II. TRANSIENT FEATURES AND RIGIDITY DEPENDENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florinski, V.; Roux, J. A. le [Department of Space Sciences, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C. [Space Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    In the preceding paper, we showed that large second-order anisotropies of heliospheric ions measured by the Voyager 1 space probe during the August 2012 boundary crossing event could be explained by a magnetic shear across the heliopause preventing particles streaming along the magnetic field from escaping the inner heliosheath. According to Stone et al., the penetration distance of heliospheric ions into the outer heliosheath had a strong dependence on the particle’s Larmor radius. By comparing hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions with the same energy per nucleon, these authors argued that this effect must be attributed to larger cyclotron radii of heavier species rather than differences in velocity. We propose that gradient drift in a nonuniform magnetic field was the cause of both the large second-order anisotropies and the spatial differentiation based on the ion’s rigidity. A latitudinal gradient of magnetic field strength of about 10% per AU between 2012.7 and 2012.9 could have provided drift motion sufficient to match both LECP and CRS Voyager 1 observations. We explain the transient intensity dropout observed prior to the heliocliff using flux tube structures embedded in the heliosheath and magnetically connected to interstellar space. Finally, this paper reports a new indirect measurement of the plasma radial velocity at the heliopause on the basis of the time difference between two cosmic-ray telescopes measuring the same intensity dropout.

  1. Measurement of the dark matter velocity anisotropy profile in galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Host, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter halos contribute the major part of the mass of galaxy clusters and the formation of these cosmological structures have been investigated in numerical simulations. Observations have been found to be in good agreement with the numerical predictions regarding the spatial distribution of dark matter, i.e. the mass profile. However, the dynamics of dark matter in halos has so far proved a greater challenge to probe observationally. We have used observations of 16 relaxed galaxy clusters to show that the dark matter velocity dispersion is larger along the radial direction than along the tangential, and that the magnitude of this velocity anisotropy β varies with radius. This measurement implies that the collective behaviour of dark matter particles is fundamentally different from that of baryonic particles and constrains the self-interaction per unit mass. The radial variation of the anisotropy velocity agrees with the predictions so that, on cluster scales, there is now excellent agreement between numerical predictions and observations regarding the phase space of dark matter.

  2. Tailoring of magnetic anisotropy of Fe-rich microwires by stress induced anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.; Zhukova, V.; Larin, V.; Gonzalez, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report on tailoring of magnetic properties and GMI of Fe 69 B 12 Si 14 C 5 glass-coated microwires by stress annealing. The induced magnetic anisotropy field depend on temperature and time of annealing and applied stress. At certain conditions considerable GMI effect (up to 65%) has been achieved. Application of the tensile stress drastically affects the shape of the hysteresis loop of stress-annealed sample and its GMI effect. In this way the shape of the hysteresis loop and GMI effect can by tailored by controllable way

  3. TeV Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy from the Magnetic Field at the Heliospheric Boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Barquero, V. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Xu, S. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Desiati, P. [Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center (WIPAC), University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53703 (United States); Lazarian, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Pogorelov, N. V. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Yan, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    We performed numerical calculations to test the suggestion by Desiati and Lazarian that the anisotropies of TeV cosmic rays may arise from their interactions with the heliosphere. For this purpose, we used a magnetic field model of the heliosphere and performed direct numerical calculations of particle trajectories. Unlike earlier papers testing the idea, we did not employ time-reversible techniques that are based on Liouville’s theorem. We showed numerically that for scattering by the heliosphere, the conditions of Liouville’s theorem are not satisfied, and the adiabatic approximation and time-reversibility of the particle trajectories are not valid. Our results indicate sensitivity to the magnetic structure of the heliospheric magnetic field, and we expect that this will be useful for probing this structure in future research.

  4. Inflationary gravity waves in light of recent cosmic microwave background anisotropies data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchiorri, Alessandro; Oedman, Carolina J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the major predictions of inflation is the existence of a stochastic background of cosmological gravitational waves (GW). These gravitational waves can induce significant temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the angular scales recently probed by the Archeops experiment. Here, we perform a combined analysis of Archeops together with information from other CMB experiments and/or cosmological data sets, in order to constrain the amplitude of the GW background. We find that, for a scale-invariant GW background, the ratio of tensor-scalar perturbations at the CMB quadrupole is now constrained to be r≤0.43 at 95% C.L., while the bound on the spectral index of primordial density fluctuations is n S =0.97 -0.12 +0.10 . We discuss the implications for future GW detections through CMB polarization measurements

  5. Effects of Low Anisotropy on Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in Galileon Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossienkhani, H.; Fayaz, V.; Jafari, A.; Yousefi, H.

    2018-04-01

    The definition of the Galileon gravity form is extended to the Brans-Dicke theory. Given, the framework of the Galileon theory, the generalized ghost dark energy model in an anisotropic universe is investigated. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy in Bianchi type I model. We also probe observational constraints by using the latest observational data on the generalized ghost dark energy models as the unification of dark matter and dark energy. In order to do so, we focus on observational determinations of the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z). As a result, we show the influence of the anisotropy (although low) on the evolution of the universe in the statefinder diagrams for Galileon gravity.

  6. Issues on generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan, E-mail: emami@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the idea of generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation in models of inflation with gauge fields. To be specific we consider the charged hybrid inflation model where the waterfall field is charged under a U(1) gauge field so the surface of end of inflation is controlled both by inflaton and the gauge fields. Using δN formalism properly we find that the anisotropies generated at the end of inflation from the gauge field fluctuations are exponentially suppressed on cosmological scales. This is because the gauge field evolves exponentially during inflation while in order to generate appreciable anisotropies at the end of inflation the spectator gauge field has to be frozen. We argue that this is a generic feature, that is, one can not generate observable anisotropies at the end of inflation within an FRW background.

  7. Issues on generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emami, Razieh; Firouzjahi, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the idea of generating primordial anisotropies at the end of inflation in models of inflation with gauge fields. To be specific we consider the charged hybrid inflation model where the waterfall field is charged under a U(1) gauge field so the surface of end of inflation is controlled both by inflaton and the gauge fields. Using δN formalism properly we find that the anisotropies generated at the end of inflation from the gauge field fluctuations are exponentially suppressed on cosmological scales. This is because the gauge field evolves exponentially during inflation while in order to generate appreciable anisotropies at the end of inflation the spectator gauge field has to be frozen. We argue that this is a generic feature, that is, one can not generate observable anisotropies at the end of inflation within an FRW background

  8. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Egedal, J.; Ng, J.; Scudder, J.; Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma

  9. Current sheets and pressure anisotropy in the reconnection exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, A.; Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V. [SciberQuest, Inc., Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Egedal, J. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Ng, J. [PPPL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Scudder, J. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Daughton, W.; Liu, Y.-H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    A particle-in-cell simulation shows that the exhaust during anti-parallel reconnection in the collisionless regime contains a current sheet extending 100 inertial lengths from the X line. The current sheet is supported by electron pressure anisotropy near the X line and ion anisotropy farther downstream. Field-aligned electron currents flowing outside the magnetic separatrices feed the exhaust current sheet and generate the out-of-plane, or Hall, magnetic field. Existing models based on different mechanisms for each particle species provide good estimates for the levels of pressure anisotropy. The ion anisotropy, which is strong enough to reach the firehose instability threshold, is also important for overall force balance. It reduces the outflow speed of the plasma.

  10. Anisotropies of in-phase, out-of-phase,\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 62 (2018) ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy * out-of-phase susceptibility * frequency-dependent susceptibility Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016

  11. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies of Campanian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trial, paralic and shallow marine strata. It com- prises of lower ... Sillakkudi sandstone was deposited under shallow ..... Jelinek V 1978 Statistical processing of anisotropy of mag- ... reorientation of magnetic fabrics in deep-sea sediments at.

  12. Searches for Anisotropy of Cosmic Rays with the Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Robert; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    With over seven years of data from the TA surface detector array, we will present the results of various searches for anisotropies in the arrival direction of cosmic rays, including an update of the hotspot above 57 EeV.

  13. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as perturbation, we compute ... The dependence of DM on the energy gap between the ground and the excited states in both the systems has also been studied by using different sets of exchange constants.

  14. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  15. Quantifying seismic anisotropy induced by small-scale chemical heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, C.; Bodin, T.; Ricard, Y.; Capdeville, Y.; Debayle, E.; Montagner, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy are usually used as a proxy for lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of anisotropic minerals in the Earth's mantle. In this way, seismic anisotropy observed in tomographic models provides important constraints on the geometry of mantle deformation associated with thermal convection and plate tectonics. However, in addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneities that cannot be resolved by long-period seismic waves may also produce anisotropy. The observed (i.e. apparent) anisotropy is then a combination of an intrinsic and an extrinsic component. Assuming the Earth's mantle exhibits petrological inhomogeneities at all scales, tomographic models built from long-period seismic waves may thus display extrinsic anisotropy. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the amplitude of seismic heterogeneities and the level of induced S-wave radial anisotropy as seen by long-period seismic waves. We generate some simple 1-D and 2-D isotropic models that exhibit a power spectrum of heterogeneities as what is expected for the Earth's mantle, that is, varying as 1/k, with k the wavenumber of these heterogeneities. The 1-D toy models correspond to simple layered media. In the 2-D case, our models depict marble-cake patterns in which an anomaly in shear wave velocity has been advected within convective cells. The long-wavelength equivalents of these models are computed using upscaling relations that link properties of a rapidly varying elastic medium to properties of the effective, that is, apparent, medium as seen by long-period waves. The resulting homogenized media exhibit extrinsic anisotropy and represent what would be observed in tomography. In the 1-D case, we analytically show that the level of anisotropy increases with the square of the amplitude of heterogeneities. This relation is numerically verified for both 1-D and 2-D media. In addition, we predict that 10 per cent of chemical heterogeneities in 2-D marble-cake models can

  16. Dual-probe spectroscopic fingerprints of defects in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    (e.g., an extended graphene sheet). Applying this method, we study the transport anisotropies in pristine graphene sheets, and analyze the spectroscopic fingerprints arising from quantum interference around single-site defects, such as vacancies and adatoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the dual......-probe setup is a useful tool for characterizing the electronic transport properties of extended defects or designed nanostructures. In particular, we show that nanoscale perforations, or antidots, in a graphene sheet display Fano-type resonances with a strong dependence on the edge geometry of the perforation....

  17. Anisotropy of phase transformations in crystallization of polar compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, A M; Belashchenko, D K; Derikova, S A [Krasnoyarskij Inst. Tsvetnykh Metallov (USSR)

    1977-03-01

    Migration of molten inclusions in polar compounds of the type of A/sup 3/B/sup 5/ in the range of 750-950 deg C is characterized by clearly defined anisotropy. The values of the melting-crystallization rate constant for n-type InAs and GaAs conductivity are estimated. The anisotropy of the properties leaves its imprint not only on the drift velocity, but also on the form of the displaced inclusions.

  18. Stress-induced magnetic anisotropy in nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, L.K.; Gercsi, Zs.; Kovacs, Gy.; Kakay, A.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2003-01-01

    Stress-annealing experiments were extended to both nanocrystalline alloy families, Finemet and Nanoperm (Hitperm), and, for comparison, to amorphous Fe 62 Nb 8 B 30 alloy. For both Finemet and bulk amorphous, stress-annealing results in a strong induced transversal anisotropy (flattening of hysteresis loop) but yields longitudinal induced anisotropy (square hysteresis loop) in Nanoperm and Hitperm. These results are interpreted in terms of back-stress theory

  19. Anisotropy signature in extended images from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul

    2012-11-04

    Reverse-time migration can accurately image complex geologic structures in anisotropic media. Extended images at selected locations in the earth, i.e. at common-image-point gathers (CIPs), carry enough information to characterize the angle-dependent illumination and to provide measurements for migration velocity analysis. Furthermore, inaccurate anisotropy leaves a distinctive signature in CIPs, which can be used to evaluate anisotropy through techniques similar to the ones used in conventional wavefield tomography.

  20. Anisotropy signature in extended images from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Reverse-time migration can accurately image complex geologic structures in anisotropic media. Extended images at selected locations in the earth, i.e. at common-image-point gathers (CIPs), carry enough information to characterize the angle-dependent illumination and to provide measurements for migration velocity analysis. Furthermore, inaccurate anisotropy leaves a distinctive signature in CIPs, which can be used to evaluate anisotropy through techniques similar to the ones used in conventional wavefield tomography.

  1. Geodynamic Constraints on the Sources of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaonarison, T. A.; Stamps, D. S.; Fishwick, S.

    2017-12-01

    The rheological structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system controls the degree in which the mantle drives surface motions. Seismic anisotropy is a proxy to infer information about previous tectonic events imprinted in lithospheric structures and/or asthenospheric flow pattern in regions absent of active volcanism, however, distinguishing between the shallow and deeper sources, respectively, remains ambiguous. Madagascar is an ideal natural laboratory to study the sources of anisotropy and the rheological implications for lithosphere-asthenosphere system because 1) active volcanism is minimal or absent, 2) there are well-exposed tectonic fabrics for comparison, and 3) numerous geological and geophysical observations provides evidence of present-day tectonic activities. Recent studies suggest new seismic anisotropy observations in southern Madagascar are sourced from both fossilized lithospheric structure and asthenospheric flow driven by rigid lithospheric plate motion. In this work we compare geodynamic simulations of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system with seismic anisotropy data set that includes all of Madagascar. We use the numerical code Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion (ASPECT) to calculate instantaneous deformation in the lithosphere and edge-driven convective flow in the asthenosphere accounting for variations in buoyancy forces and temperature dependent viscosity. The initial temperature conditions are based on interpretations from high resolution regional surface wave tomography. We assume visco-plastic rheology for a uniform crust, dislocation creep for a laterally varying mantle lithospheric structure, and diffusion creep for the asthenosphere. To test for the source of anisotropy we compare our velocity solution azimuths with azimuths of anisotropy at 25 km depth intervals. Calculated asthenospheric flow aligns with measured seismic anisotropy with a 15° WRMS at 175 km depth and possibly down to 250 km suggesting the

  2. Deuterium Lamb shift via quenching-radiation anisotropy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Wijngaarden, A.; Drake, G.W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The Lamb shift of a hydrogenic ion can be deduced from the anisotropy in the angular distribution of the 2s/sub 1/2/-1s/sub 1/2/ electric field quenching radiation. The accuracy of our previous anisotropy measurement for deuterium is improved to about +- 150 ppm. The derived Lamb shift is (1059.36 +- 0.16) MHz. The sources of error are carefully analyzed and the prospects for further improvements in the accuracy are discussed

  3. Large Magnetic Anisotropy in HfMnP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Lamichhane, Tej; Taufour, Valentin; Masters, Morgan; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'Ko, Ser'gey; Canfield, Paul

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of two little-studied manganese phosphide ferromagnets, HfMnP and ZrMnP, with Curie temperatures above room temperature. We find an anisotropy field in HfMnP approaching 10 T - larger than that of the permanent magnet workhorse NdFeB magnets. From theory we determine the source of this anisotropy. Our results show the potential of 3d-element-based magnetic materials for magnetic applications.

  4. Electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy properties of light lanthanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Timothy A.; Baldwin, D. J.; Paudyal, D.

    2017-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of interactions between localized and mobile electrons and the crystal environment in light lanthanides is important because of their key role in much needed magnetic anisotropy in permanent magnet materials that have a great impact in automobile and wind turbine applications. We report electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline properties of these basic light lanthanide elements studied from advanced density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the inclusion of onsite 4f electron correlation and spin orbit coupling within the full-potential band structure is needed to understand the unique magnetocrystalline properties of these light lanthanides. The onsite electron correlation, spin orbit coupling, and full potential for the asphericity of charge densities must be taken into account for the proper treatment of 4f states. We find the variation of total energy as a function of lattice constants that indicate multiple structural phases in Ce contrasting to a single stable structure obtained in other light lanthanides. The 4f orbital magnetic moments are partially quenched as a result of crystalline electric field splitting that leads to magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The charge density plots have similar asphericity and environment in Pr and Nd indicating similar magnetic anisotropy. However, Ce and Sm show completely different asphericity and environment as both orbital moments are significantly quenched. In addition, the Fermi surface structures exemplified in Nd indicate structural stability and unravel a cause of anisotropy. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) reveals competing c-axis and in-plane anisotropies, and also predicts possibilities of unusual structural deformations in light lanthanides. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is obtained in the double hexagonal closed pack structures of the most of the light lanthanides, however, the anisotropy is reduced or turned to planar in the low symmetry

  5. Microstructure, Slip Systems and Yield Stress Anisotropy in Plastic Deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Grethe; You, Ze Sheng; Lu, Lei

    The highly anisotropic microstructures in nanotwinned copper produced by electrodeposition provide an excellent opportunity to evaluate models for microstructurally induced mechanical anisotropy. A crystal plasticity model originally developed for the integration of deformation induced dislocatio...... boundaries with texture is applied to account for the effects of texture as well as twin and grain boundaries, providing good qualitative agreement with experimental yield stress and yield stress anisotropy data....

  6. Hot and Cold Spot Counts as Probes of Non-Gaussianity in the Cosmic Microwave Background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom; Yogendran, K. P.; van de Weygaert, Rien

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the numbers of hot and cold spots, nh and nc , of excursion sets of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps as statistical observables that can discriminate different non-Gaussian models. We numerically compute them from simulations of non-Gaussian CMB

  7. The influence of anisotropy on capture zone analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1995-01-01

    Approximately 50,000 gallons of various grades of gasoline and aviation fuel were leaked into silty clay overburden overlying phyllite of the Wissahickon Formation. Pumping tests and measurements of water table recovery from recovery and production wells suggested that elliptical cones of depression were caused by anisotropic groundwater flow in steeply dipping fractures trending between N60 degree E and N75 degree E which were formed by weathered metamorphic foliation. Fracture trace analysis, outcrop measurements, borehole camera surveys, straddle packer testing, and test excavations supported this conceptual model for hydraulic conductivity. Using both quantitative and semi-quantitative methods, the magnitude of anisotropy was calculated from both pumping tests and water table recovery data. Calculated anisotropies showed variations related to the particular method of analysis. Simulations of capture zones using numerical techniques indicated that anisotropic conditions had produced actual capture zones influenced by groundwater flow not orthogonal to equipotential lines. Capture zone shapes were significantly distorted along the primary axis of anisotropy within the range of variation in anisotropy (n) measured by the different analysis methods. Using the mean value of anisotropy from this site (n = 14), actual recovery well capture areas were subsequently corrected for anisotropic effects. The use of capture areas corrected for the mean value of anisotropy enabled more effective placement of subsequent recovery wells. The relatively consistent foliation of rocks in the Wissahickon Formation suggested that capture zone correction should be considered when developing recovery strategies in aquifer systems where anisotropic conditions are likely

  8. Magnetic anisotropies of (Ga,Mn)As films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Frank

    2011-02-02

    In this work the magnetic anisotropies of the diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As were investigated experimentally. (Ga,Mn)As films show a superposition of various magnetic anisotropies which depend sensitively on various parameters such as temperature, carrier concentration or lattice strain. However, the anisotropies of lithographically prepared (Ga,Mn)As elements differ significantly from an unpatterned (Ga,Mn)As film. In stripe-shaped structures this behaviour is caused by anisotropic relaxation of the compressive lattice strain. In order to determine the magnetic anisotropies of individual (Ga,Mn)As nanostructures a combination of ferromagnetic resonance and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy was employed in this thesis. In addition, local changes of the magnetic anisotropy in circular and rectangular structures were visualized by making use of spatially resolved measurements. Finally, also the influence of the laterally inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropies on the static magnetic properties, such as coercive fields, was investigated employing spatially resolved static MOKE measurements on individual (Ga,Mn)As elements. (orig.)

  9. Limits on the ions temperature anisotropy in turbulent intracluster medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Lima, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik und Astronomie; Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Yan, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Potsdam Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik und Astronomie; Gouveia Dal Pino, E.M. de [Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas; Lazarian, A. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Astronomy

    2016-05-15

    Turbulence in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxies (ICM) is able to generate strong thermal velocity anisotropies in the ions (with respect to the local magnetic field direction), if the magnetic moment of the particles is conserved in the absence of Coulomb collisions. In this scenario, the anisotropic pressure magnetohydrodynamic (AMHD) turbulence shows a very different statistical behaviour from the standard MHD one and is unable to amplify seed magnetic fields, in disagreement with previous cosmological MHD simulations which are successful to explain the observed magnetic fields in the ICM. On the other hand, temperature anisotropies can also drive plasma instabilities which can relax the anisotropy. This work aims to compare the relaxation rate with the growth rate of the anisotropies driven by the turbulence. We employ quasilinear theory to estimate the ions scattering rate due to the parallel firehose, mirror, and ion-cyclotron instabilities, for a set of plasma parameters resulting from AMHD simulations of the turbulent ICM. We show that the ICM turbulence can sustain only anisotropy levels very close to the instabilities thresholds. We argue that the AMHD model which bounds the anisotropies at the marginal stability levels can describe the Alfvenic turbulence cascade in the ICM.

  10. Thermodynamics of strong coupling superconductors including the effect of anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daams, J. M.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1981-05-01

    The thermodynamics of several elemental superconductors is computed from isotropic Eliashberg theory formulated on the imaginary frequency axis. A symmary of the available experimental literature is presented and a comparison with theory is given. The small disagreements that are found are all in the direction expected from anisotropy effects. We calculate the effect of a small amount of model anisotropy on the critical temperature, critical field, and high-temperature specific heat from an exact solution of the anisotropic Eliashberg equations. These are the first such results below the critical temperature; unlike previous analytical work, we include retardation, anisotropy in the mass enhancement, and the effect of the Coulomb repulsion in enhancing anisotropy, all of which are significant. We derive a new formula independent of any model anisotropy for the rate of decrease with impurity lifetime of the critical temperature. Finally we demonstrate how the commonly used formulas of Markowitz and Kadanoff and of Clem may give entirely misleading estimates of the gap anisotropy when used to interpret certain experiments.

  11. Characterization of optical anisotropy in quantum wells under compressive anisotropic in-plane strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Mark L [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Walters, Matthew [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Diaz-Barriga, James [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Rabinovich, W S [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5652, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2003-10-21

    Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is available for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain.

  12. Characterization of optical anisotropy in quantum wells under compressive anisotropic in-plane strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Mark L; Walters, Matthew; Diaz-Barriga, James; Rabinovich, W S

    2003-01-01

    Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is available for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain

  13. Anisotropy in electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden van den Heuvel, H.B. van.

    1982-01-01

    Most of the work described in this thesis deals with studies using coincidence experiments, particularly for investigating the electron impact excitation of the 2 1 P and 3 1 D states in helium. A peculiarity is that in the 3 1 D studies the directly emitted 3 1 D → 2 1 P photons are not observed but the 2 1 P → 1 1 S photons resulting from the 3 1 D → 2 1 P → 1 1 S cascade instead. Another interesting point is the choice of the quantisation axis. The author demonstrates that it is of great advantage to take the quantisation axis perpendicular to the scattering plane rather than in the direction of the incident beam, as was done (on historical grounds) in previously reported electron-photon coincidence experiments. Contrary to the incident beam direction the axis perpendicular to the scattering plane really represents an axis of symmetry in the coincidence experiment. In Chapter II the so-called 'parity unfavoured' excitation of the (2p 2 ) 3 P state of helium by electrons is studied. In chapter III the anisotropy parameters for the electron impact excitation of the 2 1 P state of helium in the energy range from 26.6 to 40 eV and in the angular range from 30 0 to 110 0 are determined. Chapter IV contains a description of a scattered electron cascaded-photon coincidence experiment on the electron impact excitation of helium's 3 1 D state. The measurement of complex scattering amplitudes for electron impact excitation of the 3 1 D and 3 1 P states of helium is discussed in Chapter V. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Texture and anisotropy in ferroelectric lead metaniobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Benjamin John

    Ferroelectric lead metaniobate, PbNb2O6, is a piezoelectric ceramic typically used because of its elevated Curie temperature and anisotropic properties. However, the piezoelectric constant, d33, is relatively low in randomly oriented ceramics when compared to other ferroelectrics. Crystallographic texturing is often employed to increase the piezoelectric constant because the spontaneous polarization axes of grains are better aligned. In this research, crystallographic textures induced through tape casting are distinguished from textures induced through electrical poling. Texture is described using multiple quantitative approaches utilizing X-ray and neutron time-of-flight diffraction. Tape casting lead metaniobate with an inclusion of acicular template particles induces an orthotropic texture distribution. Templated grain growth from seed particles oriented during casting results in anisotropic grain structures. The degree of preferred orientation is directly linked to the shear behavior of the tape cast slurry. Increases in template concentration, slurry viscosity, and casting velocity lead to larger textures by inducing more particle orientation in the tape casting plane. The maximum 010 texture distributions were two and a half multiples of a random distribution. Ferroelectric texture was induced by electrical poling. Electric poling increases the volume of material oriented with the spontaneous polarization direction in the material. Samples with an initial paraelectric texture exhibit a greater change in the domain volume fraction during electrical poling than randomly oriented ceramics. In tape cast samples, the resulting piezoelectric response is proportional to the 010 texture present prior to poling. This results in property anisotropy dependent on initial texture. Piezoelectric properties measured on the most textured ceramics were similar to those obtained with a commercial standard.

  15. Polar plate theory for orthogonal anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michelle D.

    1998-11-01

    The following paper discusses the derivation and evaluation of the plate equations for a circular composite disk with orthogonal anisotropy. The work will be on a macromechanical level and include buckling, static and dynamic load applications. Necessary to a complete examination of the circular disk is the conversion of the stiffness matrix to cylindrical coordinates. In the transformed state, these coefficients are no longer constant, adding to the complexity of the proposed differential equations. Laminated fiber-reinforced (or filamentary) composites are used today for their high strength-to weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. However, because of the typical anisotropic behavior of composites, determining the material properties on a microscopic level and the mechanics on a macroscopic level is much more difficult. This difficulty manifests itself particularly well in the evaluation of material properties and governing differential equations of a circular disk with the fibers of the lamina oriented orthogonally. One could encounter such a situation in space structures that require a circular geometry. For example, determining fastener pull through in a circular composite plate would best be performed in a polar coordinate system. In order to calculate the strain (which is a function of the angle, θ) from the displacements, the stiffness matrix and boundary conditions would need to be expressed in cylindrical coordinates. Naturally the composite would be constructed with fibers in orthogonal directions, then the necessary geometry would be cut out, thus the required lengthy transformation of coordinate systems. To bypass this derivation, numerical methods have been used and finite element models have been attempted. FEM over predicts plate stiffness by 20% and underpredicts failure by 70%. Obviously there is a need to transform classical plate theory to a cylindrical coordinate system.

  16. The Cell Probe Complexity of Succinct Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Anna; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2003-01-01

    In the cell probe model with word size 1 (the bit probe model), a static data structure problem is given by a map , where is a set of possible data to be stored, is a set of possible queries (for natural problems, we have ) and is the answer to question about data . A solution is given by a repre......In the cell probe model with word size 1 (the bit probe model), a static data structure problem is given by a map , where is a set of possible data to be stored, is a set of possible queries (for natural problems, we have ) and is the answer to question about data . A solution is given...

  17. Improved precision and accuracy for microarrays using updated probe set definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Ola

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays enable high throughput detection of transcript expression levels. Different investigators have recently introduced updated probe set definitions to more accurately map probes to our current knowledge of genes and transcripts. Results We demonstrate that updated probe set definitions provide both better precision and accuracy in probe set estimates compared to the original Affymetrix definitions. We show that the improved precision mainly depends on the increased number of probes that are integrated into each probe set, but we also demonstrate an improvement when the same number of probes is used. Conclusion Updated probe set definitions does not only offer expression levels that are more accurately associated to genes and transcripts but also improvements in the estimated transcript expression levels. These results give support for the use of updated probe set definitions for analysis and meta-analysis of microarray data.

  18. Hard probes 2006 Asilomar

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "The second international conference on hard and electromagnetic probes of high-energy nuclear collisions was held June 9 to 16, 2006 at the Asilomar Conference grounds in Pacific Grove, California" (photo and 1/2 page)

  19. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  20. Python passive network mapping P2NMAP

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, Chet

    2015-01-01

    Python Passive Network Mapping: P2NMAP is the first book to reveal a revolutionary and open source method for exposing nefarious network activity. The ""Heartbleed"" vulnerability has revealed significant weaknesses within enterprise environments related to the lack of a definitive mapping of network assets. In Python Passive Network Mapping, Chet Hosmer shows you how to effectively and definitively passively map networks. Active or probing methods to network mapping have traditionally been used, but they have many drawbacks - they can disrupt operations, crash systems, and - most important

  1. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  2. Seismic Anisotropy of Soft Sands, Offshore Western AUstralia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, M.; Gurevich, B.

    2007-05-01

    Seismic anisotropy is commonly measured in sand shale environment. Intrinsic polar anisotropy of the shale and its effect on seismic data processing and analysis is well established and reasonably well understood. In sandstone, azimuthal anisotropy is often detected and is typically connected to an in situ stress regime and the brittleness of the rock. This type of anisotropy, commonly referred to as fractured induced anisotropy, has been widely and extensively studied as it directly affects both permeability and the strength of the rock. Hence fracture induced anisotropy is not only important for hydrocarbon exploration but also for geotechnical studies, underground mining, etc. Interestingly, in the last few years azimuthal anisotropy has also been detected in soft, poorly consolidated clean sands, mainly by cross-dipole sonic log measurements. This is somewhat surprising as in such soft, typically highly porous and permeable rocks stress induced fractures are unlikely to be abundant. In this study we analyse the anisotropy in such sand class using well-log measurements, three-component VSP data, as well as 2D and 3D surface seismic (reflection) data. High-quality cross-dipole sonic log measurements showed significant shear wave splitting over unconsolidated, highly porous and permeable sand interval. The shear wave anisotropy was computed to be around 10-15%. This is commonly seen as an indication that the rock is fractured and that the fractures are likely to be open. However, image log data over the same sand section suggested dilute most likely non-conductive fractures. Analysis of the shear wave splitting in VSP data also suggested low fracture density. The frequency content of the direct fast and slow shear waves on the VSP data was very similar, not supporting the presence of open fluid saturated fractures. Unfortunately, the evidence from the VSP data is not very compelling because the reservoir is thin compared to the wavelength and sampling interval of

  3. Optical Probes for Neurobiological Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Chin, Gregory; Rong, Guoxin; Poskanzer, Kira E; Clark, Heather A

    2018-04-13

    Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells. Over the past decade, significant technological advances in optical probes and imaging methods have enabled entirely new possibilities for studying neural cells and circuits at the chemical level. These optical imaging modalities have shown promise for combining chemical, temporal, and spatial information. This potential makes them ideal candidates to unravel the complex neural interactions at multiple scales in the brain, which could be complemented by traditional electrophysiological methods to obtain a full spatiotemporal picture of neurochemical dynamics. Despite the potential, only a handful of probe candidates have been utilized to provide detailed chemical information in the brain. To date, most live imaging and chemical mapping studies rely on fluorescent molecular indicators to report intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) dynamics, which correlates with neuronal activity. Methodological advances for monitoring a full array of chemicals in the brain with improved spatial, temporal, and chemical resolution will thus enable mapping of neurochemical circuits with finer precision. On the basis of numerous studies in this exciting field, we review the current efforts to develop and apply a palette of optical probes and nanosensors for chemical sensing in the brain. There is a strong impetus to further develop technologies capable of

  4. Probing phonons in plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Joe; Krisch, M.; Farber, D.; Occelli, F.; Schwartz, A.; Chiang, T.C.; Wall, M.; Boro, C.; Xu, Ruqing

    2010-01-01

    Plutonium (Pu) is well known to have complex and unique physico-chemical properties. Notably, the pure metal exhibits six solid-state phase transformations with large volume expansions and contractions along the way to the liquid state: α → β → γ → (delta) → (delta)(prime) → (var e psilon) → liquid. Unalloyed Pu melts at a relatively low temperature ∼640 C to yield a higher density liquid than that of the solid from which it melts, (Figure 1). Detailed understanding of the properties of plutonium and plutonium-based alloys is critical for the safe handling, utilization, and long-term storage of these important, but highly toxic materials. However, both technical and and safety issues have made experimental observations extremely difficult. Phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) are key experimenta l data to the understanding of the basic properties of Pu materials such as: force constants, sound velocities, elastic constants, thermodynamics, phase stability, electron-phonon coupling, structural relaxation, etc. However, phonon dispersion curves (PDCs) in plutonium (Pu) and its alloys have defied measurement for the past few decades since the discovery of this element in 1941. This is due to a combination of the high thermal-neutron absorption cross section of plutonium and the inability to grow the large single crystals (with dimensions of a few millimeters) necessary for inelastic neutron scattering. Theoretical simulations of the Pu PDC continue to be hampered by the lack of suitable inter -atomic potentials. Thus, until recently the PDCs for Pu and its alloys have remained unknown experimentally and theoretically. The experimental limitations have recently been overcome by using a tightly focused undulator x-ray micro-beam scattered from single -grain domains in polycrystalline specimens. This experimental approach has been applied successfully to map the complete PDCs of an fcc d-Pu-Ga alloy using the high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS

  5. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  6. Electronic structure and magnetic anisotropy of Sm2Fe17Nx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hisazumi; Ogura, Masako

    2014-03-01

    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of Sm2Fe17Nx are studies on the basis of the first-principles electronic structure calculation in the framework of the density functional theory within the local density and coherent potential approximations. The magnetic anisotropy of the system as a function of nitrogen concentration x is discussed by taking account not only of the crystal field effects but also of the effects of the f-electron transfer from Sm to the neighboring sites. Also discussed is the magnetic transition temperature that is estimated by mapping the system into a Heisenberg model. The results show the crystalline magnetic anisotropy changes its direction from in-plane to uniaxial ones as x increases. It takes the maximum value near x ~ 2 . 8 and then decreases slightly towards x = 3 . The mechanism for these behaviors is discussed in the light of the results of detailed calculations on the bonding properties between Sm and its neighboring N. This work was partly supported by Elements Strategy Initiative Center for Magnetic Materials Project, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  7. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  8. Consequences of elastic anisotropy in patterned substrate heteroepitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav

    2018-06-13

    The role of elastic anisotropy on quantum dot formation and evolution on a pre-patterned substrate is evaluated within the framework of a continuum model. We first extend the formulation for surface evolution to take elastic anisotropy into account. Using a small slope approximation, we derive the evolution equation and show how it can be numerically implemented up to linear and second order for stripe and egg-carton patterned substrates using an accurate and efficient procedure. The semi--infinite nature of the substrate is used to solve the elasticity problem subject to other boundary conditions at the free surface and at the film--substrate interface. The positioning of the quantum dots with respect to the peaks and valleys of the pattern is explained by a competition between the length scale of the pattern and the wavelength of the Asaro--Tiller--Grinfeld instability, which is also affected by the elastic anisotropy. The alignment of dots is affected by a competition between the elastic anisotropy of the film and the pattern orientation. A domain of pattern inversion, wherein the quantum dots form exclusively in the valleys of the patterns is identified as a function of the average film thickness and the elastic anisotropy, and the time--scale for this inversion as function of height is analyzed. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. An estimator for statistical anisotropy from the CMB bispectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolo, N.; Dimastrogiovanni, E.; Matarrese, S.; Liguori, M.; Riotto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Various data analyses of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) provide observational hints of statistical isotropy breaking. Some of these features can be studied within the framework of primordial vector fields in inflationary theories which generally display some level of statistical anisotropy both in the power spectrum and in higher-order correlation functions. Motivated by these observations and the recent theoretical developments in the study of primordial vector fields, we develop the formalism necessary to extract statistical anisotropy information from the three-point function of the CMB temperature anisotropy. We employ a simplified vector field model and parametrize the bispectrum of curvature fluctuations in such a way that all the information about statistical anisotropy is encoded in some parameters λ LM (which measure the anisotropic to the isotropic bispectrum amplitudes). For such a template bispectrum, we compute an optimal estimator for λ LM and the expected signal-to-noise ratio. We estimate that, for f NL ≅ 30, an experiment like Planck can be sensitive to a ratio of the anisotropic to the isotropic amplitudes of the bispectrum as small as 10%. Our results are complementary to the information coming from a power spectrum analysis and particularly relevant for those models where statistical anisotropy turns out to be suppressed in the power spectrum but not negligible in the bispectrum

  10. Phenomenological description of anisotropy effects in some ferromagnetic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shopova, Diana V., E-mail: sho@issp.bas.bg [TCCM Research Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, Michail D. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-07-03

    We study phenomenologically the role of anisotropy in ferromagnetic superconductors UGe{sub 2}, URhGe, and UCoGe for the description of their phase diagrams. We use the Ginzburg–Landau free energy in its uniform form as we will consider only spatially independent solutions. This is an expansion of previously derived results where the effect of Cooper-pair and crystal anisotropies is not taken into account. The three compounds are separately discussed with the special stress on UGe{sub 2}. The main effect comes from the strong uniaxial anisotropy of magnetization while the anisotropy of Cooper pairs and crystal anisotropy only slightly change the phase diagram in the vicinity of Curie temperature. The limitations of this approach are also discussed. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Landau energy for description of ferromagnetic superconductors is proposed. • Meissner phases are described with their existence and stability conditions. • The application of the model to UGe{sub 2} is discussed. • The limitations to apply the model for description of experimental data are explained.

  11. Scaling of coercivity in a 3d random anisotropy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, T.C., E-mail: proctortc@gmail.com; Chudnovsky, E.M., E-mail: EUGENE.CHUDNOVSKY@lehman.cuny.edu; Garanin, D.A.

    2015-06-15

    The random-anisotropy Heisenberg model is numerically studied on lattices containing over ten million spins. The study is focused on hysteresis and metastability due to topological defects, and is relevant to magnetic properties of amorphous and sintered magnets. We are interested in the limit when ferromagnetic correlations extend beyond the size of the grain inside which the magnetic anisotropy axes are correlated. In that limit the coercive field computed numerically roughly scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength and as the sixth power of the grain size. Theoretical arguments are presented that provide an explanation of numerical results. Our findings should be helpful for designing amorphous and nanosintered materials with desired magnetic properties. - Highlights: • We study the random-anisotropy model on lattices containing up to ten million spins. • Irreversible behavior due to topological defects (hedgehogs) is elucidated. • Hysteresis loop area scales as the fourth power of the random anisotropy strength. • In nanosintered magnets the coercivity scales as the six power of the grain size.

  12. Cosmic-ray anisotropy studies with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Frank

    2014-03-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory detects tens of billions of energetic muons per year produced by cosmic-ray interactions with the atmosphere. The size of this sample has allowed IceCube to observe a significant anisotropy in arrival direction for cosmic rays with median energies between 20 and 400 TeV. This anisotropy is characterized by a large scale structure of per-mille amplitude accompanied by structures with smaller amplitudes and with typical angular sizes between 10° and 20°. IceTop, the surface component of IceCube, has observed a similar anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays, extending the study to PeV energies. The better energy resolution of IceTop allows for additional studies of the anisotropy, for example a comparison of the energy spectrum in regions of a cosmic-ray excess or deficit to the rest of the sky. We present an update on the cosmic-ray anisotropy observed with IceCube and IceTop and the results of first studies of the energy spectrum at locations of cosmic-ray excess or deficit.

  13. 3D Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence, Tubes, or Ribbons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdini, Andrea; Grappin, Roland; Alexandrova, Olga; Lion, Sonny

    2018-01-01

    We study the anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic field of turbulent magnetic fluctuations at magnetofluid scales in the solar wind. Previous measurements in the fast solar wind obtained axisymmetric anisotropy, despite that the analysis method allows nonaxisymmetric structures. These results are probably contaminated by the wind expansion that introduces another symmetry axis, namely, the radial direction, as indicated by recent numerical simulations. These simulations also show that while the expansion is strong, the principal fluctuations are in the plane perpendicular to the radial direction. Using this property, we separate 11 yr of Wind spacecraft data into two subsets characterized by strong and weak expansion and determine the corresponding turbulence anisotropy. Under strong expansion, the small-scale anisotropy is consistent with the Goldreich & Sridhar critical balance. As in previous works, when the radial symmetry axis is not eliminated, the turbulent structures are field-aligned tubes. Under weak expansion, we find 3D anisotropy predicted by the Boldyrev model, that is, turbulent structures are ribbons and not tubes. However, the very basis of the Boldyrev phenomenology, namely, a cross-helicity increasing at small scales, is not observed in the solar wind: the origin of the ribbon formation is unknown.

  14. Anisotropy of magnetoviscous effect in structure-forming ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekumari, Aparna; Ilg, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    The magnetoviscous effect, change in viscosity with change in magnetic field strength, and the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect, change in viscosity with orientation of magnetic field, have been a focus of interest for four decades. A satisfactory understanding of the microscopic origin of anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect in magnetic fluids is still a matter of debate and a field of intense research. Here, we present an extensive simulation study to understand the relation between the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect and the underlying change in microstructures of ferrofluids. Our results indicate that field-induced chainlike structures respond very differently depending on their orientation relative to the direction of an externally applied shear flow, which leads to a pronounced anisotropy of viscosity. In this work, we focus on three exemplary values of dipolar interaction strengths which correspond to weak, intermediate, and strong interactions between dipolar colloidal particles. We compare our simulation results with an experimental study on cobalt-based ferrofluids as well as with an existing theoretical model called the chain model. A nonmonotonic behavior in the anisotropy of the magnetoviscous effect is observed with increasing dipolar interaction strength and is explained in terms of microstructure formation.

  15. Laser-induced nuclear orientation and gamma anisotropy in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, P.G.

    1980-12-01

    The use of laser optical pumping to induce nuclear orientation in several isotopes and one isomer of atomic sodium vapor is described. Essentially complete nuclear polarization, P > 90%, has been achieved in stable 23 Na when pumping with modest laser intensities (I approx. = 10 mW/cm 2 ). The volume of the sample cell was approximately 10 cc, and was filled with a sodium density of about 10'' atoms/cc. Complete coverage of the Doppler distribution was accomplished with the use of trace amounts (less than or equal to 1 torr) of argon buffer gas to induce velocity changing collisions. A theoretical model which accurately predicts the amount of polarization is developed. The orientation of nuclei which are unstable to gamma decay can manifest itself in anisotropic gamma ray emission. This anisotropy can be used to measure isotope and isomer shifts, from which nuclear properties can be derived. Gamma anisotropy was observed in two systems, 22 Na and /sup 24m/Na. From the observed anisotropy in /sup 24m/Na, a negative sign for the g factor is determined. Values are derived for the magnetic moment, μ = 2.56 +- 0.64 nm, and the isomer shift, deltaν/sub 24m/ = 288 +- 191 MHz (D1 line). A model is described which relates various laser and fubber gas parameters to the observed gamma anisotropy lineshape. This model facilitates the extraction of physical parameters from knowledge of the laser frequency at which the anisotropy is a maximum

  16. Procedure for measurement of anisotropy factor for neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creazolla, Prycylla Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Radioisotope neutron sources allow the production of reference fields for calibration of neutron detectors for radiation protection and analysis purposes. When the emission rate of these sources is isotropic, no correction is necessary. However, variations in source encapsulation and in the radioactive material concentration produce differences in its neutron emission rate, relative to the source axis, this effect is called anisotropy. In this study, is describe a procedure for measuring the anisotropy factor of neutron sources performed in the Laboratório de Metrologia de Neutrons (LN) using a Precision Long Counter (PLC) detector. A measurement procedure that takes into account the anisotropy factor of neutron sources contributes to solve some issues, particularly with respect to the high uncertainties associated with neutron dosimetry. Thus, a bibliographical review was carried out based on international standards and technical regulations specific to the area of neutron fields, and were later reproduced in practice by means of the procedure for measuring the anisotropy factor in neutron sources of the LN. The anisotropy factor is determined as a function of the angle of 90° in relation to the cylindrical axis of the source. This angle is more important due to its high use in measurements and also of its higher neutron emission rate if compared with other angles. (author)

  17. Role of the magnetic anisotropy in organic spin valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kalappattil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic anisotropy plays an important role in determining the magnetic functionality of thin film based electronic devices. We present here, the first systematic study of the correlation between magnetoresistance (MR response in organic spin valves (OSVs and magnetic anisotropy of the bottom ferromagnetic electrode over a wide temperature range (10 K–350 K. The magnetic anisotropy of a La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO film epitaxially grown on a SrTiO3 (STO substrate was manipulated by reducing film thickness from 200 nm to 20 nm. Substrate-induced compressive strain was shown to drastically increase the bulk in-plane magnetic anisotropy when the LSMO became thinner. In contrast, the MR response of LSMO/OSC/Co OSVs for many organic semiconductors (OSCs does not depend on either the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the LSMO electrodes or their bulk magnetization. All the studied OSV devices show a similar temperature dependence of MR, indicating a similar temperature-dependent spinterface effect irrespective of LSMO thickness, resulting from the orbital hybridization of carriers at the OSC/LSMO interface.

  18. Accuracy and sensitivity analysis on seismic anisotropy parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fuyong; Han, De-Hua

    2018-04-01

    There is significant uncertainty in measuring the Thomsen’s parameter δ in laboratory even though the dimensions and orientations of the rock samples are known. It is expected that more challenges will be encountered in the estimating of the seismic anisotropy parameters from field seismic data. Based on Monte Carlo simulation of vertical transversely isotropic layer cake model using the database of laboratory anisotropy measurement from the literature, we apply the commonly used quartic non-hyperbolic reflection moveout equation to estimate the seismic anisotropy parameters and test its accuracy and sensitivities to the source-receive offset, vertical interval velocity error and time picking error. The testing results show that the methodology works perfectly for noise-free synthetic data with short spread length. However, this method is extremely sensitive to the time picking error caused by mild random noises, and it requires the spread length to be greater than the depth of the reflection event. The uncertainties increase rapidly for the deeper layers and the estimated anisotropy parameters can be very unreliable for a layer with more than five overlain layers. It is possible that an isotropic formation can be misinterpreted as a strong anisotropic formation. The sensitivity analysis should provide useful guidance on how to group the reflection events and build a suitable geological model for anisotropy parameter inversion.

  19. Strength and strain anisotropy of olkiluoto mica gneiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Kuula, H.; Hudson, J.

    2006-10-01

    An anisotropy in the elastic moduli values of intact rock with a ratio of more than 1.3∼1.5 has been reported to have an effect on the calculated magnitudes and orientations of the in situ principal stress components as measured by the overcoring method. Work related to the on-going site investigation for a deep radioactive waste repository at the Olkiluoto site in Western Finland has shown that the migmatic mica gneiss is anisotropic which could therefore affect the interpretation of overcoring stress measurement results. This paper includes a summary of the theory of anisotropy concerning the intact rock moduli via the strain compliance matrix, a description of the core sample testing methods, and interpretation of results for the migmatic mica gneiss from two site investigation boreholes. In this case study, 19 specimens were tested and the results showed a modulus anisotropy of about 1.4. Because such anisotropy is high enough to produce significant errors in the estimation of the in situ principal stresses, it is recommended to take this into account in the interpretation of the stress measurement results, both in the context of the current work in Finland and in other projects where similar anisotropy is encountered. (orig.)

  20. Designing a Multichannel Map Service Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna-Marika Halkosaari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a user-centered design process for developing a multichannel map service. The aim of the service is to provide hikers with interactive maps through several channels. In a multichannel map service, the same spatial information is available through various channels, such as printed maps, Web maps, mobile maps, and other interactive media. When properly networked, the channels share a uniform identity so that the user experiences the different channels as a part of a single map service. The traditional methods of user-centered design, such as design probes, personas, and scenarios, proved useful even in the emerging field of developing multichannel map services. The findings emphasize the need to involve users and multidisciplinary teams in the conceptual phases of designing complex services aimed at serving various kinds of users.

  1. Human MLPA Probe Design (H-MAPD: a probe design tool for both electrophoresis-based and bead-coupled human multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatchwell Eli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA is an efficient and reliable technique for gene dosage analysis. Currently MLPA can be conducted on two platforms: traditional electrophoresis-based, and FlexMAP bead-coupled. Since its introduction in 2002, MLPA has been rapidly adopted in both clinical and research situations. However, MLPA probe design is a time consuming process requiring many steps that address multiple criteria. There exist only one or two commercial software packages for traditional electrophoresis-based MLPA probe design. To our knowledge, no software is yet available that performs bead-coupled MLPA probe design. Results We have developed H-MAPD, a web-based tool that automates the generation and selection of probes for human genomic MLPA. The software performs physical-chemical property tests using UNAFold software, and uniqueness tests using the UCSC genome browser. H-MAPD supports both traditional electrophoresis-based assays, as well as FlexMAP bead-coupled MLPA. Conclusion H-MAPD greatly reduces the efforts for human genomic MLPA probe design. The software is written in Perl-CGI, hosted on a Linux server, and is freely available to non-commercial users.

  2. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  3. On the origin of reflectance-anisotropy oscillations during GaAs (0 0 1) homoepitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Guevara-Macías, L. E.; Ariza-Flores, A. D.; Castro-García, R.; Lastras-Martínez, L. F.; Balderas-Navarro, R. E.; López-Estopier, R. E.; Lastras-Martínez, A.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the first spectroscopic study of reflectance-anisotropy (RA) oscillations during molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) GaAs homoepitaxy. Real-time RA spectra measured during epitaxial growth were carried out with a recently developed rapid RA multichannel spectrometer with 100 ms per spectrum acquisition time. An analysis of the time-resolved RA spectra shows that RA oscillations are mostly due to the periodic modulation of the surface orthorhombic strain associated to surface reconstruction. Results reported here demonstrate the power of real-time RA spectroscopy as a probe for the study of epitaxial growth processes. In particular, given its sub monolayer surface-strain sensitivity, RA spectroscopy results a very convenient tool to study epitaxial growth mechanisms in real-time with sub monolayer resolution. This capability allows for real-time RA spectroscopy to be used as a probe for the in situ, real-time control of epitaxial growth, with the additional advantage of operating in higher pressure systems such as CVD, where RHEED monitoring cannot be implemented.

  4. Electrical probe measurements in low and high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, D.

    1976-11-01

    The construction of an apparatus for automatic determination of electron distributions is described, whereafter measurements of electron energy distributions before and after a stationary plasma sheath in a low pressure mercury discharge are presented. The sheath appears at a constriction of the discharge tube. The measurements have been made with a spheric probe, using the second-derivative method, and the results show that the energy distribution on the anode side of the sheath is a sum of a thermal population and an accelerated distribution. Near the sheath the accelerated electrons suffice to carry the discharge current, but far from it the current must be carried by an anisotropy in the thermal part of the distribution function. A comparison is made with calculated distributions. The cross-sections for electron-neutral and Coulomb collisions are not sufficient to account for the damping of the accelerated population, suggesting the presence of a plasma instability. In order to study the distribution function of the axial velocity component, preliminary measurements of the first derivative of the current to a plane probe have been made. Such measurements yield information about the anisotropy and the current transport, and may perhaps shed some light on the phenomenon of current limitation. Some measurements on a TIG welding arc are also described. (Auth.)

  5. Theory of NMR probe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnall, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The NMR probe is the intrinsic part of the NMR system which allows transmission of a stimulus to a sample and the reception of a resulting signal from a sample. NMR probes are used in both imaging and spectroscopy. Optimal probe design is important to the production of adequate signal/moise. It is important for anyone using NMR techniques to understand how NMR probes work and how to optimize probe design

  6. Fossil imprints of the Pan-African collision process revealed by seismic anisotropy in southern Madagasca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann, F. J.; Rindraharisaona, E. J.; Reiss, M. C.; Dreiling, J.; Rumpker, G.; Yuan, X.; Giese, J.; Priestley, K. F.; Wysession, M. E.; Barruol, G.; Rambolamanana, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the assembly of Pangaea during the Proterozoic Pan-African Orogeny and later rifting and break-up of Gondwanaland, Madagascar occupied a central position, sandwiched between East Africa and India-Seychelles. Today, its metamorphic terranes still bear witness to the collision process. In the SELASOMA project we have deployed a seismic array in southern Madagascar in order to determine the imprint of these events onto the present day-crustal structure. 25 broadband and 23 SP stations were deployed for a period of 1-2 years. We present an overview of the results of several studies (receiver functions, ambient noise surface wave analysis, SKS splitting) constraining the isotropic and anisotropic crustal structure of southern Madagascar based on this deployment, supplemented by permanent stations and the contemporaneous MACOMO and RHUM-RUM deployments. The upper and middle crust of the Archean and Proterozoic provinces is overall quite similar, but a remarkable difference is that the Archean crust shows clear signs of underplating; we surmise that the Proterozoic crust was lost in the Pan-African collision. Both horizontal (from shear-wave splitting) and radial (SH/SV from Love and Rayleigh discrepancy) anisotropy shows evidence of collisional processes. A 150 km-wide zone of anomalous splitting measurements (deviating from the APM-parallel fast directions in most of Madagascar) in the region, where several major fossil shear zones have been mapped, can be explained as a zone of extensive coherent deformation within the crust; fast directions here align with the dominant strike of the major fossil shear zones. Negative radial anisotropy (i.e., SV faster than SH) in the mid-crust, likewise interpreted to have been formed by the collision, highlights the likely role of vertical shearing, presumably caused by extensive folding. In the lower crust, however, positive radial anisotropy is found in most of the Proterozoic and Archean terranes, which, analogous to the

  7. Molecular mapping of chromosomes 17 and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, D.F.

    1991-01-15

    Progress toward the construction of high density genetic maps of chromosomes 17 and X has been made by isolating and characterizing a relatively large set of polymorphic probes for each chromosome and using these probes to construct genetic maps. We have mapped the same polymorphic probes against a series of chromosome breakpoints on X and 17. The probes could be assigned to over 30 physical intervals on the X chromosome and 7 intervals on 17. In many cases, this process resulted in improved characterization of the relative locations of the breakpoints with respect to each other and the definition of new physical intervals. The strategy for isolation of the polymorphic clones utilized chromosome specific libraries of 1--15 kb segments from each of the two chromosomes. From these libraries, clones were screened for those detecting restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The markers were further characterized, the chromosomal assignments confirmed and in most cases segments of the original probes were subcloned into plasmids to produce probes with improved signal to noise ratios for use in the genetic marker studies. The linkage studies utilize the CEPH reference families and other well-characterized families in our collection which have been used for genetic disease linkage work. Preliminary maps and maps of portions of specific regions of 17 and X are provided. We have nearly completed a map of the 1 megabase Mycoplasma arthritidis genome by applying these techniques to a lambda phage library of its genome. We have found bit mapping to be an efficient means to organize a contiguous set of overlapping clones from a larger genome.

  8. Studies of anisotropy of iron based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To study the electronic anisotropy in iron based superconductors, the temperature dependent London penetration depth, Δλ (T), have been measured in several compounds, along with the angular dependent upper critical field, Hc2(T). Study was undertaken on single crystals of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 with x=0.108 and x=0.127, in the overdoped range of the doping phase diagram, characterized by notable modulation of the superconducting gap. Heavy ion irradiation with matching field doses of 6 T and 6.5 T respectively, were used to create columnar defects and to study their effect on the temperature Δλ (T). The variation of the low-temperature penetration depth in both pristine and irradiated samples was fitted with a power-law function Δλ (T) = ATn. Irradiation increases the magnitude of the pre-factor A and decreases the exponent n, similar to the effect on the optimally doped samples. This finding supports the universal s± scenario for the whole doping range. Knowing that the s± gap symmetry exists across the superconducting dome for the electron doped systems, we next looked at λ (T), in optimally - doped, SrFe2(As1-xPx)2, x =0.35. Both, as-grown (Tc ~ 25 K) and annealed (Tc ~ 35 K) single crystals of SrFe2(As1-xPx)2 were measured. Annealing decreases the absolute value of the London penetration depth from λ(0) = 300 ± 10 nm in as-grown samples to λ (0) = 275±10 nm. At low temperatures, λ (T) ~ T indicates a superconducting gap with line nodes. Analysis of the full-temperature range superfluid density is consistent with the line nodes, but differs from the simple single-gap d-wave. The observed behavior is very similar to that of BaFe2(As1-xPx)2, showing that isovalently substituted pnictides are inherently different from

  9. Irradiation creep induced anisotropy in a/2 dislocation populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1984-05-01

    The contribution of anisotropy in Burgers vector distribution to irradiation creep behavior has been largely ignored in irradiation creep models. However, findings on Frank loops suggest that it may be very important. Procedures are defined to identify the orientations of a/2 Burgers vectors for dislocations in face-centered cubic crystals. By means of these procedures the anisotropy in Burgers vector populations was determined for three Nimonic PE16 pressurized tube specimens irradiated under stress. Considerable anisotropy in Burgers vector population develops during irradiation creep. It is inferred that dislocation motion during irradiation creep is restricted primarily to a climb of a/2 dislocations on 100 planes. Effect of these results on irradiation creep modeling and deformation induced irradiation growth is considered

  10. Understanding the magnetic anisotropy in Fe-Si amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, J.; Hamdan, N.M.; Jalil, P.; Hussain, Z.; Valvidares, S.M.; Alameda, J.M.

    2002-08-01

    The origin of the magnetic anisotropy in a very disordered Fe-Si alloy has been investigated. The alloy containing 40 percent at. Si was prepared in the form of a thin film in a DC magnetron sputtering chamber. Structural disorder was obtained from Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy. The uniformity and lack of inhomogeneities at a microscopic level was checked by measuring their transverse magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops. The orbital component of the magnetic moment was measured by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The orbital moment was extraordinary high, 0.4mB. Such a high value contrasted with the relatively small uniaxial anisotropy energy of the thin film (2kJ/m3). This suggests that the cause of the magnetic anisotropy in this alloy was a small degree of correlation in the orientation of the local orbital moments along a preferential direction.

  11. Understanding the magnetic anisotropy in Fe-Si amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, J.; Hamdan, N.M.; Jalil, P.; Hussain, Z.; Valvidares, S.M.; Alameda, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The origin of the magnetic anisotropy in a very disordered Fe-Si alloy has been investigated. The alloy containing 40 percent at. Si was prepared in the form of a thin film in a DC magnetron sputtering chamber. Structural disorder was obtained from Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy. The uniformity and lack of inhomogeneities at a microscopic level was checked by measuring their transverse magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops. The orbital component of the magnetic moment was measured by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The orbital moment was extraordinary high, 0.4mB. Such a high value contrasted with the relatively small uniaxial anisotropy energy of the thin film (2kJ/m3). This suggests that the cause of the magnetic anisotropy in this alloy was a small degree of correlation in the orientation of the local orbital moments along a preferential direction

  12. Linking strain anisotropy and plasticity in copper metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Conal E.; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Nguyen, Son

    2015-01-01

    The elastic anisotropy of copper leads to significant variation in the x-ray elastic constants (XEC), which link diffraction-based strain measurements to stress. An accurate depiction of the mechanical response in copper thin films requires a determination of an appropriate grain interaction model that lies between Voigt and Reuss limits. It is shown that the associated XEC weighting fraction, x*, between these limits provides a metric by which strain anisotropy can be quantified. Experimental values of x*, as determined by a linear regression scheme of diffraction data collected from multiple reflections, reveal the degree of strain anisotropy and its dependence on plastic deformation induced during in-situ and ex-situ thermal treatments

  13. Effects of electrons on the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michno, M. J.; Lazar, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Among the kinetic microinstabilities, the firehose instability is one of the most efficient mechanisms to restrict the unlimited increase of temperature anisotropy in the direction of an ambient magnetic field as predicted by adiabatic expansion of collision-poor solar wind. Indeed, the solar wind proton temperature anisotropy detected near 1 AU shows that it is constrained by the marginal firehose condition. Of the two types of firehose instabilities, namely, parallel and oblique, the literature suggests that the solar wind data conform more closely to the marginal oblique firehose condition. In the present work, however, it is shown that the parallel firehose instability threshold is markedly influenced by the presence of anisotropic electrons, such that under some circumstances, the cumulative effects of both electron and proton anisotropies could describe the observation without considering the oblique firehose mode.

  14. Magnetic Alignment of Block Copolymer Microdomains by Intrinsic Chain Anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S; Larson, Steven R; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Paweł W; Yager, Kevin G

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ≈2×10^{-8}. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈1.2  μm are present during alignment. These results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  15. Search for positron anisotropies in cosmic rays with AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, Fabian [1. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) on the International Space Station has observed a significant excess of cosmic ray positrons over the background expected from secondary production at energies above 10 GeV. Nearby pulsars and annihilating dark matter particles as a primary source of electrons and positrons have been discussed as an explanation. A possible way of distinguishing between pulsar and dark matter origin is the measurement of dipole anisotropies in the positron flux or the positron to electron ratio. Any anisotropy will be reduced by diffusion in galactic magnetic fields to below the percent level. AMS-02 is the leading space-based experiment for cosmic ray detection and well suited for this search. A new analysis procedure for anisotropies using an event sample with large acceptance is presented. It relies on the ability of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to separate positrons from the proton background.

  16. Fluorescense Anisotropy Studies of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yin-Chu; Wang, Zheming; Yan, Mingdi; Prahl, Scott A.

    2005-08-03

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are used as recognition elements in biochemical sensors. In a fluorescence-based MIP sensor system, it is difficult to distinguish the analyte fluorescence from the background fluorescence of the polymer itself. We studied steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of anthracene imprinted in a polymer (polyurethane) matrix. Vertically polarized excitation light was incident on MIP films coated on silicon wafers; vertically and horizontally polarized emission was measured. We compared the fluorescence anisotropy of MIPs with imprinted molecules, MIPs with the imprinted molecules extracted, MIPs with rebound molecules, and nonimprinted control polymers (without binding cavities). It is shown that differences in fluorescence anisotropy between the polymers and imprinted fluorescent molecules may provide a means to discriminate the fluorescence of analyte from that of the background polymer.

  17. Magnetic anisotropy of (Sm, Y)2Fe17Ny compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.; Tegus, O.; Li, Q.A.; Tang, N.; Yu, M.J.; Zhao, R.W.; Kuang, J.P.; Yang, F.M.; Zhou, G.F.; Li, X.; Boer, F.R. de

    1992-01-01

    A study of the crystal structure and the magnetic properties, especially the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of (Sm 1-x Y x ) 2 Fe 17 N y compounds (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, 2 2 Zn 17 - or Th 2 Ni 17 -type structure as the original compounds. The Curie temperatures decrease from 750 to 700 K as x increases from 0 to 1. The anisotropy field decreases linearly with increasing yttrium content. The spin reorientation has been investigated by means of high field magnetization measurements, AC-susceptibility measurements and thermomagnetic analysis, combined with X-ray diffraction. The anisotropy constants K 1 , K 2 and K 3 were derived by a phenomenological analysis, using magnetization curves measured in high fields, applied perpendicular to the alignment direction of the powder samples. A tentative spin phase diagram of the series is presented. (orig.)

  18. Ion temperature anisotropy limitation in high beta plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, Earl E.; Keiter, Paul A.; Balkey, Matthew M.; Boivin, Robert F.; Kline, John L.; Blackburn, Melanie; Gary, S. Peter

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of parallel and perpendicular ion temperatures in the Large Experiment on Instabilities and Anisotropies (LEIA) space simulation chamber display an inverse correlation between the upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy and the parallel ion beta (β=8πnkT/B 2 ). Fluctuation measurements indicate the presence of low frequency, transverse, electromagnetic waves with wave numbers and frequencies that are consistent with predictions for Alfven Ion Cyclotron instabilities. These observations are also consistent with in situ spacecraft measurements in the Earth's magnetosheath and with a theoretical/computational model that predicts that such an upper bound on the ion temperature anisotropy is imposed by scattering from enhanced fluctuations due to growth of the Alfven ion cyclotron instability. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Direct observation of in-plane anisotropy of the superconducting critical current density in Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecher, J.; Ishida, S.; Song, D.; Ogino, H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Nakajima, M.; Kagerbauer, D.; Eisterer, M.

    2018-01-01

    The phase diagram of iron-based superconductors exhibits structural transitions, electronic nematicity, and magnetic ordering, which are often accompanied by an electronic in-plane anisotropy and a sharp maximum of the superconducting critical current density (Jc) near the phase boundary of the tetragonal and the antiferromagnetic-orthorhombic phase. We utilized scanning Hall-probe microscopy to visualize the Jc of twinned and detwinned Ba (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 (x =5 %-8 % ) crystals to compare the electronic normal state properties with superconducting properties. We find that the electronic in-plane anisotropy continues into the superconducting state. The observed correlation between the electronic and the Jc anisotropy agrees qualitatively with basic models, however, the Jc anisotropy is larger than predicted from the resistivity data. Furthermore, our measurements show that the maximum of Jc at the phase boundary does not vanish when the crystals are detwinned. This shows that twin boundaries are not responsible for the large Jc, suggesting an exotic pinning mechanism.

  20. Relaxation dynamics of magnetization transitions in synthetic antiferromagnet with perpendicular anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantsev, A.; Lu, Y.; Fache, T.; Lavanant, M.; Hamadeh, A.; Aristov, A.; Koplak, O.; Morgunov, R.; Mangin, S.

    2018-04-01

    Two synthetic antiferromagnet bilayer systems with strong perpendicular anisotropy CoFeB/Ta/CoFeB and Pt/Co/Ir/Co/Pt have been grown using sputtering techniques. For both systems two types of magnetization transitions have been studied. The first one concerns transitions from a state where magnetizations of the two magnetic layers are parallel (P state) to a state where magnetizations of the two layers are aligned antiparallel (AP state). The second one concerns transitions between the two possible antiparallel alignments (AP+  to AP-). For both systems and both transitions after-effect measurements can be understood in the frame of nucleation—propagation model. Time derivative analysis of magnetic relaxation curves and mapping of the first order reversal curves at different temperature allowed us to demonstrate the presence of different pinning centers, which number can be controlled by magnetic field and temperature.

  1. Shear-wave splitting observations of mantle anisotropy beneath Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellesiles, A. K.; Christensen, D. H.; Entwistle, E.; Litherland, M.; Abers, G. A.; Song, X.

    2009-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy were obtained from three different PASSCAL broadband experiments throughout Alaska, using shear-wave splitting from teleseismic SKS phases. The MOOS (Multidisciplinary Observations Of Subduction), BEAAR (Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range), and ARCTIC (Alaska Receiving Cross-Transects for the Inner Core) networks were used along with selected permanent broadband stations operated by AEIC (Alaska Earthquake Information Center) to produce seismic anisotropy results for the state of Alaska along a north south transect from the active subduction zone in the south, through continental Alaska, to the passive margin in the north. The BEAAR network is in-between the ARCTIC and MOOS networks above the subducting Pacific Plate and mantle wedge and shows a tight ~90 degree rotation of anisotropy above the 70km contour of the subducting plate. The southern stations in BEAAR yield anisotropy results that are subparallel to the Pacific Plate motion as it subducts under North America. These stations have an average fast direction of -45 degrees and 1.03 seconds of delay on average. The MOOS network in south central Alaska yielded similar results with an average fast direction of -30 degrees and delay times of .9 seconds. In the north portion of the BEAAR network the anisotropy is along strike of the subduction zone and has an average fast direction of 27 degrees with an average delay time of 1.4 seconds, although the delay times above the mantle wedge range from 1 to 2.5 seconds and are directly correlated to the length of ray path in the mantle wedge. This general trend NE/SW is seen in the ARCTIC stations to the north although the furthest north stations are oriented more NNE compared to those in BEAAR. The average fast direction for the ARCTIC network is 40 degrees with an average delay time of 1.05 seconds. These results show two distinct orientations of anisotropy in Alaska separated by the subducting Pacific Plate.

  2. Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness

  3. Colour-coded fractional anisotropy images: differential visualisation of white-matter tracts - preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, T.; Higano, S.; Tamura, H.; Mugikura, S.; Takahashi, S.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-tensor analysis allows quantitative assessment of diffusion anisotropy. Fractional anisotropy (FA) is commonly used to quantify anisotropy. One of the limitations of FA imaging is, however, that it does not contain information about the directionality of anisotropy and it is therefore difficult to identify white-matter tracts on FA images. Our purpose was to describe a simple method of making composite images containing information about both magnitude and direction of diffusion anisotropy. The composite colour-coded FA images enabled us to identify different adjacent fibre bundles of similar degrees of diffusion anisotropy, and might be helpful in assessment of these fasciculi. (orig.)

  4. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Singh

    2016-03-01

    should be over-designed to ensure successful insertion. Probability color maps were generated to visually compare the influence of design parameters. Statistical metrics derived from the color maps and multi-variable regression analysis confirmed that coating thickness and probe length were the most important features in influencing insertion potential. The model also revealed the effects of manufacturing flaws on insertion potential.

  5. Topographical Anisotropy and Wetting of Ground Stainless Steel Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Bellmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic and physico-chemical methods were used for a comprehensive surface characterization of different mechanically modified stainless steel surfaces. The surfaces were analyzed using high-resolution confocal microscopy, resulting in detailed information about the topographic properties. In addition, static water contact angle measurements were carried out to characterize the surface heterogeneity of the samples. The effect of morphological anisotropy on water contact angle anisotropy was investigated. The correlation between topography and wetting was studied by means of a model of wetting proposed in the present work, that allows quantifying the air volume of the interface water drop-stainless steel surface.

  6. Influence of Elastic Anisotropy on Extended Dislocation Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, B

    1971-09-15

    The interaction forces between the partial dislocations forming an extended dislocation node are calculated using elasticity theory for anisotropic media.s are carried out for nodes of screw, edge and mixed character in Ag, which has an anisotropy ratio A equal to 3, and in a hypothetic material with A = 1 and the same shear modulus as Ag. The results are compared with three previous theories using isotropic elasticity theory. As expected, in Ag the influence of anisotropy is of the same order as the uncertainty due to the dislocation core energy

  7. Anisotropy Spectra for Enantiomeric Differentiation of Biomolecular Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Amanda C.; Meinert, Cornelia; Bredehoft, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    All biopolymers are composed of homochiral building blocks, and both D-sugars and L-amino acids uniquely constitute life on Earth. These monomers were originally enantiomerically differentiated under prebiotic conditions. Particular progress has recently been made in support of the photochemical...... light. This chapter will: (1) present the theory and configuration of anisotropy spectroscopy; (2) explain experimentally recorded anisotropy spectra of selected chiral biomolecules such as amino acids; and (3) discuss the relevance of these spectra for the investigation of the origin of the molecular...

  8. Friction anisotropy-driven domain imaging on exfoliated monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Byun, Ik-Su; Lee, Duk Hyun; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Bae Ho; Lee, Changgu; Yoon, Duhee; Cheong, Hyeonsik; Lee, Ki Ho; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Jeong Young; Salmeron, Miquel

    2011-07-29

    Graphene produced by exfoliation has not been able to provide an ideal graphene with performance comparable to that predicted by theory, and structural and/or electronic defects have been proposed as one cause of reduced performance. We report the observation of domains on exfoliated monolayer graphene that differ by their friction characteristics, as measured by friction force microscopy. Angle-dependent scanning revealed friction anisotropy with a periodicity of 180° on each friction domain. The friction anisotropy decreased as the applied load increased. We propose that the domains arise from ripple distortions that give rise to anisotropic friction in each domain as a result of the anisotropic puckering of the graphene.

  9. Effects of scattering anisotropy approximation in multigroup radiation shielding calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altiparmakov, D.

    1983-01-01

    Expansion of the scattering cross sections into Legendre series is the usual way of solving neutron transport problems. Because of the large space gradients of the neutron flux, the effects of that approximation become especially remarkable in the radiation shielding calculations. In this paper, a method taking into account the scattering anisotropy is presented. From the point od view of the accuracy and computing rate, the optimal approximation of the scattering anisotropy is established for the basic protective materials on the basis of simple problem calculations. (author)

  10. Energy-based ferromagnetic material model with magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steentjes, Simon, E-mail: simon.steentjes@iem.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Henrotte, François, E-mail: francois.henrotte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Mechanics Materials and Civil Engineering - UCL, Av. G. Lemaître 4-6, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hameyer, Kay [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Non-oriented soft magnetic materials are commonly assumed to be magnetically isotropic. However, due to the rolling process a preferred direction exists along the rolling direction. This uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the related magnetostriction effect, are critical to the accurate calculation of iron losses and magnetic forces in rotating electrical machines. This paper proposes an extension of an isotropic energy-based vector hysteresis model to account for these two effects. - Highlights: • Energy-based vector hysteresis model with magnetic anisotropy. • Two-scale model to account for pinning field distribution. • Pinning force and reluctivity are extended to anisotropic case.

  11. Magnetic anisotropy of nonmodulated Ni-Mn-Ga martensite revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Oleg; Straka, L.; Novák, Václav; Fähler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 9 (2010), 09A914/1-09A914/3 ISSN 0021-8979 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100100913 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy of non-modulated martensite * temperature dependence of anisotropy * Ni-Mn-Ga * adaptive martensite Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2010 http://jap.aip.org/resource/1/japiau/v107/i9/p09A914_s1

  12. Procedures for measurement of anisotropy factor of neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creazolla, P.G.; Camargo, A.; Astuto, A.; Silva, F.; Pereira, W.W.

    2017-01-01

    Radioisotope sources of neutrons allow the production of reference fields for calibration of neutron measurement devices for radioprotection and analysis purposes. When the emission rate of these sources is isotropic, no correction is necessary. However, variations in the source capsule material and variations in the concentration of the emitting material may produce differences in its neutron emission rate relative to the source axis, this effect is called anisotropy. A proposed procedure for measuring the anisotropy factor of the sources belonging to the IRD/LNMRI/LN Neutron Metrology Laboratory using a Precision Long Counter (PLC) detector will be presented

  13. Banana regime pressure anisotropy in a bumpy cylinder magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Perciante, A.L.; Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.; Hegna, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The pressure anisotropy is calculated for a plasma in a bumpy cylindrical magnetic field in the low collisionality (banana) regime for small magnetic-field modulations (ε≡ΔB/2B parallel is then calculated and is shown to exceed the flux-surface-averaged parallel viscous force parallel > by a factor of O(1/ε). A high-frequency limit (ω>>ν) for the pressure anisotropy is also determined and the calculation is then extended to include the full frequency dependence by using an expansion in Cordey eigenfunctions

  14. Determination of plastic anisotropy of zirconium alloys cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, N.V.; Prasolov, P.F.; Shestak, V.E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for determining plastic anisotropy of zurconium alloy cladding is described. It is based on consideration of material as a combination of transversal crystallites with known distribution over orientations. Such approach enables to describe cladding resistance to plastic deformation at arbitrary stressed state, using the results of texture investigations and uniaxial tests of samples, cut out of claddings along three directions. Plastic anisotropy of fuel element claddings 9.15 and 13.6 mm in diameter up to several percents of plastic deformation is shown

  15. Anisotropy of mechanical properties of zirconium and zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    In studies of technological applications of zirconium to fuel elements of nuclear reactor, it was found that the use of plasticity equations for isotropic materials is not in agreement with experimental results, because of the strong anisotropy of zirconium. The present review describes recent progress on the knowledge of the influence of anisotropy on mechanical properties, after Douglass' review in 1971. The review was written to be selfconsistent, changing drastically the presentation of some of the referenced papers. It is also suggested some particular experiments to improve developments in this area

  16. Influence of temperature on the Zircaloy-4 plastic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limon, R.; Bechade, J.L.; Lehmann, S.; Maury, R.; Soniak, A.

    1995-01-01

    In order to improve the comportment modelling of PWR fuel pin, and more precisely their canning tubes, Framatome and the CEA have undertake an important study program of Zircaloy-4 mechanical properties. It includes in particular the study of the plasticity between 20 and 400 degree Celsius. This material being not isotropic because of the zirconium hexagonal crystal network and the texture presented by the canning tubes, its plastic anisotropy has been measured. The obtained results for the canning in *slack* and recrystallized before irradiation Zircaloy-4 are presented and the deformation systems able to explain the observed anisotropy is researched. (O.L.). 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Sidereal anisotropy of small air showers observed at Mt. Norikura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, K.; Sakakibara, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Fujii, Z.; Ueno, H.; Kondo, I.

    1977-01-01

    Observation of small air showers has been continued from August 1970, using a part of the multidirectional cosmic ray telescope at Mt. Norikura. Most significant result obtained from this observation was a sidereal diurnal anisotropy of amplitude 0.051 +- 0.004% with maximum at 1.0 +- 0.5 h, which showed a persistent trend over six years. Based on the results of the observation together with those obtained by Gombosi et al. and Fenton et al., a tentative model of sidereal anisotropies is presented. (author)

  18. On the influence of lipid-induced optical anisotropy for the bioimaging of exo- or endocytosis with interference microscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, D; Miranda, A; Silva, A G; Munro, P R T; DE Beule, P A A

    2018-05-01

    Some implementations of interference microscopy imaging use digital holographic measurements of complex scattered fields to reconstruct three-dimensional refractive index maps of weakly scattering, semi-transparent objects, frequently encountered in biological investigations. Reconstruction occurs through application of the object scattering potential which assumes an isotropic refractive index throughout the object. Here, we demonstrate that this assumption can in some circumstances be invalid for biological imaging due to the presence of lipid-induced optical anisotropy. We show that the nanoscale organization of lipids in the observation of cellular endocytosis with polarized light induces a significant change in far-field scattering. We obtain this result by presenting a general solution to Maxwell's equations describing light scattering of core-shell particles near an isotropic substrate covered with an anisotropic thin film. This solution is based on an extension of the Bobbert-Vlieger solution for particle scattering near a substrate delivering an exact solution to the scattering problem in the near field as well as far field. By applying this solution to study light scattering by a lipid vesicle near a lipid bilayer, whereby the lipids are represented through a biaxial optical model, we conclude through ellipsometry concepts that effective amounts of lipid-induced optical anisotropy significantly alter far-field optical scattering in respect to an equivalent optical model that neglects the presence of optical anisotropy. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAs; Magnetische Anisotropie in GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler, Joachim

    2009-07-02

    The goal of the present work was the detailed investigation of the impact of parameters like vertical strain, hole concentration, substrate orientation and patterning on the MA in GaMnAs. At first a method is introduced enabling us to determine the MA from angle-dependent magnetotransport measurements. This method was used to analyze the impact of vertical strain {epsilon}{sub zz} on the MA in a series of GaMnAs layers with a Mn content of 5% grown on relaxed InGaAs-templates. While hole concentration and Curie temperature were found to be unaffected by vertical strain, a significant dependence of the MA on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found. The most pronounced dependence was observed for the anisotropy parameter B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}, representing the intrinsic contribution to the MA perpendicular to the layer plane. For this parameter a linear dependence on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found, resulting in a strain-induced transition of the magnetic easy axis with increasing strain from in-plane to out-of-plane at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.13%. Post-growth annealing of the samples leads to an outdiffusion and/or regrouping of the highly mobile Mn interstitial donor defects, resulting in an increase in both p and T{sub C}. For the annealed samples, the transition from in-plane to out-of-plane easy axis takes place at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.07%. From a comparison of as-grown and annealed samples, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} was found to be proportional to both p and {epsilon}{sub zz}, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {proportional_to} p .{epsilon}{sub zz}. To study the influence of substrate orientation on the magnetic properties of GaMnAs, a series of GaMnAs layers with Mn contents up to 5% was grown on (001)- and (113)A-oriented GaAs substrates. The hole densities and Curie temperatures, determined from magnetotransport measurements, are drastically reduced in the (113)A layers. The differences in the magnetic properties of (113)A- and

  20. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human-made disasters has become one focal point for environmental knowledge production. This type of digital map has been highlighted as a processual turn in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism...... of a geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. InfoAmazonia is defined as a digitally created map-space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species...

  1. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  2. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  3. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  4. Flexible position probe assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of a plurality of tubular transducer sections and a flexible supporting member extending through the tubular transducer sections forms a flexible elongated probe of a design suitable for monitoring the level of an element, such as a nuclear magnetically permeable control rod or liquid. 3 claims, 23 figures

  5. Probing Zeolite Crystal Architecture and Structural Imperfections using Differently Sized Fluorescent Organic Probe Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Frank C; Schmidt, Joel E; Rombouts, Jeroen A; Lammertsma, Koop; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2017-05-05

    A micro-spectroscopic method has been developed to probe the accessibility of zeolite crystals using a series of fluorescent 4-(4-diethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium iodide (DAMPI) probes of increasing molecular size. Staining large zeolite crystals with MFI (ZSM-5) topology and subsequent mapping of the resulting fluorescence using confocal fluorescence microscopy reveal differences in structural integrity: the 90° intergrowth sections of MFI crystals are prone to develop structural imperfections, which act as entrance routes for the probes into the zeolite crystal. Polarization-dependent measurements provide evidence for the probe molecule's alignment within the MFI zeolite pore system. The developed method was extended to BEA (Beta) crystals, showing that the previously observed hourglass pattern is a general feature of BEA crystals with this morphology. Furthermore, the probes can accurately identify at which crystal faces of BEA straight or sinusoidal pores open to the surface. The results show this method can spatially resolve the architecture-dependent internal pore structure of microporous materials, which is difficult to assess using other characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Complex Seismic Anisotropy at the Edges of a Very-low Velocity Province in the Lowermost Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wen, L.

    2005-12-01

    A prominent very-low velocity province (VLVP) in the lowermost mantle is revealed, and has been extensively mapped out in recent seismic studies (e.g., Wang and Wen, 2004). Seismic evidence unambiguously indicates that the VLVP is compositionally distinct, and its seismic structure can be best explained by partial melting driven by a compositional change produced in the early Earth's history (Wen, 2001; Wen et. al, 2001; Wang and Wen, 2004). In this presentation, we study the seismic anisotropic behavior inside the VLVP and its surrounding area using SKS and SKKS waveform data. We collect 272 deep earthquakes recorded by more than 80 stations in the Kaapvaal seismic array in southern Africa from 1997 to 1999. Based on the data quality, we choose SKS and SKKS waveform data for 16 earthquakes to measure the anisotropic parameters: the fast polarization direction and the splitting time, using the method of Silver and Chan (1991). A total of 162 high-quality measurements are obtained based on the statistics analysis of shear wave splitting results. The obtained anisotropy exhibits different patterns for the SKS and SKKS phases sampling inside the VLVP and at the edges of the VLVP. When the SKS and SKKS phases sample inside the VLVP, their fast polarization directions exhibit a pattern that strongly correlates with stations, gradually changing from 11°N~to 80°N~across the seismic array from south to north and rotating back to the North direction over short distances for several northernmost stations. The anisotropy pattern obtained from the analysis of the SKKS phases is the same as that from the SKS phases. However, when the SKS and SKKS phases sample at the edges of the VLVP, the measured anisotropy exhibits a very complex pattern. The obtained fast polarization directions change rapidly over a small distance, and they no longer correlate with stations; the measurements obtained from the SKS analysis also differ with those from the SKKS analysis. As the SKS and SKKS

  7. A search for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra high energy cosmic rays recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Veron-Cetty Veron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20, 30, ..., 110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 51 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.

  8. Halo assembly bias and the tidal anisotropy of the local halo environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2018-05-01

    We study the role of the local tidal environment in determining the assembly bias of dark matter haloes. Previous results suggest that the anisotropy of a halo's environment (i.e. whether it lies in a filament or in a more isotropic region) can play a significant role in determining the eventual mass and age of the halo. We statistically isolate this effect, using correlations between the large-scale and small-scale environments of simulated haloes at z = 0 with masses between 1011.6 ≲ (m/h-1 M⊙) ≲ 1014.9. We probe the large-scale environment, using a novel halo-by-halo estimator of linear bias. For the small-scale environment, we identify a variable αR that captures the tidal anisotropy in a region of radius R = 4R200b around the halo and correlates strongly with halo bias at fixed mass. Segregating haloes by αR reveals two distinct populations. Haloes in highly isotropic local environments (αR ≲ 0.2) behave as expected from the simplest, spherically averaged analytical models of structure formation, showing a negative correlation between their concentration and large-scale bias at all masses. In contrast, haloes in anisotropic, filament-like environments (αR ≳ 0.5) tend to show a positive correlation between bias and concentration at any mass. Our multiscale analysis cleanly demonstrates how the overall assembly bias trend across halo mass emerges as an average over these different halo populations, and provides valuable insights towards building analytical models that correctly incorporate assembly bias. We also discuss potential implications for the nature and detectability of galaxy assembly bias.

  9. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  10. Photothermal probing of plasmonic hotspots with nanomechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Silvan; Wu, Kaiyu; Rindzevicius, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures (hotspots) are key components e.g. in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopy, plasmonic solar cells, or as nano heat sources. The characterization of single hotspots is still challenging due to a lack of experimental tools. We present the direct photothermal probing and mapping...

  11. EDITORIAL: Probing the nanoworld Probing the nanoworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Mervyn

    2009-10-01

    In nanotechnology, it is the unique properties arising from nanometre-scale structures that lead not only to their technological importance but also to a better understanding of the underlying science. Over the last twenty years, material properties at the nanoscale have been dominated by the properties of carbon in the form of the C60 molecule, single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, and recently graphene. During this period, research published in the journal Nanotechnology has revealed the amazing mechanical properties of such materials as well as their remarkable electronic properties with the promise of new devices. Furthermore, nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanowires from metals and dielectrics have been characterized for their electronic, mechanical, optical, chemical and catalytic properties. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has become the main characterization technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) the most frequently used SPM. Over the past twenty years, SPM techniques that were previously experimental in nature have become routine. At the same time, investigations using AFM continue to yield impressive results that demonstrate the great potential of this powerful imaging tool, particularly in close to physiological conditions. In this special issue a collaboration of researchers in Europe report the use of AFM to provide high-resolution topographical images of individual carbon nanotubes immobilized on various biological membranes, including a nuclear membrane for the first time (Lamprecht C et al 2009 Nanotechnology 20 434001). Other SPM developments such as high-speed AFM appear to be making a transition from specialist laboratories to the mainstream, and perhaps the same may be said for non-contact AFM. Looking to the future, characterisation techniques involving SPM and spectroscopy, such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, could emerge as everyday methods. In all these advanced techniques, routinely available probes will

  12. Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropy in elastic properties of lithium sodium sulphate hexahydrate single crystal—An ultrasonic study. GEORGE VARUGHESE. ,∗. , A S KUMAR†, J PHILIP†† and GODFREY LOUIS#. Department of Physics, Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta 689 648, India. †SPAP, M.G. University, Kottayam 686 560, India. ††STIC ...

  13. Diffusion tensor MR microscopy of tissues with low diffusional anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajd, Franci; Mattea, Carlos; Stapf, Siegfried; Sersa, Igor

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging exploits preferential diffusional motion of water molecules residing within tissue compartments for assessment of tissue structural anisotropy. However, instrumentation and post-processing errors play an important role in determination of diffusion tensor elements. In the study, several experimental factors affecting accuracy of diffusion tensor determination were analyzed. Effects of signal-to-noise ratio and configuration of the applied diffusion-sensitizing gradients on fractional anisotropy bias were analyzed by means of numerical simulations. In addition, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance microscopy experiments were performed on a tap water phantom and bovine articular cartilage-on-bone samples to verify the simulation results. In both, the simulations and the experiments, the multivariate linear regression of the diffusion-tensor analysis yielded overestimated fractional anisotropy with low SNRs and with low numbers of applied diffusion-sensitizing gradients. An increase of the apparent fractional anisotropy due to unfavorable experimental conditions can be overcome by applying a larger number of diffusion sensitizing gradients with small values of the condition number of the transformation matrix. This is in particular relevant in magnetic resonance microscopy, where imaging gradients are high and the signal-to-noise ratio is low.

  14. Seismic anisotropy of serpentinite from Val Malenco, Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kern, H.; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Svitek, Tomáš; Wenk, H.-R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 6 (2015), s. 4113-4129 ISSN 2169-9313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13102 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : serpentinite * anisotropy Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015

  15. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy of FePt: a detailed view

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, S.A.; Blaha, P.; Ebert, H.; Minár, J.; Šipr, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 14 (2016), 1-10, č. článku 144436. ISSN 2469-9950 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetocrystalline anisotropy * FePt * LDA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  16. Photoinduced Circular Anisotropy in Side-Chain Azobenzene Polyesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Todorov, T.; Ivanov, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. The circular dichroism and optical activity are measured simultaneously in real time...

  17. Solar energetic particle anisotropies and insights into particle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leske, R. A., E-mail: ral@srl.caltech.edu; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wiedenbeck, M. E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Christian, E. R.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    As solar energetic particles (SEPs) travel through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are shaped by the competing effects of magnetic focusing and scattering. Measurements of SEP anisotropies can therefore reveal information about interplanetary conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at remote locations from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures pitch-angle distributions for protons and heavier ions up to iron at energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed using LET include bidirectional flows within interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward-flowing particles when STEREO was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions in which particles with large pitch angles underwent magnetic mirroring at an interplanetary field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Unusual oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 SEP event were also observed and remain puzzling. We report LET anisotropy observations at both STEREO spacecraft and discuss their implications for SEP transport, focusing exclusively on the extreme event of 23 July 2012 in which a large variety of anisotropies were present at various times during the event.

  18. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, and for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hamiltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant -valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamiltonians employing full spatial ...

  19. Anisotropy of the magnetocaloric effect in DyNiAl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštil, J.; Javorský, P.; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 15 (2009), s. 2318-2321 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetocaloric effec * DyNiAl * magnetism * anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.204, year: 2009

  20. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mean energy of muons at sea level is ∼4 GeV with a rel- .... of decays of mesons and muons work against each other resulting in temperature coef- ..... The mean muon rate of 16 modules measured every 15 min for one week interval from .... 4. 8. 12. 16. 20. 24. Hours. Figure 12. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured in ...