WorldWideScience

Sample records for anisotropic superconducting properties

  1. Magnetostatics of anisotropic superconducting ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A.G.

    1987-09-01

    The magnetization and the magnetic field distribution inside (outside) an anisotropic type II superconducting ellipsoid, with filamentary structure, is formulated. We have shown that the magnetic field in this case is different from that of the general anisotropic one. The nucleations of the flux lines for specimens with large demagnetization factors are theoretically studied. We have shown that the nucleations of the flux lines, for specimens with large demagnetization factor, appears at a field larger than that of ellipsoidal shape. (author). 15 refs

  2. Low field anisotropic properties of a single crystals of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammann, J.; Ocio, M.; Vincent, E.; Bertinotti, A.; Luzet, D.

    1987-09-01

    Low field (0.4G≤H≤3G) magnetization measurements have been performed on small single crystals of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7.δ using a SQUID magnetometer. They revealed anisotropic properties in the temperature dependences of the shielding and the Meissner effects. A sharp unique transition at 95 K is observed with the field parallel to c. In the perpendicular direction a second transition line seems to be crossed at T* = 84 K. This temperature T* remains constant in the range of fields investigated

  3. Anisotropic electrical properties of superconducting single crystals YBa2 Cu3 O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konczykowski, M.; Rullier-Albenque, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure (up to 18 kbar) on the transport properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystals was investigated. A decrease of the resistivity and of its anisotropy was observed under pressure whereas an increase of the critical temperature, of the upper critical field and of its slope vs temperature variation was found

  4. On Pokrovskii's anisotropic gap equations in superconductivity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yisong

    2003-11-01

    An existence and uniqueness theorem for Pokrovskii's zero-temperature anisotropic gap equation is proved. Furthermore, it is shown that Pokrovskii's finite-temperature equation is inconsistent with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory. A reformulation of the anisotropic gap equation is presented along the line of Pokrovskii and it is shown that the new equation is consistent with the BCS theory for the whole temperature range. As an application, the Markowitz-Kadanoff model for anisotropic superconductivity is considered and a rigorous proof of the half-integer-exponent isotope effect is obtained. Furthermore, a sharp estimate of the gap solution near the transition temperature is established.

  5. Anisotropic superconducting state parameters of Tl-2212 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskalam, Amit K.; Singh, R.K.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2001-01-01

    We have estimated the superconducting state parameters and their anisotropy in thallium based superconductors (Tl-2212), in the frame work of Fermi liquid approach. Determination of the effective mass of the charge carriers from the Fermi velocity and estimated anisotropic superconducting state parameters, particularly, the magnetic penetration depth along and perpendicular to the conducting plane. The coherence length along and perpendicular to the ab plane is evaluated and appears to be higher. The temperature dependence of penetration depth, their anisotropy and Ginsburg Landau parameter for optimised doped Tl based cuprates shows the power law. The technique permits a consistency with the reported data. (author)

  6. Anisotropic critical fields in superconducting superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, I.; Yang, Q.S.; Falco, C.M.; Schuller, I.K.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature and angular dependence of critical fields (H/sub c/) have been studied as a function of layer thickness for superconducting Nb/Cu superlattices. For layer thicknesses between 100 and 300 A, dimensional crossover has been observed in the temperature dependence of H/sub c/. Associated with the crossover we find a change in the angular dependence of H/sub c/ to that given by the effective-mass theory. This is the first time that a relationship has been found between dimensional crossover observed in the temperature dependence and that in the angular dependence of critical fields

  7. Superconductivity in the periodic Anderson model with anisotropic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarasua, L.G.; Continentino, Mucio A.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we study superconductivity in the periodic Anderson model with both on-site and intersite hybridization, including the interband Coulomb repulsion. We show that the presence of the intersite hybridization together with the on-site hybridization significantly affects the superconducting properties of the system. The symmetry of the hybridization has a strong influence in the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter of the ground state. The interband Coulomb repulsion may increase or decrease the superconducting critical temperature at small values of this interaction, while is detrimental to superconductivity for strong values. We show that the present model can give rise to positive or negative values of dT c /dP, depending on the values of the system parameters

  8. Anisotropic type-I superconductivity and anomalous superfluid density in OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, J.; Vercauteren, S.; Aperis, A.; Komendová, L.; Prozorov, R.; Partoens, B.; Milošević, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a microscopic study of superconductivity in OsB2, and discuss the origin and characteristic length scales of the superconducting state. From first-principles we show that OsB2 is characterized by three different Fermi sheets, and we prove that this fermiology complies with recent quantum-oscillation experiments. Using the found microscopic properties, and experimental data from the literature, we employ Ginzburg-Landau relations to reveal that OsB2 is a distinctly type-I superconductor with a very low Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ —a rare property among compound materials. We show that the found coherence length and penetration depth corroborate the measured thermodynamic critical field. Moreover, our calculation of the superconducting gap structure using anisotropic Eliashberg theory and ab initio calculated electron-phonon interaction as input reveals a single but anisotropic gap. The calculated gap spectrum is shown to give an excellent account for the unconventional behavior of the superfluid density of OsB2 measured in experiments as a function of temperature. This reveals that gap anisotropy can explain such behavior, observed in several compounds, which was previously attributed solely to a two-gap nature of superconductivity.

  9. Anisotropic properties of single crystals of high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholence, J.L.; Saint-Paul, M.; Laborde, O.; Monceau, P.; Guillot, M.; Niel, H.; Levet, J.C.; Potel, M.; Padiou, J.; Gougeon, P.

    1990-01-01

    In this article the authors make a review of some of the anisotropic properties of high T c compounds, essentially RE Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 , Bi-SR-Ca-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O systems. In section 2 a short description of the crystal growth is reported. Section 3 deals with the anisotropic elastic properties measured by ultrasonic techniques. In section 4 the authors discuss the anisotropy in magnetization measurements and consequently on the critical currents. Section 5 concerns the magnetoresistance measurements, and the determination of the superconducting critical magnetic field H c2 . Finally in section 6, in conclusion of result described in sections 4 and 5, the authors discuss on the pinning force and on the controversial Lorentz force for explaining the broadening of the superconducting transition under magnetic field. The authors apologize for not having quoted all the works published on these different topics, which is in fact practically impossible

  10. Superconducting state mechanisms and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kresin, Vladimir Z; Wolf, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    'Superconducting State' provides a very detailed theoretical treatment of the key mechanisms of superconductivity, including the current state of the art (phonons, magnons, and plasmons). A very complete description is given of the electron-phonon mechanism responsible for superconductivity in the majority of superconducting systems, and the history of its development, as well as a detailed description of the key experimental techniques used to study the superconducting state and determine the mechanisms. In addition, there are chapters describing the discovery and properties of the key superconducting compounds that are of the most interest for science, and applications including a special chapter on the cuprate superconductors. It provides detailed treatments of some very novel aspects of superconductivity, including multiple bands (gaps), the "pseudogap" state, novel isotope effects beyond BCS, and induced superconductivity.

  11. Fluxoid quantization in disordered, quasiperiodic, and anisotropic superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzler, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The quantization of the magnetic fluxoid in the unit cells of a network of superconducting wires gives rise to a system with competing length scales determined by the resulting fluxoid lattice and the underlying network. This system provides an excellent experimental model for studying questions concerning the concept of commensurability, and the first emphasis of this thesis is on the formation of commensurate states in disordered and quasiperiodic geometries. Measurements of the resistive phase boundary Tc(H)|R reveal cusp-like structure signifying the existence of commensurate states at particular values of the applied field. The authors find that sufficient disorder in the tile areas will destroy all commensurate states in any network, and they accurately describe this behavior using the intuitive open-quotes J 2 modelclose quotes in which one considers only the effects of supercurrents generated to satisfy fluxoid quantization (i.e., the London approximation). However, a disturbance of the local tile ordering destroys only certain types of commensurate states. They find that commensurability is not universally predicated by the presence of inflation symmetry in the lattice, but instead is more closely related to the Fourier transform of the lattice geometry. These experimental results in two dimensions are similar to analytical results for one-dimensional systems. Because the description of the superconducting networks using linearized Ginzburg-Landau theory is identical to a Schroedinger equation, these systems can be used to study the nature of electronic ground states on a two-dimensional lattice in a magnetic field. The second emphasis of this thesis addresses this problem in width-anisotropic square networks. They find that network anisotropy induces localization of the superconducting order parameter in one direction at incommensurate fields while in the perpendicular direction the order parameter remains extended

  12. Comparative study of anisotropic superconductivity in CaAlSi and CaGaSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Uozato, K.; Kasahara, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Tokunaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to get some insight into the origin of the anomalous angular dependence of H c2 in a layered intermetallic compound CaAlSi, electronic, superconducting, and structural properties are compared between CaAlSi and CaGaSi. The angular dependence of H c2 in CaGaSi is well described by the anisotropic GL model. Parallel to this finding, the pronounced lattice modulation accompanying the superstructure along the c-axis in CaAlSi is absent in CaGaSi. A relatively large specific heat jump at the superconducting transition in CaAlSi compared with CaGaSi indicates the presence of strong electron-phonon coupling in CaAlSi, which may cause the superstructure and the anomalous angular dependence of H c2

  13. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  14. Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi

  15. Development of a theoretical model for polycrystalline superconducting anisotropic using the effective medium approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-García, A.; Muné, P; Govea-Alcaide, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this paper, is a study of the transport properties in anisotropic polycrystalline superconducting. The presence of certain order of orientation of grains in polycrystalline superconducting (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+delta , is modeled by introducing a probability of orientation, gamma factor. In addition, is included in the model the concentration c, which characterize the contribution of porosity to the decrease in the conductivity of the Crystal, transparent. Assumes that pores and pimples are ellipsoid flattened with similar dimensions and takes into account the values of conductivity of beads in each direction. The calculation is based on the application of a generalization of the approximation of the effective way to the study of heterogeneous media, which is called coherent potential approximation (APC). The results are compared with an empirical model developed recently for samples of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -delta (YBCO) which enriches its employment and applied to ceramic superconducting in general. (author)

  16. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.W.B.; Noakes, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This book is an elementray introduction into superconductivity. The topics are the superconducting state, the magnetic properties of superconductors, type I superconductors, type II superconductors and a chapter on the superconductivity theory. (WL)

  17. Anisotropic response of the moving vortex lattice in superconducting Mo(1-x)Gex amorphous films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolz, M.I.; Shalóm, D.E.; Pastoriza, H.; López, D.O.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed magnetic susceptibility measurements in Mo 1-x Ge x amorphous thin films biased with an electrical current using anisotropic coils. We tested the symmetry of the vortex response changing the relative orientation between the bias current and the susceptibility coils. We found a region in the DC current-temperature phase diagram where the dynamical vortex structures behave anisotropically. In this region the shielding capability of the superconducting currents measured by the susceptibility coils is less effective along the direction of vortex motion compared to the transverse direction. This anisotropic response is found in the same region where the peak effect in the critical current is developed. On rising temperature the isotropic behavior is recovered.

  18. Measuring anisotropic muscle stiffness properties using elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M A; Geng, G; Qin, E; Sinkus, R; Gandevia, S C; Bilston, L E

    2013-11-01

    Physiological and pathological changes to the anisotropic mechanical properties of skeletal muscle are still largely unknown, with only a few studies quantifying changes in vivo. This study used the noninvasive MR elastography (MRE) technique, in combination with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to measure shear modulus anisotropy in the human skeletal muscle in the lower leg. Shear modulus measurements parallel and perpendicular to the fibre direction were made in 10 healthy subjects in the medial gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The results showed significant differences in the medial gastrocnemius (μ‖ = 0.86 ± 0.15 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.66 ± 0.19 kPa, P < 0.001), soleus (μ‖ = 0.83 ± 0.22 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.65 ± 0.13 kPa, P < 0.001) and the tibialis anterior (μ‖ = 0.78 ± 0.24 kPa; μ⊥ = 0.66 ± 0.16 kPa, P = 0.03) muscles, where the shear modulus measured in the direction parallel is greater than that measured in the direction perpendicular to the muscle fibres. No significant differences were measured across muscle groups. This study provides the first direct estimates of the anisotropic shear modulus in the triceps surae muscle group, and shows that the technique may be useful for the probing of mechanical anisotropy changes caused by disease, aging and injury. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  20. Anisotropic behaviour of transmission through thin superconducting NbN film in parallel magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šindler, M., E-mail: sindler@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Tesař, R. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic); Koláček, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, CZ-162 53 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Skrbek, L. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Praha (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Transmission through thin NbN film in parallel magnetic field exhibits strong anisotropic behaviour in the terahertz range. • Response for a polarisation parallel with the applied field is given as weighted sum of superconducting and normal state contributions. • Effective medium approach fails to describe response for linear polarisation perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. - Abstract: Transmission of terahertz waves through a thin layer of the superconductor NbN deposited on an anisotropic R-cut sapphire substrate is studied as a function of temperature in a magnetic field oriented parallel with the sample. A significant difference is found between transmitted intensities of beams linearly polarised parallel with and perpendicular to the direction of applied magnetic field.

  1. Superconducting property measuring system by magnetization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikisawa, K.; Mori, T.; Takasu, N.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting property measuring system (CMS-370B) for high temperature oxide superconductor has been developed. This system adopts magnetization measurement. The superconducting properties are able to be measured automatically and continuously changing the temperature and external magnetic field. The critical current density as a function of temperature and magnetic field of high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (YBCO) has been measured. This paper reports how it was confirmed that this system having the high performance and the accuracy gave the significant contribution to the superconducting material development

  2. Anisotropic superconductivity in β-(BDA-TTP)2SbF6: STM spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, K.; Muraoka, R.; Matsunaga, N.; Ichimura, K.; Yamada, J.

    2009-03-01

    We have investigated the gap symmetry in the superconducting phase of β-(BDA-TTP)2SbF6 with use of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tunneling spectra obtained on the conducting surface show a clear superconducting gap structure. Its functional form is of V-shaped similarly to κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X and suggests the anisotropic superconducting gap with line nodes. For lateral surfaces the shape of tunneling spectra varies from the U-shape with relatively large gap to the V-shape with small gap depending on the tunneling direction alternately twice between directional angle 0 and π. From the analysis of conductance curve taking the k dependence of the tunneling probability into account, it is found that the gap has maximum near the a* and c* axes and the nodes appear along near a*+c* and the a-c* directions. These indicate that the d like superconducting pair is formed in this system as the case of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2X. This node direction is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the spin fluctuation mechanism. However, the zero-bias conductance peak has not been observed yet.

  3. Anisotropic superconductivity in {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}SbF{sub 6}: STM spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, K. [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)], E-mail: knmr@phys.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Muraoka, R.; Matsunaga, N. [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Ichimura, K. [Division of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Yamada, J. [Division of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    We have investigated the gap symmetry in the superconducting phase of {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}SbF{sub 6} with use of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tunneling spectra obtained on the conducting surface show a clear superconducting gap structure. Its functional form is of V-shaped similarly to {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}X and suggests the anisotropic superconducting gap with line nodes. For lateral surfaces the shape of tunneling spectra varies from the U-shape with relatively large gap to the V-shape with small gap depending on the tunneling direction alternately twice between directional angle 0 and {pi}. From the analysis of conductance curve taking the k dependence of the tunneling probability into account, it is found that the gap has maximum near the a* and c* axes and the nodes appear along near a*+c* and the a-c* directions. These indicate that the d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}} like superconducting pair is formed in this system as the case of {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}X. This node direction is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the spin fluctuation mechanism. However, the zero-bias conductance peak has not been observed yet.

  4. Anisotropic superconductivity in β-(BDA-TTP)2SbF6: STM spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.; Muraoka, R.; Matsunaga, N.; Ichimura, K.; Yamada, J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the gap symmetry in the superconducting phase of β-(BDA-TTP) 2 SbF 6 with use of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The tunneling spectra obtained on the conducting surface show a clear superconducting gap structure. Its functional form is of V-shaped similarly to κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 X and suggests the anisotropic superconducting gap with line nodes. For lateral surfaces the shape of tunneling spectra varies from the U-shape with relatively large gap to the V-shape with small gap depending on the tunneling direction alternately twice between directional angle 0 and π. From the analysis of conductance curve taking the k dependence of the tunneling probability into account, it is found that the gap has maximum near the a* and c* axes and the nodes appear along near a*+c* and the a-c* directions. These indicate that the d x 2 -y 2 like superconducting pair is formed in this system as the case of κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 X. This node direction is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the spin fluctuation mechanism. However, the zero-bias conductance peak has not been observed yet

  5. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  6. Anisotropic properties of aligned SWNT modified poly (methyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical and mechanical properties of PMMA/SWNT composite were studied as a function of SWNT orientation and concentration. The aligned SWNT modified PMMA/SWNT composite presented highly anisotropic properties. The experimental results showed that the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of ...

  7. Study of anisotropic mechanical properties for aeronautical PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shang

    Full Text Available For the properties of polymer are relative to its structure, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of the aeronautical PMMA which has been treated by the directional tensile technology. Isodyne images reveal the stress state in directional PMMA. And then, an anisotropic mechanical model is established. Furthermore, all mechanical parameters are measured by the digital image correlation method. Finally, based on the anisotropic mechanical model and mechanical parameters, the FEM numerical simulation and experimental methods are applied to analyze the fracture mechanical properties along different directions.

  8. Nanolayers with advanced properties for superconducting nanoelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepelita, A.; Zdravkov, V.; Morari, R.; Socrovisciuc, A.; Antropov, E.; Sidorenko, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Elaborated advanced technology for superconducting spintronics - technological process, based on magnetron sputtering of the metallic films with non-metallic protective layers, yields significant improvement in superconducting properties of thin Nb films and Nb/CuNi nanostructures in comparison with common methods of films deposition. The developed advanced technological process is patented (Patent RM number 175 from 31.03.2010). First experimental observation of the double re-entrant superconductivity in superconductor/ ferromagnetic nanostructures (Nb/Cu 41 Ni 59 bilayers) in dependence on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer (Published in : A.S. Sidorenko, V.I. Zdravkov, J. Kehrle, R.Morari, E.Antropov, G. Obermeier, S. Gsell, M. Schreck, C. Muller, V.V. Ryazanov, S. Horn, R. Tidecks, L.R. Tagirov. Extinction and recovery of superconductivity by interference in superconductor/ferromagnet bilayers. In: Nanoscale Phenomena . Fundamentals and Applications,Ed. by H.Hahn, A.Sidorenko, I.Tiginyanu, Springer, 2009 p.1-10. Perspectives of applications: design of a new generation of superconducting spintronic devices - high frequency operating superconducting spin-switch for telecommunication and computers. (author)

  9. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  10. Superconductivity and vortex properties in various multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koorevaar, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis three qualitatively different type of superconducting multilayers are studied. We discuss the vortex lattice structure in Nb/NbZr multilayers, a system where both type of constituting layers are superconducting. At certain temperatures and for parallel fields close to H c2parallel , the Nb/NbZr system has a strongly modulated order parameter, and in this aspect resembles the high-Tc materials. By lowering the field the modulation decreases, having important consequences for the vortex lattice structure. By studying the transport critical currents we show that in the case of strong modulation the vortex lattice has a kinked structure, but at weaker modulations the vortices are straight, and the change in modulation actually results in a vortex lattice transition. Our study confirms the picture of the existence of kinked vortex lattices, but it is rather surprising that these kinked structures can exist in a system which in itself is not at all that anisotropic. It indicates the relevance of other parameters governing the vortex lattice structure. (orig.)

  11. Superstrate loading effects on the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular patch printed on anisotropic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedra, Sami; Bedra, Randa; Benkouda, Siham; Fortaki, Tarek

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of both anisotropies in the substrate and superstrate loading on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of high-Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. A rigorous analysis is performed using a dyadic Galerkin's method in the vector Hankel transform domain. Galerkin's procedure is employed in the spectral domain where the TM and TE modes of the cylindrical cavity with magnetic side walls are used in the expansion of the disk current. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. London's equations and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir are used in the calculation of the complex surface impedance of the superconducting circular disc. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate-superstrate materials. Good agreement is found among all sets of results. The numerical results obtained show that important errors can be made in the computation of the resonant frequencies and bandwidths of the superconducting resonators when substrate dielectric anisotropy, and/or superstrate anisotropy are ignored. Other theoretical results obtained show that the superconducting circular microstrip patch on anisotropic substrate-superstrate with properly selected permittivity values along the optical and the non-optical axes combined with optimally chosen structural parameters is more advantageous than the one on isotropic substrate-superstrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth characteristic.

  12. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakani, S.L.; Kakani, Shubhra

    2007-01-01

    The monograph provides readable introduction to the basics of superconductivity for beginners and experimentalists. For theorists, the monograph provides nice and brief description of the broad spectrum of experimental properties, theoretical concepts with all details, which theorists should learn, and provides a sound basis for students interested in studying superconducting theory at the microscopic level. Special chapter on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates is devoted

  13. Anisotropic response of the moving vortex lattice in superconducting Mo{sub (1-x)}Ge{sub x} amorphous films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolz, M.I., E-mail: mdolz@unsl.edu.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, R8402AGP Rio Negro (Argentina); Shalom, D.E.; Pastoriza, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, CONICET, San Carlos de Bariloche, R8402AGP Rio Negro (Argentina); Lopez, D.O. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Av., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    We have performed magnetic susceptibility measurements in Mo{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} amorphous thin films biased with an electrical current using anisotropic coils. We tested the symmetry of the vortex response changing the relative orientation between the bias current and the susceptibility coils. We found a region in the DC current-temperature phase diagram where the dynamical vortex structures behave anisotropically. In this region the shielding capability of the superconducting currents measured by the susceptibility coils is less effective along the direction of vortex motion compared to the transverse direction. This anisotropic response is found in the same region where the peak effect in the critical current is developed. On rising temperature the isotropic behavior is recovered.

  14. Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...... to the original formulation. The new element was implemented into a co-rotational formulation and validated against natural frequencies and several static load cases of previous works....

  15. Coherence properties in superconducting flux qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilla, Samuele

    2015-02-16

    The research work discussed in this thesis deals with the study of superconducting Josephson qubits. Superconducting qubits are solid-state artificial atoms which are based on lithographically defined Josephson tunnel junctions properties. When sufficiently cooled, these superconducting devices exhibit quantized states of charge, flux or junction phase depending on their design parameters. This allows to observe coherent evolutions of their states. The results presented can be divided into two parts. In a first part we investigate operations of superconducting qubits based on the quantum coherence in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID). We explain experimental data which has been observed in a SQUID subjected to fast, large-amplitude modifications of its effective potential shape. The motivations for this work come from the fact that in the past few years there have been attempts to interpret the supposed quantum behavior of physical systems, such as Josephson devices, within a classical framework. Moreover, we analyze the possibility of generating GHZ states, namely maximally entangled states, in a quantum system made out of three Josephson qubits. In particular, we investigate the possible limitations of the GHZ state generation due to coupling to bosonic baths. In the second part of the thesis we address a particular cause of decoherence of flux qubits which has been disregarded until now: thermal gradients, which can arise due to accidental non equilibrium quasiparticle distributions. The reason for these detrimental effects is that heat currents flowing through Josephson tunnel junctions in response to a temperature gradient are periodic functions of the phase difference between the electrodes. The phase dependence of the heat current comes from Andreev reflection, namely an interplay between the quasiparticles which carry heat and the superconducting condensate which is sensitive to the superconducting phase difference. Generally speaking

  16. Spin-orbit interaction induced anisotropic property in interacting quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Kai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate theoretically the ground state and transport property of electrons in interacting quantum wires (QWs oriented along different crystallographic directions in (001 and (110 planes in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI and Dresselhaus SOI (DSOI. The electron ground state can cross over different phases, e.g., spin density wave, charge density wave, singlet superconductivity, and metamagnetism, by changing the strengths of the SOIs and the crystallographic orientation of the QW. The interplay between the SOIs and Coulomb interaction leads to the anisotropic dc transport property of QW which provides us a possible way to detect the strengths of the RSOI and DSOI. PACS numbers: 73.63.Nm, 71.10.Pm, 73.23.-b, 71.70.Ej

  17. Vortex properties of mesoscopic superconducting samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Leonardo R.E. [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil); Barba-Ortega, J. [Grupo de Fi' sica de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Souza Silva, C.C. de [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil); Albino Aguiar, J., E-mail: albino@df.ufpe.b [Laboratorio de Supercondutividade e Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife 50670-901 (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    In this work we investigated theoretically the vortex properties of mesoscopic samples of different geometries, submitted to an external magnetic field. We use both London and Ginzburg-Landau theories and also solve the non-linear Time Dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations to obtain vortex configurations, equilibrium states and the spatial distribution of the superconducting electron density in a mesoscopic superconducting triangle and long prisms with square cross-section. For a mesoscopic triangle with the magnetic field applied perpendicularly to sample plane the vortex configurations were obtained by using Langevin dynamics simulations. In most of the configurations the vortices sit close to the corners, presenting twofold or three-fold symmetry. A study of different meta-stable configurations with same number of vortices is also presented. Next, by taking into account de Gennes boundary conditions via the extrapolation length, b, we study the properties of a mesoscopic superconducting square surrounded by different metallic materials and in the presence of an external magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the square surface. It is determined the b-limit for the occurrence of a single vortex in a mesoscopic square of area d{sup 2}, for 4{xi}(0){<=}d{<=}10{xi}(0).

  18. Anisotropic mechanical properties of graphene sheets from molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Zhonghua; Bu Hao; Zou Min; Yi Hong; Bi Kedong; Chen Yunfei

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic mechanical properties are observed for a sheet of graphene along different load directions. The anisotropic mechanical properties are attributed to the hexagonal structure of the unit cells of the graphene. Under the same tensile loads, the edge bonds bear larger load in the longitudinal mode (LM) than in the transverse mode (TM), which causes fracture sooner in LM than in TM. The Young's modulus and the third order elastic modulus for the LM are slightly larger than that for the TM. Simulation also demonstrates that, for both LM and TM, the loading and unloading stress-strain response curves overlap as long as the graphene is unloaded before the fracture point. This confirms that graphene sustains complete elastic and reversible deformation in the elongation process.

  19. Tuning the Superconducting Properties of Magnesium Diboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theoderich Wilke, Rudeger Heinrich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This work is presented in the following order: A review of the relevant physics and discussion of theoretical predictions for a two gap superconducting compound is given in chapter 2. Chapter 3 provides a review of the basic properties of MgB2. Details of sample synthesis and characterization are given in chapter 4. Chapter 5 presents normal state and superconducting properties of Mg(B1-xCx)2 wires. Attempts to increase critical current densities in filaments via titanium additions are discussed in chapter 6. In chapters 7 and 8 alternative methods for synthesizing doped MgB2 powders are explored. In chapter 7 we synthesize Mg(B1-xCx)2 up to x=0.069 using a mixture of Mg, B, and the binary compound B4C. Chapter 8 explores an alternative method, plasma spray synthesis, to produce nanometer sized doped boron powders for powder-in-tube applications. The effects of neutron irradiation on pure MgB2 wires is discussed in chapter 9. This is followed by a study of the effects of neutron irradiation on Mg(B.962C.038)2 wires, presented in chapter 10. I will summarize the results of all of these studies in chapter 11 and discuss future directions for research in understanding the physics behind this novel material as well as its development for practical applications. In this thesis I have presented the results of investigations into the changes in the superconducting properties of MgB2 as a function of carbon doping and neutron irradiation. The goal has been to understand the physics underlying this unique two-gap superconductor as different types of perturbations are made to the system. Such knowledge not only contributes to our understanding of two-gap superconductivity, but could potentially lead to the development of superconducting MgB2 wires for the use in power applications near 20 K.

  20. TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured

  1. Elastic properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of this thesis the elastic properties of a superconducting bulk metallic glass between 10 mK and 300 K were first investigated. In order to measure the entire temperature range, in particular the low temperature part, new experimental techniques were developed. Using an inductive readout scheme for a double paddle oscillator it was possible to determine the internal friction and the relative change of sound velocity of bulk metallic glasses with high precision. This allowed for a detailed comparison of the data with different models. The analysis focuses on the low temperature regime where the properties of glassy materials are governed by atomic tunneling systems as described by the tunneling model. The influence of conduction electrons in the normal conducting state and quasiparticles in the superconducting state of the glass were accounted for in the theoretical description, resulting in a good agreement over a large temperature range between measured data and prediction of the tunneling model. This allowed for a direct determination of the coupling constant between electrons and tunneling systems. In the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc the data can only be described if a modified distribution function of the tunneling parameters is applied.

  2. Directional radiative properties of anisotropic rough silicon and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Chen, Y.B.; Zhang, Z.M. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Recent studies have shown that the topography of some chemically etched microrough silicon surfaces is non-Gaussian and may be strongly anisotropic. However, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of anisotropic surfaces has not been fully understood. The present study uses the Monte Carlo method to investigate the out-of-plane BRDF, multiple scattering, and the change of the polarization state upon reflection. Two ray-tracing algorithms are developed that incorporate the surface topography or slope distribution of the samples obtained by the use of an atomic force microscope. The predicted BRDFs for silicon surfaces with or without a gold coating are in reasonable agreement with the results measured using a laser scatterometer at a wavelength of 635nm. The employment of surface topographic data is indispensable to the BRDF modeling of anisotropic surfaces. While first-order scattering makes the dominant contribution to reflections from the studied surfaces, it is critical to consider the polarization state change in order to correctly predict the out-of-plane BRDF. The versatile Monte Carlo modeling tools developed through the present study help gain a better understanding of the directional radiative properties of microrough surfaces and, furthermore, will have an impact on thermal metrology in the semiconductor industry. (author)

  3. Anisotropic energy-gaps of iron-based superconductivity from intra-band quasiparticle interference in LiFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, A.W. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Allan, M.P. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mackenzie, A.P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Xie, Y. [CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Davis, J.C. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Kihou, K.; Lee, C.H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H. [AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Chuang, T.M. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Inst. of Physics, Academica Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Cooper pairing in the Fe-based superconductors is thought to occur due to the projection of the antiferromagnetic interactions between iron atoms onto the complex momentum-space electronic structure. A key consequence is that distinct anisotropic energy gaps {Delta}{sub i}(k) with specific relative orientations should occur on the different electronic bands i. To determine this previously unresolved gap structure high-precision spectroscopy is required. Here we introduce the STM technique of intra-band Bogolyubov quasiparticle scattering interference (QPI) to iron-based superconductor studies, focusing on LiFeAs. We identify the QPI signatures of three hole-like dispersions and, by introducing a new QPI technique, determine the magnitude and relative orientations of corresponding anisotropic {Delta}{sub i}(k). Intra-band Bogolyubov QPI therefore yields the spectroscopic information required to identify the mechanism of superconductivity in Fe-based superconductors.

  4. Anisotropic mechanical properties and Stone-Wales defects in graphene monolayer: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, B.B.; Yang, X.B.; Zhang, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the mechanical properties of graphene monolayer via the density functional theoretical (DFT) method. We find that the strain energies are anisotropic for the graphene under large strain. We attribute the anisotropic feature to the anisotropic sp 2 hybridization in the hexagonal lattice. We further identify that the formation energies of Stone-Wales (SW) defects in the graphene monolayer are determined by the defect concentration and also the direction of applied tensile strain, correlating with the anisotropic feature.

  5. Ab-initio calculations of superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, G.L.; Bagayoko, D.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present ab-initio calculations for the electronic structure and superconducting properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO). The electronic structure was calculated using a self-consistent ab-initio LCAO method. They solved the anisotropic Eliashberg gap equation numerically. The strong coupling of the high energy optical phonons around 60--73 meV, with the electrons at the Fermi surface, leads to a high Tc in YBCO. The calculated Tc is about 89 K for μ* = 0.1. The good agreement of the calculated results with experimental measurements and the ab-initio nature of the calculations support the scenario of an anisotropic s-wave superconductor for YBCO

  6. Investigation of superconducting properties of nanowires prepared by template synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    of the nanowires is small enough to ensure a one-dimensional superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below T. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied......We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have a uniform diameter of ∼40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (∼500). The diameter...

  7. 1D-transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    of the nanowire is small enough to ensure a 1D superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below T. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied DC current......We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ̃40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (̃500). The diameter...

  8. High field dielectric properties of anisotropic polymer-ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomer, V.; Randall, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Using dielectrophoretic assembly, we create anisotropic composites of BaTiO 3 particles in a silicone elastomer thermoset polymer. We study a variety of electrical properties in these composites, i.e., permittivity, dielectric breakdown, and energy density as function of ceramic volume fraction and connectivity. The recoverable energy density of these electric-field-structured composites is found to be highly dependent on the anisotropy present in the system. Our results indicate that x-y-aligned composites exhibit higher breakdown strengths along with large recoverable energy densities when compared to 0-3 composites. This demonstrates that engineered anisotropy can be employed to control dielectric breakdown strengths and nonlinear conduction at high fields in heterogeneous systems. Consequently, manipulation of anisotropy in high-field dielectric properties can be exploited for the development of high energy density polymer-ceramic systems

  9. RF properties of superconducting Pb electroplated onto Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of Pb as a superconducting material for high power rf applications are reviewed. The most common method of producing Pb superconducting resonators, which is by electrodeposition of a thin layer on a Cu substrate, is described, and some suggestions for further development are presented. 56 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  10. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  11. Anisotropic bias dependent transport property of defective phosphorene layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Farooq, M.; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, no systematic studies on the transport properties modified due to defects have been performed. Here, we present the electronic band structure, defect formation energy and bias dependent transport property of various defective systems. We found that the defect formation energy is much less than that in graphene. The defect configuration strongly affects the electronic structure. The band gap vanishes in single vacancy layers, but the band gap reappears in divacancy layers. Interestingly, a single vacancy defect behaves like a p-type impurity for transport property. Unlike the common belief, we observe that the vacancy defect can contribute to greatly increasing the current. Along the zigzag direction, the current in the most stable single vacancy structure was significantly increased as compared with that found in the pristine layer. In addition, the current along the armchair direction was always greater than along the zigzag direction and we observed a strong anisotropic current ratio of armchair to zigzag direction. PMID:26198318

  12. Superconducting and normal properties of metallic amorphous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquinazi, P.D.

    1983-02-01

    The superconducting and transport properties (superconducing critical temperature, superconducting critical currents, electric resistivity and thermal conductivity) of the amorphous alloys La 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Cu 30 prepared by melt spinning have been investigated. The modification of these properties when, the initial amorphous metals relax to other metastable state under thermal treatment at below crystallization temperatures, have also been studied. (M.E.L.) [es

  13. Synthesis and superconducting properties of niobium germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlstrom, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    By carefully controlling temperature homogeneity during preparation of the Nb 3 Ge samples, homogeneous films have been prepared of high-T/sub c/Nb 3 Ge. Homogeneity is demonstrated by a sharp transition width (ΔT/sub c/ 6 amps/cm 2 which are the highest ever reported for any material at this temperature. The successful film synthesis has made it possible to study the superconducting properties of Nb 3 Ge. High quality A15 NbGe/(SiO/sub x/)/Pb tunnel juctions on electron beam codeposited oxygen-doped Nb 3 Ge have been fabricated. 2Δ/(k/sub B/T/sub c/ rises from the BCS limit in Ge-poor samples to become strong coupled (2Δk/sub B/T/sub c/ approx. 4.35) as stoichiometry is approached. The electron-phonon spectral function α 2 F(ω) and related microscopic parameters were obtained. As the T/sub c/ and gap increase, a movement of the lowest phonon branch to lower energies is observed with a resultant decrease in (ω 2 ). Thus lambda increases with T/sub c/ while (ω 2 ) decreases in agreement with the idea that mode softening is a major factor in the increase of T/sub c/ with approach to stoichiometry as previously found in Nb 3 Al by Kwo and Geballe

  14. Electrophysical properties of crystals with superconducting inclusions of small sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugakov, V.I.; Shevtsova, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of superconducting inclusions, incorporated in a semiconducting or dielectric matrix, on the electrophysical properties of the dielectric is studied. The critical magnetic field of a spherical isolated inclusion is determined in the assumption that the inclusion radius is less than or of the order of coherence length. The dependence of conductivity on temperature and magnetic field is calculated for a crystal with superconducting inclusions. In the calculations an assumption is made that the inclusion concentration is inadequate for the superconductivity to appear in a whole sample (i.e. below the thresh-old of percolation). It is shown that the presence of superconducting inclusions leads to a sharp increase of the sample conductivity at low temperatures, and to a strong dependence of conductivity on magnetic field (magnetoresistance). The magnetoresistance is caused by suppression of superconductivity in the inclusions with increasing magnetic field. The influence of variations in inclusion size on the temperature and magnetic field dependences of conductivity is studied

  15. Anisotropic surface chemistry properties and adsorption behavior of silicate mineral crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Longhua; Tian, Jia; Wu, Houqin; Fang, Shuai; Lu, Zhongyuan; Ma, Caifeng; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua

    2018-03-07

    Anisotropic surface properties of minerals play an important role in a variety of fields. With a focus on the two most intensively investigated silicate minerals (i.e., phyllosilicate minerals and pegmatite aluminosilicate minerals), this review highlights the research on their anisotropic surface properties based on their crystal structures. Four surface features comprise the anisotropic surface chemistry of minerals: broken bonds, energy, wettability, and charge. Analysis of surface broken bond and energy anisotropy helps to explain the cleavage and growth properties of mineral crystals, and understanding surface wettability and charge anisotropy is critical to the analysis of minerals' solution behavior, such as their flotation performance and rheological properties. In a specific reaction, the anisotropic surface properties of minerals are reflected in the adsorption strengths of reagents on different mineral surfaces. Combined with the knowledge of mineral crushing and grinding, a thorough understanding of the anisotropic surface chemistry properties and the anisotropic adsorption behavior of minerals will lead to the development of effective relational models comprising their crystal structure, surface chemistry properties, and targeted reagent adsorption. Overall, such a comprehensive approach is expected to firmly establish the connection between selective cleavage of mineral crystals for desired surfaces and designing novel reagents selectively adsorbed on the mineral surfaces. As tools to characterize the anisotropic surface chemistry properties of minerals, DLVO theory, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The nonlinear self-focusing of beams in media with anisotropic (mix-signed) dispersion is investigated. Theoretical predictions employing virial-type arguments and self-similar techniques suggest that a pulse propagating in a nonlinear medium with anisotropic dispersion will not collapse...

  17. Investigation of the mechanical and electrical properties of superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Yamagiwa, T.; Hara, K.; Kojima, Y.; Hosoyama, K.; Mori, A.; Nojima, K.; Okamoto, Y.; Takabayashi, S.; Tanaka, T.

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of elastic (Young's) modulus of the superconducting coil and electrical punch-through test have been performed at LBL to understand the mechanical and electrical properties of the superconducting coils. The authors have investigated the elastic modulus of the superconducting coils with six kinds of insulators (made with polyimide-fiberglass-epoxy and all polyimide insulation with epoxy/polyimide adhesive) at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures using samples made of 10 stacks of superconducting cables. The samples are cured under varying compression to investigate the curing pressure dependence of Young's modulus of the coils with six kinds of the insulation system. The electrical punch-through test has also performed under compression at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures to investigate electrical integrity of the insulated coils. The tensile strength test of four kinds of polyimide films has been performed at various temperatures (between cryogenic and coil curing temperatures) to understand the mechanical properties of the films

  18. Analysis of thermodynamic properties for high-temperature superconducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwah, S.S.; Shanker, J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of thermodynamic properties such as specific heat, Debye temperature, Einstein temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, and Grueneisen parameter is performed for rare-earth-based, Tl-based, and Bi-based superconducting copper oxides. Values of thermodynamic parameters are calculated and reported. The relationship between the Debye temperature and the superconducting transition temperature is used to estimate the values of T c using the interaction parameters from Ginzburg. (orig.)

  19. Anomalous anisotropic compression behavior of superconducting CrAs under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Wei; Hu, Qingyang; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Yang, Ke; Cheng, Jinguang; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Lin; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2015-01-01

    CrAs was observed to possess the bulk superconductivity under high-pressure conditions. To understand the superconducting mechanism and explore the correlation between the structure and superconductivity, the high-pressure structural evolution of CrAs was investigated using the angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The structure of CrAs remains stable up to 1.8 GPa, whereas the lattice parameters exhibit anomalous compression behaviors. With increasing pressure, the lattice parameters a and c both demonstrate a nonmonotonic change, and the lattice parameter b undergoes a rapid contraction at ∼0.18−0.35 GPa, which suggests that a pressure-induced isostructural phase transition occurs in CrAs. Above the phase transition pressure, the axial compressibilities of CrAs present remarkable anisotropy. A schematic band model was used to address the anomalous compression behavior of CrAs. The present results shed light on the structural and related electronic responses to high pressure, which play a key role toward understanding the superconductivity of CrAs. PMID:26627230

  20. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N H; Bay, N; Grivel, J C [and others

    2003-07-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  1. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T c superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB 2 , CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  2. Optical properties of anisotropic 3D nanoparticles arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, E. Y.; Esquivel-Sirvent, R.

    2017-07-01

    The optical properties of 3D periodic arrays of spheroidal Au nanoparticles are calculated using a Bruggeman effective medium approximation. The optical response of the supra-crystal depends on the volume fraction of the nanoparticles and their aspect or size ratio (major/minor axis). All the nanoparticles have the same orientation, and this defines an anisotropic dielectric function of the crystal. As a function of the filling fraction, while keeping the size ratio fixed, the maximum in the extinction spectra along the major and minor axes does not show a significant change. However, for a fixed filling fraction, varying the aspect ratio of the particles induces a shift of several hundred of nanometers in the maximum of the extinction spectra along the major axis and almost no changes along the minor axis. Depending on the aspect ratio and the filling fraction, we show that the supra-crystal has three regimes with different values of an effective plasma frequency. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  3. Anisotropic properties of the enamel organic extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Espírito Santo, Alexandre R; Novaes, Pedro D; Line, Sérgio R P

    2006-05-01

    Enamel biosynthesis is initiated by the secretion, processing, and self-assembly of a complex mixture of proteins. This supramolecular ensemble controls the nucleation of the crystalline mineral phase. The detection of anisotropic properties by polarizing microscopy has been extensively used to detect macromolecular organizations in ordinary histological sections. The aim of this work was to study the birefringence of enamel organic matrix during the development of rat molar and incisor teeth. Incisor and molar teeth of rats were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde/0.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.2 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, and decalcified in 5% nitric acid/4% formaldehyde. After paraffin embedding, 5-microm-thick sections were obtained, treated with xylene, and hydrated. Form birefringence curves were obtained after measuring optical retardations in imbibing media, with different refractive indices. Our observations showed that enamel organic matrix of rat incisor and molar teeth is strongly birefringent, presenting an ordered supramolecular structure. The birefringence starts during the early secretion phase and disappears at the maturation phase. The analysis of enamel organic matrix birefringence may be used to detect the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the supramolecular orientation of enamel matrix and their effects on the structure of mature enamel.

  4. Surface ferromagnetism and superconducting properties of nanocrystalline niobium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipra, R.; Kumar, Nitesh; Sundaresan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline δ-NbN x samples have been synthesized by reacting NbCl 5 and urea at three different temperatures. A comparison of their structural, magnetic, transport and thermal properties is reported in the present study. The size of the particles and their agglomeration extent increase with increasing reaction temperature. The sample prepared at 900 °C showed the highest superconducting transition temperature (T c ) of 16.2 K with a transition width, ∼1.8 K, as obtained from the resistivity measurement on cold-pressed bars. Above T c , magnetization measurements revealed the presence of surface ferromagnetism which coexists with superconductivity below T c . Heat capacity measurements confirm superconductivity with strong electron–phonon coupling constant. The sample prepared at 800 °C shows a lower T c (10 K) while that prepared at 700 °C exhibit no superconductivity down to the lowest temperature (3 K) measured. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of δ-NbN nanoparticles by urea nitridation of NbCl 5 . ► Superconducting transition temperature (T c ) is 16.2 K. ► Superconductivity and surface ferromagnetism coexist in the nanoparticles. ► Effect of size and agglomeration on the physical properties of nanoparticles

  5. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties of Molybdenite by Direct Force Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Qingxia; Xu, Zhenghe; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-10-27

    Probing anisotropic surface properties of layer-type mineral is fundamentally important in understanding its surface charge and wettability for a variety of applications. In this study, the surface properties of the face and the edge surfaces of natural molybdenite (MoS2) were investigated by direct surface force measurements using atomic force microscope (AFM). The interaction forces between the AFM tip (Si3N4) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were measured in 10 mM NaCl solutions at various pHs. The force profiles were well-fitted with classical DLVO (Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek) theory to determine the surface potentials of the face and the edge surfaces of molybdenite. The surface potentials of both the face and edge surfaces become more negative with increasing pH. At neutral and alkaline conditions, the edge surface exhibits more negative surface potential than the face surface, which is possibly due to molybdate and hydromolybdate ions on the edge surface. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the edge surface was determined around pH 3 while PZC of the face surface was not observed in the range of pH 3-11. The interaction forces between octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated AFM tip (OTS-tip) and face or edge surface of molybdenite were also measured at various pHs to study the wettability of molybdenite surfaces. An attractive force between the OTS-tip and the face surface was detected. The force profiles were well-fitted by considering DLVO forces and additional hydrophobic force. Our results suggest the hydrophobic feature of the face surface of molybdenite. In contrast, no attractive force between the OTS-tip and the edge surface was detected. This is the first study in directly measuring surface charge and wettability of the pristine face and edge surfaces of molybdenite through surface force measurements.

  6. The influence of the anisotropic stress state on the intermediate strain properties of granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Goudarzy, M.; Kö nig, D.; Santamarina, Carlos; Schanz, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows the effect of anisotropic stress state on intermediate strain properties of cylindrical samples containing spherical glass particles. Tests were carried out with the modified resonant column device available at Ruhr

  7. Anisotropic nanomaterials: Synthesis, optical and magnetic properties, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banholzer, Matthew John

    As nanoscience and nanotechnology mature, anisotropic metal nanostructures are emerging in a variety of contexts as valuable class of nanostructures due to their distinctive attributes. With unique properties ranging from optical to magnetic and beyond, these structures are useful in many new applications. Chapter two discusses the nanodisk code: a linear array of metal disk pairs that serve as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates. These multiplexing structures employ a binary encoding scheme, perform better than previous nanowires designs (in the context of SERS) and are useful for both convert encoding and tagging of substrates (based both on spatial disk position and spectroscopic response) as well as biomolecule detection (e.g. DNA). Chapter three describes the development of improved, silver-based nanodisk code structures. Work was undertaken to generate structures with high yield and reproducibility and to reoptimize the geometry of each disk pair for maximum Raman enhancement. The improved silver structures exhibit greater enhancement than Au structures (leading to lower DNA detection limits), convey additional flexibility, and enable trinary encoding schemes where far more unique structures can be created. Chapter four considers the effect of roughness on the plasmonic properties of nanorod structures and introduces a novel method to smooth the end-surfaces of nanorods structures. The smoothing technique is based upon a two-step process relying upon diffusion control during nanowires growth and selective oxidation after each step of synthesis is complete. Empirical and theoretical work show that smoothed nanostructures have superior and controllable optical properties. Chapter five concerns silica-encapsulated gold nanoprisms. This encapsulation allows these highly sensitive prisms to remain stable and protected in solution, enabling their use as class-leading sensors. Theoretical study complements the empirical work, exploring the effect of

  8. Levitation properties of superconducting magnetic bearings using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yuuki; Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken [Railway Technical Research Institute, 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo 185-8540 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We have been developing a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with 36 MJ energy capacity for a railway system with superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We prepared two kinds of models using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors (SCs). One model demonstrated SMB load capacity of 20 kN and the other model proved non-contact stable levitation and non-contact rotation with SMBs. Combining these results, the feasibility of a 36 MJ energy capacity FESS with SMBs completely inside a cryostat has been confirmed. In this paper, we report the levitation properties of SMBs in these models.

  9. Levitation properties of superconducting magnetic bearings using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yuuki; Seino, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Ken

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a flywheel energy storage system (FESS) with 36 MJ energy capacity for a railway system with superconducting magnetic bearings (SMBs). We prepared two kinds of models using superconducting coils and bulk superconductors (SCs). One model demonstrated SMB load capacity of 20 kN and the other model proved non-contact stable levitation and non-contact rotation with SMBs. Combining these results, the feasibility of a 36 MJ energy capacity FESS with SMBs completely inside a cryostat has been confirmed. In this paper, we report the levitation properties of SMBs in these models.

  10. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, L.; Carrillo, F.; Dietert, R.; Kotziapashis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are materials which combine the property of zero electric resistance with the capability to exclude any adjacent magnetic field. This leads to many large scale applications such as the much publicized levitating train, generation of magnetic fields in MHD electric generators, and special medical diagnostic equipment. On a smaller-scale, superconductive materials could replace existing resistive connectors and decrease signal delays by reducing the RLC time constants. Thus, a computer could operate at much higher speeds, and consequently at lower power levels which would reduce the need for heat removal and allow closer spacing of circuitry. Although technical advances and proposed applications are constantly being published, it should be recognized that superconductivity is a slowly developing technology. It has taken scientists almost eighty years to learn what they now know about this material and its function. The present paper provides an overview of the historical development of superconductivity and describes some of the potential applications for this new technology as it pertains to the electronics industry

  11. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  12. Effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouers, F.; Derenne, M.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the variation of the density states at the Fermi level on the critical superconductivity temperature TC of transition metal compounds is studied. This paper suggests using the technique of calculating the 5-fold degenerate d-band density of states from a continued fraction extension of a tight-binding Green function to study the relative importance of one dimensionality chain coupling, three dimensional interactions and the effect of disorder on the electronic and superconducting properties of complex phase and in particular A15 phases. The first results obtained for A15 phases density of states indicate that an extension of the suggested method can be of great interest to analyze the effect of disorder on superconductivity properties of complex phases

  13. Layered Black Phosphorus: Strongly Anisotropic Magnetic, Electronic, and Electron-Transfer Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Sedmidubský, David; Huber, Štěpán; Luxa, Jan; Bouša, Daniel; Boothroyd, Chris; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Layered elemental materials, such as black phosphorus, exhibit unique properties originating from their highly anisotropic layered structure. The results presented herein demonstrate an anomalous anisotropy for the electrical, magnetic, and electrochemical properties of black phosphorus. It is shown that heterogeneous electron transfer from black phosphorus to outer- and inner-sphere molecular probes is highly anisotropic. The electron-transfer rates differ at the basal and edge planes. These unusual properties were interpreted by means of calculations, manifesting the metallic character of the edge planes as compared to the semiconducting properties of the basal plane. This indicates that black phosphorus belongs to a group of materials known as topological insulators. Consequently, these effects render the magnetic properties highly anisotropic, as both diamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior can be observed depending on the orientation in the magnetic field. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Properties of selected superconductive materials, 1978 supplement. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.W.

    1978-10-01

    This report includes data on additional superconductive materials extracted from the world literature up to fall 1977 and is an addendum to the data set published in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 5, no. 3, 581-821 (1976) (Reprint no. 84). The data presented are new values and have not been selected or compared to values (except for selected values of the elements) previously assembled by the Superconductive Materials Data Center. The properties included are composition, critical temperature, critical magnetic field, crystal structure and the results of negative experiments. Special tabulations of high magnetic field materials with Type II behavior and materials with organic components are included. All entries are keyed to the literature. A list of recent reviews centered on superconductive materials is included

  15. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langone, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the theoretical background of superconductivity. Includes discussion of electricity, material fabrication, maglev trains, the superconducting supercollider, and Japanese-US competition. The authors reports the latest discoveries

  16. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onnes, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The author traces the development of superconductivity from 1911 to 1986. Some of the areas he explores are the Meissner Effect, theoretical developments, experimental developments, engineering achievements, research in superconducting magnets, and research in superconducting electronics. The article also mentions applications shown to be technically feasible, but not yet commercialized. High-temperature superconductivity may provide enough leverage to bring these applications to the marketplace

  17. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  18. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on superconductivity the absence of electrical resistance has always fascinated the mind of researchers with a promise of applications unachievable by conventional technologies. Since its discovery superconductivity has been posing many questions and challenges to solid state physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry and material science. Simulations arrived to superconductivity from particle physics, astrophysic, electronics, electrical engineering and so on. In seventy-five years the original promises of superconductivity were going to become reality: a microscopical theory gave to superconductivity the cloth of the science and the level of technological advances was getting higher and higher. High field superconducting magnets became commercially available, superconducting electronic devices were invented, high field accelerating gradients were obtained in superconductive cavities and superconducting particle detectors were under study. Other improvements came in a quiet progression when a tornado brought a revolution in the field: new materials had been discovered and superconductivity, from being a phenomenon relegated to the liquid Helium temperatures, became achievable over the liquid Nitrogen temperature. All the physics and the technological implications under superconductivity have to be considered ab initio

  19. Superconducting properties of iron chalcogenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chalcogenides, binary FeSe, FeTe and ternary FeTexSe1−x, FeTexS1−x and FeTe:Ox, are the simplest compounds amongst the recently discovered iron-based superconductors. Thin films of iron chalcogenides present many attractive features that are covered in this review, such as: (i easy fabrication and epitaxial growth on common single-crystal substrates; (ii strong enhancement of superconducting transition temperature with respect to the bulk parent compounds (in FeTe0.5Se0.5, zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0bulk = 13.5 K, but Tc0film = 19 K on LaAlO3 substrate; (iii high critical current density (Jc ~ 0.5 ×106 A cm2 at 4.2 K and 0 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5 film deposited on CaF2, and similar values on flexible metallic substrates (Hastelloy tapes buffered by ion-beam assisted deposition with a weak dependence on magnetic field; (iv high upper critical field (~50 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5, Bc2(0, with a low anisotropy, γ ~ 2. These highlights explain why thin films of iron chalcogenides have been widely studied in recent years and are considered as promising materials for applications requiring high magnetic fields (20–50 T and low temperatures (2–10 K.

  20. Properties of superconducting thin-film microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    This work reports investigations upon the dependences of critical current and current phase relation on the dimensions of a superconducting thin-film microbridge. A model has been developed upon the Volkov's hyperbolic bridges and the Zaitsev's boundary conditions to calculate the spatial variation of the order parameter for given bridge dimensions. The results indicate that the rigid boundary conditions are good approximations to narrow bridges (W much less than L) only. The critical current density of the bridge has been calculated also as a function of the bridge dimensions. It is found that the critical current density of small bridges is enhanced above its mean field critical value due to the proximity effects of the banks. Very good agreement is found between the calculated enhancement of the critical current density and the experimental results. Direct measurements have been made on the current phase relation of indium bridges with width smaller than 0.6 μm. The difficulties due to the extra phase shifts from the series thin film electrodes are overcome by a specially designed double loop configuration which has an extra low effective inductance. It is found that the current phase relation of small bridges (W,L, xi, the results agree with the predictions of rigid boundary calculations as expected by our model

  1. Reliability of in vivo measurements of the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue: a simulative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Xuyang; Shi Xuetao; You Fusheng; Fu Feng; Liu Ruigang; Tang Chi; Dong Xiuzhen; Lu Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A simulative study was performed to measure the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue using several in vivo and in vitro probes. COMSOL Multiphysics was selected to carry out the simulation. Five traditional probes and a newly designed probe were used in this study. One of these probes was an in vitro measurement probe and the other five were in vivo. The simulations were performed in terms of the minimal tissue volume for in vivo measurements, the calibration of a probe constant, the measurement performed on isotropic tissue and the measurement performed on anisotropic tissue. Results showed that the in vitro probe can be used to measure the in-cell dielectric properties of isotropic and anisotropic tissues. When measured with the five in vivo probes, the dielectric properties of isotropic tissue were all measured accurately. For the measurements performed on anisotropic tissue, large errors were observed when the four traditional in vivo probes were used, but only a small error was observed when the new in vivo probe was used. This newly designed five-electrode in vivo probe may indicate the dielectric properties of anisotropic tissue more accurately than these four traditional in vivo probes. (paper)

  2. Anisotropic gold nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, applications, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Pengxiang; Astruc, Didier

    2014-02-10

    Anisotropic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted the interest of scientists for over a century, but research in this field has considerably accelerated since 2000 with the synthesis of numerous 1D, 2D, and 3D shapes as well as hollow AuNP structures. The anisotropy of these nonspherical, hollow, and nanoshell AuNP structures is the source of the plasmon absorption in the visible region as well as in the near-infrared (NIR) region. This NIR absorption is especially sensitive to the AuNP shape and medium and can be shifted towards the part of the NIR region in which living tissue shows minimum absorption. This has led to crucial applications in medical diagnostics and therapy ("theranostics"), especially with Au nanoshells, nanorods, hollow nanospheres, and nanocubes. In addition, Au nanowires (AuNWs) can be synthesized with longitudinal dimensions of several tens of micrometers and can serve as plasmon waveguides for sophisticated optical devices. The application of anisotropic AuNPs has rapidly spread to optical, biomedical, and catalytic areas. In this Review, a brief historical survey is given, followed by a summary of the synthetic modes, variety of shapes, applications, and toxicity issues of this fast-growing class of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Effect of plasma on the superconductive property of YBCO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.A.; Anwar, M.I.; Zakaullah, M.; Alamgir, K.; Murtaza, G.; Haq, A.U.

    1999-01-01

    Oxygen deficient Y/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/Cu 3/O/sub 7-x/ samples are exposed to the rarefied are discharge. The air plasma has gas and electron temperatures as 170 deg. C and 2.1 eV, respectively. As a result of plasma treatment the semiconducting tetragonal phase transformed into superconducting orthorhombic phase with Tc= 84K the phase relating properties have been investigated by monochromated X-ray diffraction and low temperature resistivity measurements. (author)

  4. Effects of anisotropic properties on bursting behavior of rectangular cup with a V-notch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Tai [R and D Center, TERA Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Mok [R and D Center, Hyosung Power and Industrial Systems PG, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Beom Soo [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Tae Wan [Engineering Research Center of Innovative Technology on Advanced Forming, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Effects of mechanical anisotropic properties on bursting failure and its pressure of rectangular deep-drawn cup fabricated by using AA3005-H14 thin sheet are investigated to utilize for electrolyte container of lithium-ion secondary batteries. The V-notch shape with a depth of 0.1 mm and an angle of 20.0 degrees is defined on the rectangular cup, which has a thickness of 0.20 mm on the major surface and that of 0.30 mm on the minor surface. With the measured mechanical properties by uni-axial tensile tests and the defined V-notch geometry, a series of numerical prediction models considering isotropic, planar and normal anisotropic characteristics, are built-up and the bursting simulations are performed. Thereafter, the bursting fracture behavior is investigated by adopting ductile fracture criterion proposed by Cockcroft and Latham. The results predicted for the planar and the normal anisotropic models show that the bursting fracture pressure is well matched to 0.400 MPa, and the isotropic and the planar anisotropic models present a bursting fracture height of about 4.95 mm and 4.92 mm, respectively. A series of experimental investigations are undertaken to verify the bursting deformation that had been predicted. The bursting pressure and its height during experimental verifications are shown to be in good agreement with each variation of about 5.88% and roughly 0.20% with respect to the numerical results obtained using the planar anisotropic model.

  5. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Despite reports of new, high-temperature superconductive materials almost every day, participants at the First Congress on Superconductivity do not anticipate commercial applications with these materials soon. What many do envision is the discovery of superconducting materials that can function at much warmer, perhaps even room temperatures. Others hope superconductivity will usher in a new age of technology as semiconductors and transistors did. This article reviews what the speakers had to say at the four-day congress held in Houston last February. Several speakers voiced concern that the Reagan administration's apparent lack of interest in funding superconductivity research while other countries, notably Japan, continue to pour money into research and development could hamper America's international competitiveness

  6. Superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.G.; Aleksivskii, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The superconducting properties of a copper-ternary alloy of the type Cu 93 Nb 5 Sn 2 , subjected to a variety of mechanical and heat treatments, are discussed. The as-cast alloy does not turn superconducting down to 4.5K; but the cold-work and subsequent prescribed heat treatments are found to raise the transition temperature Tsub(c) to values as high as 18.1K and the critical current density Jsub(c) (of the Nb 3 Sn formed during annealing) to a value of 3.6x10 5 Acm -2 (at 4.2K and 30kOe). Various possibilities to improve Jsub(c) of this alloy to still higher values are discussed. The as-cast alloy is ductile, easy to draw, and economical from a technical point of view, and the annealed wires and strips are flexible enough for winding. (author)

  7. The Properties of Normal Conducting Cathodes in FZD Superconducting Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2009-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) is one of the latest applications of SC technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting cathodes with high QE are not available up to now, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for the SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the cathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. The SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In this paper, some experience gained in the gun commissioning will be concluded. The results of the properties of Cs2Te photocathode in the cavity will be presented, such as the Q.E., the life time, the dark current and the thermal emittance.

  8. The influence of the anisotropic stress state on the intermediate strain properties of granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Goudarzy, M.

    2017-07-20

    This paper shows the effect of anisotropic stress state on intermediate strain properties of cylindrical samples containing spherical glass particles. Tests were carried out with the modified resonant column device available at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Dry samples were subjected to two anisotropic stress states: (a) cell pressure, σ′h, constant and vertical stress, σ′v, increased (stress state GB-I) and (b) σ′v/σ′h equal to 2 (stress state GB-II). The experimental results revealed that the effect of stress state GB-II on the modulus and damping ratio was more significant and obvious than stress state GB-I. The effect of the anisotropic stress state was explained through the impact of confining pressure and anisotropic stress components on the stiffness and damping ratio. The results showed that: (a) G(γ) increased, η(γ) decreased and their strain non-linearity decreased with an increase in the confining pressure component σ′vσ′h; (b) G(γ) decreased, η(γ) increased and their strain non-linearity increased with an increase in the anisotropic stress component, σ′v/σ′h. The analysis of results revealed that reference shear strain was also affected by anisotropic stress state. Therefore, an empirical relationship was developed to predict the reference shear strain, as a function of confining pressure and anisotropic stress components. Additionally, the damping ratio was written as a function of the minimum damping ratio and the reference shear strain.

  9. Iron particle and anisotropic effects on mechanical properties of magneto-sensitive elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Lee, Dong-Joo

    2017-11-01

    Rubber specimens were prepared by mixing micron-sized iron particles dispersed in room-temperature-vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber by solution mixing. The possible correlations of the particle volume, size, and distribution with the mechanical properties of the specimens were examined. An isotropic mechanical test shows that at 60 phr, the elastic modulus was 3.29 MPa (electrolyte), 2.92 MPa (carbonyl), and 2.61 MPa (hybrid). The anisotropic effect was examined by curing the specimen under magnetic fields of 0.5-2.0 T at 90° relative to the applied strain. The measurements show anisotropic effects of 11% (carbonyl), 9% (electrolyte), and 6% (hybrid) at 40 phr and 1 T. At 80 phr, the polymer-filler compatibility factor (c-factor) was estimated using the Pythagorean theorem as 0.53 (regular) and 0.73 (anisotropic studies). The improved features could be useful in applications such as controlled damping, vibrational absorption, or automotive bushings.

  10. Transition metal borides. Synthesis, characterization and superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayhan, Mehmet

    2013-07-12

    A systematic study was done on the synthesis and superconducting properties of metal rich transition metal borides. Five different binary systems were investigated including the boride systems of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten and rhenium. High temperature solid state methods were used in order to synthesize samples of different transition metal borides of the composition M{sub 2}B, MB, M{sub 3}B{sub 2}, MB{sub 2}, and M{sub 2}B{sub 4}. The reactions were carried out in three different furnaces with different sample containers: the electric arc (copper crucible), the high frequency induction furnace (boron nitride, tantalum or glassy carbon crucibles), and the conventional tube furnace (sealed evacuated quartz ampoules). The products obtained were characterized with X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analyses and crystal structure refinements using the Rietveld method and based on structure models known from literature were performed. A neutron diffraction measurement was done for W{sub 2}B{sub 4} to allow for a complete crystal structure determination, because of the presence of a heavy element like tungsten and a light element like boron that made it difficult to determine the accurate determination of the boron atom positions and occupancies from X-ray data. A new structure model for W{sub 2}B{sub 4} was proposed. Magnetic measurements in a SQUID magnetometer down to temperatures as low as 1.8 K were performed to several of the products in order to see if the transition metal borides become superconducting at low temperatures, and the results were compared with data from literature. Superconducting properties were found for the following compounds: NbB{sub 2} (T{sub C} = 3.5 K), β-MoB (T{sub C} = 2.4 K), β-WB (T{sub C} = 2.0 K), α-WB (T{sub C} = 4.3 K), W{sub 2}B{sub 4} (T{sub C} = 5.4 K), Re{sub 7}B{sub 3} (T{sub C} = 2.4 K). A relationship between the superconducting properties

  11. Transition metal borides. Synthesis, characterization and superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study was done on the synthesis and superconducting properties of metal rich transition metal borides. Five different binary systems were investigated including the boride systems of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten and rhenium. High temperature solid state methods were used in order to synthesize samples of different transition metal borides of the composition M 2 B, MB, M 3 B 2 , MB 2 , and M 2 B 4 . The reactions were carried out in three different furnaces with different sample containers: the electric arc (copper crucible), the high frequency induction furnace (boron nitride, tantalum or glassy carbon crucibles), and the conventional tube furnace (sealed evacuated quartz ampoules). The products obtained were characterized with X-ray powder diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analyses and crystal structure refinements using the Rietveld method and based on structure models known from literature were performed. A neutron diffraction measurement was done for W 2 B 4 to allow for a complete crystal structure determination, because of the presence of a heavy element like tungsten and a light element like boron that made it difficult to determine the accurate determination of the boron atom positions and occupancies from X-ray data. A new structure model for W 2 B 4 was proposed. Magnetic measurements in a SQUID magnetometer down to temperatures as low as 1.8 K were performed to several of the products in order to see if the transition metal borides become superconducting at low temperatures, and the results were compared with data from literature. Superconducting properties were found for the following compounds: NbB 2 (T C = 3.5 K), β-MoB (T C = 2.4 K), β-WB (T C = 2.0 K), α-WB (T C = 4.3 K), W 2 B 4 (T C = 5.4 K), Re 7 B 3 (T C = 2.4 K). A relationship between the superconducting properties and the compositional and structural features was discussed for metal diborides. Also it was

  12. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  13. Anisotropic magnetic properties of the KMo4O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Maffei, M. L.; Dos Santos, C. A. M.; Ferreira, B.; Sartori, A. F.

    2012-02-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements in the tetragonal KMo4O6 single crystals show a metal-insulator transition (MIT) near 100K. Magnetization measurements as a function of temperature show no evidence of magnetic ordering at this MIT [1]. Single crystals of KMo4O6 were obtained by electrolysis of a melt with a molar ratio of K2MoO4:MoO3 = 6:1. The process were carried out at 930 C with a current of 20-25mA for 52h in argon atmosphere. After that, electrodes were removed from the melt alloying the crystals to cool down to room temperature rapidly. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the black single crystals were grown on the platinum cathode. Typical dimensions of the single crystals are 1x0.2x0.2mm^3. X-ray diffractometry confirmed that the single crystals have KMo4O6 tetragonal crystalline structure with space group P4. Magnetization measurements were performed parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis from 2 to 300K. The results show anisotropic behavior between both directions. Furthermore, the temperature independence of the magnetization at high temperature and the upturn at low temperature are observed in agreement with previous results [1]. MxH curves measured at several temperatures show nonlinear behavior and a small magnetic ordering. The magnetic ordering seems to be related to the MIT near 100K. This material is based upon support by FAPESP (2009/14524-6 and 2009/54001-6) and CNPq/NSF (490182/2009-7). M. Andrade is CAPES fellow and C.A.M. dos Santos is CNPq fellow. [4pt] [1] K. V. Ramanujachary et al., J. Sol. State Chem.102 (1993) 69.

  14. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  15. Anisotropic Adhesion Properties of Triangular-Tip-Shaped Micropillars

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu

    2011-06-01

    Directional dry adhesive microstructures consisting of high-density triangular-tip-shaped micropillars are described. The wide-tip structures allow for unique directional shear adhesion properties with respect to the peeling direction, along with relatively high normal adhesion. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Anisotropic Adhesion Properties of Triangular-Tip-Shaped Micropillars

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Bae, Won Gyu; Jung, Ho-Sup; Suh, Kahp Y.

    2011-01-01

    Directional dry adhesive microstructures consisting of high-density triangular-tip-shaped micropillars are described. The wide-tip structures allow for unique directional shear adhesion properties with respect to the peeling direction, along with relatively high normal adhesion. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Optical transmission properties of an anisotropic defect cavity in one-dimensional photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchani, Noama; El Moussaouy, Abdelaziz; Aynaou, Hassan; El Hassouani, Youssef; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2018-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the possibility to control the optical transmission in the visible and infrared regions by a defective one dimensional photonic crystal formed by a combination of a finite isotropic superlattice and an anisotropic defect layer. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the reflection and the transmission coefficients, as well as the densities of states of the optical modes. We evaluate the delay times of the localized modes and we compare their behavior with the total densities of states. We show that the birefringence of an anisotropic defect layer has a significant impact on the behavior of the optical modes in the electromagnetic forbidden bands of the structure. The amplitudes of the defect modes in the transmission and the delay time spectrum, depend strongly on the position of the cavity layer within the photonic crystal. The anisotropic defect layer induces transmission zeros in one of the two components of the transmission as a consequence of a destructive interference of the two polarized waves within this layer, giving rise to negative delay times for some wavelengths in the visible and infrared light ranges. This property is a typical characteristic of the anisotropic photonic layer and is without analogue in their counterpart isotropic defect layers. This structure offers several possibilities for controlling the frequencies, transmitted intensities and the delay times of the optical modes in the visible and infrared regions. It can be a good candidate for realizing high-precision optical filters.

  18. Molecular Organization Induced Anisotropic Properties of Perylene - Silica Hybrid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramulu, Deepa; Turaga, Shuvan Prashant; Bettiol, Andrew Anthony; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2017-08-10

    Optically active silica nanoparticles are interesting owing to high stability and easy accessibility. Unlike previous reports on dye loaded silica particles, here we address an important question on how optical properties are dependent on the aggregation-induced segregation of perylene molecules inside and outside the silica nanoparticles. Three differentially functionalized fluorescent perylene - silica hybrid nanoparticles are prepared from appropriate ratios of perylene derivatives and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and investigated the structure property correlation (P-ST, P-NP and P-SF). The particles differ from each other on the distribution, organization and intermolecular interaction of perylene inside or outside the silica matrix. Structure and morphology of all hybrid nanoparticles were characterized using a range of techniques such as electron microscope, optical spectroscopic measurements and thermal analysis. The organizations of perylene in three different silica nanoparticles were explored using steady-state fluorescence, fluorescence anisotropy, lifetime measurements and solid state polarized spectroscopic studies. The interactions and changes in optical properties of the silica nanoparticles in presence of different amines were tested and quantified both in solution and in vapor phase using fluorescence quenching studies. The synthesized materials can be regenerated after washing with water and reused for sensing of amines.

  19. Critical properties of Sudden Quench Dynamics in the anisotropic XY Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hongli; Liu, Zhao; Fan, Heng; Chen, Shu

    2010-01-01

    We study the zero temperature quantum dynamical critical behavior of the anisotropic XY chain under a sudden quench in a transverse field. We demonstrate theoretically that both quench magnetic susceptibility and two-particle quench correlation can be used to describe the dynamical quantum phase transition (QPT) properties. Either the quench magnetic susceptibility or the derivative of correlation functions as a function of initial magnetic field $a$ exhibits a divergence at the critical poin...

  20. Exact analysis of the spectral properties of the anisotropic two-bosons Rabi model

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng; Amico, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the anisotropic two-photon Rabi model in which the rotating and counter rotating terms enters along with two different coupling constants. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are studied with exact means. We employ a variation of the Braak method based on Bogolubov rotation of the underlying $su(1,1)$ Lie algebra. Accordingly, the spectrum is provided by the analytical properties of a suitable meromorphic function. Our formalism applies to the two-modes Rabi model as well, sharing the s...

  1. Superconducting properties of Pb82Bi18 films controlled by ferromagnetic nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zuxin; Lyuksyutov, Igor F; Wu Wenhao; Naugle, Donald G

    2011-01-01

    The superconducting properties of Pb 82 Bi 18 alloy films deposited on ferromagnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated. Ferromagnetic Co or Ni nanowires are first electroplated into the columnar pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Superconducting Pb 82 Bi 18 films are then quench condensed onto the polished surface of the AAO membranes filled with magnetic nanowires. A strong dependence of the Pb 82 Bi 18 superconducting properties on the ratio of the superconducting film thickness to the magnetic nanowire diameter and material variety was observed.

  2. Superconducting properties of Pb82Bi18 films controlled by ferromagnetic nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zuxin; Lyuksyutov, Igor F.; Wu, Wenhao; Naugle, Donald G.

    2011-02-01

    The superconducting properties of Pb82Bi18 alloy films deposited on ferromagnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated. Ferromagnetic Co or Ni nanowires are first electroplated into the columnar pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Superconducting Pb82Bi18 films are then quench condensed onto the polished surface of the AAO membranes filled with magnetic nanowires. A strong dependence of the Pb82Bi18 superconducting properties on the ratio of the superconducting film thickness to the magnetic nanowire diameter and material variety was observed.

  3. Superconducting Properties of Lead-Bismuth Films Controlled by Ferromagnetic Nanowire Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zuxin; Lyuksyutov, Igor F.; Wu, Wenhao; Naugle, Donald G.

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting properties of lead-bismuth (82% Pb and 18% Bi) alloy films deposited on ferromagnetic nanowire arrays have been investigated. Ferromagnetic Co or Ni nanowires are first electroplated into the columnar pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. Superconducting Pb 82 Bi 18 films are then quench-condensed onto the polished surface of the AAO membranes filled with magnetic nanowires. A strong dependence of the Pb 82 Bi 18 superconducting properties on the ratio of the superconducting film thickness to the magnetic nanowire diameter and the material variety was observed.

  4. Superconducting and normal state properties of carbon doped and neutron irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, R.H.T.; Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Holanova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Finnemore, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in MgB 2 focuses on the effects various types of perturbations have on the superconducting properties of this novel two-gap superconductor. In this article we summarize the effects of carbon doping and neutron irradiation in bulk MgB 2 . Low levels of carbon doping and light neutron irradiation result in significant enhancements in H c2 . At high fluences, where superconductivity is nearly fully suppressed, superconductivity can be restored through post exposure annealing. However, this results in a change in the interdependencies of the normal state and superconducting properties (ρ 0 , T c , H c2 ), with little or no enhancement in H c2

  5. Synthesis and colloidal properties of anisotropic hydrothermal barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosenick, Timothy James

    2005-11-01

    Nanoparticles of high dielectric constant materials, especially BaTiO3, are required to achieve decreased layer thickness in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). Tabular metal nanoparticles can produce thin metal layers with low surface roughness via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). To achieve similar results with dielectric layers requires the synthesis and dispersion of tabular BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The goal of this study was to investigate the deposition of thin BaTiO3 layers using a colloidal process. The synthesis, interfacial chemistry and colloidal properties of hydrothermal BaTiO3 a model particle system, was investigated. After characterization of the material system particulates were deposited to form thin layers using EPD. In the current study, the synthesis of BaTiO3 has been investigated using a hydrothermal route. TEM and AFM analyses show that the synthesized particles are single crystal with a majority of the particle having a zone axis and {111} large face. The particles have a median thickness of 5.8 +/- 3.1 nm and face diameter of 27.1 +/- 12.3 nm. Particle growth was likely controlled by the formation of {111} twins and the synthesis pH which stabilizes the {111} face during growth. With limited growth in the direction, the particles developed a plate-like morphology. Physical property characterization shows the powder was suitable for further processing with high purity, low hydrothermal defect concentration, and controlled stoichiometry. TEM observations of thermally treated powders indicate that the particles begin to loose the plate-like morphology by 900 °C. The aqueous passivation, dispersion, and doping of nanoscale BaTiO 3 powders was investigated. Passivation BaTiO3 was achieved through the addition of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid selectively adsorbs onto the particle surface and forms a chemically stable 2-3 nm layer of barium oxalate. The negative surface charge of the oxalate effectively passivated the BaTiO3 providing a surface

  6. Mechanical, Anisotropic, and Electronic Properties of XN (X = C, Si, Ge): Theoretical Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenyang; Liu, Xuhong; Yu, Xinhai; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dayun

    2017-08-08

    The structural, mechanical, elastic anisotropic, and electronic properties of Pbca -XN (X = C, Si, Ge) are investigated in this work using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof for solids (PBEsol) functional, and Ceperly and Alder, parameterized by Perdew and Zunger (CA-PZ) functional in the framework of density functional theory. The achieved results for the lattice parameters and band gap of Pbca -CN with the PBE functional in this research are in good accordance with other theoretical results. The band structures of Pbca -XN (X = C, Si, Ge) show that Pbca -SiN and Pbca -GeN are both direct band gap semiconductor materials with a band gap of 3.39 eV and 2.22 eV, respectively. Pbca -XN (X = C, Si, Ge) exhibits varying degrees of mechanical anisotropic properties with respect to the Poisson's ratio, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and universal anisotropic index. The (001) plane and (010) plane of Pbca -CN/SiN/GeN both exhibit greater elastic anisotropy in the bulk modulus and Young's modulus than the (100) plane.

  7. Mechanical, Anisotropic, and Electronic Properties of XN (X = C, Si, Ge): Theoretical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenyang; Liu, Xuhong; Yu, Xinhai; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dayun

    2017-01-01

    The structural, mechanical, elastic anisotropic, and electronic properties of Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) are investigated in this work using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE) functional, Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof for solids (PBEsol) functional, and Ceperly and Alder, parameterized by Perdew and Zunger (CA–PZ) functional in the framework of density functional theory. The achieved results for the lattice parameters and band gap of Pbca-CN with the PBE functional in this research are in good accordance with other theoretical results. The band structures of Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) show that Pbca-SiN and Pbca-GeN are both direct band gap semiconductor materials with a band gap of 3.39 eV and 2.22 eV, respectively. Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) exhibits varying degrees of mechanical anisotropic properties with respect to the Poisson’s ratio, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, and universal anisotropic index. The (001) plane and (010) plane of Pbca-CN/SiN/GeN both exhibit greater elastic anisotropy in the bulk modulus and Young’s modulus than the (100) plane. PMID:28786960

  8. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Amongst the numerous scientific discoveries that the 20th century has to its credit, superconductivity stands out as an exceptional example of having retained its original dynamism and excitement even for more than 80 years after its discovery. It has proved itself to be a rich field by continually offering frontal challenges in both research and applications. Indeed, one finds that a majority of internationally renowned condensed matter theorists, at some point of their career, have found excitement in working in this important area. Superconductivity presents a unique example of having fetched Nobel awards as many as four times to date, and yet, interestingly enough, the field still remains open for new insights and discoveries which could undeniably be of immense technological value. 1 fig

  9. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book profiles the research activity of 42 companies in the superconductivity field, worldwide. It forms a unique and comprehensive directory to this emerging technology. For each research site, it details the various projects in progress, analyzes the level of activity, pinpoints applications and R and D areas, reviews strategies and provides complete contact information. It lists key individuals, offers international comparisons of government funding, reviews market forecasts and development timetables and features a bibliography of selected articles on the subject

  10. Quantum confinement effects on superconducting properties of Lead nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Herve; Moreira, Helena; Mahler, Benoit; Dubertret, Benoit

    2008-03-01

    We developed a new chemical synthesis method for producing large quantities of monodispersed lead (Pb) nanocrystals. They are obtained from the alcohol reduction of a mixture of two lead carboxylates with alkyl chains of different lengths, dissolved in a high temperature solvent. The nanocrystals obtained are protected from oxydation and aggregation by long chain fatty acids and their diameter can be tuned to reach values as low as 10 nm. Our results suggest that monodispersed particules are obtained when nucleation and growth occur at distincts temperatures, possibly as a consequence of different reactivities of the two lead carboxylates used in the solution. Owing to the large quantities of monodispersed particles produced, thermodynamics studies as function of particles diameter become possible. In particular, we will present a study of the effect of quantum confinement on superconducting properties of these Pb particles through SQUID magnetometry measurements.

  11. Superconducting and Normal State Properties of OsB2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Zong, X.; Suh, B. J.; Vannette, M. W.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    OsB2 is a layered superhard metallic material that was found to superconduct below Tc= 2.1 K.^1 We report the first detailed measurements of the static and dynamic magnetic susceptibilities χ, electrical resistivity, heat capacity Cp, penetration depth, and ^11B NMR on OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal state properties. The results confirm that OsB2 is a bulk superconductor below Tc= 2.1 K@. Its properties can be described by a close to weak-coupling s-wave BCS model with an electron-phonon coupling constant λ= 0.4--0.5, δ(0)/(kBTc) 1.9, a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ of order 5 or less, and a small zero-temperature critical magnetic field of roughly 500 Oe. The ^11B NMR measurements in the normal state show a nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time T1= 2.1 s at room temperature and a Korringa law with T1T = 610 s.K at lower T, and a correspondingly small T-independent Knight shift. These results indicate a small s character of the conduction electron wave function at the B site at the Fermi level. Our results will be compared to corresponding data for MgB2.1. J. K. Vandenberg et al., Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 889 (1975).^*Supported by the USDOE under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82. Permanent address: Dept. Phys., The Catholic Univ. Korea.

  12. Spin peierls instability against S-like anisotropic superconductivity in framework of the mean field RVB-Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, P.; Jacak, L.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown theoretically that the superconducting transition in the framework of RVB mean field treatment in nearly half-filled band Hubbard model is substantially influenced by spin density wave instability. The reasonable SDW and SC ordering phase diagram for doped La 2 CuO 4 compounds is found

  13. Nonlinear and anisotropic tensile properties of graft materials used in soft tissue applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathon H; Elliott, Dawn M

    2010-05-01

    The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix grafts that are intended to augment or replace soft tissues should be comparable to the native tissue. Such grafts are often used in fiber-reinforced tissue applications that undergo multi-axial loading and therefore knowledge of the anisotropic and nonlinear properties are needed, including the moduli and Poisson's ratio in two orthogonal directions within the plane of the graft. The objective of this study was to measure the tensile mechanical properties of several marketed grafts: Alloderm, Restore, CuffPatch, and OrthADAPT. The degree of anisotropy and non-linearity within each graft was evaluated from uniaxial tensile tests and compared to their native tissue. The Alloderm graft was anisotropic in both the toe- and linear-region of the stress-strain response, was highly nonlinear, and generally had low properties. The Restore and CuffPatch grafts had similar stress-strain responses, were largely isotropic, had a linear-region modulus of 18MPa, and were nonlinear. OrthADAPT was anisotropic in the linear-region (131 MPA vs 47MPa in the toe-region) and was highly nonlinear. The Poisson ratio for all grafts was between 0.4 and 0.7, except for the parallel orientation of Restore which was greater than 1.0. Having an informed understanding of how the available grafts perform mechanically will allow for better assessment by the physician for which graft to apply depending upon its application. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding and application of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byeong Mu; Lee, Chun Heung

    1997-02-01

    This book deals with superconducting materials, which contains from basic theory to application of superconducting materials. The contents of this book are mystery of superconducting materials, properties of superconducting materials, thermodynamics of superconducting materials, theoretical background of superconducting materials, tunnelling and quantum interference, classification and properties of superconducting materials, high temperature superconducting materials, production and analysis of superconducting materials and application of superconducting materials.

  15. Anisotropic Effective Mass, Optical Property, and Enhanced Band Gap in BN/Phosphorene/BN Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Hong, Jisang

    2015-10-28

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, the phosphorus has a trouble of degradation due to oxidation. Hereby, we propose that the electrical and optical anisotropic properties can be preserved by encapsulating into hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We found that the h-BN contributed to enhancing the band gap of the phosphorene layer. Comparing the band gap of the pristine phosphorene layer, the band gap of the phosphorene/BN(1ML) system was enhanced by 0.15 eV. It was further enhanced by 0.31 eV in the BN(1ML)/phosphorene/BN(1ML) trilayer structure. However, the band gap was not further enhanced when we increased the thickness of the h-BN layers even up to 4 MLs. Interestingly, the anisotropic effective mass and optical property were still preserved in BN/phosphorene/BN heterostructures. Overall, we predict that the capping of phosphorene by the h-BN layers can be an excellent solution to protect the intrinsic properties of the phosphorene.

  16. Exact analysis of the spectral properties of the anisotropic two-bosons Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng; Amico, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    We introduce the anisotropic two-photon Rabi model in which the rotating and counter rotating terms enters the Hamiltonian with two different coupling constants. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are studied with exact means. We employ a variation of the Braak method based on Bogolubov rotation of the underlying su(1, 1) Lie algebra. Accordingly, the spectrum is provided by the analytical properties of a suitable meromorphic function. Our formalism applies to the two-modes Rabi model as well, sharing the same algebraic structure of the two-photon model. Through the analysis of the spectrum, we discover that the model displays close analogies to many-body systems undergoing quantum phase transitions.

  17. Characterization of fracture properties of thin aluminum inclusions embedded in anisotropic laminate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Bolzon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fracture properties of thin aluminum inclusions embedded in anisotropic paperboard composites, of interest for food and beverage packaging industry, can be determined by performing tensile tests on non-conventional heterogeneous specimens. The region of interest of the investigated material samples is monitored all along the experiment by digital image correlation techniques, which allow to recover qualitative and quantitative information about the metal deformation and about the evolution of the damaging processes leading to the detachment of the inclusion from the surrounding laminate composite. The interpretation of the laboratory results is supported by the numerical simulation of the tests.

  18. Influence of pulse electric current on structure and superconducting properties of high temperature superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajchenko, A.I.; Flis, A.A.; Chernenko, L.I.; Kryuchkova, N.I.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of high-density pulse current treatment at room temperature on structure and superconducting properties of HTSC Y Ba 2 Cu 3 O x ceramics is studied. The structures of the samples are found to undergo appreciable changes as the density of pulse current is gradually increased from its minimum value; as a certain threshold value is attained, there occurs a melting-off of coarse grains with a partial destroying of intergrain contact areas followed by superconductivity loss. A further increase in the treatment current density results in a restoration of the superconducting properties probably due to the occurrence of aligned-with-current superconducting bridges between the melted-off grains. The superconducting transition temperature in the samples does not charge but subsequent thermal treatment causes this temperature to increase

  19. A Model of Anisotropic Property of Seepage and Stress for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-tao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joints often have important effects on seepage and elastic properties of jointed rock mass and therefore on the rock slope stability. In the present paper, a model for discrete jointed network is established using contact-free measurement technique and geometrical statistic method. A coupled mathematical model for characterizing anisotropic permeability tensor and stress tensor was presented and finally introduced to a finite element model. A case study of roadway stability at the Heishan Metal Mine in Hebei Province, China, was performed to investigate the influence of joints orientation on the anisotropic properties of seepage and elasticity of the surrounding rock mass around roadways in underground mining. In this work, the influence of the principal direction of the mechanical properties of the rock mass on associated stress field, seepage field, and damage zone of the surrounding rock mass was numerically studied. The numerical simulations indicate that flow velocity, water pressure, and stress field are greatly dependent on the principal direction of joint planes. It is found that the principal direction of joints is the most important factor controlling the failure mode of the surrounding rock mass around roadways.

  20. Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Wosnitza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short. In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.

  1. Size-dependent effective properties of anisotropic piezoelectric composites with piezoelectric nano-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming-Juan; Fang, Xue-Qian; Liu, Jin-Xi; Feng, Wen-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the electro-elastic surface/interface theory, the size-dependent effective piezoelectric and dielectric coefficients of anisotropic piezoelectric composites that consist of spherically piezoelectric inclusions under a uniform electric field are investigated, and the analytical solutions for the elastic displacement and electric potentials are derived. With consideration of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the effective field method is introduced to derive the effective dielectric and piezoelectric responses in the dilute limit. The numerical examples show that the effective dielectric constant exhibits a significant variation due to the surface/interface effect. The dielectric property of the surface/interface displays greater effect than the piezoelectric property, and the elastic property shows little effect. A comparison with the existing results validates the present approach. (paper)

  2. Anisotropic elastic and thermal properties of titanium borides by first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Liang; Gao, Yimin [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xiao, Bing [Department of Physics and Quantum Theory Group, School of Science and Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Li, Yefei, E-mail: yefeili@126.com [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wang, Guoliang [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •Elastic properties of titanium borides are calculated by first principles calculation. •Thermodynamical stability of titanium borides is analyzed. •Heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient for titanium borides are calculated and compared. •Grüneisen parameters of titanium borides are calculated. -- Abstract: The anisotropic elastic and thermal expansions of the titanium borides (TiB{sub 2}, Ti{sub 3}B{sub 4}, TiB{sub P}nma and TiB{sub F}m3{sup ¯}m) are calculated from first-principles using density functional theory. All borides show different anisotropic elastic properties; the bulk, shear and Young’s moduli are consistent with those determined experimentally. The temperature dependence of thermal expansions is mainly caused by the restoration of thermal energy due to phonon excitations at low temperature. When the temperature is higher than 500 K, the volumetric coefficient is increased linearly by increasing temperature. Meanwhile, the heat capacities of titanium borides are obtained based on the knowledge of thermal expansion coefficient and the elasticity, the calculations are in good agreement with the experiments.

  3. In-plane microwave dielectric properties of paraelectric barium strontium titanate thin films with anisotropic epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    In-plane dielectric properties of ⟨110⟩ oriented epitaxial (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 thin films in the thickness range from 25-1200nm have been investigated under the influence of anisotropic epitaxial strains from ⟨100⟩ NdGaO3 substrates. The measured dielectric properties show strong residual strain and in-plane directional dependence. Below 150nm film thickness, there appears to be a phase transition due to the anisotropic nature of the misfit strain relaxation. In-plane relative permittivity is found to vary from as much as 500-150 along [11¯0] and [001] respectively, in 600nm thick films, and from 75 to 500 overall. Tunability was found to vary from as much as 54% to 20% in all films and directions, and in a given film the best tunability is observed along the compressed axis in a mixed strain state, 54% along [11¯0] in the 600nm film for example.

  4. XRD- and infrared-probed anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, J; Capria, E; Benevoli, L; Perucchi, A; Demitri, N; Fraleoni-Morgera, A

    2018-01-17

    The anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal constituted by 4-hydroxycyanobenzene (4HCB) have been probed by XRD in the range 120-300 K. The anisotropic thermal expansion coefficients for the three crystallographic axes and for the crystal volume have been determined. A careful analysis of the crystal structure revealed that the two different H-bonds stemming from the two independent, differently oriented 4HCB molecules composing the unit cell have different rearrangement patterns upon temperature variations, in terms of both bond length and bond angle. Linearly Polarized Mid InfraRed (LP-MIR) measurements carried out in the same temperature range, focused on the O-H bond spectral region, confirm this finding. The same LP-MIR measurements, on the basis of a semi-empirical relation and of geometrical considerations and assumptions, allowed calculation of the -CNH-O- hydrogen bond length along the a and b axes of the crystal. In turn, the so-calculated -CNH-O- bond lengths were used to derive the thermal expansion coefficients along the corresponding crystal axes, as well as the volumetric one, using just the LP-MIR data. Reasonable to good agreement with the same values obtained from XRD measurements was obtained. This proof-of-principle opens interesting perspectives about the possible development of a rapid, low cost and industry-friendly assessment of the thermal expansion properties of organic semiconducting single crystals (OSSCs) involving hydrogen bonds.

  5. Cryogenic properties of austenitic stainless steels for superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohara, K.; Kato, T.; Ono, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1983-01-01

    The present study examines the magnetic and mechanical properties of a variety of austenitic stainless steels and high maganese steel which are candidate materials for the superconducting magnet attached to high energy particle accelerators. The effect of a specified heat treatment for the precipitation of intermetallic compound Nb3Sn to be used as superconductor on ductility and toughness are especially examined. It is found that nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steels have high strength and good ductility and toughness, but that these are destroyed by precipitation treatment. The poor ductility and toughness after precipitation are caused by a weakening of the grain boundaries due to the agglomerated chromium carbide percipitates. The addition of vanadium suppresses this effect by refining the grain. Austenitic steels are found to have low magnetic permeabilities and Neel temperatures, and show serrated flow in traction test due to strained martensitic transformation. High manganese steel has extremely low permeability, a Neel temperature about room temperature, and has a serrated flow in traction test due to adiabatic deformation at liquid helium temperature

  6. Thermal properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses at ultralow temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuss, Daniel Simon

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the first investigation of thermal properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses in the range between 6mK and 300K. Measuring the thermal conductivity provides the possibility to probe the fundamental interactions governing the heat flow in solids. At ultralow temperatures a novel contactless measuring technique was used, which is based on optical heating and paramagnetic temperature sensors that are read out by a SQUID magnetometer. Below the critical temperature T c the results can be described by resonant scattering of phonons by tunneling systems. Above T c the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity can be described successfully within a model considering not only electrons and phonons but also localized modes as scattering centres. To expand the accessible temperature range for experiments an adiabatic nuclear demagnetization refrigerator was set up. For measuring the base temperature a novel noise thermometer was developed which enables continuous measuring of the temperature in this temperature range for the first time. Therefore the magnetic Johnson noise of a massive copper cylinder is simultaneously monitored by two SQUID magnetometers. A subsequent cross-correlation suppresses the amplifier noise by more than one order of magnitude. The thermometer was characterized between 42μK and 0.8K showing no deviation from the expected linear behaviour between the power spectral density of the thermal noise and the temperature.

  7. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  8. Modeling of anisotropic properties of double quantum rings by the terahertz laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghramyan, Henrikh M; Barseghyan, Manuk G; Kirakosyan, Albert A; Ojeda, Judith H; Bragard, Jean; Laroze, David

    2018-04-18

    The rendering of different shapes of just a single sample of a concentric double quantum ring is demonstrated realizable with a terahertz laser field, that in turn, allows the manipulation of electronic and optical properties of a sample. It is shown that by changing the intensity or frequency of laser field, one can come to a new set of degenerated levels in double quantum rings and switch the charge distribution between the rings. In addition, depending on the direction of an additional static electric field, the linear and quadratic quantum confined Stark effects are observed. The absorption spectrum shifts and the additive absorption coefficient variations affected by laser and electric fields are discussed. Finally, anisotropic electronic and optical properties of isotropic concentric double quantum rings are modeled with the help of terahertz laser field.

  9. Chirality-dependent anisotropic elastic properties of a monolayer graphene nanosheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Gang; Zhou, Li-Jun; Kang, Yi-Lan

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach is presented to predict the elastic properties of a monolayer graphene nanosheet based on interatomic potential energy and continuum mechanics. The elastic extension and torsional springs are utilized to simulate the stretching and angle variation of carbon-carbon bond, respectively. The constitutive equation of the graphene nanosheet is derived by using the strain energy density, and the analytical formulations for nonzero elastic constants are obtained. The in-plane elastic properties of the monolayer graphene nanosheet are proved to be anisotropic. In addition, Young's moduli, Poisson's ratios and shear modulus of the monolayer graphene nanosheet are calculated according to the force constants derived from Morse potential and AMBER force field, respectively, and they were proved to be chirality-dependent. The comparison with experimental results shows a very agreement.

  10. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Haussener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium.

  11. A study on the effect of tantalum-impurity content on the superconducting properties of niobium materials used for making superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. B.; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Tiwari, M. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Myneni, G. R.

    2012-11-01

    Niobium materials in highly pure form are used in the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavities. We present here a study of the superconducting properties of such niobium materials that have been used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient superconducting radio frequency cavities after determining their tantalum-impurity contents using a synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique. Our results show that there is a small change in superconducting parameters such as TC,HC1 and HC2 when the tantalum-impurity content varies from ≈150 to ≈1300 ppm. In contrast, a buffered chemical polishing of the same niobium samples changes all these superconducting parameters more significantly. The implications of these results on the performance of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities are discussed.

  12. A study on the effect of tantalum-impurity content on the superconducting properties of niobium materials used for making superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S B; Sharath Chandra, L S; Chattopadhyay, M K; Tiwari, M K; Lodha, G S; Myneni, G R

    2012-01-01

    Niobium materials in highly pure form are used in the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavities. We present here a study of the superconducting properties of such niobium materials that have been used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient superconducting radio frequency cavities after determining their tantalum-impurity contents using a synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technique. Our results show that there is a small change in superconducting parameters such as T C ,H C1 and H C2 when the tantalum-impurity content varies from ≈150 to ≈1300 ppm. In contrast, a buffered chemical polishing of the same niobium samples changes all these superconducting parameters more significantly. The implications of these results on the performance of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities are discussed. (paper)

  13. Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    Research on superconductivity at ENEA is mainly devoted to projects related to the ITER magnet system. In this framework, ENEA has been strongly involved in the design, manufacturing and test campaigns of the ITER toroidal field model coil (TFMC), which reached a world record in operating current (up to 80 kA). Further to this result, the activities in 2004 were devoted to optimising the ITER conductor performance. ENEA participated in the tasks launched by EFDA to define and produce industrial-scale advanced Nb3Sn strand to be used in manufacturing the ITER high-field central solenoid (CS) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. As well as contributing to the design of the new strand and the final conductor layout, ENEA will also perform characterisation tests, addressing in particular the influence of mechanical stress on the Nb3Sn performance. As a member of the international ITER-magnet testing group, ENEA plays a central role in the measurement campaigns and data analyses for each ITER-related conductor and coil. The next phase in the R and D of the ITER magnets will be their mechanical characterisation in order to define the fabrication route of the coils and structures. During 2004 the cryogenic measurement campaign on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by-pass diode stacks was completed. As the diode-test activity was the only LHC contract to be finished on schedule, the 'Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire' (CERN) asked ENEA to participate in an international tender for the cold check of the current leads for the LHC magnets. The contract was obtained, and during 2004, the experimental setup was designed and realised and the data acquisition system was developed. The measurement campaign was successfully started at the end of 2004 and will be completed in 2006.

  14. Ground state properties of the bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground state properties, dispersion relations and scaling behaviour of spin gap of a bond alternating spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg chain have been studied where the exchange interactions on alternate bonds are ferromagnetic (FM and antiferromagnetic (AFM in two separate cases. The resulting models separately represent nearest neighbour (NN AFM-AFM and AFM-FM bond alternating chains. Ground state energy has been estimated analytically by using both bond operator and Jordan-Wigner representations and numerically by using exact diagonalization. Dispersion relations, spin gap and several ground state orders have been obtained. Dimer order and string orders are found to coexist in the ground state. Spin gap is found to develop as soon as the non-uniformity in alternating bond strength is introduced in the AFM-AFM chain which further remains non-zero for the AFM-FM chain. This spin gap along with the string orders attribute to the Haldane phase. The Haldane phase is found to exist in most of the anisotropic region similar to the isotropic point.

  15. Preparation and magnetic properties of anisotropic bulk MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.L.; Liu, X.B.; Nguyen, V.V.; Poudyal, N.; Yue, M.; Liu, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic hybrid bulk magnets of MnBi/NdFeB with different composition ratio have been prepared with starting MnBi and Nd 2 Fe 14 B powders as well as epoxy resin as a binder in case it is needed to form bulk samples. It has been found that the ratio between the two phases in content has a remarkable influence on the magnetic properties, the thermal stability and the density of the bulk magnets. With increasing MnBi content the binder addition can be reduced. When the MnBi content is larger than 30 wt%, no binder is needed. On the other hand, the coercivity and saturation magnetization were increased significantly with increasing NdFeB content. When the NdFeB content was increased from 0% to 50%, the maximum energy product was enhanced from 4.7 to 10.0 MGOe, respectively. The energy product then decreased gradually with the NdFeB content due to the reduced density of the hybrid magnet. The thermal stability measurements showed that the temperature coefficient of coercivity grew with the MnBi content and became positive with MnBi=80 wt%. - Highlights: • Anisotropic bulk hybrid MnBi/NdFeB magnets were prepared. • MnBi content affected the density and coercivity temperature coefficient positively. • An energy product (BH) max of 10 MGOe was obtained at NdFeB content of 50 wt%.

  16. Preparation and magnetic properties of anisotropic bulk MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Y.L. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); College of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China); Liu, X.B.; Nguyen, V.V.; Poudyal, N. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Yue, M. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Liu, J.P., E-mail: pliu@uta.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Anisotropic hybrid bulk magnets of MnBi/NdFeB with different composition ratio have been prepared with starting MnBi and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powders as well as epoxy resin as a binder in case it is needed to form bulk samples. It has been found that the ratio between the two phases in content has a remarkable influence on the magnetic properties, the thermal stability and the density of the bulk magnets. With increasing MnBi content the binder addition can be reduced. When the MnBi content is larger than 30 wt%, no binder is needed. On the other hand, the coercivity and saturation magnetization were increased significantly with increasing NdFeB content. When the NdFeB content was increased from 0% to 50%, the maximum energy product was enhanced from 4.7 to 10.0 MGOe, respectively. The energy product then decreased gradually with the NdFeB content due to the reduced density of the hybrid magnet. The thermal stability measurements showed that the temperature coefficient of coercivity grew with the MnBi content and became positive with MnBi=80 wt%. - Highlights: • Anisotropic bulk hybrid MnBi/NdFeB magnets were prepared. • MnBi content affected the density and coercivity temperature coefficient positively. • An energy product (BH){sub max} of 10 MGOe was obtained at NdFeB content of 50 wt%.

  17. A first principle calculation of anisotropic elastic, mechanical and electronic properties of TiB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junqin; Zhao, Bin; Ma, Huihui; Wei, Qun; Yang, Yintang

    2018-04-01

    The structural, mechanical and electronic properties of the NaCl-type structure TiB are theoretically calculated based on the first principles. The density of states of TiB shows obvious density peaks at -0.70eV. Furthermore, there exists a pseudogap at 0.71eV to the right of the Fermi level. The calculated structural and mechanical parameters (i.e., bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and universal elastic anisotropy index) were in good agreement both with the previously reported experimental values and theoretical results at zero pressure. The mechanical stability criterion proves that TiB at zero pressure is mechanistically stable and exhibits ductility. The universal anisotropic index and the 3D graphics of Young's modulus are also given in this paper, which indicates that TiB is anisotropy under zero pressure. Moreover, the effects of applied pressures on the structural, mechanical and anisotropic elastic of TiB were studied in the range from 0 to 100GPa. It was found that ductility and anisotropy of TiB were enhanced with the increase of pressure.

  18. Physical and chemical studies of superconduction properties of the intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, F.X.; Lerf, A.

    1980-01-01

    The superconducting properties of the intercalation compounds of layered dichalcogenides were studied. Our studies were concerned mainly to the alkali metal intercalation derivatives of TaS 2 and NbS 2 , and later on extended to the molecule intercalation compounds. The main difficulties with this class of superconductors result from varying material properties; these are therefore the subject of broad intensity in our investigations. The results received on the physical and chemical properties of the intercalation compounds is utilized for a phenomenological description of the factors mainly determining there superconducting properties. (orig.) [de

  19. Property-porosity relationships for polymer-impregnated superconducting ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salib, S.; Vipulanandan, C.

    1990-01-01

    A thermoplastic polymer, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), was used to improve the flexural properties of the high-temperature superconducting ceramic (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ ). Ceramic specimens with different porosities were prepared by dry compacting 12.5-mm-diameter disk specimens at various uniaxial pressures. Density-pressure relationships have been developed for before- and after-sintering conditions. The PMMA polymer was impregnated into the porous ceramic at room temperature. The mechanical properties were evaluated by concentrically loading simply supported disk specimens. The load-displacement responses were analyzed using the finite-element method. Impregnation of PMMA polymer at room temperature increased the flexural strength and modulus of the superconducting ceramic without affecting its electrical properties. The flexural properties depended on the porosity of the ceramics, and, hence, linear and nonlinear property-porosity relationships have been used to characterize the behavior of superconducting ceramic with an without the polymer

  20. The Influence of Grain Boundaries on the Properties of Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Zu Hawn

    Grain boundaries (GBs) in niobium are multiply connected defects that may be responsible for significant performance degradation in superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities. Magneto optical (MO) studies show that early flux penetration often occurs at GBs. One possible mechanism is that a locally reduced superconducting gap (Delta) at the GB reduces the depairing current density (Jb) and thus leads to a local reduction of the critical field. Alternatively vortices may penetrate the GB preferentially because of field enhancement at a GB groove, or for other reasons. In all these cases, the effect of high RF fields is to produce additional power dissipation, which in turn produces a reduction in quality factor (Q 0) and leads to a premature quench of the cavity. To further our understanding of the superconducting properties of SRF-quality Nb, we made extensive superconducting characterizations by magneto-optical imaging, which allowed assessment of the uniformity of properties on scales down to about 5 microm and by direct transport voltage-current methods in single and bi-crystals treated by standard cavity optimization treatments of BCP (buffered chemical treatment) and EP (electropolishing). We correlated these superconducting characterizations to microstructural properties using scanning laser and scanning electron microscopy and then thinned some samples to examine them at the nanometer scale using analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We also developed special metallographic sample preparation techniques that allowed us to apply these experimental approaches to very soft superconducting RF niobium in the polished conditions characteristics of a real inner cavity surface. Using MO imaging, we found that GBs can preferentially admit flux penetration when the plane of a GB is aligned parallel to the vector of the external magnetic field. In DC transport in the superconducting state, we found preferential flux flow at the GB and could detect the

  1. Exact analysis of the spectral properties of the anisotropic two-bosons Rabi model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng; Amico, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the anisotropic two-photon Rabi model in which the rotating and counter rotating terms enters the Hamiltonian with two different coupling constants. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are studied with exact means. We employ a variation of the Braak method based on Bogolubov rotation of the underlying su (1, 1) Lie algebra. Accordingly, the spectrum is provided by the analytical properties of a suitable meromorphic function. Our formalism applies to the two-modes Rabi model as well, sharing the same algebraic structure of the two-photon model. Through the analysis of the spectrum, we discover that the model displays close analogies to many-body systems undergoing quantum phase transitions. (paper)

  2. Investigation of the Anisotropic Thermoelectric Properties of Oriented Polycrystalline SnSe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline SnSe was synthesized by a melting-annealing-sintering process. X-ray diffraction reveals the sample possesses pure phase and strong orientation along [h00] direction. The degree of the orientations was estimated and the anisotropic thermoelectric properties are characterized. The polycrystalline sample shows a low electrical conductivity and a positive and large Seebeck coefficient. The low thermal conductivity is also observed in polycrystalline sample, but slightly higher than that of single crystal. The minimum value of thermal conductivity was measured as 0.3 W/m·K at 790 K. With the increase of the orientation factor, both electrical and thermal conductivities decrease, but the thermopowers are unchanged. As a consequence, the zT values remain unchanged in the polycrystalline samples despite the large variation in the degree of orientation.

  3. Transmission line properties of long strings of superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the electrical characteristics of a long string of superconducting magnets, such as in a superconducting storage ring or accelerator. As the magnets have a shunt capacitance to ground as well as a series inductance, travelling waves can propagate along the string, as in a transmission line. As the string is of finite length, standing waves can also exist. In accelerator quality superconducting magnets, considerable effort has been devoted to minimizing ac losses, the net result being that the magnet string has a high Q precisely at the frequencies which are important for the standing and travelling waves. The magnitude of these effects are estimated, and the solution to be used at Fermilab will be discussed

  4. Structural properties of superconducting Bi-2223/Ag tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalck Andersen, L.

    2001-05-01

    The structural properties of silver clad high-T{sub c} superconducting ceramic tapes of (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Bi-2223) have been investigated by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (including the 3DXRD microscope setup), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). By synchrotron X-ray diffraction in situ studies of the phase development during the transformation of (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} (Bi-2212) into Bi-2223, the stoichiometry changes and the texture have been performed during annealing in 8% O{sub 2} and in air. Furthermore, an annealing with two high temperature cycles has been performed to study the equilibrium phenomena. During heating (Ca,Sr){sub 2}PbO{sub 4} decomposes at temperatures between 700 deg. C and 840 deg.C. Simultaneously, the Bi-2212 lattice contracts, indicating an incorporation of Pb. Moreover, the grain mis-alignment decreases significantly. In air we have observed that Bi-2212 partly dissociates into (Ca,Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 3} and a liquid at temperatures above 812 deg. C. At the annealing temperature Bi-2212 and (Ca,Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 3} react with the liquid to form Bi-2223. The transformation mechanism is discussed. During cooling below {approx}750 deg.C (Ca,Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 3} and the liquid mainly transform into Bi-2201. Below {approx}780 deg. C Bi-2223 decomposes to 3221. In addition, a two-step cooling experiment and a decomposition study have been performed in 8% O{sub 2}. By TEM the grain and colony size in the c-axis direction, the angles of c-axis tilt grain boundaries and the intergrowth content are investigated. A fully processed tape has on average 50% thicker grains than a tape after the 1st annealing. The angles of c-axis tilt grain boundaries are on average 14 deg. and 26 deg. for the fully processed tape and the tape after the 1st annealing, respectively. The intergrowth content (15%) and

  5. Radiation induced improvement of superconducting properties of HTSC materials (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.M.; Kirk, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate unique opportunities for significant improvement of superconducting properties of YBaCuO single crystals, ceramics, films and tapes by means of different irradiation. It was found (about 200 papers) that irradiation with moderate doses of high energy particles (electron, protons, neutrons, ions) results in significant enhancement of magnetization and Jc at high magnetic fields (1-5 T). So called flux pinning centers responsible for such enhancement are still a subject for study. Most researches ascribe the stronger pinners to linear and columnar defects, and weaker ones to point defects. Several researches reported also about small increase of the critical temperature Tc after ionizing irradiation (X- or gamma-rays). All these data are related to improvement of Jc in bulk - intragranular critical current, which is much higher than the real intragranular transport critical current Ic limited by weak intergrain contacts. Much less studied is the effect of irradiation on the intragranular critical current and conductivity. Several authors found some increase of current carrying ability of YBaCuO ceramics, crystals and films after X-ray , gamma-ray, oxygen plasma, electron and proton irradiations. However there was not mentioned direct correlation between the radiation induced changes in the Tc, Jc, Ic and the normal state resistivity. Only a few papers are devoted to synthesis or sintering the particular texture ensuring enhancement of the intergranular contacts by minimizing both off-plan and in-plan grain misorientation. The transport Ic at 77 K and the normal state resistivity correlated well each to other and with the c-axis-texturing degree of the YBaCuO ceramics. Our latest experiment on proton irradiation at elevated temperatures of the coated conductors (the second generation of HTSC tapes) demonstrated a noticeable increase of the transport (intergranular) Ic at 77 K and a significant decrease of the normal state

  6. Orientational structure formation of silk fibroin with anisotropic properties in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmuminov, A.A.

    2008-06-01

    on the boundary 'reservoir - withdrawing capillary' of gland, initiating the transition of α-spiral in β-structures as well as phase separation of fibroin and sericin in stream were discovered; the phase diagram of liquidus for secret in the framework of polymers orientation crystallization conception were suggested; the mechanism of fibroin orientational crystallization under the longitudinal flow of solutions and gels was conformed experimentally; the scientific principles of oriented-crystallized fibrillar biopolymer materials receipt were established on the base of fibroin model solutions with properties of anisotropy of moisture absorption, swelling, desorption, thermo- and biodegradation; the approach of jointly using polarization-optical and hydrodynamic methods to the investigation of fibrillar biopolymers structure formation and phase transformations in solution was developed. Practical value - the elucidated physical regularities of fibroin solution allow to formulate a new idea on fibrillar biopolymer solutions formation and to get on their late model systems for practical use; the established scientific principles of orientational structure-formation and phase transformation of fibroin will be the base for development of original methods of anisotropic biopolymer materials from solutions of the polarization-optical and developed hydrodynamic methods can be used for the investigation of structure and phase transformations of wide range of fibrillar biopolymer samples. Sphere of usage: physics of anisotropic polymer systems, macromolecular compounds solutions, gels, crystals, biopolymers materials science, optical polarization and hydrodynamics. (author)

  7. Superconducting properties of clustered PbBi films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.; Tinkham, M.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Smith, A.D.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting films with high resistance/square have been widely studied as a model of the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We show that the behavior of high R clean films near the thickness at which electrical conduction begins is dominated by a few paths across the film and thus should not be interpreted as a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. Instead, this behavior is consistent with a simple percolation model for the connectivity fluctuations across the film. (orig.)

  8. Theory of normal and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.L.

    1992-10-01

    Recent experiments on the normal-state and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids are used to constrain the proposal theories of the electronic nature of these materials. In general, models of superconductivity based on electron pairing induced by phonons are consistent with electronic band theory. The latter experiments also yield estimates of the parameters characterizing these type H superconductors. It is argued that, at this point, a ''standard model'' of phonons interacting with itinerant electrons may be a good first approximation for explaining the properties of the metallic fullerenes

  9. Theoretical and experimental determination of mechanical properties of superconducting composite wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.H.; Sun, C.T.

    1976-07-01

    The mechanical properties of a composite superconducting (NbTi/Cu) wire are characterized in terms of the mechanical properties of each constituent material. For a particular composite superconducting wire, five elastic material constants were experimentally determined and theoretically calculated. Since the Poisson's ratios for the fiber and the matrix material were very close, there was essentially no (less than 1 percent) difference among all the theoretical predictions for any individual mechanical constant. Because of the expense and difficulty of producing elastic constant data of 0.1 percent accuracy, and therefore conclusively determining which theory is best, no further experiments were performed

  10. Anisotropic Dielectric Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites during Microwave Curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linglin; Li, Yingguang; Zhou, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Microwave cuing technology is a promising alternative to conventional autoclave curing technology in high efficient and energy saving processing of polymer composites. Dielectric properties of composites are key parameters related to the energy conversion efficiency during the microwave curing process. However, existing methods of dielectric measurement cannot be applied to the microwave curing process. This paper presented an offline test method to solve this problem. Firstly, a kinetics model of the polymer composites under microwave curing was established based on differential scanning calorimetry to describe the whole curing process. Then several specially designed samples of different feature cure degrees were prepared and used to reflect the dielectric properties of the composite during microwave curing. It was demonstrated to be a feasible plan for both test accuracy and efficiency through extensive experimental research. Based on this method, the anisotropic complex permittivity of a carbon fiber/epoxy composite during microwave curing was accurately determined. Statistical results indicated that both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the composite increased at the initial curing stage, peaked at the maximum reaction rate point and decreased finally during the microwave curing process. Corresponding mechanism has also been systematically investigated in this work.

  11. Thermal properties of a large-bore cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet for a hybrid magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Hamajima, T.; Itou, T.; Sakuraba, J.; Nishijima, G.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2010-01-01

    A cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet with a 360 mm room temperature bore has been developed for a hybrid magnet. The superconducting magnet cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers has been designed to generate a magnetic field of 10 T. Since superconducting wires composed of coils were subjected to large hoop stress over 150 MPa and Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires particularly showed a low mechanical strength due to those brittle property, Nb 3 Sn wires strengthened by NbTi-filaments were developed for the cryocooled superconducting magnet. We have already reported that the hybrid magnet could generate the resultant magnetic field of 27.5 T by adding 8.5 T from the superconducting magnet and 19 T from a water-cooled Bitter resistive magnet, after the water-cooled resistive magnet was inserted into the 360 mm room temperature bore of the cryocooled superconducting magnet. When the hybrid magnet generated the field of 27.5 T, it achieved the high magnetic-force field (B x ∂Bz/∂z) of 4500 T 2 /m, which was useful for magneto-science in high fields such as materials levitation research. In this paper, we particularly focus on the cause that the cryocooled superconducting magnet was limited to generate the designed magnetic field of 10 T in the hybrid magnet operation. As a result, it was found that there existed mainly two causes as the limitation of the magnetic field generation. One was a decrease of thermal conductive passes due to exfoliation from the coil bobbin of the cooling flange. The other was large AC loss due to both a thick Nb 3 Sn layer and its large diameter formed on Nb-barrier component in Nb 3 Sn wires.

  12. Measurements of the superconducting fluctuations in optimally doped BaFe2−xNixAs2 under high magnetic fields: probing the 3D-anisotropic Ginzburg–Landau approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, R I; Ramos-Álvarez, A; Carballeira, C; Mosqueira, J; Vidal, F; Salem-Sugui, S Jr.; Alvarenga, A D; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Huiqian

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting fluctuations well inside the normal state of Fe-based superconductors were experimentally studied through the in-plane paraconductivity in several high-quality, optimally doped BaFe 2−x Ni x As 2 crystals. These measurements were performed in magnetic fields with amplitudes up to 14 T, and different orientations relative to the c-axis of the crystals (θ=0 ∘ , 53 ∘ , and 90 ∘ ). The results allowed a stringent check of the applicability of a recently proposed Ginzburg–Landau approach for the fluctuating electrical conductivity of three-dimensional (3D) anisotropic materials in the presence of finite applied magnetic fields. (papers)

  13. Similarity in the superconducting properties of chalcogenides, cuprate oxides and fullerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsendin, K.D.; Popov, B.P.; Denisov, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of Anderson pairs has been put forward for explanation of many extraordinary properties of chalcogenides glassy semiconductors. Recent decades made obvious that these pairs localized on the centers with negative effective correlation energy (negative-U centers) really exist in chalcogenides. If the concentration of negative-U centers is enough to create the pair band states, this can lead to superconductivity because Anderson pairs are Bose particles. In the present paper we show that several puzzling superconductivity properties of chalcogenides, high-temperature cuprate superconductors and fullerides are similar for these three groups of materials and can be naturally explained in the frame of negative-U centers model of superconductivity

  14. Superconducting properties of Ca1−xRExFe2As2 (RE: Rare Earths)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Ding, Q.P.; Ishibashi, T.; Nakajima, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Superconducting properties in rare-earth doped CaFe 2 As 2 single crystals are characterized. ► Sharp resistive transitions with small anisotropy parameter of ∼1.75 are observed. ► Average critical current density is much smaller than other iron-based superconductors. ► Magneto-optical imaging confirms very inhomogeneous superconducting state. -- Abstract: We have grown rare-earth doped CaFe 2 As 2 single crystals and characterized their normal and superconducting properties. Temperature dependence of resistivity and its absolute value suggest good metallic conduction, suppressing antiferromagnetic (AF) transition in the undoped sample. Hall coefficient shows little temperature dependence, consistent with the suppression AF state. Superconducting transitions characterized by resistivity drops in magnetic fields for both parallel to c-axis and ab-plane are reasonably sharp with a weak anisotropy parameter ∼1.75. Despite these observations, average critical current density estimated from the bulk magnetization is orders of magnitude smaller than other typical iron-based superconductors. Magneto-optical imaging confirms very inhomogeneous superconducting state

  15. Low-temperature properties of a superconducting disordered metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graebner, J.E.; Golding, B.; Schutz, R.J.; Hsu, F.S.L.; Chen, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    Specific heat C/sub p/ and thermal conductivity kappa measurements between 0.1 and 10 K on the superconducting (T/sub c/ = 2.53 K) and structurally disordered metal Zr/sub 0.7/Pd/sub 0.3/ exhibit an approximately linear term in C/sub p/ and a T/sup 1.9/ dependence of kappa below T/sub c/. The magnitudes of these terms are close to those found for insulating glasses, thereby suggesting that disorder-induced localized excitations exist at similar densities in very different classes of disordered solids

  16. Crack path predictions and experiments in plane structures considering anisotropic properties and material interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Judt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In many engineering applications special requirements are directed to a material's fracture behavior and the prediction of crack paths. Especially if the material exhibits anisotropic elastic properties or fracture toughnesses, e.g. in textured or composite materials, the simulation of crack paths is challenging. Here, the application of path independent interaction integrals (I-integrals, J-, L- and M-integrals is beneficial for an accurate crack tip loading analysis. Numerical tools for the calculation of loading quantities using these path-invariant integrals are implemented into the commercial finite element (FE-code ABAQUS. Global approaches of the integrals are convenient considering crack tips approaching other crack faces, internal boundaries or material interfaces. Curved crack faces require special treatment with respect to integration contours. Numerical crack paths are predicted based on FE calculations of the boundary value problem in connection with an intelligent adaptive re-meshing algorithm. Considering fracture toughness anisotropy and accounting for inelastic effects due to small plastic zones in the crack tip region, the numerically predicted crack paths of different types of specimens with material interfaces and internal boundaries are compared to subcritically grown paths obtained from experiments.

  17. Preparation and magnetic properties of anisotropic bulk MnBi/NdFeB hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. L.; Liu, X. B.; Nguyen, V. V.; Poudyal, N.; Yue, M.; Liu, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    Anisotropic hybrid bulk magnets of MnBi/NdFeB with different composition ratio have been prepared with starting MnBi and Nd2Fe14B powders as well as epoxy resin as a binder in case it is needed to form bulk samples. It has been found that the ratio between the two phases in content has a remarkable influence on the magnetic properties, the thermal stability and the density of the bulk magnets. With increasing MnBi content the binder addition can be reduced. When the MnBi content is larger than 30 wt%, no binder is needed. On the other hand, the coercivity and saturation magnetization were increased significantly with increasing NdFeB content. When the NdFeB content was increased from 0% to 50%, the maximum energy product was enhanced from 4.7 to 10.0 MGOe, respectively. The energy product then decreased gradually with the NdFeB content due to the reduced density of the hybrid magnet. The thermal stability measurements showed that the temperature coefficient of coercivity grew with the MnBi content and became positive with MnBi=80 wt%.

  18. Properties of magnetic impurities embedded into an anisotropic Heisenberg chain with spin gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a U(1)-invariant model consisting of the integrable anisotropic easy-axis Heisenberg chain of arbitrary spin S embedding an impurity of spin S'. The host chain has a spin gap for all values of S. The ground state properties and the elementary excitations of the host are studied as a function of the anisotropy and the magnetic field. The impurity is located on a link of the chain and interacts only with both neighboring sites. The coupling of the impurity to the lattice can be tuned by the impurity rapidity p 0 (usually playing the role of the Kondo coupling). The impurity model is then integrable as a function of two continuous parameters (the anisotropy and the impurity rapidity) and two discrete variables (the spins S and S'). The Bethe ansatz equations are derived and used to obtain the magnetization of the impurity. The impurity magnetization is non-universal as a function of p 0 . For small fields the impurity magnetization is determined by the spin gap and the van Hove singularity of the rapidity band. For an overcompensated impurity (S'< S) at intermediate fields there is a crossover to non-Fermi-liquid behavior remnant from the suppressed quantum critical point

  19. Anisotropic stress rupture properties of the nickel-base single crystal superalloy SRR99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, G.M.; Yu, J.J.; Sun, Y.L.; Sun, X.F.; Hu, Z.Q.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orientation on the stress rupture properties of a single crystal superalloy SRR99 was investigated at temperatures of 760 and 1040 deg. C. It is found that the creep anisotropic behaviour is pronounced at the lower temperature of 760 deg. C and the stress rupture life ranks in the order [0 0 1] > [1 1 1] > [0 1 1]. Despite the anisotropy of stress rupture life is evidently reduced at the higher temperature, the [1 1 1] orientation exhibits the longest life. At 760 deg. C, EBSD (electron back scattered diffraction) was adopted to measure the lattice rotation and the deduced results indicate that the dominant slip systems are {1 1 1} during stress rupture test. At 1040 deg. C, the ranking order of the stress rupture life is [1 1 1] > [0 0 1] > [0 1 1] and the single crystal close to [0 1 1] orientation still shows the poorest life. In the [0 0 1] and [1 1 1] samples, regular γ' raft structure is formed compared with [0 1 1] samples. Further observations made by TEM investigations reveal the underlying deformation mechanisms for crystals with orientations near [0 0 1], [0 1 1] and [1 1 1] under two test conditions.

  20. Superconducting properties of amorphous Zr-Ge binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Toyota, N.; Fukase, T.; Masumoto, T.

    1982-01-01

    A new type of refractory metal-metalloid amorphous alloys exhibiting superconductivity has been found in a binary Zr-Ge system by a modified melt-spinning technique. Specimens are in the form of continuous ribbons 1 to 2 mm wide and 0.02 to 0.03 mm thick. The germanium content in the amorphous alloys is limited to the range of 13 to 21 at%. These amorphous alloys are so ductile that no cracks are observed even after closely contacted bending test. Data are reported for various alloy compositions for the Vickers hardness and crystallization temperature, the tensile fracture strength, superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c), upper critical magnetic field, critical current density in the absence of an applied field, upper critical field gradient at Tsub(c) and the electrical resistivity at 4.2 K. The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter and the GL coherence length were estimated to be 72 to 111 and about 7.9 nm, respectively, from these experimental values by using the Ginzburg-Landau-Abrikosov-Gorkov theory and hence it is concluded that the Zr-Ge amorphous alloys are extremely 'soft' type-II superconductor with high degree of dirtiness which possesses the Tsub(c) values higher than zirconium metal, in addition to high strength combined with good ductility. (author)

  1. Superconductive properties, interaction mechanisms, materials preparation and electronic transport in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1993-01-01

    The final report is composed of eight chapters dealing with the following aspects: I. Mixed state, critical currents, anisotropy, intrinsic and extrinsic pinning. II. Microwave properties and far-infrared reflectivity of epitactic HTSC films. III. Hall effect at the states of normal conductivity and superconductivity, magnetoresistance, superconducting fluctuation phenomena. IV. Effects of the nuclear and the electronic energy loss. V. Scanning electron microscopy. VI. p- and n-doped high-Tc superconductors: Charge symmetry and magnetism. VII. Preparation methods. VIII. Electrochemical examinations of HTSC films and HTSC monocrystals at low temperatures. (orig./MM) [de

  2. Laser patterning: A new approach to measure local magneto-transport properties in multifilamentary superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Valdes, C.F.; Perez-Penichet, C.; Noda, C.; Arronte, M.; Batista-Leyva, A.J.; Haugen, O.; Johansen, T.H.; Han, Z.; Altshuler, E.

    2007-01-01

    The determination of inter- and intra-filament characteristics in superconducting composites such as BSCCO-Ag tapes is of great importance for material evaluation towards applications. Most attempts to separate the two contributions have relied on indirect methods based on magnetic measurements such as SQUID or magneto-optic imaging techniques. Here we show that laser patterning of superconducting BSCCO-Ag tapes constitutes a simple approach to measure local transport properties in a direct way, even able to separate inter- and intra-filament contributions to the overall transport behavior of the sample

  3. Magnetic response and critical current properties of mesoscopic-size YBCO superconducting samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa-Filho, P N; Deimling, C V; Ortiz, W A

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution superconducting specimens of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ were synthesized by a modified polymeric precursor method, yielding a ceramic powder with particles of mesoscopic-size. Samples of this powder were then pressed into pellets and sintered under different conditions. The critical current density was analyzed by isothermal AC-susceptibility measurements as a function of the excitation field, as well as with isothermal DC-magnetization runs at different values of the applied field. Relevant features of the magnetic response could be associated to the microstructure of the specimens and, in particular, to the superconducting intra- and intergranular critical current properties.

  4. Computer simulations of quench properties of thin, large superconducting solenoid magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Takeshi; Mori, Shigeki; Noguchi, Masaharu

    1983-01-01

    Measured quench data of a 1 m diameter x 1 m thin superconducting solenoid magnet with a single layer aluminum-stabilized NbTi/Cu superconductor of 269 turns were fitted by computer simulations using the one-dimensional approximation. Parameters obtained were used to study quench properties of a 3 m diameter x 5 m (1.5 Tesla) thin superconducting solenoid magnet with a stored magnetic energy of 30 x 10 6 J. Conductor dimensions with which the solenoid could be built substantially safe for the full field quench were optimized. (author)

  5. Collective-pinning properties of superconducting a-NbxGe and a-MoxSi films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerdenweber, R.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of superconducting flux pinning in amorphous NbGe and MoSi films of various compositions and thickness. Amorphous NbGe and MoSi alloys belong to the weak-coupling type-II superconductors in the extreme dirty limit. This feature enables to determine several important superconducting parameters from well-known theoretical expressions. It is also responsible for the weak pinning, which is necessary to observe the two-dimensional collective pinning properties according to the Larkin-Ovchinnikov theory. (Auth.)

  6. Magnetic response and critical current properties of mesoscopic-size YBCO superconducting samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa-Filho, P N [UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Materiais Avancados, Departamento de Fisica, Bauru (Brazil); Deimling, C V; Ortiz, W A, E-mail: plisboa@fc.unesp.b [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    In this contribution superconducting specimens of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} were synthesized by a modified polymeric precursor method, yielding a ceramic powder with particles of mesoscopic-size. Samples of this powder were then pressed into pellets and sintered under different conditions. The critical current density was analyzed by isothermal AC-susceptibility measurements as a function of the excitation field, as well as with isothermal DC-magnetization runs at different values of the applied field. Relevant features of the magnetic response could be associated to the microstructure of the specimens and, in particular, to the superconducting intra- and intergranular critical current properties.

  7. Macroscopic anisotropic bone material properties in children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Carolyne; Jameson, John; Tarima, Sergey; Smith, Peter; Harris, Gerald

    2017-11-07

    Children with severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically experience numerous fractures and progressive skeletal deformities over their lifetime. Recent studies proposed finite element models to assess fracture risk and guide clinicians in determining appropriate intervention in children with OI, but lack of appropriate material property inputs remains a challenge. This study aimed to characterize macroscopic anisotropic cortical bone material properties and investigate relationships with bone density measures in children with severe OI. Specimens were obtained from tibial or femoral shafts of nine children with severe OI and five controls. The specimens were cut into beams, characterized in bending, and imaged by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro-computed tomography. Longitudinal modulus of elasticity, yield strength, and bending strength were 32-65% lower in the OI group (p<0.001). Yield strain did not differ between groups (p≥0.197). In both groups, modulus and strength were lower in the transverse direction (p≤0.009), but anisotropy was less pronounced in the OI group. Intracortical vascular porosity was almost six times higher in the OI group (p<0.001), but no differences were observed in osteocyte lacunar porosity between the groups (p=0.086). Volumetric bone mineral density was lower in the OI group (p<0.001), but volumetric tissue mineral density was not (p=0.770). Longitudinal OI bone modulus and strength were correlated with volumetric bone mineral density (p≤0.024) but not volumetric tissue mineral density (p≥0.099). Results indicate that cortical bone in children with severe OI yields at the same strain as normal bone, and that their decreased bone material strength is associated with reduced volumetric bone mineral density. These results will enable the advancement of fracture risk assessment capability in children with severe OI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electronic, phonon and superconducting properties of LaPtBi half-Heusler compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Deepika; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2018-05-01

    In the framework of density functional theory based on plane wave pseudopotential method and linear response technique, we have studied the electronic, phonon and superconducting properties of LaPtBi half-Heusler compound. The electronic band structure and density of states show that it is gapless semiconductor which is consistent with previous results. The positive phonon frequencies confirm the stability of this compound in cubic MgAgAs phase. Superconductivity is studied in terms of Eliashberg spectral function (α2F(ω)), electron-phonon coupling constants (λ). The value of electron-phonon coupling parameter is found to be 0.41 and the superconducting transition temperature is calculated to be 0.76 K, in excellent agreement with the experimentally reported values.

  9. Impact of radiation exposure on mechanical and superconducting properties of Bi-2212 superconductor ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azlan Abdul Rahman; Nasri Abdul Hamid; Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Mohd Shahrul Nizam Abdullah; Samsul Isman; Hidayah Zainal

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: For practical applications of high-temperature superconductor ceramics, the compounds must be able to sustain extreme mechanical stress and external magnetic field. Bi-2212 superconductor is one of the existing superconductors that are commonly used in various applications. Improvement in the microstructure enhanced the connectivity of the adjacent grains within the superconducting grains, and as such improved the mechanical strength of the ceramics. The ability of the superconductor ceramics to sustain superconducting properties in external magnetic field is also required. The compounds must be able to maintain high transport critical current density (Jc) in magnetic field. Another potential application of superconductors is at the nuclear facilities. Thus, study on the impact of radiation exposure on the mechanical and superconducting properties is very important to gauge the viability of superconductor ceramics in such environment. In this study, the mechanical and superconducting properties between exposure and non-irradiated samples are compared. Characterization will be done by the temperature dependence on electrical resistance measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and measurements of transport critical current (Jc) dependence on temperature in magnetic field. (author)

  10. Cyclic stress effects on transport properties of superconducting composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, E.S.; Kim, S.H.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of cyclic stresses at 4.2 0 K on the conductor materials for large superconducting magnets are being investigted in samples of unalloyed copper and of composites containing Nb--Ti or Nb 3 Sn wires in a copper matrix. The samples are constant-strain cycled in pure tension-compression modes. The increase in electrical resistivity of different grades of copper with number and amplitude of cycles is described. The increases can be of the order of the magnetoresistance for 1000 to 2000 cycles at 0.20 percent strain per cycle. The facility for measuring critical current changes with composite cycling is described and the initial results indicate significant I/sub c/ changes as well as unexpected filament fractures. 10 fig

  11. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  12. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-12-20

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the <110> directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  13. Point contact tunneling spectroscopy apparatus for large scale mapping of surface superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Nickolas; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zasadzinksi, John F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We describe the design and testing of a point contact tunneling spectroscopy device that can measure material surface superconducting properties (i.e., the superconducting gap Δ and the critical temperature T{sub C}) and density of states over large surface areas with size up to mm{sup 2}. The tip lateral (X,Y) motion, mounted on a (X,Y,Z) piezo-stage, was calibrated on a patterned substrate consisting of Nb lines sputtered on a gold film using both normal (Al) and superconducting (PbSn) tips at 1.5 K. The tip vertical (Z) motion control enables some adjustment of the tip-sample junction resistance that can be measured over 7 orders of magnitudes from a quasi-ohmic regime (few hundred Ω) to the tunnel regime (from tens of kΩ up to few GΩ). The low noise electronic and LabVIEW program interface are also presented. The point contact regime and the large-scale motion capabilities are of particular interest for mapping and testing the superconducting properties of macroscopic scale superconductor-based devices.

  14. Superconducting properties of In-Ge mixture films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, A.; Deutscher, G.

    1987-01-01

    We report on measurements of the perpendicular H/sub c//sub perpendicular/ and parallel H/sub c//sub X/ upper critical fields of superconducting In-Ge mixture films in a wide range of In concentrations. The resistivities of the samples varied from about 10 μΩX, corresponding to high In concentration, up to about 1300 μΩ cm, corresponding to an In concentration close to the percolation threshold of the system. The critical temperatures of the samples in a zero external field have also been studied. For high metal concentrations the results have been analyzed and found to fit the predictions of the dirty limit for type-II superconductors. Near the threshold, however, where the normal-state resistivity goes to infinity, the critical fields saturate to a finite value. This result is in accordance with the prediction of percolation theory in the anomalous diffusion regime. As the threshold is approached the anisotropy ratio decreases to a constant value of 1.2 from its homogeneous type-II limit 1.69

  15. An anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterned electrospun scaffold with tailored mechanical property and improved bioactivity for vascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He; Li, Haiyan; Ke, Qinfei; Chang, Jiang

    2015-04-29

    The development of vascular scaffolds with controlled mechanical properties and stimulatory effects on biological activities of endothelial cells still remains a significant challenge to vascular tissue engineering. In this work, we reported an innovative approach to prepare a new type of vascular scaffolds with anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns using electrospinning technique with unique wire spring templates, and further investigated the structural effects of the patterned electrospun scaffolds on mechanical properties and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results showed that anisotropically aligned patterned nanofibrous structure was obtained by depositing nanofibers on template in a structurally different manner, one part of nanofibers densely deposited on the embossments of wire spring and formed cylindrical-like structures in the transverse direction, while others loosely suspended and aligned along the longitudinal direction, forming a three-dimensional porous microstructure. We further found that such structures could efficiently control the mechanical properties of electrospun vascular scaffolds in both longitudinal and transverse directions by altering the interval distances between the embossments of patterned scaffolds. When HUVECs were cultured on scaffolds with different microstructures, the patterned scaffolds distinctively promoted adhesion of HUVECs at early stage and proliferation during the culture period. Most importantly, cells experienced a large shape change associated with cell cytoskeleton and nuclei remodeling, leading to a stimulatory effect on angiogenesis differentiation of HUVECs by the patterned microstructures of electrospun scaffolds, and the scaffolds with larger distances of intervals showed a higher stimulatory effect. These results suggest that electrospun scaffolds with the anisotropically and heterogeneously aligned patterns, which could efficiently control the

  16. Highly anisotropic optoelectronic properties of aligned films of self-assembled platinum molecular wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.; Haas, de M.P.; Savenije, T.J.; Warman, J.M.; Fontana, M.; Stutzmann, N.; Caseri, W.R.; Smith, P.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assembled columns of alternating tetrachloro- and tetraalkylaminoplatinum moieties form stable, highly oriented, optically anisotropic films on a friction-deposited polytetrafluoroethylene surface (see Figure). Charge transport in the films is rapid (mobility =¿ca. 10–2 cm2¿V–1¿s–1) and highly

  17. Quenching effect on properties of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconducting ceramics of various composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitin, E.B.; Gromilov, S.A.; Naumov, V.N.; Royak, A.Ya.; Starikov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Bismuth ceramics quenching effect on superconducting properties of samples of various composition is investigated. Two types of quenching effect on sample properties are detected: an increase of superconducting transition temperature T c by 15-20 K; broadening of temperature interval of the phase transition without anynatable T c displacement. X ray diffraction investigations have not detected sufficient differences in diffraction patterns of quenched and non-quenched samples. Within the limits of composition analysis by oxygen (±3%) no change of its content prior to and after quenching is detected. A correlation between the presence of an amorphous phase in a sample and the type of quenching effect is observed: T c increases in ceramics where an amorphous component is detected

  18. Superconducting, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of FeTe1-xSex single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Sudesh, Varma, G. D.

    2018-05-01

    The single crystalline samples with compositions FeTe1-xSex (0.25 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) have been prepared via self-flux method and the superconducting, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of the grown crystals were investigated. The superconducting onset temperatures have been determined from the measurements of zero field cooled magnetization and resistance with temperatures. In the present case, highest superconducting transition temperature TC (onset) ˜ 15 K has been obtained for x=0.5. The HC2 (T=0 K) values have been estimated by fitting the experimental HC2 - T plots with WHH model. The highest HC2(0) has been obtained for x=0.5. The activation energy of the thermally activated flux flow has been found from the broadening of superconducting transition in an applied magnetic field using the Arrhenius law. Our results show that the activation energy (U0) decreases with the increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, the magnetization measurements for x=0.4 and 0.5 samples have been performed at T=5 K in the magnetic field range ±7 T to estimate critical current density at different applied magnetic fields using Bean formula. We see that the sample x=0.5 has higher values of JC as compared to that of x=0.4 at all magnetic fields. This is in conformity with the behavior of U0-H plots.

  19. Transport and pairing properties of helical edges with proximity induced superconductivity and ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keidel, Felix; Burset, Pablo; Trauzettel, Bjoern [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Crepin, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UPMC, Sorbonne Universites, 75252 Paris (France)

    2016-07-01

    The scientific interest in Quantum Spin Hall systems is far from declining. While these certainly are fascinating by themselves, there is plenty of new and exciting physics to arise when superconductivity and ferromagnetism are brought into the game. The strong constraint of helicity in the edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator is responsible for an intimate relation between the allowed scattering processes in a hybrid junction and the parameters of the system, namely the superconducting order parameter and the magnetic field. In our work, we study a helical liquid in proximity to a conventional s-wave superconductor and ferromagnetic insulators by means of a Green's function analysis. The ferromagnet gives rise to sub-gap Andreev/Majorana bound states and non-local crossed Andreev reflection (CAR), both of which decisively affect the pairing and transport properties of the junction. As a result, the simple s-wave symmetry of the superconductor is enriched and unconventional odd-frequency triplet superconductivity emerges. Strikingly, we have identified a setup that favors CAR over electron co-tunneling and may allow for the indirect measurement of the symmetries of the superconducting order parameter.

  20. Magnetic and superconducting properties of Ir-doped EuFe2As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Paramanik, U; Hossain, Z; L Paulose, P; Ramakrishnan, S; K Nigam, A; Geibel, C

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic and superconducting properties of 14% Ir-doped EuFe 2 As 2 are studied by means of dc and ac magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, specific heat and 151 Eu and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements. Doping of Ir in EuFe 2 As 2 suppresses the Fe spin density wave transition and in turn gives rise to high temperature superconductivity below 22.5 K with a reentrant feature at lower temperature. Magnetization and 151 Eu Mössbauer data indicate that the Eu 2+ spins order magnetically below 18 K. 57 Fe MS studies show a line broadening in the absorption spectra below 18 K due to transferred hyperfine field from the magnetically ordered Eu sublattices. A pronounced λ-shape peak in the specific heat supports a second-order phase transition of Eu 2+ magnetic ordering with a strong ferromagnetic component, as confirmed by the magnetic field dependences of the transition. For a single crystal, the in-plane resistivity (ρ ab ) and out-of-plane susceptibility (χ c ) show superconducting transitions with zero resistance and diamagnetism, respectively. But the in-plane susceptibility (χ ab ) does not show any diamagnetic shielding against external fields. The observed non-zero resistance in the temperature range 10–17.5 K, below the superconducting transition temperature, suggests the possible existence of a spontaneous vortex state in this superconductor. (papers)

  1. Effect of point disorder on superconducting properties of ultrathin epitaxial NbN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesudasan, John; Bagwe, Vivas; Mondal, Mintu; Chand, Madhavi; Kamlapure, Anand; Pai, S.P.; Raychaudhuri, Pratap; Mishra, Archana

    2009-01-01

    We synthesized homogeneously disordered epitaxial NbN films on MgO(100) substrates using reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The disorder of the films is characterized by the Loffe-Regel parameter k F I. The superconducting properties are studied through transport, ac-susceptibility measurements and electron tunneling. The superconducting transition temperature is studied as a function of thickness for films of different disorder. In the case of the less disordered film, there is a smooth decrease in T c with decreasing thickness but for the more disordered film, the T c shows a sharp decrease to zero at a threshold thickness. The superconducting energy gap is studied via planar tunnel junctions. It is found that for the less disordered films, the temperature dependence of the gap follows the BCS variation but for the more disordered ones, there is a significant deviation from the BCS curve, and the gap remains finite at T c indicating that the superconducting transition is either governed by phase fluctuations or a first order phase transition. (author)

  2. High-frequency properties of superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, E.S.; Su, M.; Howng, W.

    1992-01-01

    rf and microwave properties of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thin films were measured and analyzed using a coplanar resonator structure. The films were developed by sequential electron-beam evaporation of the metals followed by postanneal processing. dc properties of the films were obtained from resistance-temperature and current-voltage measurements to evaluate the transition temperature and current densities. High-frequency properties were measured from 70 to 10 K and in the frequency range 1--3 GHz to determine the film characteristics as compared to pure copper films on the same substrates

  3. Design-relevant mechanical properties of 316-type stainless steels for superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobler, R.L.; Nishimura, A.; Yamamoto, J.

    1996-08-01

    Worldwide interest in austenitic alloys for structural applications in superconducting magnets has led to an expanded database for the 316-type stainless steels. We review the cryogenic mechanical properties of wrought, cast, and welded steels at liquid helium temperature (4 K), focussing on aspects of material behavior relevant to magnet design. Fracture mechanics parameters essential to structural reliability assessments are presented, including strength, toughness, and fatigue parameters that are critical for some component designs. (author). 105 refs.

  4. Superconductivity, spin-glass properties, and ferromagnetism in amorphous La--Gd--Au alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poon, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    The superconducting and magnetic properties of splat cooled amorphous alloys of composition (La/sub 100-x/Gd/sub x/) 80 Au 20 (0 equal to or less than x equal to or less than 100) have been studied. The La 80 Au 20 alloys are ideal type II superconductors (critical temperature T/sub c/ = 3.5 0 K). The concentration range (x 80 Au 20 . The results are compared with recent theories on amorphous magnetism

  5. Structural, electronic, superconducting and mechanical properties of ReC and TcC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, M.; Priyanga, G. Sudha; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R., E-mail: rajeswarapalanichamy@gmail.com; Santhosh, M. [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N College, Madurai, Tamilnadu-625019 (India)

    2015-06-24

    The structural, electronic, superconducting and mechanical properties of ReC and TcC are investigated using density functional theory calculations. The lattice constants, bulk modulus, and the density of states are obtained. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The density of states reveals that ReC and TcC exhibit metallic behavior at ambient condition. A pressure-induced structural phase transition is observed in both materials.

  6. Design-relevant mechanical properties of 316-type stainless steels for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobler, R.L.; Nishimura, A.; Yamamoto, J.

    1996-08-01

    Worldwide interest in austenitic alloys for structural applications in superconducting magnets has led to an expanded database for the 316-type stainless steels. We review the cryogenic mechanical properties of wrought, cast, and welded steels at liquid helium temperature (4 K), focussing on aspects of material behavior relevant to magnet design. Fracture mechanics parameters essential to structural reliability assessments are presented, including strength, toughness, and fatigue parameters that are critical for some component designs. (author). 105 refs

  7. Titania doping effect on superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, G; Serquis, A [Institute Balseiro - Centra Atomico Bariloche and CONICET, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Bridoux, G, E-mail: serranog@ib.cnea.gov.a [Institute Balseiro - Centra Atomico Bariloche, (8400) S. C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    In this work we study the microstructural and superconducting properties of doped and undoped bulk MgB{sub 2} samples prepared by solid-state reaction, with 0 and 2.5 %at. nominal TiO{sub 2} nanotubes contents, annealed at different temperatures in the 750-900 deg. C range. We discuss the T{sub c}, J{sub c} and H{sub c2} performance and their correlation with the different synthesis parameters.

  8. Magnetic Cellulose Nanocrystal Based Anisotropic Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite Films: Influence on Electrical, Magnetic, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Prodyut; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Vimal

    2016-07-20

    This paper reports a single-step co-precipitation method for the fabrication of magnetic cellulose nanocrystals (MGCNCs) with high iron oxide nanoparticle content (∼51 wt % loading) adsorbed onto cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman spectroscopic studies confirmed that the hydroxyl groups on the surface of CNCs (derived from the bamboo pulp) acted as anchor points for the adsorption of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The fabricated MGCNCs have a high magnetic moment, which is utilized to orient the magnetoresponsive nanofillers in parallel or perpendicular orientations inside the polylactic acid (PLA) matrix. Magnetic-field-assisted directional alignment of MGCNCs led to the incorporation of anisotropic mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties in the fabricated PLA-MGCNC nanocomposites. Thermomechanical studies showed significant improvement in the elastic modulus and glass-transition temperature for the magnetically oriented samples. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and XRD studies confirmed that the alignment of MGCNCs led to the improvement in the percentage crystallinity and, with the absence of the cold-crystallization phenomenon, finds a potential application in polymer processing in the presence of magnetic field. The tensile strength and percentage elongation for the parallel-oriented samples improved by ∼70 and 240%, respectively, and for perpendicular-oriented samples, by ∼58 and 172%, respectively, in comparison to the unoriented samples. Furthermore, its anisotropically induced electrical and magnetic properties are desirable for fabricating self-biased electronics products. We also demonstrate that the fabricated anisotropic PLA-MGCNC nanocomposites could be laminated into films with the incorporation of directionally tunable mechanical properties. Therefore, the current study provides a novel noninvasive approach of orienting nontoxic bioderived CNCs in the presence of low

  9. Relationship between morphology and electrical properties in PP/MWCNT composites: Processing-induced anisotropic percolation threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesano, F., E-mail: federico.cesano@unito.it [Department of Chemistry, NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) Interdepartmental Centre and INSTM Centro di Riferimento, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria, 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Zaccone, M. [Proplast, Strada Comunale Savonesa 9, 15057 Rivalta Scrivia, AL (Italy); ECNP, Strada Comunale Savonesa 9, 15057 Rivalta Scrivia, AL (Italy); Armentano, I. [Materials Engineering Center, UdR INSTM, University of Perugia, Str. Pentima 4, 05100 Terni (Italy); Cravanzola, S.; Muscuso, L. [Department of Chemistry, NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) Interdepartmental Centre and INSTM Centro di Riferimento, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria, 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Torre, L. [Materials Engineering Center, UdR INSTM, University of Perugia, Str. Pentima 4, 05100 Terni (Italy); Kenny, J.M. [ECNP, Strada Comunale Savonesa 9, 15057 Rivalta Scrivia, AL (Italy); Materials Engineering Center, UdR INSTM, University of Perugia, Str. Pentima 4, 05100 Terni (Italy); Monti, M. [Proplast, Strada Comunale Savonesa 9, 15057 Rivalta Scrivia, AL (Italy); Scarano, D. [Department of Chemistry, NIS (Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces) Interdepartmental Centre and INSTM Centro di Riferimento, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria, 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/polypropylene composites were prepared by melt-mixing, by varying the MWCNT content from 1 to 7 wt%, and samples were manufactured by injection moulding technique. DC electrical characterization was performed by the two-probe method in the three main directions: longitudinal and transversal to the flux of the material during the mould filling, and in the through-thickness direction. Moreover, a dedicated setup was adopted to measure the electrical resistance at different depths of the specimen cross-sectional areas. Two different electrical percolation thresholds, calculated at about 2 wt% and 3 wt% of MWCNTs (longitudinally/transversely to the mould filling flux and in the through-thickness directions, respectively), were found. In order to investigate the role of the structure/morphology of the composites on the electrical properties, samples have been cryofractured, chemically etched and characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy. As a result, the observed anisotropic electrical behaviour was associated with the different network morphology, which was detected in the cross-sectional area, caused by the injection moulding process. Based on the observed through-thickness electrical behaviour, a phenomenological DC conduction model has been developed, describing the sample as a multilayer system, being the external layers (skin) less conductive than the internal region (core). This model, combined with the bulk electrical tests, can be considered as a valuable mathematical tool to foresee the electrical behaviour of MWCNT-based composites for designing new industrial injection-moulded components. - Highlights: • (1–7 wt%) MWCNTs/polypropylene composites are made by injection moulding technique. • The mould temperature is affecting the anisotropic electrical properties. • The anisotropic properties are connected with CNTs dispersion/aggregation. • External layers (skin) are less conductive than the

  10. The influence of chemical treatments on the superconducting properties of technical niobium materials and their effect on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S B; Sahni, V C; Myneni, G R

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a study of superconducting response in the niobium materials used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient (>25 MV m -1 ) superconducting radio frequency (SC-RF) cavities. These results clearly show that the typical surface chemical treatment deployed during the fabrication of SC-RF cavities affects the superconducting properties of pure niobium materials. Such SC-RF cavities operating at 2 K are often found to show anomalous RF losses, causing either a strong degradation of the quality factor or a thermal breakdown for cavity magnetic fields between 1 and 1.5 kOe. The results of our study suggest a correlation between the field for the first flux-line penetration in these chemically treated technical niobium materials and the reported onset field of anomalous losses in the SC-RF cavities.

  11. The influence of chemical treatments on the superconducting properties of technical niobium materials and their effect on the performance of superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. B.; Myneni, G. R.; Sahni, V. C.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a study of superconducting response in the niobium materials used in the fabrication of high accelerating gradient (>25 MV m-1) superconducting radio frequency (SC-RF) cavities. These results clearly show that the typical surface chemical treatment deployed during the fabrication of SC-RF cavities affects the superconducting properties of pure niobium materials. Such SC-RF cavities operating at 2 K are often found to show anomalous RF losses, causing either a strong degradation of the quality factor or a thermal breakdown for cavity magnetic fields between 1 and 1.5 kOe. The results of our study suggest a correlation between the field for the first flux-line penetration in these chemically treated technical niobium materials and the reported onset field of anomalous losses in the SC-RF cavities.

  12. Thermal history dependence of superconducting properties in La2CuO4+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Sumiyama, A.; Oda, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the thermal history dependence of the superconducting properties below/above room temperature (RT) in the ceramic La 2 CuO 4-δ with excess oxygen. The phase separation (O-rich phase: superconducting and O-poor phase: antiferromagnetic) was concluded to occur above 373 K, in contrast with the usual report of the phase separation around 320 K. As for the superconducting phases, the well-known T c onset of 32 or 36 K, dependent on thermal history around 200 K, in the samples annealed in high-pressure oxygen gas, was not changed by thermal history between RT and 373 K. The samples electrochemically oxidized at RT included the phase with the high T c of 45 K, which was not changed by thermal history below RT, and the phase with the low T c of 32 or 36 K. The 45 K phase was changed into the low-T c phase by annealing at 373 K. The samples electrochemically oxidized at 333 K, which was accompanied with the diffusion of excess oxygen, showed gradual change of superconducting behavior: the single low-T c (32 or 36 K) phase (oxidation time = 24 h), coexistence of the low-T c phase and the high-T c (45 K) phase (36 h), and the single high T c phase (48 and 72 h). Thus, the single superconducting phase with the high T c of 45 K has been obtained, which showed a metallic behavior in normal resistivity and apparent changes of lattice constant in comparison with that of stoichiometric La 2 CuO 4 . (orig.)

  13. Mechanical properties of partially meltable superconducting YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Salama, K.

    1988-01-01

    Partial melting has been suggested as a method for the processing of the high temperatures superconducting YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ to improve the current carrying capacity in this material. The authors have investigated the possibility of using this method for the improvement of bulk mechanical properties in addition to those related to superconductivity. Four parameters, namely, oxygen annealing temperature, melting temperature, melting time and cooling rate are identified and studied. Each parameter is varied individually and its effects on microstructure and mechanical and superconducting properties are examined. The results indicate that the properties of superconducting YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ can be improved significantly using the proper melting temperature, melting time, cooling rate and oxygen annealing temperature

  14. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show tha...

  15. Evolution of superconducting properties with disorder in epitaxial NbN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockalingam, S P; Chand, Madhavi; Jesudasan, John; Raychaudhuri, Pratap; Tripathi, Vikram

    2009-01-01

    NbN is a conventional BCS superconductor in which disorder can be tuned from moderately clean limit to dirty limit without affecting its epitaxial nature. We studied the superconducting properties of epitaxial NbN films of different disorder characterized by k F l ranging from 8.77 to 2.56 through the transport measurements. Using reactive magnetron sputtering NbN films of different disorder are deposited by varying the sputtering power and amount of N 2 in Ar:N 2 mixture of sputtering gas. The disorder parameter k F l is obtained from the carrier density (n) and the resistivity (ρ) of the films. NbN films with higher disorder have lower transition temperature (T c ) and larger resistivity which decreases with decreasing disorder. The carrier density determined from Hall measurements show that highly disordered films have lower carrier density and vice versa. Our studies show that NbN is a good system to investigate the effects of disorder on superconductivity where the superconducting properties evolve with the disorder in thin films.

  16. Research of mechanical and void properties of composite insulation for superconducting busbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiongyi, E-mail: huangxy@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Guoliang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Clayton, Nicholas [ITER IO, Superconductor Systems & Auxiliaries Section, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lu, Kun; Wang, Chunyu; Wang, Chao; Dai, Zhiheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Gung, Chen-yu; Devred, Arnaud [ITER IO, Superconductor Systems & Auxiliaries Section, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Song, Yuntao; Fang, Linlin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Two curing methods for the pre-preg on the superconducting busbar are researched. • Vaccum bag and silicone rubber is used for pre-preg curing as complement of VPI in fusion filed. • The results of mechanical properties and void content is described and discussed. - Abstract: Pre-preg material has been widely-used in the industry of the aerospace, the wind power, which has many advantages on manufacture process, and can be chosen as an effective complementary insulation method for the Wet-winding and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation technology in the field of superconducting fusion magnets. ASIPP undertaken many engineering tasks on the superconducting coil and busbar design and manufacture for the large fusion device, the pre-preg material and the relevant curing technology were researched as a new method for the high voltage potential components in ITER Feeders, such as the busbars and current leads. Two types of Chinese industrial glass fiber pre-preg insulation composite material were studied and pre-qualified using vacuum bag and silicone rubber assistance technique in ASIPP. The mechanical properties including the ILSS and UTS at 77 K, and void content of this composites were measured and discussed in this paper in detail.

  17. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Feng, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yang, Xiaoguang, E-mail: yxg@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Yonggang [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Qi, Hongyu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis.

  18. Experimental investigation on high temperature anisotropic compression properties of ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO2 aerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu; Jiang, Yonggang; Qi, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO 2 aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis

  19. Evaluation of the cryogenic mechanical properties of the insulation material for ITER Feeder superconducting joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Rongjin; Huang, ChuanJun; Yang, Yanfang; Huang, Xiongyi; Li, Laifeng

    2017-12-01

    The Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) fabricated by the vacuum bag process was selected as the high voltage electrical insulation and mechanical support for the superconducting joints and the current leads for the ITER Feeder system. To evaluate the cryogenic mechanical properties of the GFRP, the mechanical properties such as the short beam strength (SBS), the tensile strength and the fatigue fracture strength after 30,000 cycles, were measured at 77K in this study. The results demonstrated that the GFRP met the design requirements of ITER.

  20. Superconducting properties of powder-metallurgically produced Cu-Nb3Sn composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, W.; Wecker, J.; Heine, K.; Bormann, R.; Freyhardt, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The critical current density of composite superconducting wires can be improved by ternary or quaternary additions. If these additions are incorporated into the A15 phase the upper critical field can be increased. An increase in this field, however, can only be realized if the additions do not strongly deteriorate the critical temperature. An enhanced upper critical field in connection with a favorable grain size of the A15 phase finally leads to improved critical current densities in the entire field range. With these parameters as guidelines, the effects of Ti, In, Ga, and Ge additions to the bronze and of Ta additions to the niobium on the superconducting properties of PM produced Cu-Nb 3 Sn wires were investigated

  1. Calculated Changes in the Elastic Properties of MgCNi3 at the Superconducting Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abd-Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We calculated the elastic properties of MgCNi3 at the superconducting transition ( using various thermodynamic and acoustic data. From the calculations, a step discontinuity of 8 ppm in the bulk modulus, 7 ppm in the Young’s modulus, and 3 ppm in the longitudinal sound velocity ( is expected at . The step discontinuities at the transition temperature indicated the importance of lattice changes to the superconducting mechanism of MgCNi3. The Debye temperature was calculated to be 460 K. The electron-phonon coupling constants calculated in the weak and strong coupling limits of the BCS theory and the van Hove scenario showed that MgCNi3 is a moderately strong coupled superconductor.

  2. Growth, characterization, and physical properties of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconducting whiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraak, W.; Thiele, P.

    1996-01-01

    Single crystal whiskers of the Bi-based high-T c superconductors have been grown directly from the stoichiometric melt. Conditions for the preferable growth of the (2212) phase and annealing conditions for the conversion from the (2212) phase to the (2223) and (2234) Bi-based superconducting phases are achieved. The orientation and chemical composition of the crystals were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Characteristic structural properties of the whiskers (incommensurable modulation in b-direction, peculiarities of dislocation networks) have been revealed by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Some special features of the broad superconducting transition in multiphase whiskers have been examined by spatially resolved measurements using low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. (orig.)

  3. Structural and superconducting properties of sputter-deposited niobium films for applications in RF accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peck, M A

    2000-01-01

    The present work presents the results of a systematic study of superconducting and structural properties of niobium films sputter deposited onto the inner walls of radiofrequency copper resonators. The measured superconducting quantities include the surface resistance, the critical temperature, the penetration depth and the upper and lower critical fields. In addition to films grown with different discharge gases (Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne and Ar-Ne mixtures) and to films grown on substrates prepared under different conditions, the study also includes massive niobium cavities. The surface resistance is analysed in terms of its dependence on the temperature and on the rf field amplitude and, when possible, compared to theoretical predictions. In general, good agreement with BCS theory is observed. All experimental results are presented in the form of a simple, but adequate parameterisation. The residual resistance is observed to be essentially uncorrelated with the other variables, but strongly dependent on the macroscop...

  4. Effect of niobium on microstructure and magnetic properties of bulk anisotropic NdFeB/{alpha}-Fe nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Liu Ying, E-mail: Liuying5536@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China) and Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Material and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610065 (China); Ma Yilong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Bulk anisotropic NdFeB/{alpha}-Fe nano-composites were obtained directly from alloys of Nd{sub 11}Dy{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 82.4-x}Nb{sub x}B{sub 6.1} (x=0,0.5,1.0,1.5). High resolution transmission electron microscopy images showed the existence of Nb-rich amorphous grain boundary phase in the alloys with Nb doped. Field emission scanning electron microscope morphologies and X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the grain size and grain alignment of hot pressed and hot deformed nanocomposites. It was found that Nb could refine the grain size and grain texture in hot worked ribbons. Vibrating sample magnetometer results showed that the magnetic properties of the anisotropic nanocomposites were improved with increased Nb doping. The remanence, coercivity and maximum energy product of the bulk anisotropic Nd{sub 11}Dy{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 80.4}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 6.1} nanocomposites were 1.04 T, 563 kA/m and 146 kJ/m{sup 3}, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nb has great influence on the microstructure and magnetic properties of (NdDy){sub 11.5}Fe{sub 82.4-x}Nb{sub x}B{sub 6.1} (x=0-2.0) nanocomposites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most of Nb atoms gather in the grain boundary to form Nb-rich amorphous intergranular phase, not NbFeB boride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Furthermore, grain alignment can be prompt by the Nb-rich solid intergranular phase during deform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Remanence, coercivity and (BH){sub m} of deformed (NdDy){sub 11.5}Fe{sub 80.4}Nb{sub 2}B{sub 6.1} nanocomposite is 1.04T, 563 kA/m and 146 kJ/m{sup 3} respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study provides an alternative method for prepare anisotropic nanocomposite direct from Nd-lean alloys with low cost.

  5. Anisotropic two-gap superconductivity and the absence of a Pauli paramagnetic limit in single-crystalline LaO0.5F0.5BiS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. C.; Yip, K. Y.; Cheung, Y. W.; Chan, Y. T.; Niu, Q.; Kajitani, J.; Higashinaka, R.; Matsuda, T. D.; Yanase, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Lai, K. T.; Goh, Swee K.

    2018-03-01

    Ambient-pressure-grown LaO0.5F0.5BiS2 with a superconducting transition temperature Tc˜3 K possesses a highly anisotropic normal state. By a series of electrical resistivity measurements with a magnetic-field direction varying between the crystalline c axis and the a b plane, we present datasets displaying the temperature dependence of the out-of-plane upper critical field Hc2 ⊥(T ) , the in-plane upper critical field Hc2 ∥(T ) , as well as the angular dependence of Hc 2 at fixed temperatures for ambient-pressure-grown LaO0.5F0.5BiS2 single crystals. The anisotropy of the superconductivity, Hc2 ∥/Hc2 ⊥ , reaches ˜16 on approaching 0 K, but it decreases significantly near Tc. A pronounced upward curvature of Hc2 ∥(T ) is observed near Tc, which we analyze using a two-gap model. Moreover, Hc2 ∥(0 ) is found to exceed the Pauli paramagnetic limit, which can be understood by considering the strong spin-orbit coupling associated with Bi as well as the breaking of the local inversion symmetry at the electronically active BiS2 bilayers. Hence, LaO0.5F0.5BiS2 with a centrosymmetric lattice structure is a unique platform to explore the physics associated with local parity violation in the bulk crystal.

  6. Specific heat of holmium and YNi2B2C. Criticalbehaviour and superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkali, Abdelhakim

    2010-01-01

    Object of the thesis is the study of the specific heat of holmium and YNi 2 B 2 C in the temperature ranges from 50 to 200 KI respectively from 380 mK to 20 K in magnetic fields up to 9 T. In the present thesis the criticalbehaviour of YNi 2 B 2 C and properties of the superconducting state of tne non-magnetic rare-earth nickel borocarbide YNi 2 B 2 C are studied by means of a self-developed measurement apparatur of the specific heat using the quasi-adiabatic heating-pulse method as well as of holmium by means of the relaxation method. In this thesis reliable statements about the critical exponents on monocrystalline holmium could be made. The study on holmium proves that the critical behaviour of the specific heats cannot be described in the framework of the predictions of the chiral universality classes. By means of measurements of the specific heat in this thesis could be confirmed that YNi 2 B 2 C is a multiband superconductor. The positive curvature of the boundary line below T c in the phase diagram yields a first hint to the many-band character of YNI 2 B 2 C. In the zero-field the electronic specific heat in the superconducting state c es (T) can be not explained in the framework of the pure BCS theory. At low temperatures a residual contribution by normally conducting electrons could be detected, which hints to a not completely opened energy gap. A possible explanation would be that a band (or several bands) with low charge-carrier concentration not contribute to the superconductivity. This result agrees with de Haas-van Alphen measurements on isostructural superconducting LuNi 2 B 2 C monocrystals, which suggest the many-band character of the superconductivity as well as a vanishing energy gap in one band. The fluctuation behaviour of the specific heat of YNi 2 B 2 C in the neighbourhood of the superconducting-normally conducting transition agrees well with that of the 3D-XY model. [de

  7. Effective-field treatment of an anisotropic Ising ferromagnet: thermodynamical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, E.F.; Honmura, R.; Tsallis, C.

    1982-01-01

    The anisotropic square lattice spin -1/2 Ising ferromagnet is discussed. Through this system it is illustrated how all relevant thermodynamical quantities (phase diagram, magnetization, short range order parameter, specific heat and susceptibility) can be approximatively calculated within an effective-field unified procedure (which substantially improves the Mean Field Approximation). Two slightly different approximations for the susceptibility (whose exact computation is still lacking) are presented. The (square lattice) - (linear chain) crossover is exhibited. The present (mathematically simple) procedures could be useful in the study of complex Ising problems. (Author) [pt

  8. Anisotropic properties of phase separation in two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jinbin

    2018-03-01

    Using Crank-Nicolson method, we calculate ground state wave functions of two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and show that, due to dipole-dipole interaction (DDI), the condensate mixture displays anisotropic phase separation. The effects of DDI, inter-component s-wave scattering, strength of trap potential and particle numbers on the density profiles are investigated. Three types of two-component profiles are present, first cigar, along z-axis and concentric torus, second pancake (or blood cell), in xy-plane, and two non-uniform ellipsoid, separated by the pancake and third two dumbbell shapes.

  9. Physical Principles Pertaining to Ultrasonic and Mechanical Properties of Anisotropic Media and Their Application to Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Scott Michael

    The central theme of this thesis is to contribute to the physics underlying the mechanical properties of highly anisotropic materials. Our hypothesis is that a fundamental understanding of the physics involved in the interaction of interrogating ultrasonic waves with anisotropic media will provide useful information applicable to quantitative ultrasonic measurement techniques employed for the determination of material properties. Fiber-reinforced plastics represent a class of advanced composite materials that exhibit substantial anisotropy. The desired characteristics of practical fiber -reinforced composites depend on average mechanical properties achieved by placing fibers at specific angles relative to the external surfaces of the finished part. We examine the physics underlying the use of ultrasound as an interrogation probe for determination of ultrasonic and mechanical properties of anisotropic materials such as fiber-reinforced composites. Fundamental constituent parameters, such as elastic stiffness coefficients (c_{rm IJ}), are experimentally determined from ultrasonic time-of-flight measurements. Mechanical moduli (Poisson's ratio, Young's and shear modulus) descriptive of the anisotropic mechanical properties of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites are obtained from the ultrasonically determined stiffness coefficients. Three-dimensional visualizations of the anisotropic ultrasonic and mechanical properties of unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites are generated. A related goal of the research is to strengthen the connection-between practical ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods and the physics underlying quantitative ultrasonic measurements for the assessment of manufactured fiber-reinforced composites. Production defects such as porosity have proven to be of substantial concern in the manufacturing of composites. We investigate the applicability of ultrasonic interrogation techniques for the detection and characterization of porosity in

  10. Atomically flat superconducting nanofilms: multiband properties and mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanenko, A. A.; Aguiar, J. Albino; Vagov, A.; Croitoru, M. D.; Milošević, M. V.

    2015-05-01

    Recent progress in materials synthesis enabled fabrication of superconducting atomically flat single-crystalline metallic nanofilms with thicknesses down to a few monolayers. Interest in such nano-thin systems is attracted by the dimensional 3D-2D crossover in their coherent properties which occurs with decreasing the film thickness. The first fundamental aspect of this crossover is dictated by the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem and concerns frustration of the long-range order due to superconductive fluctuations and the possibility to track its impact with an unprecedented level of control. The second important aspect is related to the Fabri-Pérot modes of the electronic motion strongly bound in the direction perpendicular to the nanofilm. The formation of such modes results in a pronounced multiband structure that changes with the nanofilm thickness and affects both the mean-field behavior and superconductive fluctuations. Though the subject is very rich in physics, it is scarcely investigated to date. The main obstacle is that there are no manageable models to study a complex magnetic response in this case. Full microscopic consideration is rather time consuming, if practicable at all, while the standard Ginzburg-Landau theory is not applicable. In the present work we review the main achievements in the subject to date, and construct and justify an efficient multiband mean-field formalism which allows for numerical and even analytical treatment of nano-thin superconductors in applied magnetic fields.

  11. Atomically flat superconducting nanofilms: multiband properties and mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A A; Aguiar, J Albino; Vagov, A; Croitoru, M D; Milošević, M V

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in materials synthesis enabled fabrication of superconducting atomically flat single-crystalline metallic nanofilms with thicknesses down to a few monolayers. Interest in such nano-thin systems is attracted by the dimensional 3D–2D crossover in their coherent properties which occurs with decreasing the film thickness. The first fundamental aspect of this crossover is dictated by the Mermin–Wagner–Hohenberg theorem and concerns frustration of the long-range order due to superconductive fluctuations and the possibility to track its impact with an unprecedented level of control. The second important aspect is related to the Fabri–Pérot modes of the electronic motion strongly bound in the direction perpendicular to the nanofilm. The formation of such modes results in a pronounced multiband structure that changes with the nanofilm thickness and affects both the mean-field behavior and superconductive fluctuations. Though the subject is very rich in physics, it is scarcely investigated to date. The main obstacle is that there are no manageable models to study a complex magnetic response in this case. Full microscopic consideration is rather time consuming, if practicable at all, while the standard Ginzburg–Landau theory is not applicable. In the present work we review the main achievements in the subject to date, and construct and justify an efficient multiband mean-field formalism which allows for numerical and even analytical treatment of nano-thin superconductors in applied magnetic fields. (paper)

  12. Electronic properties of γ-U and superconductivity of U–Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkach, I.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.H.; Warren, A.; Scott, T.; Gonçalves, A.P.; Havela, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The bcc phase of uranium was stabilized to low temperature in U–Mo alloys. • Ultrafast cooling was utilized. • Negative coefficient dρ/dT indicates very strong disorder. • The alloys are superconducting with T c ≈ 2.1 K. • They exhibit high critical field exceeding 5 T. - Abstract: Fundamental electronic properties of γ-Uranium were determined using Mo doping combined with ultrafast (splat) cooling, which allowed stabilization of the bcc structure to low temperatures. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ e is enhanced to 16 mJ/mol K 2 from 11 mJ/mol K 2 for α-U. Magnetic susceptibility remains weak and T-independent, ≈5 × 10 −8 m 3 /mol. The Mo-doped γ-U exhibits a conventional BCS superconductivity with T c ≈ 2.1 K and critical field exceeding 5 T for 15 at.% Mo. This type of superconductivity is qualitatively different from the one found for pure U splat, which has T c higher than 1 K but the weak specific heat anomaly proves that it is not real bulk effect

  13. Levitation properties of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high Tc superconducting levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Hidekazu; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new combination of high T c superconducting levitation and ring-shaped flywheel energy storage systems. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub, because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The levitation properties such as static and dynamic lateral stiffnesses, lateral damping, and lateral vibration during rotation have been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The spring constant increased as the levitation gap height decreased, and the dynamic spring constant was slightly higher than the static constant. The damping coefficient increased as the gap height decreased and the vibration amplitude increased. The experimental critical speed was in good agreement with the calculated one using a one-degree of freedom model. Finally, the possibility of large-scaled practical systems is discussed from the viewpoint of superconducting levitation. (author)

  14. Mussel-Inspired Anisotropic Nanocellulose and Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Improved Mechanical Properties, Electrical Conductivity and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Linh Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Materials for wearable devices, tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications require both antibacterial activity to prevent bacterial infection and biofilm formation, and electrical conductivity to electric signals inside and outside of the human body. Recently, cellulose nanofibers have been utilized for various applications but cellulose itself has neither antibacterial activity nor conductivity. Here, an antibacterial and electrically conductive composite was formed by generating catechol mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on the surface of cellulose nanofibers. The chemically immobilized catechol moiety on the nanofibrous cellulose network reduced Ag+ to form AgNPs on the cellulose nanofiber. The AgNPs cellulose composite showed excellent antibacterial efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the catechol conjugation and the addition of AgNP induced anisotropic self-alignment of the cellulose nanofibers which enhances electrical and mechanical properties of the composite. Therefore, the composite containing AgNPs and anisotropic aligned the cellulose nanofiber may be useful for biomedical applications.

  15. Superconducting properties of modified YBa2Cu3O7-δ ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleva, G.M.; Politova, E.D.; Kudinova, M.V.; Prutchenko, S.G.; Venevtsev, Yu.N.

    1993-01-01

    In connection with the promising practical applications of high temperature superconductors (HTSC) particular attention has been paid to studying the influence of dopant elements on the properties of HTSC ceramics. According to earlier work, replacement of the yttrium in the compound YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-8 (1-2-3) by rare earth elements, excluding Ce, Pr, Tb, and Pm, has almost no influence on the superconducting transition temperature (T c ∼ 90 K). Of the alkaline metals, only Sr will displace Ba over a wide range of concentrations (up to 50 at %), but in this case T c is reduced to 86 K. The strongest influence on the superconducting properties results from replacement of copper by 3d transition metals. Introduction of 10 at.% Zn, Co, Fe, Ni, Ti, Mn, or Cr in place of the copper leads to a drastic lowering of T c . At the same time it has been reported that microadditions of individual elements (replacement of Cu by Pd, Ti, and Fe, at a level of 0.1-0.5 at.%,) may elevate conducting phase and improve the contacts between grains, so that, in particular, there is an increase in the critical current density. In view of the possible positive influence which introduction of small quantities of individual elements may have 1-2-3 compounds, in the present work, the authors have studied the action of dopant additions, including complex ones, on this phase, with the goal of improving its superconducting properties. Structural and superconducting properties were studied for samples of YBa 2 (Cu 1- x M x ) 3 O 7-δ , with M = Sb (I), Mn (II), and Sb 1/2 Mn 1/2 (III), and (1-x)Y 1/3 Ba 2/3 CuO 3-δ ·xSr(Sb 1/2 Mn 1/2 )O 3 (IV), using x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, as well as changes in the temperature dependence of the resistivity ρ(T)

  16. Evaluation of the magnetic properties of cosmetic contact lenses with a superconducting quantum interference device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kagayaki; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Tawara, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the magnetization of 21 cosmetic contact lens samples that included various coloring materials with a superconducting quantum interference device with regard to magnetic resonance (MR) safety. We found 7 samples were ferromagnetic; two had both ferromagnetic and diamagnetic properties; and the rest were diamagnetic. The saturated magnetization of the most ferromagnetic sample was 15.0 µJ/T, which yielded a magnetically induced displacement force of 90.0 µN when the spatial gradient of the static magnetic field was 6.0 T/m. The force was less than one-third of the gravitational force.

  17. Structural stability, electronic, mechanical and superconducting properties of CrC and MoC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, M.; Sudha Priyanga, G. [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N College, Madurai 625019, Tamilnadu (India); Rajeswarapalanichamy, R., E-mail: rrpalanichamy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N College, Madurai 625019, Tamilnadu (India); Iyakutti, K. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Chennai 603203, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-02-01

    The structural, electronic, mechanical and superconducting properties of chromium carbide (CrC) and molybdenum carbide (MoC) are investigated using first principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The computed ground state properties like equilibrium lattice constants and cell volume are in good agreement with available theoretical and experimental data. A pressure induced structural phase transition from tungsten carbide phase (WC) to zinc blende phase (ZB) and then zinc blende phase (ZB) to nickel arsenide phase (NiAs) are observed in both chromium and molybdenum carbides. Electronic structure reveals that these carbides are metallic at ambient condition. All the calculated elastic constants obey the Born–Huang stability criteria, suggesting that they are mechanically stable at normal and high pressure. The super conducting transition temperatures for CrC and MoC in WC phase are found to be 31.12 K and 17.14 K respectively at normal pressure. - Highlights: • Electronic and mechanical properties of CrC and MoC are investigated. • Pressure induced structural phase transition is predicted at high pressure. • Electronic structure reveals that these materials exhibit metallic behaviour. • Debye temperature values are computed for CrC and MoC. • Superconducting transition temperature values are computed.

  18. Property evaluation of Ni base alloy for superconducting generators and its application to seal welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhisa Suzuki; Toshiaki Murakami; Kenichi Suzuki; Satoru Asai; Minorou Tanaka; Yoshio Kobayashi

    1992-01-01

    Property requirements demanded on structural materials for rotors of superconducting generators are quite strict while there are many themes in the technical development of such materials. Components used in the cryogenic temperature are of course required to be nonmagnetic material. Additional requirements demanded on cryogenic structural materials for high response excitation superconducting generators can be summarized as follows: (1) 0.2% yield strength > 800 MPa (RT) (2) Charpy absorbed energy > 25 J (4K) (3) Electrical resistivity > 90 μΩ·cm (4K). As a candidate material which satisfy the above property requirements, we can cite precipitation-hardened Ni base alloys, for example, Inconel 718. However, production of Inconel718 is limited to about 2 tons due to problems related to segregation etc., and therefore fabrication of large-sized ingots for manufacturing generator components may be difficult. Also, there may be problems regarding weldability, especially from the viewpoint of microcracking in the heat affected zone, among strength-supporting parts or the parts requiring functional capability such as seal welded joints. Under such background circumstances, we conducted studies on chemical composition by considering producibility of large-sized ingots and weldability of the alloy as well as property evaluations of materials incorporating such requirements. Further, included in this paper are the application of the alloy to seal welded joints and its unified fatigue strength evaluation method

  19. Characterisation of anisotropic etching in KOH using network etch rate function model: influence of an applied potential in terms of microscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Q D; Elwenspoek, M

    2006-01-01

    Using the network etch rate function model, the anisotropic etch rate of p-type single crystal silicon was characterised in terms of microscopic properties including step velocity, step and terrace roughening. The anisotropic etch rate data needed have been obtained using a combination of 2 wagon wheel patterns on different substrate and 1 offset trench pattern. Using this procedure the influence of an applied potential has been investigated in terms of microscopic properties. Model parameter trends show a good correlation with chemical/electrochemical reaction mechanism and mono- and dihydride terminated steps reactivity difference. Results also indicate a minimum in (111) terrace roughening which results in a peak in anisotropic ratio at the non-OCP applied potential of -1250 mV vs OCP

  20. Quality measurements of resonance cavities in behalf of investigation of microwave properties of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekkers, G.; Ridder, M. de.

    1988-01-01

    A method for investigating conducting properties at microwave frequencies of superconducting materials by means of quality measurements of a resonance cavity is described. The method is based on the direct relationship of the quality factor of a resonance circuit, in this case a resonance cavity, with the losses in the circuit. In a resonance cavity these losses are caused by the material properties of the resonance cavity. Therefore quality measurements yield, essentially, a possibility for investigation of conducting properties of materials. The underlying theory of the subject, the design of a special resonance cavity, the measuring methods and the accuracy in the relation of the measured quality factor and the specific conductivity of the material is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Effects of irradiation and mechanical stress on the superconducting properties of candidate magnet conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Luhman, T.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage on the superconducting critical properties of candidate magnet materials are reviewed. Neutron, and charged-particle irradiation results are covered. The discussion is restricted to effects in NbTi and the A15-compound superconductors. The utility of these conductors in radiation fields is first explored by defining the magnitude of critical-property changes with the fluence of various irradiating particles. The physical mechanisms that couple the irradiation defects to the observed critical-property changes are discussed. Annealing/recovery data on irradiated materials are included where they pertain to the understanding of the physical mechanisms involved, and thereby to the desirability of magnet annealing in actual operating circumstances

  2. Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on the dynamic and static properties of a strongly anisotropic ferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelikov, G. A.; Fridman, Yu. A.

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of coupled magnetoelastic waves in a semi-infinite strongly anisotropic easy-plane ferromagnet with a rigidly fixed face are analyzed for two variants of fixation (in the basal plane and perpendicularly to it). The phase states of the system are determined. Differences in the phase diagrams and elementary excitation spectra depending on the choice of the sample fixation plane are considered. When rotational invariance is taken into account, the nonreciprocity effect for the velocities of sound in a crystal appears. It is shown that the velocity of sound in the sample considerably depends on the symmetry of the imposed mechanical boundary conditions. The phase diagrams of the system under investigation are presented

  3. Influence of substrate type on transport properties of superconducting FeSe0.5Te0.5 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Feifei; Shi, Zhixiang; Iida, Kazumasa; Langer, Marco; Hänisch, Jens; Hühne, Ruben; Schultz, Ludwig; Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro; Sala, Alberto; Putti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    FeSe 0.5 Te 0.5 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on CaF 2 , LaAlO 3 and MgO substrates and structurally and electro-magnetically characterized in order to study the influence of the substrate on their transport properties. The in-plane lattice mismatch between FeSe 0.5 Te 0.5 bulk and the substrate shows no influence on the lattice parameters of the films, whereas the type of substrate affects the crystalline quality of the films and, therefore, the superconducting properties. The film on MgO showed an extra peak in the angular dependence of critical current density J c (θ) at θ = 180° (H||c), which arises from c-axis defects as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In contrast, no J c (θ) peaks for H||c were observed in films on CaF 2 and LaAlO 3 . J c (θ) can be scaled successfully for both films without c-axis correlated defects by the anisotropic Ginzburg–Landau approach with appropriate anisotropy ratio γ J . The scaling parameter γ J is decreasing with decreasing temperature, which is different from what we observed in FeSe 0.5 Te 0.5 films on Fe-buffered MgO substrates. (paper)

  4. Superconducting and normal-state properties of the layered boride OsB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Niazi, A.; Vannette, M. D.; Prozorov, R.; Johnston, D. C.

    2007-12-01

    OsB2 crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (Pmmn) which contains alternate boron and osmium layers stacked along the c axis. The boron layers consist of puckered hexagons as opposed to the flat graphite-like boron layers in MgB2 . OsB2 is reported to become superconducting below 2.1K . We report results of the dynamic and static magnetic susceptibilities, electrical resistivity, Hall effect, heat capacity, and penetration depth measurements on arc-melted polycrystalline samples of OsB2 to characterize its superconducting and normal-state properties. These measurements confirmed that OsB2 becomes a bulk superconductor below Tc=2.1K . Our results indicate that OsB2 is a moderate-coupling type-II superconductor with an electron-phonon coupling constant λep≈0.4-0.5 , a small Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ˜1-2 , and an upper critical magnetic field Hc2(0.5K)˜420Oe for an unannealed sample and Hc2(1K)˜330Oe for an annealed sample. The temperature dependence of the superfluid density ns(T) for the unannealed sample is consistent with an s -wave superconductor with a slightly enhanced zero temperature gap Δ(0)=1.9kBTc and a zero temperature London penetration depth λ(0)=0.38(2)μm . The ns(T) data for the annealed sample show deviations from the predictions of the single-band s -wave BCS model. The magnetic, transport, and thermal properties in the normal state of isostructural and isoelectronic RuB2 , which is reported to become superconducting below 1.6K , are also reported.

  5. The anisotropic magnetic property and Faraday rotation in Er3Ga5O12 under high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Xijuan; Liu Gongqiang

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical investigation on the anisotropic magnetic property and Faraday rotation in Er 3 Ga 5 O 12 (ErGaG) is presented. With particular consideration of the anisotropy of the exchange interaction between rare-earth ions (Er 3+ ), the magnetization, based on the quantum theory, in ErGaG under high magnetic field (HMF) is calculated. Theoretical calculations show that the appropriate choice of the crystal field (CF) parameters is of great importance. A novel three-level model is presented, and in terms of this model the Faraday rotation under HMF is calculated. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Faraday rotation (θ) depends not only on the magnetization (M) but also on the magnetic field (H e ). The theory is in good agreement with the experiment

  6. Elastic properties of superconducting bulk metallic glasses; Elastische Eigenschaften von supraleitenden massiven metallischen Glaesern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Marius

    2015-07-01

    Within the framework of this thesis the elastic properties of a superconducting bulk metallic glass between 10 mK and 300 K were first investigated. In order to measure the entire temperature range, in particular the low temperature part, new experimental techniques were developed. Using an inductive readout scheme for a double paddle oscillator it was possible to determine the internal friction and the relative change of sound velocity of bulk metallic glasses with high precision. This allowed for a detailed comparison of the data with different models. The analysis focuses on the low temperature regime where the properties of glassy materials are governed by atomic tunneling systems as described by the tunneling model. The influence of conduction electrons in the normal conducting state and quasiparticles in the superconducting state of the glass were accounted for in the theoretical description, resulting in a good agreement over a large temperature range between measured data and prediction of the tunneling model. This allowed for a direct determination of the coupling constant between electrons and tunneling systems. In the vicinity of the transition temperature Tc the data can only be described if a modified distribution function of the tunneling parameters is applied.

  7. Interface superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.

  8. Tailoring Superconductivity with Quantum Dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingda; Song, Qichen; Liu, Te-Huan; Meroueh, Laureen; Mahan, Gerald D; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Chen, Gang

    2017-08-09

    Despite the established knowledge that crystal dislocations can affect a material's superconducting properties, the exact mechanism of the electron-dislocation interaction in a dislocated superconductor has long been missing. Being a type of defect, dislocations are expected to decrease a material's superconducting transition temperature (T c ) by breaking the coherence. Yet experimentally, even in isotropic type I superconductors, dislocations can either decrease, increase, or have little influence on T c . These experimental findings have yet to be understood. Although the anisotropic pairing in dirty superconductors has explained impurity-induced T c reduction, no quantitative agreement has been reached in the case a dislocation given its complexity. In this study, by generalizing the one-dimensional quantized dislocation field to three dimensions, we reveal that there are indeed two distinct types of electron-dislocation interactions. Besides the usual electron-dislocation potential scattering, there is another interaction driving an effective attraction between electrons that is caused by dislons, which are quantized modes of a dislocation. The role of dislocations to superconductivity is thus clarified as the competition between the classical and quantum effects, showing excellent agreement with existing experimental data. In particular, the existence of both classical and quantum effects provides a plausible explanation for the illusive origin of dislocation-induced superconductivity in semiconducting PbS/PbTe superlattice nanostructures. A quantitative criterion has been derived, in which a dislocated superconductor with low elastic moduli and small electron effective mass and in a confined environment is inclined to enhance T c . This provides a new pathway for engineering a material's superconducting properties by using dislocations as an additional degree of freedom.

  9. Superconductivity: Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect

  10. A visualization instrument to investigate the mechanical-electro properties of high temperature superconducting tapes under multi-fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xingyi, E-mail: zhangxingyi@lzu.edu.cn; Liu, Cong; Zhang, Wentao; Zhou, Jun; Zhou, YouHe [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China Attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, People’s Republic of China and Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2016-07-15

    We construct a visible instrument to study the mechanical-electro behaviors of high temperature superconducting tape as a function of magnetic field, strain, and temperature. This apparatus is directly cooled by a commercial Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The minimum temperature of sample can be 8.75 K. A proportion integration differentiation temperature control is used, which is capable of producing continuous variation of specimen temperature from 8.75 K to 300 K with an optional temperature sweep rate. We use an external loading device to stretch the superconducting tape quasi-statically with the maximum tension strain of 20%. A superconducting magnet manufactured by the NbTi strand is applied to provide magnetic field up to 5 T with a homogeneous range of 110 mm. The maximum fluctuation of the magnetic field is less than 1%. We design a kind of superconducting lead composed of YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductor and beryllium copper alloy (BeCu) to transfer DC to the superconducting sample with the maximum value of 600 A. Most notably, this apparatus allows in situ observation of the electromagnetic property of superconducting tape using the classical magnetic-optical imaging.

  11. Superconducting properties of the η-pairing state in the Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czart, W.R.; Robaszkiewicz, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model, i.e. the Hubbard model with the pair-hopping interaction J is studied. We focus on the properties of the superconducting state with the Cooper-pair center-of mass momentum q Q(η-phase). The transition into the η-phase, which is favorized by the repulsive J (J c |, dependent on band filling, on-site interaction U and band structure, and the system never exhibits standard BCS-like features. This is in obvious contrast with the properties of the isotropic s-wave state, stabilized by the attractive J and attractive U, which exhibit at T = 0 a smooth crossover from the BCS-like limit to that of tightly bound pairs with increasing pairing strength. (author)

  12. Highly anisotropic electronic transport properties of monolayer and bilayer phosphorene from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhenghe; Mullen, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Kim, Ki Wook, E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsic carrier transport dynamics in phosphorene is theoretically examined. Utilizing a density functional theory treatment, the low-field mobility and the saturation velocity are characterized for both electrons and holes in the monolayer and bilayer structures. The analysis clearly elucidates the crystal orientation dependence manifested through the anisotropic band structure and the carrier-phonon scattering rates. In the monolayer, the hole mobility in the armchair direction is estimated to be approximately five times larger than in the zigzag direction at room temperature (460 cm{sup 2}/V s vs. 90 cm{sup 2}/V s). The bilayer transport, on the other hand, exhibits a more modest anisotropy with substantially higher mobilities (1610 cm{sup 2}/V s and 760 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively). The calculations on the conduction-band electrons indicate a comparable dependence while the characteristic values are generally smaller by about a factor of two. The variation in the saturation velocity is found to be less pronounced. With the anticipated superior performance and the diminished anisotropy, few-layer phosphorene offers a promising opportunity particularly in p-type applications.

  13. Synthesis and study of the magnetic properties of thallium-based over-doped superconducting compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opagiste, C.

    1994-07-01

    The synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the normal and superconducting states of over-doped Tl 2 Ba 2 Cu O 6±x and Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca Cu 2 O 8±x superconducting compounds, are presented. Synthesis under high pressure using Tl 2 Ba 2 O 5 as a precursor avoids thallium losses and Ba Cu O 2 formation. The entire over-doped region has been investigated (Tc ranging from 0 to 92 K) and the different stability zones for the two crystallographic structures have been explored. The orthorhombic structure is shown to be stoichiometric in cations, while the tetragonal one could present thallium deficiency. Clear correlations have been established between Tc and the lattice parameters for the two phases. It has been observed that the Meissner fraction increased with Tc and that the reversibility domain was more extended for samples having a Tc near the maximal value, which must be linked to the decrease of the anisotropy with over-doping. In the reversible regime, the mixed state is affected by thermal fluctuations around Tc. Evolution of the penetration depth with Tc is examined; it shows that the optimum doped compound (maximal Tc) behaves as a BCS type superconductor. The over-doping results in a penetration depth behaviour which strongly deviates from the standard model (BCS, two fluids). The zero temperature, obtained by extrapolation, seems to be independent of the over-doping. 54 figs., 3 tabs., 168 refs

  14. Improving superconducting properties of YBCO high temperature superconductor by Graphene Oxide doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadras, S., E-mail: dadras@alzahra.ac.ir; Dehghani, S.; Davoudiniya, M.; Falahati, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, we report the synthesis and characterization of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) high temperature superconductor prepared by sol-gel method and doped with Graphene Oxide (GO) in different weight percentages, 0, 0.1, 0.7 and 1 % wt. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of orthorhombic phase of superconductivity for all the prepared samples. We found that GO doping reduces the crystalline size of the samples. We evaluated the effects of GO doping on the normal state resistivity (ρ), superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) and critical current density (J{sub c}). The results show that the GO doping has a positive effect on these properties. Also, the highest J{sub c} is obtained for the 0.7 %wt GO doped YBCO compound that its critical current density is about 15 times more than the J{sub c} of pure one in 0.4 T magnetic field. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows that there are better connections between the grains of GO doped samples. - Highlights: • Graphene Oxide doping increased the YBCO critical current density. • Graphene Oxide creates a better connection between the YBCO grains. • The normal resistivity of samples were decreased by GO doping to YBCO compounds. • Graphene Oxide doping has a positive effect on the critical transition temperature.

  15. Influence of Ni and Cu contamination on the superconducting properties of MgB2 filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, A; Schlachter, S I; Runtsch, B; Ringsdorf, B; Fillinger, H; Orschulko, H; Drechsler, A; Goldacker, W

    2010-01-01

    Technical MgB 2 wires usually have a sheath composite consisting of different metals. For the inner sheath with direct contact to the superconducting filament, chemically inert Nb may be used as a reaction barrier and thermal stabilization is provided by a highly conductive metal like Cu. A mechanical reinforcement can be achieved by the addition of stainless steel. In order to illuminate the influence of defects in the reaction barrier, monofilament in situ wires with direct contact between the MgB 2 filament and frequently applied reactive sheath metals like Cu, Ni or Monel are studied. Reactions of Mg and B with a Cu-containing sheath lead to Cu-based by-products penetrating the whole filament. Reactions with Ni-containing sheaths lead to Ni-based by-products which tend to remain at the filament-sheath interface. Cu and/or Ni contamination of the filament lowers the MgB 2 -forming temperature due to the eutectic reaction between Mg, Ni and Cu. Thus, for the samples heat-treated at low temperatures J C and (partly) T C are increased compared to stainless-steel-sheathed wires. At high heat treatment temperatures uncontaminated filaments lead to the highest J C values. From the point of view of broken reaction barriers in real wires, the contamination of the filament with Cu and/or Ni does not necessarily constrain the superconductivity; it may even improve the properties of the wire, depending on the desired application.

  16. Analysis of transmittance properties in 1D hybrid dielectric photonic crystal containing superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Osswa; Zaghdoudi, Jihene; Kanzari, Mounir

    2018-06-01

    By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method (TMM), we investigate theoretically the transmittance properties of a defective hybrid dielectric-dielectric photonic crystal that contains a superconducting material as a defect layer. The considered hybrid photonic structure is: H(LH) 7(HLSLH) P H(LH) 7 , where H is the high refractive index dielectric, L is the low refractive index dielectric, S is the superconducting material and P is the repetitive number. The results show that the variation of the number and the positions of the transmissions modes depend strongly on the repetitive number P, the temperature T and the thickness of the layer S. An improvement of the spectral response is obtained with the exponential gradation of layer thicknesses dj =d0 + βejα , where d0 is the initial thickness of the layer j, α and β are two particular constants for each material. In addition, the effect of the incident angle for both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations on the transmittance spectrum is discussed. As a result, we propose a tunable narrow stop-band polychromatic filter that covers the visible wavelength.

  17. Superconducting properties of the hexagonal-close-packed alloy system TcZr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, P.

    1984-01-01

    The theoretical formula of McMillan, modified via the multiple-scattering theory of Gomersall and Gyorffy, is very successful in computing the electron-phonon coupling constant (lambda) and the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/) of elements and compounds from quantities readily obtainable from band structure work or approaches based on the scattering theory. However, for disordered solids this theory fails because of the breakdown of the translational symmetry used in the multiple scattering theory. In the particular case of substitutional alloys, the problem can still be solved however if, at each lattice point, the t-matrix of an individual scatterer is replaced by a configurational average of the t-matrices of the alloying materials (average t-matrix approximation). This modified theory, which has already been successfully applied to some cubic substitutional alloys, is herein used to predict lambda and T/sub c/ for the h.c.p. TcZr alloy system. The results indicate that this system has good superconducting properties. (author)

  18. Experimental study of the anisotropic properties of argillite under moisture and mechanical loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.S.; Chanchole, S.; Wang, L.L.; Bornert, M.; Gatmiri, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Due to various factors, such as sedimentation, layered morphology of clay mineral, in-situ stress, etc., the behavior of argillite rocks is often anisotropic. In order to study the anisotropy of the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) argillite considered as a possible host rock for high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository in France, a series of tests including uniaxial compression and dehydration and hydration at different constant applied stress levels, are carried out using a specific setup combining mechanical and moisture loading devices. During these hydro-mechanical tests, this specific setup can also continuously capture images of the sample surfaces to be subsequently analyzed using Digital Image Correlation techniques (DIC) in order to determine full-field strains. In this study, three sampling directions are used with the angle θ between the bedding plane and the cylindrical sample axis equal to 45 deg., 60 deg. and 90 deg.. To investigate the mechanical anisotropy, uniaxial compressive tests with mechanical loading and unloading cycles are performed on several different samples at the same moisture level. The results show that the mechanical parameters (apparent modulus, failure stress) depend on loading orientation relative to the stratification plane. For a given water content, the failure stress reaches maximum values for θ =90 deg. and minimum values for θ =45 deg.. To study the hydric anisotropy, dehydration and hydration tests under stress-free conditions are performed on two cylindrical samples (θ=90 deg. and θ=60 deg.). Three cycles of hydration and dehydration are carried out by varying the relative humidity between 40% and 95%. The sample weight, the deformation measured by strain gages and the relative humidity are continuously recorded during the test by means of another specific setup described in [Pham et al., 2007]. Fig.1a illustrates the evolution of the strains of the sample EST28030-No

  19. Physical Properties of Niobium and Specifications for Fabrication of Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine, C.; Foley, M.; Dhanaraj, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    It is important to distinguish among the properties of niobium, the ones that are related to the cavity's SRF performances, the formability of the material, and the mechanical behavior of the formed cavity. In general, the properties that dictate each of the above mentioned characteristics have a detrimental effect on one another and in order to preserve the superconducting properties without subduing the mechanical behavior, a balance has to be established. Depending on the applications, some parameters become less important and an understanding of the physical origin of the requirements might help in this optimization. SRF applications require high purity niobium (high RRR), but pure niobium is very soft from fabrication viewpoint. Moreover conventional fabrication techniques tend to override the effects of any metallurgical process meant to strengthen it. As those treatments dramatically affect the forming of the material they should be avoided. These unfavorable mechanical properties have to be accounted for in the design of the cavities rather than in the material specification. The aim of this paper is to review the significance of the important mechanical properties used to characterize niobium and to present the optimal range of values. Most of the following information deals with the specification of sheets for cell forming unless otherwise noted.

  20. Physical Properties of Niobium and Specifications for Fabrication of Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine, C.; Foley, M.; Dhanaraj, N.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to distinguish among the properties of niobium, the ones that are related to the cavity's SRF performances, the formability of the material, and the mechanical behavior of the formed cavity. In general, the properties that dictate each of the above mentioned characteristics have a detrimental effect on one another and in order to preserve the superconducting properties without subduing the mechanical behavior, a balance has to be established. Depending on the applications, some parameters become less important and an understanding of the physical origin of the requirements might help in this optimization. SRF applications require high purity niobium (high RRR), but pure niobium is very soft from fabrication viewpoint. Moreover conventional fabrication techniques tend to override the effects of any metallurgical process meant to strengthen it. As those treatments dramatically affect the forming of the material they should be avoided. These unfavorable mechanical properties have to be accounted for in the design of the cavities rather than in the material specification. The aim of this paper is to review the significance of the important mechanical properties used to characterize niobium and to present the optimal range of values. Most of the following information deals with the specification of sheets for cell forming unless otherwise noted.

  1. Orientational structure formation of silk fibroin with anisotropic properties in solutions; Orientastionnoe strukturoobrazovanie fibroina shelka s anizotropnymi svojstvami v rastvorakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholmuminov, A A [AS RU, Institute of Polymer Chemistry and Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2008-06-15

    presence of longitudinal field on the boundary 'reservoir - withdrawing capillary' of gland, initiating the transition of {alpha}-spiral in {beta}-structures as well as phase separation of fibroin and sericin in stream were discovered; the phase diagram of liquidus for secret in the framework of polymers orientation crystallization conception were suggested; the mechanism of fibroin orientational crystallization under the longitudinal flow of solutions and gels was conformed experimentally; the scientific principles of oriented-crystallized fibrillar biopolymer materials receipt were established on the base of fibroin model solutions with properties of anisotropy of moisture absorption, swelling, desorption, thermo- and biodegradation; the approach of jointly using polarization-optical and hydrodynamic methods to the investigation of fibrillar biopolymers structure formation and phase transformations in solution was developed. Practical value - the elucidated physical regularities of fibroin solution allow to formulate a new idea on fibrillar biopolymer solutions formation and to get on their late model systems for practical use; the established scientific principles of orientational structure-formation and phase transformation of fibroin will be the base for development of original methods of anisotropic biopolymer materials from solutions of the polarization-optical and developed hydrodynamic methods can be used for the investigation of structure and phase transformations of wide range of fibrillar biopolymer samples. Sphere of usage: physics of anisotropic polymer systems, macromolecular compounds solutions, gels, crystals, biopolymers materials science, optical polarization and hydrodynamics. (author)

  2. ac superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface

  3. Electro-physical properties of superconducting ceramic thick film prepared by partial melting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2013-05-01

    BiSrCaCuO superconductor thick films were prepared at several curing temperatures, and their electro-physical properties were determined to find an optimum fabrication conditions. Critical temperatures of the superconductors were decreased with increasing melting temperature, which was related to the amount of equilibrium phases of the superconducting materials with temperature. The critical temperature of BiSrCaCuO bulk and thick film superconductors were 107 K and 96 K, respectively. The variation of susceptibility of the superconductor thick film formed at 950 degrees C had multi-step-type curve for 70 G externally applied field, whereas, a superconductor thick film formed at 885 degrees C had a single step-type curve like a bulk BiSrCaCuO ceramic superconductor in the temperature-susceptibility curves. A partial melting at 865 degrees C is one of optimum conditions for making a superconductor thick film with a relatively homogeneous phase.

  4. Influence of stresses on superconducting properties of Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Luhman, T.S.; Sampson, W.B.; Onishi, T.; Klamut, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation of the degradation in the superconducting properties of Nb 3 Sn conductors when subjected to mechanical strain can be divided into the following areas: (I) monofilamentary Nb 3 Sn wires, (II) multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductors and wires, (III) effects of additives to Nb 3 Sn, (IV) mechanisms for degradation, and (V) construction of test facilities. Efforts to the present time have been concentrated in the investigation of T/sub c/, J/sub c/, and H/sub c2/ variations in monofilamentary wires. The most important finding in this study is that a Nb 3 Sn composite wire can sustain an effective mechanical strain well beyond ''1%'' if a proper ratio of the matrix to the Nb core has been chosen

  5. International round robin test for mechanical properties of Nb3Sn superconductive wires at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osamura, K; Nyilas, A; Thoener, M; Seeber, B; Fluekiger, R; Ilyin, Y; Njihuis, A; Ekin, J; Clickner, C; Walsh, R P; Toplosky, V; Shin, H; Katagiri, K; Ochiai, S; Hojo, M; Kubo, Y; Miyashita, K

    2008-01-01

    An international RRT has been carried out in order to establish the test method for mechanical properties of commercial Nb 3 Sn superconductive wires under the cooperation of eleven worldwide research groups. From the stress-strain curve, the following quantities were evaluated; modulus of elasticity, transition of elastic to plastic deformation, proof strength, tensile strength and elongation to fracture. The scatter of measured values was analyzed to evaluate the COV, which is the standard deviation divided by the average. The results made clear how the experimental conditions influence the determination of physical quantities. The most important point is that large COVs for modulus of elasticity and proof strength from the initial slope are caused by the narrow elastic limit. Methods have been discussed to improve the statistics of experimental results obtained from the international RRT

  6. Probing the local microwave properties of superconducting thin films by a scanning microwave near-field microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, L Y; Wang, K L; Jiang, T; Kang, L; Yang, S Z; Wu, P H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present our approach to probe the local microwave properties of superconducting thin films by using the microwave near-field scanning technique. We have employed a coaxial cavity together with a niobium tip as the probe and established a scanning sample stage cooled by liquid nitrogen to study thin film devices at low temperature in our scanning microwave near-field microscope. Nondestructive images have been obtained on the inhomogeneity of the YBaCuO superconducting thin films at microwave frequency. We believe that these results would be helpful in evaluating the microwave performance of the devices.

  7. Mechanical properties of cancellous bone in the human mandibular condyle are anisotropic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesen, EB; Ding, Ming; Dalstra, M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was (1) to test the hypothesis that the elastic and failure properties of the cancellous bone of the mandibular condyle depend on the loading direction, and (2) to relate these properties to bone density parameters. Uniaxial compression tests were performed......). Archimedes' principle was applied to determine bone density parameters. The cancellous bone was in axial loading 3.4 times stiffer and 2.8 times stronger upon failure than in transverse loading. High coefficients of correlation were found among the various mechanical properties and between them...

  8. Relations between structural and superconducting properties of bulk and thin film high-Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel Andersen, N.

    1994-06-01

    The structural ordering of oxygen deficient and Co-doped YBCO (YBa 2 Cu 3-y Co y O 6+x ) have been studied experimentally, and by computer simulations of the oxygen ordering in the basal plane of the structure. The calculations are based on the two-dimensional ASYNNNI model and its modifications. Good agreement is established between the ASYNNNI calculations and the experimentally observed structural properties of the double cell ortho-II structure and the oxygen disordering process from Co-doping into the basal plane. A model that relates the superconducting transition temperature T c (x) of undoped YBCO and T c (y) of Co-doped YBCO to the formation of specific domains of the two orthorhombic ordered oxygen phases, ortho-I and ortho-II, shows a close agreement with experimental T c (x) and T c (y) data of samples prepared under equilibrium conditions. The structural changes as a result of metal ion substitutions and oxidation/reduction processes have been studied by neutron powder diffraction in Pb 2 Sr 2 Ln 1-x Ca x Cu 3 O 8+y (Ln = Y and Ho), Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 CuO 4+y , and chemically oxidized La 2-x Sr x CuO 4+y 2 Cu 3-y Al y O 6+x (y 2 Cu 3 O 6+x and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x thin films deposited on SrTiO 3 (001), MgO (001), LaAlO 3 (001), and NdGaO 3 (001) substrates has been studied by x-ray diffraction, TEM and RBS, and the structural ordering has been analysed in relation to their superconducting properties. (au) (30 ills., 29 refs.)

  9. Growth of epitaxial Ba2YCu3O(7-delta) thin films and control of their superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.P.; Phillips, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship is experimentally defined between the superconducting behavior of Ba2YCu3O(7-delta) (BYCO) films and their structural characteristics. The BYCO films are grown on LaAlO3 100-plane by coevaporating BaF2, Y, and Cu followed by ex situ annealing, and the crystalline quality is tested by Rutherford backscattering ion channeling. SEM is employed to study film morphology, and several techniques are used to measure the transition temperature (Tc), critical current density (Jc), and the penetration length. It is found that point defects and dislocations decrease as the high-temperature stage (Ta) increases; crevices, pinholes, and microcracks are also noted which are related to specific values of Tc, Ta, and penetration length. The results of the present experiments indicate that the material properties of superconducting materials should be examined closely to distinguish between pure superconducting behavior and characteristics related to material structure. 21 refs

  10. Superconducting properties of La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schottenhamel, Wolf; Wolter-Giraud, Anja; Buechner, Bernd [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, IFW Dresden (Germany); Huecker, Markus [Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-07-01

    La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} displays an anomalous doping dependence associated with a deep suppression of superconductivity at the hole concentration x=1/8. The so-called 1/8-anomaly is accompanied by a structural transition in the average rotational symmetry of the CuO{sub 2} planes coinciding with the onset of a charge stripe order. It has been claimed that static stripe order destroys the superconducting phase coherence, while dynamic stripe correlations may promote superconductivity. In order to achieve more information about the relationship between superconductivity, stripe order and crystal structure we performed magnetization measurements under pressure up to 3 GPa on the single crystalline La{sub 2-x}Ba{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} with 0.095 ≤ x ≤ 0.125. Moreover, we relate the magnetization data to pressure dependent X-Ray diffraction studies. This way, we show that the specific superconducting properties as function of pressure are clearly correlated to structural changes.

  11. Preferred Orientation Contribution to the Anisotropic Normal State Resistivity in Superconducting Melt-Cast Processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Dellicour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe how the contribution of crystallographic texture to the anisotropy of the resistivity of polycrystalline samples can be estimated by averaging over crystallographic orientations through a geometric mean approach. The calculation takes into account the orientation distribution refined from neutron diffraction data and literature values for the single crystal resistivity tensor. The example discussed here is a melt-cast processed Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212 polycrystalline tube in which the main texture component is a <010> fiber texture with relatively low texture strength. Experimentally-measured resistivities along the longitudinal, radial, and tangential directions of the Bi-2212 tube were compared to calculated values and found to be of the same order of magnitude. Calculations for this example and additional simulations for various texture strengths and single crystal resistivity anisotropies confirm that in the case of highly anisotropic phases such as Bi-2212, even low texture strengths have a significant effect on the anisotropy of the resistivity in polycrystalline samples.

  12. Anisotropic superconducting properties and fabrication of submicrometre bridges in misaligned Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (2212) films

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, M; Usami, K; Goto, T; Kobayashi, T

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report on misaligned Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (2212) films that have been deposited on vicinal strontium titanate substrates using a dc sputtering system. We measured the temperature dependences of resistivity across and along the terrace, and only the resistivity across the terrace slightly decreased with the increase of the temperature in the normal state region. The estimated anisotropy parameter gamma was smaller than that of single crystal, but a significant anisotropy was observed. Submicrometre bridges were fabricated, and the temperature dependence of the critical current density was investigated. The value of the critical current density across the terrace is smaller than the value of that along the terrace. This suggests that the current partially flows along the c-axis. However, a multi-branch structure was not observed even after post annealing in oxygen atmosphere at low pressure.

  13. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  14. 3D printed barium titanate/poly-(vinylidene fluoride) nano-hybrid with anisotropic dielectric properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phatharapeetranun, N.; Ksapabutr, B.; Marani, D.

    2017-01-01

    properties of the starting materials are optimized to shape the hybrid by the precision-extrusion-based fuse deposition modeling technique. The 3D-printed BTNFs allow complex shapes with different degrees of fiber alignment as the result of printing shear stress and the chemical composition of the starting...

  15. Study of Optoelectronics Properties of Anisotropic Semiconductor Compounds with Ordered Stochiometric Vacancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roud, Iouri

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking loffe Institute as follows: The main aim of the project is to carry out basic research on optoelectronic properties of CdGeAs2 and (Zn,Cd,Hg)(Ga,Al,ln)2(S,Se,Te...

  16. Stability properties of an anisotropic guiding center plasma and relation with the Suydam function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, J.Y.; Davidson, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of pressure anisotropy on the equilibrium and stability properties of an unstable guiding center plasma and the dependence of associated stability properties on the Suydam function S are examined. An explicit solution of the guiding center plasma equilibrium equation is obtained as a function of the anitsotropy parameter αequivalentP/sub parallel//P/sub perpendicular/ (assumed constant), and the maximum growth rates for internal kink modes are numerically computed for the entire permissible range of α. For a typical tokamak field configuration with shear in straight cylindrical geometry, it is found that the maximum growth rate is a monotonically increasing function of α. A detailed parameter study of equilibrium and stability properties is presented. The dependence of stability properties on the Suydam function S is investigated by correlating maximum growth rates with the magnitude of S, and by examining the ratio of consecutive eigenvalues for each set of the parameters. The numerical analysis shows that, even though the Suydam function occurs naturally in studies of marginal stability, the maximum growth rate (except for a narrow range of α) is a monotonically decreasing function of S

  17. Analysis on the anisotropic electromechanical properties of lead magnoniobate titanate single crystal for ring type ultrasonic motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work discussed the optimized cut of single crystal lead magnoniobate titanate (PMNT for use of ring type travelling wave ultrasonic motors (USMs, according to anisotropic analysis on electromechanical properties. The selection criterion of crystal orientation relies on the circular uniformity of the induced travelling wave amplitude on the stator surface. By calculating the equivalent elastic coefficient c11 and lateral piezoelectric constant d31, the optimal crystal orientations were proposed for PMNT single crystals poled along different directions. For single crystal poled along c directions, the optimal orientation lies along [001]c with d31=-1335pC/N and k31=0.87. The crystallographic orientation [025]c is the optimized orientation for single crystals poled along c direction with d31=199pC/N and k31=0.55. The optimal orientation of 1R configuration is [332¯]c with a large enhancement of d31 = 1201 and k31=0.92.

  18. Band structure and optical properties of highly anisotropic LiBa2[B10O16(OH)3] decaborate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smok, P.; Kityk, I.V.; Berdowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    The band structure (BS), charge density distribution and linear-optical properties of the anisotropic crystal LiBa 2 [B 10 O 16 (OH) 3 ] (LBBOH) are calculated using a self-consistent norm-conserving pseudopotential method within the framework of the local-density approximation theory. A high anisotropy of the band energy gap (4.22 eV for the E parallel b, 4.46 eV for the E parallel c) and giant birefringence (up to 0.20) are found. Comparison of the theoretically calculated and the experimentally measured polarised spectra of the imaginary part of the dielectric susceptibility ε 2 shows a good agreement. The anisotropy of the charge density distribution, BS dispersion and of the optical spectra originate from anisotropy between the 2p z B-2p z O and 2p y,x B-2p y,y O bonding orbitals. The observed anisotropy in the LBBOH is principally different from that of β-BaB 2 O 4 (BBO) single crystals. In the LBBOH single crystals the anisotropy of optical and charge density distribution is caused by different projection of the orbitals originating from particular borate clusters on the particular crystallographic axes, contrary to the BBO, where the anisotropy is caused prevailingly by a different local site symmetry of oxygen within the borate planes. The observed anisotropy is analysed in terms of the band energy dispersion and space charge density distribution

  19. Theoretical prediction of sandwiched two-dimensional phosphide binary compound sheets with tunable bandgaps and anisotropic physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. Y.; Yu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Atomic layers of GaP and InP binary compounds with unique anisotropic structural, electronic and mechanical properties have been predicted from first-principle molecular dynamics simulations. These new members of the phosphide binary compound family stabilize to a sandwiched two-dimensional (2D) crystalline structure with orthorhombic lattice symmetry and high buckling of 2.14 Å-2.46 Å. Their vibration modes are similar to those of phosphorene with six Raman active modes ranging from ˜80 cm-1 to 400 cm-1. The speeds of sound in their phonon dispersions reflect anisotropy in their elastic constants, which was further confirmed by their strong directional dependence of Young’s moduli and effective nonlinear elastic moduli. They show wide bandgap semiconductor behavior with fundamental bandgaps of 2.89 eV for GaP and 2.59 eV for InP, respectively, even wider than their bulk counterparts. Such bandgaps were found to be tunable under strain. In particular, a direct-indirect bandgap transition was found under certain strains along zigzag or biaxial orientations, reflecting their promising applications in strain-induced bandgap engineering in nanoelectronics and photovoltaics. Feasible pathways to realize these novel 2D phosphide compounds are also proposed.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Anisotropic Nano-crystalline NdFeB Powders Made by Hydrogen Decrepitation of Die Upsetting Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, P P; Lee, D; Yan, A R, E-mail: ypp@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB powders were prepared by hydrogen decrepitation (HD) of die upsetting magnets. The effects of varying temperatures of HD on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the anisotropic NdFeB particles were studied. It shows that the powders which obtained by HD process at higher temperature were larger than that at lower temperature, and the HD powders show a well anisotropy at 723 K, the remanence (B{sub r}) was more than 12.46 kG, the maximum energy product ((BH){sub max}) was 19.06 MGOe, and the coercivity (H{sub cj}) was 7.2 kOe. The microstructure of the anisotropic powders revealed that with a reasonable HD temperature, the platelet grains were not destroyed. They were nearly 150-300 nm long and 30-50 nm wide. The results indicate that HD process was an effective way to prepare the anisotropic NdFeB powders.

  1. Metallurgy, fabrication, and superconducting properties of multifilamentary Nb3Al composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafstrom, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The control of metallurgical structure during fabrication that will improve the superconducting properties of multifilamentary, aluminium-stabilized, Nb 3 Al composites is described. Composites are fabricated by placing niobium rods in an aluminum matrix, and then drawing to wire. Nb 3 Al is formed at temperatures exceeding 1800 0 C for about 5 s and ordered at 750 0 C for 48 h. A critical current, J/sub c/(H), in excess of 10 5 A/cm 2 (F/sub p/ approximately equal to 7 x 10 8 dynes/cm 3 ) at 7 T and a T/sub c/ to 18.2 K are obtained. Attempts to improve J/sub c/(H) by controlling the grain size in the Nb 3 Al diffused layer are discussed. Precipitates, arising from the addition of carbon during Nb 3 Al layer growth, do not appear to be effective as grain-boundary or flux pinners. When 1 percent Zr is added to the Nb, the growth of the Nb 3 Al layer is accelerated, T/sub c/ is lowered and J/sub c/(H) is not significantly improved. J/sub c/(H) rapidly decreases with an increase in Nb 3 Al or (Nb-Zr) 3 Al layer thickness, d. J/sub c/(H) is independent of d in composites with d greater than or approximately equal to 1.5 μm. In general, the Nb 3 Al grain size appears comparable to d for d less than or equal to 1 μm. Significant improvement of J/sub c/(H) for Nb 3 Al superconducting composites reacted at temperatures above 1800 0 C (to achieve T/sub c/ greater than 17 K) is achieved only by maintaining the layer thickness well below d approximately equal to 1.0 μm

  2. Anisotropic local physical properties of human dental enamel in comparison to properties of some common dental filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Lars; Hartmann, Christiane D; Rödiger, Matthias; Bürgers, Ralf; Gersdorff, Nikolaus

    2014-11-01

    A major aspect in evaluating the quality of dental materials is their physical properties. Their properties should be a best fit of the ones of dental hard tissues. Manufacturers give data sheets for each material. The properties listed are characterized by a specific value. This assumes (but does not prove) that there is no direction dependence of the properties. However, dental enamel has direction-dependent properties which additionally vary with location in the tooth. The aim of this paper is to show the local direction dependence of physical properties like the elastic modulus or the thermal expansion in dental hard tissues. With this knowledge the 'perfect filling/dental material' could be characterized. Enamel sections of ∼400-500 μm thickness have been cut with a diamond saw from labial/buccal to palatal/lingual (canine, premolar and molar) and parallel to labial (incisor). Crystallite arrangements have been measured in over 400 data points on all types of teeth with x-ray scattering techniques, known from materials science. X-ray scattering measurements show impressively that dental enamel has a strong direction dependence of its physical properties which also varies with location within the tooth. Dental materials possess only little or no property direction dependence. Therefore, a mismatch was found between enamel and dental materials properties. Since dental materials should possess equal (direction depending) properties, worthwhile properties could be characterized by transferring the directional properties of enamel into a property 'wish list' which future dental materials should fulfil. Hereby the 'perfect dental material' can be characterized.

  3. Simultaneous reconstruction of thermal degradation properties for anisotropic scattering fibrous insulation after high temperature thermal exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuyuan; Zhang, Wenjiao; He, Xiaodong; Li, Jianjun; Yao, Yongtao; Lin, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    To probe thermal degradation behavior of fibrous insulation for long-term service, an inverse analysis model was developed to simultaneously reconstruct thermal degradation properties of fibers after thermal exposures from the experimental thermal response data, by using the measured infrared spectral transmittance and X-ray phase analysis data as direct inputs. To take into account the possible influence of fibers degradation after thermal exposure on the conduction heat transfer, we introduced a new parameter in the thermal conductivity model. The effect of microstructures on the thermal degradation parameters was evaluated. It was found that after high temperature thermal exposure the decay rate of the radiation intensity passing through the material was weakened, and the probability of being scattered decreased during the photons traveling in the medium. The fibrous medium scattered more radiation into the forward directions. The shortened heat transfer path due to possible mechanical degradation, along with the enhancement of mean free path of phonon scattering as devitrification after severe heat treatment, made the coupled solid/gas thermal conductivities increase with the rise of heat treatment temperature. - Highlights: • A new model is developed to probe conductive and radiative properties degradation of fibers. • To characterize mechanical degradation, a new parameter is introduced in the model. • Thermal degradation properties are reconstructed from experiments by L–M algorithm. • The effect of microstructures on the thermal degradation parameters is evaluated. • The analysis provides a powerful tool to quantify thermal degradation of fiber medium

  4. Structure, magnetic and superconducting properties of MoSr2HoCu2O8-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balchev, N.; Nenkov, K.; Mihova, G.; Kunev, B.; Pirov, J.; Dimitrov, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Samples with nominal composition MoSr 2 HoCu 2 O 8-δ were synthesized and their magnetic and superconducting (SC) properties were investigated. The obtained samples are Mo-deficient. It was established that the magnetic order is of a long-range type. The coincidence of the experimental value of the Curie constant and the theoretical one of MoSr 2 HoCu 2 O 8-δ shows that the observed magnetic properties of the samples are determined by the highly dominating phase Mo-1212. The two-step resistive SC transition, together with the absence of both diamagnetism and a peak in the specific heat between the two critical temperatures may be associated with the presence of a granular superconductivity. The effect of the Mo-deficiency on the magnetic and SC properties of MoSr 2 HoCu 2 O 8-δ was discussed

  5. Structure and superconducting properties of Nb3Ge prepared in a UHV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habermeier, H.U.; Stuttgart Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Nb 3 Ge films are prepared by coevaporation of Nb and Ge under well defined and controlled conditions. The formation of the A15 Nb 3 Ge phase is studied by varying the processing parameters - composition, deposition temperature, and impurity gas background - systematically. Single phase samples with Tsub(c) onsets as high as 21.5 K and lattice parameters of 0.5148 nm only be obtained in an environment with no added impurities and a Ge concentration of 23.8 at%. Oxygen as impurity gas enhances Tsub(c) slightly in samples of the optimal composition, whereas hydrogen as impurity gas does not affect the formation and the Tsub(c) of the A15 phase at all. The structure, (lattice parameters, grain sizes, and phases present) and the superconducting properties (Tsub(c), Hsub(c2)(0)) of the samples show a systematic correlation of the preparation parameters and the physical properties. The experimental results are explained qualitatively within the frame of the linear chain model of A15 superconductors combined with the introduction of anti-site defects. (author)

  6. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruvalds, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors

  7. Bipolar superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular

  8. Superconducting selenides intercalated with organic molecules: synthesis, crystal structure, electric and magnetic properties, superconducting properties, and phase separation in iron based-chalcogenides and hybrid organic-inorganic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pesko, Edyta; Puzniak, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Layered iron-based superconducting chalcogenides intercalated with molecular species are the subject of intensive studies, especially in the field of solid state chemistry and condensed matter physics, because of their intriguing chemistry and tunable electric and magnetic properties. Considerable progress in the research, revealing superconducting inorganic–organic hybrid materials with transition temperatures to superconducting state, T c, up to 46 K, has been brought in recent years. These novel materials are synthesized by low-temperature intercalation of molecular species, such as solvates of alkali metals and nitrogen-containing donor compounds, into layered FeSe-type structure. Both the chemical nature as well as orientation of organic molecules between the layers of inorganic host, play an important role in structural modifications and may be used for fine tuning of superconducting properties. Furthermore, a variety of donor species compatible with alkali metals, as well as the possibility of doping also in the host structure (either on Fe or Se sites), makes this system quite flexible and gives a vast array of new materials with tunable electric and magnetic properties. In this review, the main aspects of intercalation chemistry are discussed with a particular attention paid to the influence of the unique nature of intercalating species on the crystal structure and physical properties of the hybrid inorganic–organic materials. To get a full picture of these materials, a comprehensive description of the most effective chemical and electrochemical methods, utilized for synthesis of intercalated species, with critical evaluation of their strong and weak points, related to feasibility of synthesis, phase purity, crystal size and morphology of final products, is included as well.

  9. Anisotropic viscoelastic properties of quartz and quartzite in the vicinity of the α- β phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbach, Steffen; Schilling, Frank R.

    2017-10-01

    In this study we performed high-temperature, dynamic (i.e. sinusoidal), three-point bending experiments of quartz single crystals and quartzite samples within the frequency range of seismic surveys (i.e. 0.1-20 Hz). At constant temperature close to the α- β phase transition we observed a unique complex elastic behaviour of both quartz and quartzite. We find a frequency dependence of the complex Young's modulus of α-quartz, including a dissipation maximum at ≈1 Hz supposedly related to the formation and variation of Dauphiné twin domains. Based on our experimental results for different crystallographic directions and additional modelling, we are able to describe the complex Young's modulus of quartz at its α- β phase transition in a 3D diagram. We derive a frequency-dependent elasticity tensor, using a three-element equivalent circuit, composed of two springs E 1 and E 2 as well as a dashpot η. E 1 and η are connected parallel to each other, E 2 is added in series. Compliance coefficients yield ( S 11) E 1 = 572 GPa, E 2 = 70.0 GPa, η = 64.6 GPa·s, ( S 33) E 1 = 127 GPa, E 2 = 52.1 GPa, η = 22.9 GPa·s, ( S 44) E 1 = 204 GPa, E 2 = 37.5 GPa, η = 26.4 GPa·s, ( S 12) E 1 = 612 GPa, E 2 = 106.7 GPa, η = 78.5 GPa·s, ( S 13) E 1 = 1546 GPa, E 2 = 284 GPa, η = 200 GPa·s; S 14 ≈-0.0024 GPa-1. We use the derived direction-dependent coefficients to predict the frequency-dependent complex elastic properties of isotropic polycrystalline quartz. These predictions agree well with the experimental results of the investigated quartzite. Finally, we explore the potential of using the anomalous frequency-dependent complex elastic properties of quartz at the α- β phase transition that we observed as an in situ temperature probe for seismic studies of the Earth's continental crust.

  10. The effect of citric and oxalic acid doping on the superconducting properties of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, N; Singla, Rashmi; Varma, G D; Malik, V K; Bernhard, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the effect of carbon doping on the structural and superconducting properties of MgB 2 using citric and oxalic acids as carbon sources. The bulk polycrystalline samples have been synthesized via a standard solid state reaction route with composition MgB 2 +x wt% of citric and oxalic acids (x = 0, 5 and 10). The x-ray diffraction results reveal the formation of dominantly MgB 2 with only a small amount of impurity phase MgO and substitution of C at the B site of MgB 2 for both dopants. Improvements in the upper critical field (H C2 ), irreversibility field (H irr ) and high field (>2.5 T) critical current density (J C ) have been observed on C doping in the samples. The correlations between superconducting properties and structural characteristics of the samples are described and discussed in this paper.

  11. Pristine Basal- and Edge-Plane-Oriented Molybdenite MoS2 Exhibiting Highly Anisotropic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Min; Ambrosi, Adriano; Sofer, Zdenĕk; Huber, Štěpán; Sedmidubský, David; Pumera, Martin

    2015-05-04

    The layered structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is structurally similar to that of graphite, with individual sheets strongly covalently bonded within but held together through weak van der Waals interactions. This results in two distinct surfaces of MoS2 : basal and edge planes. The edge plane was theoretically predicted to be more electroactive than the basal plane, but evidence from direct experimental comparison is elusive. Herein, the first study comparing the two surfaces of MoS2 by using macroscopic crystals is presented. A careful investigation of the electrochemical properties of macroscopic MoS2 pristine crystals with precise control over the exposure of one plane surface, that is, basal plane or edge plane, was performed. These crystals were characterized thoroughly by AFM, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, voltammetry, digital simulation, and DFT calculations. In the Raman spectra, the basal and edge planes show anisotropy in the preferred excitation of E2g and A1g phonon modes, respectively. The edge plane exhibits a much larger heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant k(0) of 4.96×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)  cm s(-1) for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) redox probes, respectively, compared to the basal plane, which yielded k(0) tending towards zero for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) and about 9.3×10(-4)  cm s(-1) for [Ru(NH3 )6 ](3+/2+) . The industrially important hydrogen evolution reaction follows the trend observed for [Fe(CN)6 ](3-/4-) in that the basal plane is basically inactive. The experimental comparison of the edge and basal planes of MoS2 crystals is supported by DFT calculations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Alteration of the superconducting properties of A15 compounds and elementary composite superconductors by non-hydrostatic elastic strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.O.

    1979-01-01

    Elastic strains alter (usually, but not always, adversely) the critical temperatures, magnetic fields, and current densities of superconducting A15 compounds; non-hydrostatic strain states are particularly effective in this regard. This paper is a review of the experimental evidence, obtained by a variety of techniques, concerning the strain dependence of the critical properties of a number of A15 compounds and a discussion of theoretical models for describing such effects

  13. Effect of Pb and Ag additions on electrical properties Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconductive ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddi, B.V.; Uskov, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of Pb and Ag additions on the electrical properties of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x superconducting ceramics has been studied by Hall method. It was found that the Pb additions has more influence on the sample characteristics than Ag. It was found, that Hall EMF at 77 K equal to zero in the samples having some residue resistance

  14. Influence of anisotropic strain relaxation on the magnetoresistance properties of epitaxial Fe3O4 (110) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofin, R. G. S.; Wu, Han-Chun; Ramos, R.; Arora, S. K.; Shvets, I. V.

    2015-11-01

    We studied Fe3O4 (110) films grown epitaxially on MgO (110) substrates using oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The films with thickness of 30-200 nm showed anisotropic in-plane partial strain relaxation. Magneto resistance (MR) measurements with current and magnetic field along ⟨001⟩ direction showed higher MR compared to ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ direction. Maximum value of MR was measured at Verwey transition temperature for both directions. We explain the observed anisotropy in the MR on the basis of the effects of anisotropic misfit strain, and the difference between the density of antiferromagnetically coupled antiphase boundaries formed along ⟨001⟩ and ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ crystallographic directions, suggesting the dependence of spin polarisation on the anisotropic strain relaxation along the said crystallographic directions.

  15. Low-temperature mechanical properties of superconducting radio frequency cavity materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Thak Sang; Kim, Sang-Ho; Mammosser, John

    2009-08-01

    Low-temperature mechanical behaviors have been investigated for the constituent materials of superconducting radio frequency cavities. Test materials consist of small grain Nb, single crystal Nb, large grain Nb (bicrystal), Ti45Nb-Nb weld joint (e-beam welded), and Ti-316L bimetal joint (explosion welded). The strength of all test metals displayed strong temperature dependence and the Ti-316L bimetal showed the highest strength and lowest ductility among the test materials. The fracture toughness of the small grain Nb metals decreased with decreasing test temperature and reached the lower shelf values (30-40 MPa √m) at or above 173 K. The Ti45Nb base and Ti45Nb-Nb weld metals showed much higher fracture toughness than the small grain Nb. An extrapolation and comparison with existing data showed that the fracture toughness of the small grain Nb metals at 4 K was expected to be similar to those at 173 and 77 K. The results from optical photography at a low magnification and fractography by a scanning electron microscope were consistent with corresponding mechanical properties.

  16. Low-temperature mechanical properties of superconducting radio frequency cavity materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Mammosser, John [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Low temperature mechanical behaviors have been investigated for the constituent materials of superconducting radio frequency cavities. Test materials consist of small grain Nb, single crystal Nb, large grain Nb (bicrystal), Ti45Nb-Nb weld joint (e-beam welded), and Ti-316L bimetal joint (explosion welded). The strength of all test metals displayed strong temperature dependence and the Ti-316L bimetal showed the highest strength and lowest ductility among the test materials. The fracture toughness of the small grain Nb metals decreased with decreasing test temperature and reached the lower shelf values (30 40 MPa m) at or above 173 K. The Ti45Nb base and Ti45Nb-Nb weld metals showed much higher fracture toughness than the small grain Nb. An extrapolation and comparison with existing data showed that the fracture toughness of the small grain Nb metals at 4 K was expected to be similar to those at 173 K and 77 K. The results from optical photography at a low magnification and fractography by a scanning electron microscope were consistent with corresponding mechanical properties.

  17. Effect of malic acid doping on the structural and superconducting properties of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, N.; Sudesh; Stuti Rani; Varma, G.D.

    2010-01-01

    The samples have been prepared via standard solid state reaction route with nominal compositions MgB 2 + x wt% malic acid (x = 0, 5 and 10) by sintering at two different temperatures: 800 and 850 deg C in argon atmosphere. Improvement in upper critical fields (H c2 ) and irreversibility field (H irr ) of doped samples as compared to undoped samples have been observed. At 10 K, critical current densities (J c ) of the 5 and 10 wt% malic acid doped MgB 2 samples sintered at 850 deg C have higher values as compared to undoped sample sintered at the same temperature in the fields greater than 3 T. However, J c values of 5 wt% malic acid doped sample are higher than 10 wt% doped sample in the entire applied field region (0 - 7 T). In case of the samples sintered at 800 deg C improvement in J c values of 5 wt% doped sample have been found in entire field region as compared to undoped sample. On the other hand we see deterioration in J c values of 10 wt% doped samples sintered at 800 deg C as compared to undoped samples sintered at same temperature. The correlations between structural and superconducting properties will be described and discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. GLAG theory for superconducting property variations with A15 composition in Nb3Sn wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingxu; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-04-25

    We present a model for the variation of the upper critical field H c2 with Sn content in A15-type Nb-Sn wires, within the Ginzburg-Landau-Abrikosov-Gor'kov (GLAG) theory frame. H c2 at the vicinity of the critical temperature T c is related quantitatively to the electrical resistivity ρ, specific heat capacity coefficient γ and T c . H c2 versus tin content is theoretically formulated within the GLAG theory, and generally reproduces the experiment results. As Sn content gradually approaches the stoichiometry, A15-type Nb-Sn undergoes a transition from the dirty limit to clean limit, split by the phase transformation boundary. The H-T phase boundary and pinning force show different behaviors in the cubic and tetragonal phase. We dipict the dependence of the composition gradient on the superconducting properties variation in the A15 layer, as well as the curved tail at vicinity of H c2 in the Kramer plot of the Nb 3 Sn wire. This helps understanding of the inhomogeneous-composition inducing discrepancy between the results by the state-of-art scaling laws and experiments.

  19. Raman spectra, microstructure and superconducting properties of Sb(III)-YBCO composite superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsabawy, Khaled M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)]. E-mail: ksabawy@yahoo.com

    2005-11-15

    The pure YBCO (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}) and its variant antimony containing composites with general formula; Y{sub 1+x}Sb {sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O {sub z}, where x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mol%, respectively, were prepared by the solid-state reaction route. X-ray measurements indicated that Sb{sup 3+} ions have a negligible effect on the main crystalline structure and substitutes Y-sites successfully in lattice structure of 123-YBCO at low concentrations of doping (x = 0.1 {sup {yields}} 0.2). From SE-microscopy mapping and EDX elemental analysis, Sb{sup 3+} was detected qualitatively with good approximation to the actual molar ratio but not observed at 123-YBCO grain boundaries which confirm that antimony (III) has diffused regularly into material bulk of superconducting 123-YBCO-phase at low concentrations. Additions of Sb(III) affected sharply on the main vibrating modes of YBCO regime particularly, on the apical oxygen (O{sub 4}) vibrational mode A {sub 1g}. Magnetic susceptibility measurements proved that antimony oxide additions have slight effect on the transport properties of YBCO-composites regime.

  20. Stoichiometry and superconductive properties of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde-Gallardo, A.; Falcony, C.; Ortiz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The dependence of the stoichiometry and the superconducting characteristics of YBaCuO films deposited by spray pyrolysis on the spraying solution composition and the deposition conditions is reported. It has been found that a proper optimization of the starting materials concentration in the spraying solution results in superconducting films with zero resistance temperature of 91 K and a transition to superconducting state within a 3 K range. X-ray diffraction and resistance vs temperature measurements have been used to monitor the crystal composition and the conductive characteristics of the films as a function of the spraying solution composition and the deposition parameters

  1. Critical current properties in superconducting melt processed Y-Ba-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Teruo

    1993-01-01

    measurement which is helpful to speculate the causative defects for percolative property of the critical current in superconducting materials. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of the superconducting properties of niobium radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    Radio-frequency (rf) superconducting cavities are widely used to increase the energy of a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The maximum gradients of cavities made of bulk niobium have constantly improved over the last ten years and they are approaching the theoretical limit of the material. Nevertheless, rf tests of niobium cavities are still showing some "anomalous" losses (so-called "Q-drop"), characterized by a marked increase of the surface resistance at high rf fields, in absence of field emission. A low temperature "in-situ" baking under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied by several laboratories to reduce those losses and improve the cavity's quality factor. Several models have been proposed to explain the cause of the Q-drop and the baking effect. We investigated the effect of baking on niobium material parameters by measuring the temperature dependence of a cavity's surface impedance and comparing it with the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer's theory of superconductivity. It was found that baking allows interstitial oxygen to diffuse from the surface deeper into the bulk. This produces a significant reduction of the normal electrons' mean free path, which causes an increase of the quality factor. The optimum baking parameters are 120°C for 24-48 h. We were also able to identify the origin of the Q-drop as due to a high magnetic field, rather then electric field, by measuring the quality factor of a cavity as function of the rf field in a resonant mode with only magnetic field present on the surface. With the aid of a thermometry system, we were able to localize the losses in the high magnetic field region. We measured the Q-drop in cavities which had undergone different treatments, such as anodization, electropolishing and post-purification, and with different metallurgical properties and we study the effectiveness of baking in each case. As a result, none of the models proposed so far can explain all the experimental observations. We

  3. Improved superconducting properties of La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} with indium substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neha, P.; Srivastava, P. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Jha, R. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Shruti [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Patnaik, S., E-mail: spatnaik@mail.jnu.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-04-25

    We report two fold increase in superconducting transition temperature of La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} by substituting indium at the tin site. The transition temperature of this skutterudite related compound is observed to increase from 2.5 K to 5.1 K for 10% indium substituted sample. The band structure and density of states calculations also indicate such a possibility. The compounds exhibit type-II superconductivity and the values of lower critical field (H{sub c1}), upper critical field (H{sub c2}), Ginzburg–Landau coherence length (ξ), penetration depth (λ) and GL parameter (κ) are estimated to be 0.0028 T, 0.68 T, 21.6 nm, 33.2 nm and 1.53 respectively for La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 11.7}In{sub 1.3}. Hydrostatic external pressure leads to decrease in transition temperature and the calculated pressure coefficient is −0.311 K/GPa. Flux pinning and vortex activation energies also improved with indium addition. Only positive frequencies are observed in phonon dispersion curve that relate to the absence of charge density wave or structural instability in the normal state. - Highlights: • Superconducting transition temperature of La{sub 3}Co{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} increases two fold by indium substitution. • Band structure and all basic superconducting parameters (e.g,. H{sub c1}, H{sub c2}, ξ,λ and κ are ascertained. • Dependence of superconducting properties under external pressure is studied.

  4. Electronic properties of high-Tc superconductors. The normal and the superconducting state of high-Tc materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmany, H.; Mehring, M.; Fink, J.

    1993-01-01

    The International Winter School on Electronic Properties of High-Temperature Superconductors, held between March 7-14, 1992, in Kirchberg, (Tyrol) Austria, was the sixth in a series of meetings to be held at this venue. Four of the earlier meetings were dedicated to issues in the field of conducting polymers, while the winter school held in 1990 was devoted to the new discipline of high-Tc superconductivity. This year's meeting constituted a forum not only for the large number of scientists engaged in high-Tc research, but also for those involved in the new and exciting field of fullerenes. Many of the issues raised during the earlier winter schools on conducting polymers, and the last one on high-Tc superconductivity, have taken on a new significance in the light of the discovery of superconducting C 60 materials. The Kirchberg meetings are organized in the style of a school where experienced scientists from universities, research laboratories and industry have the opportunity to discuss their most recent results, and where students and young scientists can learn about the present status of research and applications from some of the most eminent workers in their field. In common with the previous winter school on high-Tc superconductors, the present one focused on the electronic properties of the cuprate superconductors. In addition, consideration was given to related compounds which are relevant to the understanding of the electronic structure of the cuprates in the normal state, to other oxide superconductors and to fulleride superconductors. Contributions dealing with their preparation, transport and thermal properties, high-energy spectroscopies, nuclear magnetic resonance, inelastic neutron scattering, and optical spectroscopy are presented in this volume. The theory of the normal and superconducting states also occupies a central position. (orig.)

  5. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters; Beschleunigerphysik und radiometrische Eigenschaften supraleitender Wellenlaengenschieber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-11-17

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  6. Quench Property of Twisted-Pair MgB$_2$ Superconducting Cables in Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Spurrell, J; Falorio, I; Pelegrin, J; Ballarino, A; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CERN's twisted-pair superconducting cable is a novel design which offers filament transposition, low cable inductance and is particularly suited for tape conductors such as 2G YBCO coated conductors, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes and Ni/Monel-sheathed MgB2 tapes. A typical design of such twistedpair cables consists of multiple superconducting tapes intercalated with thin copper tapes as additional stabilizers. The copper tapes are typically not soldered to the superconducting tapes so that sufficient flexibility is retained for the twisting of the tape assembly. The electrical and thermal contacts between the copper and superconducting tapes are an important parameter for current sharing, cryogenic stability and quench propagation. Using an MgB2 twisted-pair cable assembly manufactured at CERN, we have carried out minimum quench energy (MQE) and propagation velocity (vp) measurements with point-like heat deposition localized within a tape. Furthermore, different contacts between the copper and superconductor aroun...

  7. Superconductivity in transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P

    2015-03-13

    A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on the superconducting properties of YBa2Cu9-xNbxOy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K.; Pinto, R.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of niobium substitution at the copper site in YBa 2 Cu 9 O 7-x was studied in thin film form. The films were deposited by laser ablation technique using the targets of the YBa 2 Cu 3-x Nb x O y where x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.0 under identical deposition conditions on SrTiO 9 substrates. Films were characterized by XRD, resistivity, I-V and J c measurements. Films made from x = 0.025 and 0.05 concentrations of Nb substituted targets showed relatively improved superconducting properties compared to that of undoped films. The best 7 realized for x = 0.025 Nb concentration was 1.8 x 10 σ A/cm 2 and for 0.05 Nb concentration it was 3.2x10 σ A/cm 2 at 77K. However, degradation of the superconducting properties, with the increase of x ≥ 0.1 Nb concentration and drastic suppression and complete loss of superconductivity was noticed for x ≥ 0.4. The growth of impurity phase YBa 2 NbO 6 for x = 0.1 and above of Nb concentration was noticed from XRD patterns. However, the site occupancy of Nb could not be confirmed from these studies

  9. Structural and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3-xMxOy (M=Ag, Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Falahati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Samples of YBa2Cu3-xAgxOy with x=0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and samples of YBa2Cu3-xAlxOy with x=0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.045 are prepared by the sol-gel method. Structural and superconducting properties of samples are studied by electrical resistivity (R-T, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All the samples show transition to superconducting state and the transition temperatures of the samples increased with increasing Ag doping up to x=0.15. R-T measurements show a small decrease of TC (zero with increasing Al doping up to x=0.02, and followed by a faster decrease with increasing doping concentration. YBCO grains are better linked with increasing Ag doping. So, Ag has positive effects in superconducting properties of YBCO. The crystal structure of samples was refined by MAUD. These results show tha, Ag is substituted for Cu(1 in YBCO. According to these analysis, we introduce x=0.15 as the optimum value for doping concentration .

  10. Dielectric properties of glasses prepared by quenching melts of superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, K. B. R.; Subbanna, G. N.; Ramakrishnan, T. V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    1989-07-03

    Glasses obtained from quenching melts of superconducting bismuth cuprates of the formula Bi/sub 2/(Ca,Sr)/sub /ital n/+1/Cu/sub /ital n//O/sub 2/ital n/+4/ with /ital n/=1 and 3 exhibit novel dielectric properties. They possess relatively high dielectric constants as well as high electrical conductivity. The novel dielectric properties of these cuprate glasses are likely to be of electronic origin. They exhibit a weak microwave absorption due to the presence of microcrystallites.

  11. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvis, J.A. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de ingeniería y Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Central, Bogotá (Colombia); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Suderow, H., E-mail: hermann.suderow@uam.es [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Unidad Asociada de Altos Campos Magnéticos y Bajas Temperaturas, UAM, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  12. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvis, J.A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The observation of vortex cores is reviewed, with emphasis in new experiments. • Vortex cores are follow superconducting gap and Fermi surface shapes. • The vortex core shape influences vortex dynamics. - Abstract: Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  13. Synthesis, properties and space applications of chemically precipitated YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ superconducting powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Sundahl, R.C.; Olson, W.L.; Welsh, L.B.; Polak, A.J.; Dolgin, B.P.; Barder, T.J.; Karasek, K.R.; Parker, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Processing properties of and chemically precipitated YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ powders were evaluated. The authors have successfully developed a method for precipitating stoichiometric oxalate precursors for YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ powders. Precipitation and calcination conditions were found to dramatically impact upon key powder characteristics such as particle size, morphology, phase composition and microscopic homogeneity. Four space applications were identified: a superconducting motor/generator, a magnetic bearing, an electromagnetic coupling, and a motor commutator. The primary device, a motor, would make use of superconducting windings and a superconducting flux bottle to improve efficiency

  14. Holographic models with anisotropic scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynjolfsson, E. J.; Danielsson, U. H.; Thorlacius, L.; Zingg, T.

    2013-12-01

    We consider gravity duals to d+1 dimensional quantum critical points with anisotropic scaling. The primary motivation comes from strongly correlated electron systems in condensed matter theory but the main focus of the present paper is on the gravity models in their own right. Physics at finite temperature and fixed charge density is described in terms of charged black branes. Some exact solutions are known and can be used to obtain a maximally extended spacetime geometry, which has a null curvature singularity inside a single non-degenerate horizon, but generic black brane solutions in the model can only be obtained numerically. Charged matter gives rise to black branes with hair that are dual to the superconducting phase of a holographic superconductor. Our numerical results indicate that holographic superconductors with anisotropic scaling have vanishing zero temperature entropy when the back reaction of the hair on the brane geometry is taken into account.

  15. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwong, P; Higgins, J S; Hampshire, D P

    2014-06-01

    We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (Jc) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ~0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J(c) measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I(max)) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b'), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T(max)). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI(max)/A = [1.46D(-0.18)L(0.4)(T(max) - 300)(0.25D(-0.09)) + 750(b'/I(max))D(10(-3)I(max)-2.87b') × 10⁶ A m⁻¹ where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm(2) is obtained when I(max) = 1000 A, T(max) = 400 K, D = 0.2, b' = 0.3 l h(-1) and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l h(-1). When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I(max)  ≈ (1.35 × 10(-3))D(0.41) l h(‑1) A(-1). A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in our high

  16. Probes for investigating the effect of magnetic field, field orientation, temperature and strain on the critical current density of anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes in a split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunwong, P.; Higgins, J. S.; Hampshire, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    We present the designs of probes for making critical current density (J c ) measurements on anisotropic high-temperature superconducting tapes as a function of field, field orientation, temperature and strain in our 40 mm bore, split-pair 15 T horizontal magnet. Emphasis is placed on the design of three components: the vapour-cooled current leads, the variable temperature enclosure, and the springboard-shaped bending beam sample holder. The vapour-cooled brass critical-current leads used superconducting tapes and in operation ran hot with a duty cycle (D) of ∼0.2. This work provides formulae for optimising cryogenic consumption and calculating cryogenic boil-off, associated with current leads used to make J c measurements, made by uniformly ramping the current up to a maximum current (I max ) and then reducing the current very quickly to zero. They include consideration of the effects of duty cycle, static helium boil-off from the magnet and Dewar (b ′ ), and the maximum safe temperature for the critical-current leads (T max ). Our optimized critical-current leads have a boil-off that is about 30% less than leads optimized for magnet operation at the same maximum current. Numerical calculations show that the optimum cross-sectional area (A) for each current lead can be parameterized by LI max /A=[1.46D −0.18 L 0.4 (T max −300) 0.25D −0.09 +750(b ′ /I max )D 10 −3 I max −2.87b ′ ]× 10 6 A m −1 where L is the current lead's length and the current lead is operated in liquid helium. An optimum A of 132 mm 2 is obtained when I max = 1000 A, T max = 400 K, D = 0.2, b ′ = 0.3 l h −1 and L = 1.0 m. The optimized helium consumption was found to be 0.7 l h −1 . When the static boil-off is small, optimized leads have a boil-off that can be roughly parameterized by: b/I max  ≈ (1.35 × 10 −3 )D 0.41 l h ‑1  A −1 . A split-current-lead design is employed to minimize the rotation of the probes during the high current measurements in

  17. Study of superconducting properties of ferrocene-added MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudesh; Varma, G.D. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Das, S.; Bernhard, C. [Department of Physics, Fribourg Centre for Nanomaterials-FriMat, University of Fribourg (Switzerland); Shripathi, T. [UGC-DAE CSR, University Campus, Indore (India)

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, we have shown the effects of ferrocene (FeC{sub 10}H{sub 10}) addition on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB{sub 2} superconductor using transport and magnetic measurements. The addition of FeC{sub 10}H{sub 10} up to 2 wt% in the MgB{sub 2} sample has shown enhanced critical current density, J{sub C} in the entire magnetic field region without affecting much the transition temperature. At 10 K, with respect to a pristine MgB{sub 2} sample, J{sub C} has improved by a factor of 6.55 at 6 T applied field for 1 wt% FeC{sub 10}H{sub 10}. An improvement in the upper critical field, H{sub C{sub 2}} and irreversibility field, H{sub irr} has also been observed up to 2 wt% addition of FeC{sub 10}H{sub 10}. The value of H{sub C{sub 2}} (0) as obtained using the Ginzburg-Landau (GL)-theory fit of the experimental data increases by almost 2 T for 2 wt% FeC{sub 10}H{sub 10}-added MgB{sub 2} as compared to the pristine samples. From X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), we observed that the Fe is present in sample in the form of ferromagnetic oxides, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These ferromagnetic inclusions provide efficient pinning centers to improve J{sub C}(H) behavior. The flux pinning mechanisms present in the FeC{sub 10}H{sub 10}-added samples are described and discussed in this paper. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Superconductivity and photoacoustic properties of sintered La/sub 1.8/Sr/sub 0.2/CuO/sub 4/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawan, Y.; Abu-Zeid, M.; Yousef, Y.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the superconductivity transition properties of La/sub 1.8/Sr/sub 0.2/CuO/sub 4/ are investigated by resistivity and photo-acoustic measurements on samples prepared at different thermal prehistories. Samples with onset transition temperature of 40K and zero resistance at 35 K is detected at ambient pressure. The recent discovery of high T/sub c/ superconductivity up to 35 K in the La-Ba-Cu-O system was followed by rapid enthusiasm and intensive investigations in this field. The effect of thermal prehistory on the superconducting properties of La/sub 1.8/Sr/sub 0.2/CuO/sub 4/ and the photoacoustic characteristics of both the prepared superconducting materials as well as that of the initial starting oxides are presented

  19. Pulsed laser deposition of high Tc superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Narayan, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the pulsed laser evaporation (PLE) technique for deposition of thin films characterized by a number of unique properties. Based on the experimental characteristics, a theoretical model is developed which considers the formation and anisotropic three dimensional expansion of the laser generated plasma. This model explains most of the experimental features observed in PLE. We have also employed the PLE technique for in-situ fabrication of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superconducting thin films on different substrates in the temperature range of 500--650 degrees C. At temperatures below 600 degrees C, a biased interposing ring between the substrate and the target was found to significantly improve the superconducting properties. The minimum ion channeling yields were between 3--3.5% for films deposited on (100) SrTiO 3 and (100) LaAlO 3 substrates

  20. Effect of magnetic soft phase on the magnetic properties of bulk anisotropic Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuqing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Hongguo

    2018-01-01

    The effects of soft phase with different particle sizes and distributions on the Nd2Fe14B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets have been studied by the micro-magnetism simulation. The calculated results show that smaller and/or scattered distribution of soft phase can benefit to the coercivity (H ci) of the nanocomposite magnets. The magnetization moment evolution during magnetic reversal is systematically analyzed. On the other hand, magnetic properties of anisotropic Nd-Fe-B/α-Fe nanocomposite magnets prepared by hot pressing and hot deformation methods also provide evidences for the calculated results.

  1. Effects of post-annealing and cobalt co-doping on superconducting properties of (Ca,Pr)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T., E-mail: 8781303601@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Ogino, H.; Yakita, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.; Shimoyama, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Post-annealing at 400 °C killed superconductivity for Co-free sample. • Pr,Co co-doped samples maintained superconductivity even after annealing. • Two-step superconducting transition was observed via magnetization measurement. • Bulk superconductivity of low-T{sub c} component was confirmed. • Superconducting volume fraction of high-T{sub c} component was always small. - Abstract: In order to clarify the origin of anomalous superconductivity in (Ca,RE)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} system, Pr doped and Pr,Co co-doped CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals were grown by the FeAs flux method. These samples showed two-step superconducting transition with T{sub c1} = 25–42 K, and T{sub c2} < 16 K, suggesting that (Ca,RE)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} system has two superconducting components. Post-annealing performed for these crystals in evacuated quartz ampoules at various temperatures revealed that post-annealing at ∼400 °C increased the c-axis length for all samples. This indicates that as-grown crystals have a certain level of strain, which is released by post-annealing at ∼400 °C. Superconducting properties also changed dramatically by post-annealing. After annealing at 400 °C, some of the co-doped samples showed large superconducting volume fraction corresponding to the perfect diamagnetism below T{sub c2} and high J{sub c} values of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} A cm{sup −2} at 2 K in low field, indicating the bulk superconductivity of (Ca,RE)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} phase occurred below T{sub c2}. On the contrary, the superconducting volume fraction above T{sub c2} was always very small, suggesting that 40 K-class superconductivity observed in this system is originating in the local superconductivity in the crystal.

  2. Experimental studies on the thermal properties of fast pulsed superconducting accelerator magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleile, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR is being constructed at the GSI research center in Darmstadt (Germany). This wordwide unique accelerator facility will provide beams of ions and antiprotons at high intensities and high energies for the fundamental research in nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as for applied science. The superconducting synchrotron SIS100 with a magnetic rigidity of 100 T/m, the core component of the FAIR facility will provide primary ion beams of all types from hydrogen up to uranium. One of the key technical systems of a new synchrotron are fast ramped electromagnets for the generation of fast ramped magnetic fields for deflecting and focusing of the ion beams. To reduce the energy consumption and to keep the operating costs of the synchrotron as low as possible superconducting magnet technology is applied in the SIS100. Superconducting magnets have been developed at GSI within the scope of the FAIR project. Although the superconducting magnet technology promises high cost saving, the power consumption of the fast ramped superconducting magnets can't be completely neglected. The pulsed operation generates dynamic losses in the iron yokes as well as in the superconducting coils of the magnets. A forced two-phase helium flow provides effective cooling for supercounducting magnets exposed to a continous relative high heat flow. The subject of this PhD thesis is experimental investigations and analysis of the dynamic power losses in fast ramped superconducting magnets and their dependencies on the operation cycles of the synchrotron. This research was conducted on the the first series SIS100 dipole magnet. Based on the experimentally defined dynamic heat loads and helium mass flow rates in the dipole magnet the heat loads and helium consumption for all other types of superconducting magnet modules of the SIS100 have been estimated. These results are essential for the development of the cooling system for the the

  3. Development of superconducting strand and cable with improved properties for use in SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1989-02-01

    The critical current requirement for the NbTi superconductor strand was set at 2750 A/mm 2 (5 T, 4.2 K) in the SSC Conceptual Design, compared with a value of 1800 A/mm 2 which was specified for the strand used in the Tevatron dipoles. In addition, a filament diameter of 5 μm, instead of the 9 μm diameter used in the Tevatron, was chosen to reduce field distortion at injection. In order to meet the requirements for field homogeneity, the dimensional requirements for both strand and cable were also tightened. The technical solutions employed to achieve these improved properties and the resulting specifications will be discussed. 9 refs

  4. Superconducting machines. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Structural and physical properties of the NaxCoO2·yH2O superconducting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y G; Li, J Q; Yu, H C; Zhou, Y Q; Zhang, H R; Dong, C

    2004-01-01

    The structural features and physical properties of Na x CoO 2 and Na x CoO 2 ·yH 2 O materials have been investigated. The Na x CoO 2 -yH 2 O samples, in general, undergo superconducting transitions at around 3.5 K. Energy dispersive x-ray analyses suggest that our samples have average compositions of Na 0.65 CoO 2 for the parent compounds and Na 0.26 CoO 2 ·yH 2 O for the superconducting oxyhydrates. Transmission electron microscopy observations reveal a new superstructure with wave vector q = in the parent material. This superstructure becomes very weak in the superconducting samples. Electron energy loss spectra analyses show that the Co ions have valence states of around +3.3 in Na 0.65 CoO 2 and around +3.7 in Na 0.26 CoO 2 -yH 2 O

  6. Structure and superconducting properties of Nb-Zr alloy films made by a high-rate sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Hisashi; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting Nb-Zr alloy films have been prepared by a continuous high-rate sputtering on tantalum substrates. A deposition rate of 330 nm/min has been attained. The compositional profile in the Nb-Zr film is quite uniform and the film has nearly the same composition as that of the target. The films deposited in a pure argon atmosphere show a columnar structure grown perpendicular to the substrate. The grain size strongly depends on the substrate temperature. The phase transformations in the Nb-Zr film become more apparent and the structure becomes closer to the equilibrium state as the film is deposited in higher atmosphere pressures and/or at lower target voltages. The superconducting transition temperature T sub(c) of the films is about the same as that of bulk samples. The dependence of T sub(c) on the substrate temperature is explainable on the phase transformations in the film. Critical current density J sub(c) and its anisotropy is closely related to the grain structure of the film. Grain boundaries seem to act as the most predominant flux pinning centers in the films. Effects of oxygen in the sputtering atmosphere on the structure and superconducting properties of the Nb-Zr films have been also investigated. Oxygen significantly decreases the grain size of the film. Oxygen increases J sub(c) but decreases T sub(c) of the film. (auth.)

  7. Structural and superconducting properties of as-cast Nb3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Puspen; Manekar, Meghmalhar; Roy, S.B.; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements on the as-cast compound Nb 3 Al. X-ray diffraction shows the presence of the Al 5 Nb 3 Al phase along with a bcc Nb-Al solid solution. The average grain size of Nb 3 Al estimated from the line broadening is about 35 nm. Magnetization measurements show a superconducting transition temperature of about 16.8 K which is amongst the highest known T c for the as-cast sample. In the superconducting state, the sample shows interesting thermo-magnetic history effects in the temperature and field variation of magnetization. (author)

  8. Change in properties of superconducting magnet materials by fusion neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Arata; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Nishitani, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    A fusion reactor will generate a lot of high energy neutron and much energy will be taken out of the neutrons by a blanket system. Since some neutrons will stream out of a plasma vacuum vessel through neutral beam injection ports and penetrate a blanket system, a superconducting magnet system, which provides high magnetic field to confirm high energy particles, will be irradiated by a certain amount of neutrons. By developing the new NBI system or by reducing the penetration, the neutron fluence to the superconducting magnet will be able to be reduced. However, it is not easy to achieve the lower streaming and penetration at the present. Therefore, investigations on irradiation behavior of superconducting magnet materials are desired and some novel researches have been performed from 1970s. In general, the critical current of the superconducting wire increases under fast neutron environment comparing with that of the non-irradiated wire, and then decreased to almost zero as an increase of neutron fluence. On the other hand, the critical temperature of the wire starts to get down around 10 22 n/m 2 of neutron fluence and the temperature margin will be decreased during the operation by the neutron irradiation. In this paper, some aspects of irradiated materials will be overviewed and general tendency will be discussed focussing on knock-on effect of fast neutron and long range ordering of A15 compounds

  9. Microstructure and superconducting properties of YBCO bulk superconductors with RE substitutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volochová, D.; Antal, V.; Piovarči, S.; Kováč, J.; Jirsa, Miloš; Noudem, J.; Diko, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-4, č. článku 7200604. ISSN 1051-8223 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : yttrium barium copper oxide * critical current density (superconductivity) * powders * magnetic fields * microstructure * temperature measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.092, year: 2015

  10. Superconductivity in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This proceedings volume presents 24 conference papers and 15 posters dealing with the following aspects: 1) Principles and elementary aspects of high-temperature superconductivity (3 plenary lectures); 2) Preparation, properties and materials requirements of metallic or oxide superconductors (critical current behaviour, soldered joints, structural studies); 3) Magnet technology (large magnets for thermonuclear fusion devices; magnets for particle accelerators and medical devices); 4) Magnetic levitation and superconductivity; 5) Cryogenics; 6) Energy storage systems using superconducting coils (SMES); 7) Superconducting power transmission cables, switches, transformers, and generator systems for power plant; 8) Supporting activities, industrial aspects, patents. There are thirty-eight records in the ENERGY database relating to individual conference papers. (MM) [de

  11. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  12. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  13. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  14. A novel analytical solution for estimating aquifer properties within a horizontally anisotropic aquifer bounded by a stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yibin; Zhan, Hongbin; Knappett, Peter S. K.

    2018-04-01

    Past studies modeling stream-aquifer interaction commonly account for vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, but rarely address horizontal anisotropy, which may exist in certain sedimentary environments. If present, horizontal anisotropy will greatly impact stream depletion and the amount of recharge a pumped aquifer captures from the river. This scenario requires a different and somewhat more sophisticated mathematical approach to model and interpret pumping test results than previous models used to describe captured recharge from rivers. In this study, a new mathematical model is developed to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of drawdown from stream-bank pumping with a well screened across a horizontally anisotropic, confined aquifer, laterally bounded by a river. This new model is used to estimate four aquifer parameters including the magnitude and directions of major and minor principal transmissivities and storativity based on the observed drawdown-time curves within a minimum of three non-collinear observation wells. In order to approve the efficacy of the new model, a MATLAB script file is programmed to conduct a four-parameter inversion to estimate the four parameters of concern. By comparing the results of analytical and numerical inversions, the accuracy of estimated results from both inversions is acceptable, but the MATLAB program sometimes becomes problematic because of the difficulty of separating the local minima from the global minima. It appears that the new analytical model of this study is applicable and robust in estimating parameter values for a horizontally anisotropic aquifer laterally bounded by a stream. Besides that, the new model calculates stream depletion rate as a function of stream-bank pumping. Unique to horizontally anisotropic and homogeneous aquifers, the stream depletion rate at any given pumping rate depends closely on the horizontal anisotropy ratio and the direction of the principle transmissivities relative to

  15. The decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk superconducting actuator by AC controlled magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Uwani, Y.; Joo, J.H.; Kawamoto, R.; Jo, Y.S.

    2011-01-01

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet, having stable levitation and suspension properties according to their strong flux pinning force, have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating a three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulks to develop a non-contract transportation device which moves freely in space. It is certain for our proposed 3-D superconducting actuator to be useful as a transporter used in a clean room where silicon wafers, which do not like mechanical contact and dust, are manufactured. The proposed actuator consists of the trapped HTS bulk as a mover and two-dimensionally arranged electromagnets as a stator. Up to now, the electromagnets consisted with iron core and copper coil were used as a stator, and each electromagnet was individually controlled using DC power supplies. In our previous work, the unstable movement characteristics of HTS bulk were observed under the DC operation, and the AC electromagnets driven with AC controlled current was proposed to solve these problems. In general, the trapped magnetic field in HTS bulk was decayed by a time-varying external magnetic field. Thus, it needs to optimize the shapes of AC electromagnets and operating patterns, the decay properties of the trapped magnetic field in the HTS bulk mover by the AC magnetic field should be cleared. In this paper, the influences of the frequency, the overall operating time, the strength of magnetization field and drive current against the decay of trapped magnetic field were experimentally studied using the fabricated AC electromagnets.

  16. Influence of annealing atmosphere on structural and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor, M., E-mail: gregor@fmph.uniba.sk; Plecenik, T.; Sobota, R.; Brndiarova, J.; Roch, T.; Satrapinskyy, L.; Kus, P.; Plecenik, A.

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Superconducting MgB{sub 2} thin film were deposited by co-deposition using the thermal and e-beam evaporation. • Ex situ annealing process was done using various atmospheres. • Influence of annealing atmosphere and temperature on superconducting and structural properties were studied. • Possible mechanisms of the formation and crystallization of MgB{sub 2} thin film are discussed. - Abstract: Influence of an ex situ annealing temperature and atmosphere on chemical composition and structural and superconducting properties of MgB{sub 2} thin films deposited by vacuum evaporation has been investigated. The annealing has been done in Ar, N{sub 2} and Ar + 5%H{sub 2} atmospheres at pressure of 700 Pa and temperature varying from 700 to 800 °C. It has been shown that annealing in Ar and N{sub 2} atmosphere at 700–800 °C produces relatively thick MgO layer on the surface of the films, while creation of such layer is highly reduced if the annealing is done in reducing Ar + 5%H{sub 2} atmosphere. The XPS and XRD results suggest that the MgO layer prevents out-diffusion of Mg from the film during the annealing, what assures better stoichiometry of the films as well as creation of larger MgB{sub 2} grains. The films with the highest amount of MgO on the surface, annealed in nitrogen atmosphere, thus paradoxically exhibited the highest critical temperature of T{sub c0} = 34.8 K with very sharp transition width of 0.1 K.

  17. Effects of high-energy proton irradiation on the superconducting properties of Fe(Se,Te) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylva, G.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.; Martinelli, A.; Pallecchi, I.; Pellegrino, L.; Putti, M.; Ghigo, G.; Gozzelino, L.; Torsello, D.; Grimaldi, G.; Leo, A.; Nigro, A.; Braccini, V.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we explore the effects of 3.5 MeV proton irradiation on Fe(Se,Te) thin films grown on CaF2. In particular, we carry out an experimental investigation with different irradiation fluences up to 7.30 · 1016 cm‑2 and different proton implantation depths, in order to clarify whether and to what extent the critical current is enhanced or suppressed, what are the effects of irradiation on the critical temperature, resistivity, and critical magnetic fields, and finally what is the role played by the substrate in this context. We find that the effect of irradiation on superconducting properties is generally small compared to the case of other iron-based superconductors. The irradiation effect is more evident on the critical current density Jc, while it is minor on the transition temperature Tc, normal state resistivity ρ, and on the upper critical field Hc2 up to the highest fluences explored in this work. In more detail, our analysis shows that when protons implant in the substrate far from the superconducting film, the critical current can be enhanced up to 50% of the pristine value at 7 T and 12 K; meanwhile, there is no appreciable effect on critical temperature and critical fields together with a slight decrease in resistivity. On the contrary, when the implantation layer is closer to the film–substrate interface, both critical current and temperature show a decrease accompanied by an enhancement of the resistivity and lattice strain. This result evidences that possible modifications induced by irradiation in the substrate may affect the superconducting properties of the film via lattice strain. The robustness of the Fe(Se,Te) system to irradiation-induced damage makes it a promising compound for the fabrication of magnets in high-energy accelerators.

  18. Anisotropic magnetic properties of Dy{sub 6}Cr{sub 4}Al{sub 43} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Arvind, E-mail: arvindmaurya@tifr.res.in; Thamizhavel, A., E-mail: arvindmaurya@tifr.res.in; Dhar, S. K., E-mail: arvindmaurya@tifr.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai-400005 (India)

    2014-04-24

    We have studied the anisotropic magnetic behavior of the rare earth intermetallic compound Dy{sub 6}Cr{sub 4}Al{sub 43}. This compound crystallizes in the hexagonal symmetry and orders ferromagnetically at 8.3 K as confirmed by the magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements. A significant anisotropy in the magnetization is observed between the c axis and the ab-plane. The easy axis liesin theab-plane at low temperatures; however it orients itselfalong the c-axis above 170 K as inferred from the susceptibility data.

  19. Superconducting properties and uniaxial strain characteristics of Nb3Sn fiber-reinforced superconductors with tantalum reinforcement fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kazuaki; Umeda, Masaichi; Agatsuma, Koh; Tateishi, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    We have been developing fiber-reinforced superconductors (FRS) for high-field and large-scale magnets. Tungsten fibers have been selected as the reinforcement fiber for FRS so far because tungsten has the highest elastic modulus of approximately 400 GPa which can minimize the strain from electromagnetic force. The preparation process of FRS consists of sputtering deposition and heat treatment because it may be difficult to apply drawing methods to materials of high-elastic modulus such as tungsten. Tantalum has high elastic modulus of 178 GPa and its thermal expansion coefficient that is closer to that of Nb 3 Sn than tungsten's, which means prestrain in Nb 3 Sn in FRS is reduced by adopting tantalum fibers. Tantalum has been used as barriers between bronze and copper in conventional Nb 3 Sn superconductors which are usually prepared with drawing process despite of the tantalum's high elastic modulus. That implies drawing process may be applied to prepare FRS with tantalum reinforcement fibers. In this paper, FRS using tantalum fibers prepared with sputtering process are described with making comparison with FRS of tungsten to clarify the basic properties of FRS using tantalum fibers. Depth profiles in Nb 3 Sn layer in FRS were measured to examine reaction between superconducting layers and reinforcement fibers. Superconducting properties including strain and stress characteristics were shown. Those data will contribute to design of FRS using tantalum reinforcement fibers with adopts the drawing processes. (author)

  20. Refinement of Crystalline Boron and the Superconducting Properties of MgB2 by Attrition Ball Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Shin, S. Y.; Park, H. W.; Jun, B. H.; Kim, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report refinement of crystalline boron by an attrition ball milling system and the superconducting properties of the MgB 2 pellets prepared from the refined boron. In this work, we have conducted the ball milling with only crystalline boron powder, in order to improve homogeneity and control the grain size of the MgB 2 that is formed from it. We observed that the crystalline responses in the ball-milled boron became broader and weaker when the ball-milling time was further increased. On the other hand, the B 2 O 3 peak became stronger in the powders, resulting in an increase in the amount of MgO within the MgB 2 volume. The main reason for this is a greater oxygen uptake. From the perspective of the superconducting properties, however, the sample prepared from boron that was ball milled for 5 hours showed an improvement of critical current density (J c ), even with increased MgO phase, under an external magnetic field at 5 and 20 K.

  1. Anisotropic electrical, thermal and magnetic properties of Al{sub 13}Ru{sub 4} decagonal quasicrystalline approximant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wencka, Magdalena [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Molecular Physics; Vrtnik, Stanislav; Kozelj, Primoz; Dolinsek, Janez [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics; Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jaglicic, Zvonko [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Inst. of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics; Gille, Peter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Crystallography Section

    2017-09-01

    We present measurements of the anisotropic electrical and thermal transport coefficients (the electrical resistivity, the thermoelectric power, the thermal conductivity), the magnetization and the specific heat of the Al{sub 13}Ru{sub 4} monoclinic approximant to the decagonal quasicrystal, in comparison to the isostructural Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4}. The electrical and thermal transport parameters of Al{sub 13}Ru{sub 4} were found to exhibit significant anisotropy, qualitatively similar to that found previously in the Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} (P. Popcevic, et al., Phys. Rev. B 2010, 81, 184203). The crystallographic b direction, corresponding to the stacking direction of the (a,c) atomic planes, is the most conducting direction for the electricity and heat. The thermopower is strongly anisotropic with a complicated temperature dependence, exhibiting maxima, minima, crossovers and sign change. The electronic density of states (DOS) at the Fermi energy is reduced to 35% of the DOS of Al metal. The magnetic susceptibility is diamagnetic and the diamagnetism is by a factor of 2 stronger for the magnetic field along the stacking b direction.

  2. Pressure-induced structural phase transformation and superconducting properties of titanium mononitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Guo, Yanan; Zhang, Miao; Ge, Xinlei

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we have systematically performed the first-principles structure search on titanium mononitride (TiN) within Crystal Structure AnaLYsis by Particle Swarm Optimization (CALYPSO) methodology at high pressures. Here, we have confirmed a phase transition from cubic rock-salt (fcc) phase to CsCl (bcc) phase of TiN at ∼348 GPa. Further simulations reveal that the bcc phase is dynamically stable, and could be synthesized experimentally in principle. The calculated elastic anisotropy decreases with the phase transformation from fcc to bcc structure under high pressures, and the material changes from ductile to brittle simultaneously. Moreover, we found that both structures are superconductive with the superconducting critical temperature of 2-12 K.

  3. Effects of anisotropic interaction-induced properties of hydrogen-rare gas compounds on rototranslational Raman scattering spectra: Comprehensive theoretical and numerical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Głaz, Waldemar, E-mail: glaz@kielich.amu.edu.pl; Bancewicz, Tadeusz [Nonlinear Optics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Godet, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, Université d’Angers, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Gustafsson, Magnus [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå (Sweden); Haskopoulos, Anastasios; Maroulis, George [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2016-07-21

    A comprehensive study is presented of many aspects of the depolarized anisotropic collision induced (CI) component of light scattered by weakly bound compounds composed of a dihydrogen molecule and a rare gas (Rg) atom, H{sub 2}–Rg. The work continues a series of earlier projects marking the revival of interest in linear light scattering following the development of new highly advanced tools of quantum chemistry and other theoretical, computational, and experimental means of spectral analyses. Sophisticated ab initio computing procedures are applied in order to obtain the anisotropic polarizability component’s dependence on the H{sub 2}–Rg geometry. These data are then used to evaluate the CI spectral lines for all types of Rg atoms ranging from He to Xe (Rn excluded). Evolution of the properties of CI spectra with growing polarizability/masses of the complexes studied is observed. Special attention is given to the heaviest, Kr and Xe based, scatterers. The influence of specific factors shaping the spectral lines (e.g., bound and metastable contribution, potential anisotropy) is discussed. Also the share of pressure broadened allowed rotational transitions in the overall spectral profile is taken into account and the extent to which it is separable from the pure CI contribution is discussed. We finish with a brief comparison between the obtained results and available experimental data.

  4. Effects of strain on the superconducting properties of niobium-tin conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, R.W.

    1980-11-01

    Investigations were performed to ascertain additional information on the connection between the cubic to tetragonal martensitic phase transformation and the phenomenon of superconductivity in Nb 3 Sn. Of particular interest is the degradation of the critical parameters, such as T/sub c/, H/sub c2/, and J/sub c/, with mechanical straining of the superconductor. These studies yielded information that assisted in the derivation of the critical current-strain scaling laws mentioned above

  5. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  6. Magnetic, superconducting and electron-boson properties of GdO(F)FeAs oxypnictides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicheva, Tatiana; Sadakov, Andrey; Muratov, Andrei; Kuzmichev, Svetoslav; Khlybov, Yevgeny; Kulikova, Lyudmila; Eltsev, Yuri

    2018-05-01

    We performed comprehensive studies of nearly optimal fluorine-substituted GdO1-xFx FeAs oxypnictide superconductors with TC = 48 - 53 K . Specific heat measurements revealed a sharp peak at T = 3.5 K that shifts to lower temperatures with magnetic field increase. This peak corresponds to an antiferromagnetic ordering in Gd3+ ion sublattice and may indicate coexistence between superconducting and magnetic orderings. Andreev transport through artificially made constriction demonstrated two channels for the carriers from the band(s) with the large superconducting gap as well as from those with the small gap. As expected, the presence of a transport channel with the bands mixing (ΔL +ΔS) was not detected. Using intrinsic multiple Andreev reflections effect (IMARE) spectroscopy, we determined two superconducting gaps, ΔS ≈ 2.7 meV , and ΔL ≈ 11.6 meV . The reproducible fine structure in the dI(V)/dV spectra of the Andreev contacts (satellites of the main subharmonic gap structure for ΔL) was interpreted as caused by a resonant emission of bosons with the energy ε0 = 12 - 15 meV ≈ΔL +ΔS during the process of multiple Andreev reflections (MAR) for normal carriers in ΔL-band(s) transport channel.

  7. Superconducting properties of Pb nanoislands on Pb/Ag/Si(111) studied by a "3He-cooled scanning tunnelling microscope in magnetic fields at variable temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Vanegas, Alvaro Augusto

    2015-01-01

    A "3He-cooled scanning tunneling microscope was used to investigate the superconducting properties of Pb single layers on Si(111) and Ag/Si(111) and Pb islands on Pb/Ag/Si(111) at temperatures between 0.38 K and 6 K and in magnetic fields of up to 3 T. The spectroscopy measurements show that in contrast with Pb/Si(111), a single Pb layer on Ag/Si(111) is non-superconducting. The superconductivity of Pb islands on Pb/Ag/Si(111) was characterized as a function of temperature and magnetic field. A non-uniform critical magnetic field for suppression of superconductivity on islands of uniform thickness but sitting of regions of different height is reported. The proximity induced superconductivity on the wetting layer surrounding a Pb island on Pb/Ag/Si(111) was studied. Spatially resolved, magnetic field dependent spectroscopy uncovers a non-trivial reduction of the extension of the induced superconductivity with increasing field. A breakdown of the proximity effect for fields larger than 0.5 T is found. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a strong decrease of the proximity length with increasing temperature. This is ascribed to the thermally induced broadening of the electronic density of states in the tip used in the STM experiment.

  8. Superconducting properties of Pb nanoislands on Pb/Ag/Si(111) studied by a {sup 3}He-cooled scanning tunnelling microscope in magnetic fields at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Vanegas, Alvaro Augusto

    2015-02-26

    A {sup 3}He-cooled scanning tunneling microscope was used to investigate the superconducting properties of Pb single layers on Si(111) and Ag/Si(111) and Pb islands on Pb/Ag/Si(111) at temperatures between 0.38 K and 6 K and in magnetic fields of up to 3 T. The spectroscopy measurements show that in contrast with Pb/Si(111), a single Pb layer on Ag/Si(111) is non-superconducting. The superconductivity of Pb islands on Pb/Ag/Si(111) was characterized as a function of temperature and magnetic field. A non-uniform critical magnetic field for suppression of superconductivity on islands of uniform thickness but sitting of regions of different height is reported. The proximity induced superconductivity on the wetting layer surrounding a Pb island on Pb/Ag/Si(111) was studied. Spatially resolved, magnetic field dependent spectroscopy uncovers a non-trivial reduction of the extension of the induced superconductivity with increasing field. A breakdown of the proximity effect for fields larger than 0.5 T is found. Tunneling spectroscopy reveals a strong decrease of the proximity length with increasing temperature. This is ascribed to the thermally induced broadening of the electronic density of states in the tip used in the STM experiment.

  9. Microstructure and property evolution of isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets fabricated from nanocrystalline ribbons by spark plasma sintering and hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z W; Huang, H Y; Yu, H Y; Zhong, X C; Zeng, D C [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Gao, X X; Zhu, J, E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2011-01-19

    Isotropic and anisotropic NdFeB magnets were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and SPS+HD (hot deformation), respectively, using melt-spun ribbons as the starting materials. Spark plasma sintered magnets sintered at low temperatures (<700 {sup 0}C) almost maintained the uniform fine grain structure inherited from rapid quenching. At higher temperatures, due to the local high-temperature field caused by the spark plasma discharge, the grain growth occurred at the initial particle surfaces and the coarse grain zones formed in the vicinity of the particle boundaries. Since the interior of the particles maintained the fine grain structure, a distinct two-zone structure was formed in the spark plasma sintered magnets. The SPS temperature and pressure have important effects on the widths of coarse and fine grain zones, as well as the grain sizes in two zones. The changes in grain structure led to variations in the magnetic properties. By employing low SPS temperature and high pressure, high-density magnets with negligible coarse grain zone and an excellent combination of magnetic properties can be obtained. An anisotropic magnet with a maximum energy product of {approx}30 MG Oe was produced by the SPS+HD process. HD at 750 {sup 0}C did not lead to obvious grain growth and the two-zone structure still existed in the hot deformed magnets. Intergranular exchange coupling was demonstrated in the spark plasma sintered magnets and was enhanced by the HD process, which reduced the coercivity. Good temperature stability was manifested by low temperature coefficients of remanence and coercivity. The results indicated that nanocrystalline NdFeB magnets without significant grain growth and with excellent properties could be obtained by SPS and HD processes.

  10. Structural and superconducting properties of epitaxial Fe{sub 1+y}Se{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Stefan; Yuan, Feifei; Grinenko, Vadim; Huehne, Ruben [Institute for Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden (Germany); Sala, Alberto; Putti, Marina [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    The iron based superconductor Fe(Se,Te) is in the center of much ongoing research. The reason for this is on the one hand its simple crystal structure, that consists only of stacked Fe(Se,Te) layers so that structural and superconducting properties can be connected more easily, on the other hand FeSe itself shows a high sensibility for strain and changes in stoichiometry and can have potentially very high critical temperatures under hydrostatic pressure or in monolayers. We investigate epitaxial thin films of Fe{sub 1+y}Se{sub 1-x}Te{sub x} grown by pulsed laser deposition on different single crystalline substrates. A high crystalline quality and a superconducting transition of up to about 20 K can be achieved using optimized deposition parameters. The influence of growth conditions, Te-doping, film thickness and post growth oxygen treatment on the structural and superconducting properties on these films will be presented in detail.

  11. Magnetic and superconducting nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.

    2005-01-01

    magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...

  12. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  13. Influence of substitutional disorder on the electrical transport and the superconducting properties of Fe1+zTe1−x−ySexSy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, M.G.; Polla, G.; Ramos, C.P.; Acha, C.

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out an investigation of the structural, magnetic, transport and superconducting properties of Fe 1+z Te 1−x−y Se x S y ceramic compounds, for z = 0 and some specific Se (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) and S (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.12) contents. The incorporation of Se and S to the FeTe structure produces a progressive reduction of the crystallographic parameters as well as different degrees of structural disorder associated with the differences of the ionic radius of the substituting cations. In the present study, we measure transport properties of this family of compounds and we show the direct influence of disorder in the normal and superconductor states. We notice that the structural disorder correlates with a variable range hopping conducting regime observed at temperatures T > 200 K. At lower temperatures, all the samples except the one with the highest degree of disorder show a crossover to a metallic-like regime, probably related to the transport of resilient-quasi-particles associated with the proximity of a Fermi liquid state at temperatures below the superconducting transition. Moreover, the superconducting properties are depressed only for that particular sample, in accordance to the condition that superconductivity is affected by disorder when the electronic localization length ξ L becomes smaller than the coherence length ξ SC . - Highlights: • New Fe(1 + z)Te(1−x−y)Se(x)S(y) ceramic samples were synthesized. • Structural, magnetic, transport and superconducting properties are presented. • Nonmagnetic disorder determines a VRH conduction regime near room temperature. • Superconductivity is affected by disorder

  14. Investigation on lattice parameters and superconducting properties in Fe(Te, Se, S) ternary-chalcogen system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhongnan; Zhang, Huanhuan; Han, Bingling; Yuan, Wenxia, E-mail: wxyuanwz@163.com

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A series sample of Fe{sub 1.02}Te{sub 0.85}Se{sub 0.15−x}S{sub x} has been synthesised. • The lattice parameters is basically unchanged with the S doping. • The superconductivity is clearly suppressed with the S substitution of Se. • The solid solubility region of the tetragonal phase in this system is discussed. - Abstract: A series of samples with the nominal compositions Fe{sub 1.02}Te{sub 0.85}Se{sub 0.15−x}S{sub x} (x = 0, 0.0375, 0.075, 0.1125 and 0.15) have been synthesized to study the influence of the S substitution of Se on the lattice parameters and superconducting properties. It has been found that the S substitution basically has no effect on the lattice parameters a and c of the tetragonal phase. However, T{sub c} of Fe{sub 1.02}(Te{sub 0.85}Se{sub 0.15−x}S{sub x}) superconductors clearly decreases with S doping.

  15. Superconducting properties of Zr1+xNi2-xGa and Zr1-xNi2+xGa Heusler compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Alzahrani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting properties of a series of Zr1+xNi2-xGa and Zr1-xNi2+xGa compounds have been investigated by x-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity, dc magnetization, and ac susceptibility measurements. While the parent compound, ZrNi2Ga, exhibited the cubic L21 Heusler structure, multiple non-cubic structures formed in the Zr and Ni rich doped materials. For x ≤ 0.3, all Zr1-xNi2+xGa compounds demonstrated superconducting behavior, but no superconductivity was observed in the Zr1+xNi2-xGa alloys for x > 0.2. The magnetization data revealed that all materials in both Zr1+xNi2-xGa and Zr1-xNi2+xGa series exhibited type-II superconductivity. With increasing doping concentration x, the paramagnetic ordering were enhanced in both systems while the superconducting properties were found to weaken. The observations are discussed considering the structural disorders in the systems.

  16. Superconducting properties of Ca{sub 1−x}RE{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (RE: Rare Earths)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamegai, T., E-mail: tamegai@ap.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides (TRIP), Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ding, Q.P. [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides (TRIP), Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ishibashi, T. [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakajima, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, Transformative Research-Project on Iron Pnictides (TRIP), Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Superconducting properties in rare-earth doped CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals are characterized. ► Sharp resistive transitions with small anisotropy parameter of ∼1.75 are observed. ► Average critical current density is much smaller than other iron-based superconductors. ► Magneto-optical imaging confirms very inhomogeneous superconducting state. -- Abstract: We have grown rare-earth doped CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals and characterized their normal and superconducting properties. Temperature dependence of resistivity and its absolute value suggest good metallic conduction, suppressing antiferromagnetic (AF) transition in the undoped sample. Hall coefficient shows little temperature dependence, consistent with the suppression AF state. Superconducting transitions characterized by resistivity drops in magnetic fields for both parallel to c-axis and ab-plane are reasonably sharp with a weak anisotropy parameter ∼1.75. Despite these observations, average critical current density estimated from the bulk magnetization is orders of magnitude smaller than other typical iron-based superconductors. Magneto-optical imaging confirms very inhomogeneous superconducting state.

  17. Electronic properties of rocksalt copper monoxide: a proxy structure for high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    Cubic rocksalt copper monoxide, in contrast to its lighter transition metal neighbours, does not exist in nature nor has it yet been successfully synthesized. Nonetheless, its numerical study as a structurally much simpler proxy for the layered cuprate perovskites may prove useful in probing the source of high temperature superconductivity in the latter family of compounds. Here we report such a study employing density functional theory (DFT) abetted by the local density approximation including cation on-site Hubbard interactions (LDA+U). Rather surprisingly, we find that unlike oxides of the light transition metals, cubic CuO remains metallic for all physically reasonable values of U and does not result in a Mott- Hubbard induced charge transfer insulator as might be expected, and, in fact, displays a Fermi surface with clearly nesting tendencies. Preliminary calculations of the net dimensionless electron-phonon coupling constant, λ, yield values in the range 0.6 - 0.7 similar to those found for the superconducting fullerenes and magnesium diboride. On the other hand, we do find as we gradually introduce a tetragonal distortion away from pure cubic symmetry that a charge- transfer insulator emerges for values of U ∼ 5 eV and c/a ∼ 1.3 in agreement with recent experimental data on forced-epitaxial growth of 2-4 ML thick films of tetragonal rocksalt CuO. We preliminarily conclude from these computational studies that high temperature superconductivity in the copper oxide compounds is at least initially mediated by Jahn-Teller driven electron-phonon coupling as originally suggested by Bednorz and Mueller.

  18. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar, E-mail: drsekhar@ieee.org [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401 (India); Ravula, Jeswanth [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401 (India); Thadela, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India); Usurumarti, Preeti Rao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.V.K. Institute of Technology, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2015-12-15

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (T{sub C} + 10 K) and pressure (P{sub C} + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables. - Highlights: • Analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Nitrogen. • Error analysis shows extremely low errors in the developed analytical functions.

  19. Analytical approximations for thermophysical properties of supercritical nitrogen (SCN) to be used in futuristic high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Ravula, Jeswanth; Thadela, S.; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2015-01-01

    Future power transmission applications demand higher efficiency due to the limited resources of energy. In order to meet such demand, a novel method of transmission is being developed using High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. However, these HTS cables need to be cooled below the critical temperature of superconductors used in constructing the cable to retain the superconductivity. With the advent of new superconductors whose critical temperatures having reached up to 134 K (Hg based), a need arises to find a suitable coolant which can accommodate the heating loads on the superconductors. The present work proposes, Supercritical Nitrogen (SCN) to be a feasible coolant to achieve the required cooling. Further, the feasibility of proposed coolant to be used in futuristic HTS cables is investigated by studying the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature (T_C + 10 K) and pressure (P_C + 10 bar). In addition, few temperature dependent analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of SCN which are useful in predicting thermohydraulic performance (pressure drop, pumping power and cooling capacity) using numerical or computational techniques. Also, the developed analytical functions are used to calculate the pumping power and the temperature difference between inlet and outlet of HTS cable. These results are compared with those of liquid nitrogen (LN2) and found that the circulating pumping power required to pump SCN is significantly smaller than that to pump LN2. Further, it is found that the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet is smaller as compared to that when LN2 is used, SCN can be preferred to cool long length Hg based HTS cables. - Highlights: • Analytical functions are developed for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Nitrogen. • Error analysis shows extremely low errors in the developed analytical functions.

  20. Influence of reversible epitactical stress on the electronic properties of thin superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trommler, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis new stress techniques are applied on thin superconducting (La,Sr) 2 CuO 4 and BaFe 1.8 Co 0.2 As 2 films. At one hand piezoelectric substrates are applied, which make a biaxial stress of the thin film deposed there possible, whereby the lattice parameters of the substrate are altered by an electric field. At the other hand on the base of flexible substrates by means of a bending experiment a uniaxial lattice deformation of thin film is realized.

  1. Electromagnetic properties of REBaCuO superconducting tapes considered for magnets of fusion reactors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsa, Miloš; Rameš, Michal; Ďuran, Ivan; Entler, Slavomír; Melíšek, T.; Kováč, P.; Viererbl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 124, November (2017), s. 73-76 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Superconducting REBaCuO tapes * Magnetic hysteresis loops * Transport currents * Engineering currents * Angular dependence * Neutron irradiation Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics; JF - Nuclear Energetics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering; Nuclear related engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617304829

  2. Antiferroic electronic structure in the nonmagnetic superconducting state of the iron-based superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Takahiro; Malaeb, Walid; Nakamura, Asuka; Kondo, Takeshi; Kihou, Kunihiro; Lee, Chul-Ho; Iyo, Akira; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Ishida, Shigeyuki; Nakajima, Masamichi; Uchida, Shin-Ichi; Ohgushi, Kenya; Ishizaka, Kyoko; Shin, Shik

    2017-08-01

    A major problem in the field of high-transition temperature ( T c ) superconductivity is the identification of the electronic instabilities near superconductivity. It is known that the iron-based superconductors exhibit antiferromagnetic order, which competes with the superconductivity. However, in the nonmagnetic state, there are many aspects of the electronic instabilities that remain unclarified, as represented by the orbital instability and several in-plane anisotropic physical properties. We report a new aspect of the electronic state of the optimally doped iron-based superconductors by using high-energy resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find spectral evidence for the folded electronic structure suggestive of an antiferroic electronic instability, coexisting with the superconductivity in the nonmagnetic state of Ba 1- x K x Fe 2 As 2 . We further establish a phase diagram showing that the antiferroic electronic structure persists in a large portion of the nonmagnetic phase covering the superconducting dome. These results motivate consideration of a key unknown electronic instability, which is necessary for the achievement of high- T c superconductivity in the iron-based superconductors.

  3. Anisotropic modulation of magnetic properties and the memory effect in a wide-band (011)-Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/PMN-PT heterostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Ying-Ying

    2015-04-24

    Memory effect of electric-field control on magnetic behavior in magnetoelectric composite heterostructures has been a topic of interest for a long time. Although the piezostrain and its transfer across the interface of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic films are known to be important in realizing magnetoelectric coupling, the underlying mechanism for nonvolatile modulation of magnetic behaviors remains a challenge. Here, we report on the electric-field control of magnetic properties in wide-band (011)-Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 heterostructures. By introducing an electric-field-induced in-plane anisotropic strain field during the cooling process from room temperature, we observe an in-plane anisotropic, nonvolatile modulation of magnetic properties in a wide-band Pr0.7Sr0.3MnO3 film at low temperatures. We attribute this anisotropic memory effect to the preferential seeding and growth of ferromagnetic (FM) domains under the anisotropic strain field. In addition, we find that the anisotropic, nonvolatile modulation of magnetic properties gradually diminishes as the temperature approaches FM transition, indicating that the nonvolatile memory effect is temperature dependent. By taking into account the competition between thermal energy and the potential barrier of the metastable magnetic state induced by the anisotropic strain field, this distinct memory effect is well explained, which provides a promising approach for designing novel electric-writing magnetic memories.

  4. Anisotropic electrical properties of epitaxial Yba2Cu3O7-gd films on (110) SrTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Koren, G.; Baseman, R.J.; Segmuller, A.; Holber, W.

    1989-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ were deposited on (110) SrTiO 3 at 600 degrees C in the presence of atomic oxygen using the laser ablation technique. X-ray diffraction patterns in the standard Bragg and grazing incidence modes show epitaxial growth of the films with their c-axis and axis parallel to the and directions in the plane of the substrate, respectively. Superconductivity with T c (R = ) = 82 K was found along the direction in the basal plane, whereas finite resistivity down to 5 k was observed along the c-axis direction. The authors maintain that these preliminary results suggest that YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ behaves like a true two-dimensional superconductor

  5. First-Principles Investigations of the Structural, Anisotropic Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of the AlNi2Ti Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuli Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the electronic, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of AlNi2Ti are studied by first-principles calculations in order to reveal the influence of AlNi2Ti as an interfacial phase on ZTA (zirconia toughened alumina/Fe. The results show that AlNi2Ti has relatively high mechanical properties, which will benefit the impact or wear resistance of the ZTA/Fe composite. The values of bulk, shear and Young’s modulus are 164.2, 63.2 and 168.1 GPa respectively, and the hardness of AlNi2Ti (4.4 GPa is comparable to common ferrous materials. The intrinsic ductile nature and strong metallic bonding character of AlNi2Ti are confirmed by B/G and Poisson’s ratio. AlNi2Ti shows isotropy bulk modulus and anisotropic elasticity in different crystallographic directions. At room temperature, the linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC of AlNi2Ti estimated by quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA based on Debye model is 10.6 × 10−6 K−1, close to LTECs of zirconia toughened alumina and iron. Therefore, the thermal matching of ZTA/Fe composite with AlNi2Ti interfacial phase can be improved. Other thermodynamic properties including Debye temperature, sound velocity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, as well as electronic properties, are also calculated.

  6. Structural and superconducting properties of La2−xNdxCuO4+y (0≤x≤0.5) prepared by room temperature chemical oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rial, C.; Morán, E.; Alario-Franco, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The systematic characterization of the structural and superconducting properties of room temperature chemically oxidized T/O La2-xNdxCuO4+y (0 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.5) has been performed by neutron powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Similarities...

  7. Flux-pinning-induced stresses in a hollow superconducting cylinder with flux creep and viscosity properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, W.J.; Gao, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Magnetoelastic problem for a superconducting cylinder with a hole is investigated. • The effects of both flux creep and viscous flux flow on stresses are analyzed. • For the FC case, the maximal hoop tensile stress always occurs at hole edge. • For the ZFC case, the maximal hoop stress is not certain to occur at hole edge. - Abstract: The magnetoelastic problem for a superconducting cylinder with a concentric hole placed in a magnetic field is investigated, where the flux creep and viscous flux flow have been considered. The stress distributions are derived and numerical calculated for the descending field in both the zero-field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) processes. The effects of applied magnetic field, flux creep and viscous flux flow on the maximal radial and hoop stresses are discussed in detail, and some novel phenomena are found. Among others, for the FC case, the maximal hoop tensile stress always occurs at the hole edge, whist for the ZFC case, the maximal stresses including both hoop and radial stresses either occur in the vicinity of the hole or occur at the position of flux frontier in the remagnetization process. For the descending field, in general, both the flux creep and viscosity parameters have important effects on the maximal radial and hoop stresses. All these phenomena are perhaps of vital importance for the application of superconductors

  8. The influence of Si on the superconducting properties of LiFeAs single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyk, L; Bischoff, M; Niewa, R

    2012-01-01

    The results of Si doping on the superconducting transition temperature, critical current density, irreversibility field, upper critical field, coherence length and magnetic relaxation of LiFeAs single crystals are reported for H ∥ c. The superconducting transition temperature of the Si doped sample decreases by about of 6.4 K/at.%, which is likely due to the pair breaking effect. The presence of a secondary high-field fishtail maximum, which shifts progressively with temperature, is associated with the extrinsic pinning centers created by Si. The increase of the critical current densities in intermediate magnetic fields of about three times as compared to our undoped material indicates that very small amounts of Si act as effective pinning sites for the flux pinning enhancement in the material. Pinning force curves measured at different temperatures obey a normalized form of Kramer’s law, which indicates that the critical current density is limited by one predominant flux pinning mechanism. Analysis of the temperature and field dependences of the magnetic relaxation is consistent with the collective pinning model. The magnetic relaxation measurements combined with the peak position of the critical current density in the B–T phase diagram suggest an elastic–plastic transition of the vortex lattice at higher temperatures and fields. (paper)

  9. Superconducting and normal state properties of niobium-potasium chloride composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysel, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The electrical resistivity, current-voltage characteristics, critical currents, and DC magnetic susceptibility of composites consisting of 50 μm grains of Nb randomly dispersed in a KCl medium were measured. Data were taken between 1.2K and 20K in magnetic fields from 0 to +- 5G. The resistivity and current-voltage characteristics were measured using a standard four-terminal AC technique with a voltage sensitivity of 1 to 2nV, and the magnetic susceptibility was measured using an rf SQUID magnetometer. We found that samples with rho/sub n/ 2 . For 0.1Ω-cm 10Ω-cm there was no superconducting transition. The susceptibility decreased slowly below the grain transition temperature T/sub infinity/ and even below T/sub c/ in samples which underwent resistive transitions. The shape of the resistive transitions and the kink structure in the I-V's require a phase coherent transition model to adequately describe them. However, the poor fit of the theory to our data, the existence of the voltage steps, and the changing susceptibility below the resistive transition indicate that sample disorder plays a more important role in the superconducting transition of composites than is currently accounted for by phase coherent transition theories

  10. Collective modes and dielectric and superconducting properties of electronic systems in confined geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    The dielectric response function of electronic systems in restricted geometries is studied as well as some of the consequences, using the self-consistent field method. These consequences include: 1) existence of multiple branches of longitudinal slender acoustic plasma oscillations (SAP) in thin wires; 2) a new superconductivity mechanism in thin wires via the exchange of SAPs by the electrons forming the Cooper pairs, and 3) reduction of the static screening offered by the valence electrons in a thin semiconductor film with respect to the bulk case. The SAP modes are collective modes shown to exist only in thin wires and neither in a bulk system nor in a thin film. They have linear dispersion relations with phase velocities smaller than the Fermi velocity of the system and are not Landau-damped. Numerical examples of these SAP modes in metallic and semiconductor wires are presented, showing that they sould be more easily observable in semiconductor structures. The SAP-induced mechanism of superconductivity is shown to possibly give higher critical temperature T/sub c/ than the phonon mechanism in thin wires. The author presents a semi-rigorous calculation of T/sub c/ and shows that by increasing the frequency of the SAP modes and having a small effective electron mass one would be able to increase T/sub c/. He also shows that the dielectric function of a thin semiconductor slab is wavenumber dependent even at long wavelengths and is not a constant as in the bulk case

  11. Microwave spectroscopy and electronic transport properties of ferromagnetic Josephson junctions and superconducting spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmann, Marcel; Rudolf, Marcel; Pietsch, Torsten [Zukunftskolleg and Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78464 Konstanz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid superconducting nanostructures recently attracted tremendous interest, due to their great potential in dissipation-less spin-electronics with unprecedented switching rates. The practical realisation of such devices, however, requires a complete understanding of the transfer and dynamics of spin- and charge currents between superconducting (S) and ferromagnetic (F) circuit elements, as well as the coupling between spin- and charge degrees of freedom in these systems. We investigate novel transport phenomena in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrid nanostructures under non-equilibrium conditions. Microwave spectroscopy is used to elucidate fundamental questions related to the complex interplay of competing order parameters and the question of relaxation mechanisms of non-equilibrium distributions with respect to spin, charge and energy. Recent experiments on two complimentary device structures are discussed: (I) in diffusive S/F/S Josephson junctions with non-sinusoidal current-phase relationship and (II) local and non-local transport measurements and microwave spectroscopy in F/S/F lateral spin-valves.

  12. Theoretical analysis on ac loss properties of two-strand parallel conductors composed of superconducting multifilamentary strands

    CERN Document Server

    Iwakuma, M; Funaki, K

    2002-01-01

    The ac loss properties of two-strand parallel conductors composed of superconducting multifilamentary strands were theoretically investigated. The constituent strands generally need to be insulated and transposed for the sake of uniform current distribution and low ac loss. In case the transposition points deviate from the optimum ones, shielding current is induced according to the interlinkage magnetic flux of the twisted loop enclosed by the insulated strands and the contact resistances at the terminals. It produces an additional ac loss. Supposing a simple situation where a two-strand parallel conductor with one-point transposition is exposed to a uniform ac magnetic field, the basic equations for the magnetic field were proposed and the theoretical expressions of the additional ac losses derived. As a result, the following features were shown. The additional ac loss in the non-saturation case, where the induced shielding current is less than the critical current of a strand, is proportional to the square ...

  13. Anomalous properties and coexistence of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity near a quantum critical point in rare-earth intermetallides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val’kov, V. V.; Zlotnikov, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of the appearance of anomalous properties experimentally observed at the transition through the quantum critical point in rare-earth intermetallides have been studied. Quantum phase transitions are induced by the external pressure and are manifested as the destruction of the long-range antiferromagnetic order at zero temperature. The suppression of the long-range order is accompanied by an increase in the area of the Fermi surface, and the effective electron mass is strongly renormalized near the quantum critical point. It has been shown that such a renormalization is due to the reconstruction of the quasiparticle band, which is responsible for the formation of heavy fermions. It has been established that these features hold when the coexistence phase of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity is implemented near the quantum critical point.

  14. Effects of α-particle beam irradiation on superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Duong, Pham van; Ha, Dong Hyup; Oh, Young Hoon; Kang, Won Nam; Chai, Jong Seo [Sungkunkwan Univeversity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young [Kore Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors irradiated with 45 MeV α-particle beam were studied. After the irradiation, enhancement of the critical current density and pinning force was observed, scaling close to strong pinning formula. Double logarithmic plots of the maximum pinning force density with irreversible magnetic field show a power law behavior close to carbon-doped MgB2 film or polycrystals. Variation of normalized pinning force density in the reduced magnetic field suggests scaling formulas for strong pinning mechanism like planar defects. We also observed a rapid decay of critical current density as the vortex lattice constant decreases, due to the strong interaction between vortices and increasing magnetic field.

  15. Superconducting properties of Zn and Al double-doped Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)xB2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    (XRD), ac susceptibility, magnetization and resistivity. The double doping leads to decreases in both the lattice parameters a and c, and the T-c decreases with increasing dopant content. A systematical comparison with Al doped- and Li, Al double doped MgB2 of structure, superconducting transition......A series of polycrystalline samples of Mg1-x(Zn0.5Al0.5)(x)B-2 (0less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.8) were prepared by solid state reaction method and their structure, superconducting transition temperature (T-c) and transport properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction...

  16. Anelastic characterization and superconducting properties of RuSr2GdCu2O8+δ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurelo, A. R.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the high Tc superconductors, many researches have been carried out on the different properties of these materials, especially on the transition temperature into the superconducting state. The rutheno-cuprates belong to a new class of composites, which were synthesized for the first time by Bauernfeind in 1995. Bernhard and collaborators discovered, in 1999, the coexistence of the ferromagnetism and the superconductivity in this phase, which is known as antagonistic phenomenon in the electromagnetism due to spin-charge interactions established in these states. However, the physical nature of the superconducting and magnetic states is still very obscure. The non-stoichiometric (interstitial oxygen is considered as a possible cause for the non-uniformity of the sample properties. In this paper, results of mechanical spectroscopy in Ru-1212 samples are presented showing complex anelastic spectra, which were attributed to the mobility of the interstitial oxygen atoms in the Ru-1212 lattice.Desde el descubrimiento de los superconductores de alta Tc, muchas investigaciones han sido realizadas sobre las diferentes propiedades de estos materiales, especialmente sobre la temperatura de transición dentro del estado superconductor. Los cupratos de rutenio pertenecen a una nueva clase de compositos, los cuales fueron sintetizados por primera vez por Bauernfeind en 1995. Bernhard y colaboradores descubrieron, en 1999, la coexistencia del ferromagnetismo y la superconductividad en esta fase, lo cual es conocido como un fenómeno antagonistico en el electromagnetismo debido a las interacciones spin-carga establecidas en estos estados. Sin embargo, la naturaleza física de los estados superconductores y magnéticos aun no son muy claros. El oxigeno no-estequiométrico (intersticial es considerado como una causa de la no-uniformidad de las propiedades de la muestra. En este articulo, los resultados de espectroscopia mecánica en muestras

  17. Microemulsion based approach for nanospheres assembly into anisotropic nanostructures of NiMnO3 and their magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Menaka; Kumar, Sandeep; Garg, Neha; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V.; Lofland, Samuel E.; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2018-02-01

    The present study focuses on synthesis of anisotropic nanostructures of nickel manganese oxide (NiMnO3) obtained by thermal decomposition of nanocrystalline nickel manganese oxalate precursor, Ni0.5Mn0.5(C2O4)·2H2O which crystallized as nanorods. The synthesis of the oxalate precursor has been carried out via microemulsion-mediated process with cationic and non-ionic surfactants. The microemulsion led to reverse micelles, and the film flexibility of the micelle in presence of non-ionic surfactant (Tergitol) was reduced by increasing the chain length of the co-surfactant (1-butanol, 1-hexanol and 1-octanol) which led to the increase in reaction rate and hence increase in the aspect ratio of the nickel manganese oxalate by up to four times. However, in the presence of cationic surfactant, highly uniform nickel manganese oxalate nanorods were obtained. Further, the decomposition of the oxalate precursor was optimized to maintain the anisotropy of the rods of ternary metal oxide (NiMnO3). An electron microscopy study showed that the rods were made up of an assembly of ultrafine nanospheres. The NiMnO3 nanostructures were all ferrimagnetic with Curie temperature ranging between 437 and 467 K showing increasing saturation magnetization with increase in aspect ratio of the nanorods.

  18. A Novel Analytical Solution for Estimating Aquifer Properties and Predicting Stream Depletion Rates by Pumping from a Horizontally Anisotropic Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Zhan, H.; Knappett, P.

    2017-12-01

    Past studies modeling stream-aquifer interactions commonly account for vertical anisotropy, but rarely address horizontal anisotropy, which does exist in certain geological settings. Horizontal anisotropy is impacted by sediment deposition rates, orientation of sediment particles and orientations of fractures etc. We hypothesize that horizontal anisotropy controls the volume of recharge a pumped aquifer captures from the river. To test this hypothesis, a new mathematical model was developed to describe the distribution of drawdown from stream-bank pumping with a well screened across a horizontally anisotropic, confined aquifer, laterally bounded by a river. This new model was used to determine four aquifer parameters including the magnitude and directions of major and minor principal transmissivities and storativity based on the observed drawdown-time curves within a minimum of three non-collinear observation wells. By comparing the aquifer parameters values estimated from drawdown data generated known values, the discrepancies of the major and minor transmissivities, horizontal anisotropy ratio, storativity and the direction of major transmissivity were 13.1, 8.8, 4, 0 and managers to exploit groundwater resource reasonably while protecting stream ecosystem.

  19. Investigation of structural, electronic and anisotropic elastic properties of Ru-doped WB{sub 2} compound by increased valence electron concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surucu, Gokhan, E-mail: g_surucu@yahoo.com [Ahi Evran University, Department of Electric and Energy, 40100, Kirsehir (Turkey); Gazi University, Photonics Application and Research Center, 06500, Ankara (Turkey); Kaderoglu, Cagil [Ankara University, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Deligoz, Engin; Ozisik, Haci [Aksaray University, Department of Physics, 68100, Aksaray (Turkey)

    2017-03-01

    First principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the structural, anisotropic elastic and electronic properties of ruthenium doped tungsten-diboride ternary compounds (W{sub 1−x}Ru{sub x}B{sub 2}) for an increasing molar fraction of Ru atom from 0.1 to 0.9 by 0.1. Among the nine different compositions, W{sub 0.3}Ru{sub 0.7}B{sub 2} has been found as the most stable one due to the formation energy and band filling theory calculations. Moreover, the band structures and partial density of states (PDOS) have been computed for each x composition. After obtaining the elastic constants for all x compositions, the secondary results such as Bulk modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, Shear modulus, and Vickers Hardness of polycrystalline aggregates have been derived and the relevant mechanical properties have been discussed. In addition, the elastic anisotropy has been visualized in detail by plotting the directional dependence of compressibility, Poisson ratio, Young’s and Shear moduli. - Highlights: • Effects of Ru substitution in WB{sub 2} using increased valence electron concentration. • Structural, electronic, mechanic and elastic properties for increasing Ru content. • Considered alloys are incompressible, brittle, stiffer and high hard materials.

  20. Zinc substitution effects on the superconducting properties of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Vazquez, V.; Mazumdar, S.; Falco, C.M.; Barlingay, C.; Risbud, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    With the discovery of the electron superconductors, a new dimension was added to research in the field of high-temperature superconductivity. Studies of these materials should help elucidate the mechanism responsible for high-temperature superconductivity, as well as improve strategies for finding new superconductors. In this paper, we discuss the superconducting structural properties of Nd 1.85 Ce 0.15 (Cu 1-y Zn y )O 4 as a function of the Zn concentration y. Detailed comparisons with previous results of similar substitution studies in the single-CuO 2 -layer hole superconductor La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 also are made. We have found that the non-magnetic element Zn has a detrimental effect on the T'-phase electron superconductor, and that this effect is as strong as in the T-phase hole superconductor. Theoretical implications and the question of electron-hole symmetry are also discussed

  1. Nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Marina; Khristich, Dmitrii

    2018-03-01

    A general approach to constructing of nonlinear variants of connection between stresses and strains in anisotropic materials with different types of symmetry of properties is considered. This approach is based on the concept of elastic proper subspaces of anisotropic materials introduced in the mechanics of solids by J. Rychlewski and on the particular postulate of isotropy proposed by A. A. Il’yushin. The generalization of the particular postulate on the case of nonlinear anisotropic materials is formulated. Systems of invariants of deformations as lengths of projections of the strain vector into proper subspaces are developed. Some variants of nonlinear constitutive relations for anisotropic materials are offered. The analysis of these relations from the point of view of their satisfaction to general and limit forms of generalization of partial isotropy postulate on anisotropic materials is performed. The relations for particular cases of anisotropy are written.

  2. Superconducting properties of single-crystal Nb sphere formed by large-undercooling solidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeya, H.; Sung, Y.S.; Hirata, K.; Togano, K

    2003-10-15

    An electrostatic levitation (ESL) system has been used for investigating undercooling effects on superconducting materials. In this report, preliminary experiments on Nb (melting temperature: T{sub m}=2477 deg. C) have been performed by melting Nb in levitation using 150 and 250 W Nd-YAG lasers. Since molten Nb is solidified without any contact in a high vacuum condition, a significantly undercooled state up to 400 deg. C is maintained before recalescence followed by solidification. Spherical single crystals of Nb are formed by the ESL process due to the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation. The field dependence of magnetization of Nb shows a reversible behavior as an ideal type II superconductor, implying that it contains almost no flux-pinning centers.

  3. Optical properties of copper-oxygen planes in superconducting oxides and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.K.; Barboux, P.; Tarascon, J.; Aspnes, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The optical spectra of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and other Cu-O-based superconductors have several common features in the visible and near uv. Chemical changes that affect the conductivity of these materials also have a strong effect on some of these features. By comparing the spectra of many materials containing similar Cu-O structures, we have determined that some of the optical features are associated with specific local structures within the unit cell. Of particular interest is a sharp feature at 1.7 eV that appears for nonmetallic compositions of many of the materials and is removed by the introduction of carriers. Similar features in materials not yet showing superconductivity encourage further investigation of them

  4. Properties of niobium superconducting bridges prepared by electron-beam lithography and ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, J.; Cha, W.; Gamo, K.; Namba, S.

    1979-01-01

    Niobium superconducting bridges having a variable-thickness geometry consisting of a thin narrow implanted region joining two much thicker bulk films have been fabricated. The temperature dependence of the critical current is described well by the static theory of Likharev and Yakobson. The direct current and alternate current Josephson effects were observed at temperatures above the transition temperature T'/sub c/ of the bridge. The magnetic field period of the ''diffraction pattern'' dependence on magnetic field is analyzed taking into account demagnetizing effects in an approximate way. This field period H/sub p/ is found as a function of the bridge width w and the length L for wide bridges (w/L>>1), i.e., H/sub p/= (Phi 0 /μ 0 )/ 2/sup 2/3/w/sup 5/3/L/sup 1/3/

  5. Calculations of the properties of superconducting alloys via the average T-matrix approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, P.

    1980-01-01

    The theoretical formula of McMillan, modified via the multiple-scattering theory by Gomersall and Gyorffy, has been very successful in computing the electron-phonon coupling constant (lambda) and the transition temperature (Tsub(c)) of many superconducting elements and compounds. For disordered solids, such as substitutional alloys, however, this theory fails because of the breakdown of the translational symmetry used in the multiple-scattering theory. Under these conditions the problem can still be solved if the t-matrix is averaged in the random phase approximation (average T-matrix approximation). Gomersall and Gyorffy's expression is reformulated for lambda in the random phase approximation. This theory is applied to calculate lambda and Tsub(c) of the binary substitutional NbMo alloy system at different concentrations. The results appear to be in fair agreement with experiments. (author)

  6. Superconductivity and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.; Valdre, U.

    1977-01-01

    In this review article, two aspects of the role of superconductivity in electron microscopy are examined: (i) the development of superconducting devices (mainly lenses) and their incorporation in electron microscopes; (ii) the development of electron microscope techniques for studying fundamental and technological problems associated with superconductivity. The first part opens with a brief account of the relevant properties of conventional lenses, after which the various types of superconducting lenses are described and their properties compared. The relative merits and inconveniences of superconducting and conventional lenses are examined, particular attention being paid to the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients at accelerating voltages above a megavolt. This part closes with a survey of the various microscope designs that have been built or proposed, incorporating superconducting components. In the second part, some methods that have been or might be used in the study of superconductivity in the electron microscope are described. A brief account of the types of application for which they are suitable is given. (author)

  7. Superconductivity - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de

  8. High-pressure phases of S, Se, and P hydrides and their superconducting properties. Predictions from ab-initio theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, E.K.U. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The quest for novel high-temperature superconductors in the family of hydrogen-rich compounds has recently been crowned with the experimental discovery of a record critical temperature of 190 K in a hydrogen-sulfur compound at 200 GPa. In the present contribution, we investigate the phase diagram of the H-S system, comparing the stability of H{sub n}S (n = 1,2,3,4) by means of the minima hopping method for structure prediction. Our extensive crystal structure search confirms the H{sub 3}S stoichiometry as the most stable configuration at high pressure. Superconducting properties are calculated using the fully ab-initio parameter-free approach of density functional theory for superconductors. We find a T{sub c} of 180 K at 200 GPa, in excellent agreement with experiment. We also show that Se-H has a phase diagram similar to its sulfur counterpart. We predict H{sub 3}Se to be superconducting at temperatures higher than 120 K at 100 GPa. We furthermore investigate the phase diagram of PH{sub n} (n = 1,2,3,4,5,6). The results of our crystal-structure search do not support the existence of thermodynamically stable PH{sub n} compounds, which exhibit a tendency for elemental decomposition at high pressure. Although the lowest energy phases of PH{sub n=1,2,3} display T{sub c} values comparable to experiment, it remains uncertain if the measured values of T{sub c} can be fully attributed to a phase-pure compound of PH{sub n}.

  9. Structural, bonding, anisotropic mechanical and thermal properties of Al4SiC4 and Al4Si2C5 by first-principles investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural, bonding, electronic, mechanical and thermal properties of ternary aluminum silicon carbides Al4SiC4 and Al4Si2C5 are investigated by first-principles calculations combined with the Debye quasi-harmonic approximation. All the calculated mechanical constants like bulk, shear and Young's modulus are in good agreement with experimental values. Both compounds show distinct anisotropic elastic properties along different crystalline directions, and the intrinsic brittleness of both compounds is also confirmed. The elastic anisotropy of both aluminum silicon carbides originates from their bonding structures. The calculated band gap is obtained as 1.12 and 1.04 eV for Al4SiC4 and Al4Si2C5 respectively. From the total electron density distribution map, the obvious covalent bonds exist between Al and C atoms. A distinct electron density deficiency sits between AlC bond along c axis among Al4SiC4, which leads to its limited tensile strength. Meanwhile, the anisotropy of acoustic velocities for both compounds is also calculated and discussed.

  10. Anisotropic characterization of magnetorheological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohmen, E., E-mail: eike.dohmen@tu-dresden.de; Modler, N.; Gude, M.

    2017-06-01

    For the development of energy efficient lightweight parts novel function integrating materials are needed. Concerning this field of application magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers and MR composites are promising materials allowing the adjustment of mechanical properties by an external magnetic field. A key issue for operating such structures in praxis is the magneto-mechanical description. Most rheological properties are gathered at laboratory conditions for high magnetic flux densities and a single field direction, which does not correspond to real praxis conditions. Although anisotropic formation of superstructures can be observed in MR suspensions (Fig. 1) or experimenters intentionally polymerize MR elastomers with anisotropic superstructures these MR materials are usually described in an external magnetic field as uniform, isotropic materials. This is due to missing possibilities for experimentally measuring field angle dependent properties and ways of distinguishing between material properties and frictional effects. Just a few scientific works experimentally investigated the influence of different field angles (Ambacher et al., 1992; Grants et al., 1990; Kuzhir et al., 2003) or the influence of surface roughness on the shear behaviour of magnetic fluids (Tang and Conrad, 1996) . The aim of this work is the introduction of a novel field angle cell allowing the determination of anisotropic mechanical properties for various MR materials depending on the applied magnetic field angle. - Highlights: • Novel magnetic field angle testing device (MFATD) presented. • Determination of magnetic field dependent anisotropic mechanical properties. • Experimental data for different field directions shown for a commercial MR fluid. • Material description of MR fluids as transversal-isotropic solids. • Magnetic field angle dependent variations in shear stresses experimentally measured. • Determination of frictional coefficients between the MR fluid and

  11. Three-terminal superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions

  12. Investigation of Pb doping on electrical, structural and superconducting properties of YBa2-xPbxCu3O7-δ superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzatpour, S.; Sharifzadegan, L.; Sarvari, F.; Sedghi, H.

    2018-06-01

    In this study the high temperature superconductor YBa2-xPbxCu3O7-δ with doping x = ,0.05,0.1,0.15 were prepared by the standard solid-state reaction method. The effect of Pb substitution on Ba site of YBCO superconducting system, structural, electrical and superconducting properties of Y-based superconductor has been investigated. The measurements of dc resisitivity were performed on all samples with four-probe method using low frequency/lowAC current (4 mA) . The superconducting temperature, Tc, were determined from the resistivity versus temperature (R-T) curves. Results show that Pb doping reduced the cirtical temperature(Tc) and superconductivity properties of our samples. The maximum and the minimum Tc were observed for the samples with x = 0.15 and x = 0.1 respectively. The structure and phase purity of samples were examined by the X-ray powder diffraction technique (XRD) performed by means of D8 Advance Bruker diffractometer with Cu kα radiation. The grain morphology of surface of the samples was analyzed by sacanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns of polycrystalline materials of composition YBa2-xPbxCu3O7-δ revealed that all prepared samples are orthorhombic. All of the peaks of YBCO and YBa2-xPbxCu3O7-δ have been used for the estimation of volume fractions of the phases and ignored the void peaks.

  13. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models

  14. New method of synthesis and physical properties of thick superconducting Er-123 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Sakai, N.; Machi, T.; Miyajiri, T.; Hirabayashi, I.; Tanaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a low-cost, short time manufacturing process using a novel method, starting from a mixture of Er 2 BaO 4 , BaCuO 2 , and CuO, with an excess of Er at expense of Ba. Several micrometers thick films were prepared by the screen-printing technique, spreading the mixture paste on silver substrates, processed then in Ar-1% O 2 atmosphere. Using a double-step annealing process, we obtained good quality Er-123 thick films on silver substrates, with T c (onset) 92 K. Formation of large flat grains was observed by scanning electron microscope. According to XRD analysis, the films were preferentially c-axis oriented. The magnetic (induced), self-field J c measured at 77 K was above 32 kA/cm 2 . We observed a strong dependence of the transport current, I c , on the grain size. The maximum I c at 77 K as high as 10 A was observed in the sample with the average grain size around 40 μm. The present results indicate that our technology, enabling preparation of large-area superconducting thick films on Ag-based substrates in short processing times, is relatively cheap and appropriate for utilization in long-length RE-123 silver sheath wire production for commercial applications

  15. Superconducting properties of (Nb,Ta)3Sn wires fabricated by the bronze process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Aihara, K.; Kaiho, K.; Luhman, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the superconducting critical temperature T/sub c/, critical current density, J/sub c/ (8 3 Sn monofilamentary wires. Ta content in the Nb 3 Sn compound was varied by alloying the Nb core prior to a reaction heat treatment. Core compositions were 0, 3, 7, 10, and 20 wt% Ta and heat treatments for the reaction were 16, 64, and 120 h at 725 0 C. For the 120 h heat treatment T/sub c/ decreased monotonically with Ta content from 17.5 to 15.7K while H/sub c2/ increased from 19.8 to 24.6 T. With increasing Ta content J/sub c/ (16 T) increased from 0.7 x 10 5 A/cm 2 to a maximum value of 1.3 x 10 5 at 7 wt% Ta. Further increases in the Ta content produced a decrease in J/sub c/(16 T). At 10 T J/sub c/ decreased with increasing Ta content. An important aspect of this work is the observation that alloying with Ta did not hinder wire ductility during drawing. It appears therefore that the improvements in J/sub c/(16 T) can be incorporated into commercially manufactured conductors

  16. Effect of fluorination on the structure and superconducting properties of the Hg-1201 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumov, A.M.; Aleshin, V.A.; Antipov, E.V.; Mikhajlova, D.A.; Putilin, S.N.; Rozova, M.G.; Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A fluorination of the reduced Hg-1201 phase with T c =61 K carried out with XeF 2 resulted first in an increase in T c up to 97 K and then in a decrease and even a suppression of superconductivity due to overdoping. Neutron power refinement performed on fluorinated HgBa 2 CuO 4 F δ samples showed twice the amount of extra fluorine (δ≅0.24 and 0.32) in comparison with those for the oxygenated Hg-1201 phases with close T c (δ=0.12 and 0.19). This supports the ionic model of the hole doping in the Hg-1201: 2 holes per extra oxygen and 1 hole per extra fluorine. The exchange of extra oxygen for a double amount of fluorine extends the shortening of the apical Cu-O bond distances, while the in-plane distances, as well as T c , do not vary. These results show that the structural nature of T c variation in Hg-1201 under high pressure can be mainly due to the compression of the in-plane Cu-O bond distances

  17. Influence of iodine insertion on the YBaCuO superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, M.; Perrin, C.; Pena, O.; Sergent, M. (Lab. de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire, Univ. de Rennes 1, 35 (France))

    1992-11-01

    YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (x=6, 6.7 and 7) have been treated under iodine vapours, in evacuated silica tubes. After iodination, YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6] exhibits a tetragonal/orthorhombic structural transition and becomes superconducting with T[sub c] increasing up to 70 K; the T[sub c] of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6.7] increases progressively from 63 K up to 80 K while the inductive amplitude decreases correlatively; for YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] only a slight quantity of iodine is inserted in the sample, which does not change the T[sub c] of 91 K, but provokes an important decrease of the inductive amplitude. EDS and SEM observations are used to test the homogeneity of the bromine insertion in the pellets and in the microcrystals. (orig.).

  18. Superconducting properties of MgB2 particle impregnated with Mg-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Matsuda, Kenji; Mizutani, Manabu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Ikeno, Susumu; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Aoyama, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional penetration method combined with semi-solid casting (SS-3DPC) was utilized to prepare magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) powder composite materials with various host materials of Mg, Mg-3%Al, Mg-3%Al-1%Zn, Mg-9%Al, and Mg-9%Al-1%Zn. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated predominant peak patterns of MgB 2 and a host alloy, implying that the host material tightly bonded MgB 2 grains without melting the MgB 2 powder. This was confirmed by SEM images. Measured electrical resistivity and magnetization versus temperature showed clear signals of superconducting transition temperature of 27-38 K for all the samples cut out from the billets. Magnetic hysteresis loop observed at 5 K enabled us to estimate a critical current density (J c ) based on the extended Bean model. Additions of aluminum and zinc elements to magnesium host-matrix were found to enhance J c and increase residual resistivity (ρ 0 ) suggesting that aluminum and zinc have an effect on pinning magnetic flux flow for J c enhancement, and scattering conduction electrons for increase of ρ 0 . (author)

  19. Characterization of the microwave properties of superconducting films with high transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, W.; Klinger, M.; Daginnus, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the meantime high quality Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films were produced. The latest results show, that its surface resistances are clearly lower than the values of copper, measured at a temperature of 77 K and up to frequencies of 86 GHz. This examination had the aim to produce high-T c films with a simple and low cost method, to use them as transmission lines at frequencies up to 30 GHz and above. A screen printing process was investigated, and high-T c thick films were fabricated on several substrates. Superconducting transition temperatures up to 80 K (dc zero resistance) were obtained. The films showed no complete magnetic shielding, and its microwave surface resistances were clearly higher than that ones for copper. The a. c. Josephson effect was proved with granular structures of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O material and with screen printed thick films. Because of its high surface resistances, these thick films are unsuitable for the use as transmission lines at high frequencies. However, the a.c. Josephson effect can be used to manufacture microwave sensors in bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O and screen printed films of Y-Ba-Cu-O, which have a favourable geometric structure. (orig.) With 16 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs [de

  20. Normal and superconducting state properties of U6Fe at low temperatures and high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLong, L.E.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hall, L.N.; Kierstead, H.; Aoki, H.; Dhar, S.K.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Junod, A.

    1985-01-01

    High purity U 6 Fe polycrystals with a resistance ratio rrr=9 at T=4 K are found to exhibit a record onset temperature (T 0 >4.0 K) to superconductivity for U materials. Our measured values of the electronic coefficient of heat capacity Csup(*)=(150+-3) mJ/mol.K 2 , the mean Debye temperature THETA(T->0)=116 K and the normalized jump in heat capacity at Tsub(c), ΔC/γsup(*)Tsub(c)=2.3+-0.1, are all in good agreement with previous work, and suggest that U 6 Fe is a strong-coupled superconductor. Resistive upper critical field measurements on high purity samples revealed a pronounced S-shaped curvature of Hsub(c2)(T) and evidence for anisotropy, similar to effects seen in UPt 3 , but not observed in lower purity U 6 Fe samples. We find Hsub(c2)(0)>10 T and transition widths ΔTsub(c)proportionalHsup(1/2) at moderate fields, followed by an abrupt increase in ΔTsub(c) for H>8 T. Our Hsub(c2) data cannot be explained by existing theoretical models. Preliminary heat capacity measurements in magnetic fields 0 6 Fe at T< or approx.110 K. (orig.)

  1. Effect of short-range ordering on the electrical conductivity and superconducting properties of Nb6C5 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utkina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    Niobium carbide, NbC x , belongs to the family of so called interstital phases. Metal atoms form a face-centered cubic lattice, whose octahedral interstices are occupied by carbon atoms. The fraction (1 - x) of interstices remain vacant, and this determines the nonstoichiometry of these phases: most of them are characterized by a wide homogeneity range, 0.70 m ≅ 3308 - 3886 K). In contrast, the metalloid atoms exhibit high mobility at relatively low temperatures. For compositions close to Nb 6 C 5 (0.81 O-D ≅ 1300 K. The presence of vacancies in the carbon sublattice considerably affects the physical properties of carbides, which depend not only on total vacancy concentration but also on their distribution, i.e., on the degree of ordering (both short-range and long-range order) in the metalloid sublattice. The purpose of this work is to study the effects of such ordering on the superconducting properties of Nb 6 C 5 single crystals

  2. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  3. Fabrication of Y-Ba-Cu-O (123) cuprate superconducting system and study of their electrical and structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, F.; Hossain, M.K.; Sultana, H.R.; Abdul Hossain, M.; Khan, A.H.

    2005-08-01

    We know that in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x superconducting system transition temperature T c is highly dependent on the oxygen content in the compound. So, in order to fabricate superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x material under oxygen flow we have fabricated a tube furnace. Superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ compounds were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. Different pressure for the pellet formation, different sintering and annealing conditions in air or in oxygen atmosphere were carried out to study the effect on the formation of superconducting phase. Samples were characterized by dc electrical resistance and X-ray diffraction. Superconducting Y 1-x Ca x Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ compounds are now under investigation. (author)

  4. First-principles study of optical, elastic anisotropic and thermodynamic properties of TiN under high temperature and high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical, elastic anisotropic and thermodynamic properties of TiN in the NaCl (B1 structure are analyzed in detail in the temperature range from 0 to 2000 K and the pressure range from 0 to 20 GPa. From the calculated dielectric constants, a first order isostructural phase transition between 29 and 30 GPa is found for TiN. The absorption spectra exhibit high values ranging from the far infrared region to the ultra-violet one. The anisotropy value of Young's modulus of TiN is smaller than that of c-BN at 0 GPa and the anisotropy of TiN clearly increases with an increase of pressure. The effects of pressure and temperature on the bulk modulus, Grüneisen parameter, Gibbs free energy, and Debye temperature are significant. The Grüneisen parameter of TiN is much larger than that of c-BN. At temperatures below 1000 K, TiN's heat capacity is much larger than that of c-BN.

  5. 28 September 2011 - Canadian Intellectual Property Office Policy, International and Research Office Director K. Georgaras visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineer M. Bajko and Senior Scientists P. Jenni and R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    28 September 2011 - Canadian Intellectual Property Office Policy, International and Research Office Director K. Georgaras visiting the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Engineer M. Bajko and Senior Scientists P. Jenni and R. Voss.

  6. Superconductivity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Kircher, F.; Leveque, J.; Tixador, P.

    2008-01-01

    This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)

  7. Superconductivity and its devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    Among the more important developments that are discussed are cryotrons, superconducting motors and generators, and high-field magnets. Cryotrons will create faster and more economical computer systems. Superconducting motors and generators will cost much less to build than conventional electric generators and cut fuel consumption. Moreover, high-field magnets are being used to confine plasma in connection with nuclear fusion. Superconductors have a vital role to play in all of these developments. Most importantly, though, are the magnetic properties of superconductivity. Superconducting magnets are an integral part of nuclear fusion. In addition, high-field magnets are necessary in the use of accelerators, which are needed to study the interactions between elementary particles

  8. Effects of drawing and high-pressure sintering on the superconducting properties of (Ba,K)Fe2As2 powder-in-tube wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyon, Sunseng; Yamasaki, Yuji; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Kajitani, Hideki; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the superconducting properties of round wires of (Ba,K)Fe 2 As 2 fabricated by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method is systematically studied. After establishing the method to obtain the largest transport critical current density (J c ) in round wires using the hot isostatic press technique, we investigated how the transition temperature (T c ), J c , and microstructures change at each step of the wire fabrication. Unexpectedly, we find that superconducting properties of the wire core are significantly damaged by the drawing process. Systematic measurements of J c and T c of the core superconductor after each drawing and sintering process clarified the evolution of degradation by the drawing process and recovery by heat treatment. (paper)

  9. Enhanced flux pinning properties in superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} films by a novel chemical doping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T., E-mail: wtwang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Pu, M.H.; Lei, M.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Cheng, C.H. [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education of China), Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Mail Stop 165, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and Co-doped YBCO films were prepared by newly-developed chemical method. • The doped films have much denser and smoother surface microstructures. • Significantly enhanced fux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute Co-doped flm. -- Abstract: Pure and cobalt-doped superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} (YBCO) films were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO{sub 3} substrate by a newly developed polymer-assisted metal organic deposition method. The cobalt-doped YBCO films display much denser and smoother surface microstructures and the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} spans a small range of 1.7 K with the doping levels. Significantly enhanced flux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute cobalt-doped film. This may be attributed to the good grain connections and the effective flux pinning centers introduced by cobalt doping.

  10. Enhanced flux pinning properties in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7−z films by a novel chemical doping approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.T.; Pu, M.H.; Lei, M.; Zhang, H.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Pure and Co-doped YBCO films were prepared by newly-developed chemical method. • The doped films have much denser and smoother surface microstructures. • Significantly enhanced fux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute Co-doped flm. -- Abstract: Pure and cobalt-doped superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−z (YBCO) films were prepared on (0 0 l) LaAlO 3 substrate by a newly developed polymer-assisted metal organic deposition method. The cobalt-doped YBCO films display much denser and smoother surface microstructures and the superconducting transition temperature T c spans a small range of 1.7 K with the doping levels. Significantly enhanced flux-pinning properties have been obtained for dilute cobalt-doped film. This may be attributed to the good grain connections and the effective flux pinning centers introduced by cobalt doping

  11. Effects of surface modification of Nd-Fe-B powders using parylene C by CVDP method on the properties of anisotropic bonded Nd–Fe–B magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Bin; Sun, Aizhi, E-mail: sunaizhi@126.com; Lu, Zhenwen; Cheng, Chuan; Xu, Chen

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents effects of surface modification of Nd–Fe–B powders using parylene C by means of chemical vapor deposition polymerization (CVDP) on the properties of anisotropic bonded Nd–Fe–B magnets. It can be well verified from SEM images and EDS analysis that the surface of Nd–Fe–B powder is coated with thin parylene C films. The maximum energy product ((BH)max), degree of alignment (DOA), actual density and corrosion resistance of parylene Nd–Fe–B magnets prepared at room temperature are much higher than that of non-parylene Nd–Fe–B magnets. (BH)max, DOA and actual density of parylene Nd–Fe–B magnets (70 kJ/m{sup 3}, 0.342, 5.82 g/cm{sup 3}) prepared at room temperature under 578 MPa are improved by 18.6%, 4.6%, 2.1% and 27.3%, 29.1%, 7.8% compared with non-parylene Nd‐Fe‐B magnets prepared at 140 °C (59 kJ/m{sup 3}, 0327, 5.70 g/cm{sup 3}) and room temperature (55 kJ/m{sup 3}, 0.265, 5.40 g/cm{sup 3}), respectively. Additional, the improvement of actual density and the room temperature process also solve problems such as powders’ sticking wall, non-uniform powder filling, non-uniform magnetic properties, seriously mould damage, short life cycle of mould and so on, which exists during warm compaction process. Parylene Nd–Fe–B magnets have better corrosion resistance and worse mechanical properties than that of non-parylene Nd–Fe–B magnets. The reason for the improvement of magnetic properties and actual density is the low friction cofficient of parylene C films, which results in lower frictional resistance and better lubricating property of parylene Nd–Fe–B powders. - Highlights: • Parylene Nd–Fe–B magnets prepared at room temperature show higher (BH)max and DOA. • Actual density of parylene Nd–Fe–B magnet is improved greatly. • Problems such as powders’ sticking wall, mould damage and so on are solved. • Parylene NdFeB magnets have better corrosion resistance. • Low friction cofficient of

  12. Controllable manipulation of superconductivity using magnetic vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, J E; Schuller, Ivan K

    2011-01-01

    The magneto-transport of a superconducting/ferromagnetic hybrid structure, consisting of a superconducting thin film in contact with an array of magnetic nanodots in the so-called 'magnetic vortex state', exhibits interesting properties. For certain magnetic states, the stray magnetic field from the vortex array is intense enough to drive the superconducting film into the normal state. In this fashion, the normal-to-superconducting phase transition can be controlled by the magnetic history. The strong coupling between superconducting and magnetic subsystems allows characteristically ferromagnetic properties, such as hysteresis and remanence, to be dramatically transferred into the transport properties of the superconductor.

  13. Mechanical and physical properties of Bi-2223 and Nb3Sn superconducting materials between 300 K and 7 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, Arman; Osamura, Kozo; Sugano, Michinaka

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of IEC/TC90-WG5 and VAMAS/TWA16, superconducting (SC) materials are investigated with respect to their mechanical properties between 300 K and 7 K. Besides the mechanical tests, physical and electrical properties are also determined for high T c SC-tapes. The mechanical tests comprised the characterization of tensile properties at ambient temperature as well as at 7 K of Nb 3 Sn-reacted strands, Bi2223 tapes, pure silver tapes, silver bars, silver alloy tapes and bare filaments extracted from Bi-2223 tapes. All these investigations are carried out using a variable temperature helium gas flow cryostat equipped with a servo hydraulic tensile machine (MTS, model 810). For the load measurements specially developed, highly sensitive cryogenic proof in situ working load cells are used. For the strain determination of the wires, a high resolution ultra-light double extensometer system with a specially developed low noise signal conditioner is used. The engineering parameters such as yield strength and elastic modulus are evaluated using the obtained data with newly developed software. For the tiny and brittle filaments load versus displacement data are obtained. A determined master line (Young's modulus versus machine compliance) established by thin 0.125 mm O wires of different pure metals is used for the Young's modulus estimation of filaments. For the 4 K electrical voltage-current measurements under magnetic fields of up to 13 T, an existing test facility is used for the high T c tapes. No dependency between applied strain up to 0.3% and the critical current under magnetic field could be observed for the selected specific Bi-2223 tapes. In addition, thermal expansion curves of Bi-2223 tapes along with pure silver and silver alloy (AgMg) are determined between 290 K and 7 K using in situ working extensometers. The coefficient of thermal expansion is evaluated by the determined thermal expansion versus temperature curve

  14. The determination of the elastic properties of an anisotropic polycrystalline graphite using neutron diffraction and ultrasonic measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lokajíček, Tomáš; Lukáš, Petr; Nikitin, A. N.; Papushkin, I.V.; Sumin, V. V.; Vasin, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2010), s. 1374-1384 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0676 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : extruded graphite * elastic properties * neutron diffraction * ultrasonic sounding * thermal-expansion * self-consistent * young moduls * porosity * stress * rocks Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.893, year: 2010

  15. Growth orientation and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films prepared by the low-fluorine sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Li; Zhao Gaoyang; Xu Hui; Zhao Juanjuan

    2010-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films were deposited on (100)-oriented LaAlO 3 (LAO) single crystal substrates by the dip-coating process using low-fluorine solution. Their microstructures were characterized with the aid of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their superconducting properties were measured by the standard four-probe method. The experiment results show that the film obtained under high enough humidity conditions exhibits better c-axis texture and superconducting properties than the film under a relatively low humidity conditions. Based on the classical nucleation and chemical reaction thermodynamics theory, the underlying crystalline and growth mechanisms of YBCO films under certain humidity conditions are explained in combination with our experimental results. It is suggested that the unreacted intermediate phases such as BaF 2 and CuO aggregated in the YBCO grain boundary will cause lattice distortion in the YBCO matrix and further induce the formation of a-axis oriented YBCO grains as crystallization proceeds. Therefore, it is believed that the relative content of water vapor within the heat-treatment atmosphere plays quite an important role in the preparation of c-axis oriented YBCO film with good superconducting properties. (semiconductor materials)

  16. Dependences on RE of superconducting properties of transition metal co-doped (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 with RE = La–Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakita, H.; Ogino, H.; Sala, A.; Okada, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Shimoyama, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We synthesized Co or Ni co-doped (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 with RE = La–Gd. • Co or Ni co-doping improved superconducting properties of all (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 samples. • T_c of (Ca, RE)FeAs_2 decreased with decreasing ionic radii of RE"3"+. • Eu doped samples showed exceptionally low T_c and long interlayer distance. • Long interlayer distance of Eu doped samples suggested co-existence of Eu"2"+ and Eu"3"+. - Abstract: Dependence of superconducting properties of (Ca, RE)(Fe, TM)As_2 [(Ca, RE)112, TM: Co, Ni)] on RE elements (RE = La–Gd) was systematically investigated. Improvement of superconducting properties by Co or Ni co-doping was observed for all (Ca, RE)112, which is similar to Co-co-doped (Ca, La)112 or (Ca, Pr)112. T_c of Co-co-doped samples decreased from 38 K for RE = La to 29 K for RE = Gd with decreasing ionic radii of RE"3"+. However, Co-co-doped (Ca, Eu)112 showed exceptionally low T_c = 21 K probably due to the co-existence of Eu"3"+ and Eu"2"+ suggested by longer interlayer distance d_F_e_–_F_e of (Ca, Eu)112 than other (Ca, RE)112.

  17. Influence of the introduction and formation of artificial pinning centers on the transport properties of nanostructured Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L B S; Rodrigues, C A; Bormio-Nunes, C; Oliveira, N F Jr; Rodrigues, D Jr, E-mail: lucas_sarno@ppgem.eel.usp.b, E-mail: durval@demar.eel.usp.b [Superconductivity Group, Department of Materials Engineering (DEMAR) Escola de Engenharia de Lorena (EEL), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP Polo Urbo-Industrial, Gleba AI-6 - PO Box 116 - Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2009-05-01

    The formation of nanostructures projected to act as pinning centers is presented as a highly promising technique for the transport properties optimization of superconductors. However, due to the necessity of nanometric dimensions of these pinning centers, the heat treatment (HT) profiles must be carefully analyzed. The present work describes a methodology to optimize the HT profiles in respect to diffusion, reaction and formation of the superconducting phases. After the HT, samples were removed for micro structural characterization. Measurements of transport properties were performed to analyze the influence of the introduction of artificial pinning centers (APC) on the superconducting phase and to find the flux pinning mechanism acting in these wires. Fitting the volumetric pinning force vs. applied magnetic field (F{sub p} vs. mu{sub o}H) curves of transport properties, we could determine the type and influence of flux pinning mechanism acting in the global behavior of the samples. It was concluded that the maximum current densities were obtained when normal phases (due to the introduction of the APCs) are the most efficient pinning centers in the global behavior of the samples. The use of HT with profile 220{sup 0}C/100h+575{sup 0}C/50h+650{sup 0}C/100h was found as the best treatment for these nanostructured superconducting wires.

  18. Lighting up superconducting stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh

    2018-02-01

    Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.

  19. Microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated in the two-step sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.Y.; Nagata, A.; Sugawara, K.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-2223/Ag tapes fabricated in the two-step sintering process were investigated. The tapes were then subjected to two heat treatments with an intermediate rolling. All the tapes were sintered at 835 deg. C for 24 h at initial sintering stage. A two-step sintering procedure was then used in the final sintering stage. In the first step, the tapes are sintered at 840-865 deg. C for 1 h. In the second step, they were sintered at 835 deg. C for 120 h. The results show that the first step sintering temperature has significant influence on the microstructure and the critical current density J c . The observed microstructures are consistent well with the different J c performances of the tapes first-step-sintered at different temperatures. The tape first-step-sintered at 850 deg. C, which has small secondary phases, stronger c-axis grain alignment, higher proportion of Bi-2223 phase, and no cracks, exhibits the highest J c value

  20. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of MgB$_2$ Conductor for the Superconducting Link Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, M; Bartova, B; Bjoerstad, R; Scheuerlein, C; Grasso, G

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of high luminosity upgrade of Large Hadron Collider at CERN, superconducting links are being developed. MgB2 wire is a candidate conductor for use in high-current cables. Mechanical properties of this material are of key importance for the definition of the cable design and operating conditions. In this study, we evaluated the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments extracted from ex situ processed composite wires. The wires were produced in unit lengths of about 1 km and used in high-current cables. Single fiber tensile test was carried out on filaments composed of MgB2, Nb barrier, and Nb-Ni reaction layer. From the unloading modulus of filament specimens measured with different gauge lengths, the Young's modulus of composite filaments extracted from two different strands was determined to be 114 and 122 GPa at room temperature, respectively. By using the rule-of-mixture, the Young's modulus of MgB2 was estimated to be lower than that reported for highly dense MgB2 bulks. The reason for such diff...

  1. The effect of fast neutron irradiation on the superconducting properties of REBCO coated conductors with and without artificial pinning centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D. X.; Prokopec, R.; Emhofer, J.; Eisterer, M.

    2018-04-01

    Superconductors are essential components of future fusion power plants. The magnet coils responsible for producing the field required for confining the fusion plasma are exposed to considerable neutron radiation. This makes irradiation studies necessary for understanding the radiation response of the superconductor. High temperature superconductors are promising candidates as magnet coil materials. YBCO and GdBCO tapes of several manufacturers were irradiated to fast neutron fluences of up to 3.9 × 1022 m-2 in the research reactor at the Atominstitut. Low energy neutrons contribute to the fission reactor spectrum but not to the expected spectrum at the fusion magnets. Low energy neutrons have to be shielded in irradiation experiments to avoid their substantial effect on the superconducting properties of tapes containing gadolinium. The critical current (I c) of the tapes in this study was examined at fields of up to 15 T and down to a temperature of 30 K. I c first increases upon irradiation and reaches a maximum at a certain fluence, which depends highly on temperature, being highest at low temperature. I c declines at high fluences and eventually degrades with respect to its initial value. Tapes with artificial pinning centers (APCs) degrade at lower fluences than tapes without them. The n-values decrease in all types of tapes after irradiation even when the critical currents are increased. The field dependence of the volume pinning force differs in pristine tapes with and without APCs but shows the same behavior after irradiation.

  2. Effects of graphene oxide doping on the structural and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadras, S.; Falahati, S.; Dehghani, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this research we reported the effects of graphene oxide (GO) doping on the structural and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) high temperature superconductors. We synthesized YBCO powder by sol-gel method. After calcination, the powder mixed with different weight percent (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1 wt.%) of GO. Refinement of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out by material analysis using diffraction (MAUD) program to obtain the structural parameters such as lattice parameters, site occupancy of different atoms and orthorhombicity value for the all samples. Results show that GO doping does not change the structure of YBCO compound, Cu (1), Cu (2) and oxygen sites occupancy. It seems that GO remains between the grains and can play the role of weak links. We found that GO addition to YBCO compound increases transition temperature (TC). The oxygen contents of the all GO-doped samples are increased with respect to the pure one. The strain (ɛ) of the samples obtained from Williamson-Hall method, varies with increasing of GO doping. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the samples show better YBCO grain connections by GO doping.

  3. Characterization of the critical current and physical properties of superconducting epitaxial NbTiN sub-micron structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, A., E-mail: aklimov@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Słysz, W.; Guziewicz, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Kolkovsky, V.; Zaytseva, I.; Malinowski, A. [Institute of Physics Polish Academy of Science, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • This manuscript presents investigation of the critical current dependence of Nb(Ti)N nanostructured superconducting single photon detectors (SNSPD) in function of temperature and applied magnetic field. • Presented results are complimentary and compared with the same data received for submicron-wide single bridge Nb(Ti)N structures. • Our data demonstrate significant influence of local constrictions on physical properties of our SNSPD detectors. - Abstract: Measurements of critical current in NbTiN as a function of applied magnetic field and temperature are reported for two samples: 700-nm-wide bridge and 100-nm-wide meander. In 700-nm-wide NbTiN bridge we pinpointed the limiting factors for the critical current density to be current-driven vortex de-pinning at low temperatures and thermally activated flux flow closer to the transition temperature. In 100-nm-wide NbTiN meander we found phase slips activation, accompanied by hotspots formation at all measured temperatures. These two types of structures demonstrate different dependence of the critical current on the applied magnetic field. Although our NbTiN meander structures has high de-pairing critical current densities ∼10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at low temperatures, the real critical currents are smaller due to the presence of the local constrictions.

  4. Irradiation defects in the A-15 compounds V3Si and Nb3Ge: effects on superconducting and transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullier-Albenque, F.

    1984-11-01

    In the first part the mechanisms of atomic displacements under electron irradiation in these diatomic ordered solids are studied. In the case of superconducting alloys, simultaneous measurements of electrical resistivity at 20 K and critical temperature allow to distinguish the influence of point defects created in each sub-lattice and antisite defects. The threshold energies have been determined. In the case of V 3 Si, Frenkel pairs have been characterized by their specific resistivities and the decrease of Tsub(c) by vanadium vacancies. The Tsub(c) results obtained on V 3 Si also reveal the existence of a threshold electron energy to produce antisite defects. The second part is a comparative study of irradiation effects in Nb 3 Ge with very different kinds of projectiles: 2.5 MeV electrons, fast neutrons or 100 MeV heavy ions (uranium fission fragments). For these three types of irradiation, resistivity and critical temperature damage can be described in terms of point defects: Frenkel pairs and antisite defects. In the third part we have studied the influence of 2.5 MeV electron or fission fragment-irradiation on the resistivity versus temperature curves of Nb 3 Ge. For both projectiles, negative temperature coefficients of resistivity drho)/dT, were measured and correlated with resistivity at 280 K and 25 K. These anomalous transport properties are related to an electron localization process assisted by electron-phonon and electron-electron interaction [fr

  5. Correlation between structural relaxation enthalpy and superconducting properties of amorphous Zr70Cu30 and Zr70Ni30 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, A.; Matsuzaki, K.; Toyota, N.; Chen, H.S.; Masumoto, T.; Fukase, T.

    1985-01-01

    The anneal-induced change in the superconducting properties together with the irrecoverable relaxation enthalpy (ΔHsub(i,exo)) and recoverable relaxation enthalpy (ΔHsub(r,endo)) of amorphous Zr 70 Cu 30 and Zr 70 Ni 30 alloys was examined. The increase in ΔHsub(i,exo) and the degradation of Tsub(c) progress logarithmically with annealing time tsub(a) in a temperature range of 373 to 523 K. The activation energy and the attempted frequency were respectively estimated to be 1.5 eV and 6.6 x 10 13 sec -1 for the increase in ΔHsub(i,exo) and 1.5 eV and 1.9 x 10 14 sec -1 for the degradation of Tsub(c). The recoverable structure relaxation exerts little effect on Tsub(c). Based on the agreement between the kinetic parameters for the changes of ΔHsub(i,exo) and Tsub(c), it appears that the degradation of Tsub(c) on annealing is associated with the irrecoverable structural relaxation as a result of the annihilation of frozen-in defects and the topological and compositional atomic rearrangement. The values of the attempted frequency being of the order of Debye frequency suggest that the irrecoverable structural relaxation processes occur more or less independently from each other. (author)

  6. Effect of Sb and Si doping on the superconducting properties of FeSe0.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudesh,; Rani, S.; Varma, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We synthesized all the samples using two-step solid state reaction method. ► Si and Sb doping is done at the Se site of the compound FeSe 0.9 . ► H c2 (0) is calculated with GL-Fit and also using WHH model. ► Behavior of activation energy is studied with applied field. -- Abstract: In the present work, we have studied the effect of doping Sb and Si at the Se-site of FeSe 0.9 on the superconducting properties, such as transition temperature (T c ), upper critical field (H c2 ) and irreversibility field (H irr ). The polycrystalline samples have been synthesized via two step solid state reaction route with nominal compositions Fe[Se 1−x (Sb/Si) x ] 0.9 (x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20). The X-ray diffraction results show the presence of tetragonal α-FeSe phase with the P4/nmm space group symmetry in all the samples. The highest superconducting onset temperatures, T c onset ∼9.42Kand9.20K, respectively, for Si and Sb doped samples have been found for x = 0.05. The temperature dependence of H c2 (T) and H irr (T) have been calculated from the magnetoresistance data using the criteria of 90% and 10% of normal state resistivity (ρ n ) values, respectively. The values of H c2 (0) estimated from Werthamer–Helfand–Hohenberg (WHH) and Ginzburg–Landau (GL) theories are found to follow the same trends and maximum H c2 (0) is found for the composition x = 0.10 for both the Si and Sb doped samples. The irreversibility field, H irr and activation energy, U 0 have also been calculated to study the vortex motion behavior of the samples. A clear cut correlation between H irr and U 0 has been found

  7. Control of the superconducting properties of Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs through isovalent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkett, Alex J.; Free, David G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Cassidy, Simon J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Ramos, Silvia [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Clarke, Simon J., E-mail: simon.clarke@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    The effect of the isovalent substitution of Sr{sup 2+} by Ca{sup 2+} on the structure and superconducting properties of Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs is described in the compositional range 0≤x≤0.5. SQUID magnetometry measurements reveal that after an initial increase in T{sub c}, which is maximised at 29.5 K in Sr{sub 1.95}Ca{sub 0.05}VO{sub 3}FeAs, a rapid suppression of superconductivity is observed with increasing x. XANES spectra of Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs collected on the Fe and V absorption K-edges show that the position of both edges are invariant with composition within the experimental uncertainty. A combination of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and neutron powder diffraction techniques is used to rationalise the observed changes in T{sub c} with x, in terms of changes to the structure of the FeAs layer upon partial Ca substitution. These findings demonstrate that superconductivity in the Fe-based superconductors is extremely sensitive to the crystal structure with T{sub c} maximised in samples with regular FeAs{sub 4}-tetrahedra. - Graphical abstract: Superconducting transition temperature is controlled by structural parameters in Sr{sub 2−x}Ca{sub x}VO{sub 3}FeAs. - Highlights: • Substitution of Sr by Ca in the superconductor Sr{sub 2}VO{sub 3}FeAs is isovalent. • Relationship between superconducting T{sub c} and structural parameters is demonstrated. • Linear dependence of T{sub c} on structural parameters rather than composition.

  8. Superconducting devices at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.F.

    1978-04-01

    The various ongoing programs in applied superconductivity supported by BNL are summarized, including the development of high field ac and dc superconducting magnets for accelerators and other applications, of microwave deflecting cavities for high energy particle beam separators, and of cables for underground power transmission, and materials research on methods of fabricating new superconductors and on metallurgical properties affecting the performance of superconducting devices

  9. Dynamics of correlation-frozen antinodal quasiparticles in superconducting cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilento, Federico; Manzoni, Giulia; Sterzi, Andrea; Peli, Simone; Ronchi, Andrea; Crepaldi, Alberto; Boschini, Fabio; Cacho, Cephise; Chapman, Richard; Springate, Emma; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Greven, Martin; Berciu, Mona; Kemper, Alexander F.; Damascelli, Andrea; Capone, Massimo; Giannetti, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2018-01-01

    Many puzzling properties of high–critical temperature (Tc) superconducting (HTSC) copper oxides have deep roots in the nature of the antinodal quasiparticles, the elementary excitations with wave vector parallel to the Cu–O bonds. These electronic states are most affected by the onset of antiferromagnetic correlations and charge instabilities, and they host the maximum of the anisotropic superconducting gap and pseudogap. We use time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet photoemission with proper photon energy (18 eV) and time resolution (50 fs) to disclose the ultrafast dynamics of the antinodal states in a prototypical HTSC cuprate. After photoinducing a nonthermal charge redistribution within the Cu and O orbitals, we reveal a dramatic momentum-space differentiation of the transient electron dynamics. Whereas the nodal quasiparticle distribution is heated up as in a conventional metal, new quasiparticle states transiently emerge at the antinodes, similarly to what is expected for a photoexcited Mott insulator, where the frozen charges can be released by an impulsive excitation. This transient antinodal metallicity is mapped into the dynamics of the O-2p bands, thus directly demonstrating the intertwining between the low- and high-energy scales that is typical of correlated materials. Our results suggest that the correlation-driven freezing of the electrons moving along the Cu–O bonds, analogous to the Mott localization mechanism, constitutes the starting point for any model of high-Tc superconductivity and other exotic phases of HTSC cuprates. PMID:29507885

  10. Superconducting and structural properties of plasma sprayed YBaCuO layers deposited on metallic substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, Herman K.; Jäger, D; Smithers, M.A.; Smithers, M.; van der Veer, J.; van der Veer, J.M.; Stover, D.; Rogalla, Horst

    1993-01-01

    The properties of plasma sprayed Y-Ba-Cu-O coatings deposited on metallic substrates are studied. Stainless steel, nickel steels and pure nickel are used as substrate. Y-Ba-Cu-O deposited on stainless steel and nickel steel reacts with the substrate. This interaction can be suppressed by using an

  11. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  12. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-05-15

    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor Δ with the help of both metric potentials e{sup ν} and e{sup λ}. Here we consider e{sup λ} the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas e{sup ν} is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model. (orig.)

  13. Superconductor to spin-density-wave transition in quasi-one-dimensional metals with repulsive anisotropic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkov, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism for superconductivity in a quasi-one-dimensional system with repulsive Ising-anisotropic interaction is studied. The Ising anisotropy opens the gap Δ s in the spin sector of the model. This gap allows the triplet superconductivity and the spin-density wave as the only broken symmetry phases. These phases are separated by the first order transition. The transport properties of the system are investigated in different parts of the phase diagram. The calculation of DC conductivity σ(T) in the high-temperature phase shows that the function σ(T) cannot be used as an indicator of a superconducting ground state: even if σ(T) is a decreasing function at high temperature, yet, the ground state may be insulating spin-density wave; the opposite is also true. The calculation of the spin dynamical structure factor S zz (q, ω) demonstrates that it is affected by the superconducting phase transition in a qualitative fashion: below T c the structure factor develops a gap with a coherent excitation inside this gap

  14. Electronic properties of newly-discovered doped semiconductors. Superconductivity in diamond and transport properties of RuIn{sub 3}; Elektronische Eigenschaften neuer dotierter Halbleiter. Supraleitung im Diamant und Transporteigenschaften von RuIn{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, D.A.

    2006-08-01

    The properties of the boron-doped diamond are sensitive to the boron concentration. A semiconducting behaviour occurs at low boron concentration and transport properties are given by a hopping-mechanism. The conductivity increases for higher boron concentration. The Mott metal to insulator transition takes place at a critical boron concentration. In the metallic phase superconductivity is observed. The critical temperatures of the superconducting transition are below 3 K. In this work, the influence of boron to the electronic properties, like conductivity and magneto resistance, was studied in the vicinity of the metal to insulator transition point. The superconducting properties (critical temperature, upper critical field) were studied down to 50 mK and compared to the conventional theory of the electron-phonon coupled superconductors. The properties of polycrystalline RuIn{sub 3} are reported in few publications to be metallic. In this work single crystals of this material were grown and analysed. We observe a semiconducting behaviour with an intrinsic gap of 0.4-0.5 eV. The previously reported metallic behaviour could be interpreted in this work as influence of the elementary indium in the samples. The measurements of the specific heat at low temperatures and LDA band structure calculations confirm the semiconducting properties and the value of the semiconducting gap. (orig.)

  15. Lattice dynamics and electronic properties of superconducting Nbsub(x)Vsub(1-x)N compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geibel, C.; Rietschel, H.; Pelizzone, M.; Junod, A.; Muller, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Nbsub(x)Vsub(1-x)N-system presents a pronounced minimum in Tsub(c) at the composition Nbsub(0.5)Vsub(0.5)N. We investigated the structural, the electronic properties and the lattice dynamics of these compounds to study whether this minimum is induced by structural defects, a decrease of the electron-phonon-coupling or by spin fluctuations. (orig.)

  16. Anisotropic evaluation of synthetic surgical meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberski, E R; Orenstein, S B; Novitsky, Y W

    2011-02-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia repair contribute to the overall mechanical behavior of the repair. The anisotropic potential of synthetic meshes, representing a difference in material properties (e.g., elasticity) in different material axes, is not well defined to date. Haphazard orientation of anisotropic mesh material can contribute to inconsistent surgical outcomes. We aimed to characterize and compare anisotropic properties of commonly used synthetic meshes. Six different polypropylene (Trelex(®), ProLite™, Ultrapro™), polyester (Parietex™), and PTFE-based (Dualmesh(®), Infinit) synthetic meshes were selected. Longitudinal and transverse axes were defined for each mesh, and samples were cut in each axis orientation. Samples underwent uniaxial tensile testing, from which the elastic modulus (E) in each axis was determined. The degree of anisotropy (λ) was calculated as a logarithmic expression of the ratio between the elastic modulus in each axis. Five of six meshes displayed significant anisotropic behavior. Ultrapro™ and Infinit exhibited approximately 12- and 20-fold differences between perpendicular axes, respectively. Trelex(®), ProLite™, and Parietex™ were 2.3-2.4 times. Dualmesh(®) was the least anisotropic mesh, without marked difference between the axes. Anisotropy of synthetic meshes has been underappreciated. In this study, we found striking differences between elastic properties of perpendicular axes for most commonly used synthetic meshes. Indiscriminate orientation of anisotropic mesh may adversely affect hernia repairs. Proper labeling of all implants by manufacturers should be mandatory. Understanding the specific anisotropic behavior of synthetic meshes should allow surgeons to employ rational implant orientation to maximize outcomes of hernia repair.

  17. Influence of laser sputtering parameters on orientation of cerium oxide buffer layer on sapphire and properties of YBa2Cu3Ox superconducting film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, P.B.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Skov, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Effect of laser sputtering parameters on crystalline properties of CeO 2 buffer layers grown on (1102) orientation sapphire substrate and on properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O x superconducting thin films was studied. It was shown that depending on the sputtering conditions one might observe growth of CeO 2 (100) and (111) orientations. Varying heater temperature, chamber pressure and density of laser ray energy on the target one managed to obtain mono-oriented buffer layer of the desired orientation [ru

  18. Anisotropic Transport and Magnetic Properties of Charge-Density-Wave Materials RSeTe_2 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei-Pei; Long Yu-Jia; Zhao Ling-Xiao; Chen Dong; Xue Mian-Qi; Chen Gen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of RSeTe_2 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) are synthesized using LiCl/RbCl flux. Transport and magnetic properties in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the a–c plane are investigated. We find that the resistivity anisotropy ρ_⊥/ρ_‖ lies in the range 486–615 for different compounds at 2 K, indicating the highly two-dimensional character. In both the orientations, the charge-density-wave transitions start near T_C_D_W = 284(3) K, 316(3) K, 359(3) K for NdSeTe_2, PrSeTe_2, CeSeTe_2, respectively, with a considerable increase in dc resistivity. While for LaSeTe_2, no obvious resistivity anomaly is observed up to 380 K. The value of T_C_D_W increases monotonically with the increasing lattice parameters. Below T_C_D_W, slight anomalies can be observed in NdSeTe_2, PrSeTe_2 and CeSeTe_2 with onset temperature at 193(3) K, 161(3) K, 108(3) K, respectively, decreasing as lattice parameters increase. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the valence state of rare earth ions are trivalence in these compounds. Antiferromagnetic-type magnetic order is formed in CeSeTe_2 at 2.1 K, while no magnetic transition is observed in PrSeTe_2 and NdSeTe_2 down to 1.8 K. (paper)

  19. Effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the doped multifilamentary Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, S.S.; Dheer, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of annealing on the superconducting and normal state properties of the Ga-, In-, Ti- and Zr-doped (1 wt%) Cu-Nb composite wires prepared by in situ technique have been investigated in this paper. The wires annealed at 700 C for 10 h and then quenched at room temperature, show a decrease in the superconducting transition temperature, T c , and increase in the transition width, ΔT. Doping of the Cu-Nb wires causes an increase in the normal state resistivity and hence the upper critical field, H C2 . This results in a significant increase of J c . Annealing of these doped samples decreases H C2 and J c . In the case of In- and Ga-doped samples J c shows a marginal improvement at lower field but decreases at higher field. Zr and Ti doping appears to be beneficial for the improved J c in these in situ materials. (orig.)

  20. Detecting properties of thin film superconducting bridges made of YBa2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, V.A.; Matveets, L.V.; Serebryakov, A.Yu.; Laptev, V.N.; Makhov, V.I.; Emel'yanenkov, D.G.; Inkin, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Results of study of detecting properties of thin film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x bridges, subjected to the effect of 8 mm SHF-radiation are presented. The transition temperatures of bridges were equal to 80-85 K. Current-voltage characteristics and response dependences of bridges with 67, 150 and 425 Ω resistances were measured. It is shown that thin film bridges of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x , representing the system of weak bonds, demonstrate nonstationary Josephson effect and synchronization of weak bonds in bridge volume

  1. Processes of hydration aging of superconducting ceramics and problem of regeneration of properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, A.V.; Popov, V.P.; Tikhonov, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The process of hydration aging (distilled water, saturated water vapors) of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.5+x specimens with T s of about 95 K was studied at 55 deg C and water vapors pressure of 119 mmHg. It is established that depending on exposure time and saturated vapors pressure, water affects electric properties of yttrium-barium ceramics with different degree of the effect reversibility. Valuable regeneration of the characteristics can occur only when the hydration process has not led to changes in the phase composition of the material. The mechanism of interaction between cermaics and water is given

  2. Superconducting cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Funkenbusch, P.D.; Chang, G.C.S.; Burns, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two distant classes of superconducting cermets can be distinguished, depending on whether or not a fully superconducting skeleton is established. Both types of cermets have been successfully fabricated using non-noble metals, with as high as 60wt% of the metal phase. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical behavior of these composites is discussed

  3. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  4. Mechanical properties as an indicator of interstitials in niobium for superconducting accelerator cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricker, R. E., E-mail: richard.ricker@nist.gov; Pitchure, D. J., E-mail: david.pitchure@nist.gov [Materials Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, US (United States); Myneni, G. R., E-mail: rao@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606, US (United States)

    2015-12-04

    A preliminary investigation was conducted into the feasibility of using simple mechanical properties experiments to evaluate interstitial impurity uptake from processing environments. Two types of tests were examined: tensile tests and complex modulus measurements using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). For the tensile tests, samples were cut from a single crystal of niobium, with the same orientation, and then prepared following different procedures. Significant differences were observed during tensile tests, with yielding strength and strain-to-failure clearly related to interstitial uptake. When the strain rate was reduced by an order of magnitude, the strain-to-failure was reduced by 18 % indicating that interstitial hydrogen is responsible for this behavior. For the complex modulus measurement, polycrystalline samples from different locations of two different ingots were examined at a frequency of 1.0 Hz while the temperature was increased at the rate of 1.0 °C per minute. Anaelastic peaks were found for C, N, and O in all samples, but the lower limit of the system did not allow for detection of a peak for H. It is concluded that mechanical properties could be developed as a measurement tool to guide the development of processing methods for producing reduced interstitial content material, but additional research, and uncertainty analysis, is required for these tools to be reliable in this application.

  5. Determining the properties of dense matter: Superconductivity, bulk viscosity, and light reflection in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Gerald J.

    In this dissertation, we investigate the properties of matter, denser than nuclei, that exists inside compact stars. First, we examine a mixed superfluid/superconductor system, which likely occurs in neutron star cores. We derive an effective theory of Cooper pair quasiparticles from a microscopic theory of nucleons, and calculate the coupling strengths between quasiparticles. We then calculate the structure of magnetic flux tubes, taking into consideration interactions between neutron and proton Cooper pairs. We find that interactions between the condensates can lead to interesting phenomena and new phases at the border between type-I and type-II behavior. Next, we examine the response of nuclear matter to vibrational modes by calculating the bulk viscosity from purely leptonic processes. We find that for hot neutron stars, the bulk viscosity due to leptons is very small compared to the bulk viscosity due to nucleons, but for cold neutron stars, the leptonic component is dominant. Finally, we derive the reflection and transmission properties of light at boundaries between phases of matter that have two independent U(1) generators, which may exist at the surface of "strange stars" or at boundaries between different phases of matter in a neutron star.

  6. Electrical, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Superconducting MGB2/MG Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulucan, S.

    2004-01-01

    The brittle nature of MgB 2 does not allow this material to be used as a stand-alone material for large scale applications based on wire production. MgB 2 /Mg composites were prepared using metal matrix composite fabrication technique. To obtain composites MgB 2 and Mg powders were mixed at different weight fractions and uniaxially pressed in a cylindrical dye under the pressure of 0.5 GPa and 1.0 GPa for two hours at various temperatures. XRD, SEM and EDX techniques were used for phase identification and microstructural studies. Resistivities of the composites were measured between 20 K and room temperature. The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of MgB 2 /Mg composites was investigated. For this purpose, compressive mechanical testing was performed to measure elastic modulus and strain at failure values of the composites. It was found that the relative weight fraction of the powders and the temperature have same considerable effect on the electrical, microstructural and the mechanical properties of the composites

  7. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  8. Effect of oxygen content on the electrical transport and superconducting properties of Pb0.5Sr2.5Y0.6Ca0.4Cu2O7-y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, K.Q.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Jin, H.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Feng, Y.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Zhou, Y.Q.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Chui, X.D.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Wang, C.Y.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Cao, L.Z.; China Univ. of Science and Technology, Hefei, AH; Wang, L.B.; Zhang, Y.H.

    1997-01-01

    Two kinds of methods have been used to synthesize Pb 0.5 Sr 2.5 Y 0.6 Ca 0.4 Cu 2 O 7-y samples. The synthesized sample using the first method shows superconductivity, while that using the second method exhibits a localized behavior at low temperatures Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on superconducting and nonsuperconducting samples grown under the two kinds of synthesis conditions and the effect of oxygen content on the transport and superconducting properties is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  9. Longitudinal disordering of vortex lattices in anisotropic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harshman, D.R.; Brandt, E.H.; Fiory, A.T.; Inui, M.; Mitzi, D.B.; Schneemeyer, L.F.; Waszczak, J.V.

    1993-01-01

    Vortex disordering in superconducting crystals is shown to be markedly sensitive to penetration-depth anisotropy. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the muon-spin-rotation spectra for the highly anisotropic Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ material are found to be anomalously narrow and symmetric about the applied field, in a manner consistent with a layered vortex sublattice structure with pinning-induced misalignment between layers. In contrast, spectra for the less-anisotropic YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ compounds taken at comparable fields are broader and asymmetric, showing that the vortex lattices are aligned parallel to the applied-field direction

  10. Preparation and properties of superconducting Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O materials by the alkoxide process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, Fusaoki; Kobayashi, Toshio; Usami, Ryo; Yoshizaki, Kiyoshi

    1989-01-01

    Homogeneous starting solutions were synthesized using Bi, Sr, Ca and Cu alkoxides. Powders, thick films and gel fibers were prepared respectively by controlling hydrolysis using the same solutions. The synthesized powder had a homogeneous particle size. The fired powder showed a good crystallization property. The thick film coated on MgO substrate using the synthesized sol solution had a smooth surface and a uniformity of each metal elements. The film showed the c-axis orientation and was shown to have the zero resistance temperature of 90 K and the critical current density of 180 A/cm 2 at 77 K. The fiber drawn from the viscous gel solution showed a comparatively large shrinkage with hear treatment. The fired fiber was brittle and had a low strength. It was also found for the fired fiber that zero resistance temperature was 70 K and the critical current density was 90 A/cm 2 at 77 K

  11. The superconducting properties of co-doped polycrystalline MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J D; Perkins, G K; Branford, W; Yates, K A; Caplin, A D; Cohen, L F; Chen, Soo Kien; Rutter, N A; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compare the critical current density, the irreversibility line and the upper critical field of four MgB 2 polycrystalline samples, which are either undoped or have 5% carbon or 5% carbon plus either 1% aluminium or 2% zirconium. We discuss how care must be taken for the extraction of the irreversibility line in such samples. We also show how ac susceptibility and Hall probe imaging can be used to examine whether the samples remain fully connected to the highest available fields. Compared to simple 5% carbon doping we find that co-doping provides modest improvement in the pinning properties at intermediate fields in the carbon plus zirconium doped sample

  12. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsia, Mohit [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Dondapati, Raja Sekhar, E-mail: drsekhar@ieee.org [School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, 144 401 (India); Usurumarti, Preeti Rao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PVK Institute of Technology, Anantpur, 515 001 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The developed correlations can be integrated into thermohydraulic analysis of HTS cables. • This work also explains the phenomenon of flow with less pumping power and maximum heat transfer in HTS cables. • Pumping power required to circulate the SCAR for cooling of HTS cables would be significantly lower. • For Hg-based high temperature superconductors (T{sub c} > 134 K), SCAR found to be a suitable coolant. - Abstract: High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific

  13. Statistical correlations for thermophysical properties of Supercritical Argon (SCAR) used in cooling of futuristic High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsia, Mohit; Dondapati, Raja Sekhar; Usurumarti, Preeti Rao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The developed correlations can be integrated into thermohydraulic analysis of HTS cables. • This work also explains the phenomenon of flow with less pumping power and maximum heat transfer in HTS cables. • Pumping power required to circulate the SCAR for cooling of HTS cables would be significantly lower. • For Hg-based high temperature superconductors (T_c > 134 K), SCAR found to be a suitable coolant. - Abstract: High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables are emerging as an alternative to conventional cables in efficient power transmission. However, these HTS cables require cooling below the critical temperature of superconductors used to transmit larger currents. With the invention of high temperature superconductors whose critical temperatures are up to 134 K (Hg based), it is a great challenge to identify a suitable coolant which can carry away the heating load on the superconductors. In order to accomplish such challenge, an attempt has been made in the present work to propose supercritical Argon (SCAR) as the alternative to cool the HTS cables. Further, a statistical correlation has been developed for the thermophysical properties such as density, viscosity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of SCAR. In addition, the accuracy of developed correlations is established with the help of few statistical parameters and validated with standard database available in the literature. These temperature dependent accurate correlations are useful in predicting the pressure drop and heat transfer behaviour in HTS cables using numerical or computational techniques. In recent times, with the sophistication of computer technology, solving of various complex transport equations along with the turbulence models became popular and hence the developed correlations would benefit the technological community. It is observed that, a decrease in pressure, density and viscosity are found to be decreasing whereas the thermal conductivity and specific heat

  14. Experimental studies on the thermal properties of fast pulsed superconducting accelerator magnets; Experimentelle Untersuchungen thermischer Eigenschaften schnell gepulster supraleitender Beschleunigermagnete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleile, Alexander

    2016-01-06

    The new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR is being constructed at the GSI research center in Darmstadt (Germany). This wordwide unique accelerator facility will provide beams of ions and antiprotons at high intensities and high energies for the fundamental research in nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as for applied science. The superconducting synchrotron SIS100 with a magnetic rigidity of 100 T/m, the core component of the FAIR facility will provide primary ion beams of all types from hydrogen up to uranium. One of the key technical systems of a new synchrotron are fast ramped electromagnets for the generation of fast ramped magnetic fields for deflecting and focusing of the ion beams. To reduce the energy consumption and to keep the operating costs of the synchrotron as low as possible superconducting magnet technology is applied in the SIS100. Superconducting magnets have been developed at GSI within the scope of the FAIR project. Although the superconducting magnet technology promises high cost saving, the power consumption of the fast ramped superconducting magnets can't be completely neglected. The pulsed operation generates dynamic losses in the iron yokes as well as in the superconducting coils of the magnets. A forced two-phase helium flow provides effective cooling for supercounducting magnets exposed to a continous relative high heat flow. The subject of this PhD thesis is experimental investigations and analysis of the dynamic power losses in fast ramped superconducting magnets and their dependencies on the operation cycles of the synchrotron. This research was conducted on the the first series SIS100 dipole magnet. Based on the experimentally defined dynamic heat loads and helium mass flow rates in the dipole magnet the heat loads and helium consumption for all other types of superconducting magnet modules of the SIS100 have been estimated. These results are essential for the development of the cooling system for the the

  15. Structural, Mechanical, Anisotropic, and Thermal Properties of AlAs in oC12 and hP6 Phases under Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural, mechanical, anisotropic, and thermal properties of oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs under pressure have been investigated by employing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, B/G ratio, and Poisson’s ratio for oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs have been systematically investigated. The results show that oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs are mechanically stable within the considered pressure. Through the study of lattice constants (a, b, and c with pressure, we find that the incompressibility of oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs is the largest along the c-axis. At 0 GPa, the bulk modulus B of oC12-AlAs, hP6-AlAs, and diamond-AlAs are 76 GPa, 75 GPa, and 74 Gpa, respectively, indicating that oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs have a better capability of resistance to volume than diamond-AlAs. The pressure of transition from brittleness to ductility for oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs are 1.21 GPa and 2.11 GPa, respectively. The anisotropy of Young’s modulus shows that oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs have greater isotropy than diamond-AlAs. To obtain the thermodynamic properties of oC12-AlAs and hP6-AlAs, the sound velocities, Debye temperature, and minimum thermal conductivity at considered pressure were investigated systematically. At ambient pressure, oC12-AlAs (463 K and hP6-AlAs (471 K have a higher Debye temperature than diamond-AlAs (433 K. At T = 300 K, hP6-AlAs (0.822 W/cm·K−1 has the best thermal conductivity of the three phases, and oC12-AlAs (0.809 W/cm·K−1 is much close to diamond-AlAs (0.813 W/cm·K−1.

  16. Non-equilibrium properties of Josephson critical current in Nb-based three terminal superconducting tunnel devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, G.; Parlato, L.; Peluso, G.; Pepe, G.

    1998-01-01

    Tunnel quasi-particle injection into a superconducting film provides useful information on the non-equilibrium state inside the perturbed superconductor as well as on the potential application to electronic devices. Three terminal injector-detector superconducting devices have a long history in non-equilibrium superconductivity. In the recent past non-equilibrium phenomena have attracted again considerable attention because of many superconducting based detectors involve processes substantially non-equilibrium in nature. The possibility of using a stacked double tunnel junction to study the influence of non-equilibrium superconductivity on the Josephson critical current is now considered. An experimental study of the effect of quasi-particle injection on the Josephson current both in steady-state and pulsed experiments down to T=1.2 K is presented using 3 terminal Nb-based stacked double tunnel devices. The feasibility of a new class of particle detectors based on the direct measurement of the change in the Josephson current following the absorption of a X-ray quantum is also discussed in terms of non-equilibrium theories. (orig.)

  17. Superconducting magnetic coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aized, Dawood; Schwall, Robert E.

    1996-06-11

    A superconducting magnetic coil includes a plurality of sections positioned axially along the longitudinal axis of the coil, each section being formed of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor material wound about a longitudinal axis of the coil and having an associated critical current value that is dependent on the orientation of the magnetic field of the coil. The cross section of the superconductor, or the type of superconductor material, at sections along the axial and radial axes of the coil are changed to provide an increased critical current at those regions where the magnetic field is oriented more perpendicularly to the conductor plane, to thereby increase the critical current at these regions and to maintain an overall higher critical current of the coil.

  18. Superconductivity : Controlling magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, Mikhail Yu.

    Manipulation of the magnetic state in spin valve structures by superconductivity has now been achieved, opening a new route for the development of ultra-fast cryogenic memories. Spintronics is a rapidly developing field that allows insight into fundamental spin-dependent physical properties and the

  19. Peak effect and superconducting properties of SmFeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y L; Cui, Y J; Yang, Y; Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Zhao, Y [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, and Superconductivity R and D Center (SRDC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C H; Sorrell, C [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)], E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn

    2008-11-15

    Ta-sheathed SmFeAsO{sub 0.8}F{sub 0.2} superconducting wires with T{sub c} = 52.5 K have been fabricated using the powder-in-tube (PIT) method and the superconducting properties of the wires have been investigated. The wires exhibit a very large intragrain critical current density at a temperature below 30 K. A peak effect with maximal J{sub c} = 0.6 MA cm{sup -2} at 10 K under 6 T field was observed. The peak field H{sub pear} is strongly temperature-dependent. A severe weak-link effect depresses the development of global supercurrent owing to a very short coherence length. The wires also show a power law temperature dependence for the irreversibility line with H{sub irr}{approx_equal}(1-T/T{sub c}){sup 1.5}. The H-T phase diagram was found to be similar to that of other superconducting cuprates.

  20. Characterization of Anisotropic Behavior for High Grade Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Huo, Chunyong; Ji, Lingkang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jiming; Ma, Qiurong

    With the developing requirement of nature gas, the property needs of steel for pipe line are higher and higher, especially in strength and toughness. It is necessary to improve the steel grade in order to ensure economic demand and safety. However, with the rise of steel grade, the differences on properties in different orientations (anisotropic behaviors) become more and more obvious after the process of hot rolling, which may affect the prediction of fracture for the pipes seriously (Thinking of isotropic mechanical properties for material in traditional predict way). In order to get the reason for anisotropic mechanics, a series of tests are carried out for high grade steel pipes, including not only mechanical properties but also microstructures. Result indicates that there are obviously anisotropic behaviors for high grade steel pipes in two orientations (rolling orientation and transverse orientation). Strength is better in T orientation because Rm is higher and Rt 0.5 rises more in T orientation, and toughness is better in L orientation because of the higher Akv and SA in L orientation under a same temperature. Banded structures are formed in T orientation, and the spatial distribution of inclusion and precipitated phases are different in T, L and S orientation. The anisotropic arrangement for the matrix in space (banded structures), which is formed after the process of hot rolling, may affect the mechanical properties in different orientation. Moreover, the elasticity modulus of particles is different from the elasticity modulus of matrix, deformation between particles and matrix may cause stress concentration, and damage forms in this place. Because of the different distribution of particles in space, the level of damage is anisotropic in different orientations, and the anisotropic mechanical properties occur finally. Therefore, the anisotropic mechanical properties are determined by the anisotropic microstructures, both the anisotropic of matrix and the

  1. Superconductivity and transport properties in LaRu4Sb12 single crystals probed by radiation-induced disordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshchitskii, B.; Naumov, S.; Kostromitina, N.; Karkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Resistivity ρ(T) and Hall coefficient R H (T) in magnetic fields H up to 14 T were studied in superconducting (T c = 3.3 K) LaRu 4 Sb 12 single crystals disordered by fast neutron irradiation. Atomic disordering leads to increase in residual resistivity ρ 0 , decrease of Hall number and suppression of superconductivity. The upper critical field slope -dH c2 /dT increases approximately linear with ρ 0 . The irradiation effects are almost recovered after annealing at 500 deg. C. The observed radiation-induced effects in LaRu 4 Sb 12 are compared with those in PrOs 4 Sb 12 in terms of unconventional mechanisms of superconductivity

  2. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  3. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  4. Superconducting nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlushko, V.

    1998-01-01

    Within the last year it has been realized that the remarkable properties of superconducting thin films containing a periodic array of defects (such as sub-micron sized holes) offer a new route for developing a novel superconducting materials based on precise control of microstructure by modern photolithography. A superconductor is a material which, when cooled below a certain temperature, loses all resistance to electricity. This means that superconducting materials can carry large electrical currents without any energy loss--but there are limits to how much current can flow before superconductivity is destroyed. The current at which superconductivity breaks down is called the critical current. The value of the critical current is determined by the balance of Lorentz forces and pinning forces acting on the flux lines in the superconductor. Lorentz forces proportional to the current flow tend to drive the flux lines into motion, which dissipates energy and destroys zero resistance. Pinning forces created by isolated defects in the microstructure oppose flux line motion and increase the critical current. Many kinds of artificial pinning centers have been proposed and developed to increase critical current performance, ranging from dispersal of small non-superconducting second phases to creation of defects by proton, neutron or heavy ion irradiation. In all of these methods, the pinning centers are randomly distributed over the superconducting material, causing them to operate well below their maximum efficiency. We are overcome this drawback by creating pinning centers in aperiodic lattice (see Fig 1) so that each pin site interacts strongly with only one or a few flux lines

  5. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  6. Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilandzic, A.

    2012-01-01

    Anisotropic flow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy

  7. Remarks on the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of an anisotropic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, M.

    1980-01-01

    Considering a pressure tensor of a general form, a relativistic rarefied, anisotropic, infinite electrically conducting and nondissipative plasma is studied. For this purpose, the method of the orthonormal frame of reference is used. The choice of the frame of reference is made adequately to the problem. Some thermodynamical properties of such a relativistic, anisotropic plasma are also given. (author)

  8. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P; Xie, J; Cheng, J; Wu, K K

    2014-01-01

    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25–80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface. (paper)

  9. Anisotropic wetting properties on a precision-ground micro-V-grooved Si surface related to their micro-characterized variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Xie, J.; Cheng, J.; Wu, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Micro-characterized variables are proposed to precisely characterize a micro-V-grooved Si surface through the 3D measured topography rather than the designed one. In this study, level and gradient micro-grooved surfaces with depth of 25-80 µm were precisely and smoothly fabricated using a new micro-grinding process rather than laser machining and chemical etching. The objective is to investigate how these accurate micro-characterized variables systematically influence anisotropic wetting and droplet self-movement on such regular micro-structured surfaces without surface chemical modification. First, the anisotropic wetting, droplet sliding, pinning effect and droplet impact were experimentally investigated; then, theoretical anisotropic wetting models were constructed to predict and design the anisotropic wetting. The experiments show that the level micro-V-grooved surface produces the anisotropic wetting and pinning effects. It not only approximates superhydrophobicity but also produces high surface free energy. Moreover, the gradient micro-V-grooved surface with large pitch may lead to much easier droplet sliding than the level one along the micro-groove. The droplet self-movement trend increases with increasing the micro-groove gradient and micro-V-groove ratio. The micro-groove pitch and depth also influence the droplet impact. Theoretical analyses show that the wetting anisotropy and the droplet anisotropy both reach their largest value and disappear for a sharp micro-groove top when the micro-V-groove ratio is equal to 0.70 and 2.58, respectively, which may change the wetting between the composite state and the non-composite state. It is confirmed that the wetting behavior may be designed and predicted by the accurate micro-characterized variables of a regular micro-structured surface.

  10. Superconducting accelerator magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)

  11. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Xu, Zheng; Jochum, Johanna K; Volodin, Alexander; Zhou, Shengqiang; May, Paul W; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Steele, Julian A; Li, Jun; Vanacken, Johan; Vacík, Jiri; Szabó, Pavol; Yuan, Haifeng; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Cerbu, Dorin; Samuely, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2017-06-27

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two mutually antagonistic states in condensed matter. Research on the interplay between these two competing orderings sheds light not only on the cause of various quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems but also on the general mechanism of superconductivity. Here we report on the observation of the electronic entanglement between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hydrogenated boron-doped nanodiamond films, which have a superconducting transition temperature T c ∼ 3 K and a Curie temperature T Curie > 400 K. In spite of the high T Curie , our nanodiamond films demonstrate a decrease in the temperature dependence of magnetization below 100 K, in correspondence to an increase in the temperature dependence of resistivity. These anomalous magnetic and electrical transport properties reveal the presence of an intriguing precursor phase, in which spin fluctuations intervene as a result of the interplay between the two antagonistic states. Furthermore, the observations of high-temperature ferromagnetism, giant positive magnetoresistance, and anomalous Hall effect bring attention to the potential applications of our superconducting ferromagnetic nanodiamond films in magnetoelectronics, spintronics, and magnetic field sensing.

  12. Structural studies of type N superconductive compounds: R2-xCexCuO4±δ (R = Gd, Eu, Sm, Nd, Pr); influences of chemical treatments on physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigoureux, P.

    1995-06-01

    Different chemical treatments of R 2-x Ce x CuO 4±δ compounds monocrystals (gadolinium, europium, samarium, neodymium and praseodymium cuprates) modify their physical properties especially their superconductive properties. The presented chemical treatments are: the substitution of the trivalent rare earth element R by an other trivalent lanthanide, its substitution by tetravalent cerium, and heat treatment under low oxygen pressure. After these chemical treatments, structural modifications are observed by neutrons and X-rays diffraction, and allow to precise their actions: size effect of the rare earth element on the deformation of the CuO 2 planes, links between deformation and superconductivity and magnetic properties. (A.B.)

  13. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  14. Superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.

    1989-01-01

    The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr

  15. Hole superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero

  16. Superconducted tour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Superconductivity - the dramatic drop in electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures - has grown rapidly in importance over the past two or three decades to become a key technology for high energy particle accelerators. It was in this setting that a hundred students and 15 lecturers met in Hamburg in June for a week's course on superconductivity in particle accelerators, organized by the CERN Accelerator School and the nearby DESY Laboratory.

  17. Fabrication of extruded wire of MgB2/Al composite material and its superconducting property and microstructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matsuda, K.; Nishimura, K.; Ikeno, S.; Mori, K.; Aoyama, S.; Yabumoto, Y.; Hishinuma, Y.; Müllerová, Ilona; Frank, Luděk; Yurchenko, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 97, - (2008), 012230:1-6 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [European Conference on Applied Superconductivity /8./ - EUCAS 2007. Brussels, 16.09.2007-20.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MgB2/Al composite * superconductors * electron microscopy Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  18. Superconductivity and thermal property of MgB2/aluminum matrix composite materials fabricated by 3-dimensional penetration casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kenji; Saeki, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Ikeno, Susumu; Mori, Katsunori; Yabumoto, Yukinobu

    2006-01-01

    Superconductive MgB 2 /Al composite material with low and high volume fractions of particles were fabricated by our special pre-packing technique and 3-dimensional penetration casting method. The composite material showed homogeneous distribution of MgB 2 particles in the Al-matrix with neither any aggregation of particles nor defects such as cracks or cavities. The critical temperature of superconducting transition (T C ) was determined by electrical resistivity and magnetization to be about 37-39 K. Specific heat measurements further supported these T C findings. The Meissner effect was also verified in the liquid He, in which a piece of the composite floated above a permanent magnet. The thermal conductivity of the MgB 2 /Al composite material was about 25 W/K·m at 30K, a value much higher than those found for NbTi or Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires normally used in practice, which are 0.5 and 0.2 W/K·m at 10 K, respectively. A billet of the superconducting material was successfully hot-extruded, forming a rod. The same as the billet sample, the rod showed an onset T C of electrical resistivity of 39 K. (author)

  19. Structural and superconducting properties of oxygen-deficient NdBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus. delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaked, H. (Nuclear Research Center-Negev, Post Office Box 9001, Beer Sheva, Israel (IL) Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Post Office Box 653, Beer Sheva, Israel (IL)); Veal, B.W.; Faber, J. Jr.; Hitterman, R.L.; Balachandran, U.; Tomlins, G.; Shi, H.; Morss, L.; Paulikas, A.P. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to determine the structural properties of oxygen deficient NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} for 0.09{lt}{delta}{lt}0.74. It was found that superconductivity disappears at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition which occurs at {delta}{sub {ital O}{ital T}}=0.45. Structural parameters vary smoothly with {delta} but exhibit a change in slope at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition. The structural properties exhibit the same features found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} where {delta}{sub {ital O}{ital T}}=0.65. It is shown that the repulsion energy of oxygen atoms in the O(1) and O(5) sites in NdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} is smaller than in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}}. This lower repulsion energy stabilizes the orthorhombic phase at lower values of {delta}. It is argued that the disappearance of superconductivity at the orthorhombic-to-tetragonal transition is an inherent property of the {ital R}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} ({ital R} denotes rare earth) system.

  20. Superconducting properties of magnetron sputtered high T/sub c/ thin films containing oxide compounds of yttrium, bismuth, or thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, J.H.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Gray, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have used multiple source magnetron sputtering to prepare thin films of Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O, and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O on (100) SrTiO/sub 3/, (100) MgO, and ZrO/sub 2/-9%Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ substrates. Y-Ba-Cu-O films grow best on SrTiO/sub 3/ with mostly an a-axis orientation. Stoichiometry, particularly the Ba/Ca ratio must be within 2% of the correct value to obtain narrow ΔT/sub c/ transitions. Conversely the 80K phase of Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O films grows best on MgO substrates and has a predominant c-axis orientation. The requirements on composition are less stringent, however, the annealing temperature must be held within a narrow around 865 0 C to obtain the best films. The best films of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O compounds are grown on (100) oriented and polycrystalline ZrO/sub 2/ substrates. The highest transition temperature, T/sub c0/, where the resistance goes zero is about 114K in the Tl/sub 2/Ba/sub 2/Ca/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ phase and 100-105K in Tl/sub 2/Ba/sub 2/Ca/sub 1/Cu/sub 2/O/sub x/ and Tl/sub 1/Ba/sub 2/Ca/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ phase samples. The upper critical field measurements show high anisotropies in the critical field slopes (≥70 for Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O compounds and ∼15 for Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O compounds), as might be expected from highly oriented materials. The authors compare the preparation conditions and superconducting properties, including T/sub c/, ΔT/sub c/, dB/sub c2//dT (parallel and perpendicular to film surface), of all three compounds

  1. Optimization of superconductivity properties in MgB2 Wires and tapes to generate high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, German

    2005-01-01

    We present, in this work, a study of the effects of doping, heat treatments and mechanisms of deformation, over the microstructure and superconducting properties of powder in tube (PIT) M g B 2 wires and tapes.We observed that nano-SiC doping improves the critical current density (J c ) and the upper critical field (H c 2).The combined use of doping and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing), produces samples with high density and improves J c s.We studied the influence of number and temperature of intermediate heat treatments (TTI), during the fabrication of wires and tapes.We observed that TTI made at low temperature ( o C), results in wires and tapes with better microstructure than those made at high temperature.Moreover, the increment of the heat treatments numbers at high temperature, decreases the quality of microstructure and J c .In the study of sheaths materials, we observed that the J c values measured by magnetization in Ti sheath samples are two order of magnitude larger than the values measured by transport, which indicates macroscopic fracture problems.On other hand, we fabricated tapes with excellent J c values (10 4 A/cm 2 at 4K and 7T), which are similar to those of samples made with HIPing.This tape presents some degree of grains alignment, as a consequence of rolling.We observed J c anisotropy in both transport and magnetization measurements in a range between 4 and 26K, and the same effect in H c 2.The anisotropy factor in Jc increase with applied field, while the anisotropy in Hc2 is constant with temperature (H c 2 parallel H c 2 perpendicular ∼1.2).Finally, we observed that carbon nanotubes doping improves H c 2 and this effects is most important at temperatures below 5K.This increase in H c 2 was predicted by Gurevich [45], as an effect of modification in scattering coefficient between electronics bands of M g B 2 by doping [es

  2. Moessbauer and muon spin relaxation investigation of magnetic and superconducting properties of Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materne, Philipp; Bubel, Sirko; Maeter, Hemke; Sarkar, Rajib; Klauss, Hans-Henning [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Harnagea, Luminita; Wurmehl, Sabine; Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270016, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Luetkens, Hubertus [Paul-Scherrer-Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    The antiferromagnetic parent compound, CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, shows a supression of the spin density wave and a subsequent superconducting state upon partial substitution of Ca by Na. Along the substitution series, superconducting transition temperatures up to ∼35 K were found. We studied the electronic phase diagram of Ca{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} using Moessbauer spectroscopy and muon spin relaxation experiments. We have analyzed the data in terms of magnetic and superconducting properties and possible coexistence of superconductivity and spin density wave order. We compared our results with recently published data of Ba{sub 1-x}Na{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}.

  3. Effect of the laser sputtering parameters on the orientation of a cerium oxide buffer layer on sapphire and the properties of a YBa2Cu3Ox superconducting film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozhaev, P. B.; Ovsyannikov, G. A.; Skov, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the laser sputtering parameters on the crystal properties of CeO2 buffer layers grown on a (1 (1) under bar 02) sapphire substrate and on the properties of superconducting YBa2Cu3Ox thin films are investigated. It is shown that (100) and (111) CeO2 growth is observed, depending on t...

  4. A study on the superconducting properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9-x}Nb{sub x}O{sup y} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Effect of niobium substitution at the copper site in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} was studied in thin film form. The films were deposited by laser ablation technique using the targets of the YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3-x}Nb{sub x}O{sub y} where x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.0 under identical deposition conditions on SrTiO{sub 9} <100> substrates. Films were characterized by XRD, resistivity, I-V and J{sub c} measurements. Films made from x = 0.025 and 0.05 concentrations of Nb substituted targets showed relatively improved superconducting properties compared to that of undoped films. The best 7 realized for x = 0.025 Nb concentration was 1.8 x 10{sup {sigma}} A/cm{sup 2} and for 0.05 Nb concentration it was 3.2x10{sup {sigma}} A/cm{sup 2} at 77K. However, degradation of the superconducting properties, with the increase of x {ge} 0.1 Nb concentration and drastic suppression and complete loss of superconductivity was noticed for x {ge} 0.4. The growth of impurity phase YBa{sub 2}NbO{sub 6} for x = 0.1 and above of Nb concentration was noticed from XRD patterns. However, the site occupancy of Nb could not be confirmed from these studies.

  5. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  6. Coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity in the hole doped FeAs-based superconducting compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, T.P.; Wu, C.C.; Chou, W.H.; Lan, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic and superconducting properties of the Sm-doped FeAs-based superconducting compound were investigated under wide ranges of temperature and magnetic field. After the systematical magnetic ion substitution, the superconducting transition temperature decreases with increasing magnetic moment. The hysteresis loop of the La 0.87-x Sm x Sr 0.13 FeAsO sample shows a superconducting hysteresis and a paramagnetic background signal. The paramagnetic signal is mainly attributed to the Sm moments. The experiment demonstrates that the coexistence of magnetism and superconductivity in the hole doped FeAs-based superconducting compounds is possible. Unlike the electron doped FeAs-based superconducting compounds SmFeAsOF, the hole doped superconductivity is degraded by the substitution of La by Sm. The hole-doped and electron-doped sides are not symmetric.

  7. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of argon implantation and vacuum annealing of the superconducting properties of single-crystal niobium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakirov, R.M.; Kuznetsov, V.P.; Shermergor, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristics of superconducting transition (Tsub(K), Hsub(perpendicular)) of monocrystalline niobium films on sapphire, irradiated by 35 keV Ar ions within 0.62x10 15 -5.6x10 16 ion/cm 2 dose range, are investigated. Introduction of argon atoms results in Tsub(K) decrease of films and rhosub(n), Hsub(perpendicular 0) and dHsub(perpendicular)/dT increase due to reduction of free path length of electrons. Shown is an essential difference in the behaviour of superconducting parameters of irradiated monocrystalline niobium films and films with niobium, dassol ved in the niobium lattice. Introduction of oxygen has been carried out by annealing of films in vacuum after their heating in the air

  10. Growth and superconducting properties of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, N; Musolino, N; Giannini, E; Garnier, V; Fluekiger, R

    2004-01-01

    Single crystals of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 (Bi-2223) have been grown using the travelling solvent floating zone technique in an image furnace. Annealing the crystals under high pressures of O 2 increased their critical temperature to 109 K, and resulted in sharp superconducting transitions of ΔT c = 1 K. The superconducting anisotropy of Bi-2223 was found to be ∼ 50, from measurements of the lower critical field with the magnetic field applied parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. The anisotropy of Bi-2223 is significantly reduced compared to that of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Bi-2212), and this accounts for the enhanced irreversibility fields in Bi-2223. Furthermore, Bi-2223 has a higher critical current density, and a reduced magnetic relaxation rate compared to Bi-2212, which are both signatures of more effective pinning in Bi-2223 due to its reduced anisotropy

  11. Effects of Hole-Doping on Superconducting Properties in MgCNi3 and its Relation to Magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzamora, M.; Sanchez, D. R.; Cindra, M.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E. M.

    2005-01-01

    Low temperature Moessbauer experiments were performed in Fe-doped and in C-deficiency MgCNi 3 . No magnetic moment was found for Fe in MgC(Ni 0.99 Fe 0.01 ) 3 sample and no magnetic hf field was observed at any temperature for all the samples. These results shown no evidence of magnetic fluctuation or magnetic ordering influencing the depress of superconductivity in hole-doped MgCNi 3 .

  12. The effect of hydrogen on the superconducting and structural properties of b.c.c. Nb-Ru alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, C.G.; Ishikawa, M.; Treyvaud, A.; Muller, J.

    1975-01-01

    The superconducting transition temperature (Tsub(c)) has been measured before and after the introduction of hydrogen into Nbsub((1-x))Rusub(x) (0.20<=x<=0.33). In all cases, the presence of appreciable amounts of this interstitial component led to a sharp increase in the Tsub(c). All the evidence suggests that conversion of the host metal lattice to f.c.c. is necessary for the appearance of the elevated Tsub(c). (author)

  13. Pressure effect on the transport properties of superconducting Li0.9MobO17bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, C.E.; Boujida, M.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Beille, J.

    1989-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of Li 0.9 Mo 6 O 17 single crystal has been studied between 1.5 K and 300 K under hydrostatic pressures up to 20 k bar. A large increase of the superconducting transition temperature, from 1.7 K to 2.5 K, is associated to a sharp decease of the temperature T m of the electronic, probably CDW instability

  14. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  15. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-07-15

    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  16. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  17. Properties of a tunnel point contact between aluminum and the superconducting amorphous alloy NiZr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantmakher, V.F.; Golubov, A.A.; Osherov, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The I-V characteristics of a tunnel point contact between aluminum and an amorphous ribbon resembling NiZr 2 in composition differ qualitatively from those of ordinary tunnel junctions between a superconductor and a normal metal. It is demonstrated that the observed curve shapes cannot be explained by accounting solely for one-particle tunneling in conditions of the proximity effect. This is followed by a qualitative discussion of a model in which the current rise at the potential eV equal to the gap width Δ (T) is generated by two-particle electron tunneling through the intermediate state which is manifested as a Cooper pair on the Fermi-level in the thin superconducting layer produced in the aluminum by the proximity effect. The current flowing through the contact will cause a breakdown of superconductivity in the vicinity of the contact at voltages exceeding the gap width. Smallness of the junction plays a decisive role both in inducing superconductivity for eV Δ

  18. Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter Superconductivity and Quantum Hall Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Shigeji; Godoy, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Explains major superconducting properties including zero resistance, Meissner effect, sharp phase change, flux quantization, excitation energy gap, and Josephson effects using quantum statistical mechanical calculations. This book covers the 2D superconductivity and the quantum Hall effects

  19. Superconducting cosmic strings in models with spontaneously broken family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, T.M.; Dvali, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that superconducting cosmic strings with some specific properties naturally exist in models of spontaneously broken family symmetry. Superconductivity may be of both types - bosonic and fermionic. There exists a possible mechanism of string conservation. (orig.)

  20. Superconducting composite for magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II.

    1995-01-01

    A composite includes granules of Type II superconducting material and granules of rare-earth permanent magnets that are distributed in a binder. The composite is a two-phase structure that combines the properties of the superconductor and magnets with the flexibility and toughness of a polymeric material. A bearing made from this composite has the load capacity and stiffness of a permanent magnet bearing with added stability from a Type II superconducting material. 7 figs

  1. Earlier and recent aspects of superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednorz, J.G.; Muller, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Contemporary knowledge of superconductivity is set against its historical background in this book. First, the highlights of superconductivity research in the twentieth century are reviewed. Further contributions then describe the basic phenomena resulting from the macroscopic quantum state of superconductivity (such as zero resistivity, the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect, and flux quantization) and review possible mechanisms, including the classical BCS theory and the more recent alternative theories. The main categories of superconductors - elements, intermetallic phases, chalcogenides, oxides and organic compounds - are described. Common features and differences in their structure and electronic properties are pointed out. This overview of superconductivity is completed by a discussion of properties related to the coherence length

  2. Anisotropic magnetization and transport properties of RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Kenneth D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    This study of the RAgSb2 series of compounds arose as part of an investigation of rare earth intermetallic compounds containing antimony with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry. Materials with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry frequently manifest strong anisotropies and rich complexity in the magnetic properties, and yet are simple enough to analyze. Antimony containing intermetallic compounds commonly possess low carrier densities and have only recently been the subject of study. Large single grain crystals were grown of the RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm) series of compounds out of a high temperature solution. This method of crystal growth, commonly known as flux growth is a versatile method which takes advantage of the decreasing solubility of the target compound with decreasing temperature. Overall, the results of the crystal growth were impressive with the synthesis of single crystals of LaAgSb2 approaching one gram. However, the sample yield diminishes as the rare earth elements become smaller and heavier. Consequently, no crystals could be grown with R=Yb or Lu. Furthermore, EuAgSb2 could not be synthesized, likely due to the divalency of the Eu ion. For most of the RAgSb2 compounds, strong magnetic anisotropies are created by the crystal electric field splitting of the Hund's rule ground state. This splitting confines the local moments to lie in the basal plane (easy plane) for the majority of the members of the series. Exceptions to this include ErAgSb2 and TmAgSb2, which have moments along the c-axis (easy axis) and CeAgSb2, which at intermediate temperatures has an easy plane, but exchange coupling at low temperatures is anisotropic with an easy axis. Additional anisotropy is also observed within the basal plane of DyAgSb2, where the moments are restricted to align along one of the <110> axes. Most of

  3. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Chengdu University of Technology,. Chengdu ... studied the extraction scheme of ADCIGs by using. Kirchhoff ..... The effect of shale properties on anisotropic brittleness.

  4. Incorporation of self-organised gold nano crystals in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} thin films: Modification of superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzer, Christian; Michalowski, Peter; Westerhausen, Markus; Koch, Stefanie; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Treiber, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Hochschule Aalen, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Using pulsed laser deposition we are able to fabricate and examine Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) thin films of high quality. A particular point of interest thereby is the influence of a pre-deposited gold layer with a well-defined film thickness. During the growth of the YBCO thin film the intermediate gold layer self assembles into crystalline nano particles, which modify the growth conditions and hence the physical properties of the growing YBCO. We report on the modification of structural and superconducting properties of our YBCO thin films (such as rocking curve widths, critical temperature T{sub c} and critical current density j{sub c}) comparing conventional to Au added YBCO. The temperature dependence of the critical current density thereby was determined using transport measurements as well as magneto-optical measurements. Furthermore investigations of the flux noise of our gold modified YBCO films are presented.

  5. Effects of calcium doping on the superconducting properties of top-seeded melt growth processed Y1.5Ba2-xCaxCu3Oy superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.D.; Kim, H.J.; Park, B.J.; Han, Y.H.; Jun, B.-H.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, C.-J.

    2011-01-01

    We study effects of calcium doping in melt processed Y123 superconductors. We examine a superconducting transition temperature and current density. A transition temperature and current density decreases by calcium doping. Calcium doping leads to coarseing of Y211 particles. Y211 refining effect by CeO 2 is disappreared by calcium doping. The effect of calcium doping on the superconducting properties of top seeded melt growth (TSMG) processed Y 1.5 Ba 2-x Ca x Cu 3 O y superconductors was studied in terms of calcium content (X ca ). YBa 2-x Ca x Cu 3 O 7-δ (X ca = 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1, 0.3) powders were synthesized by the powder calcination method. YBa 2-x Ca x Cu 3 O 7-δ powders were mixed with 0.25 mole Y 2 O 3 powder and 1 wt.% CeO 2 as Y 2 BaCuO 5 (Y211) refiner, and finally made into Y 1 . 5 Ba 2-x Ca x Cu 3 O y (Y1.5) + 1 wt.% CeO 2 composition. The single Y123 growth on the top surface was observed up to X ca = 0.1, while the multiple Y123 growth was observed at X ca ≥ 0.1. The superconducting transition temperature (T c ) and critical current density (J c ) of TSMG processed Y1.5 samples were inversely proportional to X ca . The Y211 size increased with increasing X ca due to the enhancement of Y211 coarsening by calcium doping. No Y211 refining effect by CeO 2 was observed in the calcium doped samples. The T c and J c decrease by calcium doping are likely to be due to the calcium incorporation with the Y123 lattice and formation of coarse Y211 particles.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, phase diagrams and superconducting and normal state magnetic properties of La2-xSrxCuO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08) and electrochemically oxidized La2-xSrxCuO4+δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33, 0 ≤ δ ≤ 0.12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, F.

    1993-08-01

    La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) can all be intercalated with oxygen by a novel electrochemical oxidation method. Bulk superconductivity is found with an onset T c ∼ 40 K for the whole range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.15; for x = 0.25 and 0.33, the electrochemical oxidation did not improve the superconducting properties. The magnetic susceptibility χ(T = 50--320 K) data for La 2 CuO 4.11 and La 1.92 Sr 0.08 CuO 4.07 are nearly identical with those of conventionally prepared La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 , indicating that the hole doping level (p) in the CuO 2 planes of the three compounds is nearly the same. Combined thermogravimetric analysis and iodometric titration experiments indicate that part of the intercalated oxygen has a formal valence close to -1. The maximum doped-hole concentration in the CuO 2 planes that can be achieved from combined Sr-doping and electrochemical oxygen doping for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15 is p ∼ 0.16 holes/formula unit. Oxygen can also intercalate into single crystal La 2 CuO 4 through a slow electrochemical oxidation process. The required low current and long time for the charging process reflects that the oxygen intercalation for a single crystal is limited by its small specific surface area and long diffusion distance. The anisotropic superconducting, magnetic and transport properties are summarized and compared with those of polycrystalline La 2 CuO 4+δ as well as of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 single crystals. The single crystal La 2 CuO 4+δ has a maximum T c ∼ 40 K, which is lower than that (T c ∼ 42--45) of the corresponding polycrystalline samples. The magnetic phase diagram of La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 in the antiferromagnetic (AF) regime (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.02) has been derived from 139 La NQR studies from 4 to 250 K

  7. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  8. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  9. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  10. Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.

  11. Superconductivity and magnet technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubell, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    The background theory of superconducting behavior is reviewed. Three parameters that characterize superconducting materials with values of commercial materials as examples are discussed. More than 1000 compounds and alloy systems and 26 elements are known to exhibit superconducting properties under normal conditions at very low temperatures. A wide variety of crystal structures are represented among the known superconductors. The most important ones do seem to have cubic symmetry such as the body-centered cubic (NbZr and NbTi), face-centered cubic (NbN), and the A15 or β-tungsten structures (Nb 3 Sn), V 3 Ga, Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Al, and V 3 Si). Attempts to understand some of the particular phenomena associated with superconductors as a necessary prelude to constructing superconducting magnets are discussed by the author. The origin of degradation is briefly discussed and methods to stabilize magnets are illustrated. The results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory design studies of toroidal magnet systems for fusion reactors are described

  12. Influence of substitutional disorder on the electrical transport and the superconducting properties of Fe{sub 1+z}Te{sub 1−x−y}Se{sub x}S{sub y}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, M.G. [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física, FCEyNUBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Polla, G.; Ramos, C.P. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, CAC-CNEA, San Martín (Argentina); Acha, C., E-mail: acha@df.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Bajas Temperaturas, Departamento de Física, FCEyNUBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    We have carried out an investigation of the structural, magnetic, transport and superconducting properties of Fe{sub 1+z}Te{sub 1−x−y}Se{sub x}S{sub y} ceramic compounds, for z = 0 and some specific Se (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) and S (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.12) contents. The incorporation of Se and S to the FeTe structure produces a progressive reduction of the crystallographic parameters as well as different degrees of structural disorder associated with the differences of the ionic radius of the substituting cations. In the present study, we measure transport properties of this family of compounds and we show the direct influence of disorder in the normal and superconductor states. We notice that the structural disorder correlates with a variable range hopping conducting regime observed at temperatures T > 200 K. At lower temperatures, all the samples except the one with the highest degree of disorder show a crossover to a metallic-like regime, probably related to the transport of resilient-quasi-particles associated with the proximity of a Fermi liquid state at temperatures below the superconducting transition. Moreover, the superconducting properties are depressed only for that particular sample, in accordance to the condition that superconductivity is affected by disorder when the electronic localization length ξ{sub L} becomes smaller than the coherence length ξ{sub SC}. - Highlights: • New Fe(1 + z)Te(1−x−y)Se(x)S(y) ceramic samples were synthesized. • Structural, magnetic, transport and superconducting properties are presented. • Nonmagnetic disorder determines a VRH conduction regime near room temperature. • Superconductivity is affected by disorder.

  13. Study of microstructure and superconducting properties of Nb3Al-tapes, obtained by heat treatment of three-layer and multilayer composites Nb/AlCu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhov, Valeriy P.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and superconductivity of three- and multilayer composite tapes of Nb/AlCu after high- temperature heating at 1750-1850 0 C for 1-3 seconds were investigated. Three-layer composites of Nb/AlCu/Nb with thickness of 50 microns were obtained by applying a vacuum rolling at 400-450 0 C and subsequent rolling at room temperature. Multilayer lengthy composites of Nb/AlCu obtained by extrusion with subsequent flattening by rolling of complex blank, collected in a special way. The effect of copper on the structure and properties of three-layer tapes was investigated. Copper increased the critical current of the superconductor. The critical current density in multilayered Nb 3 Al-tape reaches the value 8.10 4 A/cm 2 in magnetic field 14 T. The critical bending radius of the tape is 7 mm. Key words: multilayer composite tape, extrusion, rolling, superconducting Nb 3 Al-tape, high- temperature heat treatment, critical current density

  14. Superconductivity, magnetic susceptibility, and electronic properties of amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/)80P20 alloys obtained by liquid quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Poon, S.J.; Duwez, P.

    1977-11-01

    Results of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron diffraction, and crystallization studies on amorphous (Mo/sub 1-x/Ru/sub x/) 80 P 20 alloys obtained by liquid quenching are presented and discussed. The alloys are all found to be superconducting with transition temperatures ranging from approximately 3 0 K to approximately 9 0 K. The variation of T/sub c/ with alloy composition is compared to that obtained by Collver and Hammond for vapor quenched transition metal films. Results of magnetic susceptibility measurements are used to estimate the variation of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level, N(0), from the Pauli paramagnetic contribution. The relationship between the variation of T/sub c/ and N(0) is discussed in terms of the microscope theory of superconductivity. Finally, results of measurements of the upper critical field H/sub c2/, and the normal state electronic transport properties are presented and compared with recent theoretical models for amorphous superconductors

  15. Properties of superconducting S-I-N, S-I-S, and S-C-S structures with amorphous weak coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozub, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The properties due to the presence of two-level structure systems in superconducting tunnel junctions with amorphous insulators, as well as in point and bridge Josephson junctions with amorphous surrounds, are investigated. Equations are obtained for tunneling with participation of the two-level systems for the cases of quasistatic tunneling in an S-I-N junction (N is the normal metal) and for the case of Josephson tunneling in an S-I-S junction. It is shown that inelastic tunneling makes an additional contribution to the nonlinearity of the current-voltage characteristic of an S-I-N junction. The specific phenomena of nonexponential relaxation in this junction (in particular, tunnel-current relaxation), which have a 1/t dependence, are discussed. Low-frequency noise in S-I-S and S-C-S structures, due to transitions in the two-level system and having a 1/f dependence at not too small junction sizes are considered. In the case of the stationary Josephson effect this noise has features of critical-current fluctuations that can manifest themselves, in particular as fluctuations of the magnetic flux linked with a weakly coupled superconducting ring. Under conditions of the nonstationary Josephson effect the two-level structures lead to broadening of the Josephson-generation line. It is proposed to use the nonstationary Josephson effect to observe the echo effect in glasses

  16. Advanced superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluekiger, R.

    1983-11-01

    The superconducting properties of various materials are reviewed in view of their use in high field magnets. The critical current densities above 12 T of conductors based on NbN or PbMo 6 S 8 are compared to those of the most advanced practical conductors based on alloyed by Nb 3 Sn. Different aspects of the mechanical reinforcement of high field conductors, rendered necessary by the strong Lorentz forces (e.g. in fusion magnets), are discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, G.; Samuely, T.; Xu, Z.; Jochum, J. K.; Volodin, A.; Zhou, S. Q.; May, P. W.; Onufriienko, O.; Kacmarik, J.; Steele, J. A.; Li, J.; Vanacken, J.; Vacík, Jiří; Szabo, P.; Yuan, H. F.; Roeffaers, M. B. J.; Cerbu, D.; Samuely, P.; Hofkens, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2017), s. 5358-5366 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanodiamond * superconductivity and ferromagnetism * spin fluctuations * giant positive magnetoresistance * anamalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties ) Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016

  18. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  19. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  20. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine