WorldWideScience

Sample records for anisotropic temperature factors

  1. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  2. Anisotropic temperature relaxation of plasmas in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetized kinetic equation derived in an earlier paper (Hassan and Watson, 1977) is used to study the problem of relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures in a magnetized plasma. In the case of anisotropic electron temperature relaxation, it is shown that for small anisotropies the exchange of energy within the electrons between the components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction determine the relaxation rate. For anisotropic ion temperature relaxation it is shown that the essential mechanism for relaxation is provided by energy transfer between ions and electrons, and that the expression for the relaxation rate perpendicular to the magnetic field contains a significant term proportional to ln eta 0 ln (msub(e)/msub(i)) (where eta 0 = Ωsub(e)/ksub(D)Vsub(e perpendicular to)), in addition to the term proportional to the Coulomb logarithm. (author)

  3. Anisotropic ordering in a two-temperature lattice gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabó, György; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional lattice gas model with repulsive nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions that evolves in time according to anisotropic Kawasaki dynamics. The hopping of particles along the principal directions is governed by two heat baths at different temperatures T-x and T...

  4. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and thermodynamic fluctuations in high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, G.

    1999-05-01

    Measurements of the in-plane and out-of-plane resistivity and the transverse and longitudinal in-plane and out-of-plane magnetoresistance above T, are reported in the high-temperature superconductors Bi2Sr2CaCu208+' and YBa2CU307 b . The carrier concentration of the Bi2Sr2CaCu208+' single crystals covers a broad range of the phase diagram from the slightly under doped to the moderately over doped region. The doping concentration of the thin films ranges from strongly under doped to optimally doped. The in-plane resistivities obey a metallic-like temperature dependence with a positive magnetoresistance in the transverse and the longitudinal orientation of the magnetic field. The out-of-plane resistivities show an activated behavior above T, with a metallic region at higher temperatures and negative magnetoresistance. The data were analyzed in the framework of a model for superconducting order parameter fluctuations. The positive in-plane magnetoresistance of the highly anisotropic Bi2Sr2CaCu208+x single crystals is interpreted as the suppression of the fluctuation-conductivity enhancement including orbital and spin contributions, whereas the negative magnetoresistance arises from the reduction of the fluctuation-induced pseudogap in the single-electron density-of-states by the magnetic field. For higher temperatures a transition to the normal-state magnetoresistance occurs for the in-plane transport. In the less anisotropic YBa2CU307 b thin films the positive out-of-plane magnetoresistance near T, changes sign to a negative magnetoresistance at higher temperatures. This behavior is also consistent with predictions from the theory of thermodynamic order-parameter fluctuations. The agreement of the fluctuation theory with the experimental findings is excellent for samples from the over doped side of the phase diagram, but deteriorate with decreasing carrier concentration. This behavior is interpreted by the dominating d-wave symmetry of the superconducting order

  5. Temperature-Responsive Anisotropic Slippery Surface for Smart Control of the Droplet Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, By Lili; Heng, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2018-02-28

    Development of stimulus-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces is important because of the high demand for such materials in the field of liquid directional-driven systems. However, current studies in the field of slippery surfaces are mainly conducted to prepare isotropic slippery surfaces. Although we have developed electric-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces that enable smart control of the droplet motion, there remain challenges for designing temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces to control the liquid droplet motion on the surface and in the tube. In this work, temperature-responsive anisotropic slippery surfaces have been prepared by using paraffin, a thermo-responsive phase-transition material, as a lubricating fluid and directional porous polystyrene (PS) films as the substrate. The smart regulation of the droplet motion of several liquids on this surface was accomplished by tuning the substrate temperature. The uniqueness of this surface lies in the use of an anisotropic structure and temperature-responsive lubricating fluids to achieve temperature-driven smart control of the anisotropic motion of the droplets. Furthermore, this surface was used to design temperature-driven anisotropic microreactors and to manipulate liquid transfer in tubes. This work advances the understanding of the principles underlying anisotropic slippery surfaces and provides a promising material for applications in the biochip and microreactor system.

  6. Possibility to explain the temperature distribution in sunspots by an anisotropic heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschrich, K O; Krause, F [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam. Zentralinstitut fuer Astrophysik

    1977-01-01

    Numerical solutions of a heat conduction problem in an anisotropic medium are used for a discussion of the possibility to explain the temperature distribution in sunspots and their environment. The anisotropy is assumed being due to the strong magnetic field in sunspots and the region below. This magnetic field forces the convection to take an anisotropic structure (two-dimensional turbulence) and thus the region gets anisotropic conduction properties, on the average. The discussion shows that the observed temperature profiles can be explained in the case the depth of the region of anisotropy is about as large as the diameter of the spot or larger.

  7. Microstructural effect on radiative scattering coefficient and asymmetry factor of anisotropic thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. W.; Zhao, C. Y.; Wang, B. X.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are common porous materials coated on the surface of devices operating under high temperatures and designed for heat insulation. This study presents a comprehensive investigation on the microstructural effect on radiative scattering coefficient and asymmetry factor of anisotropic thermal barrier coatings. Based on the quartet structure generation set algorithm, the finite-difference-time-domain method is applied to calculate angular scattering intensity distribution of complicated random microstructure, which takes wave nature into account. Combining Monte Carlo method with Particle Swarm Optimization, asymmetry factor, scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are retrieved simultaneously. The retrieved radiative properties are identified with the angular scattering intensity distribution under different pore shapes, which takes dependent scattering and anisotropic pore shape into account implicitly. It has been found that microstructure significantly affects the radiative properties in thermal barrier coatings. Compared with spherical shape, irregular anisotropic pore shape reduces the forward scattering peak. The method used in this paper can also be applied to other porous media, which designs a frame work for further quantitative study on porous media.

  8. Formation of temperature fields in doped anisotropic crystals under spatially inhomogeneous light beams passing through them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, E. V.; Markelov, A. S.; Trushin, V. N., E-mail: trushin@phys.unn.ru; Chuprunov, E. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The features of formation of thermal fields in potassium dihydrophosphate crystal doped with potassium permanganate under a 532-nm laser beam passing through it have been investigated. Data on the influence of birefringence on the temperature distribution in an anisotropic crystal whose surface is illuminated by a spatially modulated light beam are presented.

  9. Generation of static magnetic fields by a test charge in a plasma with anisotropic electron temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Yu.M.; Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Frolov, A.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    Structure of electomagnetic field generated with a charge in a plasma with anisotropic electron temperature has been studied. Unlike a hydrodynamical approach to study on the magnetic field qeneration with a test charge a kinetic theory describing spatial distribution of both magnetic and electrostatic components of charge field was constructed. Such theory results permit to investigate the charge field structure both at distances larger than length of free electron path and not exceeding it. The developed theory can serve as the basis for development of new methods for anisotropic plasma diagnostics.

  10. High-temperature reaction of ''anisotropic'' pyrolitic graphite with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenko, V.A.; Pomytkin, A.P.; Neshpor, V.S.; Vinokur, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is the kinetics of initial interaction stages of highly dense crystalloorientated pyrographite with oxygen. Oxidation was carried out in pure oxygen within 0.1-740 mm Hg pressure range and 500-1100 deg C temperature range. It is stated, that at the temperatures below 700 deg C pyrographite oxidation is subjected to a linear law. Above 700-800 deg C the linear law is preserved only at the initial oxidation stage, then the process is described by a parabolic law. Extension of the linear site is decreased in time with the reduction of oxygen pressure. The reaction has apparent fractional order. Activation energy of pyrogrpahite oxidation by the linear low constitutes approximately 58 kcal/mol within 600-800 deg C range and 14 kcal/mol within 800-1100 deg C range. The apparent activation energy constitutes approximately 13 kcal/mol in the region of correspondence to the parabolic law

  11. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Feng, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yang, Xiaoguang, E-mail: yxg@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Yonggang [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Qi, Hongyu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis.

  12. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO2 aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu; Jiang, Yonggang; Qi, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO 2 aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis

  13. Anisotropic Constitutive Model of Strain-induced Phenomena in Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2004-01-01

    A majority of the thin-walled components subjected to intensive plastic straining at cryogenic temperatures are made of stainless steels. The examples of such components can be found in the interconnections of particle accelerators, containing the superconducting magnets, where the thermal contraction is absorbed by thin-walled, axisymetric shells called bellows expansion joints. The stainless steels show three main phenomena induced by plastic strains at cryogenic temperatures: serrated (discontinuous) yielding, gamma->alpha' phase transformation and anisotropic ductile damage. In the present paper, a coupled constitutive model of gamma->alpha' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage is presented. A kinetic law of phase transformation, and a kinetic law of evolution of orthotropic damage are presented. The model is extended to anisotropic plasticity comprising a constant anisotropy (texture effect), which can be classically taken into account by the Hill yield surface, and plastic strain induced ...

  14. High-temperature electron-hole superfluidity with strong anisotropic gaps in double phosphorene monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi-Pouya, S.; Zarenia, M.; Perali, A.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Excitonic superfluidity in double phosphorene monolayers is investigated using the BCS mean-field equations. Highly anisotropic superfluidity is predicted where we found that the maximum superfluid gap is in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) regime along the armchair direction and in the BCS-BEC crossover regime along the zigzag direction. We estimate the highest Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature with maximum value up to ˜90 K with onset carrier densities as high as 4 ×1012cm-2 . This transition temperature is significantly larger than what is found in double electron-hole few-layers graphene. Our results can guide experimental research toward the realization of anisotropic condensate states in electron-hole phosphorene monolayers.

  15. Anisotropic deformation of Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, R.W.L., E-mail: fongr@aecl.ca [Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-09-15

    Zr–2.5Nb alloy is used for the pressure tubes in CANDU® reactor fuel channels. In reactor, the pressure tube normally operates at 300 °C and experiences a primary coolant fluid internal pressure of approximately 10 MPa. Manufacturing and processing procedures generate an anisotropic state in the pressure tube which makes the tube stronger in the hoop (transverse) direction than in the axial (longitudinal) direction. This anisotropy condition is present for temperatures less than 500 °C. During postulated accident conditions where the material temperature could reach 1000 °C, it might be assumed that the high temperature and subsequent phase change would reduce the inherent anisotropy, and thus affect the deformation behaviour (ballooning) of the pressure tube. From constant-load, rapid-temperature-ramp, uniaxial deformation tests, the deformation rate in the longitudinal direction of the tube behaves differently than the deformation rate in the transverse direction of the tube. This anisotropic mechanical behaviour appears to persist at temperatures up to 1000 °C. This paper presents the results of high-temperature deformation tests using longitudinal and transverse specimens taken from as-received Zr–2.5Nb pressure tubes. It is shown that the anisotropic deformation behaviour observed at high temperatures is largely due to the stable crystallographic texture of the α-Zr phase constituent in the material that was previously observed by neutron diffraction measurements during heating at temperatures up to 1050 °C. The deformation behaviour is also influenced by the phase transformation occurring at high temperatures during heating. The effects of texture and phase transformation on the anisotropic deformation of as-received Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material are discussed in the context of the tube ballooning behaviour. Because of the high temperatures in postulated accident scenarios, any irradiation damage will be annealed from the pressure tube material

  16. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-11-15

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of S A 1 and significant increase of S A 2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion c w and lower to medium friction angle ϕ w . This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of c w and ϕ w under different confinements, different combinations of c w and ϕ w may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir.

  17. Extension of an anisotropic creep model to general high temperature deformation of a single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.M.; Ghosh, R.N.; McLean, M.

    1993-01-01

    A physics based model has been developed that accounts for the principal features of anisotropic creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The present paper extends this model to simulate other types of high temperature deformation under strain controlled test conditions, such as stress relaxation and tension tests at constant strain rate in single crystals subject to axial loading along an arbitrary crystal direction. The approach is applied to the SRR99 single crystal superalloy where a model parameter database is available, determined via analysis of a database of constant stress creep curves. A software package has been generated to simulate the deformation behaviour under complex stress-strain conditions taking into account anisotropic elasticity. (orig.)

  18. Temperature-dependent anisotropic magnetoresistance inversion behaviors in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kap Soo [Novel Functional Materials and Devices Lab, The Research Institute for Natural Science, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jin Pyo, E-mail: jphong@hanyang.ac.kr [Novel Functional Materials and Devices Lab, The Research Institute for Natural Science, Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Nano-Scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    We address the abnormal anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) reversal feature of half-metallic polycrystalline Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films occurring at a specific temperature. Experimental results revealed a positive to negative MR transition in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films at 264 K, which reflect the influence of additional domain wall scattering. These features was described by a correlation between domain wall resistance and inversion behavior of AMR with additional domain wall scattering factors. We further describe a possible model based on systematic structural and electrical measurements that employs a temperature-dependent domain wall width and spin diffusion length of the conducting electrons. This model allows for spin-flipping scattering of spin polarized electrons inside a proper domain width.

  19. An explanation of the irreversibility behavior in the highly- anisotropic high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.; Kim, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The wide temperature range of the reversible, lossy state of the new high-temperature superconductors in a magnetic field was recognized soon after their discovery. This behavior, which had gone virtually undetected in conventional superconductors, has generated considerable interest, both for a fundamental understanding of the HTS and because it degrades the performance of HTS for finite-field applications. We show that recently proposed explanation of this behavior for the highly-anisotropic high-temperature superconductors, as a dimensional crossover of the magnetic vortices, is strongly supported by recent experiments on a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x single crystal using the high-Q mechanical oscillator techniques

  20. Controlling competing orders via nonequilibrium acoustic phonons: Emergence of anisotropic effective electronic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Michael; Orth, Peter P.; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael M.

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafast perturbations offer a unique tool to manipulate correlated systems due to their ability to promote transient behaviors with no equilibrium counterpart. A widely employed strategy is the excitation of coherent optical phonons, as they can cause significant changes in the electronic structure and interactions on short time scales. One of the issues, however, is the inevitable heating that accompanies these resonant excitations. Here, we explore a promising alternative route: the nonequilibrium excitation of acoustic phonons, which, due to their low excitation energies, generally lead to less heating. We demonstrate that driving acoustic phonons leads to the remarkable phenomenon of a momentum-dependent effective temperature, by which electronic states at different regions of the Fermi surface are subject to distinct local temperatures. Such an anisotropic effective electronic temperature can have a profound effect on the delicate balance between competing ordered states in unconventional superconductors, opening a so far unexplored avenue to control correlated phases.

  1. Velocity, attenuation, and quality factor in anisotropic viscoelastic media: A perturbation approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), D63-D73 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2182; GA AV ČR IAA300120801 Grant - others:EC(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : wave propagation * anisotropic viscoelastic media * Q-factor Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.349, year: 2008

  2. Estimation of the anisotropy parameters from imaging moveout of diving wave in a factorized anisotropic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shibo

    2016-06-10

    The importance of diving waves is being realized because they provide long-wavelength model information, which can be used to help invert for the reflection information in full-waveform inversion. The factorized model is defined here as a combination of vertical heterogeneity and constant anisotropy, and it admits closed-form description of the traveltime. We have used these resulting analytical formulas to describe the behavior of diving waves in a factorized anisotropic medium, and we used an approximate imaging moveout formulation (residual moveout after imaging) to update the velocity model when the wrong model parameters (isotropic assumption) were used for imaging. We then used these analytical representations of the image moveout to establish a semblance analysis framework to search for the optimal anisotropic parameters. We have also discussed different parameterizations of the factorized medium to find the one that gave the best accuracy in anisotropy parameters estimation.

  3. Estimation of the anisotropy parameters from imaging moveout of diving wave in a factorized anisotropic medium

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Shibo; Stovas, Alexey; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    The importance of diving waves is being realized because they provide long-wavelength model information, which can be used to help invert for the reflection information in full-waveform inversion. The factorized model is defined here as a combination of vertical heterogeneity and constant anisotropy, and it admits closed-form description of the traveltime. We have used these resulting analytical formulas to describe the behavior of diving waves in a factorized anisotropic medium, and we used an approximate imaging moveout formulation (residual moveout after imaging) to update the velocity model when the wrong model parameters (isotropic assumption) were used for imaging. We then used these analytical representations of the image moveout to establish a semblance analysis framework to search for the optimal anisotropic parameters. We have also discussed different parameterizations of the factorized medium to find the one that gave the best accuracy in anisotropy parameters estimation.

  4. The room-temperature synthesis of anisotropic CdHgTe quantum dot alloys: a "molecular welding" effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shohei; Green, Mark; Lim, Teck

    2011-03-16

    The room-temperature chemical transformation of spherical CdTe nanoparticles into anisotropic alloyed CdHgTe particles using mercury bromide in a toluene/methanol system at room temperature has been investigated. The resulting materials readily dissolved in toluene and exhibited a significant red-shift in the optical properties toward the infrared region. Structural transformations were observed, with electron microscopy showing that the CdTe nanoparticles were chemically attached ('welded') to other CdTe nanoparticles, creating highly complex anisotropic heterostructures which also incorporated mercury.

  5. Temperature-Dependent Asymmetry of Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Silicon p-n Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D Z; Wang, T; Sui, W B; Si, M S; Guo, D W; Shi, Z; Wang, F C; Xue, D S

    2015-09-01

    We report a large but asymmetric magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions, which contrasts with the fact of magnetoresistance being symmetric in magnetic metals and semiconductors. With temperature decreasing from 293 K to 100 K, the magnetoresistance sharply increases from 50% to 150% under a magnetic field of 2 T. At the same time, an asymmetric magnetoresistance, which manifests itself as a magnetoresistance voltage offset with respect to the sign of magnetic field, occurs and linearly increases with magnetoresistance. More interestingly, in contrast with other materials, the lineshape of anisotropic magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions significantly depends on temperature. As temperature decreases from 293 K to 100 K, the width of peak shrinks from 90° to 70°. We ascribe these novel magnetoresistance to the asymmetric geometry of the space charge region in p-n junction induced by the magnetic field. In the vicinity of the space charge region the current paths are deflected, contributing the Hall field to the asymmetric magnetoresistance. Therefore, the observed temperature-dependent asymmetry of magnetoresistance is proved to be a direct consequence of the spatial configuration evolution of space charge region with temperature.

  6. Simulation of the passive UHF devices on the basis of high-temperature superconductors for planar multilayer anisotropic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gashinova, M S; Kolmakov, Y A; Vendik, I B

    2002-01-01

    The electrodynamic analysis of the arbitrary multilayer medium, including the anisotropic layers and containing the arbitrary form conductors is carried out. Thin layers of the high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) are considered as conductors. Determination of the surface current density is a result of the numerical solution. Accounting for the losses in the HTSC is accomplished on the basis of determining the equivalent surface impedance and using the Leontovich boundary conditions. Anisotropy is accounted for in the determination of the Green spectral dyad for the structure with arbitrary number of the anisotropic or isotropic layers. Calculation of the surface current density distribution demonstrates the correctness of the proposed model

  7. Calculation of the thermal utilization factor in a heterogeneous slab cell scattering neutrons anisotropically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, A M; Elsherbiny, E M; Sobhy, M [Reactor departement, nuclear research centre, Inshaas, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The P{sub n}-spatial expansion method has been used for calculating the one speed transport utilization factor in heterogenous slab cells in which neutrons may scatter anisotropically; by considering the P{sup 1-} approximation with a two-term scattering kernel in both the fuel and moderator regions, an analytical expression for the disadvantage factor has been derived. The numerical results obtained have been shown to be much better than those calculated by the usual P{sup 1-} and P{sup 3-} approximations and comparable with those obtained by some exact methods. 3 tabs.

  8. Phase transition in anisotropic holographic superfluids with arbitrary dynamical critical exponent z and hyperscaling violation factor α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Miok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jiwon; Oh, Jae-Hyuk [Hanyang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Einstein-scalar-U(2) gauge field theory is considered in a spacetime characterized by α and z, which are the hyperscaling violation factor and the dynamical critical exponent, respectively. We consider a dual fluid system of such a gravity theory characterized by temperature T and chemical potential μ. It turns out that there is a superfluid phase transition where a vector order parameter appears which breaks SO(3) global rotation symmetry of the dual fluid system when the chemical potential becomes a certain critical value. To study this system for arbitrary z and α, we first apply Sturm-Liouville theory and estimate the upper bounds of the critical values of the chemical potential. We also employ a numerical method in the ranges of 1 ≤ z ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ α ≤ 4 to check if the Sturm-Liouville method correctly estimates the critical values of the chemical potential. It turns out that the two methods are agreed within 10 percent error ranges. Finally, we compute free energy density of the dual fluid by using its gravity dual and check if the system shows phase transition at the critical values of the chemical potential μ{sub c} for the given parameter region of α and z. Interestingly, it is observed that the anisotropic phase is more favored than the isotropic phase for relatively small values of z and α. However, for large values of z and α, the anisotropic phase is not favored. (orig.)

  9. Elevated temperature dependence of the anisotropic visible-to-ultraviolet dielectric function of monoclinic β-Ga2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, A.; VanDerslice, J.; Korlacki, R.; Woollam, J. A.; Schubert, M.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of the dielectric tensor elements of n-type conductive β-Ga2O3 from 22 °C to 550 °C in the spectral range of 1.5 eV-6.4 eV. We present the temperature dependence of the excitonic and band-to-band transition energy parameters using a previously described eigendielectric summation approach [A. Mock et al., Phys. Rev. B 96, 245205 (2017)]. We utilize a Bose-Einstein analysis of the temperature dependence of the observed transition energies and reveal electron coupling with average phonon temperature in excellent agreement with the average over all longitudinal phonon plasmon coupled modes reported previously [M. Schubert et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 125209 (2016)]. We also report a linear temperature dependence of the wavelength independent Cauchy expansion coefficient for the anisotropic below-band-gap monoclinic dielectric tensor elements.

  10. Finite temperature effects on anisotropic pressure and equation of state of dense neutron matter in an ultrastrong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A. A.; Yang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-polarized states in dense neutron matter with the recently developed Skyrme effective interaction (BSk20 parametrization) are considered in the magnetic fields H up to 10 20 G at finite temperature. In a strong magnetic field, the total pressure in neutron matter is anisotropic, and the difference between the pressures parallel and perpendicular to the field direction becomes significant at H>H th ∼10 18 G. The longitudinal pressure decreases with the magnetic field and vanishes in the critical field 10 18 c 19 G, resulting in the longitudinal instability of neutron matter. With increasing temperature, the threshold H th and critical H c magnetic fields also increase. The appearance of the longitudinal instability prevents the formation of a fully spin-polarized state in neutron matter and only the states with moderate spin polarization are accessible. The anisotropic equation of state is determined at densities and temperatures relevant to the interiors of magnetars. The entropy of strongly magnetized neutron matter turns out to be larger than the entropy of nonpolarized matter. This is caused by some specific details in the dependence of the entropy on the effective masses of neutrons with spin up and spin down in a polarized state.

  11. Highly anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lidong; Zhang, Songlin; Zhang, Jian; Ping Liu, J.; Xia, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yan, Aru; Yi, Jianhong; Li, Wei; Guo, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) has been shown to be a promising method for preparing rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) nanoflakes and nanoparticles. In this work, we prepared SmCo 5 nanoflakes by SABM at low temperature, and 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine were specially selected as solvent and surfactant, respectively, due to their low melting points. The effects of milling temperature on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic performance of SmCo 5 nanoflakes were investigated systematically. Comparing with the samples milled at room temperature, the SmCo 5 nanoflakes prepared at low temperature displayed more homogeneous morphology and lower oxygen content. Remarkably, better crystallinity, better grain alignment and larger remanence ratio were shown in the samples milled at low temperature, which resulted from the distinct microstructure caused by low milling temperature. The differences in structural evolution between the SmCo 5 nanoflakes milled at room temperature and low temperature, including the formation of nanocrystalline, grain boundary sliding, grain rotation, et al., were discussed. It was found that lowering the temperature of SABM was a powerful method for the fabrication of RE-TM nanoflakes, which showed better hard magnetic properties and lower oxygen content. This was important for the preparation of high-performance sintered magnets, bonded magnets and nanocomposite magnets. - Highlights: • We prepare SmCo 5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature. • Better grain alignment and higher remanence ratio are achieved. • The oxygen content is reduced by lowering the milling temperature. • A distinct microstructural evolution caused by low milling temperature is clarified

  12. Large room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance and electroresistance in single ferromagnet/Nb:SrTiO3 Schottky devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerbeek, Alexander M; Ruiter, Roald; Banerjee, Tamalika

    2018-01-22

    There is a large effort in research and development to realize electronic devices capable of storing information in new ways - for instance devices which simultaneously exhibit electro and magnetoresistance. However it remains a challenge to create devices in which both effects coexist. In this work we show that the well-known electroresistance in noble metal-Nb:SrTiO 3 Schottky junctions can be augmented by a magnetoresistance effect in the same junction. This is realized by replacing the noble metal electrode with ferromagnetic Co. This magnetoresistance manifests as a room temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR). The maximum room temperature TAMR (1.6%) is significantly larger and robuster with bias than observed earlier, not using Nb:SrTiO 3 . In a different set of devices, a thin amorphous AlO x interlayer inserted between Co and Nb:SrTiO 3 , reduces the TAMR by more than 2 orders of magnitude. This points to the importance of intimate contact between the Co and Nb:SrTiO 3 for the TAMR effect. This is explained by electric field enhanced spin-orbit coupling of the interfacial Co layer in contact with Nb:SrTiO 3 . We propose that the large TAMR likely has its origin in the 3d orbital derived conduction band and large relative permittivity of Nb:SrTiO 3 and discuss ways to further enhance the TAMR.

  13. Lower hybrid drift instability in a current sheet with anisotropic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Feng; Liu Guohong; Yan Fei; Deng Yan; Chen Yinhua; Yu, M Y; Chen Hanshuang

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the temperature anisotropy on the lower hybrid drift instability (LHDI) in a current sheet is investigated using local kinetic theory. It is found that the ratio r te of the perpendicular to parallel electron temperatures can significantly affect the instability. In fact, a critical value exists r te = r te * , such that when r te >r te * the LHD waves are unstable if the perpendicular wave vector k y is between two threshold values, and when r te te * the LHD mode is stable for any k y . It is also found that r te * increases and the unstable LHD regime shrinks as the parallel wave vector k z increases. That is, sufficiently low perpendicular electron temperature can stabilize the LHDI, especially that of short parallel wavelength. (paper)

  14. Anisotropic Azimuthal Power and Temperature distribution on FuelRod. Impact on Hydride Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Arramova, Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Hales, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The degradation of the zirconium cladding may limit nuclear fuel performance. In the high temperature environment of a reactor, the zirconium in the cladding corrodes, releasing hydrogen in the process. Some of this hydrogen is absorbed by the cladding in a highly inhomogeneous manner. The distribution of the absorbed hydrogen is extremely sensitive to temperature and stress concentration gradients. The absorbed hydrogen tends to concentrate near lower temperatures. This hydrogen absorption and hydride formation can cause cladding failure. This project set out to improve the hydrogen distribution prediction capabilities of the BISON fuel performance code. The project was split into two primary sections, first was the use of a high fidelity multi-physics coupling to accurately predict temperature gradients as a function of r, θ , and z, and the second was to use experimental data to create an analytical hydrogen precipitation model. The Penn State version of thermal hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF) was successfully coupled to the DeCART neutronics code. This coupled system was verified by testing and validated by comparison to FRAPCON data. The hydrogen diffusion and precipitation experiments successfully calculated the heat of transport and precipitation rate constant values to be used within the hydrogen model in BISON. These values can only be determined experimentally. These values were successfully implemented in precipitation, diffusion and dissolution kernels that were implemented in the BISON code. The coupled output was fed into BISON models and the hydrogen and hydride distributions behaved as expected. Simulations were conducted in the radial, axial and azimuthal directions to showcase the full capabilities of the hydrogen model.

  15. Surface-plasmon-induced modification on the spontaneous emission spectrum via subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ying; Wang, Luojia; Ren, Pan; Zhang, Junxiang; Zhang, Tiancai; Martin, Olivier J F; Gong, Qihuang

    2012-05-09

    The mechanism of using the anisotropic Purcell factor to control the spontaneous emission linewidths in a four-level atom is theoretically demonstrated; if the polarization angle bisector of the two dipole moments lies along the axis of large/small Purcell factor, destructive/constructive interference narrows/widens the fluorescence center spectral lines. Large anisotropy of the Purcell factor, confined in the subwavelength optical mode volume, leads to rapid spectral line narrowing of atom approaching a metallic nanowire, nanoscale line width pulsing following periodically varying decay rates near a periodic metallic nanostructure, and dramatic modification on the spontaneous emission spectrum near a custom-designed resonant plasmon nanostructure. The combined system opens a good perspective for applications in ultracompact active quantum devices.

  16. Poling effects on anisotropic temperature changes in NMR second moments of drawn PVDF films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Fumiaki; Sawatari, Takanori; Odajima, Akira

    1982-01-01

    For the drawn PVDF film, the NMR second moment vs temperature curves at 0 0 and 90 0 of the alignment angle (γ) cross over each other during the motional narrowing in the Tsub(g) region (-- -50 0 C). On poling, however, they decrease almost in parallel up to -20 0 C and show another narrowing above 30 0 C depending strongly on γ. These findings indicate that the molecular chain is oriented in the non-crystalline region and the poling more clearly separates low orientations from high orientations. The increase in the high orientation part should be attributed to polarization in the oriented non-crystalline region. (author)

  17. Anisotropic dielectric response of lead zirconate crystals in the terahertz and infrared range at low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Kroupa, Jan; Železný, Vladimír; Hlinka, Jiří; Petzelt, Jan; Dec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 1129-1137 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferroelectrics * infrared and terahertz spectroscopy * lead zirconate * phonons * complex dielectric permittivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  18. Prospect for room temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance effect: Density of statesanisotropies in CoPt systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shick, Alexander; Máca, František; Mašek, Jan; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 2 (2006), 024418/1-024418/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100100530 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : tunneling magnetoresistance * metallic ferromagnets * magnetocrystalline anisotropies Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.107, year: 2006

  19. Simultaneous reconstruction of thermal degradation properties for anisotropic scattering fibrous insulation after high temperature thermal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuyuan; Zhang, Wenjiao; He, Xiaodong; Li, Jianjun; Yao, Yongtao; Lin, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    To probe thermal degradation behavior of fibrous insulation for long-term service, an inverse analysis model was developed to simultaneously reconstruct thermal degradation properties of fibers after thermal exposures from the experimental thermal response data, by using the measured infrared spectral transmittance and X-ray phase analysis data as direct inputs. To take into account the possible influence of fibers degradation after thermal exposure on the conduction heat transfer, we introduced a new parameter in the thermal conductivity model. The effect of microstructures on the thermal degradation parameters was evaluated. It was found that after high temperature thermal exposure the decay rate of the radiation intensity passing through the material was weakened, and the probability of being scattered decreased during the photons traveling in the medium. The fibrous medium scattered more radiation into the forward directions. The shortened heat transfer path due to possible mechanical degradation, along with the enhancement of mean free path of phonon scattering as devitrification after severe heat treatment, made the coupled solid/gas thermal conductivities increase with the rise of heat treatment temperature. - Highlights: • A new model is developed to probe conductive and radiative properties degradation of fibers. • To characterize mechanical degradation, a new parameter is introduced in the model. • Thermal degradation properties are reconstructed from experiments by L–M algorithm. • The effect of microstructures on the thermal degradation parameters is evaluated. • The analysis provides a powerful tool to quantify thermal degradation of fiber medium

  20. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  1. Consequences of Spin-Orbit Coupling at the Single Hole Level: Spin-Flip Tunneling and the Anisotropic g Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, A; Studenikin, S A; Korkusinski, M; Aers, G C; Gaudreau, L; Zawadzki, P; Sachrajda, A S; Tracy, L A; Reno, J L; Hargett, T W

    2017-04-21

    Hole transport experiments were performed on a gated double quantum dot device defined in a p-GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with a single hole occupancy in each dot. The charging diagram of the device was mapped out using charge detection confirming that the single hole limit is reached. In that limit, a detailed study of the two-hole spin system was performed using high bias magnetotransport spectroscopy. In contrast to electron systems, the hole spin was found not to be conserved during interdot resonant tunneling. This allows one to fully map out the two-hole energy spectrum as a function of the magnitude and the direction of the external magnetic field. The heavy-hole g factor was extracted and shown to be strongly anisotropic, with a value of 1.45 for a perpendicular field and close to zero for an in-plane field as required for hybridizing schemes between spin and photonic quantum platforms.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  3. Lattice dynamical appraisal of the anisotropic Debye-Waller factors in graphite lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, T.M.; Sathyamurthy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Debye-Waller factors in graphite for the atomic motions within the basal plane and also across the basal planes have been calculated using the various lattice dynamical models available to date and a critical comparison is made with the existing experimental data from X ray and neutron scattering studies. The present study reveals the need for further investigation on the nature of atomic motion across the basal planes. (author). 15 refs, 1 tab

  4. Magnetostatics of anisotropic superconducting ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    The magnetization and the magnetic field distribution inside (outside) an anisotropic type II superconducting ellipsoid, with filamentary structure, is formulated. We have shown that the magnetic field in this case is different from that of the general anisotropic one. The nucleations of the flux lines for specimens with large demagnetization factors are theoretically studied. We have shown that the nucleations of the flux lines, for specimens with large demagnetization factor, appears at a field larger than that of ellipsoidal shape. (author). 15 refs

  5. Anisotropic Rabi model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of th...

  6. First-principles study of optical, elastic anisotropic and thermodynamic properties of TiN under high temperature and high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical, elastic anisotropic and thermodynamic properties of TiN in the NaCl (B1 structure are analyzed in detail in the temperature range from 0 to 2000 K and the pressure range from 0 to 20 GPa. From the calculated dielectric constants, a first order isostructural phase transition between 29 and 30 GPa is found for TiN. The absorption spectra exhibit high values ranging from the far infrared region to the ultra-violet one. The anisotropy value of Young's modulus of TiN is smaller than that of c-BN at 0 GPa and the anisotropy of TiN clearly increases with an increase of pressure. The effects of pressure and temperature on the bulk modulus, Grüneisen parameter, Gibbs free energy, and Debye temperature are significant. The Grüneisen parameter of TiN is much larger than that of c-BN. At temperatures below 1000 K, TiN's heat capacity is much larger than that of c-BN.

  7. Highly anisotropic SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lidong; Zhang, Songlin [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangj@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Ping Liu, J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Xia, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yi, Jianhong [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Li, Wei; Guo, Zhaohui [Division of Functional Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) has been shown to be a promising method for preparing rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) nanoflakes and nanoparticles. In this work, we prepared SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by SABM at low temperature, and 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine were specially selected as solvent and surfactant, respectively, due to their low melting points. The effects of milling temperature on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic performance of SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes were investigated systematically. Comparing with the samples milled at room temperature, the SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes prepared at low temperature displayed more homogeneous morphology and lower oxygen content. Remarkably, better crystallinity, better grain alignment and larger remanence ratio were shown in the samples milled at low temperature, which resulted from the distinct microstructure caused by low milling temperature. The differences in structural evolution between the SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes milled at room temperature and low temperature, including the formation of nanocrystalline, grain boundary sliding, grain rotation, et al., were discussed. It was found that lowering the temperature of SABM was a powerful method for the fabrication of RE-TM nanoflakes, which showed better hard magnetic properties and lower oxygen content. This was important for the preparation of high-performance sintered magnets, bonded magnets and nanocomposite magnets. - Highlights: • We prepare SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature. • Better grain alignment and higher remanence ratio are achieved. • The oxygen content is reduced by lowering the milling temperature. • A distinct microstructural evolution caused by low milling temperature is clarified.

  8. Dynamics of ordering in highly degenerate models with anisotropic grain-boundary potential: Effects of temperature and vortex formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1989-01-01

    -temperature Potts-ordered phase to an intermediate phase which lacks conventional long-range order, and another transition which takes the system to the high-temperature disordered phase. The linear nature of the sine potential used makes it a marginal case in the sense that it favors neither hard domain boundaries...

  9. Effect of the As-Forged and Heat-Treated Microstructure on the Room Temperature Anisotropic Ductile Fracture of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Javad; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Farmanesh, Khosro

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of the present work was to investigate the effect of primary carbides and the δ-phase on the anisotropic ductile fracture of Inconel 718 in the forging process. Inconel 718 alloys were prepared by VIM + VAR processes with various carbon contents (0.009 and 0.027 wt.%). Then, the alloys were forged and annealed at temperatures of 980 and 1030 °C. The room temperature mechanical anisotropy of the alloys was evaluated at the longitudinal direction (LD) and transverse direction (TD). Tensile and impact tests were used to characterize the mechanical properties of the specimens. The microstructural characterization and the fractography of the alloys were carried out by FE-SEM. The obtained results showed that the fracture strain and the impact energy in the TD were 30-50% lower than the LD. The fracture was accelerated by the δ-phase, leading to the reduction of impact energy in the longitudinal and the lateral directions up to 50%. The low-carbon alloy indicated similar characteristics in both the LD and the TD. Aligned carbides changed the fracture path from a zigzag path in the LD to a fibrous path in the TD, while the δ-phase created a flat fracture path. The shear lip area ratio in the tensile fracture cross section was decreased by reducing ductility.

  10. High anisotropic NdFeB submicro/nanoflakes prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiaoxin; Jin, Kunpeng; Abbas, Nadeem; Fang, Qiuli; Wang, Fang; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Yan, Aru; Liu, J. Ping; Zhang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Hard magnetic NdFeB submicro/nanoflakes were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature (SABMLT) by specially using 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine (TOA) as solvent and surfactant, respectively. Influences of the amount of TOA and milling temperature on the crystal structure, morphology and magnetic performances of the as-prepared NdFeB powders were investigated systematically. There is significant difference on morphology between the NdFeB powders milled at room and low temperature. The NdFeB powders with flaky morphology could be obtained even with a small amount of TOA by SABMLT, which could not be achieved by surfactant-assisted ball milling at room temperature (SABMRT). The better crystallinity, better grain alignment, higher coercivity, larger saturation magnetization and remanence ratio were achieved in the samples prepared by SABMLT. Furthermore, the final NdFeB powders prepared by SABMLT possessed a lower amount of residual TOA than those prepared by SABMRT. It was demonstrated that SABMLT is a promising way to fabricate rare-earth-transition metal nanoflakes with high anisotropy for permanent magnetic materials. The effective method of preparing NdFeB flakes by lowering temperature will be also useful to fabricate flakes of other functional materials.

  11. Observation of magnetically anisotropic defects during stage I recovery in nickel after low-temperature electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsch, K.; Hemmerich, J.; Knoll, H.; Lucki, G.

    1974-01-01

    The measurement of defect-induced changes of magnetic anisotropy in a nickel single crystal after low-temperature electron irradiation was undertaken. A dynamic measuring method was used after reorienting a certain fraction of the radiation-induced defects in an external magnetic field of 5 kOe. In the temperature range of recovery stage I sub(C,D,E) (45 to 60 k) the crystallographic direction dependence of defect-induced anisotropy could be determined. The results show that in this temperature range the (100) split interstitial is mobile and able to reorient. The obtained data are further discussed with respect to existing information on magnetic after effect and resistivity annealing in electron-irradiated nickel

  12. The two-dimensional vibrating reed technique. A study of anisotropic pinning in high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karelina, Anna

    2004-02-18

    In this work the anisotropy of the pinning forces of vortices in a-b plane of high temperature-supraconductors was examined. For this purpose vibrating reed with two degrees of freedom of the oscillation was constructed. The pinning forces were examined in single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The experiments with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} show that at temperatures lower than 78 K the vortices are in a nonequilibrium state. This leads to a flux creep and to a drift of the resonance frequency with time. This prevents the comparison of resonance curves in different directions of oscillations. In Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals the vortices are in more stable state, but the measurements of the resonance curves in different directions show no indication of the four-fold symmetry. At temperatures below 60 K a strong hysteresis of the resonance frequency and the resonance-oscillation amplitude was found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystals as a function of the magnetic field. (orig.)

  13. A modified phase coherence model for the non-linear c-axis V-I characteristics of highly anisotropic, high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Luo Sheng; Huang Sai Jun; He Yu Sheng; Li Chun Guang; Zhang Xue Qiang

    2003-01-01

    A modified Ambegaokar-Halperin thermal-fluctuation model has been developed to describe the c-axis V-I characteristics and low-current ohmic resistance of highly anisotropic superconductors in a magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. The model assumes loss of phase coherence across the CuO-planes associated with the correlated motion of pancake vortices in the liquid state. The predicted V-I characteristics in the current-induced transition from the superconducting to the resistive state are in good agreement with measurements on a 2212-BSCCO single crystal as a function of temperature and field, provided the effect of the interlayer capacitance is taken into account. The measurements are consistent with a flux pancake correlation length within the CuO-planes varying as xi sub 0 /(T/T sub 0 - 1) supnu, where xi sub 0 = 1.57 +- 0.08 mu m and nu = 0.50 +- 0.01. Our measurements imply a current-dependent interlayer resistance above and below T sub c.

  14. Finite strain anisotropic elasto-plastic model for the simulation of the forming and testing of metal/short fiber reinforced polymer clinch joints at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, A.; Rolfes, R.; Behrens, A.; Bouguecha, A.; Hübner, S.; Bonk, C.; Grbic, N.

    2017-10-01

    There is a strong trend in the automotive industry to reduce car body-, chassis- and power-train mass in order to lower carbon emissions. More wide spread use of lightweight short fiber reinforced polymer (SFRP) is a promising approach to attain this goal. This poses the challenge of how to integrate new SFRP components by joining them to traditional sheet metal structures. Recently (1), the clinching technique has been successfully applied as a suitable joining method for dissimilar material such as SFRP and Aluminum. The material pairing PA6GF30 and EN AW 5754 is chosen for this purpose due to their common application in industry. The current contribution presents a verification and validation of a finite strain anisotropic material model for SFRP developed in (2) for the FE simulation of the hybrid clinching process. The finite fiber rotation during forming and separation, and thus the change of the preferential material direction, is represented in this model. Plastic deformations in SFRP are considered in this model via an invariant based non-associated plasticity formulation following the multiplicative decomposition approach of the deformation gradient where the stress-free intermediate configuration is introduced. The model allows for six independent characterization curves. The aforementioned material model allows for a detailed simulation of the forming process as well as a simulative prediction of the shear test strength of the produced joint at room temperature.

  15. Room temperature deposition of perpendicular magnetic anisotropic Co{sub 3}Pt thin films on glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Shen; Dai, Hong-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China); Ou, Sin-Liang, E-mail: slo@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shi-Wei [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Lu, Hsi-Chuan; Wang, Sea-Fue [Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sun, An-Cheng, E-mail: acsun@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan-Ze University, Chung-Li 32003, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    Co{sub 3}Pt alloy thin films were deposited on the glass substrate at room temperature (RT) and 300 °C, which showed high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and isotropy magnetic behaviors, respectively. Co{sub 3}Pt HCP (0002) planes grew along the substrate plane for the films deposited at RT. The easy axis [0001] was consequently vertical to the substrate surface and obtained the predominant PMA. Large magnetic domains and sharp boundary also supported high PMA in RT-deposited samples. On the other hand, the PMA was significantly decreased with increasing the deposition temperature from RT to 300 °C. Hard HCP(0002) and soft A1(111) co-existed in the film and the magnetic exchanged coupling between these two phases induced isotropy magnetic behavior. In addition, the various thicknesses (t) of the RT-deposited Co{sub 3}Pt films were deposited with different base pressures prior to sputtering. The Kerr rotation loops showed high PMA and out-of-plane squareness (S{sub ⊥}) of ~0.9 were found in low base pressure chamber. Within high base pressure chamber, Co{sub 3}Pt films just show magnetic isotropy behaviors. This study provides a fabrication method for the preparation of high PMA HCP-type Co{sub 3}Pt films on the glass substrate without any underlayer at RT. The results could be the base for future development of RT-deposited magnetic alloy thin film with high PMA. - Highlights: • Fabricated high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Co{sub 3}Pt thin film on glass substrate. • Prepared HCP Co{sub 3}Pt thin film at room temperature. • The key to enhance the PMA of the Co{sub 3}Pt films. • Thinner film is good to fabricate PMA Co{sub 3}Pt thin films.

  16. EFIT tokamak equilibria with toroidal flow and anisotropic pressure using the two-temperature guiding-centre plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Hole, M.J.; Appel, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    A new force balance model for the EFIT magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium technique for tokamaks is presented which includes the full toroidal flow and anisotropy changes to the Grad–Shafranov equation. The free functions are poloidal flux functions and all non-linear contributions to the toroidal current density are treated iteratively. The parallel heat flow approximation chosen for the model is that parallel temperature is a flux function and that both parallel and perpendicular pressures may be described using parallel and perpendicular temperatures. This choice for the fluid thermodynamics has been shown elsewhere to be the same as a guiding-centre kinetic solution of the same problem under the same assumptions. The model reduces identically to the static and isotropic Grad–Shafranov equation in the appropriate limit as different flux functions are set to zero. An analytical solution based on a modified Soloviev solution for non-zero toroidal flow and anisotropy is also presented. The force balance model has been demonstrated in the code EFIT TENSOR, a branch of the existing code EFIT++. Benchmark results for EFIT TENSOR are presented and the more complicated force balance model is found to converge to force balance similarly to the usual EFIT model and with comparable speed. (paper)

  17. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  18. Temperature and thickness dependence of tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in exchange-biased Py/IrMn/MgO/Ta stacks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichlová, Helena; Novák, Vít; Kurosaki, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Nishide, A.; Hayakawa, J.; Takahashi, H.; Maryško, Miroslav; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 7 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 076406. ISSN 2053-1591 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 610115 - SC2 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * antiferromagnets * tunneling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2016

  19. Emergence of entanglement with temperature and time in factorization-surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Titas; Das, Tamoghna; Sadhukhan, Debasis; Pal, Amit Kumar; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2018-01-01

    There exist zero-temperature states in quantum many-body systems that are fully factorized, thereby possessing vanishing entanglement, and hence being of no use as resource in quantum information processing tasks. Such states can become useful for quantum protocols when the temperature of the system is increased, and when the system is allowed to evolve under either the influence of an external environment, or a closed unitary evolution driven by its own Hamiltonian due to a sudden change in the system parameters. Using the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model in a uniform and an alternating transverse magnetic field, we show that entanglement of the thermal states, corresponding to the factorization points in the space of the system parameters, revives once or twice with increasing temperature. We also study the closed unitary evolution of the quantum spin chain driven out of equilibrium when the external magnetic fields are turned off, and show that considerable entanglement is generated during the dynamics, when the initial state has vanishing entanglement. Interestingly, we find that creation of entanglement for a pair of spins is possible when the system is made open to an external heat bath, interacting with the system through that spin-pair via a repetitive quantum interaction.

  20. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper proposes a new slip factor based three-dimensional thermal model to predict the temperature distribution during friction stir welding of 304L stainless steel plates. The proposed model employs temperature and radius dependent heat source to study the thermal cycle, temperature distribution, power required, the ...

  1. Holographic models with anisotropic scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjolfsson, E. J.; Danielsson, U. H.; Thorlacius, L.; Zingg, T.

    2013-12-01

    We consider gravity duals to d+1 dimensional quantum critical points with anisotropic scaling. The primary motivation comes from strongly correlated electron systems in condensed matter theory but the main focus of the present paper is on the gravity models in their own right. Physics at finite temperature and fixed charge density is described in terms of charged black branes. Some exact solutions are known and can be used to obtain a maximally extended spacetime geometry, which has a null curvature singularity inside a single non-degenerate horizon, but generic black brane solutions in the model can only be obtained numerically. Charged matter gives rise to black branes with hair that are dual to the superconducting phase of a holographic superconductor. Our numerical results indicate that holographic superconductors with anisotropic scaling have vanishing zero temperature entropy when the back reaction of the hair on the brane geometry is taken into account.

  2. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i) quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii) solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii) mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  3. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  4. Iron particle and anisotropic effects on mechanical properties of magneto-sensitive elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Lee, Dong-Joo

    2017-11-01

    Rubber specimens were prepared by mixing micron-sized iron particles dispersed in room-temperature-vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber by solution mixing. The possible correlations of the particle volume, size, and distribution with the mechanical properties of the specimens were examined. An isotropic mechanical test shows that at 60 phr, the elastic modulus was 3.29 MPa (electrolyte), 2.92 MPa (carbonyl), and 2.61 MPa (hybrid). The anisotropic effect was examined by curing the specimen under magnetic fields of 0.5-2.0 T at 90° relative to the applied strain. The measurements show anisotropic effects of 11% (carbonyl), 9% (electrolyte), and 6% (hybrid) at 40 phr and 1 T. At 80 phr, the polymer-filler compatibility factor (c-factor) was estimated using the Pythagorean theorem as 0.53 (regular) and 0.73 (anisotropic studies). The improved features could be useful in applications such as controlled damping, vibrational absorption, or automotive bushings.

  5. Anisotropic densification of reference steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Bates, J.F.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1975-09-01

    A correlation is presented for the densification expected during neutron irradiation of 20 percent CW 316 stainless steel cladding of FTR specification. The densification is known to be a function of time, prior heat treatment, cold work level, irradiation temperature and minor element composition. For FTR fuel pin use, the temperature and carbon composition were chosen as the only relevant variables on which to base the correlation. The densification of FTR cladding is expected to be slightly anisotropic, leading to a diameter change somewhat less than that predicted by the isotropic relationship ΔD = -D 0 /3

  6. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-05-15

    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor Δ with the help of both metric potentials e{sup ν} and e{sup λ}. Here we consider e{sup λ} the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas e{sup ν} is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model. (orig.)

  7. On Pokrovskii's anisotropic gap equations in superconductivity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yisong

    2003-11-01

    An existence and uniqueness theorem for Pokrovskii's zero-temperature anisotropic gap equation is proved. Furthermore, it is shown that Pokrovskii's finite-temperature equation is inconsistent with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. A reformulation of the anisotropic gap equation is presented along the line of Pokrovskii and it is shown that the new equation is consistent with the BCS theory for the whole temperature range. As an application, the Markowitz-Kadanoff model for anisotropic superconductivity is considered and a rigorous proof of the half-integer-exponent isotope effect is obtained. Furthermore, a sharp estimate of the gap solution near the transition temperature is established.

  8. Temperature as a proximate factor in orientation behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, W.W.

    1977-05-01

    Temperature serves as a proximate factor (cue, guidepost, sign stimulus, or directive factor) affecting locomotor responses of fishes. Although temperature can also serve as an ultimate ecological factor, as in behavioral thermoregulation, nonthermal factors may in some cases provide the ultimate adaptive or ecological value of a temperature response; some examples are habitat selection, intraspecific size segregation, interspecific niche differentiation, isolating mechanisms, predator avoidance, prey location, escape reactions, and migrations (thermoperiodic, diel, seasonal, spawning). Conversely, nonthermal variables such as light intensity or water depth may act as accessory proximate factors in thermoregulation. In spawning migrations, thermal requirements of eggs and larvae may take precedence over the (often different) preferenda or optima of adults. Although thermal responses of fishes are largely innate and species specific, ontogenetic and other changes can occur. Since temperature can serve as an unconditioned reinforcer in operant conditioning, thermal responses are not limited to simple kineses or taxes. Nonthermal factors such as photoperiod, circadian rhythms, currents, social and biotic interactions, stresses, infections, or chemicals can affect thermal responses, and may account for some lack of conformity between laboratory preferenda and field distributions and behaviors.

  9. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  10. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  11. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwong, P; Higgins, J S; Hampshire, D P

    2014-06-01

    We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (Jc) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ~0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J(c) measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I(max)) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b'), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T(max)). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI(max)/A = [1.46D(-0.18)L(0.4)(T(max) - 300)(0.25D(-0.09)) + 750(b'/I(max))D(10(-3)I(max)-2.87b') × 10⁶ A m⁻¹ where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm(2) is obtained when I(max) = 1000 A, T(max) = 400 K, D = 0.2, b' = 0.3 l h(-1) and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l h(-1). When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I(max)  ≈ (1.35 × 10(-3))D(0.41) l h(‑1) A(-1). A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in our high

  12. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunwong, P.; Higgins, J. S.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (J c ) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ∼0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J c measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I max ) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b ′ ), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T max ). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI max /A=[1.46D −0.18 L 0.4 (T max −300) 0.25D −0.09 +750(b ′ /I max )D 10 −3 I max −2.87b ′ ]× 10 6 A m −1 where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm 2 is obtained when I max = 1000 A, T max = 400 K, D = 0.2, b ′ = 0.3 l h −1 and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l h −1 . When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I max  ≈ (1.35 × 10 −3 )D 0.41 l h ‑1  A −1 . A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in

  13. Uniformity factor of temperature difference in heat exchanger networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang; Cui, Guo-min

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A uniformity factor of temperature (UFTD) is proposed to heat exchanger network (HEN). • A novel stage-wise superstructure with inner utilities is presented based on UFTD. • New model and DE method is combined as an optimization method. • Optimal HEN structures with inner utilities can be obtained with new method. - Abstract: A uniformity factor of temperature difference (UFTD) is proposed and set up to guide the optimization of Heat exchanger network (HEN). At first, the factor is presented to evaluate the whole enhancement of HEN by handling the logical mean temperature difference as two-dimensional discrete temperature field in system. Then, the factor is applied to different HENs, of which the comparison indicates that a more uniform discrete temperature field leads to a lower UFTD which correlated with a better whole enhancement to improve the optimization level of HEN. A novel stage-wise superstructure model where inner utility can be generated is presented for further analysis of correlation between UFTD and the efficiency of HEN, and more optimal HEN structures can be obtained as inner utility added. Inner utility appears to violate the thermodynamic law, but it makes the discrete temperature field more uniform and improves the heat transfer efficiency of the whole HEN, which brings much more profit than the side effect of inner utility. In sum, the UFTD can not only evaluate the optimization level of the HEN, but also be an optimization object to design new HEN with higher efficiency of energy utilization and lower total annual cost.

  14. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  15. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by magnetic phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Z; Feng, J F; Wang, Z C; Zhang, J; Zhong, X Y; Song, C; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Li, F; Jiang, M; Tan, Y Z; Zhou, X J; Shi, G Y; Zhou, X F; Han, X D; Mao, S C; Chen, Y H; Han, X F; Pan, F

    2017-09-06

    The independent control of two magnetic electrodes and spin-coherent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions are strictly required for tunneling magnetoresistance, while junctions with only one ferromagnetic electrode exhibit tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance dependent on the anisotropic density of states with no room temperature performance so far. Here, we report an alternative approach to obtaining tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in α'-FeRh-based junctions driven by the magnetic phase transition of α'-FeRh and resultantly large variation of the density of states in the vicinity of MgO tunneling barrier, referred to as phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance. The junctions with only one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode show a magnetoresistance ratio up to 20% at room temperature. Both the polarity and magnitude of the phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance can be modulated by interfacial engineering at the α'-FeRh/MgO interface. Besides the fundamental significance, our finding might add a different dimension to magnetic random access memory and antiferromagnet spintronics.Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance is promising for next generation memory devices but limited by the low efficiency and functioning temperature. Here the authors achieved 20% tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature in magnetic tunnel junctions with one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode.

  16. Effects of the safety factor on ion temperature gradient modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.K.; Dong, J.Q.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    A model for the ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven instability is derived from Braginskii magnetohydrodynamic equations of ions. The safety factor q in a toroidal plasma is introduced into the model through the current density J parallel . The effects of q or J parallel on both the ITG instability in k perpendicular and k parallel spectra and the critical stability thresholds are studied. It is shown that the current density // J or the safety factor q plays an important role in stabilizing the ITG instability. (author)

  17. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  18. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-07-15

    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  19. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  20. Anisotropic Thermal Behavior of Silicone Polymer, DC 745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jillian Cathleen [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Torres, Joseph Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Volz, Heather Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gallegos, Jennifer Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    In material applications, it is important to understand how polymeric materials behave in the various environments they may encounter. One factor governing polymer behavior is processing history. Differences in fabrication will result in parts with varied or even unintended properties. In this work, the thermal expansion behavior of silicone DC 745 is studied. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is used to determine changes in sample dimension resulting from changes in temperature. This technique can measure thermal events such as the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), melting, glass transitions, cure shrinkage, and internal relaxations. Using a thermomechanical analyzer (Q400 TMA), it is determined that DC 745 expands anisotropically when heated. This means that the material has a different CTE depending upon which direction is being measured. In this study, TMA experiments were designed in order to confirm anisotropic thermal behavior in multiple DC 745 samples of various ages and lots. TMA parameters such as temperature ramp rate, preload force, and temperature range were optimized in order to ensure the most accurate and useful data. A better understanding of the thermal expansion of DC 745 will allow for more accurate modeling of systems using this material.

  1. Anisotropic phonon coupling in the relaxor ferroelectric (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3 near its high-temperature phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC˜800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf˜0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.

  2. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  3. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  4. Physical factors in cataractogenesis: ambient ultraviolet radiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliney, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    A number of environmental cofactors have been implicated in cataracto-genesis. Two have received the greatest attention: ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and ambient temperature. Unfortunately, both temperature and UVR levels vary similarly with geographical latitude. Careful attention to several more refined physical variables and the geometry of exposure may permit investigators to separate the contributory effects of these two physical agents. This paper briefly reviews the available data, estimates the variation of lenticular temperature with ambient temperature, and provides measurements of short-wavelength (UV-B) UVR exposure to the human eye with different meterological conditions. The study attempts to provide epidemiological investigators with more detailed information necessary to perform more accurate studies of cataract and other ocular pathologies that appear to be related to environmental factors. Ocular UV-B radiation exposure levels were measured at nine locations in the USA near 40 degrees latitude at elevations from sea level to 8000 ft. Terrain reflectance is shown to be much more important than terrain elevation; cloud cover and haze may actually increase ocular exposure; and the value of wearing brimmed hats and spectacles varies with the environment. Several avenues for future research are suggested

  5. Po2 temperature blood factor for blood gas apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisseire, B P; Hérigault, R A; Teisseire, L J; Laurent, D N

    1984-01-01

    PO2 temperature formulae supplied by manufacturers on automatic blood gas apparatus, PO2 corr. = PO2 37 degrees C X 10F X delta T were studied and compared to the experimental determination of the delta log PO2/delta T ratio (Hérigault et al. [10]). Acid-base status at 37 degrees C appeared to have a measurable influence on the PO2 temperature factor; alkalosis increased the delta log PO2/delta T ratio, and the contrary was found for acidosis in comparison with normal acid-base status at 37 degrees C. For the same PO2, measured at 37 degrees C, all the proposed formulae of commercial blood gas automatic apparatus did not give the same temperature corrected PO2. The observed difference between the corrected PO2 may be important and greater than the precision of the initial measurement. To correct the measured PO2 for temperature, a relationship between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 is proposed, between PO2 zero and PO2 180 mmHg, which takes into account measured pH and PO2 values at 37 degrees C:delta log PO2/delta T = [(-0.35 pH + 0.658) X 10(-4) X PO2] + 0.035.

  6. Chiral magnetic effect in the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Taghavi, Seyed Farid

    2015-01-01

    An anisotropic thermal plasma phase of a strongly coupled gauge theory can be holographically modelled by an anisotropic AdS black hole. The temperature and anisotropy parameter of the AdS black hole background of interest http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2011)054 is specified by the location of the horizon and the value of the Dilaton field at the horizon. Interestingly, for the first time, we obtain two functions for the values of the horizon and Dilaton field in terms of the temperature and anisotropy parameter. Then by introducing a number of spinning probe D7-branes in the anisotropic background, we compute the value of the chiral magnetic effect (CME). We observe that in the isotropic and anisotropic plasma the value of the CME is equal for the massless quarks. However, at fixed temperature, raising the anisotropy in the system will increase the value of the CME for the massive quarks.

  7. Temperature-dependent and anisotropic optical response of layered Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4 probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majidi, M. A.; Thoeng, E.; Gogoi, P. K.; Wendt, F.; Wang, S. H.; Santoso, I.; Asmara, T. C.; Handayani, I. P.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Nugroho, A. A.; Ruebhausen, M.; Rusydi, A.; Rübhausen, M.

    2013-01-01

    We study the temperature dependence as well as anisotropy of optical conductivity (sigma(1)) in the pseudocubic single crystal Pr0.5Ca1.5MnO4 using spectrocopic ellipsometry. Three transition temperatures are observed and can be linked to charge-orbital (T-CO/OO similar to 320 K),

  8. Anisotropic conductivity imaging with MREIT using equipotential projection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, Evren [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey); Eyueboglu, B Murat [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-21

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) combines magnetic flux or current density measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface potential measurements to reconstruct images of true conductivity with high spatial resolution. Most of the biological tissues have anisotropic conductivity; therefore, anisotropy should be taken into account in conductivity image reconstruction. Almost all of the MREIT reconstruction algorithms proposed to date assume isotropic conductivity distribution. In this study, a novel MREIT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed to image anisotropic conductivity. Relative anisotropic conductivity values are reconstructed iteratively, using only current density measurements without any potential measurement. In order to obtain true conductivity values, only either one potential or conductivity measurement is sufficient to determine a scaling factor. The proposed technique is evaluated on simulated data for isotropic and anisotropic conductivity distributions, with and without measurement noise. Simulation results show that the images of both anisotropic and isotropic conductivity distributions can be reconstructed successfully.

  9. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  10. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  11. Characterization of Anisotropic Behavior for High Grade Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Huo, Chunyong; Ji, Lingkang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jiming; Ma, Qiurong

    With the developing requirement of nature gas, the property needs of steel for pipe line are higher and higher, especially in strength and toughness. It is necessary to improve the steel grade in order to ensure economic demand and safety. However, with the rise of steel grade, the differences on properties in different orientations (anisotropic behaviors) become more and more obvious after the process of hot rolling, which may affect the prediction of fracture for the pipes seriously (Thinking of isotropic mechanical properties for material in traditional predict way). In order to get the reason for anisotropic mechanics, a series of tests are carried out for high grade steel pipes, including not only mechanical properties but also microstructures. Result indicates that there are obviously anisotropic behaviors for high grade steel pipes in two orientations (rolling orientation and transverse orientation). Strength is better in T orientation because Rm is higher and Rt 0.5 rises more in T orientation, and toughness is better in L orientation because of the higher Akv and SA in L orientation under a same temperature. Banded structures are formed in T orientation, and the spatial distribution of inclusion and precipitated phases are different in T, L and S orientation. The anisotropic arrangement for the matrix in space (banded structures), which is formed after the process of hot rolling, may affect the mechanical properties in different orientation. Moreover, the elasticity modulus of particles is different from the elasticity modulus of matrix, deformation between particles and matrix may cause stress concentration, and damage forms in this place. Because of the different distribution of particles in space, the level of damage is anisotropic in different orientations, and the anisotropic mechanical properties occur finally. Therefore, the anisotropic mechanical properties are determined by the anisotropic microstructures, both the anisotropic of matrix and the

  12. Jets in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir [Shahrood University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Southampton, STAG Research Centre Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Morad, Razieh [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of the light quark jet moving through the static, strongly coupled N = 4, anisotropic plasma with and without charge. The light quark is presented by a 2-parameters point-like initial condition falling string in the context of the AdS/CFT. We calculate the stopping distance of the light quark in the anisotropic medium and compare it with its isotropic value. We study the dependency of the stopping distance to the both string initial conditions and background parameters such as anisotropy parameter or chemical potential. Although the typical behavior of the string in the anisotropic medium is similar to the one in the isotropic AdS-Sch background, the string falls faster to the horizon depending on the direction of moving. Particularly, the enhancement of quenching is larger in the beam direction. We find that the suppression of stopping distance is more prominent when the anisotropic plasma have the same temperature as the isotropic plasma. (orig.)

  13. RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  14. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  15. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2014-02-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  16. Strongly Anisotropic Electronic Transport at Landau Level Filling Factor ν =9/2 and ν =5/2 under a Tilted Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Tsui, D.C.; Pan, W.; Du, R.R.; Du, R.R.; Stormer, H.L.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; Baldwin, K.W.; West, K.W.; Stormer, H.L.; Stormer, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of an increasing in-plane magnetic field on the states of half filling of Landau levels (ν=11/2, 9/2, 7/2, thinspandthinsp 5/2) of a two-dimensional electron system. In the electrically anisotropic phase at ν=9/2 and 11/2 an in-plane magnetic field of ∼1 - 2 T overcomes its initial pinning to the crystal lattice and reorients this phase. In the initially isotropic phases at ν=5/2 and 7/2 an in-plane magnetic field induces a strong electrical anisotropy. In all cases, for high in-plane fields the high-resistance axis is parallel to the direction of the in-plane field. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  18. Anisotropic and Hierarchical Porosity in Multifunctional Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, Aaron Zev

    The performance of multifunctional porous ceramics is often hindered by the seemingly contradictory effects of porosity on both mechanical and non-structural properties and yet a sufficient body of knowledge linking microstructure to these properties does not exist. Using a combination of tailored anisotropic and hierarchical materials, these disparate effects may be reconciled. In this project, a systematic investigation of the processing, characterization and properties of anisotropic and isotropic hierarchically porous ceramics was conducted. The system chosen was a composite ceramic intended as the cathode for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Comprehensive processing investigations led to the development of approaches to make hierarchical, anisotropic porous microstructures using directional freeze-casting of well dispersed slurries. The effect of all the important processing parameters was investigated. This resulted in an ability to tailor and control the important microstructural features including the scale of the microstructure, the macropore size and total porosity. Comparable isotropic porous ceramics were also processed using fugitive pore formers. A suite of characterization techniques including x-ray tomography and 3-D sectional scanning electron micrographs (FIB-SEM) was used to characterize and quantify the green and partially sintered microstructures. The effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure was quantified and discrete element simulations (DEM) were used to explain the experimental observations. Finally, the comprehensive mechanical properties, at room temperature, were investigated, experimentally and using DEM, for the different microstructures.

  19. Jet quenching in a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego

    2012-08-01

    The jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic plasma depends on the relative orientation between the anisotropic direction, the direction of motion of the parton, and the direction along which the momentum broadening is measured. We calculate the jet quenching parameter of an anisotropic, strongly coupled {N} = 4 plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary orientations and arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic value can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. We compare our results to analogous calculations for the real-world quark-gluon plasma and find agreement in some cases and disagreement in others.

  20. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail: jsdehesa@upv.es

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  1. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted

  2. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  3. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-01

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  4. Investigate the effect of anisotropic order parameter on the specific heat of anisotropic two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udomsamuthirun, P.; Peamsuwan, R.; Kumvongsa, C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of anisotropic order parameter on the specific heat of anisotropic two-band superconductors in BCS weak-coupling limit is investigated. An analytical specific heat jump and the numerical specific heat are shown by using anisotropic order parameters, and the electron-phonon interaction and non-electron-phonon interaction. The two models of anisotropic order parameters are used for numerical calculation that we find little effect on the numerical results. The specific heat jump of MgB 2 , Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 and Nb 3 Sn superconductors can fit well with both of them. By comparing the experimental data with overall range of temperature, the best fit is Nb 3 Sn, MgB 2 , and Lu 2 Fe 3 Si 5 superconductors.

  5. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Thiago S.; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Carneiro, Saulo

    2015-01-01

    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature

  6. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Thiago S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil); Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Carneiro, Saulo, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br, E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador – BA (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.

  7. Cracking on anisotropic neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, A. M.; Sulaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of cracking of a local anisotropic neutron star (NS) due to small density fluctuations. It is assumed that the neutron star core consists of leptons, nucleons and hyperons. The relativistic mean field model is used to describe the core of equation of state (EOS). For the crust, we use the EOS introduced by Miyatsu et al. [1]. Furthermore, two models are used to describe pressure anisotropic in neutron star matter. One is proposed by Doneva-Yazadjiev (DY) [2] and the other is proposed by Herrera-Barreto (HB) [3]. The anisotropic parameter of DY and HB models are adjusted in order the predicted maximum mass compatible to the mass of PSR J1614-2230 [4] and PSR J0348+0432 [5]. We have found that cracking can potentially present in the region close to the neutron star surface. The instability due cracking is quite sensitive to the NS mass and anisotropic parameter used.

  8. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  9. Yang—Yang thermodynamics of one-dimensional Bose gases with anisotropic transversal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Ya-Jiang; Yin Xiang-Guo

    2011-01-01

    By combining the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and local density approximation, we investigate the Yang—Yang thermodynamics of interacting one-dimensional Bose gases with anisotropic transversal confinement. It is shown that with the increase of anisotropic parameter at low temperature, the Bose atoms are distributed over a wider region, while at high temperature the density distribution is not affected obviously. Both the temperature and transversal confinement can strengthen the local pressure of the Bose gases. (general)

  10. Quark–gluon plasma phenomenology from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skullerud, Jon-Ivar; Kelly, Aoife [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris; Amato, Alessandro; Evans, P. Wynne M.; Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Burnier, Yannis [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH–1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Giudice, Pietro [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, Tim; Ryan, Sinéad M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kim, Seyong [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, Maria Paola [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Oktay, Mehmet B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rothkopf, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D–69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-01-22

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out simulations of N{sub f} = 2 + 1 QCD at nonzero temperature in the fixed-scale approach using anisotropic lattices. Here we present the status of these studies, including recent results for electrical conductivity and charge diffusion, and heavy quarkonium (charm and beauty) physics.

  11. Meson life time in the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Allahbakhshi, Davood

    2014-01-01

    In the hot (an)isotropic plasma the meson life time τ is defined as a time scale after which the meson dissociates. According to the gauge/gravity duality, this time can be identified with the inverse of the imaginary part of the frequency of the quasinormal modes, ω_I, in the (an)isotropic black hole background. In the high temperature limit, we numerically show that at fixed temperature(entropy density) the life time of the mesons decreases(increases) as the anisotropy parameter raises. For general case, at fixed temperature we introduce a polynomial function for ω_I and observe that the meson life time decreases. Moreover, we realize that (s/T"3)"6, where s and T are entropy density and temperature of the plasma respectively, can be expressed as a function of anisotropy parameter over temperature. Interestingly, this function is a Padé approximant.

  12. The Key Factors Analysis of Palisades Temperature in Deep Open-pit Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Du, Cuifeng; Jin, Wenbo; Wang, Puyu

    2018-01-01

    In order to study the key factors of palisades temperature field in a deep open-pit mine in the natural environment, the influence of natural factors on the palisades temperature in a deep open-pit mine were analysed based on the principle of heat transfer. Four typical places with different ways of solar radiation were selected to carry out the field test. The results show that solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, and wind speed are three main factors affecting the temperature of palisades and that the direct sunlight plays a leading role. The time period of the sun shining directly on the shady slope of the palisades is short because of blocking effect, whose temperature changes in a smaller scale. At the same time, the sun slope of the palisades suffers from the solar radiation for a long time, whose temperature changes in a larger scale, and the variation is similar to the air temperature.

  13. Longitudinal disordering of vortex lattices in anisotropic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harshman, D.R.; Brandt, E.H.; Fiory, A.T.; Inui, M.; Mitzi, D.B.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Waszczak, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    Vortex disordering in superconducting crystals is shown to be markedly sensitive to penetration-depth anisotropy. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the muon-spin-rotation spectra for the highly anisotropic Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ material are found to be anomalously narrow and symmetric about the applied field, in a manner consistent with a layered vortex sublattice structure with pinning-induced misalignment between layers. In contrast, spectra for the less-anisotropic YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ compounds taken at comparable fields are broader and asymmetric, showing that the vortex lattices are aligned parallel to the applied-field direction

  14. A temperature dependent slip factor based thermal model for friction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermal modelling of FSW process by assuming the slip factor as a function of any one of the parameters such as ... Normal load, Fn. 31138 N .... source was moved in discrete steps of 1 mm to simulate the linear motion of the tool. At each load.

  15. factor high order fuzzy time series with applications to temperature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    In this paper, a novel two – factor high – order fuzzy time series forecasting method based on .... to balance between local and global exploitations of the swarms. While, .... Although, there were a number of outliers but, the spread at the spot in ...

  16. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C and elevated temperatures (14°C within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product, as well as sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and consistency, along with microbiological safety, were investigated. The investigations were performed in accordance with national legislation. The results indicate that the products stored at 14°C showed significant acidity (lower pH value, changed sensory properties, and had an increased number of aerobic bacteria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Improvement and development of hygienic and technological procedures in production of foodstuffs of animal origin with the aim of producing high-quality and safe products competitive on the global market

  17. Self-force on dislocation segments in anisotropic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, S P; Aubry, S

    2010-01-01

    A dislocation segment in a crystal experiences a 'self-force', by virtue of the orientation dependence of its elastic energy. If the crystal is elastically isotropic, this force is manifested as a couple acting to rotate the segment toward the lower energy of the pure screw orientation (i.e. acting to align the dislocation line with its Burgers vector). If the crystal is anisotropic, there are additional contributions to the couple, arising from the more complex energy landscape of the lattice itself. These effects can strongly influence the dynamic evolution of dislocation networks, and via their governing role in dislocation multiplication phenomena, control plastic flow in metals. In this paper we develop a model for dislocation self-forces in a general anisotropic crystal, and briefly consider the technologically important example of α-iron, which becomes increasingly anisotropic as the temperature approaches that of the α-γ phase transition at 912 0 C.

  18. Dynamics of anisotropic tissue growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittig, Thomas; Juelicher, Frank [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wartlick, Ortrud; Kicheva, Anna; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos [Department of Biochemistry and Department of Molecular Biology, Geneva University, Sciences II, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)], E-mail: Marcos.Gonzalez@biochem.unige.ch, E-mail: julicher@pks.mpg.de

    2008-06-15

    We study the mechanics of tissue growth via cell division and cell death (apoptosis). The rearrangements of cells can on large scales and times be captured by a continuum theory which describes the tissue as an effective viscous material with active stresses generated by cell division. We study the effects of anisotropies of cell division on cell rearrangements and show that average cellular trajectories exhibit anisotropic scaling behaviors. If cell division and apoptosis balance, there is no net growth, but for anisotropic cell division the tissue undergoes spontaneous shear deformations. Our description is relevant for the study of developing tissues such as the imaginal disks of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which grow anisotropically.

  19. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C

    2013-01-01

    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  20. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  1. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael

    2014-06-15

    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  2. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.

  3. Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2018-02-15

    We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)

  4. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Amato, A. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Evans, W. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics Universitat Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Giudice, P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, T. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kelly, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Kim, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Praki, K. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Ryan, S.M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skullerud, J.-I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)

    2016-12-15

    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  5. Analytical results for entanglement in the five-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoguang

    2004-01-01

    We solve the eigenvalue problem of the five-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model, without use of Bethe's ansatz, and give analytical results for entanglement and mixedness of two nearest-neighbor qubits. The entanglement takes its maximum at Δ=1 (Δ>1) for the case of zero (finite) temperature with Δ being the anisotropic parameter. In contrast, the mixedness takes its minimum at Δ=1 (Δ>1) for the case of zero (finite) temperature

  6. The Temperature Dependence of the Debye-Waller Factor of Magnesium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sledziewska-Blocka, D.; Lebech, Bente

    1976-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi-harmonic appro......The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi......-harmonic approximations and results of previous experiments....

  7. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  8. Field dependent spin transport of anisotropic Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com

    2016-04-01

    We have addressed the static spin conductivity and spin Drude weight of one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain in the finite magnetic field. We have investigated the behavior of transport properties by means of excitation spectrum in terms of a hard core bosonic representation. The effect of in-plane anisotropy on the spin transport properties has also been studied via the bosonic model by Green's function approach. This anisotropy is considered for exchange constants that couple spin components perpendicular to magnetic field direction. We have found the temperature dependence of the spin conductivity and spin Drude weight in the gapped field induced spin-polarized phase for various magnetic field and anisotropy parameters. Furthermore we have studied the magnetic field dependence of static spin conductivity and Drude weight for various anisotropy parameters. Our results show the regular part of spin conductivity vanishes in isotropic case however Drude weight has a finite non-zero value and the system exhibits ballistic transport properties. We also find the peak in the static spin conductivity factor moves to higher temperature upon increasing the magnetic field at fixed anisotropy. The static spin conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with magnetic field due to increase of energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Furthermore we have studied the temperature dependence of spin Drude weight for different magnetic field and various anisotropy parameters. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin conductivity of spin chain Heisenberg model. • The investigation of the effects of anisotropy and magnetic field on the temperature dependence of spin conductivity. • The study of the effect of temperature on the spin Drude weight.

  9. Failure in imperfect anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental cause of crack growth, namely nucleation and growth of voids, is investigated numerically for a two phase imperfect anisotropic material. A unit cell approach is adopted from which the overall stress strain is evaluated. Failure is observed as a sudden stress drop and depending...

  10. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1971-01-01

    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...... or longitudinal relaxation function depending on the sign of the axial anisotropy....

  11. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion filtering of Monte Carlo dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Binhe; Jeraj, Robert; Bao Shanglian; Mackie, Thomas R

    2003-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is the most accurate method for radiotherapy dose calculations, if used correctly. However, any Monte Carlo dose calculation is burdened with statistical noise. In this paper, denoising of Monte Carlo dose distributions with a three-dimensional adaptive anisotropic diffusion method was investigated. The standard anisotropic diffusion method was extended by changing the filtering parameters adaptively according to the local statistical noise. Smoothing of dose distributions with different noise levels in an inhomogeneous phantom, a conventional and an IMRT treatment case is shown. The resultant dose distributions were analysed using several evaluating criteria. It is shown that the adaptive anisotropic diffusion method can reduce statistical noise significantly (two to five times, corresponding to the reduction of simulation time by a factor of up to 20), while preserving important gradients of the dose distribution well. The choice of free parameters of the method was found to be fairly robust

  12. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  13. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  14. Three anisotropic benchmark problems for adaptive finite element methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolín, Pavel; Čertík, O.; Korous, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7286-7295 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benchmark problem * anisotropic solution * boundary layer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013

  15. Minimal Sampling for Effective Acquisition of Anisotropic BRDFs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 7 (2016), s. 299-309 ISSN 0167-7055 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BRDF * anisotropic * measurement Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/RO/vavra-0463872.pdf

  16. High School 9th Grade Students' Understanding Level and Misconceptions about Temperature and Factors Affecting It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding levels and misconceptions about temperature and factors affecting it. The concept of the study was chosen from Geography National Curriculum. In this study, a questionnaire was developed after a pilot study with an aim to ascertain the students' understanding levels of temperature and…

  17. A temperature-dependent theory for HeII: Application to the liquid structure factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.

    1981-08-01

    A temperature-dependent theory is presented for HeII, which is based on both a gauge-theoretic formulation as well as a mean-field (Hartree) approach. A simple model calculation is then performed within this framework for the liquid structure factor of the system. In particular, explicit expressions are obtained for the low-momentum-transfer and low-temperature limits, which seem to conform with the available experimental data. Further, the curvature of the structure factor is predicted, under these circumstances, to be only mildly dependent on temperature. Throughout, we compare and contrast with other theoretical attempts, including Feynman's. (author)

  18. Anisotropic gradients in the upper mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmany, J.

    1981-01-01

    Pn amplitudes in some widely spaced sets of orthogonal marine refraction lines on young oceanic crust are greater in the fast direction than in the slow direction. This is inconsistent with the predicted amplitude behavior for simple head waves, but can be explained by an increase in anisotropy with depth. It appears that these gradients are due to increasing olivine crystal orientation, although changes in the relative abundance of two anisotropic minerals without variable tectonization could also account for the observations. Depth variation of tectonization most probably indicates very high temperature gradients at the Moho. This would imply a substantial amount of convective heat transport in the whole oceanic crust near mid-ocean rises

  19. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi

    2015-02-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  20. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  1. Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Hansjoerg

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the

  2. Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, Hansjoerg

    2014-05-26

    In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the

  3. Anisotropic inflation with derivative couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jonathan; Kanno, Sugumi; Zavala, Ivonne

    2018-05-01

    We study anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when the inflaton and its derivative couple to a vector field. This type of coupling is motivated by D-brane inflationary models, in which the inflaton, and a vector field living on the D-brane, couple disformally (derivatively). We start by studying a phenomenological model where we show the existence of anisotropic solutions and demonstrate their stability via a dynamical system analysis. Compared to the case without a derivative coupling, the anisotropy is reduced and thus can be made consistent with current limits, while the value of the slow-roll parameter remains almost unchanged. We also discuss solutions for more general cases, including D-brane-like couplings.

  4. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  5. Anisotropic charged generalized polytropic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we found some new anisotropic charged models admitting generalized polytropic equation of state with spherically symmetry. An analytic solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is obtained through the transformation introduced by Durgapal and Banerji (Phys. Rev. D 27:328, 1983). The physical viability of solutions corresponding to polytropic index η =1/2, 2/3, 1, 2 is analyzed graphically. For this, we plot physical quantities such as radial and tangential pressure, anisotropy, speed of sound which demonstrated that these models achieve all the considerable physical conditions required for a relativistic star. Further, it is mentioned here that previous results for anisotropic charged matter with linear, quadratic and polytropic equation of state can be retrieved.

  6. Phase transitions and transport in anisotropic superconductors with large thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuation effects in conventional superconductors such as broadening of phase transitions and flux creep tend to be very small primarily because of the large coherence lengths. Thus mean field theory, with only small fluctuation corrections, usually provides an adequate description of these systems. Regimes in which fluctuation effects cause qualitatively different physics are very difficult to study as they typically occur in very small regions of the phase diagram or, in transport, require measuring extremely small voltages. In striking contrast, in the high temperature cuprate superconductors a combination of factors - short coherence lengths, anisotropy and higher temperatures - make fluctuation effects many orders of magnitude larger. The current understanding of transport and phase transitions in the cuprate superconductors-particularly YBCO and BSCCO-is reviewed. New results are presented on the two-dimensional regimes and 2D-3D crossover in the strongly anisotropic case of BSCCO. The emphasis is on pinning and vortex glass behavior

  7. Anisotropic superfluidity of hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1977-10-01

    From a model of strong interactions with important general features (f-g model) and from recent experiments of Rudnick and co-workers on thin films of helium II, hadronic matter is considered as a new manifestation of anisotropic superfluidity. In order to test the validity of the suggestion, some qualitative features of multiparticle production of hadrons are considered, and found to have a natural explanation. A prediction is made following a recent experiment on π + p collisions

  8. Anisotropic characterization of magnetorheological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohmen, E., E-mail: eike.dohmen@tu-dresden.de; Modler, N.; Gude, M.

    2017-06-01

    For the development of energy efficient lightweight parts novel function integrating materials are needed. Concerning this field of application magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers and MR composites are promising materials allowing the adjustment of mechanical properties by an external magnetic field. A key issue for operating such structures in praxis is the magneto-mechanical description. Most rheological properties are gathered at laboratory conditions for high magnetic flux densities and a single field direction, which does not correspond to real praxis conditions. Although anisotropic formation of superstructures can be observed in MR suspensions (Fig. 1) or experimenters intentionally polymerize MR elastomers with anisotropic superstructures these MR materials are usually described in an external magnetic field as uniform, isotropic materials. This is due to missing possibilities for experimentally measuring field angle dependent properties and ways of distinguishing between material properties and frictional effects. Just a few scientific works experimentally investigated the influence of different field angles (Ambacher et al., 1992; Grants et al., 1990; Kuzhir et al., 2003) or the influence of surface roughness on the shear behaviour of magnetic fluids (Tang and Conrad, 1996) . The aim of this work is the introduction of a novel field angle cell allowing the determination of anisotropic mechanical properties for various MR materials depending on the applied magnetic field angle. - Highlights: • Novel magnetic field angle testing device (MFATD) presented. • Determination of magnetic field dependent anisotropic mechanical properties. • Experimental data for different field directions shown for a commercial MR fluid. • Material description of MR fluids as transversal-isotropic solids. • Magnetic field angle dependent variations in shear stresses experimentally measured. • Determination of frictional coefficients between the MR fluid and

  9. Cracking of anisotropic cylindrical polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardan, S.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    We study the appearance of cracking in charged anisotropic cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation. We investigate the existence of cracking in two different kinds of polytropes existing in the literature through two different assumptions: (a) local density perturbation with conformally flat condition, and (b) perturbing polytropic index, charge and anisotropy parameters. We conclude that cracking appears in both kinds of polytropes for a specific range of density and model parameters. (orig.)

  10. P-wave ray velocities and the inverse acoustic problem for anisotropic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zel, I. Yu.; Ivankina, T. I.; Levin, D.M.; Lokajíček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2016), s. 633-639 ISSN 1063-7745 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropic media * P-Wawe velocities * elasticity Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2016

  11. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, R; Fina, I; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Frontera, C; López-Mir, L; Deniz, H; Park, K-W; Park, B-G; Balcells, Ll; Martí, X; Jungwirth, T; Martínez, B

    2016-10-20

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  12. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2012-10-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  14. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-04-30

    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  15. Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Generalized ellipsometry, a non-destructive optical characterization technique, is employed to determine geometrical structure parameters and anisotropic dielectric properties of highly spatially coherent three-dimensionally nanostructured thin films grown by glancing angle deposition. The (piecewise) homogeneous biaxial layer model approach is discussed, which can be universally applied to model the optical response of sculptured thin films with different geometries and from diverse materials, and structural parameters as well as effective optical properties of the nanostructured thin films are obtained. Alternative model approaches for slanted columnar thin films, anisotropic effective medium approximations based on the Bruggeman formalism, are presented, which deliver results comparable to the homogeneous biaxial layer approach and in addition provide film constituent volume fraction parameters as well as depolarization or shape factors. Advantages of these ellipsometry models are discussed on the example of metal slanted columnar thin films, which have been conformally coated with a thin passivating oxide layer by atomic layer deposition. Furthermore, the application of an effective medium approximation approach to in-situ growth monitoring of this anisotropic thin film functionalization process is presented. It was found that structural parameters determined with the presented optical model equivalents for slanted columnar thin films agree very well with scanning electron microscope image estimates. - Highlights: • Summary of optical model strategies for sculptured thin films with arbitrary geometries • Application of the rigorous anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium applications • In-situ growth monitoring of atomic layer deposition on biaxial metal slanted columnar thin film

  16. A new model for spherically symmetric anisotropic compact star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-05-15

    In this article we obtain a new anisotropic solution for Einstein's field equations of embedding class one metric. The solution represents realistic objects such as Her X-1 and RXJ 1856-37. We perform a detailed investigation of both objects by solving numerically the Einstein field equations with anisotropic pressure. The physical features of the parameters depend on the anisotropic factor i.e. if the anisotropy is zero everywhere inside the star then the density and pressures will become zero and the metric turns out to be flat. We report our results and compare with the above mentioned two compact objects as regards a number of key aspects: the central density, the surface density onset and the critical scaling behaviour, the effective mass and radius ratio, the anisotropization with isotropic initial conditions, adiabatic index and red shift. Along with this we have also made a comparison between the classical limit and theoretical model treatment of the compact objects. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for the stability condition in a relativistic compact star. (orig.)

  17. Neutron transfer with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Wakil, S.A.; Haggag, M.H.; Saad, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The finite slab problem is reduced to a semi-infinite one by adding an infinitesimally thick layer such that both the added layer and the total layer are semi-infinite. The relation between the reflection and transmission functions for a finite slab and those for an infinite one are obtained in terms of an operator which satisfies a semigroup equation. The method is applied to anisotropic scattering with azimuthal dependence. Numerical calculations are made and the results compared with those of other workers. (author)

  18. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG

    1992-01-01

    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  19. Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical

  20. Low-temperature thermoelectric power factor enhancement by controlling nanoparticle size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Esfarjani, Keivan; Bian, Zhixi; Shakouri, Ali

    2011-01-12

    Coherent potential approximation is used to study the effect of adding doped spherical nanoparticles inside a host matrix on the thermoelectric properties. This takes into account electron multiple scatterings that are important in samples with relatively high volume fraction of nanoparticles (>1%). We show that with large fraction of uniform small size nanoparticles (∼1 nm), the power factor can be enhanced significantly. The improvement could be large (up to 450% for GaAs) especially at low temperatures when the mobility is limited by impurity or nanoparticle scattering. The advantage of doping via embedded nanoparticles compared to the conventional shallow impurities is quantified. At the optimum thermoelectric power factor, the electrical conductivity of the nanoparticle-doped material is larger than that of impurity-doped one at the studied temperature range (50-500 K) whereas the Seebeck coefficient of the nanoparticle doped material is enhanced only at low temperatures (∼50 K).

  1. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  2. Anisotropic non-Fermi liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-11-01

    We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.

  3. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.

  4. Illusion thermal device based on material with constant anisotropic thermal conductivity for location camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Quanwen; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Meng, Tong; Liu, Cunliang

    2016-09-01

    Thermal metamaterials and devices based on transformation thermodynamics often require materials with anisotropic and inhomogeneous thermal conductivities. In this study, still based on the concept of transformation thermodynamics, we designed a planar illusion thermal device, which can delocalize a heat source in the device such that the temperature profile outside the device appears to be produced by a virtual source at another position. This device can be constructed by only one kind of material with constant anisotropic thermal conductivity. The condition which should be satisfied by the device is provided, and the required anisotropic thermal conductivity is then deduced theoretically. This study may be useful for the designs of metamaterials or devices since materials with constant anisotropic parameters have great facility in fabrication. A prototype device has been fabricated based on a composite composed by two naturally occurring materials. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the device.

  5. Brazilian Tensile Strength of Anisotropic Rocks: Review and New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshou Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength anisotropy is one of the most distinct features of anisotropic rocks, and it also normally reveals strong anisotropy in Brazilian test Strength (“BtS”. Theoretical research on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks is seldom performed, and in particular some significant factors, such as the anisotropic tensile strength of anisotropic rocks, the initial Brazilian disc fracture points, and the stress distribution on the Brazilian disc, are often ignored. The aim of the present paper is to review the state of the art in the experimental studies on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks since the pioneering work was introduced in 1964, and to propose a novel theoretical method to underpin the failure mechanisms and predict the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks under Brazilian test conditions. The experimental data of Longmaxi Shale-I and Jixi Coal were utilized to verify the proposed method. The results show the predicted “BtS” results show strong agreement with experimental data, the maximum error is only ~6.55% for Longmaxi Shale-I and ~7.50% for Jixi Coal, and the simulated failure patterns of the Longmaxi Shale-I are also consistent with the test results. For the Longmaxi Shale-I, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure of the intact rock when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 24°, shear failure along the weakness planes when 24° ≤ βw ≤ 76°, and tensile failure along the weakness planes when 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°. For the Jixi Coal, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 23° or 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°, shear failure along the butt cleats when 23° ≤ βw ≤ 32°, and shear failure along the face cleats when 32° ≤ βw ≤ 76°. The proposed method can not only be used to predict the “BtS” and underpin the failure mechanisms of anisotropic rocks containing a single group of weakness planes, but can also be generalized for fractured rocks containing multi-groups of weakness planes.

  6. Anisotropic cosmological constant and the CMB quadrupole anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Davi C.

    2008-01-01

    There are evidences that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) large-angle anomalies imply a departure from statistical isotropy and hence from the standard cosmological model. We propose a ΛCDM model extension whose dark energy component preserves its nondynamical character but wields anisotropic vacuum pressure. Exact solutions for the cosmological scale factors are presented, upper bounds for the deformation parameter are evaluated and its value is estimated considering the elliptical universe proposal to solve the quadrupole anomaly. This model can be constructed from a Bianchi I cosmology with a cosmological constant from two different ways: (i) a straightforward anisotropic modification of the vacuum pressure consistently with energy-momentum conservation; (ii) a Poisson structure deformation between canonical momenta such that the dynamics remain invariant under scale factors rescalings

  7. Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S

    2016-02-10

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible.

  8. Local deposition of anisotropic nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Roman G; Mandler, Daniel

    2013-02-28

    We demonstrate localized electrodeposition of anisotropic metal nanoobjects, namely Au nanorods (GNR), on indium tin oxide (ITO) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A gold microelectrode was the source of the gold ions whereby double pulse chronoamperometry was employed to generate initially Au seeds which were further grown under controlled conditions. The distance between the microelectrode and the ITO surface as well as the different experimental parameters (electrodeposition regime, solution composition and temperature) were optimized to produce faceted gold seeds with the required characteristics (size and distribution). Colloidal chemical synthesis was successfully exploited for better understanding the role of the surfactant and different additives in breaking the crystallographic symmetry and anisotropic growth of GNR. Experiments performed in a conventional three-electrode cell revealed the most appropriate electrochemical conditions allowing high yield synthesis of nanorods with well-defined shape as well as nanocubes and bipyramids.

  9. Evaluation of weldment creep and fatigue strength-reduction factors for elevated-temperature design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corum, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    New explicit weldment strength criteria in the form of creep and fatigue strength-reduction factors were recently introduced into the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code Case N-47, which governs the design of elevated-temperature nuclear plants components in the United States. This paper provides some of the background and logic for these factors and their use, and it describes the results of a series of long-term, confirmatory, creep-rupture and fatigue tests of simple welded structures. The structures (welded plates and tubes) were made of 316 stainless steel base metal and 16-8-2 weld filler metal. Overall, the results provide further substantiation of the validity of the strength-reduction factor approach for ensuring adequate life in elevated-temperature nuclear component weldments. 16 refs., 7 figs

  10. Anisotropic square lattice Potts ferromagnet: renormalization group treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Tsallis, C.

    1981-01-01

    The choice of a convenient self-dual cell within a real space renormalization group framework enables a satisfactory treatment of the anisotropic square lattice q-state Potts ferromagnet criticality. The exact critical frontier and dimensionality crossover exponent PHI as well as the expected universality behaviour (renormalization flow sense) are recovered for any linear scaling factor b and all values of q(q - [pt

  11. Anisotropic magnetoresistance of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Petr; Svoboda, Pavel; Novák, Vít; Cukr, Miroslav; Výborný, Karel; Jurka, Vlastimil; Stuchlík, Jiří; Orlita, Milan; Maude, D. K.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2010), 1161-1163 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk MEB020928 Grant - others:EU EuroMagNET II(XE) Egide 19535NF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : GaMnAs * anisotropic magnetoresistance * hydrogenation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2010

  12. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq; Ma, Xuxin; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-01-01

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  13. Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii

    2018-03-01

    A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.

  14. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2014-07-03

    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  15. The spatially anisotropic triangular lattice antiferromagnet: Popov-Fedotov method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nga, Pham Thi Thanh; Trang, Phan Thu; Thang, Nguyen Toan

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on an triangular lattice with spatially anisotropic J 1 - J 2 exchange interactions. We apply the Popov-Fedotov method based on introducing an imaginary valued chemical potential to enforce the auxiliary fermion constraint exactly. The staggered magnetization, magnon spectra, free energy are computed in one loop approximation and compared using two different constraints: exact and on average. In the limit of zero temperature the results are identical, whereas at higher temperature significant differences are found. The comparisons with the results obtained by other methods are discussed. (paper)

  16. Consideration of hot channel factors in design for providing operating margins on coolant channel outlet temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.; Surendar, C.; Bapat, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR) are horizontal pressure tube reactors using natural uranium oxide fuel in the form of short (495 mm) clusters. The fuel clusters in the Zr-Nb pressure tubes are cooled by high pressure, high temperature and subcooled circulating heavy water. Coolant flow distribution to individual channels is designed to match the power distribution so as to obtain uniform coolant outlet temperature. However, during operation, the coolant outlet temperature in individual channels deviate from their nominal value due to: tolerances in process design; effects of grid frequency on the pump speed; deviation in channel powers from the nominal values due to on-power fuelling and movement of reactivity devices, and so on. Thus an operating margin, between the highest permissible and nominal coolant outlet temperatures, is required taking into account various hot channel factors that contribute to higher coolant outlet temperatures. The paper discusses the methodology adopted to assess various hot channel factors which would provide optimum operating margins while ensuring sub-cooling. (author)

  17. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  18. Investigation of Factors Affecting Body Temperature Changes During Routine Clinical Head Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong Seong

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency (RF) magnetic fields, required to produce magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals from tissue during the MRI procedure have been shown to heat tissues. Objectives To investigate the relationship between body temperature rise and the RF power deposited during routine clinical MRI procedures, and to determine the correlation between this effect and the body’s physiological response. Patients and Methods We investigated 69 patients from the Korean national cancer center to identify the main factors that contribute to an increase in body temperature (external factors and the body’s response) during a clinical brain MRI. A routine protocol sequence of MRI scans (1.5 T and 3.0 T) was performed. The patient’s tympanic temperature was recorded before and immediately after the MRI procedure and compared with changes in variables related to the body’s physiological response to heat. Results Our investigation of the physiological response to RF heating indicated a link between increasing age and body temperature. A higher increase in body temperature was observed in older patients after a 3.0-T MRI (r = 0.07, P = 0.29 for 1.5-T MRI; r = 0.45, P = 0.002 for 3.0-T MRI). The relationship between age and body heat was related to the heart rate (HR) and changes in HR during the MRI procedure; a higher RF power combined with a reduction in HR resulted in an increase in body temperature. Conclusion A higher magnetic field strength and a decrease in the HR resulted in an increase in body temperature during the MRI procedure. PMID:27895872

  19. Stability of anisotropic stellar filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, M. Zaeem-ul-Haq; Yousaf, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The study of perturbation of self-gravitating celestial cylindrical object have been carried out in this paper. We have designed a framework to construct the collapse equation by formulating the modified field equations with the background of f(R , T) theory as well as dynamical equations from the contracted form of Bianchi identities with anisotropic matter configuration. We have encapsulated the radial perturbations on metric and material variables of the geometry with some known static profile at Newtonian and post-Newtonian regimes. We examined a strong dependence of unstable regions on stiffness parameter which measures the rigidity of the fluid. Also, the static profile and matter variables with f(R , T) dark source terms control the instability of compact cylindrical system.

  20. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T −γ ) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced

  1. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

    2014-12-07

    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  2. Impact Factors Analysis of the Hot Side Temperature of Thermoelectric Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Tan, Gangfeng; Yang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a crucial role in converting the waste energy of exhaust into electricity, which ensures energy saving and increased fuel utilization efficiency. In the urban driving cycle, frequent vehicle operation, like deceleration or acceleration, results in continuous variation of the exhaust temperature. In order to make the operating performance stable, and to weaken the adverse effects of the frequent variation of the exhaust temperature on the lifetime and work efficiency of the electronic components of TEG systems, the output voltage of the thermoelectric (TE) module should stay more stable. This article provides an improved method for the temperature stability of the TE material hot side based on sandwiching material. From the view of the TEG system's average output power and the hot side temperature stability of the TE material, the analyzing factors, including the fluctuation frequency of the exhaust temperature and the physical properties and thickness of the sandwiching material are evaluated, respectively, in the sine and new European driving cycle (NEDC) fluctuation condition of the exhaust temperature. The results show few effects of sandwiching material thickness with excellent thermal conductivity on the average output power. During the 150-170 s of the NEDC test condition, the minimum hot side temperatures with a BeO ceramic thickness of 2 mm and 6 mm are, respectively, 537.19 K and 685.70 K, which shows the obvious effect on the hot side temperature stability of the BeO ceramic thickness in the process of acceleration and deceleration of vehicle driving.

  3. The anisotropic Ising correlations as elliptic integrals: duality and differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, B M; Maillard, J-M

    2016-01-01

    We present the reduction of the correlation functions of the Ising model on the anisotropic square lattice to complete elliptic integrals of the first, second and third kind, the extension of Kramers–Wannier duality to anisotropic correlation functions, and the linear differential equations for these anisotropic correlations. More precisely, we show that the anisotropic correlation functions are homogeneous polynomials of the complete elliptic integrals of the first, second and third kind. We give the exact dual transformation matching the correlation functions and the dual correlation functions. We show that the linear differential operators annihilating the general two-point correlation functions are factorized in a very simple way, in operators of decreasing orders. (paper)

  4. Determination of the PO2 temperature blood factor from oxygen dissociation curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérigault, R A; Soulard, C D; Teisseire, B P; Laurent, D N

    1983-01-01

    The variation with saturation of the temperature coefficient of PO2 in human blood (delta log PO2/delta T) was determined by continuous recording of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC), at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, on the same blood samples. PCO2 and pH were held constant through an ODC run, and PCO2 was reduced at 25 degrees C to the value measured by anaerobic cooling of the same sample. delta log PO2/delta T was calculated from isosaturation points on the 37 and 25 degrees C curves. The temperature coefficient was also computed as an independent check on this method by determination of the effects of temperature (25, 30, 37 and 40 degrees C) on hemoglobin ligand interaction: fixed acid Bohr effect (delta log PO2/delta pH), carbamino-formation (delta log PO2/delta log PCO2) and hemoglobin oxygen affinity. The values of delta log PO2/delta T ratio obtained from the two different approaches were found to be in good agreement. The coefficient decreased when [H+] concentration was increased. A linear relationship between the Bohr factor and the temperature was found: delta log PO2/delta pH = 0.00267 T-0.520 (r = 0.85; n = 40) At 25 degrees C, the carbamino-formation was one order of magnitude lower than at 37 degrees C. Acid-base state and saturation value appeared to be major determinant factors for the temperature correction coefficient to be applied to blood PO2 values measured at standard (37 degrees C) temperature.

  5. Coherent manipulation of dipolar coupled spins in an anisotropic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibekov, E. I.; Gafurov, M. R.; Zverev, D. G.; Kurkin, I. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Barbara, B.

    2014-11-01

    We study coherent dynamics in a system of dipolar coupled spin qubits diluted in a solid and subjected to a driving microwave field. In the case of rare earth ions, an anisotropic crystal background results in anisotropic g tensor and thus modifies the dipolar coupling. We develop a microscopic theory of spin relaxation in a transient regime for the frequently encountered case of axially symmetric crystal field. The calculated decoherence rate is nonlinear in the Rabi frequency. We show that the direction of a static magnetic field that corresponds to the highest spin g factor is preferable in order to obtain a higher number of coherent qubit operations. The results of calculations are in excellent agreement with our experimental data on Rabi oscillations recorded for a series of CaW O4 crystals with different concentrations of N d3 + ions.

  6. Effect of neutron anisotropic scattering in fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Gou

    2004-01-01

    Numerical tests were performed about an effect of a neutron anisotropic scattering on criticality in the Sn transport calculation. The simplest approximation, the consistent P approximation and the extended transport approximation were compared with each other in one-dimensional slab fast reactor models. JAERI fast set which has been used for fast reactor analyses is inadequate to evaluate the effect because it doesn't include the scattering matrices and the self-shielding factors to calculate the group-averaged cross sections weighted by the higher-order moment of angular flux. In the present study, the sub-group method was used to evaluate the group-averaged cross sections. Results showed that the simplest approximation is inadequate and the transport approximation is effective for evaluating the anisotropic scattering. (author)

  7. On two special values of temperature factor in hypersonic flow stagnation point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilchenko, G. G.; Bilchenko, N. G.

    2018-03-01

    The hypersonic aircraft permeable cylindrical and spherical surfaces laminar boundary layer heat and mass transfer control mathematical model properties are investigated. The nonlinear algebraic equations systems are obtained for two special values of temperature factor in the hypersonic flow stagnation point. The mappings bijectivity between heat and mass transfer local parameters and controls is established. The computation experiments results are presented: the domains of allowed values “heat-friction” are obtained.

  8. Effect of Structure Factor on High-Temperature Ductility of Pipe Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasnikov, N. G.; Matveev, M. A.; Mishnev, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    Effects of various factors such as the grain size, the morphology of nonmetallic inclusions, and joint microalloying with boron and titanium on the high-temperature ductility of pipe steels are studied. Physical modeling of the conditions of cooling of the skin of a continuous-cast preform in the zone of secondary cooling in a Gleeble facility is performed. Technical recommendations are given for raising the hot ductility of steels under industrial conditions.

  9. On the creation of scalar particles in some anisotropic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hidekazu.

    1978-01-01

    Because of an importance of the particle creation (especially, its possible fulfilment of the black-body law with a definite temperature) in an early universe to various other cosmological problems we study how the creation of scalar particles occurs in the Bianchi-type I anisotropic universe adopted in our previous works on the quantized scalar field. It is shown that, as in a special isotropic case dealt with in recent papers, the creation may occur at the sacrifice of the requirement that the quantization procedure should reproduce the usual theory for a free field in the limit when the anisotropic universe changes into the Minkowski space-time. It is further shown that the creation occurs in accordance with the black-body law only in a 2-dimensional hyper-surface relating to the anisotropic cosmic expansion, provided that we fix two arbitrary constants appearing in a general expression for the Feynman propagator in terms of a procedure similar to that in the isotropic case. A speculation on the isotropization of our model-universe is also made from the standpoint of seeking for how the thermal equilibrium in the whole universe is attained. (auth.)

  10. The TT, TB, EB and BB correlations in anisotropic inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xingang [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Emami, Razieh [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Wang, Yi, E-mail: Xingang.Chen@utdallas.edu, E-mail: emami@ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@ipm.ir, E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    The ongoing and future experiments will measure the B-mode from different sky coverage and frequency bands, with the potential to reveal non-trivial features in polarization map. In this work we study the TT, TB, EB and BB correlations associated with the B-mode polarization of CMB map in models of charged anisotropic inflation. The model contains a chaotic-type large field complex inflaton which is charged under the U(1) gauge field. We calculate the statistical anisotropies generated in the power spectra of the curvature perturbation, the tensor perturbation and their cross-correlation. It is shown that the asymmetry in tensor power spectrum is a very sensitive probe of the gauge coupling. While the level of statistical anisotropy in temperature power spectrum can be small and satisfy the observational bounds, the interactions from the gauge coupling can induce large directional dependence in tensor modes. This will leave interesting anisotropic fingerprints in various correlations involving the B-mode polarization such as the TB cross-correlation which may be detected in upcoming Planck polarization data. In addition, the TT correlation receives an anisotropic contribution from the tensor sector which naturally decays after l ∼> 100. We expect that the mechanism of using tensor sector to induce asymmetry at low l to be generic which can also be applied to address other low l CMB anomalies.

  11. On the creation of scalar particles in some anisotropic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hidekazu

    1978-01-01

    Because of an importance of the particle creation (especially, its possible fulfilment of the black-body law with a definite temperature) in an early universe to various other cosmological problems, we study how the creation of scalar particles occurs in the Bianchi-type I anisotropic universe adopted in our previous works on the quantized scalar field. It is shown that, as in a special isotropic case dealt with in recent papers, the creation may occur at the sacrifice of the requirement that the quantization procedure should reproduce the usual theory for a free field in the limit when the anisotropic universe changes into the Minkowski space-time. It is further shown that the creation occurs in accordance with the black-body law only in a 2-dimensional hyper-surface relating to the anisotropic cosmic expansion, provided that we fix two arbitrary constants appearing in a general expression for the Feynman propagator in terms of a procedure similar to that in the isotropic case. A speculation on the isotropization of our model-universe is also made from the standpoint of seeking the attainment of the thermal equilibrium in the whole universe. (author)

  12. The Control of Anisotropic Transport in Manganites by Stripy Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Changcheng; Lu, Xiaomei; Chu, Yinghao

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial thin film acts as a significant tool to investigate novel phenomena of complex oxide systems. Extrinsic constraint1 of uniform or certain designed buffer layer strain could be easily implanted to these materials. However, the strain distribution might be quite complicated by involving micro- or nano-lattice distortions which could partially relax the strain and determine the complex phase diagrams of thin film, meanwhile introducing structural and physical inhomogeneities. In this work , we report 71° striped ferroelectric domains created in BFO can also epitaxially lock the perovskite manganites leading to the emerge of ordered structural domain. LSMO/BFO hetero-epitaxial samples are deposited by PLD. The 71° periodic striped domains and coherent growth are demonstrated by PFM and X-ray analysis. Plan-view TEM and X-ray RSM have been used to confirm the epitaxial relationships of the functional layers and IP lattice constant. Both the simulation and structural analysis demonstrate we can create a periodic ordered stripe structural domain in LSMO. And this will leave an anisotropic distribution of structural domain walls which makes it possible to capture the anisotropic tunneling for strong electron-lattice coupling in manganites. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements reveal a substantial anisotropic resistivities and a remarkable shift of the MI transition between the perpendicular and parallel to the stripe domain directions.

  13. Two-Step Condensation of the Ideal Bose Gas in Highly Anisotropic Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.

    1997-01-01

    The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum states. In the second step, at a significantly lower temperature, the ground state becomes macroscopically occupied. It should be possible to verify these predictions using present-day atom traps. The two-step behavior can occur in a rather general class of anisotropic traps, including the box potential. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and piezoelectric effect in GaAs Hall samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion

    2017-02-01

    Application of a strong magnetic field perpendicular to a two-dimensional electron system leads to a variety of quantum phases ranging from incompressible quantum Hall liquid to Wigner solid, charge density wave, and exotic non-Abelian states. A few quantum phases seen in past experiments on GaAs Hall samples of electrons show pronounced anisotropic magnetoresistance values at certain weak magnetic fields. We argue that this might be due to the piezoelectric effect that is inherent in a semiconductor host such as GaAs. Such an effect has the potential to create a sufficient in-plane internal strain that will be felt by electrons and will determine the direction of high and low resistance. When Wigner solid, charge density wave, and isotropic liquid phases are very close in energy, the overall stability of the system is very sensitive to local order and, thus, can be strongly influenced even by a weak perturbation such as the piezoelectric-induced effective electron-electron interaction, which is anisotropic. In this work, we argue that an anisotropic interaction potential may stabilize anisotropic liquid phases of electrons even in a strong magnetic field regime where normally one expects to see only isotropic quantum Hall or isotropic Fermi liquid states. We use this approach to support a theoretical framework that envisions the possibility of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state of electrons in the lowest Landau level. In particular, we argue that an anisotropic liquid state of electrons may stabilize in the lowest Landau level close to the liquid-solid transition region at filling factor ν =1 /6 for a given anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for a liquid crystalline state with broken rotational symmetry indicate stability of liquid crystalline order consistent with the existence of an anisotropic liquid state of electrons stabilized by anisotropy at filling factor ν =1 /6 of the lowest Landau level.

  15. Using an artificial neural network to predict carbon dioxide compressibility factor at high pressure and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohagheghian, Erfan [Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s (Canada); Zafarian-Rigaki, Habiballah; Motamedi-Ghahfarrokhi, Yaser; Hemmati-Sarapardeh, Abdolhossein [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Carbon dioxide injection, which is widely used as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, has the potential of being coupled with CO{sub 2} sequestration and reducing the emission of greenhouse gas. Hence, knowing the compressibility factor of carbon dioxide is of a vital significance. Compressibility factor (Z-factor) is traditionally measured through time consuming, expensive and cumbersome experiments. Hence, developing a fast, robust and accurate model for its estimation is necessary. In this study, a new reliable model on the basis of feed forward artificial neural networks is presented to predict CO{sub 2} compressibility factor. Reduced temperature and pressure were selected as the input parameters of the proposed model. To evaluate and compare the results of the developed model with pre-existing models, both statistical and graphical error analyses were employed. The results indicated that the proposed model is more reliable and accurate compared to pre-existing models in a wide range of temperature (up to 1,273.15 K) and pressure (up to 140MPa). Furthermore, by employing the relevancy factor, the effect of pressure and temprature on the Z-factor of CO{sub 2} was compared for below and above the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, and the physcially expected trends were observed. Finally, to identify the probable outliers and applicability domain of the proposed ANN model, both numerical and graphical techniques based on Leverage approach were performed. The results illustrated that only 1.75% of the experimental data points were located out of the applicability domain of the proposed model. As a result, the developed model is reliable for the prediction of CO{sub 2} compressibility factor.

  16. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Sheng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle

  17. Anisotropic magnetoresistance in a Fermi glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.; Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84120)

    1986-01-01

    Insulating thin films of indium oxide exhibit negative, anisotropic magnetoresistance. The systematics of these results imply that the magnetoresistance mechanism may give different weight to the distribution of the localization lengths than that given by the hopping conductivity

  18. Anisotropic stars obeying Chaplygin equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Bhar

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... Anisotropic effects may also originate from slow rotation of the core ... to include the effects of pressure anisotropy, electric charge, scalar field, dark energy and the cosmological constant in .... Generating solutions. In order to ...

  19. J{sub 1x}-J{sub 1y}-J{sub 2} square-lattice anisotropic Heisenberg model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, A.S.T., E-mail: antpires@frisica.ufmg.br

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • We use the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism. • We present the phase diagram at zero temperature. • We calculate the quadrupole structure factor. - Abstract: The spin one Heisenberg model with an easy-plane single-ion anisotropy and spatially anisotropic nearest-neighbor coupling, frustrated by a next-nearest neighbor interaction, is studied at zero temperature using a SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism (sometimes also referred to as flavor wave theory) in a mean field approximation. The local constraint is enforced by introducing a Lagrange multiplier. The enlarged Hilbert space of S = 1 spins lead to a nematic phase that is ubiquitous to S = 1 spins with single ion anisotropy. The phase diagram shows two magnetically ordered phase, separated by a quantum paramagnetic (nematic) phase.

  20. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand

    2013-06-18

    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  1. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Alliez, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  2. Anisotropic response of the moving vortex lattice in superconducting Mo(1-x)Gex amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolz, M.I.; Shalóm, D.E.; Pastoriza, H.; López, D.O.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed magnetic susceptibility measurements in Mo 1-x Ge x amorphous thin films biased with an electrical current using anisotropic coils. We tested the symmetry of the vortex response changing the relative orientation between the bias current and the susceptibility coils. We found a region in the DC current-temperature phase diagram where the dynamical vortex structures behave anisotropically. In this region the shielding capability of the superconducting currents measured by the susceptibility coils is less effective along the direction of vortex motion compared to the transverse direction. This anisotropic response is found in the same region where the peak effect in the critical current is developed. On rising temperature the isotropic behavior is recovered.

  3. A pedestal temperature model with self-consistent calculation of safety factor and magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onjun, T; Siriburanon, T; Onjun, O

    2008-01-01

    A pedestal model based on theory-motivated models for the pedestal width and the pedestal pressure gradient is developed for the temperature at the top of the H-mode pedestal. The pedestal width model based on magnetic shear and flow shear stabilization is used in this study, where the pedestal pressure gradient is assumed to be limited by first stability of infinite n ballooning mode instability. This pedestal model is implemented in the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, where the safety factor and magnetic shear are solved self-consistently in both core and pedestal regions. With the self-consistently approach for calculating safety factor and magnetic shear, the effect of bootstrap current can be correctly included in the pedestal model. The pedestal model is used to provide the boundary conditions in the simulations and the Multi-mode core transport model is used to describe the core transport. This new integrated modeling procedure of the BALDUR code is used to predict the temperature and density profiles of 26 H-mode discharges. Simulations are carried out for 13 discharges in the Joint European Torus and 13 discharges in the DIII-D tokamak. The average root-mean-square deviation between experimental data and the predicted profiles of the temperature and the density, normalized by their central values, is found to be about 14%

  4. An anisotropic elastoplasticity model implemented in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Miles Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-12

    Many metals, including Tantalum and Zirconium, exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior at the single crystal level, and if components are manufactured from these metals through forming processes the polycrystal (component) may also exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior. This is because the forming can induce a preferential orientation of the crystals in the polycrystal. One example is a rolled plate of Uranium where the sti /strong orientation of the crystal (c-axis) tends to align itself perpendicular to the rolling direction. If loads are applied to this plate in di erent orientations the sti ness as well as the ow strength of the material will be greater in the through thickness direction than in other directions. To better accommodate simulations of such materials, an anisotropic elastoplasticity model has been implemented in FLAG. The model includes an anisotropic elastic stress model as well as an anisotropic plasticity model. The model could represent single crystals of any symmetry, though it should not be confused with a high- delity crystal plasticity model with multiple slip planes and evolutions. The model is most appropriate for homogenized polycrystalline materials. Elastic rotation of the material due to deformation is captured, so the anisotropic models are appropriate for arbitrary large rotations, but currently they do not account for signi cant change in material texture beyond the elastic rotation of the entire polycrystal.

  5. Polysaccharide peptide induces a tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent drop of body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Jakub; Wrotek, Sylwia; Kozak, Wieslaw

    2014-08-01

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP) extracted from the Coriolus versicolor mushroom is frequently suggested as an adjunct to the chemo- or radiotherapy in cancer patients. It improves quality of the patients' life by decreasing pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. However, the effect of PSP on body temperature has not thus far been studied, although it is well known that treatment with other polysaccharide adjuvants, such as lipopolysaccharides, may induce fever. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the influence of PSP on temperature regulation in rats. We report that intraperitoneal injection of PSP provoked a dose-dependent decrease of temperature in male Wistar rats equipped with biotelemetry devices to monitor deep body temperature (Tb). The response was rapid (i.e., with latency of 15-20min), transient (lasting up to 5h post-injection), and accompanied by a significant elevation of the blood tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Pretreatment of the rats with anti-TNF-α antibody prevented the PSP-induced drop in Tb. Based on these data, we conclude that rats may develop an anapyrexia-like response to the injection of peptidopolysaccharide rather than fever, and the response was TNF-α-dependent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A methodology for developing anisotropic AAA phantoms via additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, Raúl; Cazón, Aitor; Finol, Ender A

    2017-05-24

    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling of anisotropic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, C.; Javierre, E.; García-Aznar, J. M.; Gómez-Benito, M. J.; Menzel, A.

    2015-06-01

    Biological soft tissues exhibit non-linear complex properties, the quantification of which presents a challenge. Nevertheless, these properties, such as skin anisotropy, highly influence different processes that occur in soft tissues, for instance wound healing, and thus its correct identification and quantification is crucial to understand them. Experimental and computational works are required in order to find the most precise model to replicate the tissues' properties. In this work, we present a wound healing model focused on the proliferative stage that includes angiogenesis and wound contraction in three dimensions and which relies on the accurate representation of the mechanical behavior of the skin. Thus, an anisotropic hyperelastic model has been considered to analyze the effect of collagen fibers on the healing evolution of an ellipsoidal wound. The implemented model accounts for the contribution of the ground matrix and two mechanically equivalent families of fibers. Simulation results show the evolution of the cellular and chemical species in the wound and the wound volume evolution. Moreover, the local strain directions depend on the relative wound orientation with respect to the fibers.

  8. Rotational discontinuities in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetic structure of rotational discontinuities (RDs) in anisotropic plasmas with T perpendicular /T parallel > 1 is investigated by using a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. To form the RD, a new approach is used where the plasma is injected from one boundary and reflected from the other, resulting in the generation of a traveling fast shock and an RD. Unlike the previously used methods, no a priori assumptions are made regarding the initial structure (i.e. width or sense of rotation) of the rotational discontinuity. The results show that across the RD both the magnetic field strength and direction, as well as the plasma density change. Given that such a change can also be associated with an intermediate shock, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to confirm that the observed structures are indeed RDs. It is found that the thickness of RDs is a few ion inertial lengths and is independent of the rotation angle. Also, the preferred sense of rotation is in the electron sense; however, RDs with a rotation angle larger than 180 degree are found to be unstable, changing their rotation to a stable ion sense

  9. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Schwarz, J M; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, p(x) and p(y), for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of p(x) and p(y). We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  10. Timescales of isotropic and anisotropic cluster collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelmann, M.; Ehlers, J.; Schneider, P.

    1993-12-01

    From a simple estimate for the formation time of galaxy clusters, Richstone et al. have recently concluded that the evidence for non-virialized structures in a large fraction of observed clusters points towards a high value for the cosmological density parameter Omega0. This conclusion was based on a study of the spherical collapse of density perturbations, assumed to follow a Gaussian probability distribution. In this paper, we extend their treatment in several respects: first, we argue that the collapse does not start from a comoving motion of the perturbation, but that the continuity equation requires an initial velocity perturbation directly related to the density perturbation. This requirement modifies the initial condition for the evolution equation and has the effect that the collapse proceeds faster than in the case where the initial velocity perturbation is set to zero; the timescale is reduced by a factor of up to approximately equal 0.5. Our results thus strengthens the conclusion of Richstone et al. for a high Omega0. In addition, we study the collapse of density fluctuations in the frame of the Zel'dovich approximation, using as starting condition the analytically known probability distribution of the eigenvalues of the deformation tensor, which depends only on the (Gaussian) width of the perturbation spectrum. Finally, we consider the anisotropic collapse of density perturbations dynamically, again with initial conditions drawn from the probability distribution of the deformation tensor. We find that in both cases of anisotropic collapse, in the Zel'dovich approximation and in the dynamical calculations, the resulting distribution of collapse times agrees remarkably well with the results from spherical collapse. We discuss this agreement and conclude that it is mainly due to the properties of the probability distribution for the eigenvalues of the Zel'dovich deformation tensor. Hence, the conclusions of Richstone et al. on the value of Omega0 can be

  11. Out-of-Bounds Hydrodynamics in Anisotropic Dirac Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Julia M.; Narozhny, Boris N.; Kiselev, Egor I.; Schmalian, Jörg

    2018-05-01

    We study hydrodynamic transport in two-dimensional, interacting electronic systems with merging Dirac points at charge neutrality. The dispersion along one crystallographic direction is Dirac-like, while it is Newtonian-like in the orthogonal direction. As a result, the electrical conductivity is metallic in one and insulating in the other direction. The shear viscosity tensor contains six independent components, which can be probed by measuring an anisotropic thermal flow. One of the viscosity components vanishes at zero temperature leading to a generalization of the previously conjectured lower bound for the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio.

  12. Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1985-01-01

    A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds....... The theory gives explicitly a temperature dependent renormalization of both the crystal field and the interactions, and a damping of the excitations and in addition a central park component. The general theory is illustrated by a discussion of the singlet-doublet system. The correlation effects...

  13. Anisotropic superconducting state parameters of Tl-2212 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskalam, Amit K.; Singh, R.K.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2001-01-01

    We have estimated the superconducting state parameters and their anisotropy in thallium based superconductors (Tl-2212), in the frame work of Fermi liquid approach. Determination of the effective mass of the charge carriers from the Fermi velocity and estimated anisotropic superconducting state parameters, particularly, the magnetic penetration depth along and perpendicular to the conducting plane. The coherence length along and perpendicular to the ab plane is evaluated and appears to be higher. The temperature dependence of penetration depth, their anisotropy and Ginsburg Landau parameter for optimised doped Tl based cuprates shows the power law. The technique permits a consistency with the reported data. (author)

  14. Anisotropic superfluidity in the two-species polar Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    We study the superfluid pairing in a two-species gas of heteronuclear fermionic molecules with equal density. The interplay of the isotropic s-wave interaction and anisotropic long-range dipolar interaction reveals rich physics. We find that the single-particle momentum distribution has a characteristic ellipsoidal shape that can be reasonably represented by a deformation parameter α defined similarly to the normal phase. Interesting momentum-dependent features of the order parameter are identified. We calculate the critical temperatures of both the singlet and triplet superfluids, suggesting a possible pairing symmetry transition by tuning the s-wave or dipolar interaction strength.

  15. Strain effects on anisotropic magnetoresistance in a nanowire spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md I.; Maksud, M.; Subramanian, A.; Atulasimha, J.; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2016-11-01

    The longitudinal magnetoresistance of a copper nanowire contacted by two cobalt contacts shows broad spin-valve peaks at room temperature. However, when the contacts are slightly heated, the peaks change into troughs which are signature of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Under heating, the differential thermal expansion of the contacts and the substrate generates a small strain in the cobalt contacts which enhances the AMR effect sufficiently to change the peak into a trough. This shows the extreme sensitivity of AMR to strain. The change in the AMR resistivity coefficient due to strain is estimated to be a few m Ω -m/microstrain.

  16. Zonal flows in tokamaks with anisotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Haijun

    2014-01-01

    Zonal flows (ZFs) in a tokamak plasma with anisotropic pressure are investigated. The dynamics of perpendicular and parallel pressures are determined by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double equations and low-β condition is adopted, where β is the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure. The dispersion relation is analytically derived and illustrates two branches of ZFs. The low frequency zonal flow (LFZF) branch becomes unstable when χ, the ratio of the perpendicular pressure to the parallel one, is greater than a threshold value χ c , which is about 3.8. In the stable region, its frequency increases first and then decreases with increasing χ. For χ = 1, the frequency of LFZF agrees well with the experimental observation. For the instability, the growth rate of LFZF increases with χ. The geodesic acoustic mode branch is shown to be always stable with a frequency increasing with χ. The safety factor is shown to diminish the frequencies of both branches or the growth rate of LFZF

  17. The temperature dependence of the static structure factor for liquid 4He below Tsub(lambda)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puoskari, M.; Kallio, A.; Pollari, P.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the structure factor S(k,T) is studied based on an assumption that the anomalous behaviour of S(k,T) below Tsub(lambda) is due to thermally excited rotons and phonons. The calculation of S(k,T) is performed with the help of the HNC-equation from a model density matrix of Penrose which in turn is obtained from a quasiparticle Hamiltonian describing elementary excitations of liquid helium (both phonons and rotons). The results are in qualitative agreement with recent neutron and X-ray scattering experiments below Tsub(lambda). The theoretical temperature correction is used to deduce S(k,T=0) separately from the most recent X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. (Auth.)

  18. Transcriptome-wide identification of Camellia sinensis WRKY transcription factors in response to temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xing-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Hui; Wang, Yong-Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a leaf-type healthy non-alcoholic beverage crop, which has been widely introduced worldwide. Tea is rich in various secondary metabolites, which are important for human health. However, varied climate and complex geography have posed challenges for tea plant survival. The WRKY gene family in plants is a large transcription factor family that is involved in biological processes related to stress defenses, development, and metabolite synthesis. Therefore, identification and analysis of WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant have a profound significance. In the present study, 50 putative C. sinensis WRKY proteins (CsWRKYs) with complete WRKY domain were identified and divided into three Groups (Group I-III) on the basis of phylogenetic analysis results. The distribution of WRKY family transcription factors among plantae, fungi, and protozoa showed that the number of WRKY genes increased in higher plant, whereas the number of these genes did not correspond to the evolutionary relationships of different species. Structural feature and annotation analysis results showed that CsWRKY proteins contained WRKYGQK/WRKYGKK domains and C2H2/C2HC-type zinc-finger structure: D-X18-R-X1-Y-X2-C-X4-7-C-X23-H motif; CsWRKY proteins may be associated with the biological processes of abiotic and biotic stresses, tissue development, and hormone and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Temperature stresses suggested that the candidate CsWRKY genes were involved in responses to extreme temperatures. The current study established an extensive overview of the WRKY family transcription factors in tea plant. This study also provided a global survey of CsWRKY transcription factors and a foundation of future functional identification and molecular breeding.

  19. Incubation at room temperature may be an independent factor that induces chlamydospore production in Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancak, Banu; Colakoglu, Sule; Acikgoz, Ziya Cibali; Arikan, Sevtap

    2005-08-01

    Production of chlamydospores is one of the phenotypic features used to differentiate Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. C. albicans produces few chlamydospores on only cornmeal/rice-Tween agar at room temperature, whereas C. dubliniensis produces abundant chlamydospores at this temperature both on cornmeal agar and some other commonly used media. We tried to determine whether the room temperature is the main factor that induces chlamydospore production of C. dubliniensis, regardless of the medium used. For this purpose, 100 C. albicans and 24 C. dubliniensis isolates were tested for chlamydospore production at room temperature and at 37 degrees C on some routinely used media, including eosin-methylene blue agar (EMB), nutrient agar (NA), nutrient broth (NB), and also on an investigational medium, phenol red agar (PR). At 37 degrees C, none of the isolates produced chlamydospores on any of the tested media. At 26 degrees C, all C. dubliniensis isolates produced abundant chlamydospores and pseudohyphae after 24-48 h on all tested media. At this incubation temperature, all C. albicans isolates failed to produce chlamydospores and pseudohyphae on EMB, NA, and NB, whereas 2 of the C. albicans isolates produced a few chlamydospores on PR. We also observed that all C. dubliniensis isolates tested on EMB and PR produced rough colonies with a hyphal fringe around the colonies, whereas none of the C. albicans isolates showed this property. In conclusion, incubation at 26 degrees C may play the key role for production of abundant chlamydospores and pseudohyphae by C. dubliniensis. Comprehensive molecular studies are needed to clarify the genetic basis of this observation. Using EMB and PR may be an inexpensive, a time-saving, and a simple way of presumptive identification of C. dubliniensis based on chlamydospore formation and colony morphology.

  20. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST Institute, ENSMM, 26 Chemin de l' Épitaphe, 25000, Besançon (France)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured

  2. Conduction-corrected modified effective temperature as the indices of combined and separate effect of environmental factors on sensational temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito [School of Life Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, 17-3 Hoshigaoka-motomachi, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8662 (Japan); Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro [School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, 1-1-12 Hon-cho, Shinzaike, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0092 (Japan); Kondo, Emi [Graduate School Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cyo, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Horikoshi, Tetsumi [Department of Techno-Business Administration, Graduate School of Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468555 (Japan); Matsubara, Naoki [Division of Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Kyoto Prefectural University, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 608522 (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    In living spaces, people sit or lie on the floor and adopt a posture in which much of the surface of the body is in contact with the floor. When the temperature of the spatial structure or the surface temperature of an object in contact with the human body is not equivalent to the air temperature, these effects are non-negligible. Most research examining the physiological and psychological responses of the human body has involved subjects sitting in chairs. Research that takes into account body heat balance and assessments of thermal conduction into the environment is uncommon. Thus, in this study, conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETF), which is a new thermal environmental index incorporating heat conduction, is defined in order to make possible the evaluation of thermal environments that take into account different postures. This sensational temperature index converts the effects of the following parameters into a temperature equivalent: air velocity, thermal radiation, contact material surface temperature and humidity. This index has the features of a summation formula. Through the use of these parameters, it is possible to represent and quantify their composite influence on bodily sensation and the effects of discrete meteorological elements through an evaluation on an identical axis. (author)

  3. Exciton polariton spectra and limiting factors for the room-temperature photoluminescence efficiency in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichibu, S. F.; Uedono, A.; Tsukazaki, A.; Onuma, T.; Zamfirescu, M.; Ohtomo, A.; Kavokin, A.; Cantwell, G.; Litton, C. W.; Sota, T.; Kawasaki, M.

    2005-04-01

    Static and dynamic responses of excitons in state-of-the-art bulk and epitaxial ZnO are reviewed to support the possible realization of polariton lasers, which are coherent and monochromatic light sources due to Bose condensation of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities (MCs). To grasp the current problems and to pave the way for obtaining ZnO epilayers of improved quality, the following four principal subjects are treated: (i) polarized optical reflectance (OR), photoreflectance (PR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the bulk and epitaxial ZnO were recorded at 8 K. Energies of PR resonances corresponded to those of upper and lower exciton-polariton branches, where A-, B- and C-excitons couple simultaneously to an electromagnetic wave. PL peaks due to the corresponding polariton branches were observed. Longitudinal-transverse splittings (ωLT) of the corresponding excitons were 1.5, 11.1 and 13.1 meV, respectively. The latter two values are more than two orders of magnitude greater than that of GaAs being 0.08 meV. (ii) Using these values and material parameters, corresponding vacuum-field Rabi splitting of exciton-polaritons coupled to a model MC mode was calculated to be 191 meV, which is the highest value ever reported for semiconductor MCs and satisfies the requirements to observe the strong exciton-light coupling regime necessary for polariton lasing above room temperature. (iii) Polarized OR and PR spectra of an out-plane nonpolar (1\\,1\\,\\bar{2}\\,0) ZnO epilayer grown by laser-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) were measured, since ZnO quantum wells (QWs) grown in nonpolar orientations are expected to show higher emission efficiencies due to the elimination of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields normal to the QW plane. They exhibited in-plane anisotropic exciton resonances according to the polarization selection rules for anisotropically-strained wurzite material. (iv) Impacts of point defects on the nonradiative

  4. Anisotropic evaluation of synthetic surgical meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberski, E R; Orenstein, S B; Novitsky, Y W

    2011-02-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia repair contribute to the overall mechanical behavior of the repair. The anisotropic potential of synthetic meshes, representing a difference in material properties (e.g., elasticity) in different material axes, is not well defined to date. Haphazard orientation of anisotropic mesh material can contribute to inconsistent surgical outcomes. We aimed to characterize and compare anisotropic properties of commonly used synthetic meshes. Six different polypropylene (Trelex(®), ProLite™, Ultrapro™), polyester (Parietex™), and PTFE-based (Dualmesh(®), Infinit) synthetic meshes were selected. Longitudinal and transverse axes were defined for each mesh, and samples were cut in each axis orientation. Samples underwent uniaxial tensile testing, from which the elastic modulus (E) in each axis was determined. The degree of anisotropy (λ) was calculated as a logarithmic expression of the ratio between the elastic modulus in each axis. Five of six meshes displayed significant anisotropic behavior. Ultrapro™ and Infinit exhibited approximately 12- and 20-fold differences between perpendicular axes, respectively. Trelex(®), ProLite™, and Parietex™ were 2.3-2.4 times. Dualmesh(®) was the least anisotropic mesh, without marked difference between the axes. Anisotropy of synthetic meshes has been underappreciated. In this study, we found striking differences between elastic properties of perpendicular axes for most commonly used synthetic meshes. Indiscriminate orientation of anisotropic mesh may adversely affect hernia repairs. Proper labeling of all implants by manufacturers should be mandatory. Understanding the specific anisotropic behavior of synthetic meshes should allow surgeons to employ rational implant orientation to maximize outcomes of hernia repair.

  5. Investigation of potential factors affecting the measurement of dew point temperature in oil-soaked transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Adam H.

    Moisture within a transformer's insulation system has been proven to degrade its dielectric strength. When installing a transformer in situ, one method used to calculate the moisture content of the transformer insulation is to measure the dew point temperature of the internal gas volume of the transformer tank. There are two instruments commercially available that are designed for dew point temperature measurement: the Alnor Model 7000 Dewpointer and the Vaisala DRYCAPRTM Hand-Held Dewpoint Meter DM70. Although these instruments perform an identical task, the design technology behind each instrument is vastly different. When the Alnor Dewpointer and Vaisala DM70 instruments are used to measure the dew point of the internal gas volume simultaneously from a pressurized transformer, their differences in dew point measurement have been observed to vary as much as 30 °F. There is minimal scientific research available that focuses on the process of measuring dew point of a gas inside a pressurized transformer, let alone this observed phenomenon. The primary objective of this work was to determine what effect certain factors potentially have on dew point measurements of a transformer's internal gas volume, in hopes of understanding the root cause of this phenomenon. Three factors that were studied include (1) human error, (2) the use of calibrated and out-of-calibration instruments, and (3) the presence of oil vapor gases in the dry air sample, and their subsequent effects on the Q-value of the sampled gas. After completing this portion of testing, none of the selected variables proved to be a direct cause of the observed discrepancies between the two instruments. The secondary objective was to validate the accuracy of each instrument as compared to its respective published range by testing against a known dew point temperature produced by a humidity generator. In a select operating range of -22 °F to -4 °F, both instruments were found to be accurate and within their

  6. He-3, Pierre Morel and Me—Early Work on Anisotropic Superfluidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip W.

    2011-08-01

    The idea that there are alternative, anisotropic solutions of BCS equations, which might apply to He-3, surfaced independently in at least three places, one of which was Pierre Morel's thesis project (for the ENS, under me at Bell Labs) I was skeptical of quantitative estimates of transition temperatures and instead focused, with Pierre, on conceptual and experimental properties of such states.

  7. Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.

    1997-01-01

    The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum

  8. Interchange stability criteria for anisotropic central-cell plasmas in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, Hitoshi; Inutake, Masaaki; Ichimura, Makoto; Katsumata, Ryota; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro.

    1993-05-01

    Flute interchange stability of anisotropic central-cell plasmas in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10 is studied numerically. The stability criteria on the beta value is obtained as a function of axial localization length of the pressure in both central and anchor cells. The temperature anisotropy of the plasma is also discussed. (author)

  9. Anisotropic spheres with Van der Waals-type equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... Einstein–Maxwell system; anisotropic matter; equation of state; relativistic star. ... the temperature-dominated phase in the early Universe or in ..... of Lobo [22], the de Sitter isotropic model and Einstein's model can be regained ...

  10. Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardes, A.M.; Kemerink, M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Bastiaansen, J.J.A.M.; Kiggen, N.M.M.; Langeveld, B.M.W.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Kok, M.M. de

    2007-01-01

    The anisotropic conductivity of spin-coated poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films by temperature-dependent conductivity measurements, has been analyzed. A detailed 3D morphological model was derived from topographic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and

  11. Modeling of dengue occurrences early warning involving temperature and rainfall factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prama Setia Putra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand dengue transmission process and its vector dynamics and to develop early warning model of dengue occurrences based on mosquito population and host-vector threshold values considering temperature and rainfall. Methods: To obtain the early warning model, mosquito population and host-vector models are developed initially. Both are developed using differential equations. Basic offspring number (R0m and basic reproductive ratio (R0d which are the threshold values are derived from the models under constant parameters assumption. Temperature and rainfall effects on mosquito and dengue are performed in entomological and disease transmission parameters. Some of parameters are set as functions of temperature or rainfall while other parameters are set to be constant. Hereafter, both threshold values are computed using those parameters. Monthly dengue occurrences data are categorized as zero and one values which one means the outbreak does occur in that month. Logistics regression is chosen to bridge the threshold values and categorized data. Threshold values are considered as the input of early warning model. Semarang city is selected as the sample to develop this early waning model. Results: The derived threshold values which are R 0 m and R 0 d show to have relation that mosquito as dengue vector affects transmission of the disease. Result of the early warning model will be a value between zero and one. It is categorized as outbreak does occur when the value is larger than 0.5 while other is categorized as outbreak does not occur. By using single predictor, the model can perform 68% accuracy approximately. Conclusions: The extinction of mosquitoes will be followed by disease disappearance while mosquitoes existence can lead to disease free or endemic states. Model simulations show that mosquito population are more affected by weather factors than human. Involving weather factors implicitly in the threshold value and linking them

  12. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  13. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm and 650. nm, 10. nm FWHM). After calibration, statistical analysis shows that the uncertainty of the two-color temperature is less than 5%, while it is about 50% for the KL factor. This technique is then applied to the spray combustion of biodiesel and diesel fuels under an ambient oxygen concentration of 21% and ambient temperatures of 800, 1000 and 1200. K. The heat release result shows higher energy utilization efficiency for biodiesel compared to diesel under all conditions; meanwhile, diesel shows a higher pressure increase due to its higher heating value. Biodiesel yields a lower temperature inside the flame area, a longer soot lift-off length, and a smaller soot area compared to diesel. Both the KL factor and the total soot with biodiesel are lower than with diesel throughout the entire combustion process, and this difference becomes larger as the ambient temperature decreases. Biodiesel shows approximately 50-100. K lower temperatures than diesel at the quasi-steady stage for 1000 and 1200. K ambient temperature, while diesel shows a lower temperature than biodiesel at 800. K ambient. This result may raise the question of how important the flame temperature is in explaining the higher NO. x emissions often observed during biodiesel combustion. Other factors may also play an important role in controlling NO. x emissions. Both biodiesel and diesel temperature measurements show a monotonic dependence on the ambient temperature. However, the ambient temperature appears to have a more significant effect on the soot formation and oxidation in diesel combustion, while biodiesel combustion soot characteristics shows relative insensitivity to the ambient temperature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of thin insulating anisotropic material with a stationary hot strip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Félix, Vincent; Bal, Harouna

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method dedicated to the thermal conductivity measurement of thin insulating anisotropic materials. The method is based on three hot-strip-type experiments in which the stationary temperature is measured at the center of the hot strip. A 3D model of the heat transfer in the system is established and simulated to determine the validity of a 2D transfer hypothesis at the center of the hot strip. A simplified 2D model is then developed leading to the definition of a geometrical factor calculable from a polynomial expression. A very simple calculation method enabling the estimation of the directional thermal conductivities from the three stationary temperature measurements and from the geometrical factor is presented. The uncertainties on each conductivity are estimated. The method is then validated by measurements on polyethylene foam and Ayous (anistropic low-density tropical wood); the estimated values of the thermal conductivities are in good agreement with the values estimated using the hot plate and the flash method. The method is finally applied on a thin super-insulating fibrous material for which no other method is able to measure the in-plane conductivity

  15. Numerical simulation of anisotropic polymeric foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Tita

    Full Text Available This paper shows in detail the modelling of anisotropic polymeric foam under compression and tension loadings, including discussions on isotropic material models and the entire procedure to calibrate the parameters involved. First, specimens of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC foam were investigated through experimental analyses in order to understand the mechanical behavior of this anisotropic material. Then, isotropic material models available in the commercial software AbaqusTM were investigated in order to verify their ability to model anisotropic foams and how the parameters involved can influence the results. Due to anisotropy, it is possible to obtain different values for the same parameter in the calibration process. The obtained set of parameters are used to calibrate the model according to the application of the structure. The models investigated showed minor and major limitations to simulate the mechanical behavior of anisotropic PVC foams under compression, tension and multi-axial loadings. Results show that the calibration process and the choice of the material model applied to the polymeric foam can provide good quantitative results and save project time. Results also indicate what kind and order of error one will get if certain choices are made throughout the modelling process. Finally, even though the developed calibration procedure is applied to specific PVC foam, it still outlines a very broad drill to analyze other anisotropic cellular materials.

  16. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2015-01-20

    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  17. High-rate anisotropic ablation and deposition of polytetrafluoroethylene using synchrotron radiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayoshi, Muneto; Ikeda, Masanobu; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Hiraya, Atsunari.

    1995-01-01

    Both anisotropic ablation and thin film formation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were successfully demonstrated using synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of PTFE, that is, the SR ablation process. Anisotropic ablation by the SR irradiation was performed at an extremely high rate of 3500 μm/min at a PTFE target temperature of 200degC. Moreover, a PTFE thin film was formed at a high rate of 2.6 μm/min using SR ablation of PTFE. The chemical structure of the deposited film was similar to that of the PTFE target as determined from Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. (author)

  18. On the lamb wave propagation in anisotropic laminated composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Keun; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Moon Saeng

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation of Lamb (or plate) waves in anisotropic laminated composite plates. The dispersion relations are explicitly derived using the classical plate theory (CLT), the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and the exact solution (ES), Attention is paid to the lowest antisymmetric (flexural) and lowest symmetric(extensional) modes in the low frequency, long wavelength limit. Different values of shear correction factor were tested in FSDT and comparisons between flexural wave dispersion curves were made with exact results to asses the range of validity of approximate plate theories in the frequency domain.

  19. Anisotropic magnetoresistance components in (Ga,Mn)As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rushforth, A.W.; Výborný, Karel; King, C.S.; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Wunderlich, J.; Irvine, A.C.; Vašek, Petr; Novák, Vít; Olejník, Kamil; Sinova, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Gallagher, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 14 (2007), 147207/1-147207/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA ČR GA202/04/1519; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002; GA MŠk LC510 Grant - others:UK(GB) GR/S81407/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * anisotropic magnetoresistence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.944, year: 2007

  20. Huge tunnelling anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As nanoconstrictions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giddings, A.D.; Makarovsky, O. N.; Khalid, M.N.; Yasin, S.; Edmonds, K. W.; Campion, R. P.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Williams, D.A.; Gallagher, B. L.; Foxon, C. T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2008), 085004/1-085004/9 ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEFON/06/E002; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA ČR GA202/04/1519 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductor * nanoconstriction * tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance , Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2008

  1. XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2007-02-01

    We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained.

  2. XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2007-01-01

    We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained

  3. Experimental study of the anisotropic magneto-Seebeck effect in (Ga,Mn)As thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althammer, Matthias; Krupp, Alexander T.; Brenninger, Thomas; Venkateshvaran, Deepak; Opel, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Goennenwein, Sebastian T.B. [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Dreher, Lukas [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Schoch, Wladimir; Limmer, Wolfgang [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In analogy to anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), the thermopower of ferromagnetic materials also characteristically depends on the orientation of the magnetization vector. This anisotropic magneto-thermopower - or anisotropic magneto-Seebeck effect (AMS) - has only scarcely been studied to date. Taking the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As with its large magneto-resistive effects as a prototype example, we have measured the evolution of both the AMR and the AMS effects at liquid He temperatures as a function of the orientation of a magnetic field applied in the (Ga,Mn)As film plane, for different, fixed magnetic field magnitudes. Our data show that the AMS effect can be adequately modeled only if the symmetry of the (Ga,Mn)As crystal is explicitly taken into account. We quantitatively compare our AMR and AMS measurements with corresponding model calculations, and address the validity of the Mott relations linking the magneto-resistance and the magneto-Seebeck coefficients.

  4. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  6. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anisotropic electrical, thermal and magnetic properties of Al{sub 13}Ru{sub 4} decagonal quasicrystalline approximant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wencka, Magdalena [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Molecular Physics; Vrtnik, Stanislav; Kozelj, Primoz; Dolinsek, Janez [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jaglicic, Zvonko [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Inst. of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics; Gille, Peter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Crystallography Section

    2017-09-01

    We present measurements of the anisotropic electrical and thermal transport coefficients (the electrical resistivity, the thermoelectric power, the thermal conductivity), the magnetization and the specific heat of the Al{sub 13}Ru{sub 4} monoclinic approximant to the decagonal quasicrystal, in comparison to the isostructural Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4}. The electrical and thermal transport parameters of Al{sub 13}Ru{sub 4} were found to exhibit significant anisotropy, qualitatively similar to that found previously in the Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} (P. Popcevic, et al., Phys. Rev. B 2010, 81, 184203). The crystallographic b direction, corresponding to the stacking direction of the (a,c) atomic planes, is the most conducting direction for the electricity and heat. The thermopower is strongly anisotropic with a complicated temperature dependence, exhibiting maxima, minima, crossovers and sign change. The electronic density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy is reduced to 35% of the DOS of Al metal. The magnetic susceptibility is diamagnetic and the diamagnetism is by a factor of 2 stronger for the magnetic field along the stacking b direction.

  8. Relationship between tolerance factor and temperature coefficient of permittivity of temperature-stable high permittivity BaTiO3–Bi(MeO3 compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthaphon Raengthon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The temperature coefficient of permittivity (TCε of BaTiO3–Bi(MeO3 solid solutions were investigated. It was determined that as the tolerance factor was decreased with the addition of Bi(MeO3, the TCε shifted from large negative values to TCε values approaching zero. It is proposed that the different bonding nature of the dopant cation affects the magnitude and temperature stability of the permittivity. This study suggests that the relationship between tolerance factor and TCε can be used as a guide to design new dielectric compounds exhibiting temperature-stable high permittivity characteristics, which is similar to past research on perovskite and pyrochlore-based microwave dielectrics.

  9. Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi

  10. Anisotropic Intervalley Plasmon Excitations in Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Xu Huai-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the intervalley plasmon excitations (IPEs) in graphene monolayer within the random-phase approximation. We derive an analytical expression of the real part of the dielectric function. We find a low-energy plasmon mode with a linear anisotropic dispersion which depends on the Fermi energy and the dielectric constant of substrate. The IPEs show strongly anisotropic behavior, which becomes significant around the zigzag crystallographic direction. More interestingly, the group velocity of IPE varies from negative to positive, and vanishes at special energy. (paper)

  11. On cracking of charged anisotropic polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A., E-mail: azam.math@ue.edu.pk, E-mail: syedalimardanazmi@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Management and Technology, C-II, Johar Town, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2017-01-01

    Recently in [1], the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways ( i ) by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter ( ii ) by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to [2] in the absence of charge.

  12. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  13. Sign rules for anisotropic quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, R. F.; Farnell, D. J. J.; Parkinson, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    We present exact ''sign rules'' for various spin-s anisotropic spin-lattice models. It is shown that, after a simple transformation which utilizes these sign rules, the ground-state wave function of the transformed Hamiltonian is positive definite. Using these results exact statements for various expectation values of off-diagonal operators are presented, and transitions in the behavior of these expectation values are observed at particular values of the anisotropy. Furthermore, the importance of such sign rules in variational calculations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations is emphasized. This is illustrated by a simple variational treatment of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin model

  14. Biot Critical Frequency Applied as Common Friction Factor for Chalk with Different Pore Fluids and Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Injection of water into chalk hydrocarbon reservoirs has lead to mechanical yield and failure. Laboratory experiments on chalk samples correspondingly show that the mechanical properties of porous chalk depend on pore fluid and temperature. Water has a significant softening effect on elastic...... and we propose that the fluid effect on mechanical properties of highly porous chalk may be the result of liquid‐solid friction. Applying a different strain or stress rate is influencing the rock strength and needs to be included. The resulting function is shown to relate to the material dependent...... and rate independent b-factor used when describing the time dependent mechanical properties of soft rock or soils. As a consequence it is then possible to further characterize the material constant from the porosity and permeability of the rock as well as from pore fluid density and viscosity which...

  15. Factors that impact the stability of vitamin C at intermediate temperatures in a food matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Anna-Lena; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2017-04-01

    The study comprises a systematic and quantitative evaluation of potential intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact vitamin C degradation in a real food matrix. The supernatant of centrifuged apple purée was fortified in vitamin C, and degradation was followed without stirring. Model discrimination indicated better fit for the zero order model than the first order model which was hence chosen for determination of rate constants. pH influenced strongly vitamin C degradation in citrate-phosphate buffer but not in the apple purée serum. To get an idea of the impact of the food matrix, stability in apple purée serum was compared with that in carrot purée. In the latter, stability was slightly higher. Vitamin C degradation rates were not influenced by its initial concentration. The temperature effect was only marked in the temperature range 40-60°C. In the range 60-80°C, filling height of tubes had the greatest impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Possible Mechanism of Infrared Radiation Reception: The Role of the Temperature Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachnev, I. L.; Penniyaynen, V. A.; Podzorova, S. A.; Rogachevskii, I. V.; Krylov, B. V.

    2018-02-01

    The role of the temperature factor in the mechanism of reception of the CO2 laser low-power infrared (IR) radiation (λ = 10.6 μm) by a sensory neuron membrane has been studied. Organotypic embryonic tissue culture has been used to measure and estimate the temperature of a sensory ganglia monolayer exposed to radiation at different energy densities. The effects of tissue exposure to low-power IR radiation have been investigated. It has been found that inhibition of tissue growth by radiation of low energy density (10-14-10-10 J/cm2) is replaced by tissue growth (10-7-10-4 J/cm2), and again followed by inhibition in the range of 0.1-6 J/cm2. A statistically significant specific reaction to nonthermal radiation has been detected at the radiation power density of 3 × 10-10 J/cm2, which is due to activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase transducer function. The mechanisms of interaction of IR radiation with embryonic nerve tissue have been considered. Low-power IR radiation with the wavelength of 10.6 μm has been demonstrated to specifically activate a novel signal transducer function of the sodium pump, which controls the reception of nonthermal IR radiation in the energy density range of 10-14 to 10-10 J/cm2.

  17. The semi-infinite anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.; Boubekri, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Saber, M.

    1998-08-01

    Using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique that accounts for the self-spin correlation functions, the phase transitions in the semi-infinite anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg ferromagnet on a simple cubic lattice are examined. For fixed values of the reduced exchange anisotropic parameter, the critical temperature of the system is studied as a function of the ratio R of the surface exchange couplings to the bulk ones. It was found that if R ≤ R c , the system orders at the bulk critical temperature T B c /J and if R ≥ R c , the system exhibits two successive transitions. The surface orders at the surface critical temperature T S c /J which is higher than T B c /J and as the temperature is lowered, in the presence of ordered surface, the bulk orders at T B c /J. (author)

  18. Quarkonium states in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yun

    2009-09-10

    In this work we study the properties of quarkonium states in a quark-gluon plasma which, due to expansion and non-zero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. We determine the hard-loop resummed gluon propagator in an anisotropic QCD plasma in general linear gauges and define a potential between heavy quarks from the Fourier transform of its static limit. This potential which arises due to one-gluon exchange describes the force between a quark and anti-quark at short distances. It is closer to the vacuum potential as compared to the isotropic Debye screened potential which indicates the reduced screening in an anisotropic QCD plasma. In addition, angular dependence appears in the potential; we find that there is stronger attraction on distance scales on the order of the inverse Debye mass for quark pairs aligned along the direction of anisotropy than for transverse alignment. The potential at long distances, however, is non-perturbative and modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is non-zero and inversely proportional to the temperature. With a phenomenological potential model which incorporates the different behaviors at short and long distances, we solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Our numerical results show that quarkonium binding is stronger at non-vanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states. Furthermore, we determine viscosity corrections to the imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential in the weak-coupling hard-loop approximation. The imaginary part is found to be smaller (in magnitude) than at vanishing viscosity. This implies a smaller decay width of quarkonium bound states in an anisotropic plasma. (orig.)

  19. Quarkonium states in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yun

    2009-01-01

    In this work we study the properties of quarkonium states in a quark-gluon plasma which, due to expansion and non-zero viscosity, exhibits a local anisotropy in momentum space. We determine the hard-loop resummed gluon propagator in an anisotropic QCD plasma in general linear gauges and define a potential between heavy quarks from the Fourier transform of its static limit. This potential which arises due to one-gluon exchange describes the force between a quark and anti-quark at short distances. It is closer to the vacuum potential as compared to the isotropic Debye screened potential which indicates the reduced screening in an anisotropic QCD plasma. In addition, angular dependence appears in the potential; we find that there is stronger attraction on distance scales on the order of the inverse Debye mass for quark pairs aligned along the direction of anisotropy than for transverse alignment. The potential at long distances, however, is non-perturbative and modeled as a QCD string which is screened at the same scale as the Coulomb field. At asymptotic separation the potential energy is non-zero and inversely proportional to the temperature. With a phenomenological potential model which incorporates the different behaviors at short and long distances, we solve the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation. Our numerical results show that quarkonium binding is stronger at non-vanishing viscosity and expansion rate, and that the anisotropy leads to polarization of the P-wave states. Furthermore, we determine viscosity corrections to the imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential in the weak-coupling hard-loop approximation. The imaginary part is found to be smaller (in magnitude) than at vanishing viscosity. This implies a smaller decay width of quarkonium bound states in an anisotropic plasma. (orig.)

  20. Deep level observation in InP by temperature dependence of the van der Pauw`s symmetry factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Inst. for Technical Physics

    1996-12-31

    One of the most convenient methods of the basic characterization of the semiconductors is the Hall effect measurement by van der Pauw`s geometry. As a by-product, the symmetry factor and a function of the symmetry factor is calculated. It is supposed that temperature dependent changes in the value of the symmetry factor indicate inhomogeneities of the sample, since this factor describes an electrical symmetry of the sample, not simply a geometrical one. Otherwise this factor is not assumed as an important information. In this work the author wishes to demonstrate that this factor can indicate quite important properties of the sample.

  1. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially

  2. Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.; Diesso, M.; Hill, K.; Holland, A.; Pohl, F.

    1988-01-01

    Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron temperature, the Be filter thickness, and the electronic parameters of the acquisition system are known. PG 1810,1812 ID 131801CON N X-ray diagnostics TT Profile correction to electron temperature and enhancement factor in soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis measurements in tokamaks AU S. Sesnic, M. Diesso, K. Hill, and A. Holland LO Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 AU F. Pohl LO Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 8046-Garching, Federal Republic of Germany SD (Presented on 16 March 1988) AB Because soft-x-ray pulse-height-analysis spectra contain chordal information, the electron temperature and the radiation intensity (enhancement factor) measurements do not represent the local values. The correction factors for the electron temperature and the enhancement factor as a function of the temperature and density profile parameters and the energy are obtained. The spectrum distortion due to pulse pileup effects is also evaluated. A set of curves is given from which the distortion of the spectrum can be obtained if the electron tempe

  3. A Variational Approach to Perturbed Discrete Anisotropic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Salari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of discrete anisotropic equations and we will provide new multiplicity results of the solutions for a discrete anisotropic equation. We investigate the existence of infinitely many solutions for a perturbed discrete anisotropic boundary value problem. The approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.

  4. Anisotropic evolution of 5D Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, Chad A.; Stanley, Ethan

    2011-01-01

    We examine the time evolution of the five-dimensional Einstein field equations subjected to a flat, anisotropic Robertson-Walker metric, where the 3D and higher-dimensional scale factors are allowed to dynamically evolve at different rates. By adopting equations of state relating the 3D and higher-dimensional pressures to the density, we obtain an exact expression relating the higher-dimensional scale factor to a function of the 3D scale factor. This relation allows us to write the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker field equations exclusively in terms of the 3D scale factor, thus yielding a set of 4D effective Friedmann-Robertson-Walker field equations. We examine the effective field equations in the general case and obtain an exact expression relating a function of the 3D scale factor to the time. This expression involves a hypergeometric function and cannot, in general, be inverted to yield an analytical expression for the 3D scale factor as a function of time. When the hypergeometric function is expanded for small and large arguments, we obtain a generalized treatment of the dynamical compactification scenario of Mohammedi [Phys. Rev. D 65, 104018 (2002)] and the 5D vacuum solution of Chodos and Detweiler [Phys. Rev. D 21, 2167 (1980)], respectively. By expanding the hypergeometric function near a branch point, we obtain the perturbative solution for the 3D scale factor in the small time regime. This solution exhibits accelerated expansion, which, remarkably, is independent of the value of the 4D equation of state parameter w. This early-time epoch of accelerated expansion arises naturally out of the anisotropic evolution of 5D spacetime when the pressure in the extra dimension is negative and offers a possible alternative to scalar field inflationary theory.

  5. Anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's applications oriented SciDAC project, three model problems have been proposed by the Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling to test the potential of numerical algorithms for challenging magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problems that are required for future fusion development. The first of these, anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry, is considered in this note

  6. Anisotropic Interactions between Cold Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0002 Anisotropic interactions between cold Rydberg atoms Luis Marcassa INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 09/28...problem with the report +551633739806 Organization / Institution name Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos Grant/Contract Title The full title of the

  7. Adaptive slices for acquisition of anisotropic BRDF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 2096-0433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-18407S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : anisotropic BRDF * slice * sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/RO/vavra-0486116.pdf

  8. Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kumar; Dejene, Fasil; van Wees, Bart; Vera Marun, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times

  9. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    -dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided

  10. Algebraic solution of an anisotropic nonquadratic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Filho, H.; Vaidya, A.N.

    1990-06-01

    We show that an anisotropic nonquadratic potential, for which a path integral treatment had been recently discussed in the literature, possesses the (SO(2,1)xSO(2,1))ΛSO(2,1) dynamical symmetry and constructs its Green function algebraically. A particular case which generates new eigenvalues and eigenfunctions is also discussed. (author). 11 refs

  11. Nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations in Lm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Mokhtari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give a result of regularity of weak solutions for a class of nonlinear anisotropic parabolic equations with lower-order term when the right-hand side is an Lm function, with m being ”small”. This work generalizes some results given in [2] and [3].

  12. Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalvit, Diego A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milonni, Peter W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.

  13. Hydraulic fracturing in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valliappan, V.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Barnhoorn, A.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two dimensional model for modelling the hydraulic fracture process in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks. The model is formulated using extended finite elements (XFEM) in combination with Newton-Raphson method for spatial and Euler's implicit scheme for time. The

  14. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1977-01-01

    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...

  15. On characterization of anisotropic plant protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.A.; Göbel, J.; Bouwman, W.G.; Goot, van der A.J.; Stefanidis, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a set of complementary techniques was used to characterize surface and bulk structures of an anisotropic Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)–vital wheat gluten blend after it was subjected to heat and simple shear flow in a Couette Cell. The structured biopolymer blend can form a basis for a

  16. Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan [TNO Stieltjes weg 1, 2600 AD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-05-17

    Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.

  17. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-01-01

    these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing

  18. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  19. Ultrasonic Beam Propagation in Highly Anisotropic Materials Simulated by Multi-Gaussian Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo; Schmerr, Lester W.

    2007-01-01

    The necessity of nondestructively inspecting fiber-reinforced composites, austenitic steels, and other inherently anisotropic materials has stimulated considerable interest in developing beam models for anisotropic media. The properties of slowness surface play key role in the beam models based on the paraxial approximation. In this paper, we apply a modular multi-Gaussian beam (MMGB) model to study the effects of material anisotropy on ultrasonic beam profile. It is shown that the anisotropic effects of beam skew and excess beam divergence enter into the MMGB model through parameters defining the slope and curvature of the slowness surface. The overall beam profile is found when the quasi longitudinal (qL) beam propagates in the symmetry plane of a transversely isotropic gr/ep composite. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effects of these parameters on ultrasonic beam diffraction and beam skew. The MMGB calculations are also checked by comparing the anisotropy factor and beam skew angle with other analytical solutions

  20. Anisotropic thermal conductivity in epoxy-bonded magnetocaloric composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Bruno; Sellschopp, Kai; Bierdel, Marius; Funk, Alexander; Bobeth, Manfred; Krautz, Maria; Waske, Anja

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management is one of the crucial issues in the development of magnetocaloric refrigeration technology for application. In order to ensure optimal exploitation of the materials "primary" properties, such as entropy change and temperature lift, thermal properties (and other "secondary" properties) play an important role. In magnetocaloric composites, which show an increased cycling stability in comparison to their bulk counterparts, thermal properties are strongly determined by the geometric arrangement of the corresponding components. In the first part of this paper, the inner structure of a polymer-bonded La(Fe, Co, Si)13-composite was studied by X-ray computed tomography. Based on this 3D data, a numerical study along all three spatial directions revealed anisotropic thermal conductivity of the composite: Due to the preparation process, the long-axis of the magnetocaloric particles is aligned along the xy plane which is why the in-plane thermal conductivity is larger than the thermal conductivity along the z-axis. Further, the study is expanded to a second aspect devoted to the influence of particle distribution and alignment within the polymer matrix. Based on an equivalent ellipsoids model to describe the inner structure of the composite, numerical simulation of the thermal conductivity in different particle arrangements and orientation distributions were performed. This paper evaluates the possibilities of microstructural design for inducing and adjusting anisotropic thermal conductivity in magnetocaloric composites.

  1. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance: A spin-valve-like tunnel magnetoresistance using a single magnetic layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gould, C.; Rüster, C.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Girgis, E.; Schott, G. M.; Giraud, R.; Brunner, K.; Schmidt, G.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 11 (2004), 117203/1-117203/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : semiconductor spintronics * tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004

  2. Anisotropic dehydration of hydrogel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Cheneler, David; Grover, Liam M; Adams, Michael J; Anastasiadis, Spiros H; Bowen, James

    2017-12-01

    Efforts to develop tissue-engineered skin for regenerative medicine have explored natural, synthetic, and hybrid hydrogels. The creation of a bilayer material, with the stratification exhibited by native skin, is a complex problem. The mechanically robust, waterproof epidermis presents the stratum corneum at the tissue/air interface, which confers many of these protective properties. In this work, we explore the effect of high temperatures on alginate hydrogels, which are widely employed for tissue engineering due to their excellent mechanical properties and cellular compatibility. In particular, we investigate the rapid dehydration of the hydrogel surface which occurs following local exposure to heated surfaces with temperatures in the range 100-200 °C. We report the creation of a mechanically strengthened hydrogel surface, with improved puncture resistance and increased coefficient of friction, compared to an unheated surface. The use of a mechanical restraint during heating promoted differences in the rate of mass loss; the rate of temperature increase within the hydrogel, in the presence and absence of restraint, is simulated and discussed. It is hoped that the results will be of use in the development of processes suitable for preparing skin-like analogues; application areas could include wound healing and skin restoration.

  3. Factors that influence effective perioperative temperature management by anesthesiologists: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boet, Sylvain; Patey, Andrea M; Baron, Justine S; Mohamed, Karim; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Bryson, Gregory L; Brehaut, Jamie C; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2017-06-01

    Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (IPH) is associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Safe and effective warming techniques exist to prevent IPH; however, IPH remains common. This study aimed to identify factors that anesthesiologists perceive may influence temperature management during the perioperative period. After Research Ethics Board approval, semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff anesthesiologists at a Canadian academic hospital. An interview guide based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) was used to capture 14 theoretical domains that may influence temperature management. The interview transcripts were coded using direct content analysis to generate specific beliefs and to identify relevant TDF domains perceived to influence temperature management behaviour. Data saturation was achieved after 15 interviews. The following nine theoretical domains were identified as relevant to designing an intervention for practices in perioperative temperature management: knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, reinforcement, memory/attention/decision-making, environmental context and resources, social/professional role/identity, social influences, and behavioural regulation. Potential target areas to improve temperature management practices include interventions that address information needs about individual temperature management behaviour as well as patient outcome (feedback), increasing awareness of possible temperature management strategies and guidelines, and a range of equipment and surgical team dynamics that influence temperature management. This study identified several potential target areas for future interventions from nine of the TDF behavioural domains that anesthesiologists perceive to drive their temperature management practices. Future interventions that aim to close the evidence-practice gap in perioperative temperature management may include these targets.

  4. Measurements of the dynamic structure factor near the lambda temperature in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvin, J.A.; Vidal, F.; Greytak, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor S (q, ω) was measured by Brillouin scattering in liquid 4 He at q = 1.79 x 10 5 cm -1 . Results were obtained at two densities: rho = 0.175 g/cm 3 for which P/sub lambda/ = 23.1 bars and rho = 0.179 g/cm 3 for which P/sub lambda/ = 28.5 bar. Values of the reduced temperature epsilon equivalent (T-T/sub lambda/)/T/sub lambda/ varied from -5 x 10 -2 to -5 x 10 -6 and from 1.3 x 10 -5 to 5 x 10 -2 . This range involves both the hydrodynamic and the critical regions; values of qxi fall between 5 x 10 -2 and 21 below T/sub lambda/ and between 4.5 and 2 x 10 -2 above T/sub lambda/. This article presents the data on the critical mode, which is second sound below the transition and heat diffusion above. The most striking result is that the damping of the critical mode is essentially independent of epsilon over the entire range of temperatures studied. This behavior is qualitatively different from the strong temperature dependence, consistent with dynamic scaling, which is observed at low frequencies. On the other hand, any dispersion in the velocity of high frequency (approx. several MHz) second sound, if present, is less than 2%. S (q, ω) retains a two-peaked structure well into the critical region below T/sub lambda/; it still appears in the measured spectra (which contain the instrumental width as well) at qxi approx. 4. At T/sub lambda/ and in the critical region just above, there is evidence for a non-Lorentzian shape of S (q, ω). The critical mode contribution to S (q, ω) is compared with a theoretical calculation of Hohenberg, Siggia, and Halperin based on the planar-spin model of 4 He. The theory matches both the overall width and the general features of the shape of S (q, ω) to within our spectral resolution at T/sub lambda/. However, closer to qxi = 1 in the critical region, and in the hydrodynamic regions both above and below T/sub lambda/, the theory predicts linewidths which are too small

  5. Effects of Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity in Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of a Reversed-Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2010-01-01

    A compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the reversed-field pinch is performed including anisotropic thermal conductivity. When the thermal conductivity is much larger in the direction parallel to the magnetic field than in the perpendicular direction, magnetic field lines become isothermal. As a consequence, as long as magnetic surfaces exist, a temperature distribution is observed displaying a hotter confined region, while an almost uniform temperature is produced when the magnetic field lines become chaotic. To include this effect in the numerical simulation, we use a multiple-time-scale analysis, which allows us to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity. The resulting temperature distribution is related to the existence of closed magnetic surfaces, as observed in experiments. The magnetic field is also affected by the presence of an anisotropic thermal conductivity.

  6. Theory of electroconductivity for anisotropic semiconductors of p-Te type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlej, P.N.; Tomchuk, P.M.; Shenderovskij, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the electric conductivity tensor has been studied in anisotropic semiconductors of Te-type with the p-type conductivity. The inelastic scattering of carriers on the optical lattice vibrations and on impurity ions is taken into account. From a general equation for the mobility tensor obtained through the variation method rather simple temperature dependences of the mobility are found for various ultimate cases. In particular, a generalization is given of the Convell-Weizscopf equation for the case of anisotropic impurity scattering. In case of a mixed impurity and lattice mechanism of scattering the temperature dependence of the mobility is plotted as a diagram for the semiconductors of p-Te parameters

  7. New equations to calculate temperature correction factors for PO2 in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, H; Ohwada, T; Sato, J; Mizuguchi, T; Hirasawa, H

    1986-01-01

    Effects of hemoglobin concentration (Hb), pH, and body temperature (T) on the relationships between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were studied by means of a mathematical model using a Newton-Raphson iteration method. The functions between delta log PO2/delta T and PO2 were affected by the above three factors. New equations considering the effects of Hb, pH, and T were proposed by modifying the equation reported by Severinghaus: delta log PO2/delta T = (L +(U-L)/(A(vPO237)B + 1))(10(-2) where U = 3.15-0.45(7.4-pH37) L = 0.68-0.09(7.4-pH37) A = 5.86(exp10(0.074(T)-0.294(7.4-pH37)-11))((Hb)0.913) B = 6.33(exp10(-0.0051(T)))((Hb)-0.113) + 0.24(7.4-pH37) and vPO237 is virtual PO237 which may exist when PO237 is corrected to standard conditions (pH = 7.4, BE = 0) by the following equations: vPO237 = PO237(exp10(fB(7.4-pH37)-0.0013(BE))) fB = (PO237/26.6)0.08-1.52 where fB is the Bohr factor. The above equations provided values of delta log PO2/delta T which fit closely to those obtained by the complex iteration method with maximum differences of less than 1.3 X 10(-3) at T = 27, indicating that maximum % errors for PO2 at T (PO2T) are less than 3.0% at T = 27 and that our equations can be applied over a wide range of Hb, pH37 and T.

  8. Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nlebedim, I.C. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); McCallum, R.W. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McCall, Scott K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kramer, M.J. [Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.

  9. Studies on in situ magnetic alignment of bonded anisotropic Nd-Fe-B alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nlebedim, I.C.; Ucar, Huseyin; Hatter, Christine B.; McCallum, R.W.; McCall, Scott K.; Kramer, M.J.; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2017-01-01

    Considerations for achieving high degree of alignment in polymer bonded permanent magnets are presented via the results of a study on in situ magnetic alignment of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B magnet powders. Contributions from effect of the alignment temperature, alignment magnetic field and the properties of the polymer on the hard magnetic properties of the bonded magnet were considered. The thermo-rheological properties of the polymer and the response of the magnet powders to the applied magnetic field indicate that hard magnetic properties were optimized at an alignment temperature just above the melting temperature of the EVA co-polymer. This agrees with an observed correlation between the change in magnetization due to improved magnetic alignment of the anisotropic powders and the change in viscosity of the binder. Manufacturing cost can be minimized by identifying optimum alignment temperatures and magnetic field strengths. - Highlights: • Optimum alignment of anisotropic magnet powders can enable high performance bonded magnets. • The viscoelastic state of polymer binders determines the dominating coercivity mechanism. • The minimum deviation in coercivity and remanence, with magnetic field, can occur at different temperatures. • Melting characteristics of polymer binders and the change in magnetization during alignment can be correlated.

  10. Nursery temperature as a factor in root elongation of ponderosa pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Frank J. Baron

    1965-01-01

    Greenhouse and nursery studies suggest that graphs of "effective" day and night temperatures provide a convenient method to compare nursery sites and to evaluate the effects of temperature on seedling root growth. Comparisons of root response under different natural temperature regimes should provide inforrnation use ful 'for the production of higher...

  11. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF 0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  12. Solar wind: A possible factor driving the interannual sea surface temperature tripolar mode over North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ziniu; Li, Delin

    2016-06-01

    The effect of solar wind (SW) on the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) in boreal winter is examined through an analysis of observational data during 1964-2013. The North Atlantic SSTs show a pronounced meridional tripolar pattern in response to solar wind speed (SWS) variations. This pattern is broadly similar to the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of interannual variations in the wintertime SSTs over North Atlantic. The time series of this leading EOF mode of SST shows a significant interannual period, which is the same as that of wintertime SWS. This response also appears as a compact north-south seesaw of sea level pressure and a vertical tripolar structure of zonal wind, which simultaneously resembles the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the overlying atmosphere. As compared with the typical low SWS winters, during the typical high SWS winters, the stratospheric polar night jet (PNJ) is evidently enhanced and extends from the stratosphere to the troposphere, even down to the North Atlantic Ocean surface. Notably, the North Atlantic Ocean is an exclusive region in which the SW signal spreads downward from the stratosphere to the troposphere. Thus, it seems that the SW is a possible factor for this North Atlantic SST tripolar mode. The dynamical process of stratosphere-troposphere coupling, together with the global atmospheric electric circuit-cloud microphysical process, probably accounts for the particular downward propagation of the SW signal.

  13. Parachors in terms of critical temperature, critical pressure and acentric factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broseta, D.; Ragil, K.

    1995-12-31

    The method of parachors is widely used in conventional thermodynamic codes and reservoir simulators to calculate oil/gas interfacial tensions of complex hydrocarbon mixtures. In the low-to-moderate interfacial tension regime, a value p{approx}11/3 has previously been shown to be the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} parachor exponent. This exponent is a critical exponent and its value is consistent with the values of critical exponents characterizing the liquid/vapor critical behavior. Therefore parachors may be viewed as critical amplitudes. By using critical scaling theory, parachors are related to other critical amplitudes and critical parameters that describe the bulk thermodynamic behavior of fluids. A simple expression relating the parachor of a pure compound to its critical temperature T{sub c}, critical pressure P{sub c}, and acentric factor {omega} is proposed: P= (0.85-0.19{omega})T{sub c}{sup 12/11}/P{sub c}{sup 9/11} where the parachor P is in units of (dyn/cm){sup 3/11}cm{sup 3}/mol, T{sub c} in K and P{sub c} in MPa. This equation matches (within experimental error) the known parachor values of normal fluids (e.g. alkanes, aromatics, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, etc...).

  14. Residential Load Manageability Factor Analyses by Load Sensitivity Affected by Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Load side management is the basic and significant principle to keeping the balance between generation side and consumption side of electrical power energy. Load side management on typical medium voltage feeder is the power energy consumption control of connected loads with variation of essential parameters that loads do reaction to their variation. Knowing amount of load's reaction to each parameters variation in typical medium voltage feeder during the day, leads to gain Load Manageability Factor (LMF for that specific feeder that helps power utilities to manage their connected loads. Calculating this LMF needs to find out each types of load with unique inherent features behavior to each parameters variation. This paper results and future work results will help us to catch mentioned LMF. In this paper analysis of residential load behavior due to temperature variation with training artificial neural network will be done. Load behavior due to other essential parameters variations like energy pricing variation, major event happening, and power utility announcing to the customers, and etc will study in future works. Collecting all related works results in a unit mathematical equation or an artificial neural network will gain LMF.

  15. Analysis of the Prandtl Number Impact on the Temperature Recovery Factor Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Burtsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses a design procedure for the gas-dynamic energy separation device and shows that its performance efficiency is mainly dependent on the temperature recovery factor values r.As a result of the performed analysis it was found, that the r values depend on a wide range of parameters, namely Mach and Reynolds number values, gas flow type, axial pressure gradient presence and its magnitude, surface relief, etc. At the same time Prandtl number is the parameter, which has the greatest effect on the r value.A review of correlations available in publications to calculate r values is conducted for Prandtl number values equal to or less than 1 (which is consistent almost with all pure gases and their mixtures and the obtained calculation results are compared with analytical expressions and available experimental data (for laminar and turbulent air flows, turbulent helium and hydrogen-argon mixture flow.It is shown that for laminar boundary layer the correlation of square root of Prandtl number is in good agreement with the experimental and analytical data.For turbulent flows the most widely known correlations were studied, and it was found, that for Prandtl number values equal to or less than 1 all of them lead to errors of at least 10 % and more.A new correlation for r calculation with respect to Prandtl number is proposed with maximum error of 1,5 % for Prandtl number values equal to or less than 1.

  16. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA MUREŞAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  17. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1987-01-01

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

  18. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic ballistic conductance of thin magnetic wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabirianov, R.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetocrystalline anisotropy of thin magnetic wires of iron and cobalt is quite different from the bulk phases. The spin moment of monatomic Fe wire may be as high as 3.4 μ B , while the orbital moment as high as 0.5 μ B . The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) was calculated for wires up to 0.6 nm in diameter starting from monatomic wire and adding consecutive shells for thicker wires. I observe that Fe wires exhibit the change sign with the stress applied along the wire. It means that easy axis may change from the direction along the wire to perpendicular to the wire. We find that ballistic conductance of the wire depends on the direction of the applied magnetic field, i.e. shows anisotropic ballistic magnetoresistance. This effect occurs due to the symmetry dependence of the splitting of degenerate bands in the applied field which changes the number of bands crossing the Fermi level. We find that the ballistic conductance changes with applied stress. Even for thicker wires the ballistic conductance changes by factor 2 on moderate tensile stain in our 5x4 model wire. Thus, the ballistic conductance of magnetic wires changes in the applied field due to the magnetostriction. This effect can be observed as large anisotropic BMR in the experiment

  19. The Coupling of Treeline Elevation and Temperature is Mediated by Non-Thermal Factors on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between treeline elevation and climate at regional and local scales. It is compelling to fill this research gap with data from the Tibetan Plateau where some of the highest alpine treelines in the world are found. This research question partially results from the lack of in situ temperature data at treeline sites. Herein, treeline variables (e.g., elevation, topography, tree species and temperature data were collected from published investigations performed during this decade on the Tibetan Plateau. Temperature conditions near treeline sites were estimated using global databases and these estimates were corrected by using in situ air temperature measurements. Correlation analyses and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the effects of different variables on treeline elevation including thermal (growing-season air temperatures and non-thermal (latitude, longitude, elevation, tree species, precipitation, radiation factors. The commonality analysis model was applied to explore how several variables (July mean temperature, elevation of mountain peak, latitude were related to treeline elevation. July mean temperature was the most significant predictor of treeline elevation, explaining 55% of the variance in treeline elevation across the Tibetan Plateau, whereas latitude, tree species, and mountain elevation (mass-elevation effect explained 30% of the variance in treeline elevation. After considering the multicollinearity among predictors, July mean temperature (largely due to the influence of minimum temperature still showed the strongest association with treeline elevation. We conclude that the coupling of treeline elevation and July temperature at a regional scale is modulated by non-thermal factors probably acting at local scales. Our results contribute towards explaining the decoupling between climate warming and treeline dynamics.

  20. A new exact anisotropic solution of embedding class one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Smitha, T.T. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad (India); Rahaman, Farook [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-15

    We have presented a new anisotropic solution of Einstein's field equations for compact-star models. Einstein's field equations are solved by using the class-one condition (S.N. Pandey, S.P. Sharma, Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 14, 113 (1982)). We constructed the expression for the anisotropy factor (Δ) by using the pressure anisotropy condition and thereafter we obtained the physical parameters like energy density, radial and transverse pressure. These models parameters are well-behaved inside the star and satisfy all the required physical conditions. Also we observed the very interesting result that all physical parameters depend upon the anisotropy factor (Δ). The mass and radius of the present compact-star models are quite compatible with the observational astrophysical compact stellar objects like Her X-1, RXJ 1856-37, SAX J1808.4-3658(SS1), SAX J1808.4-3658(SS2). (orig.)

  1. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S.

    2017-01-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N -point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  2. Anomalous Skin Effect for Anisotropic Electron Velocity Distribution Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Gennady Shvets

    2004-01-01

    The anomalous skin effect in a plasma with a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) is very different from skin effect in a plasma with the isotropic EVDF. An analytical solution was derived for the electric field penetrated into plasma with the EVDF described as a Maxwellian with two temperatures Tx >> Tz, where x is the direction along the plasma boundary and z is the direction perpendicular to the plasma boundary. The skin layer was found to consist of two distinctive regions of width of order nTx/w and nTz/w, where nTx,z/w = (Tx,z/m)1/2 is the thermal electron velocity and w is the incident wave frequency

  3. Two-point correlation functions in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcori, Oton H.; Pereira, Thiago S., E-mail: otonhm@hotmail.com, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina PR (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    Two-point correlation functions are ubiquitous tools of modern cosmology, appearing in disparate topics ranging from cosmological inflation to late-time astrophysics. When the background spacetime is maximally symmetric, invariance arguments can be used to fix the functional dependence of this function as the invariant distance between any two points. In this paper we introduce a novel formalism which fixes this functional dependence directly from the isometries of the background metric, thus allowing one to quickly assess the overall features of Gaussian correlators without resorting to the full machinery of perturbation theory. As an application we construct the CMB temperature correlation function in one inhomogeneous (namely, an off-center LTB model) and two spatially flat and anisotropic (Bianchi) universes, and derive their covariance matrices in the limit of almost Friedmannian symmetry. We show how the method can be extended to arbitrary N -point correlation functions and illustrate its use by constructing three-point correlation functions in some simple geometries.

  4. Small clusters with anisotropic antiferromagnetic exchange in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, J B; Elliott, R J; Timonen, J

    2004-01-01

    We consider small symmetric clusters of magnetic atoms (spins) with anisotropic exchange interaction between the atoms in a magnetic field at zero temperature. The inclusion of the anisotropy leads to a wealth of different phases as a function of the applied magnetic field. These are not phases in the thermodynamic sense with critical properties but rather physical structures with different arrangements of the spins and hence different symmetries. We study the spatial symmetry of these phases, for the classical and quantum cases. Results are presented mainly for three frustrated systems, the triangle, the tetrahedron and the five-atom ring, which have many interesting features. In the classical limit we obtain phase diagrams in which some of the phase changes occur because of energy crossings and others due to energy bifurcations, corresponding to 'first-' and 'second-order' changes. In the quantum case we show how the symmetries of the states are related to the corresponding classical symmetries

  5. Selective optical transmission in anisotropic multilayers structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchani, N.; Bria, D.; Nougaoui, A.; Merad, A.E.

    2007-08-01

    We developed a Green's function method to study theoretically a single-defect photonic crystal composed of anisotropic dielectric materials. This structure can trap light of a given frequency range and filter only a certain frequency light with a very high quality. It is shown that the defect modes appear as peaks in the transmission spectrum. Their intensities and frequency positions depend on the incidence angle and the orientation of the principal axes of layers consisting of the superlattice and the layer defect. Our structure offers a great variety of possibilities for creating and controlling the number and transmitted intensities of defect modes. It can be a good candidate for realizing a selective electromagnetic filter. In addition to this filtration process, the defective anisotropic photonic crystal can be used to switch the modes when appropriate geometry is selected. (author)

  6. Assessment of factors that may affect the moisture- and temperature variations in the concrete structures inside nuclear reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxfall, M.; Hassanzadeh, M.; Johansson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three factors that may affect the climatic conditions inside Swedish nuclear reactor containments are the outdoor climate, the cooling water temperature and the operational state of the reactor. Those factors that have a considerable affect on the climatic conditions will be identified through comparisons to actual conditions during operation inside reactor containments. Knowledge about the impact of the factors on the climatic conditions is essential when developing a model to determine the prevailing and to predict future conditions in the concrete structures. The comparison between a Pressurized Water Reactor and a Boiling Water Reactor showed that there is no clear similarity, with regard to fluctuation of the indoor climate conditions, between the two reactor types. The indoor climate at a Pressurized Water Reactor seemed not to be affected of changes in the operational state, but it follows the fluctuations of the outdoor temperature and to some extent the water temperature. The Boiling water Reactor did not follow the water or outdoor temperature fluctuations. However, at a full power outage during a short period of time during the operational year the temperature drastically decreased. An operational year of a Boiling water reactor can be divided into three periods, where the first represents the yearly power outage, the second represents the autumn-winter-spring period and the third represents the summer period. The operational year of a pressurized water reactor can't easily be divided into stable periods, since the indoor temperature fluctuation follows the outdoor temperature fluctuation. Based on these measurements a simplified model which includes outer factors is possible for a BWR but more difficult for a PWR. (authors)

  7. Anisotropic response of the moving vortex lattice in superconducting Mo{sub (1-x)}Ge{sub x} amorphous films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolz, M.I., E-mail: mdolz@unsl.edu.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, R8402AGP Rio Negro (Argentina); Shalom, D.E.; Pastoriza, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, R8402AGP Rio Negro (Argentina); Lopez, D.O. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Av., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    We have performed magnetic susceptibility measurements in Mo{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} amorphous thin films biased with an electrical current using anisotropic coils. We tested the symmetry of the vortex response changing the relative orientation between the bias current and the susceptibility coils. We found a region in the DC current-temperature phase diagram where the dynamical vortex structures behave anisotropically. In this region the shielding capability of the superconducting currents measured by the susceptibility coils is less effective along the direction of vortex motion compared to the transverse direction. This anisotropic response is found in the same region where the peak effect in the critical current is developed. On rising temperature the isotropic behavior is recovered.

  8. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard

    2015-06-16

    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  9. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: Lavinia.heisenberg@googlemail.com, E-mail: r.kase@rs.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v {sup 2} || φ{sup 2} are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w {sub DE} in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w {sub DE}{sup (iso)} typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  10. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-09-01

    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  11. Entanglement of periodic anisotropic XY chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifa; Tong Peiqing

    2005-01-01

    By using the concept of concurrence, the entanglement of periodic anisotropic XY chains in a transverse field is studied numerically. It is found that the derivatives ∂ λ C(1) of nearest-neighbour concurrence diverge at quantum critical points. By proper scaling, we found that all the derivatives ∂ λ C(1) for periodic XY chains in the vicinity of quantum critical points have the same behaviours as that of a uniform chain

  12. Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tensio...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....

  13. Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.

  14. Electromagnetic effects on cracking of anisotropic polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Muhammad; Sadiq, Sobia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we study the electromagnetic effects on the stability of a spherically symmetric anisotropic fluid distribution satisfying two polytropic equations of state and construct the corresponding generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. We apply perturbations on matter variables via the polytropic constant as well as the polytropic index and formulate the force distribution function. It is found that the compact object is stable for a feasible choice of perturbed polytropic index in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  15. Anisotropic diffusion tensor applied to temporal mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, Sami; Sporring, Jon

    2010-01-01

    changes related to  specific  effects  like  Hormonal  Replacement  Therapy  (HRT) and aging. Given effect-grouped patient data, we demonstrated how  anisotropic  diffusion  tensor  and  its  coherence  features computed in an anatomically oriented breast coordinate system followed by statistical learning...

  16. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  17. A small-plane heat source method for measuring the thermal conductivities of anisotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Yue, Kai; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-07-01

    A new small-plane heat source method was proposed in this study to simultaneously measure the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of anisotropic insulating materials. In this method the size of the heat source element is smaller than the sample size and the boundary condition is thermal insulation due to no heat flux at the edge of the sample during the experiment. A three-dimensional model in a rectangular coordinate system was established to exactly describe the heat transfer process of the measurement system. Using the Laplace transform, variable separation, and Laplace inverse transform methods, the analytical solution of the temperature rise of the sample was derived. The temperature rises calculated by the analytical solution agree well with the results of numerical calculation. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the sensitivity coefficients of the estimated thermal conductivities are high and uncorrelated to each other. At room temperature and in a high-temperature environment, experimental measurements of anisotropic silica aerogel were carried out using the traditional one-dimensional plane heat source method and the proposed method, respectively. The results demonstrate that the measurement method developed in this study is effective and feasible for simultaneously obtaining the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of the anisotropic materials.

  18. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor, acoustic modes, and equation of state of two-temperature warm dense aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, L.; Förster, G. D.; Dharma-wardana, M. W. C.; Lewis, Laurent J.

    2018-04-01

    The ion-ion dynamical structure factor and the equation of state of warm dense aluminum in a two-temperature quasiequilibrium state, with the electron temperature higher than the ion temperature, are investigated using molecular-dynamics simulations based on ion-ion pair potentials constructed from a neutral pseudoatom model. Such pair potentials based on density functional theory are parameter-free and depend directly on the electron temperature and indirectly on the ion temperature, enabling efficient computation of two-temperature properties. Comparison with ab initio simulations and with other average-atom calculations for equilibrium aluminum shows good agreement, justifying a study of quasiequilibrium situations. Analyzing the van Hove function, we find that ion-ion correlations vanish in a time significantly smaller than the electron-ion relaxation time so that dynamical properties have a physical meaning for the quasiequilibrium state. A significant increase in the speed of sound is predicted from the modification of the dispersion relation of the ion acoustic mode as the electron temperature is increased. The two-temperature equation of state including the free energy, internal energy, and pressure is also presented.

  19. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Rios, Francisco Javier, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to {sup 232}Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10{sup -12}, which is considered average. The {sup 226}Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m{sup -3}); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  20. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The 226 Ra, 232 Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The 226 Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to 232 Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10 -12 , which is considered average. The 226 Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m -3 ); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg -1 ) and 232 Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg -1 ) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg -1 ) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  1. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  2. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad [Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 (United States); Ryblewski, Radoslaw [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3){sub q} symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  3. Bryan's effect and anisotropic nonlinear damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.; Manzhirov, Alexander V.

    2018-03-01

    In 1890, G. H. Bryan discovered the following: "The vibration pattern of a revolving cylinder or bell revolves at a rate proportional to the inertial rotation rate of the cylinder or bell." We call this phenomenon Bryan's law or Bryan's effect. It is well known that any imperfections in a vibratory gyroscope (VG) affect Bryan's law and this affects the accuracy of the VG. Consequently, in this paper, we assume that all such imperfections are either minimised or eliminated by some known control method and that only damping is present within the VG. If the damping is isotropic (linear or nonlinear), then it has been recently demonstrated in this journal, using symbolic analysis, that Bryan's law remains invariant. However, it is known that linear anisotropic damping does affect Bryan's law. In this paper, we generalise Rayleigh's dissipation function so that anisotropic nonlinear damping may be introduced into the equations of motion. Using a mixture of numeric and symbolic analysis on the ODEs of motion of the VG, for anisotropic light nonlinear damping, we demonstrate (up to an approximate average), that Bryan's law is affected by any form of such damping, causing pattern drift, compromising the accuracy of the VG.

  4. Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-05-01

    Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEFORMABILITY OF ANISOTROPIC AGRILLITE CLAYSTONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomaryov Andrey Budimirovicn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the results of deformability study of agrillite claystones are used for determination of the Jointed rock model parameters. The number of stamp, pressuremeter and compressive tests allowed to research anisotropic deformability of argillite claystone in vertical and horizontal direction. The following problems were solved during the study: 1 the in-place and laboratory experiments to calculate the anisotropy coefficient were done for anisotropic agrillite claystones with both natural moisture and total water saturation; 2 the deformation parameters were determined and the numerical simulation of the stress-strain state of claystone in field tests was carried out with the use of Plaxis 2D software application; 3 the comparative analysis was done for calculated claystone deformation and the values obtained during the in-place tests. The authors proved that agrillite claystones shows two times less deformation under loading in the horizontal direction than vertically. The ratio is obtained to determine the parameters for numerical simulation of the Jointed Rock model used as a practical tool for analysis of stress-strain behavior of anisotropic soils. The authors provided a recommended practice for consideration of specific properties of argillite claystones when carrying out foundation works.

  6. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3)_q symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  7. Study on factors affecting the droplet temperature in plasma MIG welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Sarizam Bin; Tashiro, Shinichi; Tanaka, Manabu; Yusoff, Mahani

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, the mechanism to control droplet temperature in the plasma MIG welding was discussed based on the measurements of the droplet temperature for a wide range of MIG currents with different plasma electrode diameters. The measurements of the droplet temperatures were conducted using a two color temperature measurement method. The droplet temperatures in the plasma MIG welding were then compared with those in the conventional MIG welding. As a result, the droplet temperature in the plasma MIG welding was found to be reduced in comparison with the conventional MIG welding under the same MIG current. Especially when the small plasma electrode diameter was used, the decrease in the droplet temperature reached maximally 500 K. Also, for a particular WFS, the droplet temperatures in the plasma MIG welding were lower than those in the conventional MIG welding. It is suggested that the use of plasma contributes to reducing the local heat input into the base metal by the droplet. The presence of the plasma surrounding the wire is considered to increase the electron density in its vicinity, resulting in the arc attachment expanding upwards along the wire surface to disperse the MIG current. This dispersion of MIG current causes a decrease in current density on the droplet surface, lowering the droplet temperature. Furthermore, dispersed MIG current also weakens the electromagnetic pinch force acting on the neck of the wire above the droplet. This leads to a larger droplet diameter with increased surface area through lower frequency of droplet detachment to decrease the MIG current density on the droplet surface, as compared to the conventional MIG welding at the same MIG current. Thus, the lower droplet temperature is caused by the reduction of heat flux into the droplet. Consequently, the mechanism to control droplet temperature in the plasma MIG welding was clarified.

  8. Instabilities of collisionless current sheets revisited: The role of anisotropic heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, P. A.; Kilian, P.; Büchner, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of the anisotropic heating on the spontaneous instability and evolution of thin Harris-type collisionless current sheets, embedded in antiparallel magnetic fields. In particular, we explore the influence of the macroparticle shape-function using a 2D version of the PIC code ACRONYM. We also investigate the role of the numerical collisionality due to the finite number of macroparticles in PIC codes. It is shown that it is appropriate to choose higher order shape functions of the macroparticles compared to a larger number of macroparticles per cell. This allows to estimate better the anisotropic electron heating due to the collisions of macroparticles in a PIC code. Temperature anisotropies can stabilize the tearing mode instability and trigger additional current sheet instabilities. We found a good agreement between the analytically derived threshold for the stabilization of the anisotropic tearing mode and other instabilities, either spontaneously developing or initially triggered ones. Numerical effects causing anisotropic heating at electron time scales become especially important for higher mass ratios (above m i /m e =180). If numerical effects are carefully taken into account, one can recover the theoretical estimated linear growth rates of the tearing instability of thin isotropic collisionless current sheets, also for higher mass ratios

  9. Investigation on the Factors Affecting the Temperature in Urban Distribution Substations and an Energy-Saving Cooling Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The different locations of the equipment in urban distribution substations (DSSs and the location of inlet holes and outlet holes usually result in different ventilation effect, which means the power consumed by any ventilating devices present is different. In this paper the temperature field distribution in an urban distribution substation with different locations of the equipment in the substation was calculated first, then factors influencing the temperature field distribution were investigated, and the influence of the different factors was analyzed. When the distance between the apparatus and walls exceeds 3 m, the change of the temperature in the DSS is very small. Therefore considering the floor area of the DSS, 3 m is the best value of the distance between the apparatus. With the change of the environment temperature or the velocity of the ventilation fans, the maximum temperature in the DSS or apparatus will change. Hence an energy saving ventilation strategy is proposed in the paper, and an intelligent cooling control system is developed, which can modify the velocity of the ventilation fans according to the environment temperature, and thus realize energy savings.

  10. Analysis of stress intensity factor for a Griffith crack opened under constant pressure in a plate with temperature dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Toshiaki

    1982-01-01

    Recently, the research on the thermal stress of structural materials has become important with the progress of nuclear reactor technology. In the case of large temperature gradient, the change of the physical properties of materials must be taken into account. The thermal stress analysis for the things with cracks taking the temperature dependence of properties into account has scarcely been carried out. In this report, the general method of solution of three-dimensional problems using perturbation method and the extension of thermo-elastic displacement potential method is shown for the case in which Young's modulus changes according to the exponential function of temperature. Moreover, using this method, the effect of the temperature dependence of properties on the stress intensity factor of the cracks subjected to internal pressure in a strip exposed to linear thermal flow was clarified. In the analysis, Young's modulus, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were assumed to be dependent on temperature. The method of solution, the analysis of stress intensity factor considering the change of properties due to temperature, and the numerical calculation for a square plate with a crack are explained. (Kako, I.)

  11. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  12. Soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel spray combustion in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ji; Jing, Wei; Roberts, William L.; Fang, Tiegang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of the soot temperature and KL factor for biodiesel and diesel combustion in a constant volume chamber using a two-color technique. This technique uses a high-speed camera coupled with two narrowband filters (550. nm

  13. Effect of design factors on surface temperature and wear in disk brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, J. J.; Kennedy, F. E.; Ling, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The temperatures, friction, wear and contact conditions that occur in high energy disk brakes are studied. Surface and near surface temperatures were monitored at various locations in a caliper disk brake during drag type testing, with friction coefficient and wear rates also being determined. The recorded transient temperature distributions in the friction pads and infrared photographs of the rotor disk surface both showed that contact at the friction surface was not uniform, with contact areas constantly shifting due to nonuniform thermal expansion and wear. The effect of external cooling and of design modifications on friction, wear and temperatures was also investigated. It was found that significant decreases in surface temperature and in wear rate can be achieved without a reduction in friction either by slotting the contacting face of the brake pad or by modifying the design of the pad support to improve pad compliance. Both design changes result in more uniform contact conditions on the friction surface.

  14. Dominant factors affecting temperature rise in simulations of human thermoregulation during RF exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models of the human thermoregulatory system can be used together with realistic voxel models of the human anatomy to simulate the body temperature increases caused by the power absorption from radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. In this paper, the Pennes bioheat equation with a thermoregulatory model is used for calculating local peak temperatures as well as the body-core-temperature elevation in a realistic human body model for grounded plane-wave exposures at frequencies 39, 800 and 2400 MHz. The electromagnetic power loss is solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the discretized bioheat equation is solved by the geometric multigrid method. Human thermoregulatory models contain numerous thermophysiological and computational parameters—some of which may be subject to considerable uncertainty—that affect the simulated core and local temperature elevations. The goal of this paper is to find how greatly the computed temperature is influenced by changes in various modelling parameters, such as the skin blood flow rate, models for vasodilation and sweating, and clothing and air movement. The results show that the peak temperature rises are most strongly affected by the modelling of tissue blood flow and its temperature dependence, and mostly unaffected by the central control mechanism for vasodilation and sweating. Almost the opposite is true for the body-core-temperature rise, which is however typically greatly lower than the peak temperature rise. It also seems that ignoring the thermoregulation and the blood temperature increase is a good approximation when the local 10 g averaged specific absorption rate is smaller than 10 W kg −1 .

  15. Critical properties of Sudden Quench Dynamics in the anisotropic XY Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hongli; Liu, Zhao; Fan, Heng; Chen, Shu

    2010-01-01

    We study the zero temperature quantum dynamical critical behavior of the anisotropic XY chain under a sudden quench in a transverse field. We demonstrate theoretically that both quench magnetic susceptibility and two-particle quench correlation can be used to describe the dynamical quantum phase transition (QPT) properties. Either the quench magnetic susceptibility or the derivative of correlation functions as a function of initial magnetic field $a$ exhibits a divergence at the critical poin...

  16. Quantum translator-rotator: inelastic neutron scattering of dihydrogen molecules trapped inside anisotropic fullerene cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsewill, A J; Panesar, K S; Rols, S; Johnson, M R; Murata, Y; Komatsu, K; Mamone, S; Danquigny, A; Cuda, F; Maltsev, S; Grossel, M C; Carravetta, M; Levitt, M H

    2009-01-09

    We report an inelastic neutron scattering investigation of the quantum dynamics of hydrogen molecules trapped inside anisotropic fullerene cages. Transitions among the manifold of quantized rotational and translational states are directly observed. The spectra recorded as a function of energy and momentum transfer are interpreted in terms of the rotational potential and the cage dimensions. The thermodynamics of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen are investigated through temperature dependence measurements.

  17. Eigenmodes of a microwave cavity partially filled with an anisotropic hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucri, M.M.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The eigenmodes of a microwave cavity, which contains a uniform hot plasma with anisotropic temperature, are determined using the linearized fluid equations together with Maxwell's equations. Conditions are discussed under which hot plasma mode and the cold plasma mode are decoupled. The frequency shift of the microwave cavity is calculated and the theoretical results are shown to be in very good qualitative agreement with published experimental results obtained for the TM 010 mode. (author)

  18. Quantum effects and elimination of the conformal anomaly in anisotropic space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    In homogeneous anisotropic space-time the connection between the problem of the elimination of infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied. It is shown that removal of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff leads to the absence of a conformal anomaly. A physical interpretation of the infrared cutoff as a shift in the particle-energy spectrum by an amount equal to the effective temperature of the gravitational field is proposed

  19. Resource Supply Overrides Temperature as a Controlling Factor of Marine Phytoplankton Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  20. The impact of climatic and non-climatic factors on land surface temperature in southwestern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Herbel, Ioana; Imbroane, Alexandru Mircea; Burada, Doina Cristina

    2017-11-01

    Land surface temperature is one of the most important parameters related to global warming. It depends mainly on soil type, discontinuous vegetation cover, or lack of precipitation. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between high LST, synoptic conditions and air masses trajectories, vegetation cover, and soil type in one of the driest region in Romania. In order to calculate the land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index, five satellite images of LANDSAT missions 5 and 7, covering a period of 26 years (1986-2011), were selected, all of them collected in the month of June. The areas with low vegetation density were derived from normalized difference vegetation index, while soil types have been extracted from Corine Land Cover database. HYSPLIT application was employed to identify the air masses origin based on their backward trajectories for each of the five study cases. Pearson, logarithmic, and quadratic correlations were used to detect the relationships between land surface temperature and observed ground temperatures, as well as between land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index. The most important findings are: strong correlation between land surface temperature derived from satellite images and maximum ground temperature recorded in a weather station located in the area, as well as between areas with land surface temperature equal to or higher than 40.0 °C and those with lack of vegetation; the sandy soils are the most prone to high land surface temperature and lack of vegetation, followed by the chernozems and brown soils; extremely severe drought events may occur in the region.

  1. Highly anisotropic electronic transport properties of monolayer and bilayer phosphorene from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhenghe; Mullen, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Kim, Ki Wook, E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsic carrier transport dynamics in phosphorene is theoretically examined. Utilizing a density functional theory treatment, the low-field mobility and the saturation velocity are characterized for both electrons and holes in the monolayer and bilayer structures. The analysis clearly elucidates the crystal orientation dependence manifested through the anisotropic band structure and the carrier-phonon scattering rates. In the monolayer, the hole mobility in the armchair direction is estimated to be approximately five times larger than in the zigzag direction at room temperature (460 cm{sup 2}/V s vs. 90 cm{sup 2}/V s). The bilayer transport, on the other hand, exhibits a more modest anisotropy with substantially higher mobilities (1610 cm{sup 2}/V s and 760 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively). The calculations on the conduction-band electrons indicate a comparable dependence while the characteristic values are generally smaller by about a factor of two. The variation in the saturation velocity is found to be less pronounced. With the anticipated superior performance and the diminished anisotropy, few-layer phosphorene offers a promising opportunity particularly in p-type applications.

  2. Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by uniaxial anisotropic bispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Hai-Ying

    2011-02-01

    Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory and the Fourier transformation approach, electromagnetic (EM) scattering of two interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes is investigated. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the EM fields in the uniaxial anisotropic spheres are expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions. The interactive scattering coefficients and the expansion coefficients of the internal fields are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the bispheres is considered. Some selected calculations on the effects of the size parameter, the uniaxial anisotropic absorbing dielectric, and the sphere separation distance are described. The backward radar cross section of two uniaxial anisotropic spheres with a complex permittivity tensor changing with the sphere separation distance is numerically studied. The authors are hopeful that the work in this paper will help provide an effective calibration for further research on the scattering characteristic of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres or other shaped anisotropic particles.

  3. The Influence of Environmental Factors on Employee Comfort Based on an Example of Location Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szer I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Work in unfavorable, changing environmental conditions negatively affects people working on scaffoldings used on construction sites, which may increase the risk of occurrence of dangerous situations. The purpose of this article is to show the scale of temperature changes which workers are exposed to. The paper compares examples of temperature measurements obtained from a metrological station and during tests on scaffoldings located in the Lodz and Warsaw regions. This article also presents the methodology of examining environmental parameters of the surroundings where employees work on scaffoldings. Analysis results show that high temperatures and significant temperature variations frequently occur on the scaffoldings, which leads to a lack of adaptability and consequently to tiredness or decreased alertness. Unfavorable environmental conditions can lead to behaviors which, in turn, can cause accidents.

  4. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  5. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we...... show that n-term nonlinear approximation with the orthonormal bases in certain anisotropic α-modulation spaces can be completely characterized....

  6. A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; El-Amin, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  7. A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2013-03-20

    In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  8. Anisotropic Bianchi II cosmological models with matter and electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, D.

    1978-01-01

    A class of solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations is presented, which corresponds to anisotropic Bianchi II spatially homogeneous cosmological models with perfect fluid and electromagnetic field. A particular model is examined and shown to be unstable for perturbations of the electromagnetic field strength parameter about a particular value. This value defines a limiar unstable case in which the ratio epsilon, of the fluid density to the e.m. energy density is monotonically increasing with a minimum finite value at the singularity. Beyond this limiar, the model has a matter dominated singularity, and a characteristic stage appears where epsilon has a minimum, at a finite time from the singularity. For large times, the models tend to an exact solution for zero electromagnetic field and fluid with p = (1/5)p. Some cosmological features of the models are calculated, as the effect of anisotropy on matter density and expansion time scale factors, as compared to the corresponding Friedmann model [pt

  9. Phase space analysis for anisotropic universe with nonlinear bulk viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss phase space analysis of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model by taking a noninteracting mixture of dust like and viscous radiation like fluid whose viscous pressure satisfies a nonlinear version of the Israel-Stewart transport equation. An autonomous system of equations is established by defining normalized dimensionless variables. In order to investigate stability of the system, we evaluate corresponding critical points for different values of the parameters. We also compute power-law scale factor whose behavior indicates different phases of the universe model. It is found that our analysis does not provide a complete immune from fine-tuning because the exponentially expanding solution occurs only for a particular range of parameters. We conclude that stable solutions exist in the presence of nonlinear model for bulk viscosity with different choices of the constant parameter m for anisotropic universe.

  10. Stability conditions for the Bianchi type II anisotropically inflating universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, W.F.; Lin, Ing-Chen

    2009-01-01

    Stability conditions for a class of anisotropically inflating solutions in the Bianchi type II background space are shown explicitly in this paper. These inflating solutions were known to break the cosmic no-hair theorem such that they do not approach the de Sitter universe at large times. It can be shown that unstable modes of the anisotropic perturbations always exist for this class of expanding solutions. As a result, we show that these set of anisotropically expanding solutions are unstable against anisotropic perturbations in the Bianchi type II space

  11. Anisotropic magnetic properties of the KMo4O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Maffei, M. L.; Dos Santos, C. A. M.; Ferreira, B.; Sartori, A. F.

    2012-02-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements in the tetragonal KMo4O6 single crystals show a metal-insulator transition (MIT) near 100K. Magnetization measurements as a function of temperature show no evidence of magnetic ordering at this MIT [1]. Single crystals of KMo4O6 were obtained by electrolysis of a melt with a molar ratio of K2MoO4:MoO3 = 6:1. The process were carried out at 930 C with a current of 20-25mA for 52h in argon atmosphere. After that, electrodes were removed from the melt alloying the crystals to cool down to room temperature rapidly. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the black single crystals were grown on the platinum cathode. Typical dimensions of the single crystals are 1x0.2x0.2mm^3. X-ray diffractometry confirmed that the single crystals have KMo4O6 tetragonal crystalline structure with space group P4. Magnetization measurements were performed parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis from 2 to 300K. The results show anisotropic behavior between both directions. Furthermore, the temperature independence of the magnetization at high temperature and the upturn at low temperature are observed in agreement with previous results [1]. MxH curves measured at several temperatures show nonlinear behavior and a small magnetic ordering. The magnetic ordering seems to be related to the MIT near 100K. This material is based upon support by FAPESP (2009/14524-6 and 2009/54001-6) and CNPq/NSF (490182/2009-7). M. Andrade is CAPES fellow and C.A.M. dos Santos is CNPq fellow. [4pt] [1] K. V. Ramanujachary et al., J. Sol. State Chem.102 (1993) 69.

  12. Sensitivity of extreme precipitation to temperature: the variability of scaling factors from a regional to local perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Kirchengast, G.

    2018-06-01

    Potential increases in extreme rainfall induced hazards in a warming climate have motivated studies to link precipitation intensities to temperature. Increases exceeding the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate of 6-7%/°C-1 are seen in short-duration, convective, high-percentile rainfall at mid latitudes, but the rates of change cease or revert at regionally variable threshold temperatures due to moisture limitations. It is unclear, however, what these findings mean in term of the actual risk of extreme precipitation on a regional to local scale. When conditioning precipitation intensities on local temperatures, key influences on the scaling relationship such as from the annual cycle and regional weather patterns need better understanding. Here we analyze these influences, using sub-hourly to daily precipitation data from a dense network of 189 stations in south-eastern Austria. We find that the temperature sensitivities in the mountainous western region are lower than in the eastern lowlands. This is due to the different weather patterns that cause extreme precipitation in these regions. Sub-hourly and hourly intensities intensify at super-CC and CC-rates, respectively, up to temperatures of about 17 °C. However, we also find that, because of the regional and seasonal variability of the precipitation intensities, a smaller scaling factor can imply a larger absolute change in intensity. Our insights underline that temperature precipitation scaling requires careful interpretation of the intent and setting of the study. When this is considered, conditional scaling factors can help to better understand which influences control the intensification of rainfall with temperature on a regional scale.

  13. A Variationally Formulated Problem of the Stationary Heat Conduction in a Plate with Radiation Reduction Factor Increased under Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The equipment uses heat-shielding and structural materials that, when exposed, absorb radiation both on the surface and in the volume. In a variety of technical devices, absorption processes of penetrating radiation of materials and structural elements are typical for a number of process steps and operating conditions. Absorption of radiation penetrating into material volume may significantly affect the temperature state and runability of construction made of such material.The process of material-absobed penetrating radiation is associated with transition of the electromagnetic wave energy into the excitation energy of this material microparticles that, after all, leads to increasing internal energy and temperature growth. With radiation passing through the layer of material its flow density and hence energy of penetrating radiation decreases exponentially with increasing distance from the exposed layer surface. This law was experimentally established by the French physicist P. Bouguer and bears his name. In general, a certain fraction of this energy is radiated and dissipated in the material volume, and the rest is absorbed. A mathematical model describing these processes is an equation of the radiative energy transfer.In mathematical modeling of thermomechanical processes there is a need to consider the effect of penetrating radiation on the temperature state of materials and construction elements. The P. Bouguer law is used also when the volume radiation and scattering of penetrating radiation in the material can be neglected, but it is necessary to take into account its absorption. In this case, a negative indicator of the exponential function is represented by the product of the distance from the irradiated surface and integral or some average absorption factor that is constant for a given material and spectral distribution of penetrating radiation. However, with increasing power of radiation passing through the material layer there is a

  14. Growth medium and incubation temperature alter the Pseudogymnoascus destructans transcriptome: implications in identifying virulence factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael E; Davy, Christina M; Vanderwolf, Karen J; Willis, Craig K R; Saville, Barry J; Kyle, Christopher J

    2018-02-23

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causal agent of bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), which is devastating some North American bat populations. Previous transcriptome studies provided insight regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in WNS; however, it is unclear how different environmental parameters could influence pathogenicity. This information could be useful in developing management strategies to mitigate the negative impacts of P. destructans on bats. We cultured three P. destructans isolates from Atlantic Canada on two growth media (potato dextrose agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar) that differ in their nitrogen source, and at two separate incubation temperatures (4 C and 15 C) that approximate the temperature range of bat hibernacula during the winter and a temperature within its optimal mycelial growth range. We conducted RNA sequencing to determine transcript levels in each sample and performed differential gene expression (DGE) analyses to test the influence of growth medium and incubation temperature on gene expression. We also compared our in vitro results with previous RNA-sequencing data sets generated from P. destructans growing on the wings of a susceptible host, Myotis lucifugus. Our findings point to a critical role for substrate and incubation temperature in influencing the P. destructans transcriptome. DGE analyses suggested that growth medium plays a larger role than temperature in determining P. destructans gene expression and that although the psychrophilic fungus responds to different nitrogen sources, it may have evolved for continued growth at a broad range of low temperatures. Further, our data suggest that down-regulation of the RNA-interference pathway and increased fatty acid metabolism are involved in the P. destructans-bat interaction. Finally, we speculate that to reduce the activation of host defense responses, P. destructans minimizes changes in the expression of genes encoding secreted proteins during bat colonization.

  15. Psychophysics of a nociceptive test in the mouse: ambient temperature as a key factor for variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanne Pincedé

    Full Text Available The mouse is increasingly used in biomedical research, notably in behavioral neurosciences for the development of tests or models of pain. Our goal was to provide the scientific community with an outstanding tool that allows the determination of psychophysical descriptors of a nociceptive reaction, which are inaccessible with conventional methods: namely the true threshold, true latency, conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers that trigger the response and latency of the central decision-making process.Basically, the procedures involved heating of the tail with a CO(2 laser, recording of tail temperature with an infrared camera and stopping the heating when the animal reacted. The method is based mainly on the measurement of three observable variables, namely the initial temperature, the heating rate and the temperature reached at the actual moment of the reaction following random variations in noxious radiant heat. The initial temperature of the tail, which itself depends on the ambient temperature, very markedly influenced the behavioral threshold, the behavioral latency and the conduction velocity of the peripheral fibers but not the latency of the central decision-making.We have validated a psychophysical approach to nociceptive reactions for the mouse, which has already been described for rats and Humans. It enables the determination of four variables, which contribute to the overall latency of the response. The usefulness of such an approach was demonstrated by providing new fundamental findings regarding the influence of ambient temperature on nociceptive processes. We conclude by challenging the validity of using as "pain index" the reaction time of a behavioral response to an increasing heat stimulus and emphasize the need for a very careful control of the ambient temperature, as a prevailing environmental source of variation, during any behavioral testing of mice.

  16. Temperature sensitive lethal factors and puparial colour sex separation mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch-Petersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    A programme to develop genetic sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was initiated at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, in 1983. Because of the potential benefits arising from the elimination of females early in the developmental cycle, combined with the anticipated relative ease of inducing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) factors, it was decided to attempt to induce and isolate tsl factors active in the egg or early larval stages. Initially, five recombination suppressor (RS) strains were isolated. The degree of recombination suppression ranged from 77.6% to 99.1%. The viability of each of the five RS strains was assessed and RS 30/55 was selected as the most suitable strain. Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) was used to induce the tsl factors, by feeding two-day old adult males with a suspension of EMS in a 10% solution of sugar in the drinking water supply. Temperature tolerance tests indicated a discriminating temperature of 32 deg. C when isolating tsl factors active in the egg stage and 35 deg. C when isolating such factors in the early larval stage. A total of 39 and 22 tsl factors have been isolated in the two stages, respectively. However, none has yet proved stable. Induction of tsl factors with a reduced dose of EMS is now being attempted. An alternative genetic sexing programme was initiated in 1985, based on the use of pupal colour dimorphisms. Previously, a genetic sexing strain, T:Y(wp + )101, based on a white female/brown male puparial colour dimorphism, had twice been assessed for stability under mass rearing conditions. In both cases the sexual colour dimorphism disintegrated immediately. Another similarly dimorphic strain, T:Y(wp + )30C, was developed. This strain remained stable for seven generations of mass rearing, after which it started to disintegrate. Disintegration of this strain was probably caused by accidental contamination by wild type medflies. 34 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Superconductor to spin-density-wave transition in quasi-one-dimensional metals with repulsive anisotropic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism for superconductivity in a quasi-one-dimensional system with repulsive Ising-anisotropic interaction is studied. The Ising anisotropy opens the gap Δ s in the spin sector of the model. This gap allows the triplet superconductivity and the spin-density wave as the only broken symmetry phases. These phases are separated by the first order transition. The transport properties of the system are investigated in different parts of the phase diagram. The calculation of DC conductivity σ(T) in the high-temperature phase shows that the function σ(T) cannot be used as an indicator of a superconducting ground state: even if σ(T) is a decreasing function at high temperature, yet, the ground state may be insulating spin-density wave; the opposite is also true. The calculation of the spin dynamical structure factor S zz (q, ω) demonstrates that it is affected by the superconducting phase transition in a qualitative fashion: below T c the structure factor develops a gap with a coherent excitation inside this gap

  18. The Importance of Water Temperature Fluctuations in Relation to the Hydrological Factor. Case Study – Bistrita River Basin (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cojoc Gianina Maria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increase in most components of the climate over the past 50 years, including air and water temperature, is a real phenomenon, as attested by the numerous specialized researches according to IPCC (2013. The water temperature is one of the most important climatic components in analyzing the hydrological regime of the Bistrita River (Romania. The thermal regime of the Bistrita River basin and the frost phenomena associated with the risk factor are particularly important and frequently appear in this area. In recent years, under the Siret Water Basin Administration, this parameter was permanently monitored, so we could do an analysis, which shows that the water temperature fluctuations, influenced by air temperature, lead to the emergence of the ice jam phenomenon. The present study aims to analyze the water temperature, as compared to the air temperature, and the effect of these components on the liquid flow regime (the values were recorded at the hydrological stations on the main course of the Bistrita River. The negative effects resulted from the ice jam phenomenon require developing methods of damage prevention and defense. The frost phenomena recorded after the construction of the Bicaz dam are analyzed in this article

  19. Highly Enhanced Many-Body Interactions in Anisotropic 2D Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankur; Yan, Han; Zhang, Linglong; Sun, Xueqian; Liu, Boqing; Lu, Yuerui

    2018-05-15

    dynamics of excitons, trions, and biexcitons in reduced dimensions and fundamental many body interactions. We begin by explaining the fundamental reasons for the highly enhanced interactions in the 2D systems influenced by dielectric screening, resulting in high binding energies of excitons and trions, which are supported by theoretical calculations and experimental observations. Phosphorene has shown much higher binding energies of excitons and trions than TMD monolayers, which allows robust quasi-particles in anisotropic materials at room temperature. We also discuss the role of extrinsic defects induced in phosphorene, resulting in localized excitonic emissions in the near-infrared range, making it suitable for optical telecommunication applications. Finally, we present our vision of the exciting device applications based on the highly enhanced many body interactions in phosphorene, including exciton-polariton devices, polariton lasers, single-photon emitters, and tunable light emitting diodes (LEDs).

  20. Influence factors and temperature reliability of ohmic contact on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the performance of Ti/Al/Ni/Au ohmic contact with different Al and Au thicknesses and pretreatments. The temperature dependence of contact resistances (Rc was investigated and it shows that there are different optimal annealing temperatures with different metal thicknesses and pretreatments. The optimal annealing temperature is affected by Al and Au thickness and AlGaN thickness. The etched AlGaN barrier is useful to achieve good ohmic contact (0.24 Ω·mm with a low annealing temperature. Only the contact resistances of the samples with 130 nm Al layer kept stable and the contact resistances of the samples with 100nm and 160 nm Al layers increased with the measurement temperatures. The contact resistances showed a similar increase and then keep stable trend for all the samples in the long-term 400 °C aging process. The ohmic metal of 20/130/50/50 nm Ti/Al/Ni/Au with ICP etching is the superior candidate considering the contact resistance and reliability.

  1. Silicon as an anisotropic mechanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Reck, Kasper; Skands, Gustav Erik

    2014-01-01

    While silicon is an anisotropic material it is often in literature treated as an isotropic material when it comes to plate calculations. This leads to considerable errors in the calculated deflection. To overcome this problem, we present an in-depth analysis of the bending behavior of thin crysta...... analytical models involving crystalline plates, such as those often found in the field of micro electro mechanical systems. The effect of elastic boundary conditions is taken into account by using an effective radius of the plate....

  2. Anisotropic perturbations due to dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam

    2006-01-01

    A variety of observational tests seem to suggest that the Universe is anisotropic. This is incompatible with the standard dogma based on adiabatic, rotationally invariant perturbations. We point out that this is a consequence of the standard decomposition of the stress-energy tensor for the cosmological fluids, and that rotational invariance need not be assumed, if there is elastic rigidity in the dark energy. The dark energy required to achieve this might be provided by point symmetric domain wall network with P/ρ=-2/3, although the concept is more general. We illustrate this with reference to a model with cubic symmetry and discuss various aspects of the model

  3. An approach to anisotropic cosmologies. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the motivation for the study of anisotropic cosmological models is set out. Then the mathematical basis for the study of such models as well as the description of some of the exact solutions of this genre are given. Killing vectors that spell out spacetime symmetries, are defined and the Bianchi classification of spacetimes based on the structure of the Killing vectors described. After a consideration of the kinematics of matter flow some of the known solutions are presented and their properties described. (author)

  4. The quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.J.; Jensen, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys of the microwave background indicate that the universe is isotropic to more than one part in 10 5 . Due to the arbitrariness of the initial conditions of the universe at the big bang singularity one cannot predict this; it is usually put in by hand. We therefore construct the quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe according to the 'no-boundary' prescription of Hartle and Hawking. Such a model has a well-defined behavior at the classical singularity. We then show it also implies that a large universe, such as ours, is isotropic. (orig.)

  5. Quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.J.; Jensen, L.G.

    1989-01-23

    Surveys of the microwave background indicate that the universe is isotropic to more than one part in 10/sup 5/. Due to the arbitrariness of the initial conditions of the universe at the big bang singularity one cannot predict this; it is usually put in by hand. We therefore construct the quantum cosmology of an anisotropic universe according to the 'no-boundary' prescription of Hartle and Hawking. Such a model has a well-defined behavior at the classical singularity. We then show it also implies that a large universe, such as ours, is isotropic.

  6. Critical state of anisotropic hard superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Salazar, C; Perez-RodrIguez, F [Instituto de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo Post J-48, Puebla, Pue 72570 (Mexico)

    2003-11-01

    The magnetic response of anisotropic irreversible type-II superconductors is investigated theoretically. Using an elliptic vertical law for the electric field E as a function of the current density J, we have reproduced available experimental magnetization curves of YBCO samples with the c axis lying in the sample plane. Specifically, we could reproduce quantitatively and interpret correctly the appearance of additional extrema and segments with relatively small slopes of the virgin magnetization curves when the direction of the applied magnetic field differs from the principal axes. The notable deformation of magnetization curves in a tilted magnetic field is connected to the strong coupling between the components of the magnetic induction.

  7. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  8. Many-dimensional anisotropic anharmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbiner, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Precision calculation of energies of several first states at d=2 and first 17 states at d=3 has been performed within the framework of a unique method based on ''nonlinearization'' method for d-dimension anisotropic an harmonic oscillator. Spectrum behaviour within the limit d → ∞ has been investigated and problems of the given approach accuracy have been studied. For the first time properties of nodal surfaces of the given task have been investigated. Routine perturbation theory in degrees of a perturbation parameter has been constructed for several first states

  9. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1976-01-01

    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations...... fluctuation corrections in the mean-field results is also discussed....

  10. Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2017-11-12

    This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering

  11. Local thermodynamics of a magnetized, anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.; Morrison, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    An expression for the internal energy of a fluid element in a weakly coupled, magnetized, anisotropic plasma is derived from first principles. The result is a function of entropy, particle density and magnetic field, and as such plays the role of a thermodynamic potential: it determines in principle all thermodynamic properties of the fluid element. In particular it provides equations of state for the magnetized plasma. The derivation uses familiar fluid equations, a few elements of kinetic theory, the MHD version of Faraday's law, and certain familiar stability and regularity conditions.

  12. Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.

    1980-05-01

    An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations

  13. Analysis of anisotropic shells containing flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakis, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A general theory for the dynamic analysis of anisotropic thin cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid is presented. The shell may be uniform or non-uniform, provided it is geometrically axially symmetric. This is a finite- element theory, using cylindrical finite elements, but the displacement functions are determined by using classical shell theory. A new solution of the wave equation of the liquid finite element leads to an expression of the fluid pressure, p, as a function of the nodal displacements of the element and three operative forces (inertia, centrifugal and Coriolis) of the moving fluid. (Author) [pt

  14. Uncovering different masking factors on wrist skin temperature rhythm in free-living subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Nicolas

    Full Text Available Most circadian rhythms are controlled by a major pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Some of these rhythms, called marker rhythms, serve to characterize the timing of the internal temporal order. However, these variables are susceptible to masking effects as the result of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. Recently, wrist skin temperature (WT has been proposed as a new index for evaluating circadian system status. In light of previous evidence suggesting the important relationship between WT and core body temperature regulation, the aim of this work was to purify the WT pattern in order to obtain its endogenous rhythm with the application of multiple demasking procedures. To this end, 103 subjects (18-24 years old were recruited and their WT, activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. WT demasking by categories or intercepts was applied to simulate a "constant routine" protocol (awakening, dim light, recumbent position, low activity and warm environmental temperature. Although the overall circadian pattern of WT was similar regardless of the masking effects, its amplitude was the rhythmic parameter most affected by environmental conditions. The acrophase and mesor were determined to be the most robust parameters for characterizing this rhythm. In addition, a circadian modulation of the masking effect was found for each masking variable. WT rhythm exhibits a strong endogenous component, despite the existence of multiple external influences. This was evidenced by simultaneously eliminating the influence of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. We therefore propose that it could be considered a valuable and minimally-invasive means of recording circadian physiology in ambulatory conditions.

  15. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25–200°C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface...... different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cosθ values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability...... contact angle and cleanability. In addition to surface wettability with oil many other factors such as roughness and surface defects play an essential role in determining their cleanability....

  16. Coherence factors in a high-tc cuprate probed by quasi-particle scattering off vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaguri, T; Kohsaka, Y; Ono, M; Maltseva, M; Coleman, P; Yamada, I; Azuma, M; Takano, M; Ohishi, K; Takagi, H

    2009-02-13

    When electrons pair in a superconductor, quasi-particles develop an acute sensitivity to different types of scattering potential that is described by the appearance of coherence factors in the scattering amplitudes. Although the effects of coherence factors are well established in isotropic superconductors, they are much harder to detect in their anisotropic counterparts, such as high-superconducting-transition-temperature cuprates. We demonstrate an approach that highlights the momentum-dependent coherence factors in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. We used Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy to reveal a magnetic-field dependence in quasi-particle scattering interference patterns that is sensitive to the sign of the anisotropic gap. This result is associated with the d-wave coherence factors and quasi-particle scattering off vortices. Our technique thus provides insights into the nature of electron pairing as well as quasi-particle scattering processes in unconventional superconductors.

  17. Influence of anisotropic strain relaxation on the magnetoresistance properties of epitaxial Fe3O4 (110) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofin, R. G. S.; Wu, Han-Chun; Ramos, R.; Arora, S. K.; Shvets, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    We studied Fe3O4 (110) films grown epitaxially on MgO (110) substrates using oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The films with thickness of 30-200 nm showed anisotropic in-plane partial strain relaxation. Magneto resistance (MR) measurements with current and magnetic field along ⟨001⟩ direction showed higher MR compared to ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ direction. Maximum value of MR was measured at Verwey transition temperature for both directions. We explain the observed anisotropy in the MR on the basis of the effects of anisotropic misfit strain, and the difference between the density of antiferromagnetically coupled antiphase boundaries formed along ⟨001⟩ and ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ crystallographic directions, suggesting the dependence of spin polarisation on the anisotropic strain relaxation along the said crystallographic directions.

  18. Effect of interpolation error in pre-processing codes on calculations of self-shielding factors and their temperature derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanadhan, M.M.; Cullan, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    We investigate the effect of interpolation error in the pre-processing codes LINEAR, RECENT and SIGMA1 on calculations of self-shielding factors and their temperature derivatives. We consider the 2.0347 to 3.3546 keV energy region for 238 U capture, which is the NEACRP benchmark exercise on unresolved parameters. The calculated values of temperature derivatives of self-shielding factors are significantly affected by interpolation error. The sources of problems in both evaluated data and codes are identified and eliminated in the 1985 version of these codes. This paper helps to (1) inform code users to use only 1985 versions of LINEAR, RECENT, and SIGMA1 and (2) inform designers of other code systems where they may have problems and what to do to eliminate their problems. (author)

  19. Effect of interpolation error in pre-processing codes on calculations of self-shielding factors and their temperature derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, S.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramanadhan, M.M.; Cullen, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The authors investigate the effect of interpolation error in the pre-processing codes LINEAR, RECENT and SIGMA1 on calculations of self-shielding factors and their temperature derivatives. They consider the 2.0347 to 3.3546 keV energy region for /sup 238/U capture, which is the NEACRP benchmark exercise on unresolved parameters. The calculated values of temperature derivatives of self-shielding factors are significantly affected by interpolation error. The sources of problems in both evaluated data and codes are identified and eliminated in the 1985 version of these codes. This paper helps to (1) inform code users to use only 1985 versions of LINEAR, RECENT, and SIGMA1 and (2) inform designers of other code systems where they may have problems and what to do to eliminate their problems

  20. Continental distribution as a forcing factor for global-scale temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, E J; Thompson, S L; Hay, W W

    1984-08-16

    Since the advent of the continental drift hypothesis, changing continental geometries have been proposed as an explanation for long-term temperature variability. The climatic influence of a few specific past geographies has been investigated quantitatively, but these studies do not indicate the potential temperature variability due to continental positions. This problem has been examined only with simple climate models having limiting assumptions such as no cloud cover. Here idealized continental geometries are used as boundary conditions in a simulation using a general circulation model (GCM) of the atmosphere. The range in model simulated globally-averaged surface temperature is 7.4 K with a difference in polar surface temperature of up to 34 K. The simulations suggest a substantial climatic sensitivity to continental positions with the coldest global climate when land masses are in high latitudes. Although the simulations have not captured theoretical limits of climatic variability due to continental positions, present-day geography is near the cold end of this spectrum. 20 references, 1 figure.

  1. ARRHENIUS MODEL FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE GLASS VISCOSITY WITH A CONSTANT PRE-EXPONENTIAL FACTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2008-01-01

    A simplified form of the Arrhenius equation, ln η = A + B(x)/T, where η is the viscosity, T the temperature, x the composition vector, and A and B the Arrhenius coefficients, was fitted to glass-viscosity data for the processing temperature range (the range at which the viscosity is within 1 to 103 Pa.s) while setting A = constant and treating B(x) as a linear function of mass fractions of major components. Fitting the Arrhenius equation to over 550 viscosity data of commercial glasses and approximately 1000 viscosity data of glasses for nuclear-waste glasses resulted in the A values of -11.35 and -11.48, respectively. The R2 value ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for commercial glasses and was 0.98 for waste glasses. The Arrhenius models estimate viscosities for melts of commercial glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 1100 to 1550 C and viscosity range of 5 to 400 Pa.s and for waste glasses containing 32 to 60 mass% SiO2 within the temperature range of 850 to 1450 C and viscosity range of 0.4 to 250 Pa.s

  2. Dynamic Temperature Rise Mechanism and Some Controlling Factors of Wet Clutch Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction transmission model of wet clutch is established to analyze the friction transmission mechanism of its engagement. The model is developed by applying both the average flow model and the elastic contact model between the friction disk and separator plate. The key components during wet clutch engagement are the separator plate, friction disk, and lubricant. The one-dimension transient models of heat transfer in radial direction for the three components are built on the basis of the heat transfer theory and the conservation law of energy. The friction transmission model and transient heat transfer models are coupled and solved by using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the radial temperature distribution and their detailed parametric study for the three components are conducted separately. The simulation results show that the radial temperature for the three components rises with the increase of radius in engagement. The changes in engagement pressure, lubricant viscosity, friction lining permeability, combined surface roughness RMS, equivalent elasticity modulus, difference between dynamic and static friction coefficients, and lubricant flow have important influence on the temperature rise characteristics. The proposed models can get better understanding of the dynamic temperature rise characteristics of wet clutch engagement.

  3. Q factor of megahertz LC circuits based on thin films of YBaCuO high-temperature superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterov, D. V.; Pavlov, S. A.; Parafin, A. E.

    2008-05-01

    High-frequency properties of resonant structures based on thin films of YBa2Cu3O7 δ high-temperature superconductor are studied experimentally in the frequency range 30 100 MHz. The structures planar induction coils with a self-capacitance fabricated on neodymium gallate and lanthanum aluminate substrates. The unloaded Q factor of the circuits exceeds 2 × 105 at 77 K and 40 MHz. Possible loss mechanisms that determine the Q factor of the superconducting resonant structures in the megahertz range are considered.

  4. Vortex dynamics in supraconductors in the presence of anisotropic pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, O.K.

    2004-01-01

    Vortex dynamics in two different classes of superconductors with anisotropic unidirected pinning sites was experimentally investigated by magnetoresistivity measurements: YBCO-films with unidirected twins and Nb-films deposited on faceted Al 2 O 3 substrate surfaces. For the interpretation of the experimental results a theoretical model based on the Fokker-Planck equation was used. It was proved by X-ray measurements that YBCO films prepared on (001) NdGaO 3 substrates exhibit only one twin orientation in contrast to YBCO films grown on (100) SrTiO 3 substrates. The magnetoresistivity measurements of the YBCO films with unidirected twin boundaries revealed the existence of two new magnetoresistivity components, which is a characteristic feature of a guided vortex motion: an odd longitudinal component with respect to the magnetic field sign reversal and an even transversal component. However, due to the small coherence length in YBCO and the higher density of point-like defects comparing to high-quality YBCO single crystals, the strength of the isotropic point pinning was comparable with the strength of the pinning produced by twins. This smeared out all e ects caused by the pinning anisotropy. The behaviour of the odd longitudinal component was found to be independent of the transport current direction with respect to the twin planes. The magnetoresistivity measurements of faceted Nb films demonstrated the appearance of an odd longitudinal and even transversal component of the magnetoresistivity. The temperature and magnetic field dependences of all relevant magnetoresistivity components were measured. The angles between the average vortex velocity vector and the transport current direction calculated from the experimental data for the different transport current orientations with respect to the facet ridges showed that the vortices moved indeed along the facet ridges. An anomalous Hall effect, i.e. a sign change of the odd transversal magnetoresistivity, has been

  5. Microscopic 57 Fe electric-field-gradient and anisotropic mean-squared-displacement tensors: ferrous chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, James N.; Fitchett, Christopher M.; Tennant, W. Craighead

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the determination of the electric-field-gradient and mean-squared-displacement tensors in 57 Fe symmetry-related sites of 1-bar Laue class in monoclinic FeCl 2 .4H 2 O at room temperature by single-crystal Mössbauer spectroscopy. Contrary to all previous work, the mean-squared-displacement matrix (tensor), , is not constrained to be isotropic resulting in the determination of physically meaningful estimates of microscopic (local) electric-field gradient (efg) and tensors. As a consequence of anisotropy in the tensor the absorber recoilless fractions are also anisotropic. As expected of a low-symmetry site, Laue class 1-bar in this case, no two principal axes of the efg and tensors are coaxial, within the combined errors in the two. Further, no principal direction of the efg tensor seems related to bond directions in the unit cell. Within error, and in agreement with an earlier study of sodium nitroprusside, it appears that the tensor principal directions lie close to the crystallographic axes suggesting that they are determined by long wavelength (phonon) vibrations in the crystal rather than by approximate local symmetry about the 57 Fe nucleus. Concurrent with the Mössbauer measurements, we determined as part of a new X-ray structural determination, precise atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) leading to an alternative determination of the matrix (tensor). The average of the eigenvalues of the Mössbauer-determined exceeds that of the average of the X-ray-determined eigenvalues by a factor of around 2.2. Assuming isotropic absorber recoilless fractions leads to substantially the same (macroscopic) efg tensor as had been determined in earlier work. Taking 1/3 x the trace of the anisotropic absorber recoilless fractions leads to an isotropic value of 0.304 in good agreement with earlier single crystal studies where isotropy was assumed.

  6. Anisotropic pressure and hyperons in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaksono, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of anisotropic pressure (AI-P) on properties of the neutron stars (NSs) with hyperons inside its core within the framework of extended relativistic mean field. It is found that the main effects of AI-P on NS matter is to increase the stiffness of the equation of state EOS, which compensates for the softening of the EOS due to the hyperons. The maximum mass and redshift predictions of anisotropic neutron star with hyperonic core are quite compatible with the result of recent observational constraints if we use the parameter of AI-P model h ≤ 0.8 [L. Herrera and W. Barreto, Phys. Rev. D 88 (2013) 084022.] and Λ ≤ -1.15 [D. D. Doneva and S. S. Yazadjiev, Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012) 124023.]. The radius of the corresponding NS at M = 1.4 M ⊙ is more than 13 km, while the effect of AI-P on the minimum mass of NS is insignificant. Furthermore, due to the AI-P in the NS, the maximum mass limit of higher than 2.1 M ⊙ cannot rule out the presence of hyperons in the NS core. (author)

  7. Gravitomagnetic Instabilities in Anisotropically Expanding Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Vlahos, Loukas

    Gravitational instabilities in a magnetized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe, in which the magnetic field was assumed to be too weak to destroy the isotropy of the model, are known and have been studied in the past. Accordingly, it became evident that the external magnetic field disfavors the perturbations' growth, suppressing the corresponding rate by an amount proportional to its strength. However, the spatial isotropy of the FRW universe is not compatible with the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Therefore, in this paper we use the general-relativistic version of the (linearized) perturbed magnetohydrodynamic equations with and without resistivity, to discuss a generalized Jeans criterion and the potential formation of density condensations within a class of homogeneous and anisotropically expanding, self-gravitating, magnetized fluids in curved space-time. We find that, for a wide variety of anisotropic cosmological models, gravitomagnetic instabilities can lead to subhorizontal, magnetized condensations. In the nonresistive case, the power spectrum of the unstable cosmological perturbations suggests that most of the power is concentrated on large scales (small k), very close to the horizon. On the other hand, in a resistive medium, the critical wave-numbers so obtained, exhibit a delicate dependence on resistivity, resulting in the reduction of the corresponding Jeans lengths to smaller scales (well bellow the horizon) than the nonresistive ones, while increasing the range of cosmological models which admit such an instability.

  8. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You

    2016-04-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  9. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O

    1999-01-01

    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  10. Scaling Argument of Anisotropic Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bingzhen; Jin Guojun; Wang Feifeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we analytically discuss the scaling properties of the average square end-to-end distance (R 2 ) for anisotropic random walk in D-dimensional space (D≥2), and the returning probability P n (r 0 ) for the walker into a certain neighborhood of the origin. We will not only give the calculating formula for (R 2 ) and P n (r 0 ), but also point out that if there is a symmetric axis for the distribution of the probability density of a single step displacement, we always obtain (R p erpendicular n 2 )∼n, where perpendicular refers to the projections of the displacement perpendicular to each symmetric axes of the walk; in D-dimensional space with D symmetric axes perpendicular to each other, we always have (R n 2 )∼n and the random walk will be like a purely random motion; if the number of inter-perpendicular symmetric axis is smaller than the dimensions of the space, we must have (R n 2 )∼n 2 for very large n and the walk will be like a ballistic motion. It is worth while to point out that unlike the isotropic random walk in one and two dimensions, which is certain to return into the neighborhood of the origin, generally there is only a nonzero probability for the anisotropic random walker in two dimensions to return to the neighborhood.

  11. Anisotropic hydrodynamics with a scalar collisional kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaalol, Dekrayat; Strickland, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prior studies of nonequilibrium dynamics using anisotropic hydrodynamics have used the relativistic Anderson-Witting scattering kernel or some variant thereof. In this paper, we make the first study of the impact of using a more realistic scattering kernel. For this purpose, we consider a conformal system undergoing transversally homogenous and boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and take the collisional kernel to be given by the leading order 2 ↔2 scattering kernel in scalar λ ϕ4 . We consider both classical and quantum statistics to assess the impact of Bose enhancement on the dynamics. We also determine the anisotropic nonequilibrium attractor of a system subject to this collisional kernel. We find that, when the near-equilibrium relaxation-times in the Anderson-Witting and scalar collisional kernels are matched, the scalar kernel results in a higher degree of momentum-space anisotropy during the system's evolution, given the same initial conditions. Additionally, we find that taking into account Bose enhancement further increases the dynamically generated momentum-space anisotropy.

  12. Transient electromagnetic scattering on anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This dissertation treats the problem of transient scattering of obliquely incident electromagnetic plane waves on a stratified anisotropic dielectric slab. Scattering operators are derived for the reflective response of the medium. The internal fields are calculated. Wave splitting and invariant imbedding techniques are used. These techniques are first presented for fields normally incident on a stratified, isotropic dielectric medium. The techniques of wave splitting and invariant imbedding are applied to normally incident plane waves on an anisotropic medium. An integro-differential equation is derived for the reflective response and the direct and inverse scattering problems are discussed. These techniques are applied to the case of obliquely incident plane waves. The reflective response is derived and the direct and inverse problems discussed and compared to those for the normal incidence case. The internal fields are investigated for the oblique incidence via a Green's function approach. A numerical scheme is presented to calculate the Green's function. Finally, symmetry relations of the reflective response are discussed

  13. Making of Magnet Barium Ferit Anisotropic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idayati, Novrita; Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Barium Hexa ferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) is ceramic and materials which usually used for making of permanent magnet. In this research Barium Hexa ferrite were made Anisotropic, and applied for loudspeaker, electro motors, dynamo, KWh metre, etc. this Magnet is commonly used due to its high Induction of Remanen (Br) and coercivity (high Hc). Besides it applies a more simple and easier process technology, cheaper raw material, and easy to find it, hence the magnetic component is much cheaper. Powder Metallurgy was used for the process technology, by reacting all materials in the powder (oxide), with a certain size distribution and a tight preparation step. The next step was mixing ferrite and Barium Carbonate (in the form of oxide), calcination, compaction, cantering and characterisation. The Anisotropic particle effects a high Induce Remanen (Br) and of koersifitas (high Hc). All the process steps will is determine physical and chemical characteristics of the magnet. The best Magnet characteristic of the magnet produced in this research is Induction of Remanen (Br) = 4,27 kg, Coercivity (Hc) = 1,745 kOe, Energy Product max (BHmaks) = 2,31 MGOe

  14. Relativistic model for anisotropic strange stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we attempt to find a singularity free solution of Einstein's field equations for compact stellar objects, precisely strange (quark) stars, considering Schwarzschild metric as the exterior spacetime. To this end, we consider that the stellar object is spherically symmetric, static and anisotropic in nature and follows the density profile given by Mak and Harko (2002) , which satisfies all the physical conditions. To investigate different properties of the ultra-dense strange stars we have employed the MIT bag model for the quark matter. Our investigation displays an interesting feature that the anisotropy of compact stars increases with the radial coordinate and attains its maximum value at the surface which seems an inherent property for the singularity free anisotropic compact stellar objects. In this connection we also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are reasonably acceptable within certain range. Further, we find that the model is consistent with the energy conditions and the compact stellar structure is stable with the validity of the TOV equation and Herrera cracking concept. For the masses below the maximum mass point in mass vs radius curve the typical behavior achieved within the framework of general relativity. We have calculated the maximum mass and radius of the strange stars for the three finite values of bag constant Bg.

  15. Building an Anisotropic Meniscus with Zonal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Michael M.; Chen, Justin A.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2014-01-01

    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus. PMID:23931258

  16. Generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence and related energy transfer in drifting proton-alpha plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.

    2018-05-01

    The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind typically follow a power-law dependence with respect to the observed frequencies and wave-numbers. The background magnetic field often influences the plasma properties, setting a preferential direction for plasma heating and acceleration. At the same time the evolution of the solar-wind turbulence at the ion and electron scales is influenced by the plasma properties through local micro-instabilities and wave-particle interactions. The solar-wind-plasma temperature and the solar-wind turbulence at sub- and sup-ion scales simultaneously show anisotropic features, with different components and fluctuation power in parallel with and perpendicular to the orientation of the background magnetic field. The ratio between the power of the magnetic field fluctuations in parallel and perpendicular direction at the ion scales may vary with the heliospheric distance and depends on various parameters, including the local wave properties and nonthermal plasma features, such as temperature anisotropies and relative drift speeds. In this work we have performed two-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulations to study the generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence in a drifting multi-ion species plasma. We investigate the evolution of the turbulent spectral slopes along and across the background magnetic field for the cases of initially isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. Finally, we show the effect of the various turbulent spectra for the local ion heating in the solar wind.

  17. Controlling coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses the possibility to control coupled bending-twisting vibrations of anisotropic composite wing by means of the monoclinic structures in the reinforcement of the plating. Decomposing the potential straining energy and kinetic energy of natural vibration modes into interacting and non-interacting parts, it became possible to introduce the two coefficients that integrally consider the effect of geometry and reinforcement structure upon the dynamic response parameters of the wing. The first of these coefficients describes the elastic coupling of the natural vibration modes, the second coefficient describes the inertial one. The paper describes the numerical studies showing how the orientation of considerably anisotropic CRP layers in the plating affects natural frequencies, loss factors, coefficients of elastic and inertial coupling for several lower tones of natural bending-twisting vibrations of the wing. Besides, for each vibration mode, partial values of the above mentioned dynamic response parameters were determined by means of the relationships for orthotropic structures where instead of "free" shearing modulus in the reinforcement plant, "pure" shearing modulus is used. Joint analysis of the obtained results has shown that each pair of bending-twisting vibration modes has its orientation angle ranges of the reinforcing layers where the inertial coupling caused by asymmetry of the cross-section profile with respect to the main axes of inertia decreases, down to the complete extinction, due to the generation of the elastic coupling in the plating material. These ranges are characterized by the two main features: 1) the difference in the natural frequencies of the investigated pair of bending-twisting vibration modes is the minimum and 2) natural frequencies of bending-twisting vibrations belong to a stretch restricted by corresponding partial natural frequencies of the investigated pair of vibration modes. This result is of practical importance

  18. Physiological Fluctuations in Brain Temperature as a Factor Affecting Electrochemical Evaluations of Extracellular Glutamate and Glucose in Behavioral Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The rate of any chemical reaction or process occurring in the brain depends on temperature. While it is commonly believed that brain temperature is a stable, tightly regulated homeostatic parameter, it fluctuates within 1–4 °C following exposure to salient arousing stimuli and neuroactive drugs, and during different behaviors. These temperature fluctuations should affect neural activity and neural functions, but the extent of this influence on neurochemical measurements in brain tissue of freely moving animals remains unclear. In this Review, we present the results of amperometric evaluations of extracellular glutamate and glucose in awake, behaving rats and discuss how naturally occurring fluctuations in brain temperature affect these measurements. While this temperature contribution appears to be insignificant for glucose because its extracellular concentrations are large, it is a serious factor for electrochemical evaluations of glutamate, which is present in brain tissue at much lower levels, showing smaller phasic fluctuations. We further discuss experimental strategies for controlling the nonspecific chemical and physical contributions to electrochemical currents detected by enzyme-based biosensors to provide greater selectivity and reliability of neurochemical measurements in behaving animals. PMID:23448428

  19. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear self-focusing of beams in media with anisotropic (mix-signed) dispersion is investigated. Theoretical predictions employing virial-type arguments and self-similar techniques suggest that a pulse propagating in a nonlinear medium with anisotropic dispersion will not collapse...

  20. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  1. Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilandzic, A.

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic flow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy

  2. Remarks on the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of an anisotropic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, M.

    1980-01-01

    Considering a pressure tensor of a general form, a relativistic rarefied, anisotropic, infinite electrically conducting and nondissipative plasma is studied. For this purpose, the method of the orthonormal frame of reference is used. The choice of the frame of reference is made adequately to the problem. Some thermodynamical properties of such a relativistic, anisotropic plasma are also given. (author)

  3. Axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium with flow and anisotropic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacono, R.; Bondeson, A.; Troyon, F.; Gruber, R.

    1989-10-01

    Axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibria with mass flows and anisotropic pressure are investigated. The equilibrium system is derived for a general functional form of the pressures, which includes both fluid models, such as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and the double-adiabatic models, and Grad's guiding centre model. This allows for detailed comparisons between the models and clarifies how the 'first hyperbolic region', occurring in the fluid theory when the poloidal flow is of the order of the poloidal sound speed, can be eliminated in guiding centre theory. In the case of a pure toroidal rotation, macroscopic equations of state are derived from the guiding centre model, characterized by a parallel temperature that is constant on each magnetic surface and a perpendicular temperature that varies with the magnetic field. The outward centrifugal shifts of the magnetic axis and of the mass density profile, due to toroidal rotation, are increased by anisotropy. The guiding centre model shows that poloidal flow produces an inward shift of the density profile, in contrast with the MHD result. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 17 refs

  4. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Anisotropic Biological Tissue In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kai; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Lina; Jin, Bitao; Zhang, Xinxin

    2017-06-01

    The accurate determination of the thermal conductivity of biological tissues has implications on the success of cryosurgical/hyperthermia treatments. In light of the evident anisotropy in some biological tissues, a new modified stepwise transient method was proposed to simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal thermal conductivities of anisotropic biological tissues. The physical and mathematical models were established, and the analytical solution was derived. Sensitivity analysis and experimental simulation were performed to determine the feasibility and measurement accuracy of simultaneously measuring the transverse and longitudinal thermal conductivities. The experimental system was set up, and its measurement accuracy was verified by measuring the thermal conductivity of a reference standard material. The thermal conductivities of the pork tenderloin and bovine muscles were measured using the traditional 1D and proposed methods, respectively, at different temperatures. Results indicate that the thermal conductivities of the bovine muscle are lower than those of the pork tenderloin muscle, whereas the bovine muscle was determined to exhibit stronger anisotropy than the pork tenderloin muscle. Moreover, the longitudinal thermal conductivity is larger than the transverse thermal conductivity for the two tissues and all thermal conductivities increase with the increase in temperature. Compared with the traditional 1D method, results obtained by the proposed method are slightly higher although the relative deviation is below 5 %.

  5. Role of anisotropic thermal conductivity in the reversed-field pinch dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.

    2011-01-01

    Two compressible magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the reversed-field pinch are performed, with isotropic and anisotropic thermal conductivity. We describe in detail the numerical method we use to reproduce the effect of a large parallel thermal conductivity, which makes magnetic field lines almost isothermal. We compare the results of the two simulations, showing that the anisotropic thermal conductivity causes the formation of a hot island when closed magnetic surfaces exist, while temperature becomes almost uniform when the magnetic field is chaotic. After a transient single-helicity state that is formed in the initial phase, a stationary state is reached where the RFP configuration exists in a multiple helicity state, even though the Hartmann number is below the threshold found in previous simulations for the formation of multiple helicity states.

  6. Constructing anisotropic single-Dirac-cones in Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    The electronic band structures of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin films can be varied as a function of temperature, pressure, stoichiometry, film thickness, and growth orientation. We here show how different anisotropic single-Dirac-cones can be constructed in a Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin film for different applications or research purposes. For predicting anisotropic single-Dirac-cones, we have developed an iterative-two-dimensional-two-band model to get a consistent inverse-effective-mass-tensor and band gap, which can be used in a general two-dimensional system that has a nonparabolic dispersion relation as in the Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin film system. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Magnetization in quenched bond-mixed Ising ferromagnetic with anisotropic coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, E.F.; Tsallis, C.

    1982-01-01

    Within the framework of an effective field theory the phase diagram (ferromagnetic phase stability limit) and magnetization of a quenched bond-mixed spin 1 / 2 Ising model in anisotropic simple cubic lattice for both competing and non competing interactions is dicussed. Although analytically simple, the present formalism is superior to the standard Mean Field Approximation regarding at least two important features, namely it is capable of providing: (i) vanishing critical temperatures for one-dimensional systems; (ii) expected non uniform convergences in the highly diluted and highly anisotropic limits. The largeness of the model under consideration enables the exhibition of a certain amount of physically interesting crossovers (dimensionality changements, (dilute) - (non dilute) behavior, or even mixed situations) at both the phase diagram and magnetization levels. Whenever comparison is possible a satisfactory qualitative (and to a certain extent quantitative) agreement is observed with results available in the literature. (Author) [pt

  8. (3+1)D Quasiparticle Anisotropic Hydrodynamics for Ultrarelativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Mubarak; Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael

    2017-07-28

    We present the first comparisons of experimental data with phenomenological results from (3+1)D quasiparticle anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydroQP). We compare particle spectra, average transverse momentum, and elliptic flow. The dynamical equations used for the hydrodynamic stage utilize aHydroQP, which naturally includes both shear and bulk viscous effects. The (3+1)D aHydroQP evolution obtained is self-consistently converted to hadrons using anisotropic Cooper-Frye freeze-out. Hadron production and decays are modeled using a customized version of therminator 2. In this first study, we utilized smooth Glauber-type initial conditions and a single effective freeze-out temperature T_{FO}=130  MeV with all hadronic species in full chemical equilibrium. With this rather simple setup, we find a very good description of many heavy-ion observables.

  9. Anisotropic behaviour of transmission through thin superconducting NbN film in parallel magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šindler, M., E-mail: sindler@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Tesař, R. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Koláček, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Skrbek, L. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Transmission through thin NbN film in parallel magnetic field exhibits strong anisotropic behaviour in the terahertz range. • Response for a polarisation parallel with the applied field is given as weighted sum of superconducting and normal state contributions. • Effective medium approach fails to describe response for linear polarisation perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. - Abstract: Transmission of terahertz waves through a thin layer of the superconductor NbN deposited on an anisotropic R-cut sapphire substrate is studied as a function of temperature in a magnetic field oriented parallel with the sample. A significant difference is found between transmitted intensities of beams linearly polarised parallel with and perpendicular to the direction of applied magnetic field.

  10. Quantum influence in the criticality of the spin- {1}/{2} anisotropic Heisenberg model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo de Sousa, J.; Araújo, Ijanílio G.

    1999-07-01

    We study the spin- {1}/{2} anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnetic model using the effective field renormalization group (EFRG) approach. The EFRG method is illustrated by employing approximations in which clusters with one ( N'=1) and two ( N=2) spins are used. The dependence of the critical temperature Tc (ferromagnetic-F case) and TN (antiferromagnetic-AF case) and thermal critical exponent, Yt, are obtained as a function of anisotropy parameter ( Δ) on a simple cubic lattice. We find that, in our results, TN is higher than Tc for the quantum anisotropic Heisenberg limit and TN= Tc for the Ising and quantum XY limits. We have also shown that the thermal critical exponent Yt for the isotropic Heisenberg model shows a small dependence on the type of interaction (F or AF) due to finite size effects.

  11. Temperature factors effect on occurrence of stress corrosion cracking of main gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, M. N.; Akhmetov, R. R.; Krainov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze and compare the data in order to contribute to the formation of an objective opinion on the issue of the growth of stress corrosion defects of the main gas pipeline. According to available data, a histogram of the dependence of defects due to stress corrosion on the distance from the compressor station was constructed, and graphs of the dependence of the accident density due to stress corrosion in the winter and summer were also plotted. Data on activation energy were collected and analyzed in which occurrence of stress corrosion is most likely constructed, a plot of activation energy versus temperature is plotted, and the process of occurrence of stress corrosion by the example of two different grades of steels under the action of different temperatures was analyzed.

  12. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Rex S; Nahal, Hardeep; Provart, Nicholas J; Gazzarrini, Sonia

    2012-01-27

    Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3) is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP) during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying germination at supraoptimal temperature. Physiologically, this is

  13. The role of the Arabidopsis FUSCA3 transcription factor during inhibition of seed germination at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Rex S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imbibed seeds integrate environmental and endogenous signals to break dormancy and initiate growth under optimal conditions. Seed maturation plays an important role in determining the survival of germinating seeds, for example one of the roles of dormancy is to stagger germination to prevent mass growth under suboptimal conditions. The B3-domain transcription factor FUSCA3 (FUS3 is a master regulator of seed development and an important node in hormonal interaction networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Its function has been mainly characterized during embryonic development, where FUS3 is highly expressed to promote seed maturation and dormancy by regulating ABA/GA levels. Results In this study, we present evidence for a role of FUS3 in delaying seed germination at supraoptimal temperatures that would be lethal for the developing seedlings. During seed imbibition at supraoptimal temperature, the FUS3 promoter is reactivated and induces de novo synthesis of FUS3 mRNA, followed by FUS3 protein accumulation. Genetic analysis shows that FUS3 contributes to the delay of seed germination at high temperature. Unlike WT, seeds overexpressing FUS3 (ML1:FUS3-GFP during imbibition are hypersensitive to high temperature and do not germinate, however, they can fully germinate after recovery at control temperature reaching 90% seedling survival. ML1:FUS3-GFP hypersensitivity to high temperature can be partly recovered in the presence of fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, suggesting this hypersensitivity is due in part to higher ABA level in this mutant. Transcriptomic analysis shows that WT seeds imbibed at supraoptimal temperature activate seed-specific genes and ABA biosynthetic and signaling genes, while inhibiting genes that promote germination and growth, such as GA biosynthetic and signaling genes. Conclusion In this study, we have uncovered a novel function for the master regulator of seed maturation, FUS3, in delaying

  14. Investigating factors affecting the body temperature of dogs competing in cross country (canicross) races in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anne J; Hall, Emily J

    2018-02-01

    Increasing numbers of people are running with their dogs, particularly in harness through the sport canicross. Whilst canicross races are typically held in the winter months, some human centred events are encouraging running with dogs in summer months, potentially putting dogs at risk of heat related injuries, including heatstroke. The aim of this project was to investigate the effects of ambient conditions and running speed on post-race temperature of canicross dogs in the UK, and investigate the potential risk of heatstroke to canicross racing dogs. The effects of canine characteristics (e.g. gender, coat colour) were explored in order to identify factors that could increase the risk of exercise-induced hyperthermia (defined as body temperature exceeding the upper normal limit of 38.8°C).108 dogs were recruited from 10 race days, where ambient conditions ranged from - 5 to 11°C measured as universal thermal comfort index (UTCI). 281 post race tympanic membrane temperatures were recorded, ranging from 37.0-42.5°C. There was a weak correlation between speed and post-race temperature (r = 0.269, P temperature was found, the proportion of dogs developing exercise-induced hyperthermia during the race increased with UTCI (r = 0.688, P = 0.028). Male dogs (χ(1) = 18.286, P dogs (χ(2) = 8.234, P = 0.014), were significantly more likely to finish the race with a temperature exceeding 40.6°C. Prolonged elevati°n of body temperature above this temperature is likely to cause heatstroke. At every race dogs exceeded this critical temperature, with 10.7% (n = 30) of the overall study population exceeding this temperature throughout the study period. The results suggest male dogs, dark coloured dogs, and increased speed of running all increase the risk of heatstroke in racing canicross dogs. Further research is required to investigate the impact of environmental conditions on post-race cooling, to better understand safe running conditions for dogs. Copyright © 2017

  15. Multiple-stable anisotropic magnetoresistance memory in antiferromagnetic MnTe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kriegner, D.; Výborný, Karel; Olejník, Kamil; Reichlová, Helena; Novák, Vít; Martí, Xavier; Gazquez, J.; Saidl, V.; Němec, P.; Volobuev, V.V.; Springholz, G.; Holý, V.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, Jun (2016), 1-7, č. článku 11623. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferromagnets * spintronics * anisotropic magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  16. Boltzmann theory of engineered anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga, Mn)As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Abolfath, M.; Sinova, J.; Kučera, Jan; MacDonald, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 21 (2002), s. 4029-4031 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912; GA MŠk OC P5.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors * anisotropic magnetoresistence Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.207, year: 2002

  17. Coulomb Blockade Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect in a (Ga,Mn)As Single-Electron Transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Kaestner, B.; Irvine, A.C.; Shick, Alexander; Stone, N.; Wang, K. Y.; Rana, U.; Giddings, A.D.; Foxon, C. T.; Campion, R. P.; Williams, D.A.; Gallagher, B. L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2006), 077201/1-077201/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA MŠk LC510 Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) GR/S81407/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anisotropic magnetoresistance * Coulomb blockade * single electron transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.072, year: 2006

  18. Can unbiased source be retrieved from anisotropic waveforms by using an isotropic model of the medium?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šílený, Jan; Vavryčuk, Václav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 356, 1/3 (2002), s. 125-138 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012904; GA ČR GA205/00/1350; GA ČR GA205/02/0383 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : anisotropic waveforms * direct parametrization * indirect parametrization Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.409, year: 2002

  19. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  20. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Robbins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min, agility (5-min, and ball retrieve (<10-min. Regularly exercised dogs (N = 12 were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve. At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR, core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F (IQR; 27.2–30°C/81–86°F and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40–57%. Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25–29. No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT, and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity (p = 0.008, post-exercise activity (p < 0.001, outdoor temperature (p = 0.005, reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf (p = 0.044, and decrease in TCO2 (p = 0.005. When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day (p = 0.005, increase in PR (p < 0.001, increase in lactate (p = 0

  1. Environmental and Physiological Factors Associated With Stamina in Dogs Exercising in High Ambient Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Patrick J; Ramos, Meghan T; Zanghi, Brian M; Otto, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    This IACUC approved study was performed to evaluate the environmental, physiological, and hematological components that contribute to stamina following successive bouts of exercise that included searching (5-min), agility (5-min), and ball retrieve (dogs ( N  = 12) were evaluated on five separate occasions. The population consisted of eight males and four females ranging in age from 8 to 23 months, which included six Labrador retrievers, three German shepherds, and one each English springer spaniel, German wirehaired pointer, and Dutch shepherd. The exercise period was up to 30 min with 5 min of intermittent rest between the exercise bouts or until a designated trainer determined that the dog appeared fatigued (e.g., curled tongue while panting, seeking shade, or voluntary reluctance to retrieve). At the end of the exercise period, pulse rate (PR), core temperature, blood lactate, and venous blood gas were collected. The median outdoor temperature was 28.9°C (84°F) (IQR; 27.2-30°C/81-86°F) and median humidity was 47% (IQR; 40-57%). Median duration of exercise was 27 min (IQR; 25-29). No dog showed signs of heat stress that required medical intervention. The components used to measure stamina in this study were total activity, post-exercise core body temperature (CBT), and increase in CBT. When controlling for breed, total activity, as measured by omnidirectional accelerometer device, could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: pre-exercise activity ( p  = 0.008), post-exercise activity ( p  temperature ( p  = 0.005), reduction in base excess in extracellular fluid compartment (BEecf) ( p  = 0.044), and decrease in TCO 2 ( p  = 0.005). When controlling for breed and sex, increase in CBT could be predicted from a linear combination of the independent variables: study day ( p  = 0.005), increase in PR ( p  temperature, pre- and post-exercise activity, and the metabolic parameters are important

  2. [Spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperature of Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Ran; Wang, Xing Chang; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Quan Zhi

    2017-10-01

    Plant temperature is an important parameter for estimating energy balance and vegetation respiration of forest ecosystem. To examine spatial variation in diurnal courses of stem temperatures (T s ) and its influencing factors, we measured the T s with copper constantan thermocouples at different depths, heights and azimuths within the stems of two broadleaved tree species with contrasting bark and wood properties, Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandshurica. The results showed that the monthly mean diurnal courses of the T s largely followed that of air temperature with a 'sinusoi dal' pattern, but the T s lagged behind the air temperature by 0 h at the stem surface to 4 h at 6 cm depth. The daily maximal values and ranges of the diurnal course of T s decreased gradually with increasing measuring depth across the stem and decreasing measuring height along the stem. The circumferential variation in T s was marginal, with slightly higher daily maximal values in the south and west directions during the daytime of the dormant season. Differences in thermal properties (i.e. , specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity) of both bark and wood tissue between the two species contributed to the inter specific variations in the radial variation in T s through influencing the heat exchange between the stem surface and ambient air as well as heat diffusion within the stem. The higher reflectance of the bark of B. platyphylla decreased the influence of solar radiation on T s . The stepwise regression showed that the diurnal courses of T s could be well predicted by the environmental factors (R 2 > 0.85) with an order of influence ranking as air temperature > water vapor pressure > net radiation > wind speed. It is necessary to take the radial, vertical and inter specific varia-tions in T s into account when estimating biomass heat storage and stem CO2 efflux.

  3. The effects of incomplete annealing on the temperature dependence of sheet resistance and gage factor in aluminum and phosphorus implanted silicon on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, B. P.; Gross, C.

    1976-01-01

    Partial annealing of damage to the crystal lattice during ion implantation reduces the temperature coefficient of resistivity of ion-implanted silicon, while facilitating controlled doping. Reliance on this method for temperature compensation of the resistivity and strain-gage factor is discussed. Implantation conditions and annealing conditions are detailed. The gage factor and its temperature variation are not drastically affected by crystal damage for some crystal orientations. A model is proposed to account for the effects of electron damage on the temperature dependence of resistivity and on silicon piezoresistance. The results are applicable to the design of silicon-on-sapphire strain gages with high gage factors.

  4. EFFECTS OF NEUTRINO ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS ON NEUTRINO INTERACTION WITH FINITE TEMPERATURE ELECTRON MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Sulaksono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross-section of neutrino interaction with dense and warm electron gasses has been calculated by takinginto account the neutrino electromagnetic form factors. The significant effect of electromagnetic properties of neutrinocan be found if the neutrino dipole moment, μ ν , is ≥ 5.10-9 μB and neutrino charge radius, Rv, is ≥ 5.10-6 MeV-1. Theimportance of the retarded correction, detailed balance and Pauli blocking factors is shown and analyzed. Many-bodyeffects on the target matter which are included via random phase approximation (RPA correlation as well as photoneffective mass are also investigated.

  5. Warped, anisotropic wormhole/soliton configurations in vacuum 5D gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I; Singleton, D

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we apply the anholonomic frames method developed in previous work to construct and study anisotropic vacuum field configurations in 5D gravity. Starting with an off-diagonal 5D metric, parametrized in terms of several ansatz functions, we show that using anholonomic frames greatly simplifies the resulting Einstein field equations. These simplified equations contain an interesting freedom in that one can choose one of the ansatz functions and then determine the remaining ansatz functions in terms of this choice. As examples we take one of the ansatz functions to be a solitonic solution of either the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation or the sine-Gordon equation. There are several interesting physical consequences of these solutions. First, a certain subclass of the solutions discussed in this paper has an exponential warp factor similar to that of the Randall-Sundrum model. However, the warp factor depends on more than just the fifth coordinate. In addition the warp factor arises from anisotropic vacuum solutions rather than from any explicit matter. Second, the solitonic character of these solutions might allow them to be interpreted either as gravitational models for particles (i.e. analogous to the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole, but in the context of gravity), or as nonlinear, anisotropic gravitational waves

  6. Investigation of anisotropic thermal transport in cross-linked polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavilla, David Nieto

    Thermal transport in lightly cross-linked polyisoprene and polybutadine subjected to uniaxial elongation is investigated experimentally. We employ two experimental techniques to assess the effect that deformation has on this class of materials. The first technique, which is based on Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS), allows us to measure the two independent components of the thermal diffusivity tensor as a function of deformation. These measurements along with independent measurements of the tensile stress and birefringence are used to evaluate the stress-thermal and stress-optic rules. The stress-thermal rule is found to be valid for the entire range of elongations applied. In contrast, the stress-optic rule fails for moderate to large stretch ratios. This suggests that the degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity depends on both orientation and tension in polymer chain segments. The second technique, which is based on infrared thermography (IRT), allows us to measure anisotropy in thermal conductivity and strain induced changes in heat capacity. We validate this method measurements of anisotropic thermal conductivity by comparing them with those obtained using FRS. We find excellent agreement between the two techniques. Uncertainty in the infrared thermography method measurements is estimated to be about 2-5 %. The accuracy of the method and its potential application to non-transparent materials makes it a good alternative to extend current research on anisotropic thermal transport in polymeric materials. A second IRT application allows us to investigate the dependence of heat capacity on deformation. We find that heat capacity increases with stretch ratio in polyisoprene specimens under uniaxial extension. The deviation from the equilibrium value of heat capacity is consistent with an independent set of experiments comparing anisotropy in thermal diffusivity and conductivity employing FRS and IRT techniques. We identify finite extensibility and strain

  7. The influence of the interactions between anthropogenic activities and multiple ecological factors on land surface temperatures of urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Context Land surface temperatures (LSTs) spatio-temporal distribution pattern of urban forests are influenced by many ecological factors; the identification of interaction between these factors can improve simulations and predictions of spatial patterns of urban cold islands. This quantitative research requires an integrated method that combines multiple sources data with spatial statistical analysis. Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify urban forest LST influence interaction between anthropogenic activities and multiple ecological factors using cluster analysis of hot and cold spots and Geogdetector model. We introduced the hypothesis that anthropogenic activity interacts with certain ecological factors, and their combination influences urban forests LST. We also assumed that spatio-temporal distributions of urban forest LST should be similar to those of ecological factors and can be represented quantitatively. Methods We used Jinjiang as a representative city in China as a case study. Population density was employed to represent anthropogenic activity. We built up a multi-source data (forest inventory, digital elevation models (DEM), population, and remote sensing imagery) on a unified urban scale to support urban forest LST influence interaction research. Through a combination of spatial statistical analysis results, multi-source spatial data, and Geogdetector model, the interaction mechanisms of urban forest LST were revealed. Results Although different ecological factors have different influences on forest LST, in two periods with different hot spots and cold spots, the patch area and dominant tree species were the main factors contributing to LST clustering in urban forests. The interaction between anthropogenic activity and multiple ecological factors increased LST in urban forest stands, linearly and nonlinearly. Strong interactions between elevation and dominant species were generally observed and were prevalent in either hot or cold spots

  8. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya, E-mail: saras@food.dtu.dk [Accoat A/S, Munkegardsvej 16, 3490 Kvistgard (Denmark); Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adler-Nissen, Jens [Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Per [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Plot of cos {theta} versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos {theta} rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cos {theta} of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 Degree-Sign C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos {theta} values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos {theta} values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between

  9. Buckling Experiment on Anisotropic Long and Short Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Takano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A buckling experiment was performed on anisotropic, long and short cylinders with various radius-to-thickness ratios. The 13 cylinders had symmetric and anti-symmetric layups, were between 2 and 6 in terms of the length-to-radius ratio, between 154 and 647 in radius-to-thickness ratio, and made of two kinds of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP prepreg with high or low fiber modulus. The theoretical buckling loads for the cylinders were calculated from the previously published solution by using linear bifurcation theory considering layup anisotropy and transverse shear deformation and by using deep shell theory to account for the effect of length and compared with the test results. The theoretical buckling loads for the cylinders were calculated from the previously published solution by using linear bifurcation theory considering layup anisotropy and transverse shear deformation and by using deep shell theory to account for the effect of length. The knockdown factor, defined as the ratio of the experimental value to the theoretical value, was found to be between 0.451 and 0.877. The test results indicated that a large length-to-radius ratio reduces the knockdown factor, but the radius-to-thickness ratio and other factors do not affect it.

  10. Theoretical Research on Thermal Shock Resistance of Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics Focusing on the Adjustment of Stress Reduction Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daining Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal shock resistance of ceramics depends on not only the mechanical and thermal properties of materials, but also the external constraint and thermal condition. So, in order to study the actual situation in its service process, a temperature-dependent thermal shock resistance model for ultra-high temperature ceramics considering the effects of the thermal environment and external constraint was established based on the existing theory. The present work mainly focused on the adjustment of the stress reduction factor according to different thermal shock situations. The influences of external constraint on both critical rupture temperature difference and the second thermal shock resistance parameter in either case of rapid heating or cooling conditions had been studied based on this model. The results show the necessity of adjustment of the stress reduction factor in different thermal shock situations and the limitations of the applicable range of the second thermal shock resistance parameter. Furthermore, the model was validated by the finite element method.

  11. Low temperature anomalies in the lattice parameters of rare earth compounds and UPd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemacher, D.

    1980-01-01

    Using a low temperature diffractometer, intermediate valence effects and crystal defects can be identified from the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters and the Debye-Waller factor. For polycrystalline powder samples the measuring error are too large. For intermediate valence systems the relative change in the 4f-level population probability can be calculated together with the anisotropic effects on the lattice parameters and on the unit cell colume. Pronounced effects on the lattice parameters can be observed in the case of RE Cu 2 Si 2 compounds with crystal fields. (DG) [de

  12. Summer U.S. Surface Air Temperature Variability: Controlling Factors and AMIP Simulation Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, A.; Xie, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study documents and investigates biases in simulating summer surface air temperature (SAT) variability over the continental U.S. in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and multivariate regression analyses are used to assess the relative importance of circulation and the land surface feedback at setting summer SAT over a 30-year period (1979-2008). In observations, regions of high SAT variability are closely associated with midtropospheric highs and subsidence, consistent with adiabatic theory (Meehl and Tebaldi 2004, Lau and Nath 2012). Preliminary analysis shows the majority of the AMIP models feature high SAT variability over the central U.S., displaced south and/or west of observed centers of action (COAs). SAT COAs in models tend to be concomitant with regions of high sensible heat flux variability, suggesting an excessive land surface feedback in these models modulate U.S. summer SAT. Additionally, tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) play a role in forcing the leading EOF mode for summer SAT, in concert with internal atmospheric variability. There is evidence that models respond to different SST patterns than observed. Addressing issues with the bulk land surface feedback and the SST-forced component of atmospheric variability may be key to improving model skill in simulating summer SAT variability over the U.S.

  13. The time of day differently influences fatigue and locomotor activity: is body temperature a key factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the possible interactions between exercise capacity and spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) during the oscillation of core body temperature (Tb) that occurs during the light/dark cycle. Wistar rats (n=11) were kept at an animal facility under a light/dark cycle of 14/10h at an ambient temperature of 23°C and water and food ad libitum. Initially, in order to characterize the daily oscillation in SLA and Tb of the rats, these parameters were continuously recorded for 24h using an implantable telemetric sensor (G2 E-Mitter). The animals were randomly assigned to two progressive exercise test protocols until fatigue during the beginning of light and dark-phases. Fatigue was defined as the moment rats could not keep pace with the treadmill. We assessed the time to fatigue, workload and Tb changes induced by exercise. Each test was separated by 3days. Our results showed that exercise capacity and heat storage were higher during the light-phase (plocomotor physical activity have an important inherent component (r=0.864 and r=0.784, respectively, plocomotor activity are not directly associated, both are strongly influenced by daily cycles of light and dark. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of hot spot factors for calculation of the maximum fuel temperatures in the core thermal and hydraulic design of HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Soh; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Murata, Isao; Shindo, Ryuichi; Sudo, Yukio

    1988-12-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been designing the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), which is 30 MW in thermal power, 950deg C in reactor outlet coolant temperature and 40 kg/cm 2 G in primary coolant pressure. This report summarizes the hot spot factors and their estimated values used in the evaluation of the maximum fuel temperature which is one of the major items in the core thermal and hydraulic design of the HTTR. The hot spot factors consist of systematic factors and random factors. They were identified and their values adopted in the thermal and hydraulic design were determined considering the features of the HTTR. (author)

  15. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  16. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  17. Extended phase graphs with anisotropic diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, M.; Schwenk, S.; Kiselev, V. G.; Scheffler, K.; Hennig, J.

    2010-08-01

    The extended phase graph (EPG) calculus gives an elegant pictorial description of magnetization response in multi-pulse MR sequences. The use of the EPG calculus enables a high computational efficiency for the quantitation of echo intensities even for complex sequences with multiple refocusing pulses with arbitrary flip angles. In this work, the EPG concept dealing with RF pulses with arbitrary flip angles and phases is extended to account for anisotropic diffusion in the presence of arbitrary varying gradients. The diffusion effect can be expressed by specific diffusion weightings of individual magnetization pathways. This can be represented as an action of a linear operator on the magnetization state. The algorithm allows easy integration of diffusion anisotropy effects. The formalism is validated on known examples from literature and used to calculate the effective diffusion weighting in multi-echo sequences with arbitrary refocusing flip angles.

  18. Inverse anisotropic conductivity from internal current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Guo, Chenxi; Monard, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of a fully anisotropic conductivity tensor γ from internal current densities of the form J = γ∇u, where u solves a second-order elliptic equation ∇ · (γ∇u) = 0 on a bounded domain X with prescribed boundary conditions. A minimum number of n + 2 such functionals known on Y⊂X, where n is the spatial dimension, is sufficient to guarantee a unique and explicit reconstruction of γ locally on Y. Moreover, we show that γ is reconstructed with a loss of one derivative compared to errors in the measurement of J in the general case and no loss of derivatives in the special case where γ is scalar. We also describe linear combinations of mixed partial derivatives of γ that exhibit better stability properties and hence can be reconstructed with better resolution in practice. (paper)

  19. Stability of anisotropic beams with space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, I.

    1997-07-01

    We calculate coherent frequencies and stability properties of anisotropic or ''non-equipartitioned'' beams with different focusing constants and emittances in the two transverse directions. Based on the self-consistent Vlasov-Poisson equations the dispersion relations of transverse multipole oscillations with quadrupolar, sextupolar and octupolar symmetry are solved numerically. The eigenfrequencies give the coherent space charge tune shift for linear or nonlinear resonances in circular accelerators. We find that for sufficiently large energy anisotropy some of the eigenmodes become unstable in the space-charge-dominated regime. The properties of these anisotropy instabilities are used to show that ''non-equipartitioned'' beams can be tolerated in high-current linear accelerators. It is only in beams with strongly space-charge-depressed betatron tunes where harmful instabilities leading to emittance exchange should be expected. (orig.)

  20. Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Carl P.

    2017-10-01

    A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.

  1. Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee

  2. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2017-11-15

    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method. (orig.)

  3. Derivation of the optical constants of anisotropic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.; Strong, P. F.

    1985-07-01

    This report concerns the development of methods for obtaining the optical constants of anisotropic crystals of the triclinic and monoclinic systems. The principal method used, classical dispersion theory, is adapted to these crystal systems by extending the Lorentz line parameters to include the angles characterizing the individual resonances, and by replacing the dielectric constant by a dielectric tensor. The sample crystals are gypsium, orthoclase and chalcanthite. The derived optical constants are shown to be suitable for modeling the optical properties of particulate media in the infrared spectral region. For those materials where suitable size single crystals are not available, an extension of a previously used method is applied to alabaster, a polycrystalline material of the monoclinic crystal system.

  4. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  5. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test

  6. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, T M; Spada, L La; Hao, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques. (paper)

  8. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.

  9. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  10. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.

    2014-07-18

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  11. Measuring anisotropic muscle stiffness properties using elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M A; Geng, G; Qin, E; Sinkus, R; Gandevia, S C; Bilston, L E

    2013-11-01

    Physiological and pathological changes to the anisotropic mechanical properties of skeletal muscle are still largely unknown, with only a few studies quantifying changes in vivo. This study used the noninvasive MR elastography (MRE) technique, in combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to measure shear modulus anisotropy in the human skeletal muscle in the lower leg. Shear modulus measurements parallel and perpendicular to the fibre direction were made in 10 healthy subjects in the medial gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The results showed significant differences in the medial gastrocnemius (μ‖ = 0.86 ± 0.15 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.66 ± 0.19 kPa, P < 0.001), soleus (μ‖ = 0.83 ± 0.22 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.65 ± 0.13 kPa, P < 0.001) and the tibialis anterior (μ‖ = 0.78 ± 0.24 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.66 ± 0.16 kPa, P = 0.03) muscles, where the shear modulus measured in the direction parallel is greater than that measured in the direction perpendicular to the muscle fibres. No significant differences were measured across muscle groups. This study provides the first direct estimates of the anisotropic shear modulus in the triceps surae muscle group, and shows that the technique may be useful for the probing of mechanical anisotropy changes caused by disease, aging and injury. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Radial stability of anisotropic strange quark stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbañil, José D.V.; Malheiro, M., E-mail: jose.arbanil@upn.pe, E-mail: malheiro@ita.br [ITA—Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica—Departamento de Física, 12228-900, São José dos Campos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the anisotropy in the equilibrium and stability of strange stars is investigated through the numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation and the radial oscillation equation, both modified from their original version to include this effect. The strange matter inside the quark stars is described by the MIT bag model equation of state. For the anisotropy two different kinds of local anisotropic σ = p {sub t} − p {sub r} are considered, where p {sub t} and p {sub r} are respectively the tangential and the radial pressure: one that is null at the star's surface defined by p {sub r} ( R ) = 0, and one that is nonnull at the surface, namely, σ {sub s} = 0 and σ {sub s} {sub ≠} {sub 0}. In the case σ {sub s} = 0, the maximum mass value and the zero frequency of oscillation are found at the same central energy density, indicating that the maximum mass marks the onset of the instability. For the case σ {sub s} {sub ≠} {sub 0}, we show that the maximum mass point and the zero frequency of oscillation coincide in the same central energy density value only in a sequence of equilibrium configurations with the same value of σ {sub s} . Thus, the stability star regions are determined always by the condition dM / d ρ {sub c} {sub >} {sub 0} only when the tangential pressure is maintained fixed at the star surface's p {sub t} ( R ). These results are also quite important to analyze the stability of other anisotropic compact objects such as neutron stars, boson stars and gravastars.

  13. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth's subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  14. Factors that impact the stability of vitamin C at intermediate temperatures in a food matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Herbig, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    The study comprises a systematic and quantitative evaluation of potential intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact vitamin C degradation in a real food matrix. The supernatant of centrifuged apple purée was fortified in vitamin C, and degradation was followed without stirring. Model discrimination indicated better fit for the zero order model than the first order model which was hence chosen for determination of rate constants. pH influenced strongly vitamin C degradation in citrate-phosph...

  15. Microstructural factors influencing critical-current densities of high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.

    1992-01-01

    Microstructural defects are the primary determining factors for the values of critical current densities in superconductors. A review is made to assess, (1) what would be the maximum achievable critical-current density in the oxide superconductors if nearly ideal pinning sites were introduced? and (2) what types of pinning defects are currently introduced in these superconductors and how effective are these in pinning the vortices? Only the case where the applied field is parallel to the c-axis is considered here

  16. Influence of metallurgical and electrochemical factors on cracking of steels at nuclear power plants under high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of metallurgical heterogeneities in steels and electrochemical factors on corrosion cracking under high temperature water environment is studied, with special emphasis on the influence of manganese sulfide inclusions and other non-metallic ones on the crack growth rate. Results show that the electro-chemical conditions for an hydrogen concentration increase in a pre-failure zone exist at a crack tip under cyclic loading; hydrogen penetrating into metals at high temperature reduces manganese sulfides, ferric carbides, and cause high pressure of gases in micro-discontinuities, thus leading to cyclic corrosion cracking; anodic (relatively to a metal matrix) inclusions are rather the cause of steel cracking resistance decrease than cathodic ones. 16 refs., 4 figs

  17. Sensitivity analysis of power depression and axial power factor effect on fuel pin to temperature and related properties distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwardi, S.

    2001-01-01

    The presented paper is a preliminary step to evaluate the effect of radial and axial distribution of power generation on thermal analysis of whole fuel pin model with large L/D ratio. The model takes into account both radial and axial distribution of power generation due to power depression and core geometry, temperature and microstructure dependent on thermal conductivity. The microstructure distribution and the gap conductance for typical steady-state situation are given for the sensitivity analysis. The temperature and thermal conductivity distribution along the radial and axial directions obtained by different power distribution is used to indicate the sensitivity of power depression and power factor on thermal aspect. The evaluation is made for one step of incremental time and steady state approach is used. The analysis has been performed using a finite element-finite difference model. The result for typical reactor fuel shows that the sensitivity is too important to be omitted in thermal model

  18. Effects of current density and electrolyte temperature on the volume expansion factor of anodic alumina formed in oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, F.; Baron-Wiecheć, A.; Garcia-Vergara, S.J.; Curioni, M.; Habazaki, H.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of porous anodic alumina in 0.4 M oxalic acid is investigated over a range of current density and electrolyte temperature using sputtering-deposited substrates containing tungsten tracer layers. The findings reveal volume expansion factors and efficiencies of film growth that increase with the increase of the current density and decrease of the temperature. Pore generation by the flow of the anodic alumina in the barrier layer toward the pore walls is proposed to dominate at relatively high current densities (above ∼2 mA cm −2 ), with tungsten tracer species being retained within films. Conversely, losses of tungsten species occur at lower current densities, possibly due to increased field-assisted ejection of Al 3+ ions and/or field-assisted dissolution of the anodic alumina.

  19. The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle in the ternary alloy melt with anisotropic surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Wen; Li, Lin-Yan; Guo, Hui-Min

    2017-08-28

    The dynamics of nucleation and growth of a particle affected by anisotropic surface tension in the ternary alloy melt is studied. The uniformly valid asymptotic solution for temperature field, concentration field, and interface evolution of nucleation and particle growth is obtained by means of the multiple variable expansion method. The asymptotic solution reveals the critical radius of nucleation in the ternary alloy melt and an inward melting mechanism of the particle induced by the anisotropic effect of surface tension. The critical radius of nucleation is dependent on isotropic surface tension, temperature undercooling, and constitutional undercooling in the ternary alloy melt, and the solute diffusion melt decreases the critical radius of nucleation. Immediately after a nucleus forms in the initial stage of solidification, the anisotropic effect of surface tension makes some parts of its interface grow inward while some parts grow outward. Until the inward melting attains a certain distance (which is defined as "the melting depth"), these parts of interface start to grow outward with other parts. The interface of the particle evolves into an ear-like deformation, whose inner diameter may be less than two times the critical radius of nucleation within a short time in the initial stage of solidification. The solute diffusion in the ternary alloy melt decreases the effect of anisotropic surface tension on the interface deformation.

  20. Magnetized Anisotropic Dark Energy Models in Barber’s Second Self-Creation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with Bianchi type IX cosmological model with magnetized anisotropic dark energy by using Barber’s self-creation theory. The energy momentum tensor consists of anisotropic fluid with EoS parameter ω and a uniform magnetic field of energy density ρB. In order to obtain the exact solution we have assumed that dark energy components and the components of magnetic field interact minimally and obey the law of conservation of energy momentum tensors. We have also used the special law of variation for the mean generalized Hubble parameter and power law relation between scalar field and scale factor. Some physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed.

  1. Temperature factor for magnetic instability conditions of type – II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodynamics and thermal diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature. • There exist nontrivial relations between stability conditions, allowable losses and stable superconductor’s overheating. • The magnetic stability conditions are direct consequence of the states when the heat releases exceeds the critical energy. • The critical energy of magnetic instability depends on the nature of an external disturbance. • The non-isothermal magnetic instability conditions of the critical state are formulated. - Abstract: The macroscopic development of interrelated electrodynamics and thermal states taking place both before and after instability onset in type-II superconductors are studied using the critical state and the flux creep concepts. The physical mechanisms of the non-isothermal formation of the critical state are discussed solving the set of unsteady thermo-electrodynamics equations taking into consideration the unknown moving penetration boundary of the magnetic flux. To make it, the numerical method, which allows to study diffusion phenomena with unknown moving phase-two boundary, is developed. The corresponding non-isothermal flux jump criteria are written. It is proved for the first time that, first, the diffusion phenomena in superconductors have the fission-chain-reaction nature, second, the stability conditions, losses in superconductor and its stable overheating before instability onset are mutually dependent. The results are compared with those following from the existing magnetic instability theory, which does not take into consideration the stable temperature increase of superconductor before the instability onset. It is shown that errors of isothermal approximation are significant for modes closed to adiabatic ones. Therefore, the well-known adiabatic flux jump criterion limits the range of possible stable superconducting states since a correct determination of their stability states must

  2. Numerical investigation of natural convection in two enclosures separated by anisotropic solid wall

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2014-10-28

    Purpose: The problem of natural convection in two cavities separated by an anisotropic central solid wall is considered numerically. When the thermal conductivity of the central wall is anisotropic, heat flux and temperature gradient vectors are no longer coincidence. This apparently has interesting influences on the heat and fluid flow patterns in this system. The paper aims to discuss these issues.Design/methodology/approach: In this work, several flow patterns have been investigated covering a wide range of Rayleigh number up to 108. Several thermal conductivity anisotropy scenarios of the central wall have been investigated including 0, 30, 60, 120 and 1501 principal anisotropy directions. The governing equations have been solved using control volume approach.Findings: Probably the most intriguing is that, for some anisotropy scenarios it is found that the temperature at the same elevation at the side of the central wall which is closer to the colder wall is higher than that at the side closer to the hot wall. Apparently this defies intuition which suggests the reverse to have happened. However, this behavior may be explained in light of the effect of anisotropy. Furthermore, the patterns of streamlines and temperature fields in the two enclosures also changes as a consequence of the change of the central wall temperatures for the different anisotropy scenarios.Originality/value: This work discusses a very interesting topic related to heat energy exchange among two compartments when the separating wall is anisotropic. In some anisotropy scenarios, this leads to more uniform distribution of Nusselt number than the case when the wall is isotropic. Interesting patterns of natural convection is investigated.

  3. Anisotropic thermal expansion behaviors of copper matrix in β-eucryptite/copper composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lidong; Xue Zongwei; Qiao Yingjie; Fei, W.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermal expansion behaviors of Cu matrix were studied by in situ XRD. ► The expansion of Cu{1 1 1} plane is linear, that of Cu{2 0 0} is nonlinear. ► The anisotropic thermal expansion of Cu is related to the twinning of Cu matrix. ► The twinning of Cu matrix makes the CTE of the composite increasing. - Abstract: A β-eucryptite/copper composite was fabricated by spark plasma sintering process. The thermal expansion behaviors of Cu matrix of the composite were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction during heating process. The results show that Cu matrix exhibits anisotropic thermal expansion behaviors for different crystallographic directions, the expansion of Cu{1 1 1} plane is linear in the temperature range from 20 °C to 300 °C and the expansion of Cu{2 0 0} is nonlinear with a inflection at about 180 °C. The microstructures of Cu matrix before and after thermal expansion testing were investigated using transmission electronic microscope. The anisotropic thermal expansion behavior is related to the deformation twinning formed in the matrix during heating process. At the same time, the deformation twinning of Cu matrix makes the average coefficient of thermal expansion of the composite increase.

  4. Screening of the field of a static charge in an anisotropic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenin, V.V.; Puzitskii, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The field of a static charge placed in an equilibrium plasma is screened at a distance of the order of the Debye radius. Debye screening occurs both with and without an external magnetic field. This property also persists when the plasma is not an equilibrium plasma but the velocity distribution function of the particles is isotropic (the screening radius in this case contains the characteristic value of the energy instead of the temperature). The situation can change if the distribution is anisotropic. First, the drop in the field can become non-Debye. In particular, in an unmagnetized plasma some distribution functions are characterized by a power-law decrease of the field. Second, a static test charge induces a magnetic as well as an electrostatic field in an anisotropic plasma. In this communication the authors describe the anomalies of screening of the field of a static charge in a magnetized plasma. For definiteness they consider a situation (typical, e.g., of magnetic mirror systems) when the ionic component is anisotropic. The simplifications for the sake of computations are limited to the case of a charge which extends along the magnetic field and only harmonics much longer than the Debye length are significant in the Fourier expansion of the density of this charge in the longitudinal coordinate

  5. Injectable Anisotropic Nanocomposite Hydrogels Direct in Situ Growth and Alignment of Myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De France, Kevin J.; Yager, Kevin G.; Chan, Katelyn J. W.; Corbett, Brandon; Cranston, Emily D.; Hoare, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Here, while injectable in situ cross-linking hydrogels have attracted increasing attention as minimally invasive tissue scaffolds and controlled delivery systems, their inherently disorganized and isotropic network structure limits their utility in engineering oriented biological tissues. Traditional methods to prepare anisotropic hydrogels are not easily translatable to injectable systems given the need for external equipment to direct anisotropic gel fabrication and/or the required use of temperatures or solvents incompatible with biological systems. Herein, we report a new class of injectable nanocomposite hydrogels based on hydrazone cross-linked poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) and magnetically aligned cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) capable of encapsulating skeletal muscle myoblasts and promoting their differentiation into highly oriented myotubes in situ. CNC alignment occurs on the same time scale as network gelation and remains fixed after the removal of the magnetic field, enabling concurrent CNC orientation and hydrogel injection. The aligned hydrogels show mechanical and swelling profiles that can be rationally modulated by the degree of CNC alignment and can direct myotube alignment both in two- and three-dimensions following coinjection of the myoblasts with the gel precursor components. As such, these hydrogels represent a critical advancement in anisotropic biomimetic scaffolds that can be generated noninvasively in vivo following simple injection.

  6. Holographic quark–antiquark potential in hot, anisotropic Yang–Mills plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Somdeb; Haque, Najmul

    2013-01-01

    Using the gauge/gravity duality we calculate the heavy quark–antiquark potential in a hot, anisotropic and strongly coupled Yang–Mills plasma in (3+1)-dimensions. As the anisotropic medium we take a deformed version of N=4 super Yang–Mills theory at finite temperature following a recent work where the dual type IIB supergravity solution is also proposed. We turn on a small value of the anisotropy parameter, for which the gravity dual is known analytically (perturbatively), and compute the velocity-dependent quark–antiquark interaction potential when the pair is moving through the plasma with a velocity v. By setting v=0 we recover the static quark–antiquark potential. We numerically study how the potential is modified in the presence of anisotropy. We further show numerically how the quark–antiquark separation (both in the static and the velocity-dependent case) and hence, the screening length gets modified by anisotropy. We discuss various cases depending upon the direction of the dipole and the direction of its propagation and make a comparative study of these cases. We are also able to obtain an analytical expression for the screening length of the dipole moving in a hot, anisotropic plasma in a special case

  7. Exercise hyperthermia as a factor limiting physical performance - Temperature effect on muscle metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Brzezinska, Z.; Kruk, B.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of trunk cooling on the muscle contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, creatine phosphate (CrP), and creatine, as well as of glycogen, some glycolytic intermediates, pyruvate, and lactate were assessed in 11 fasted dogs exercised at 20 C on treadmill to exhaustion. Without cooling, dogs were able to run 57 min, and their rectal (Tre) and muscle (Tm) temperatures increased to 41.8 and 43.0 C, respectively. Cooling with ice packs prolonged the ability to run by 45 percent, and resulted in lower Tre (by 1.1 C) and Tm (by 1.2 C). Depletion of muscle content of total high-energy phosphates (ATP + CrP) and glycogen, and increases in contents of AMP, pyruvate, and lactate were lower in cooled dogs than in non-cooled dogs. The muscle content of lactiate correlated positively with TM. These results indicate that hypothermia accelerates glycolysis, and shifts the equilibrium between high- and low-energy phosphates in favor of the latter. The adverse effect of hypothermia on muscle metabolism may be relevant to the limitation of endurance.

  8. Global coral disease prevalence associated with sea temperature anomalies and local factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moreno, Diego; Willis, Bette L; Page, A Cathie; Weil, Ernesto; Cróquer, Aldo; Vargas-Angel, Bernardo; Jordan-Garza, Adán Guillermo; Jordán-Dahlgren, Eric; Raymundo, Laurie; Harvell, C Drew

    2012-09-12

    Coral diseases are taking an increasing toll on coral reef structure and biodiversity and are important indicators of declining health in the oceans. We implemented standardized coral disease surveys to pinpoint hotspots of coral disease, reveal vulnerable coral families and test hypotheses about climate drivers from 39 locations worldwide. We analyzed a 3 yr study of coral disease prevalence to identify links between disease and a range of covariates, including thermal anomalies (from satellite data), location and coral cover, using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model. Prevalence of unhealthy corals, i.e. those with signs of known diseases or with other signs of compromised health, exceeded 10% on many reefs and ranged to over 50% on some. Disease prevalence exceeded 10% on 20% of Caribbean reefs and 2.7% of Pacific reefs surveyed. Within the same coral families across oceans, prevalence of unhealthy colonies was higher and some diseases were more common at sites in the Caribbean than those in the Pacific. The effects of high disease prevalence are potentially extensive given that the most affected coral families, the acroporids, faviids and siderastreids, are among the major reef-builders at these sites. The poritids and agaricids stood out in the Caribbean as being the most resistant to disease, even though these families were abundant in our surveys. Regional warm temperature anomalies were strongly correlated with high disease prevalence. The levels of disease reported here will provide a much-needed local reference point against which to compare future change.

  9. Mapping temperature-induced conformational changes in the Escherichia coli heat shock transcription factor sigma 32 by amide hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rist, Wolfgang; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Roepstorff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Stress conditions such as heat shock alter the transcriptional profile in all organisms. In Escherichia coli the heat shock transcription factor, sigma 32, out-competes upon temperature up-shift the housekeeping sigma-factor, sigma 70, for binding to core RNA polymerase and initiates heat shock...... gene transcription. To investigate possible heat-induced conformational changes in sigma 32 we performed amide hydrogen (H/D) exchange experiments under optimal growth and heat shock conditions combined with mass spectrometry. We found a rapid exchange of around 220 of the 294 amide hydrogens at 37...... degrees C, indicating that sigma 32 adopts a highly flexible structure. At 42 degrees C we observed a slow correlated exchange of 30 additional amide hydrogens and localized it to a helix-loop-helix motif within domain sigma 2 that is responsible for the recognition of the -10 region in heat shock...

  10. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Antiferromagnetic Sr_{2}IrO_{4}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report point-contact measurements of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR in a single crystal of antiferromagnetic Mott insulator Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. The point-contact technique is used here as a local probe of magnetotransport properties on the nanoscale. The measurements at liquid nitrogen temperature reveal negative magnetoresistances (up to 28% for modest magnetic fields (250 mT applied within the IrO_{2} a-b plane and electric currents flowing perpendicular to the plane. The angular dependence of magnetoresistance shows a crossover from fourfold to twofold symmetry in response to an increasing magnetic field with angular variations in resistance from 1% to 14%. We tentatively attribute the fourfold symmetry to the crystalline component of AMR and the field-induced transition to the effects of applied field on the canting of antiferromagnetic-coupled moments in Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. The observed AMR is very large compared to the crystalline AMRs in 3d transition metal alloys or oxides (0.1%–0.5% and can be associated with the large spin-orbit interactions in this 5d oxide while the transition provides evidence of correlations between electronic transport, magnetic order, and orbital states. The finding of this work opens an entirely new avenue to not only gain a new insight into physics associated with spin-orbit coupling but also to better harness the power of spintronics in a more technically favorable fashion.

  11. Anisotropic Thermal Diffusivities of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used to shield the blades of gas turbines from heat and wear. There is a pressing need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of TBCs in the thermal design of advanced gas turbines with high energy efficiency. These TBCs consist of a ceramic-based top coat and a bond coat on a superalloy substrate. Usually, the focus is on the thermal conductivity in the thickness direction of the TBC because heat tends to diffuse from the surface of the top coat to the substrate. However, the in-plane thermal conductivity is also important in the thermal design of gas turbines because the temperature distribution within the turbine cannot be ignored. Accordingly, a method is developed in this study for measuring the in-plane thermal diffusivity of the top coat. Yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats are prepared by thermal spraying under different conditions. The in-plane and cross-plane thermal diffusivities of the top coats are measured by the flash method to investigate the anisotropy of thermal conduction in a TBC. It is found that the in-plane thermal diffusivity is higher than the cross-plane one for each top coat and that the top coats have significantly anisotropic thermal diffusivity. The cross-sectional and in-plane microstructures of the top coats are observed, from which their porosities are evaluated. The thermal diffusivity and its anisotropy are discussed in detail in relation to microstructure and porosity.

  12. Anisotropic cubic lattice potts ferromagnet: renormalisation group treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Schwaccheim, G.; Silva, L.R. da; Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal

    1983-01-01

    Within a real space renormalisation group framework, the criticality of the fully anisotropic (arbitrary J sub(x), J sub(y) and J sub(z)) q-state Potts ferromagnet in simple cubic lattice is discussed. Several already known exact results for the d=1 and d=2 particular cases are recovered. Furthermore it is obtained: (i) the q-dependence of the d=3 correlation length critical exponent ν 3 (in particular, if q→0, ν 3 (q) approximatelly ν 3 (0)+ν 3 '(0)q) where the present approximate values are ν 3 (0) or approx.= 1.105 and ν 3 '(0) or approx.=-0.66; (ii) the q-dependence d=2 d=3 crossover critical exponent phi 23 (in particular, phi 23 varies as 1/√q if q Q→0); (iii) through a convenient numerical extrapolation, a quite accurate proposal for the critical temperatures corresponding to arbitrary ratios J sub(y)/ J sub(x) and J sub(z) / J sub(x) and values of q. (Author) [pt

  13. Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Abanin, D. A.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-03-01

    We consider a multi-valley two dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We focus on QHE states that arise due to spontaneous breaking of the valley symmetry by the Coulomb interactions. We show that the anisotropy of the Fermi surface in each valley, which is generally present in such systems, favors states where all the electrons reside in one of the valleys. In a clean system, the valley ordering occurs via a finite temperature Ising-like phase transition, which, owing to the Fermi surface anisotropy, is accompanied by the onset of nematic order. In a disordered system, domains of opposite polarization are formed, and therefore long-range valley order is destroyed, however, the resulting state is still compressible. We discuss the transport properties in ordered and disordered regimes, and point out the possible relation of our results to recent experiments in AlAs [1]. [1] Y. P. Shkolnikov, S. Misra, N. C. Bishop, E. P. De Poortere, and M. Shayegan, Observation of Quantum Hall ``Valley Skyrmions", Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 068809 (2005)[2] D.A. Abanin, S.A. Parameswaran, S.A. Kivelson and S.L. Sondhi, Nematic and Valley Ordering in Anisotropic Quantum Hall Systems, to be published.

  14. Giant anisotropic magnetoresistance in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Abhinav; Richardella, Anthony; Kempinger, Susan; Liu, Chao-Xing; Samarth, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    When a three-dimensional ferromagnetic topological insulator thin film is magnetized out-of-plane, conduction ideally occurs through dissipationless, one-dimensional (1D) chiral states that are characterized by a quantized, zero-field Hall conductance. The recent realization of this phenomenon, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, provides a conceptually new platform for studies of 1D transport, distinct from the traditionally studied quantum Hall effects that arise from Landau level formation. An important question arises in this context: how do these 1D edge states evolve as the magnetization is changed from out-of-plane to in-plane? We examine this question by studying the field-tilt-driven crossover from predominantly edge-state transport to diffusive transport in Crx(Bi,Sb)2−xTe3 thin films. This crossover manifests itself in a giant, electrically tunable anisotropic magnetoresistance that we explain by employing a Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Our methodology provides a powerful means of quantifying dissipative effects in temperature and chemical potential regimes far from perfect quantization. PMID:26151318

  15. Simultaneous polarized neutron reflectometry and anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, J; Teichert, A; Kiefer, K; Wallacher, D; Ryll, H; Menéndez, E; Paramanik, D; Steitz, R; Van Haesendonck, C; Vantomme, A; Temst, K

    2011-03-01

    A novel experimental facility to carry out simultaneous polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) measurements is presented. Performing both techniques at the same time increases their strength considerably. The proof of concept of this method is demonstrated on a CoO/Co bilayer exchange bias system. Although information on the same phenomena, such as the coercivity or the reversal mechanism, can be separately obtained from either of these techniques, the simultaneous application optimizes the consistency between both. In this way, possible differences in experimental conditions, such as applied magnetic field amplitude and orientation, sample temperature, magnetic history, etc., can be ruled out. Consequently, only differences in the fundamental sensitivities of the techniques can cause discrepancies in the interpretation between the two. The almost instantaneous information obtained from AMR can be used to reveal time-dependent effects during the PNR acquisition. Moreover, the information inferred from the AMR measurements can be used for optimizing the experimental conditions for the PNR measurements in a more efficient way than with the PNR measurements alone.

  16. An anisotropic universe due to dimension-changing vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scargill, James H.C.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the question of observational signatures of a false vacuum decay event in the early universe followed by a period of inflation; in particular, motivated by the string landscape, we consider decays in which the parent vacuum has a smaller number of large dimensions than the current vacuum, which leads to an anisotropic universe. We go beyond previous studies, and examine the effects on the CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra, due to both scalar and tensor modes, and consider not only late-time effects but also the full cosmological perturbation theory at early times. We find that whilst the scalar mode behaves as one would expect, and the effects of anisotropy at early times are sub-dominant to the late-time effects already studied, for the tensor modes in fact the the early-time effects grow with multipole and can become much larger than one would expect, even dominating over the late-time effects. Thus these effects should be included if one is looking for such a signal in the tensor modes

  17. A theory for the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in dilute magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satter, M.A.

    1990-08-01

    In this paper, a formalism for studying the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in a dilute noble metal- transition metal magnetic alloy has been developed from relativistic scattering theory. The theoretical development and the computational techniques of this formalism are based on relativistic spin-polarized scattering theory and relativistic band structure frameworks. For studying the magnetic anisotropic effect a convenient ''working'' frame of reference with its axes oriented along the fcc crystal axes is set up. This formalism is applied to study the situation for two Fe impurities in paramagnetic Au hosts. For AuFe dilute alloy, the two impurity site interaction as a function of separation is not oscillatory and the anisotropic effect is found to be less than the two site interaction itself only by an order of magnitude. Apart from the anisotropic coupling of the two impurity spins to the separation vector, for the first time, another weak anisotropic coupling to the crystal axes is also contained in the two site interaction. These anisotropic effects are the results of the relativistic spin-orbit interaction which are incorporated into the formalism. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  18. Anisotropic elastic and thermal properties of titanium borides by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang; Gao, Yimin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xiao, Bing [Department of Physics and Quantum Theory Group, School of Science and Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Li, Yefei, E-mail: yefeili@126.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •Elastic properties of titanium borides are calculated by first principles calculation. •Thermodynamical stability of titanium borides is analyzed. •Heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for titanium borides are calculated and compared. •Grüneisen parameters of titanium borides are calculated. -- Abstract: The anisotropic elastic and thermal expansions of the titanium borides (TiB{sub 2}, Ti{sub 3}B{sub 4}, TiB{sub P}nma and TiB{sub F}m3{sup ¯}m) are calculated from first-principles using density functional theory. All borides show different anisotropic elastic properties; the bulk, shear and Young’s moduli are consistent with those determined experimentally. The temperature dependence of thermal expansions is mainly caused by the restoration of thermal energy due to phonon excitations at low temperature. When the temperature is higher than 500 K, the volumetric coefficient is increased linearly by increasing temperature. Meanwhile, the heat capacities of titanium borides are obtained based on the knowledge of thermal expansion coefficient and the elasticity, the calculations are in good agreement with the experiments.

  19. Effects of metallurgical factors on stress corrosion cracking of Ni-base alloys in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, T.; Sasaguri, N.; Onimura, K.

    1988-01-01

    Nickel-base Alloy 600 is the principal material used for the steam generator tubes of PWRs. Generally, this alloy has been proven to be satisfactory for this application, however when it is subjected to extremely high stress level in PWR primary water, it may suffer from stress corrosion cracking. The authors have systematically studied the effects of test temperature and such metallurgical factors as cold working, chemical composition and heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in high temperature water, and also on that of Alloy 690 which is a promising material for the tubes and may provide improved crrosion resistance for steam generators. The test materials, the stress corrosion cracking test and the test results are reported. When the test temperature was raise, the stress corrosion cracking of the nickel-base alloys was accelerated. The time of stress corrosion cracking occurrence decreased with increasing applied stress, and it occurred at the stress level higher than the 0.2 % offset proof stress of Alloy 600. In Alloy 690, stress corrosion cracking was not observed at such stress level. Cold worked Alloy 600 showed higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than the annealed alloy. (Kako, I.)

  20. Ytterbium silicide (YbSi{sub 2}). A promising thermoelectric material with a high power factor at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanusilp, Sora-at; Ohishi, Yuji; Muta, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yamanaka, Shinsuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Tsuruga (Japan); Nishide, Akinori [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Center for Exploratory Research, Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo (Japan); Hayakawa, Jun [Center for Exploratory Research, Research and Development Group, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo (Japan); Kurosaki, Ken [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Tsuruga (Japan); JST, PRESTO, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan)

    2018-02-15

    Metal silicide-based thermoelectric (TE) materials have attracted attention in the past two decades, because they are less toxic, with low production cost and high chemical stability. Here, we study the TE properties of ytterbium silicide YbSi{sub 2} with a specific layered structure and the mixed valence state of Yb{sup 2+} and Yb{sup 3+}. YbSi{sub 2} exhibits large Seebeck coefficient, S, accompanied by high electrical conductivity, σ, leading to high power factor, S{sup 2}σ, of 2.2 mW m{sup -1} K{sup -2} at room temperature, which is comparable to those of state-of-the-art TE materials such as Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and PbTe. Moreover, YbSi{sub 2} exhibits high Grueneisen parameter of 1.57, which leads to relatively low lattice thermal conductivity, κ{sub lat}, of 3.0 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature. The present study reveals that YbSi{sub 2} can be a good candidate of TE materials working near room temperature. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. The structure factor and the pair potential of liquid rubidium at temperatures between 450 K and 1,400 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block de Priego, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The structure factor S(Q) of liquid rubidium has been measured for temperatures between 450 K and 1400 K and pressures up to 200 atm. The corresponding densities varied between 1.42 and 0.98 g cm -3 . The incident energy of the neutrons was 3.4 MeV, the momentum transfer Q being 0.2 - 2.5 A -1 . A significant change in the order of the liquid has been registrated. Compressibility and electrical conductivity were derived from the structure factors and compared with the direct measured quantities, showing a good agreement. Further interpretation of the data was done by means of a hard core and a square well potential. Using these models it was already possible to get some information about the interactions between the rubidium atoms. A more exact calculation with a modified STLS model and a pseudopotential leads to a good description of the measured S(Q). In order to describe at high temperatures S(Q) for smaller values a new term had to be added to the pseudopotential. (orig.) [de

  2. Strong anisotropy in the low temperature Compton profiles of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    able for comparison with theory, the resistivity data in α-Ga at low temperature strongly support this anisotropic ... renormalized free-atom (RFA) model [3], band model [5–7] and quantum Monte Carlo ... probability distribution function.

  3. Anisotropic nature of radially strained metal tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Julie N.

    Metal pipes are sometimes swaged by a metal cone to enlarge them, which increases the strain in the material. The amount of strain is important because it affects the burst and collapse strength. Burst strength is the amount of internal pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure, while collapse strength is the amount of external pressure that a pipe can withstand before failure. If the burst or collapse strengths are exceeded, the pipe may fracture, causing critical failure. Such an event could cost the owners and their customers millions of dollars in clean up, repair, and lost time, in addition to the potential environmental damage. Therefore, a reliable way of estimating the burst and collapse strength of strained pipe is desired and valuable. The sponsor currently rates strained pipes using the properties of raw steel, because those properties are easily measured (for example, yield strength). In the past, the engineers assumed that the metal would be work-hardened when swaged, so that yield strength would increase. However, swaging introduces anisotropic strain, which may decrease the yield strength. This study measured the yield strength of strained material in the transverse and axial direction and compared them to raw material, to determine the amount of anisotropy. This information will be used to more accurately determine burst and collapse ratings for strained pipes. More accurate ratings mean safer products, which will minimize risk for the sponsor's customers. Since the strained metal has a higher yield strength than the raw material, using the raw yield strength to calculate burst and collapse ratings is a conservative method. The metal has even higher yield strength after strain aging, which indicates that the stresses are relieved. Even with the 12% anisotropy in the strained and 9% anisotropy in the strain aged specimens, the raw yield strengths are lower and therefore more conservative. I recommend that the sponsor continue using the raw

  4. Quantum Teleportation via Completely Anisotropic Heisenberg Chain in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Cheng-Hua; HU Zhan-Ning

    2013-01-01

    The quantum teleportation with the entangled thermal state is investigated based on the completely anisotropic Heisenberg chain in the presence of the externally inhomogeneous magnetic field.The effects of the anisotropy and magnetic field for the quantum fidefity are studied in detail.The zero temperature limit and the features of the nonzero temperature for this nonclassical fidelity are obtained.We find that the quantum teleportation demands more stringent conditions than the thermal entanglement of the resource by investigating the threshold temperature of the thermal concurrence and the critical temperature of the maximal teleportation fidelity.The useful quantum teleportation should avoid the point of the phase transition of the system and the anisotropy of the chain and the external magnetic field can control the applicability of the resource in the quantum teleportation.

  5. Textiles: Some technocal information and data II: Conversion factors, fibre properties, spinning limits, typical twist factors, weaving performannce and transfer printing temperatures.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hunter, L

    1978-07-01

    Full Text Available OF THE CSIR P.O. B O X 1 1 2 4 P O R T E L I Z A B E T H R E P U B L I C O F S O U T H A F R I C A WOL 47 ISBN 0 7988 1360 1 Contents INTRODUCTION ........................................................... Page .; ... 1 CONVERSION FACTORSAND... ........................................................................................ 118 REFERENCES TEXTILES: SOME TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND DATA 11: CONVERSION FACTORS, FIBRE PROPERTIES, SPINNING L I M I T S , T Y P I C A L T W I S T F A C T O R S , W E A V I N G PERFORMANCE A N D TRANSFER PRINTING TEMPERATURES 6.5, L...

  6. Robust design and thermal fatigue life prediction of anisotropic conductive film flip chip package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyun Wook

    2004-01-01

    The use of flip-chip technology has many advantages over other approaches for high-density electronic packaging. ACF(Anisotropic Conductive Film) is one of the major flip-chip technologies, which has short chip-to-chip interconnection length, high productivity, and miniaturization of package. In this study, thermal fatigue life of ACF bonding flip-chip package has been predicted. Elastic and thermal properties of ACF were measured by using DMA and TMA. Temperature dependent nonlinear bi-thermal analysis was conducted and the result was compared with Moire interferometer experiment. Calculated displacement field was well matched with experimental result. Thermal fatigue analysis was also conducted. The maximum shear strain occurs at the outmost located bump. Shear stress-strain curve was obtained to calculate fatigue life. Fatigue model for electronic adhesives was used to predict thermal fatigue life of ACF bonding flip-chip packaging. DOE (Design Of Experiment) technique was used to find important design factors. The results show that PCB CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) and elastic modulus of ACF material are important material parameters. And as important design parameters, chip width, bump pitch and bump width were chose. 2 nd DOE was conducted to obtain RSM equation for the choose 3 design parameter. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) for the calculated RSM equation is 0.99934. Optimum design is conducted using the RSM equation. MMFD (Modified Method for Feasible Direction) algorithm is used to optimum design. The optimum value for chip width, bump pitch and bump width were 7.87mm, 430μm, and 78μm, respectively. Approximately, 1400 cycles have been expected under optimum conditions. Reliability analysis was conducted to find out guideline for control range of design parameter. Sigma value was calculated with changing standard deviation of design variable. To acquire 6 sigma level thermal fatigue reliability, the Std. Deviation of design parameter

  7. Waves and discontinuities in relativistic and anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cissoko, Mahdy

    1975-01-01

    This work is devoted to the relativistic study of a non-dissipative anisotropic fluid diagram of infinite conductivity. Such a fluid diagram is constructed in part one. Starting from a macroscopic viewpoint a hydrothermodynamic study of the fluid diagram considered is carried out and the fundamental differential system of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics is deduced. Part two concerns the study of characteristic varieties and propagation of waves for a polytropic anisotropic fluid diagram. Three types of characteristic varieties are revealed: entropy waves (or material waves), magnetosonic waves and Alfven waves. The propagation rates of Alfven and magnetosonic waves are situated with respect to each other. The study of wave cones showed up on the one hand certain special features of wave propagation in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics and on the other hand the hyperbolic nature of differential operators associated with the various waves [fr

  8. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu University of Technology,. Chengdu ... studied the extraction scheme of ADCIGs by using. Kirchhoff ..... The effect of shale properties on anisotropic brittleness.

  9. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    astrophysical plasmas. These plasmas are usually self-gravitating, rotating and embedded in a .... gravitational potential, and P denotes the anisotropic pressure tensor defined as. ൌ ୄ ൅ ሺ צǦ ..... Nonlinear Processes Geophysics, 11 :731.

  10. Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam

    2017-05-01

    Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.

  11. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo

    2017-11-02

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  12. Anisotropic Third-Order Regularization for Sparse Digital Elevation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan; Morel, Jean-Michel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2013-01-01

    features of the contours while ensuring smoothness across level lines. We propose an anisotropic third-order model and an efficient method to adaptively estimate both the surface and the anisotropy. Our experiments show that the approach outperforms AMLE

  13. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Ma, X.; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented

  14. On plasma stability under anisotropic random electric field influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabich, L.N.; Sosenko, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of anisotropic random field on plasma stability is studied. The thresholds and instability increments are obtained. The stabilizing influence of frequency missmatch and external magnetic field is pointed out

  15. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate

  16. Modelling of anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Department of Mathematics, Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Commerce (Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-10-15

    In the present article, we have constructed static anisotropic compact star models of Einstein field equations for the spherical symmetric metric of embedding class one. By assuming the particular form of the metric function ν, we have solved the Einstein field equations for anisotropic matter distribution. The anisotropic models represent the realistic compact objects such as SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1), Her X-1, Vela X-12, PSR J1614-2230 and Cen X-3. We have reported our results in details for the compact star Her X-1 on the ground of physical properties such as pressure, density, velocity of sound, energy conditions, TOV equation and red-shift etc. Along with these, we have also discussed about the stability of the compact star models. Finally we made a comparison between our anisotropic stars with the realistic objects on the key aspects as central density, central pressure, compactness and surface red-shift. (orig.)

  17. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo; Zhao, Jiajun; Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  18. Anisotropic plasma with flows in tokamak: Steady state and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgisonis, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    An adequate description of equilibrium and stability of anisotropic plasma with macroscopic flows in tokamaks is presented. The Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) approximation is consistently used to analyze anisotropic plasma dynamics. The admissible structure of a stationary flow is found to be the same as in the ideal magnetohydrodynamics with isotropic pressure (MHD), which means an allowance for the same relabeling symmetry as in ideal MHD systems with toroidally nested magnetic surfaces. A generalization of the Grad-Shafranov equation for the case of anisotropic plasma with flows confined in the axisymmetric magnetic field is derived. A variational principle was obtained, which allows for a stability analysis of anisotropic pressure plasma with flows, and takes into account the conservation laws resulting from the relabeling symmetry. This principle covers the previous stability criteria for static CGL plasma and for ideal MHD flows in isotropic plasma as well. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Ekanem

    2018-04-05

    Apr 5, 2018 ... scattering characteristics in fractured media and thus, validate the practical utility of using anisotropic .... to fluid flow. ... account the porosity of the host rock and assumes .... The free surface boundary conditions generally.

  20. Temperature and radiation as factors controlling growth and morphology of Tabellaria flocculosa var. asterionelloides (Diatoms) in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofler, S.

    1986-01-01

    Increasing eutrophication recently led to big population maxima of Tabellaria flocculosa var. asterionelloides (Diatoms) in Mondsee (Upper Austria). Controlling factors, other than nutrients, for this developement remained unclear. This work should elucidate the growth and photosynthetic response of unialgal Tabellaria cultures exposed to cross gradients of temperature (5 - 25degC)and light intensity (10 - 250 μE m -2 sec -1 , 14:10 L:D). 20degC/250 μE gave maximum growth rates (0.6 d -1 ). Light saturation onset concerning growth started at 50 μE for 5, 10 and 25degC, 80 μE for 15degC and 100 μE for 20degC. Growth continued down to 10 μE for all temperatures examined. Net production rates, found with oxygen electrodes, were reduced by high respiration rates (32 - 154 % of gross photosynthesis) to -1.5 to 13.0 pg O 2 (cell.h) -1 . Carbon uptake ( 14 C technique) was 8.4 pg C (cell.h) -1 or 4.4 mg C (mg chl a-bar) -1 (l.h) -1 at 20degC and saturating light intensity. Pigment content varied due to adaptation to different light intensities from 1.5 to 9.5 pg chl a-bar+phaeo a-bar mm -3 . Exposure to different light qualities showed best growth in blue-green light, while red light reduced growth rate and cell number per colony. Furthermore light quality influenced the carotenoid content qualitatively and quantitatively. Mucilage sheets surrounding various proportions of individuals in a population were observed, but could not be fully explained by the factors tested. In conclusion, population dynamics of Tabellaria in Mondsee depend on physical factors from autumn to spring and on nutrient availability in summer. (Author)