Sample records for anisotropic materials

  1. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Hora, P.


    The anisotropy in damage can be driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic defor-mation state named Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic (shape and/or distribution) second phase particles named Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). Most anisotropic damage models are based

  2. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C


    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  3. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage in DP600

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.


    Plasticity induced damage development in metals is anisotropic by nature. The anisotropy in damage is driven by two different phenomena; anisotropic deformation state i.e. Load Induced Anisotropic Damage (LIAD) and anisotropic microstructure i.e. Material Induced Anisotropic Damage (MIAD). The

  4. Failure in imperfect anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    The fundamental cause of crack growth, namely nucleation and growth of voids, is investigated numerically for a two phase imperfect anisotropic material. A unit cell approach is adopted from which the overall stress strain is evaluated. Failure is observed as a sudden stress drop and depending...

  5. An anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Calvin M.; Gordon, Ali P.; Ma, Young Wha; Neu, Richard W.


    When an anisotropic material is subject to creep conditions and a complex state of stress, an anisotropic creep damage behavior is observed. Previous research has focused on the anisotropic creep damage behavior of isotropic materials but few constitutive models have been developed for anisotropic creeping solids. This paper describes the development of a new anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials. An advanced tensorial damage formulation is implemented which includes both material orientation relative to loading and the degree of creep damage anisotropy in the model. A variation of the Norton-power law for secondary creep is implemented which includes the Hill's anisotropic analogy. Experiments are conducted on the directionally-solidified bucket material DS GTD-111. The constitutive model is implemented in a user programmable feature (UPF) in ANSYS FEA software. The ability of the constitutive model to regress to the Kachanov-Rabotnov isotropic tertiary creep damage model is demonstrated through comparison with uniaxial experiments. A parametric study of both material orientation and stress rotation are conducted. Results indicate that creep deformation is modeled accurately; however an improved damage evolution law may be necessary. - Highlights: → The deformation of anisotropic creeping solid is directionally dependent. → Few constitutive models have been developed to deal with anisotropic behavior. → A transversely-isotropic nickel base superalloy, DS GTD-111, is studied. → A vector constitutive model based on the Kachanov-Rabotnov formulation is developed. → The new model accurately models deformation at various orientations.

  6. Silicon as an anisotropic mechanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Reck, Kasper; Skands, Gustav Erik


    While silicon is an anisotropic material it is often in literature treated as an isotropic material when it comes to plate calculations. This leads to considerable errors in the calculated deflection. To overcome this problem, we present an in-depth analysis of the bending behavior of thin...... both exact analytical expressions and approximate expressions calculated by the Galerkin method. The results are applied to plates made on silicon (0 0 1), (0 1 1) and (1 1 1) substrates, respectively, and analytical equations for the deflection, strain energy and resonance frequency of such plates...... analytical models involving crystalline plates, such as those often found in the field of micro electro mechanical systems. The effect of elastic boundary conditions is taken into account by using an effective radius of the plate....

  7. Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials (United States)

    Romao, Carl P.


    A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.

  8. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif


    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  9. Fracture of anisotropic materials with plastic strain-gradient effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    A unit cell is adopted to numerically analyze the effect of plastic anisotropy on frac-ture evolution in a micro-reinforced fiber-composite. The matrix material exhibit size-effects and an anisotropic strain-gradient plasticity model accounting for such size-effects through a mate-rial length scale...

  10. Viscoelastic materials with anisotropic rigid particles: stress-deformation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.


    In this paper we have derived constitutive equations for the stress tensor of a viscoelastic material with anisotropic rigid particles. We have assumed that the material has fading memory. The expressions are valid for slow and small deformations from equilibrium, and for systems that are nearly

  11. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials (United States)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.


    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.

  12. Life prediction and constitutive models for anisotropic materials (United States)

    Bill, R. C.


    The intent of this program is to develop a basic understanding of cyclic creep-fatigue deformation mechanisms and damage accumulation, a capability for reliable life prediction, and the ability to model the constitutive behavior of anisotropic single crystal (SC) and directionally solidified or recrystallized (DSR) comprise the program, and the work breakdown for each option reflects a distinct concern for two classes of anisotropic materials, SC and DSR materials, at temperatures encountered in the primary gas path (airfoil temperatures), and at temperatures typical of the blade root attachment and shank area. Work directed toward the higher temperature area of concern in the primary gas path includes effects of coatings on the behavior and properties of the materials of interest. The blade root attachment work areas will address the effects of stress concentrations associated with attachment features.

  13. Analysis of Magneto-Piezoelastic Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Kalamkarov


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the analysis of magneto-piezoelastic anistropic materials. Analytical modeling of magneto-piezoelastic materials is essential for the design and applications in the smart composite structures incorporating them as actuating and sensing constituents. It is shown that Green’s function method is applicable to time harmonic magneto-elastic-piezoelectricity problems using the boundary integral technique, and the exact analytical solutions are obtained. As an application, a two-dimensional static plane-strain problem is considered to investigate the effect of magnetic field on piezoelectric materials. The closed-form analytical solutions are obtained for a number of boundary conditions for all components of the magneto-piezoelectric field. As a special case, numerical results are presented for two-dimensional static magneto-electroelastic field of a piezoelectric solid subjected to a concentrated line load and an electric charge. The numerical solutions are obtained for three different piezoelectric materials and they demonstrate a substantial dependence of the stress and electric field distribution on the constitutive properties and magnetic flux.

  14. Toward anisotropic materials via forced assembly coextrusion. (United States)

    Burt, Tiffani M; Jordan, Alex M; Korley, LaShanda T J


    Multilayer coextrusion offers a diverse platform to examine layer dependent confinement effects on self-assembling nanomaterials via conventional extrusion technology. A triblock copolymer (BCP) with a cylindrical microstructure was processed via "forced assembly" to elucidate the effect of microdomain orientation on the mechanical behavior of multilayer films. The mechanical response was investigated in both the extrusion (ED) and transverse directions (TD) of the multilayer systems, revealing an influence of both cylinder-orientation and the interface on the mechanical response with decreasing layer thickness. The stress-strain curves for samples with the stress field along the cylinder axis revealed a sharp yielding phenomenon, while curves for specimens with the stress field applied perpendicular to the axis exhibited weak yielding behavior. The extensibility of the multilayer films stressed in the ED increases with decreasing layer thickness, but remains constant when deformed along the TD. Coextrusion technology allows for tunable mechanical toughness in industrial grade polymers via a continuous process. By altering the layer thickness of the two polymeric materials, we can tune the mechanics from strong, brittle behavior to a tough, ductile response by manipulation of the hierarchical structure. The enabling technology provides a unique platform to couple the inherent mechanical response of dissimilar polymers and allows for the design of composite materials with tailored mechanics.

  15. An In-Depth Tutorial on Constitutive Equations for Elastic Anisotropic Materials (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.


    An in-depth tutorial on the constitutive equations for elastic, anisotropic materials is presented. Basic concepts are introduced that are used to characterize materials, and notions about how anisotropic material deform are presented. Hooke s law and the Duhamel-Neuman law for isotropic materials are presented and discussed. Then, the most general form of Hooke s law for elastic anisotropic materials is presented and symmetry requirements are given. A similar presentation is also given for the generalized Duhamel-Neuman law for elastic, anisotropic materials that includes thermal effects. Transformation equations for stress and strains are presented and the most general form of the transformation equations for the constitutive matrices are given. Then, specialized transformation equations are presented for dextral rotations about the coordinate axes. Next, concepts of material symmetry are introduced and criteria for material symmetries are presented. Additionally, engineering constants of fully anisotropic, elastic materials are derived from first principles and the specialized to several cases of practical importance.

  16. An anisotropic elastoplastic constitutive formulation generalised for orthotropic materials (United States)

    Mohd Nor, M. K.; Ma'at, N.; Ho, C. S.


    This paper presents a finite strain constitutive model to predict a complex elastoplastic deformation behaviour that involves very high pressures and shockwaves in orthotropic materials using an anisotropic Hill's yield criterion by means of the evolving structural tensors. The yield surface of this hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is aligned uniquely within the principal stress space due to the combination of Mandel stress tensor and a new generalised orthotropic pressure. The formulation is developed in the isoclinic configuration and allows for a unique treatment for elastic and plastic orthotropy. An isotropic hardening is adopted to define the evolution of plastic orthotropy. The important feature of the proposed hyperelastic-plastic constitutive model is the introduction of anisotropic effect in the Mie-Gruneisen equation of state (EOS). The formulation is further combined with Grady spall failure model to predict spall failure in the materials. The proposed constitutive model is implemented as a new material model in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)-DYNA3D code of UTHM's version, named Material Type 92 (Mat92). The combination of the proposed stress tensor decomposition and the Mie-Gruneisen EOS requires some modifications in the code to reflect the formulation of the generalised orthotropic pressure. The validation approach is also presented in this paper for guidance purpose. The \\varvec{ψ} tensor used to define the alignment of the adopted yield surface is first validated. This is continued with an internal validation related to elastic isotropic, elastic orthotropic and elastic-plastic orthotropic of the proposed formulation before a comparison against range of plate impact test data at 234, 450 and {895 ms}^{-1} impact velocities is performed. A good agreement is obtained in each test.

  17. Crack’s bifurcation in an anisotropic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Kaaba A.


    Full Text Available The orthotropic of a solid is characterized by the material directions 1→,2→,3→$mathop 1limits^ o ,mathop 2limits^ o ,mathop 3limits^ o $ and corresponds to six main directions of the crack’ distribution 21, 31, 32, 12, 13 and 23 (the first number corresponds to the normal of the crack’s plan, the second in the crack’s front. In this work, it was suggested studying the crack’s bifurcation solicited in the mixed mode of an anisotropic fracture’s specimen by varying several geometrical parameters. The study showed that the critical angle of bifurcation depends on the crack’s length, the specimen’s height, the angle of load as well as on the chosen configuration.

  18. Anisotropic wetting characteristics versus roughness on machined surfaces of hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yande; Shu, Liming; Natsu, Wataru; He, Fuben


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The aim is to investigate the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting on machined surfaces. • The relationship between roughness and anisotropic wetting is modeled by thermodynamical analysis. • The effect of roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials is stronger than that on hydrophobic materials. • The energy barrier existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting. • The contact angle in the parallel direction is larger than that in the perpendicular direction. - Abstract: Anisotropic wetting of machined surfaces is widely applied in industries which can be greatly affected by roughness and solid's chemical properties. However, there has not been much work on it. A free-energy thermodynamic model is presented by analyzing geometry morphology of machined surfaces (2-D model surfaces), which demonstrates the influence of roughness on anisotropic wetting. It can be concluded that the energy barrier is one of the main reasons for the anisotropic wetting existing in the direction perpendicular to the lay. In addition, experiments in investigating anisotropic wetting, which was characterized by the static contact angle and droplet's distortion, were performed on machined surfaces with different roughness on hydrophilic and hydrophobic materials. The droplet's anisotropy found on machined surfaces increased with mean slope of roughness profile Kr. It indicates that roughness on anisotropic wetting on hydrophilic materials has a stronger effect than that on hydrophobic materials. Furthermore, the contact angles predicted by the model are basically consistent with the experimentally ones

  19. Negative index of refraction in anisotropic nonmagnetic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořák, Vladimír; Kužel, Petr


    Roč. 338, - (2006), s. 195-203 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET300100401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : anisotropic dielectric * negative refractive index * surface modes * guided modes Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2006

  20. Simulation of ultrasonic fields in anisotropic materials using 2D ray tracing method (United States)

    Kolkoori, S. R.; Rahaman, M.-U.; Chinta, P. K.; Boehm, R.; Prager, J.


    Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials and dissimilar welds. A 2-D Ray tracing method is developed for evaluating ray path, amplitude and travel time for three wave modes namely quasi longitudinal wave (qP), quasi shear vertical wave (qSV) and shear horizontal waves (SH) in anisotropic materials such as austenitic cladded materials. The inhomogenity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing the anisotropic region into several homogeneous layers. The ray paths are traced during its propagation through the various interfaces between those layers. At each interface the problem of reflection and refraction is solved. The ray amplitudes are computed by taking into account the directivity and phase relations. Ray divergence variation and ray transmission coefficients at each refraction boundary are considered. The Ray tracing results for ultrasonic field profiles in austenitic cladded materials are validated quantitatively by 2-D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) results and by the experiments.

  1. Klinkenberg effect in hydrodynamics of gas flow through anisotropic porous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wałowski Grzegorz


    Full Text Available This study discusses results of experiments on hydrodynamic assessment of gas flow through backbone (skeletal porous materials with an anisotropic structure. The research was conducted upon materials of diversified petrographic characteristics, both natural origin (rocky, pumice and process materials (char and coke. The study was conducted for a variety of hydrodynamic conditions, using air, as well as for nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The basis for assessing hydrodynamics of gas flow through porous material was a gas stream that results from the pressure forcing such flow. The results of measurements indicate a clear impact of the type of material on the gas permeability, and additionally – as a result of their anisotropic internal structure – to a significant effect of the flow direction on the value of gas stream.

  2. Acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate without knowing its material properties - A new approach. (United States)

    Park, Won Hyun; Packo, Pawel; Kundu, Tribikram


    Acoustic source localization (ASL) in a highly anisotropic plate is a challenging task. The basic assumption in many of the currently available techniques is that the wave propagates along a straight line from the source to the receiving sensor. However, waves in anisotropic solids propagate along curved lines and form non-circular wave fronts. As a result, for a highly anisotropic solid the acoustic source localization techniques that assume straight line propagation of waves from the source to the receiver are bound to produce a significant error. In this paper a new technique is introduced for acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate by dealing with non-circular shape of wave fronts. Direction vectors of the wave fronts are computed from the Time-Difference-Of-Arrivals (TDOA) at three sensors placed in a cluster, then they are cast into a geometric vector analysis or an optimization process to accurately obtain the acoustic source location. Two common wave front shapes in highly anisotropic plates, rhombus and ellipse, are analyzed. Following this analysis, the acoustic source could be successfully localized without knowing the material properties of the plate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated anisotropic two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Yang, Juntan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yinfeng; Gao, Huajian; Chai, Yang; Yao, Haimin


    Mechanical exfoliation is an approach widely applied to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials for investigating their intrinsic physical properties. During mechanical exfoliation, in-plane cleavage results in new edges whose orientations play an important role in determining the properties of the as-exfoliated 2D materials especially those with high anisotropy. Here, we systematically investigate the factors affecting the edge orientation of 2D materials obtained by mechanical exfoliation. Our theoretical study manifests that the fractured direction during mechanical exfoliation is determined synergistically by the tearing direction and material anisotropy of fracture energy. For a specific 2D material, our theory enables us to predict the possible edge orientations of the exfoliated flakes as well as their occurring probabilities. The theoretical prediction is experimentally verified by examining the inter-edge angles of the exfoliated flakes of four typical 2D materials including graphene, MoS2, PtS2, and black phosphorus. This work not only sheds light on the mechanics of exfoliation of the 2D materials but also provides a new approach to deriving information of edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated 2D materials by data mining of their macroscopic geometric features.

  4. Study of an anisotropic polymeric cellular material under compression loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Francisco Caliri Júnior


    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the influence of micro mechanisms of failure of a cellular material on its phenomenological response. Most of the applications of cellular materials comprise a compression loading. Thus, the study focuses on the influence of the anisotropy in the mechanical behavior of cellular material under cyclic compression loadings. For this study, a Digital Image Correlation (DIC technique (named Correli was applied, as well as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy images were analyzed. The experimental results are discussed in detail for a closed-cell rigid poly (vinyl chloride (PVC foam, showing stress-strain curves in different directions and why the material can be assumed as transversely isotropic. Besides, the present paper shows elastic and plastic Poisson's ratios measured in different planes, explaining why the plastic Poisson's ratios approach to zero. Yield fronts created by the compression loadings in different directions and the influence of spring-back phenomenon on hardening curves are commented, also.

  5. Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness for Isotropic and Anisotropic Materials. (United States)


    Reliability & Compatibility Division FOR THE COMANDER : JOHN P. HUSS Acting Chief, Plans Office I If your address has changed or if you wish to be...Commonly used composite materials, 2 composed typically of small, relatively poorly conducting fibers embedded in an insulating matrix, provide...of indi- vidual layers bonded together. Each layer consists of a unidirectiona] array of long fibers embedded in, and firmly bonded to a matrix. The

  6. Magnetization reversal and 1/H law in highly anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbara, B.; Uehara, M.


    A model has been developed for the coercive field, based on the concept of creation and annihilation of domain-wall kinks. This model accounts for the Barkhausen jumps and leads to a new process of magnetization reversal involving simultaneously the pinning and nucleation mechanisms. It is characterized by an activation energy proportional to the reciprocal magnetic field H -1 . Such dependence has been observed in different kinds of materials and therefore seems to be general. (author)

  7. A Simple FDTD Algorithm for Simulating EM-Wave Propagation in General Dispersive Anisotropic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jabr, Ahmad Ali


    In this paper, an finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for simulating propagation of EM waves in anisotropic material is presented. The algorithm is based on the auxiliary differential equation and the general polarization formulation. In anisotropic materials, electric fields are coupled and elements in the permittivity tensor are, in general, multiterm dispersive. The presented algorithm resolves the field coupling using a formulation based on electric polarizations. It also offers a simple procedure for the treatment of multiterm dispersion in the FDTD scheme. The algorithm is tested by simulating wave propagation in 1-D magnetized plasma showing excellent agreement with analytical solutions. Extension of the algorithm to multidimensional structures is straightforward. The presented algorithm is efficient and simple compared to other algorithms found in the literature. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Sound attenuation and absorption by anisotropic fibrous materials: Theoretical and experimental study (United States)

    Bravo, Teresa; Maury, Cédric


    This paper describes analytical and experimental studies carried out to examine the attenuation and absorption properties of rigidly-backed fibrous anisotropic materials in contact with a uniform mean flow. The aim is to provide insights for the development of non-locally reacting wall-treatments able to dissipate the noise induced by acoustic excitations over in-duct or external lining systems. A model of sound propagation in anisotropic bulk-reacting liners is presented that fully accounts for anisotropic losses due to heat conduction, viscous dissipation and diffusion processes along and across the material fibres as well as for the convective effect of an external flow. The propagation constant for the least attenuated mode of the coupled system is obtained using a simulated annealing search method. The predicted acoustical performance is validated in the no-flow case for a wide range of fibre diameters. They are assessed against impedance tube and free-field pressure-velocity measurements of the normal incidence absorption coefficient and surface impedance. Parametric studies are then conducted to determine the key constitutive parameters such as the fibres orientation or the amount of anisotropy that mostly influence the axial attenuation or the normal absorption. They are supported by a low-frequency approximation to the axial attenuation under a low-speed flow.

  9. A method to determine site-specific, anisotropic fracture toughness in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Özcoban, Hüseyin; Yilmaz, Ezgi D.; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Lilleodden, Erica T.; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Swain, Michael V.; Schneider, Gerold A.


    Many biological materials are hierarchically structured, with highly anisotropic structures and properties on several length scales. To characterize the mechanical properties of such materials, detailed testing methods are required that allow precise and site-specific measurements on several length scales. We propose a fracture toughness measurement technique based on notched focused ion beam prepared cantilevers of lower and medium micron size scales. Using this approach, site-specific fracture toughness values in dental enamel were determined. The usefulness and challenges of the method are discussed.

  10. A finite element computer program for the calculation of the resonant frequencies of anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, W.H.; Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.


    A set of computer programs for the calculation of the flexural and torsional resonant frequencies of rectangular section bars of materials of orthotropic or higher symmetry are described. The calculations are used in the experimental determination and verification of the elastic constants of anisotropic materials. The simple finite element technique employed separates the inertial and elastic properties of the beam element into station and field transfer matrices respectively. It includes the Timoshenko beam corrections for flexure and Lekhnitskii's theory for torsion-flexure coupling. The programs also calculate the vibration shapes and surface nodal contours or Chladni figures of the vibration modes. (author)

  11. Micromechanics model for predicting anisotropic electrical conductivity of carbon fiber composite materials (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Faisal; Haider, Md. Mushfique; Yasmeen, Farzana


    Heterogeneous materials, such as composites consist of clearly distinguishable constituents (or phases) that show different electrical properties. Multifunctional composites have anisotropic electrical properties that can be tailored for a particular application. The effective anisotropic electrical conductivity of composites is strongly affected by many parameters including volume fractions, distributions, and orientations of constituents. Given the electrical properties of the constituents, one important goal of micromechanics of materials consists of predicting electrical response of the heterogeneous material on the basis of the geometries and properties of the individual phases, a task known as homogenization. The benefit of homogenization is that the behavior of a heterogeneous material can be determined without resorting or testing it. Furthermore, continuum micromechanics can predict the full multi-axial properties and responses of inhomogeneous materials, which are anisotropic in nature. Effective electrical conductivity estimation is performed by using classical micromechanics techniques (composite cylinder assemblage method) that investigates the effect of the fiber/matrix electrical properties and their volume fractions on the micro scale composite response. The composite cylinder assemblage method (CCM) is an analytical theory that is based on the assumption that composites are in a state of periodic structure. The CCM was developed to extend capabilities variable fiber shape/array availability with same volume fraction, interphase analysis, etc. The CCM is a continuum-based micromechanics model that provides closed form expressions for upper level length scales such as macro-scale composite responses in terms of the properties, shapes, orientations and constituent distributions at lower length levels such as the micro-scale.

  12. Ultrasonic field profile evaluation in acoustically inhomogeneous anisotropic materials using 2D ray tracing model: Numerical and experimental comparison. (United States)

    Kolkoori, S R; Rahman, M-U; Chinta, P K; Ktreutzbruck, M; Rethmeier, M; Prager, J


    Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic non destructive testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials, austenitic welds and dissimilar welds. In this contribution we present an adapted 2D ray tracing model for evaluating ultrasonic wave fields quantitatively in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. Inhomogeneity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The presented algorithm evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase relations as well as transmission coefficients. The ray tracing model is able to calculate the ultrasonic wave fields generated by a point source as well as a finite dimension transducer. The ray tracing model results are validated quantitatively with the results obtained from 2D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) on several configurations generally occurring in the ultrasonic non destructive testing of anisotropic materials. Finally, the quantitative comparison of ray tracing model results with experiments on 32mm thick austenitic weld material and 62mm thick austenitic cladded material is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anisotropic deformation of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material at high temperatures (United States)

    Fong, R. W. L.


    Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used for the pressure tubes in CANDU® reactor fuel channels. In reactor, the pressure tube normally operates at 300 °C and experiences a primary coolant fluid internal pressure of approximately 10 MPa. Manufacturing and processing procedures generate an anisotropic state in the pressure tube which makes the tube stronger in the hoop (transverse) direction than in the axial (longitudinal) direction. This anisotropy condition is present for temperatures less than 500 °C. During postulated accident conditions where the material temperature could reach 1000 °C, it might be assumed that the high temperature and subsequent phase change would reduce the inherent anisotropy, and thus affect the deformation behaviour (ballooning) of the pressure tube. From constant-load, rapid-temperature-ramp, uniaxial deformation tests, the deformation rate in the longitudinal direction of the tube behaves differently than the deformation rate in the transverse direction of the tube. This anisotropic mechanical behaviour appears to persist at temperatures up to 1000 °C. This paper presents the results of high-temperature deformation tests using longitudinal and transverse specimens taken from as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes. It is shown that the anisotropic deformation behaviour observed at high temperatures is largely due to the stable crystallographic texture of the α-Zr phase constituent in the material that was previously observed by neutron diffraction measurements during heating at temperatures up to 1050 °C. The deformation behaviour is also influenced by the phase transformation occurring at high temperatures during heating. The effects of texture and phase transformation on the anisotropic deformation of as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material are discussed in the context of the tube ballooning behaviour. Because of the high temperatures in postulated accident scenarios, any irradiation damage will be annealed from the pressure tube material and

  14. Meander-line-based inhomogeneous anisotropic artificial material for gain enhancement of UWB Vivaldi antenna (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Singh, Hari Shankar; Meshram, Manoj Kumar


    An inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) artificial material (AM) is proposed having epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) characteristics and effective refractive index >1, simultaneously, in the same direction. Further, the proposed IA-AM is utilized for the gain enhancement of Vivaldi antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The IA-AM consists of two types of compact meandered line-based anisotropic artificial material with ENZ characteristics in two adjacent narrow bands of 5.5-8.5 and 8-11.5 GHz. However, the non-resonant behavior of the artificial material in other direction appears with high refractive index property in broadband region. The combination of both the unit cells with broadband ENZ and high refractive index property is used to improve the gain of the Vivaldi antenna in broadband. The proposed IA-AM-loaded Vivaldi antenna exhibits a gain enhancement of up to 2 dBi compared to the original antenna in the operating frequency band of 3.1-12 GHz with | S 11| antenna shows nearly stable unidirectional radiation patterns with high directivity and nearly flat group delay.

  15. Transient finite element magnetic field calculation method in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, M.; Gorican, V.; Trlep, M.; Hamler, A.; Stumberger, B.


    A lot of magnetic materials are anisotropic. In the 3D finite element method calculation, anisotropy of the material is taken into account. Anisotropic magnetic material is described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The 3D transient calculation of the rotational magnetic field in the sample of the round rotational single sheet tester with circular sample considering eddy currents is made and compared with the measurement to verify the correctness of the method and to analyze the magnetic field in the sample

  16. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.


    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  17. Crack path predictions and experiments in plane structures considering anisotropic properties and material interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.O. Judt


    Full Text Available In many engineering applications special requirements are directed to a material's fracture behavior and the prediction of crack paths. Especially if the material exhibits anisotropic elastic properties or fracture toughnesses, e.g. in textured or composite materials, the simulation of crack paths is challenging. Here, the application of path independent interaction integrals (I-integrals, J-, L- and M-integrals is beneficial for an accurate crack tip loading analysis. Numerical tools for the calculation of loading quantities using these path-invariant integrals are implemented into the commercial finite element (FE-code ABAQUS. Global approaches of the integrals are convenient considering crack tips approaching other crack faces, internal boundaries or material interfaces. Curved crack faces require special treatment with respect to integration contours. Numerical crack paths are predicted based on FE calculations of the boundary value problem in connection with an intelligent adaptive re-meshing algorithm. Considering fracture toughness anisotropy and accounting for inelastic effects due to small plastic zones in the crack tip region, the numerically predicted crack paths of different types of specimens with material interfaces and internal boundaries are compared to subcritically grown paths obtained from experiments.

  18. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Volume 635. Anisotropic Nanoparticles - Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lyon, L


    This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at Symposium C, "Anisotropic Nanoparticles Synthesis, Characterization and Applications," at the 2000 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts...

  19. Potential application of a homogeneous and anisotropic slab as an angle insensitive absorbing material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, a flat and incident angle independence absorbing material is proposed and numerically verified in the optical spectrum. A homogeneous and anisotropic dielectric slab as a non-reflecting layer is first reviewed, and a feasible realization strategy of the slab is then given by using layered isotropic materials. When the loss components of the constitutive materials are not zero, the slab will work as an angle insensitive absorbing layer, and the absorption rate augments with increase of the losses. As the numerical verifications, the field distributions of a metallic cylinder and a triangular metallic object individually covered by the designed absorbing layer are demonstrated. The simulation results show that the designed absorbing layer can efficiently absorb the incident waves with the property of incident angle independence at the operation frequency. This homogeneous slab can be used in one and two dimensional situations for the realization of an invisibility cloak, a carpet cloak and even a skin cloak, if it is used to conformally cover target objects.

  20. Accurate anisotropic material modelling using only tensile tests for hot and cold forming (United States)

    Abspoel, M.; Scholting, M. E.; Lansbergen, M.; Neelis, B. M.


    Accurate material data for simulations require a lot of effort. Advanced yield loci require many different kinds of tests and a Forming Limit Curve (FLC) needs a large amount of samples. Many people use simple material models to reduce the effort of testing, however some models are either not accurate enough (i.e. Hill’48), or do not describe new types of materials (i.e. Keeler). Advanced yield loci describe the anisotropic materials behaviour accurately, but are not widely adopted because of the specialized tests, and data post-processing is a hurdle for many. To overcome these issues, correlations between the advanced yield locus points (biaxial, plane strain and shear) and mechanical properties have been investigated. This resulted in accurate prediction of the advanced stress points using only Rm, Ag and r-values in three directions from which a Vegter yield locus can be constructed with low effort. FLC’s can be predicted with the equations of Abspoel & Scholting depending on total elongation A80, r-value and thickness. Both predictive methods are initially developed for steel, aluminium and stainless steel (BCC and FCC materials). The validity of the predicted Vegter yield locus is investigated with simulation and measurements on both hot and cold formed parts and compared with Hill’48. An adapted specimen geometry, to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution in the Gleeble hot tensile test, was used to measure the mechanical properties needed to predict a hot Vegter yield locus. Since for hot material, testing of stress states other than uniaxial is really challenging, the prediction for the yield locus adds a lot of value. For the hot FLC an A80 sample with a homogeneous temperature distribution is needed which is due to size limitations not possible in the Gleeble tensile tester. Heating the sample in an industrial type furnace and tensile testing it in a dedicated device is a good alternative to determine the necessary parameters for the FLC

  1. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan image in acoustically homogeneous and layered anisotropic materials using three dimensional ray tracing method. (United States)

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Hoehne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Rethmeier, Michael; Kreutzbruck, Marc


    Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan images in homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials is of general importance for understanding the influence of anisotropy on wave fields during ultrasonic non-destructive testing and evaluation of these materials. In this contribution, a three dimensional ray tracing method is presented for evaluating ultrasonic C-scan images quantitatively in general homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials. The directivity of the ultrasonic ray source in general homogeneous columnar grained anisotropic austenitic steel material (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. As a prerequisite for ray tracing model, the problem of ultrasonic ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between (a) isotropic base material and anisotropic austenitic weld material (including layback orientation), (b) two adjacent anisotropic weld metals and (c) anisotropic weld metal and isotropic base material is solved in three dimensions. The influence of columnar grain orientation and layback orientation on ultrasonic C-scan image is quantitatively analyzed in the context of ultrasonic testing of homogeneous and layered austenitic steel materials. The presented quantitative results provide valuable information during ultrasonic characterization of homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic steel materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DEM Simulation of Biaxial Compression Experiments of Inherently Anisotropic Granular Materials and the Boundary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Tong


    Full Text Available The reliability of discrete element method (DEM numerical simulations is significantly dependent on the particle-scale parameters and boundary conditions. To verify the DEM models, two series of biaxial compression tests on ellipse-shaped steel rods are used. The comparisons on the stress-strain relationship, strength, and deformation pattern of experiments and simulations indicate that the DEM models are able to capture the key macro- and micromechanical behavior of inherently anisotropic granular materials with high fidelity. By using the validated DEM models, the boundary effects on the macrodeformation, strain localization, and nonuniformity of stress distribution inside the specimens are investigated using two rigid boundaries and one flexible boundary. The results demonstrate that the boundary condition plays a significant role on the stress-strain relationship and strength of granular materials with inherent fabric anisotropy if the stresses are calculated by the force applied on the wall. However, the responses of the particle assembly measured inside the specimens are almost the same with little influence from the boundary conditions. The peak friction angle obtained from the compression tests with flexible boundary represents the real friction angle of particle assembly. Due to the weak lateral constraints, the degree of stress nonuniformity under flexible boundary is higher than that under rigid boundary.

  3. Highly Anisotropic Conductors. (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Zhi; Kirsch, Dylan; Jia, Chao; Xu, Rui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhu, Mingwei; Xu, Lisha; Chen, Chaoji; Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Yilin; Hitz, Emily; Lacey, Steven D; Li, Yongfeng; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing


    Composite materials with ordered microstructures often lead to enhanced functionalities that a single material can hardly achieve. Many biomaterials with unusual microstructures can be found in nature; among them, many possess anisotropic and even directional physical and chemical properties. With inspiration from nature, artificial composite materials can be rationally designed to achieve this anisotropic behavior with desired properties. Here, a metallic wood with metal continuously filling the wood vessels is developed, which demonstrates excellent anisotropic electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The well-aligned metal rods are confined and separated by the wood vessels, which deliver directional electron transport parallel to the alignment direction. Thus, the novel metallic wood composite boasts an extraordinary anisotropic electrical conductivity (σ || /σ ⊥ ) in the order of 10 11 , and anisotropic thermal conductivity (κ || /κ ⊥ ) of 18. These values exceed the highest reported values in existing anisotropic composite materials. The anisotropic functionality of the metallic wood enables it to be used for thermal management applications, such as thermal insulation and thermal dissipation. The highly anisotropic metallic wood serves as an example for further anisotropic materials design; other composite materials with different biotemplates/hosts and fillers can achieve even higher anisotropic ratios, allowing them to be implemented in a variety of applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai


    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  5. Manipulation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional materials coupled to boron nitride heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Nazari, Mina; Forouzmand, Ali; Mosallaei, Hossein, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)


    We present a comprehensive analysis of surface plasmon polariton dispersion characteristics associated with isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional atomically thin layered materials (2D sheets) coupled to h-BN heterostructures. A scattering matrix based approach is presented to compute the electromagnetic fields and related dispersion characteristics of stacked layered systems composed of anisotropic 2D sheets and uniaxial bulk materials. We analyze specifically the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion characteristics in case of isolated and coupled two-dimensional layers with isotropic and anisotropic conductivities. An analysis based on residue theorem is utilized to identify optimum optical parameters (surface conductivity) and geometrical parameters (separation between layers) to maximize the SPP field at a given position. The effect of type and degree of anisotropy on the shapes of iso-frequency curves and propagation characteristics is discussed in detail. The analysis presented in this paper gives an insight to identify optimum setup to enhance the SPP field at a given position and in a given direction on the surface of two-dimensional materials.

  6. The influence of the anisotropic stress state on the intermediate strain properties of granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Goudarzy, M.


    This paper shows the effect of anisotropic stress state on intermediate strain properties of cylindrical samples containing spherical glass particles. Tests were carried out with the modified resonant column device available at Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Dry samples were subjected to two anisotropic stress states: (a) cell pressure, σ′h, constant and vertical stress, σ′v, increased (stress state GB-I) and (b) σ′v/σ′h equal to 2 (stress state GB-II). The experimental results revealed that the effect of stress state GB-II on the modulus and damping ratio was more significant and obvious than stress state GB-I. The effect of the anisotropic stress state was explained through the impact of confining pressure and anisotropic stress components on the stiffness and damping ratio. The results showed that: (a) G(γ) increased, η(γ) decreased and their strain non-linearity decreased with an increase in the confining pressure component σ′vσ′h; (b) G(γ) decreased, η(γ) increased and their strain non-linearity increased with an increase in the anisotropic stress component, σ′v/σ′h. The analysis of results revealed that reference shear strain was also affected by anisotropic stress state. Therefore, an empirical relationship was developed to predict the reference shear strain, as a function of confining pressure and anisotropic stress components. Additionally, the damping ratio was written as a function of the minimum damping ratio and the reference shear strain.

  7. Evaluation of the Anisotropic Radiative Conductivity of a Low-Density Carbon Fiber Material from Realistic Microscale Imaging (United States)

    Nouri, Nima; Panerai, Francesco; Tagavi, Kaveh A.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Martin, Alexandre


    The radiative heat transfer inside a low-density carbon fiber insulator is analyzed using a three-dimensional direct simulation model. A robust procedure is presented for the numerical calculation of the geometric configuration factor to compute the radiative energy exchange processes among the small discretized surface areas of the fibrous material. The methodology is applied to a polygonal mesh of a fibrous insulator obtained from three-dimensional microscale imaging of the real material. The anisotropic values of the radiative conductivity are calculated for that geometry. The results yield both directional and thermal dependence of the radiative conductivity.

  8. Implementation of an anisotropic damage material model for non-proportional loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail; Wisselink, H.H.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J


    Anisotropic damage for non-proportional loading is incorporated in an implicit finite element code under the framework of continuum damage models, using two different methodologies. Simple simulations are carried out to check the performance of the models. The advantages and drawbacks of both

  9. A plane stress yield function for anisotropic sheet material by interpolation of biaxial stress states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, H.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.


    An anisotropic plane stress yield function based on interpolation by second order Bézier curves is proposed. The parameters for the model are readily derived by four mechanical tests: a uniaxial, an equi-biaxial and a plane strain tensile test and a shear test. In case of planar anisotropy, this set

  10. Orientation-dependent proton double-quantum NMR build-up function for soft materials with anisotropic mobility. (United States)

    Naumova, Anna; Tschierske, Carsten; Saalwächter, Kay

    In recent years, the analysis of proton double-quantum NMR build-up curves has become an important tool to quantify anisotropic mobility in different kinds of soft materials such as polymer networks or liquid crystals. In the former case, such data provides a measure of orientation-dependent residual (time-averaged) dipolar couplings arising from anisotropic segmental motions, informing about the length and the state of local stretching of the network chains. Previous studies of macroscopically ordered, i.e. stretched, networks were subject to the limitation that a detailed build-up curve analysis on the basis of a universal "Abragam-like" (A-l) build-up function valid for a proton multi-spin system was only possible for an isotropic orientation-averaged response. This situation is here remedied by introducing a generic orientation-dependent build-up function for an anisotropically mobile protonated molecular segment. We discuss an application to the modeling of data for a stretched network measured at different orientations with respect to the magnetic field, and present a validation by fitting data of different liquid-crystal molecules oriented in the magnetic field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. All-Electrical Determination of Crystal Orientation in Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Materials (United States)

    Peng, Lintao; Wells, Spencer A.; Ryder, Christopher R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Grayson, Matthew


    The crystal orientation of an exfoliated black phosphorous flake is determined by purely electrical means. A sequence of three resistance measurements on an arbitrarily shaped flake with five contacts determines the three independent components of the anisotropic in-plane resistivity tensor, thereby revealing the crystal axes. The resistivity anisotropy ratio decreases linearly with increasing temperature T and carrier density reaching a maximum ratio of 3.0 at low temperatures and densities, while mobility indicates impurity scattering at low T and acoustic phonon scattering at high T .

  12. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan


    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  13. Anisotropic ray trace (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  14. Fabrication and characterisation of a novel biomimetic anisotropic ceramic/polymer-infiltrated composite material. (United States)

    Al-Jawoosh, Sara; Ireland, Anthony; Su, Bo


    To fabricate and characterise a novel biomimetic composite material consisting of aligned porous ceramic preforms infiltrated with polymer. Freeze-casting was used to fabricate and control the microstructure and porosity of ceramic preforms, which were subsequently infiltrated with 40-50% by volume UDMA-TEGDMA polymer. The composite materials were then subjected to characterisation, namely density, compression, three-point bend, hardness and fracture toughness testing. Samples were also subjected to scanning electron microscopy and computerised tomography (Micro-CT). Three-dimensional aligned honeycomb-like ceramic structures were produced and full interpenetration of the polymer phase was observed using micro-CT. Depending on the volume fraction of the ceramic preform, the density of the final composite ranged from 2.92 to 3.36g/cm 3 , compressive strength ranged from 206.26 to 253.97MPa, flexural strength from 97.73 to 145.65MPa, hardness ranged from 1.46 to 1.62GPa, and fracture toughness from 3.91 to 4.86MPam 1/2 . Freeze-casting provides a novel method to engineer composite materials with a unique aligned honeycomb-like interpenetrating structure, consisting of two continuous phases, inorganic and organic. There was a correlation between the ceramic fraction and the subsequent, density, strength, hardness and fracture toughness of the composite material. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic Data Driven Experiment Control Coordinated with Anisotropic Elastic Material Characterization (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Tomonari Furukawa; John C. Hermanson; Samuel G. Lambrakos


    The goal of this paper is to propose and demonstrate a multi level design optimization approach for the coordinated determination of a material constitutive model synchronously to the design of the experimental procedure needed to acquire the necessary data. The methodology achieves both online (real-time) and offline design of optimum experiments required for...

  16. Coaxiality of stress and strain in anisotropic no-tension materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padovani, C.; Šilhavý, Miroslav


    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 487-489 ISSN 0025-6455 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anisotropy * coaxiality * no-tension materials Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2013

  17. Hybridized Plasmons in 2D Nanoslits: From Graphene to Anisotropic 2D Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, P. A. D.; Xiao, Sanshui; Peres, N. M. R.


    plasmonic resonances arising from symmetric and antisymmetric hybridizations of the edge plasmons of the constituent half-sheets. These give rise to an antibonding and a bonding mode, lying above and below the energy of the bare edge plasmon. Our treatment is notably generic, being able to account for slits...... of arbitrary width, and remains valid irrespective of the 2D conductive material (e.g., doped graphene, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, or phosphorene). We derive the dispersion relation of the hybrid modes of a 2D nanoslit along with the corresponding induced potential and electric field distributions......Plasmon coupling and hybridization in complex nanostructures constitutes a fertile playground for controlling light at the nanoscale. Here, we present a semi-analytical model to describe the emergence of hybrid plasmon modes guided along 2D nanoslits. In particular, we find two new coupled...

  18. A new wave front shape-based approach for acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate without knowing its material properties. (United States)

    Sen, Novonil; Kundu, Tribikram


    Estimating the location of an acoustic source in a structure is an important step towards passive structural health monitoring. Techniques for localizing an acoustic source in isotropic structures are well developed in the literature. Development of similar techniques for anisotropic structures, however, has gained attention only in the recent years and has a scope of further improvement. Most of the existing techniques for anisotropic structures either assume a straight line wave propagation path between the source and an ultrasonic sensor or require the material properties to be known. This study considers different shapes of the wave front generated during an acoustic event and develops a methodology to localize the acoustic source in an anisotropic plate from those wave front shapes. An elliptical wave front shape-based technique was developed first, followed by the development of a parametric curve-based technique for non-elliptical wave front shapes. The source coordinates are obtained by minimizing an objective function. The proposed methodology does not assume a straight line wave propagation path and can predict the source location without any knowledge of the elastic properties of the material. A numerical study presented here illustrates how the proposed methodology can accurately estimate the source coordinates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources (United States)

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha


    We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.

  20. Ionic Intercalation in Two-Dimensional van der Waals Materials: In Situ Characterization and Electrochemical Control of the Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Black Phosphorus. (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Ke, Ming; Hu, Yongjie


    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have shown novel fundamental properties and promise for wide applications. Here, we report for the first time an experimental demonstration of the in situ characterization and highly reversible control of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of black phosphorus. We develop a novel platform based on lithium ion batteries that integrates ultrafast optical spectroscopy and electrochemical control to investigate the interactions between lithium ions and the lattices of the black phosphorus electrode. We discover a strong dependence of the thermal conductivity on battery charge states (lithium concentrations) during the discharge/charge process. The thermal conductivity of black phosphorus is reversibly tunable over a wide range of 2.45-3.86, 62.67-85.80, and 21.66-27.58 W·m -1 ·K -1 in the cross-plan, zigzag, and armchair directions, respectively. The modulation in thermal conductivity is attributed to phonon scattering introduced by the ionic intercalation in between the interspacing layers and shows anisotropic phonon scattering mechanism based on semiclassical model. At the fully discharged state (x ∼ 3 in Li x P), a dramatic reduction of thermal conductivity by up to 6 times from that of the pristine crystal has been observed. This study provides a unique approach to explore the fundamental energy transport involving lattices and ions in the layered structures and may open up new opportunities in controlling energy transport based on novel operation mechanisms and the rational design of nanostructures.

  1. Stability of a Leap-Frog Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Time-Domain Maxwell's Equations in Anisotropic Materials (United States)

    Araújo, Adérito; Barbeiro, Sílvia; Ghalati, Maryam Khaksar


    In this work we discuss the numerical discretization of the time-dependent Maxwell's equations using a fully explicit leap-frog type discontinuous Galerkin method. We present a sufficient condition for the stability, for cases of typical boundary conditions, either perfect electric, perfect magnetic or first order Silver-M\\"uller. The bounds of the stability region point out the influence of not only the mesh size but also the dependence on the choice of the numerical flux and the degree of the polynomials used in the construction of the finite element space, making possible to balance accuracy and computational efficiency. In the model we consider heterogeneous anisotropic permittivity tensors which arise naturally in many applications of interest. Numerical results supporting the analysis are provided.

  2. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids (United States)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.


    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  3. Optimization and verification of ultrasonic testability of acoustically anisotropic materials on austenitic and dissimilar welds; Optimierung und Nachweis der Ultraschallpruefbarkeit von akustisch anisotropen Werkstoffen an austenitischen Schweiss- und Mischverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudovikov, Sergey


    Austenitic and dissimilar welds with respect to the ultrasonic testing (UT) methods are considered normally as ''difficult-to-test'' objects. During the solidification process in such welds a distinct dendrite microstructure evolves, which is coarse-grained, anisotropic and inhomogeneous simultaneously. The reliability of available ultrasonic methods on austenitic welds depends significantly on the selected UT-parameters as well as on the inspection personnel experience. In the present dissertation, an ultrasonic testing method was developed, which allows the flaw detection and evaluation in acoustically anisotropic inhomogeneous materials, especially in austenitic and dissimilar welds with a quantitative statement to the defect size, type, and location. The principle of synthetic focusing with taking into account the material anisotropy and inhomogeneity along with two- and three-dimensional visualization provides a reliable and quantitative assessment of the inspection results in acoustically anisotropic inhomogeneous test objects. Among others, an iterative algorithm for the determination of unknown elastic properties of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials has been developed. It allows practical application of the developed UT method, since the anisotropy of most of austenitic and dissimilar welds (especially of hand-welded joints) in practice is usually unknown. The functionality of the developed inspection technique has been validated by many experiments on welded austenitic specimens having artificial and natural defects. For the practical application of the new ultrasonic technique different testing strategies are proposed, which can be used depending on the current inspection task.

  4. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...

  5. Use of Spherical Nanoindentation to Characterize the Anisotropic Properties of Microscale Constituents and Interfaces in Hierarchically Structured Composite Materials (United States)


    used for bone replacements, cartilage replacement, bone cement , screws and many other applications [1]. There has been recent interest in the...spherical indentation. Journal of Materials Research, 1993. 8(2): p. 297-306. 39. Angker, L. and M.V. Swain, Nanoindentation: Application to dental hard

  6. Modeling of anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)


    Ballistic transport characteristics of metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) based on anisotropic two-dimensional materials monolayer HfS{sub 2} and phosphorene are explored through quantum transport simulations. We focus on the effects of the channel crystal orientation and the channel length scaling on device performances. Especially, the role of degenerate conduction band (CB) valleys in monolayer HfS{sub 2} is comprehensively analyzed. Benchmarking monolayer HfS{sub 2} with phosphorene MOSFETs, we predict that the effect of channel orientation on device performances is much weaker in monolayer HfS{sub 2} than in phosphorene due to the degenerate CB valleys of monolayer HfS{sub 2}. Our simulations also reveal that at 10 nm channel length scale, phosphorene MOSFETs outperform monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs in terms of the on-state current. However, it is observed that monolayer HfS{sub 2} MOSFETs may offer comparable, but a little bit degraded, device performances as compared with phosphorene MOSFETs at 5 nm channel length.

  7. An anisotropic elastoplasticity model implemented in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Miles Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Many metals, including Tantalum and Zirconium, exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior at the single crystal level, and if components are manufactured from these metals through forming processes the polycrystal (component) may also exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior. This is because the forming can induce a preferential orientation of the crystals in the polycrystal. One example is a rolled plate of Uranium where the sti /strong orientation of the crystal (c-axis) tends to align itself perpendicular to the rolling direction. If loads are applied to this plate in di erent orientations the sti ness as well as the ow strength of the material will be greater in the through thickness direction than in other directions. To better accommodate simulations of such materials, an anisotropic elastoplasticity model has been implemented in FLAG. The model includes an anisotropic elastic stress model as well as an anisotropic plasticity model. The model could represent single crystals of any symmetry, though it should not be confused with a high- delity crystal plasticity model with multiple slip planes and evolutions. The model is most appropriate for homogenized polycrystalline materials. Elastic rotation of the material due to deformation is captured, so the anisotropic models are appropriate for arbitrary large rotations, but currently they do not account for signi cant change in material texture beyond the elastic rotation of the entire polycrystal.

  8. Multi-Physics MRI-Based Two-Layer Fluid-Structure Interaction Anisotropic Models of Human Right and Left Ventricles with Different Patch Materials: Cardiac Function Assessment and Mechanical Stress Analysis. (United States)

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Geva, Tal; Gaudette, Glenn; Del Nido, Pedro J


    Multi-physics right and left ventricle (RV/LV) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models were introduced to perform mechanical stress analysis and evaluate the effect of patch materials on RV function. The FSI models included three different patch materials (Dacron scaffold, treated pericardium, and contracting myocardium), two-layer construction, fiber orientation, and active anisotropic material properties. The models were constructed based on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images acquired from a patient with severe RV dilatation and solved by ADINA. Our results indicate that the patch model with contracting myocardium leads to decreased stress level in the patch area, improved RV function and patch area contractility.

  9. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene. (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng


    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  10. Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan


    In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi

  11. Anisotropic light diffusion: an oxymoron? (United States)

    Kienle, Alwin


    Light propagation in anisotropic random media is studied in the steady-state and time domains. Solutions of the anisotropic diffusion equation are compared to results obtained by the Monte Carlo method. Contrary to what has been reported so far, we find that even in the "diffusive regime" the anisotropic diffusion equation does not describe correctly the light propagation in anisotropic random media.

  12. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan


    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  13. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton


    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  14. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions (United States)

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Samal, Akshaya K.; Pradeep, Thalappil


    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications. PMID:22110867

  15. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  16. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope. (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M


    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  17. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  18. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.

  19. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  20. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm


    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  1. Stability of anisotropic stellar filaments (United States)

    Bhatti, M. Zaeem-ul-Haq; Yousaf, Z.


    The study of perturbation of self-gravitating celestial cylindrical object have been carried out in this paper. We have designed a framework to construct the collapse equation by formulating the modified field equations with the background of f(R , T) theory as well as dynamical equations from the contracted form of Bianchi identities with anisotropic matter configuration. We have encapsulated the radial perturbations on metric and material variables of the geometry with some known static profile at Newtonian and post-Newtonian regimes. We examined a strong dependence of unstable regions on stiffness parameter which measures the rigidity of the fluid. Also, the static profile and matter variables with f(R , T) dark source terms control the instability of compact cylindrical system.

  2. On the propagation of elastic waves in acoustically anisotropic austenitic materials and at their boundaries during non-destructive inspection with ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munikoti, V.K.


    In this work the propagation behaviour of ultrasound in austenitic weld metal has been analyzed by the time-harmonic plane wave approach. Bounded beam and pulse propagation as occurring in ultrasonic testing can be sufficiently dealt with by this approach. More sophisticated approaches principally do not offer any improvements in the results of plane wave modeling except for diffraction and aperture effects and, therefore, the subject matter of this work has been limited to plane wave propagation in the bulk of the medium and at different types of interfaces. Inspite of the fact, that the individual columnar grains of the weld metal have cubic symmetry, the austenitic weld metal as a whole exhibits cylinder-symmetrical texture, as substantiated by metallurgical examination, and therefore has been treated as an anisotropic poly-crystalline medium with transverse isotropic symmetry. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird die Ultraschallausbreitung in akustisch anisotropen, homogenen Werkstoffen mit stengelkristalliner Textur wie austenitischen Plattierungen und Schweissverbindungen, austenitischem Guss oder geschweissten Komponenten aus austenitischem Guss modelliert. Wie die in dieser Arbeit referierten metallurgischen Untersuchungen gezeigt haben, koennen austenitisches Schweissgut und stengelkristallin erstarrter austenitischer Guss makroskopisch als polykristallines Medium mit zylindersymmetrischer Textur behandelt werden, also als Medium mit transversal isotroper Symmetrie, obwohl mikroskopisch die einzelnen Stengelkristallite kubische Symmetrie aufweisen. Die Schallausbreitung wird mit Hilfe des Ansatzes ebener Wellen modelliert. Obwohl bei der Ultraschallpruefung gepulste und begrenzte Schallbuendel verwendet werden, liefert dieser Ansatz die bei der Ultraschallpruefung beobachteten Wellenarten mit Geschwindigkeiten und Polarisationen, Schallbuendelablenkung und Reflexion und Brechnung nach Richtung und Amplitude, so dass ueber das Modell der ebenen

  3. Three-dimensional fabric analysis for anisotropic material using multi-directional scanning line. Application to x-ray CI image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, Takato; Takahashi, Manabu; Oda, Masanobu; Hirai, Hidekazu; Murakoshi, Atsushi; Miura, Makoto


    In microscopic analysis, materials are characterized by a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure which is composed of constituent elements such as pores, voids and cracks. A material's mechanical and hydrological properties are strongly dependent on its microstructure. In order to discuss the mechanics of geomaterials on a microstructural level, detailed information on their 3D macrostructure is required. X-ray computed tomography is a powerful non-destructive method for determining the microstructure, however it can be difficult to determine a material's microstructure from the reconstructed 3D image. We successfully evaluated the 3D microstructural anisotropy of porous and fibrous materials using a multi-directional scanning line method that employs straightforward image analysis, and its results were visualized using stereonet projection. (author)

  4. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...... correlation to the curing time. The experiments show no correlation between the anisotropy and the curing time and a small strength difference between the two drilling directions. The literature shows variations on which drilling direction that is strongest. Based on a Monto Carlo simulation of the expected...

  5. A unified theoretical and experimental study of anisotropic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, J.P.; Raclin, J.


    The purpose of this work is to develop a consistent formulation of the constitutive relations regarding anisotropic hardening materials. Attention is focused on the appearance and the evolution of mechanical anisotropies during irreversible processes, such as plastic forming and inelastic deformation of structures. The representation theorems for anisotropic tensor functions constitute a theoretical basis, allowing to reduce arbitrariness and to obtain a unified formulation of anisotropic hardening. In this approach, a general three-dimensional constitutive law is developed for prestrained initially orthotropic materials. Introduction of the plastic behavior results in the general forms of both the flow-law and the yield criterion. The developed theory is then specialized for the case of plane stress and different modes of anisotropic hardening are analyzed. A new generalization of the Von Mises criterion is proposed, in considering a homogeneous form of order two in stress and employing the simplest combinations of the basic invariants entering the general form of the yield condition. The proposed criterion involves specific terms accounting for the initial anisotropy, the deformation induced anisotropy and correlative terms between initial and induced anisotropy. The effects of prestrainings result in both isotropic and anisotropic hardening. An adequate experimental program, consisting of uniaxial tensile tests on oriented specimens of prestrained sheet-metal, was performed, in order to determine the specific form and the evolution of the anisotropic failure criterion for soft-steel subjected to different irreversible prestrainings. (orig.)

  6. Equilibrium-Based Nonhomogeneous Anisotropic Beam Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Couturier, Philippe


    The stiffness matrix and the nodal forces associated with distributed loads are obtained for a nonhomogeneous anisotropic elastic beam element by the use of complementary energy. The element flexibility matrix is obtained by integrating the complementary-energy density corresponding to six beam...... equilibrium states, and then inverted and expanded to provide the element-stiffness matrix. Distributed element loads are represented via corresponding internal-force distributions in local equilibrium with the loads. The element formulation does not depend on assumed shape functions and can, in principle......, include any variation of cross-sectional properties and load variation, provided that these are integrated with sufficient accuracy in the process. The ability to represent variable cross-sectional properties, coupling from anisotropic materials, and distributed element loads is illustrated by numerical...

  7. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Daniel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Patiño, Leonardo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Trancanelli, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)


    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a ‘Minkowski embedding’, in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a ‘black hole embedding’, in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  8. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie


    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  9. A thermomechanical anisotropic model for shock loading of elastic-plastic and elastic-viscoplastic materials with application to jointed rock (United States)

    Rubin, M. B.; Vorobiev, O.; Vitali, E.


    A large deformation thermomechanical model is developed for shock loading of a material that can exhibit elastic and inelastic anisotropy. Use is made of evolution equations for a triad of microstructural vectors mathbf{m}i (hbox {i}=1,2,3) which model elastic deformations and directions of anisotropy. Specific constitutive equations are presented for a material with orthotropic elastic response. The rate of inelasticity depends on an orthotropic yield function that can be used to model weak fault planes with failure in shear and which exhibits a smooth transition to isotropic response at high compression. Moreover, a robust, strongly objective numerical algorithm is proposed for both rate-independent and rate-dependent response. The predictions of the continuum model are examined by comparison with exact steady-state solutions. Also, the constitutive equations are used to obtain a simplified continuum model of jointed rock which is compared with high fidelity numerical solutions that model a persistent system of joints explicitly in the rock medium.

  10. Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.


    The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters

  11. Photon states in anisotropic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Quantum aspects of optical polarization are discussed for waves traveling in anisotropic dielectric media with a view to relate the dynamics of polarization with that of photon spin and its manipulation by classical polarizers.

  12. Application of the anisotropic phase-field crystal model to investigate the lattice systems of different anisotropic parameters and orientations (United States)

    Kundin, Julia; Ajmal Choudhary, Muhammad


    In this article, we present the recent advances in the development of the anisotropic phase-field crystal (APFC) model. These advances are important in basic researches for multiferroic and thermoelectric materials with anisotropic crystal lattices and in thin-film applications. We start by providing a general description of the model derived in our previous studies based on the crystal symmetry and the microscopic dynamical density functional theory for anisotropic interactions and show that there exist only two possible degrees of freedom for the anisotropic lattices which are described by two independent parameters. New findings concerning the applications of the APFC model for the estimation of the elastic modules of anisotropic systems including sheared and stretched lattices as well as for the investigation of the heterogeneous thin film growth are described. The simulation results demonstrate the strong dependency of the misfit dislocation formation during the film growth on the anisotropy and reveal the asymmetric behavior in the cases of positive and negative misfits. We also present the development of the amplitude representation for the full APFC model of two orientation variants and show the relationship between the wave vectors and the base angles of the anisotropic lattices.

  13. Understanding conoscopic interference patterns in anisotropic crystals (United States)

    Olorunsola, Oluwatobi Gabriel

    The interference patterns observed in conoscopy are important in studying the optical and geometrical properties of anisotropic materials. They have also been used to identify minerals and to explore the structure of biological tissues. In a conoscopic interferometer, an optically anisotropic specimen is placed between two crossed linear polarizers and illuminated by a convergent light beam. The interference patterns are produced because in an anisotropic material an incident light is split into two eigenwaves, namely the ordinary and the extraordinary waves. We report our work on the theoretical simulation and experimental observation of the conoscopic interference patterns in anisotropic crystals. In our simulation, the interference patterns are decomposed into fringes of isogyres and isochromates. For each light propagation direction inside the crystal there exist two eigenwaves that have their own characteristic velocities and vibration directions. The isogyres are obtained by computing the angle between the polarization of the incident light and the vibration directions of the two eigenwaves. The isochromates are obtained by computing the phase retardance between the two eigenwaves inside the crystal. The interference patterns are experimentally observed in several crystals, with their optic axes either parallel or perpendicular to their surfaces. An external electric field is applied to deform the crystals from uniaxial to biaxial. The results of our experimental observation agree well with our computer simulation. In conventional interferometers the isochromatic interference fringes are observed by using a circular polarizer and a circular analyzer, both constructed by a linear polarizer and a quarter wave plate. However, due to the dispersion of the quarter wave plates, the phase-retardance between the two light waves inside the quarter wave plates is wavelength-dependent, which results in different conoscopic interference patterns for different colors of

  14. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.


    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  15. Effective stress law for anisotropic elastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, M.M.


    An effective stress law is derived analytically to describe the effect of pore fluid pressure on the linearly elastic response of saturated porous rocks which exhibit anisotropy. For general anisotropy the difference between the effective stress and the applied stress is not hydrostatic. The effective stress law involves two constants for transversely isotropic response and three constants for orthotropic response; these constants can be expressed in terms of the moduli of the porous material and of the solid material. These expressions simplify considerably when the anisotropy is structural rather than intrinsic, i.e., in the case of an isotropic solid material with an anisotropic pore structure. In this case the effective stress law involves the solid or grain bulk modulus and two or three moduli of the porous material, for transverse isotropy and orthotropy, respectively. The law reduces, in the case of isotropic response, to that suggested by Geertsma (1957) and by Skempton (1961) and derived analytically by Nur and Byerlee

  16. Grain size estimation in anisotropic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saxl, Ivan; Ponížil, P.; Sülleiová, K.


    Roč. 482, - (2005), s. 239-242 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/03/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : 3D grain size * profile count * intercept count Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  17. Grain Size Estimation in Anisotropic Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, J.; Ponížil, P.; Saxl, Ivan


    Roč. 568, č. 2 (2008), s. 285-288 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/0302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : grain size estimation * anisotropy * planmar sections Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing

  18. Debonding of perticles in anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    Effects of geometrical anisotropy as well as plastic anisotropy are studied in relation to debonding of rigid inclusions embedded in a metal. Full finite strain analyses are carried out for a cell model under plane strain conditions, and the average overall stress-strain response of the cell...... is calculated. For increased triaxiality the onset of matrix-particle debonding occurs at a significantly reduced overall strain of the cell. The point of initial debonding is nearly unaffected by variations of the shape of the inclusions, but complete debonding occurs earlier if the inclusions are elongated...... perpendicular to the main tensile direction. The same effect is observed, if the spacing of the inclusions is larger in the main tensile direction than in the transverse direction. For the orientations of plastic anisotropy considered, the debonding initiates and grows at a much lower overall strain than...

  19. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric


    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test

  20. Autofocus imaging : Experimental results in an anisotropic austenitic weld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B.W.; Wilcox, P.D.; Hunter, A.J.


    The quality of an ultrasonic array image, especially for anisotropic material, depends on accurate information about acoustic properties. Inaccuracy of acoustic properties causes image degradation, e.g., blurring, errors in locating of reflectors and introduction of artifacts. In this paper, for an

  1. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials. (United States)

    Dierking, Ingo; Al-Zangana, Shakhawan


    Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i) addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii) novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii) the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  2. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking


    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  3. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials (United States)

    Dierking, Ingo


    Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i) addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii) novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii) the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide. PMID:28974025

  4. Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite. (United States)

    Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X Z; Matsui, Y; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E Ward; Zhang, Jiandi


    The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La(0.69)Ca(0.31)MnO(3), leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a "colossal" AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings.

  5. Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite (United States)

    Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X. Z.; Matsui, Y.; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E. Ward; Zhang, Jiandi


    The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La0.69Ca0.31MnO3, leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a “colossal” AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings. PMID:19706504

  6. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael


    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  7. Derivation of the optical constants of anisotropic (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.; Strong, P. F.


    This report concerns the development of methods for obtaining the optical constants of anisotropic crystals of the triclinic and monoclinic systems. The principal method used, classical dispersion theory, is adapted to these crystal systems by extending the Lorentz line parameters to include the angles characterizing the individual resonances, and by replacing the dielectric constant by a dielectric tensor. The sample crystals are gypsium, orthoclase and chalcanthite. The derived optical constants are shown to be suitable for modeling the optical properties of particulate media in the infrared spectral region. For those materials where suitable size single crystals are not available, an extension of a previously used method is applied to alabaster, a polycrystalline material of the monoclinic crystal system.

  8. Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan


    This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering

  9. Anisotropic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kats, C.M.


    The driving forces for fundamental research in colloid science are the ability to manage the material properties of colloids and to unravel the forces that play a role between colloids to be able to control and understand the processes where colloids play an important role. Therefore we are

  10. Wave propagation in layered anisotropic media with application to composites

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, AH


    Recent advances in the study of the dynamic behavior of layered materials in general, and laminated fibrous composites in particular, are presented in this book. The need to understand the microstructural behavior of such classes of materials has brought a new challenge to existing analytical tools. This book explores the fundamental question of how mechanical waves propagate and interact with layered anisotropic media. The chapters are organized in a logical sequence depending upon the complexity of the physical model and its mathematical treatment.

  11. Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens


    Klara Kalinova


    The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology) in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally la...

  12. Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the absence of pre-stresses, i.e., taking. S11 = S22 = S33 = 0, all the expressions, derived in this section, will reduce to the results which are same as in Ting (2006). 4. Triclinic materials. A triclinic material is the most general anisotropic medium, and the elastic compliance b11(N) in this medium is as defined by equation ...

  13. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  14. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You


    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.

  15. Anisotropic Hardening Behaviour and Springback of Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebong Jung


    Full Text Available Advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs exhibit large, and sometimes anisotropic, springback recovery after forming. Accurate description of the anisotropic elasto-plastic behaviour of sheet metals is critical for predicting their anisotropic springback behaviour. For some materials, the initial anisotropy is maintained while hardening progresses. However, for other materials, anisotropy changes with hardening. In this work, to account for the evolution of anisotropy of a dual-phase steel, an elastoplastic material constitutive model is developed. In particular, the combined isotropic–kinematic hardening model was modified. Tensile loading–unloading, uniaxial and biaxial tension, and tension–compression tests were conducted along the rolling, diagonal, and transverse directions to measure the anisotropic properties, and the parameters of the proposed constitutive model were determined. For validation, the proposed model was applied to a U-bending process, and the measured springback angles were compared to the predicted ones.

  16. Preparation of asymmetric porous materials (United States)

    Coker, Eric N [Albuquerque, NM


    A method for preparing an asymmetric porous material by depositing a porous material film on a flexible substrate, and applying an anisotropic stress to the porous media on the flexible substrate, where the anisotropic stress results from a stress such as an applied mechanical force, a thermal gradient, and an applied voltage, to form an asymmetric porous material.

  17. Metafluid with anisotropic dynamic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumen, L.N.; Arriaga, J.; Krokhin, A.A.


    We show that a fluid filling the space between metallic cylinders arranged in a two-dimensional lattice exhibits anisotropic dynamic mass for sound waves propagating through the lattice, if its unit cell is anisotropic. Using the plane-waves expansion method we derive (in the long wavelength limit) a formula for the effective mass tensor of the metafluid. The proposed formula is very general - it is valid for arbitrary Bravais lattices and arbitrary filling fractions of the cylinders. We apply our method to a periodic structure with very high anisotropy, when other known methods fail. In particular, we calculate the effective mass tensor for sound waves in air with embedded lattice of aluminum cylinders having rectangular cross sections, and obtain excellent agreement with experiment. The proposed method of calculation may find numerous applications for tailoring of metafluids with prescribed anisotropy.

  18. Exact anisotropic polytropic cylindrical solutions (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Sadiq, Sobia


    In this paper, we study anisotropic compact stars with static cylindrically symmetric anisotropic matter distribution satisfying polytropic equation of state. We formulate the field equations as well as the corresponding mass function for the particular form of gravitational potential z(x)=(1+bx)^{η } (η =1, 2, 3) and explore exact solutions of the field equations for different values of the polytropic index. The values of arbitrary constants are determined by taking mass and radius of compact star (Her X-1). We find that resulting solutions show viable behavior of physical parameters (density, radial as well as tangential pressure, anisotropy) and satisfy the stability condition. It is concluded that physically acceptable solutions exist only for η =1, 2.

  19. Fluid flow through anisotropic porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telles, A.S.; Massarani, G.


    Darcy's equation represents a simplified form of the equation of motion for the fluid flowing through a porous medium. The simplifications concern the elimination of the acceleration, the divergence of the extra stress terms, and the assumption of existence of a linear form in the velocity for the resistive force the fluid exerts upon the solid. This hypothesis may not be valid for all anisotropic media. In some instances, measurements of directional resistivity suggest existence of the resistivity tensor, leaving entirely open the question of symmetry. In connection with this important question, an experimental scheme for the determination of the antisymmetric part of this tensor is suggested. The conclusion is that material symmetries is the only macroscopic concept that imposes restrictions on the form of the resistivity and extra stress tensors [pt

  20. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.


    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  1. Dynamical anisotropic response of black phosphorus under magnetic field (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Chenglong; Lai, Jiawei; Ge, Shaofeng; Sekhar, M. Chandra; Jia, Shuang; Chang, Kai; Sun, Dong


    Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising material candidate for next generation electronic and optoelectronic devices due to its high mobility, tunable band gap and highly anisotropic properties. In this work, polarization resolved ultrafast mid-infrared transient reflection spectroscopy measurements are performed to study the dynamical anisotropic optical properties of BP under magnetic fields up to 9 T. The relaxation dynamics of photoexcited carrier is found to be insensitive to the applied magnetic field due to the broadening of the Landau levels and large effective mass of carriers. While the anisotropic optical response of BP decreases with increasing magnetic field, its enhancement due to the excitation of hot carriers is similar to that without magnetic field. These experimental results can be well interpreted by the magneto-optical conductivity of the Landau levels of BP thin film, based on an effective k · p Hamiltonian and linear response theory. These findings suggest attractive possibilities of multi-dimensional control of anisotropic response (AR) of BP with light, electric and magnetic field, which further introduces BP to the fantastic magnetic field sensitive applications.

  2. Investigation of Anisotropic Bonded Magnets in Permanent Magnet Machine Applications (United States)

    Khazdozian, H. A.; McCall, S. K.; Kramer, M. J.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Nlebedim, I. C.

    Rare earth elements (REE) provide the high energy product necessary for permanent magnets, such as sintered Nd2Fe14B, in many applications like wind energy generators. However, REEs are considered critical materials due to risk in their supply. To reduce the use of critical materials in permanent magnet machines, the performance of anisotropic bonded NdFeB magnets, aligned under varying magnetic field strength, was simulated using 3D finite element analysis in a 3MW direct-drive permanent magnet generator (DDPMG), with sintered N42 magnets used as a baseline for comparison. For direct substitution of the anisotropic bonded magnets, approximately 85% of the efficiency of the baseline model was achieved, irrespective of the alignment field. The torque and power generation of the DDPMG was not found to vary significantly with increase in the alignment field. Finally, design changes were studied to allow for the achievement of rated torque and power with the use of anisotropic bonded magnets, demonstrating the potential for reduction of critical materials in permanent magnets for renewable energy applications. This work was supported by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office.

  3. Predicting sintering deformation of ceramic film constrained by rigid substrate using anisotropic constitutive law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fan; Pan Jingzhe; Guillon, Olivier; Cocks, Alan


    Sintering of ceramic films on a solid substrate is an important technology for fabricating a range of products, including solid oxide fuel cells, micro-electronic PZT films and protective coatings. There is clear evidence that the constrained sintering process is anisotropic in nature. This paper presents a study of the constrained sintering deformation using an anisotropic constitutive law. The state of the material is described using the sintering strains rather than the relative density. In the limiting case of free sintering, the constitutive law reduces to a conventional isotropic constitutive law. The anisotropic constitutive law is used to calculate sintering deformation of a constrained film bonded to a rigid substrate and the compressive stress required in a sinter-forging experiment to achieve zero lateral shrinkage. The results are compared with experimental data in the literature. It is shown that the anisotropic constitutive law can capture the behaviour of the materials observed in the sintering experiments.

  4. Coupled polaritonic band gaps in the anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Zheng-Sheng; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Chun-Zhi; Lei, Da-Jun; Huang, Jian-Quan; Qiu, Feng; Yao, Min; Huang, Xiao-Yi


    Anisotropic piezoelectric superlattices (APSs) with the periodic arrangement of polarized anisotropic piezoelectric domains in a certain direction are presented, in which the coupled polaritonic band gaps (CPBGs) can be obtained in the whole Brillouin Zone and the maximum relative bandwidth (band-gap sizes divided by their midgap frequencies) of 5.1% can be achieved. The general characteristics of the APSs are similar to those of the phononic crystals composed of two types of materials, with the main difference being the formation mechanism of the CPBGs, which originate from the couplings between lattice vibrations along two different directions and electromagnetic waves rather than from the periodical modulation of density and elastic constants. In addition, there are no lattice mismatches because the APSs are made of the same material. Thus, the APSs can also be extended to the construction of novel acousto-optic devices.

  5. Doubly Periodic Cracks in the Anisotropic Medium with the Account of Contact of Their Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymovych Olesya


    Full Text Available The paper presents complex variable integral formulae and singular boundary integral equations for doubly periodic cracks in anisotropic elastic medium. It utilizes the numerical solution procedure, which accounts for the contact of crack faces and produce accurate results for SIF evaluation. It is shown that the account of contact effects significantly influence the SIF of doubly periodic curvilinear cracks both for isotropic and anisotropic materials.

  6. Anisotropic shift of the irreversibility line by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerzopf, F.M.; Wiesinger, H.P.; Weber, H.W.; Crabtree, G.W.; Frischherz, M.C.; Kirk, M.A.


    The irreversibility line of high-T c superconductors is shifted considerably by irradiating the material with fast neutrons. The anisotropic and non-monotonous shift is qualitatively explained by a simple model based on an interaction between three pinning mechanisms, the intrinsic pinning by the ab-planes, the weak pinning by the pre-irradiation defect structure, and strong pinning by neutron induced defect cascades. A correlation between the cascade density and the position of the irreversibility line is observed

  7. Model and calculation of in situ stresses in anisotropic formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuezhi, W.; Zijun, L.; Lixin, H. [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, (China)


    In situ stresses in transversely isotropic material in relation to wellbore stability have been investigated. Equations for three horizontal in- situ stresses and a new formation fracture pressure model were described, and the methodology for determining the elastic parameters of anisotropic rocks in the laboratory was outlined. Results indicate significantly smaller differences between theoretically calculated pressures and actual formation pressures than results obtained by using the isotropic method. Implications for improvements in drilling efficiency were reviewed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Rational synthesis and self-assembly of anisotropic plasmonic nanoparticles


    Scarabelli, Leonardo


    This thesis work has been carried out in the framework of the ERC Advanced Grant Plasmaquo (nº 267867), which focused on the development of novel nanostructured plasmonic materials based on crystalline assemblies of anisotropic nanoparticles, to be used as optical enhancers for the surface enhanced Raman scattering detection of bacterial Quorum Sensing signaling molecules. More specifically, the thesis was oriented toward the design of such nanostructures, and on the characterization of their...

  9. A methodology for developing anisotropic AAA phantoms via additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Ruiz de Galarreta, Sergio; Antón, Raúl; Cazón, Aitor; Finol, Ender A


    An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent focal dilatation of the abdominal aorta at least 1.5 times its normal diameter. The criterion of maximum diameter is still used in clinical practice, although numerical studies have demonstrated the importance of biomechanical factors for rupture risk assessment. AAA phantoms could be used for experimental validation of the numerical studies and for pre-intervention testing of endovascular grafts. We have applied multi-material 3D printing technology to manufacture idealized AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Different composites were fabricated and the phantom specimens were characterized by biaxial tensile tests while using a constitutive model to fit the experimental data. One composite was chosen to manufacture the phantom based on having the same mechanical properties as those reported in the literature for human AAA tissue; the strain energy and anisotropic index were compared to make this choice. The materials for the matrix and fibers of the selected composite are, respectively, the digital materials FLX9940 and FLX9960 developed by Stratasys. The fiber proportion for the composite is equal to 0.15. The differences between the composite behavior and the AAA tissue are small, with a small difference in the strain energy (0.4%) and a maximum difference of 12.4% in the peak Green strain ratio. This work represents a step forward in the application of 3D printing technology for the manufacturing of AAA phantoms with anisotropic mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)


    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  11. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG


    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  12. Anisotropic non-Fermi liquids (United States)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik


    We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.

  13. Reflection of light from an anisotropic medium


    Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Ignatovich, Vladimir


    We present here a general approach to treat reflection and refraction of light of arbitrary polarization from single axis anisotropic plates. We show that reflection from interface inside the anisotropic medium is accompanied by beam splitting and can create surface waves.

  14. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq


    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  15. Nanoscale Rheology and Anisotropic Diffusion Using Single Gold Nanorod Probes (United States)

    Molaei, Mehdi; Atefi, Ehsan; Crocker, John C.


    The complex rotational and translational Brownian motion of anisotropic particles depends on their shape and the viscoelasticity of their surroundings. Because of their strong optical scattering and chemical versatility, gold nanorods would seem to provide the ultimate probes of rheology at the nanoscale, but the suitably accurate orientational tracking required to compute rheology has not been demonstrated. Here we image single gold nanorods with a laser-illuminated dark-field microscope and use optical polarization to determine their three-dimensional orientation to better than one degree. We convert the rotational diffusion of single nanorods in viscoelastic polyethylene glycol solutions to rheology and obtain excellent agreement with bulk measurements. Extensions of earlier models of anisotropic translational diffusion to three dimensions and viscoelastic fluids give excellent agreement with the observed motion of single nanorods. We find that nanorod tracking provides a uniquely capable approach to microrheology and provides a powerful tool for probing nanoscale dynamics and structure in a range of soft materials.

  16. Anisotropic hypersonic phonon propagation in films of aligned ellipsoids. (United States)

    Beltramo, Peter J; Schneider, Dirk; Fytas, George; Furst, Eric M


    A material with anisotropic elastic mechanical properties and a direction-dependent hypersonic band gap is fabricated using ac electric field-directed convective self-assembly of colloidal ellipsoids. The frequency of the gap, which is detected in the direction perpendicular to particle alignment and entirely absent parallel to alignment, and the effective sound velocities can be tuned by the particle aspect ratio. We hypothesize that the band gap originates from the primary eigenmode peak, the m-splitted (s,1,2) mode, of the particle resonating with the effective medium. These results reveal the potential for powerful control of the hypersonic phononic band diagram by combining anisotropic particles and self-assembly.

  17. Timoshenko beam element with anisotropic cross-sectional properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Hansen, Morten Hartvig


    Beam models are used for the aeroelastic time and frequency domain analysis of wind turbines due to their computational efficiency. Many current aeroelastic tools for the analysis of wind turbines rely on Timoshenko beam elements with classical crosssectional properties (EA, EI, etc.). Those cross......-sectional properties do not reflect the various couplings arising from the anisotropic behaviour of the blade material. A twonoded, three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element was therefore extended to allow for anisotropic cross-sectional properties. For an uncoupled beam, the resulting shape functions are identical...... to the original formulation. The new element was implemented into a co-rotational formulation and validated against natural frequencies and several static load cases of previous works....

  18. Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts. (United States)

    Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S


    Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible.

  19. Outflow and clogging of shape-anisotropic grains in hoppers (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Ashour, Ahmed; Wegner, Sandra; BöRzsöNyi, Tamas

    Silos have been in use in human history for millennia, but still today, the discharge of grains from silos is a process with potential risks and imponderabilities. Models and quantitative predictions have been developed almost exclusively for spherical grains shapes. We study the discharge and clogging processes of shape-anisotropic grains in hoppers, and describe the peculiarities of these materials both in their dynamical properties and in the observed clogging structures. An attempt is made to adapt the well-known equations for spherical material to describe anisometric particles. Funding by DAAD and M\\x96B is acknowledged. A. A. acknowledges a scholarship from Future University, Egypt.

  20. Theoretical assessment of sound absorption coefficient for anisotropic nonwovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Kalinova


    Full Text Available The anisotropy factor as a function of fiber arrangement, fiber fineness and sample thickness has been derived from the theories of soundwave transformation due to phase changing. The sound absorption coefficient of the anisotropic fibrous material is then theoretically calculated. The fibrous materials were prepared so that the fibers are arranged parallel (perpendicularly laid fiber web called STRUTO technology in the direction of soundwave propagation or perpendicularly (longitudinally laid fiber web to the direction of sound propagation. The sound absorption coefficient was measured due to the Impedance tube. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental findings.

  1. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia


    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  2. Warm anisotropic inflationary universe model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)


    This paper is devoted to the study of warm inflation using vector fields in the background of a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I model of the universe. We formulate the field equations, and slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) in the slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of the directional Hubble parameter during the intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of the scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., the tensor-scalar ratio in terms of the inflaton. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and the Planck observational data. (orig.)

  3. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)


    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  4. Effect of anisotropic yield function evolution on formability of sheet metal (United States)

    Choi, H. J.; Choi, Y.; Lee, K. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Lee, M.-G.


    For the evaluation of anisotropic yield functions and hardening models, formability has been often investigated in the forming of sheet metals. The formability has been investigated in many ways, but a common conclusion is that it is significantly influenced by sheet anisotropy, especially the directional differences in yield stress and r-value along the material direction. Therefore, numerous works have been presented in terms of the accurate modeling of anisotropic behavior of sheet metals and its implementation into the finite element simulations. The previous efforts include the effects of quadratic or non-quadratic yield functions, their associated or non-associated flow rules and isotropic or non-isotropic hardening laws on formability. However, most of these works assumed that the anisotropic yield functions maintain their initial shapes, while they evolve by isotropic expansion or kinematic translation. Then, they could not consider the anisotropic evolution under monotonic loading with different deformation modes. In the present work, various anisotropic constitutive models were comparatively evaluated for the performance in predicting the earing profile in the cup drawing and the forming limit diagram. The constitutive models include the Hill48 quadratic yield function with associated and non-associated flow rules, and the non-quadratic Yld2000-2d function with associated flow rule. For both yield functions, the evolution of anisotropy was employed by considering the anisotropic coefficients as a function of equivalent plastic strain. The influence of the anisotropy evolution was comparatively evaluated by the computational simulations.

  5. Modeling Anisotropic Elastic Wave Propagation in Jointed Rock Masses (United States)

    Hurley, R.; Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.


    We present a numerical approach for determining the anisotropic stiffness of materials with nonlinearly-compliant joints capable of sliding. The proposed method extends existing ones for upscaling the behavior of a medium with open cracks and inclusions to cases relevant to natural fractured and jointed rocks, where nonlinearly-compliant joints can undergo plastic slip. The method deviates from existing techniques by incorporating the friction and closure states of the joints, and recovers an anisotropic elastic form in the small-strain limit when joints are not sliding. We present the mathematical formulation of our method and use Representative Volume Element (RVE) simulations to evaluate its accuracy for joint sets with varying complexity. We then apply the formulation to determine anisotropic elastic constants of jointed granite found at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) where the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), a campaign of underground chemical explosions, are performed. Finally, we discuss the implementation of our numerical approach in a massively parallel Lagrangian code Geodyn-L and its use for studying wave propagation from underground explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn. (United States)

    Galceran, R; Fina, I; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Frontera, C; López-Mir, L; Deniz, H; Park, K-W; Park, B-G; Balcells, Ll; Martí, X; Jungwirth, T; Martínez, B


    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  7. Anisotropic behaviour of human gallbladder walls. (United States)

    Li, W G; Hill, N A; Ogden, R W; Smythe, A; Majeed, A W; Bird, N; Luo, X Y


    Inverse estimation of biomechanical parameters of soft tissues from non-invasive measurements has clinical significance in patient-specific modelling and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a fully nonlinear approach to estimate the mechanical properties of the human gallbladder wall muscles from in vivo ultrasound images. The iteration method consists of a forward approach, in which the constitutive equation is based on a modified Hozapfel-Gasser-Ogden law initially developed for arteries. Five constitutive parameters describing the two orthogonal families of fibres and the matrix material are determined by comparing the computed displacements with medical images. The optimisation process is carried out using the MATLAB toolbox, a Python code, and the ABAQUS solver. The proposed method is validated with published artery data and subsequently applied to ten human gallbladder samples. Results show that the human gallbladder wall is anisotropic during the passive refilling phase, and that the peak stress is 1.6 times greater than that calculated using linear mechanics. This discrepancy arises because the wall thickness reduces by 1.6 times during the deformation, which is not predicted by conventional linear elasticity. If the change of wall thickness is accounted for, then the linear model can used to predict the gallbladder stress and its correlation with pain. This work provides further understanding of the nonlinear characteristics of human gallbladder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers (United States)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  9. Viscous anisotropic hydrodynamics for the Gubser flow (United States)

    Martinez, M.; McNelis, M.; Heinz, U.


    In this work we describe the dynamics of a highly anisotropic system undergoing boost-invariant longitudinal and azimuthally symmetric radial expansion (Gubser flow) for arbitrary shear viscosity to entropy density ratio. We derive the equations of motion of dissipative anisotropic hydrodynamics by applying to this situation the moments method recently derived by Molnár et al. (MNR) [E. Molnar, H. Niemi, and D. H. Rischke, "Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation," Phys. Rev. D93 no. 11, (2016) 114025, arxiv:arXiv:1602.00573 [nucl-th], E. Molnar, H. Niemi, and D. H. Rischke, "Closing the equations of motion of anisotropic fluid dynamics by a judicious choice of a moment of the Boltzmann equation," Phys. Rev. D94 no. 12, (2016) 125003, arxiv:arXiv:1606.09019 [nucl-th

  10. Anisotropic magnetoresistance in a Fermi glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovadyahu, Z.; Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel 84120)


    Insulating thin films of indium oxide exhibit negative, anisotropic magnetoresistance. The systematics of these results imply that the magnetoresistance mechanism may give different weight to the distribution of the localization lengths than that given by the hopping conductivity

  11. Atomic Layer Thermopile Materials: Physics and Application


    P. X. Zhang; H.-U. Habermeier


    New types of thermoelectric materials characterized by highly anisotropic Fermi surfaces and thus anisotropic Seebeck coefficients are reviewed. Early studies revealed that there is an induced voltage in high TC oxide superconductors when the surface of the films is exposed to short light pulses. Subsequent investigations proved that the effect is due to anisotropic components of the Seebeck tensor, and the type of materials is referred to atomic layer thermopile (ALT). Our recent studies ind...

  12. Modelling Coulomb Collisions in Anisotropic Plasmas (United States)

    Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P. M.


    Collisional transport in anisotropic plasmas is investigated comparing the theoretical transport coefficients (Hellinger and Travnicek, 2009) for anisotropic particles with the results of the corresponding Langevin equation, obtained as a generalization of Manheimer et al. (1997). References: Hellinger, P., and P. M. Travnicek (2009), On Coulomb collisions in bi-Maxwellian plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 16, 054501. Manheimer, W. M., M. Lampe and G. Joyce (1997), Langevin representation of Coulomb collisions in PIC simulations, J. Comput. Phys., 138, 563-584.

  13. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand


    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  14. Penetration effect in uniaxial anisotropic metamaterials (United States)

    Vytovtov, K.; Barabanova, E.; Zouhdi, S.


    Plane harmonic wave propagation along an interface between vacuum and a semi-infinite anisotropic metamaterial is considered. Possibility of penetration effect in the considered case is studied. It is shown that there is a bulk wave within the anisotropic metamaterial with an arbitrary orientation of the anisotropy axis. It is also proved that a reflected wave must propagate perpendicularly to the interface in the case of the extraordinary wave. Moreover, no wave is reflected in the case of ordinary wave propagation.

  15. Anisotropic Thermal Behavior of Silicone Polymer, DC 745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jillian Cathleen [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Torres, Joseph Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Volz, Heather Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gallegos, Jennifer Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In material applications, it is important to understand how polymeric materials behave in the various environments they may encounter. One factor governing polymer behavior is processing history. Differences in fabrication will result in parts with varied or even unintended properties. In this work, the thermal expansion behavior of silicone DC 745 is studied. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is used to determine changes in sample dimension resulting from changes in temperature. This technique can measure thermal events such as the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), melting, glass transitions, cure shrinkage, and internal relaxations. Using a thermomechanical analyzer (Q400 TMA), it is determined that DC 745 expands anisotropically when heated. This means that the material has a different CTE depending upon which direction is being measured. In this study, TMA experiments were designed in order to confirm anisotropic thermal behavior in multiple DC 745 samples of various ages and lots. TMA parameters such as temperature ramp rate, preload force, and temperature range were optimized in order to ensure the most accurate and useful data. A better understanding of the thermal expansion of DC 745 will allow for more accurate modeling of systems using this material.

  16. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks. (United States)

    Zhang, T; Schwarz, J M; Das, Moumita


    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, p(x) and p(y), for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of p(x) and p(y). We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  17. Rotational discontinuities in anisotropic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.


    The kinetic structure of rotational discontinuities (RDs) in anisotropic plasmas with T perpendicular /T parallel > 1 is investigated by using a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. To form the RD, a new approach is used where the plasma is injected from one boundary and reflected from the other, resulting in the generation of a traveling fast shock and an RD. Unlike the previously used methods, no a priori assumptions are made regarding the initial structure (i.e. width or sense of rotation) of the rotational discontinuity. The results show that across the RD both the magnetic field strength and direction, as well as the plasma density change. Given that such a change can also be associated with an intermediate shock, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to confirm that the observed structures are indeed RDs. It is found that the thickness of RDs is a few ion inertial lengths and is independent of the rotation angle. Also, the preferred sense of rotation is in the electron sense; however, RDs with a rotation angle larger than 180 degree are found to be unstable, changing their rotation to a stable ion sense


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Chebykin


    Full Text Available The paper deals with theoretical demonstration of Purcell effect in extremely anisotropic metamaterials with elliptical isofrequency surface. This effect is free from association with divergence in density of states unlike the case of hyperbolic metamaterials. It is shown that a large Purcell factor can be observed without excitation of modes with large wave vectors in one direction, and the component of the wave vector normal to the layers is less than k0. For these materials the possibility is given for increasing of the power radiated in the medium, as well as the power radiated from material into free space across the medium border situated transversely to the layers. We have investigated isofrequency contours and the dependence of Purcell factor from the frequency for infinite layered metamaterial structure. In the visible light range strong spatial dispersion gives no possibility to obtain enhancement of spontaneous emission in metamaterial with unit cell which consists of two layers. This effect can be achieved in periodic metal-dielectric layered nanostructures with a unit cell containing two different metallic layers and two dielectric ones. Analysis of the dependences for Purcell factor from the frequency shows that the spontaneous emission is enhanced by a factor of ten or more only for dipole orientation along metamaterial layers, but in the case of the transverse orientation radiation can be enhanced only 2-3 times at most. The results can be used to create a new type of metamaterials with elliptical isofrequency contours, providing a more efficient light emission in the far field.

  19. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert


    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean val...

  20. Layered Black Phosphorus: Strongly Anisotropic Magnetic, Electronic, and Electron-Transfer Properties. (United States)

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Sedmidubský, David; Huber, Štěpán; Luxa, Jan; Bouša, Daniel; Boothroyd, Chris; Pumera, Martin


    Layered elemental materials, such as black phosphorus, exhibit unique properties originating from their highly anisotropic layered structure. The results presented herein demonstrate an anomalous anisotropy for the electrical, magnetic, and electrochemical properties of black phosphorus. It is shown that heterogeneous electron transfer from black phosphorus to outer- and inner-sphere molecular probes is highly anisotropic. The electron-transfer rates differ at the basal and edge planes. These unusual properties were interpreted by means of calculations, manifesting the metallic character of the edge planes as compared to the semiconducting properties of the basal plane. This indicates that black phosphorus belongs to a group of materials known as topological insulators. Consequently, these effects render the magnetic properties highly anisotropic, as both diamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior can be observed depending on the orientation in the magnetic field. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Straightforward measurement of anisotropic thermal properties of a Bi2Se3 single crystal. (United States)

    Fournier, Danièle; Marangolo, Massimiliano; Eddrief, Mahmoud; Kolesnikov, Nicolai N; Fretigny, Christian


    We demonstrate here a simple measurement protocol which allows the thermal properties of anisotropic crystalline materials to be determined. This protocol is validated by the measurement of Bi2Se3, a layered material consisting of covalently bonded sheets with weak van-der-Waals bonds between each layer, which has highly anisotropic thermal properties. Thermoreflectance microscopy measurements were carried out on a single-crystal Bi2Se3 sample, firstly on the bare sample and then after capping wih a 100 nm thick gold layer. Whereas on the bare sample lateral heat diffusion is dominated by the in-plane thermal diffusivity, on the metal-capped substrate heat diffusion perpendicular to the sample surface dominates. Using a simple theoretical model, we show how this double measurement protocol allows the anisotropic thermal conductivity coefficients of bulk Bi2Se3 to be evaluated. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available community. The construction industry is a significantly consumer of materials, using 50 per cent of all products produced globally. Building materials is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many of these materials are sources from natural...

  3. Self-assembly in the systems of magnetic anisotropic nanoparticles (United States)

    Gudkova, A. V.; Pyanzina, E. S.


    This paper presents the complex investigation of the system of magnetic anisotropic nanoparticles using computer simulations in a wide range of the system's parameters. The cluster analysis was made, various average characteristics of the formed clusters were calculated and the initial magnetic susceptibility and the radial distribution function were computed. It was shown that via changing the nanoparticles characteristics (their shape and the values of the magnetic moments) it's possible to change macroscopic response of the system, that implements the idea of tuning and design new materials with controllable properties.

  4. Wormhole solution of BD theory in an anisotropic radiation background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nasre Esfahani


    Full Text Available   Time-dependent wormhole solution of the BD theory in an anisotropic radiation background is presented. It is also found that the BD scalar field depends only on time. This time dependency is in power-law form. It is shown that the wormhole geometry is valid for ω ≥ -3/2, and for any arbitrary positive values of . The GR limit of our solution is obtained for ω=0 , not for ω→∞ . Though the BD field can be non-exotic, the background material is entirely exotic.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW Textured silicon nitride: processing and anisotropic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Zhu and Yoshio Sakka


    Full Text Available Textured silicon nitride (Si3N4 has been intensively studied over the past 15 years because of its use for achieving its superthermal and mechanical properties. In this review we present the fundamental aspects of the processing and anisotropic properties of textured Si3N4, with emphasis on the anisotropic and abnormal grain growth of β-Si3N4, texture structure and texture analysis, processing methods and anisotropic properties. On the basis of the texturing mechanisms, the processing methods described in this article have been classified into two types: hot-working (HW and templated grain growth (TGG. The HW method includes the hot-pressing, hot-forging and sinter-forging techniques, and the TGG method includes the cold-pressing, extrusion, tape-casting and strong magnetic field alignment techniques for β-Si3N4 seed crystals. Each processing technique is thoroughly discussed in terms of theoretical models and experimental data, including the texturing mechanisms and the factors affecting texture development. Also, methods of synthesizing the rodlike β-Si3N4 single crystals are presented. Various anisotropic properties of textured Si3 N4 and their origins are thoroughly described and discussed, such as hardness, elastic modulus, bending strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, creep behavior, tribological and wear behavior, erosion behavior, contact damage behavior and thermal conductivity. Models are analyzed to determine the thermal anisotropy by considering the intrinsic thermal anisotropy, degree of orientation and various microstructure factors. Textured porous Si3N4 with a unique microstructure composed of oriented elongated β-Si3N4 and anisotropic pores is also described for the first time, with emphasis on its unique mechanical and thermal-mechanical properties. Moreover, as an important related material, textured α-Sialon is also reviewed, because the presence of elongated α-Sialon grains allows the production of textured

  6. An anisotropic hydrogel with electrostatic repulsion between cofacially aligned nanosheets (United States)

    Liu, Mingjie; Ishida, Yasuhiro; Ebina, Yasuo; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hikima, Takaaki; Takata, Masaki; Aida, Takuzo


    Machine technology frequently puts magnetic or electrostatic repulsive forces to practical use, as in maglev trains, vehicle suspensions or non-contact bearings. In contrast, materials design overwhelmingly focuses on attractive interactions, such as in the many advanced polymer-based composites, where inorganic fillers interact with a polymer matrix to improve mechanical properties. However, articular cartilage strikingly illustrates how electrostatic repulsion can be harnessed to achieve unparalleled functional efficiency: it permits virtually frictionless mechanical motion within joints, even under high compression. Here we describe a composite hydrogel with anisotropic mechanical properties dominated by electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged unilamellar titanate nanosheets embedded within it. Crucial to the behaviour of this hydrogel is the serendipitous discovery of cofacial nanosheet alignment in aqueous colloidal dispersions subjected to a strong magnetic field, which maximizes electrostatic repulsion and thereby induces a quasi-crystalline structural ordering over macroscopic length scales and with uniformly large face-to-face nanosheet separation. We fix this transiently induced structural order by transforming the dispersion into a hydrogel using light-triggered in situ vinyl polymerization. The resultant hydrogel, containing charged inorganic structures that align cofacially in a magnetic flux, deforms easily under shear forces applied parallel to the embedded nanosheets yet resists compressive forces applied orthogonally. We anticipate that the concept of embedding anisotropic repulsive electrostatics within a composite material, inspired by articular cartilage, will open up new possibilities for developing soft materials with unusual functions.

  7. Textile-templated electrospun anisotropic scaffolds for regenerative cardiac tissue engineering. (United States)

    Şenel Ayaz, H Gözde; Perets, Anat; Ayaz, Hasan; Gilroy, Kyle D; Govindaraj, Muthu; Brookstein, David; Lelkes, Peter I


    For patients with end-stage heart disease, the access to heart transplantation is limited due to the shortage of donor organs and to the potential for rejection of the donated organ. Therefore, current studies focus on bioengineering approaches for creating biomimetic cardiac patches that will assist in restoring cardiac function, by repairing and/or regenerating the intrinsically anisotropic myocardium. In this paper we present a simplified, straightforward approach for creating bioactive anisotropic cardiac patches, based on a combination of bioengineering and textile-manufacturing techniques in concert with nano-biotechnology based tissue-engineering stratagems. Using knitted conventional textiles, made of cotton or polyester yarns as template targets, we successfully electrospun anisotropic three-dimensional scaffolds from poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), and thermoplastic polycarbonate-urethane (PCU, Bionate(®)). The surface topography and mechanical properties of textile-templated anisotropic scaffolds significantly differed from those of scaffolds electrospun from the same materials onto conventional 2-D flat-target electrospun scaffolds. Anisotropic textile-templated scaffolds electrospun from both PLGA and PCU, supported the adhesion and proliferation of H9C2 cardiac myoblasts cell line, and guided the cardiac tissue-like anisotropic organization of these cells in vitro. All cell-seeded PCU scaffolds exhibited mechanical properties comparable to those of a human heart, but only the cells on the polyester-templated scaffolds exhibited prolonged spontaneous synchronous contractility on the entire engineered construct for 10 days in vitro at a near physiologic frequency of ∼120 bpm. Taken together, the methods described here take advantage of straightforward established textile manufacturing strategies as an efficient and cost-effective approach to engineering 3D anisotropic, elastomeric PCU scaffolds that can serve as a cardiac patch. Copyright

  8. Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Zozulya, A.A.; Mezentsev, V.K.


    We find and analyze bound dipole solitary solutions in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The dipole solutions consist of two elliptically shaped Gaussian-type beams separated by several diameters, and with a pi phase shift between their fields. Spatial evolution...... of two initially round Gaussian beams and their convergence to the above dipole solution is demonstrated experimentally....

  9. Anisotropic Grain Size Estimation Using Computer Simulations and w-s diagram

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ponížil, P.; Procházka, J.; Čermák, R.; Saxl, Ivan


    Roč. 4, č. 7 (2005), s. 728-735 ISSN 1109-2750 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/03/0946 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : grain size estimation * anisotropic material * tessellation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  10. Anisotropic spheres with Van der Waals-type equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study static spherically symmetric space-time to describe relativistic compact objects with anisotropic matter distribution and derive two classes of exact models to the Einstein–Maxwell system ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  11. Implicit and explicit secular equations for Rayleigh waves in two-dimensional anisotropic media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červ, Jan; Plešek, Jiří


    Roč. 50, č. 7 (2013), s. 1105-1117 ISSN 0165-2125 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : Rayleigh waves * secular equations * anisotropic materials * composites Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.303, year: 2013

  12. Necking of anisotropic micro-films with strain-gradient effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    Necking of stubby micro-films of aluminum is investigated numerically by considering tension of a specimen with an initial imperfection used to onset localisation. Plastic anisotropy is represented by two different yield criteria and strain-gradient effects are accounted for using the visco......-plastic finite strain model. Furthermore, the model is extended to isotropic anisotropic hardening (evolving anisotropy). For isotropic hardening plastic anisotropy affects the predicted overall nominal stress level, while the peak stress remains at an overall logarithmic strain corresponding to the hardening...... exponent. This holds true for both local and nonlocal materials. Anisotropic hardening delays the point of maximum overall nominal stress....

  13. Head-wave coefficients in anisotropic media (United States)

    Chapman, Chris


    Reflections and transmissions from interfaces can generate head waves. Although the kinematic properties of head waves are modelled simply using ray concepts, the dynamic properties require an extension of ray theory or the use of wave theory. Head waves are important in exploration and crustal seismology as they indicate the existence of an interface and the velocity of the generating wave. Head waves have been described in the literature for isotropic media but the extension to anisotropic media seems to be lacking. The expressions for the head-wave coefficients using ray concepts or wave theory differ, and their equality is not obvious. This paper extends the theory for head-wave coefficients to anisotropic media using both ray theory and wave theory, and generalizes the proof of equality of the two methods. Simple numerical examples confirm this equality and indicate how the head-wave results can be calculated in anisotropic media and included in a ray-tracing algorithm.

  14. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon


    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  15. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng


    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in elastically anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Victoria Cristina Cheade; Jospin, Reinaldo Jacques; Bittencourt, Marcelo de Siqueira Queiroz


    The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of components may encounter considerable difficulties to interpret some inspections results mainly in anisotropic crystalline structures. A numerical method for the simulation of elastic wave propagation in homogeneous elastically anisotropic media, based on the general finite element approach, is used to help this interpretation. The successful modeling of elastic field associated with NDE is based on the generation of a realistic pulsed ultrasonic wave, which is launched from a piezoelectric transducer into the material under inspection. The values of elastic constants are great interest information that provide the application of equations analytical models, until small and medium complexity problems through programs of numerical analysis as finite elements and/or boundary elements. The aim of this work is the comparison between the results of numerical solution of an ultrasonic wave, which is obtained from transient excitation pulse that can be specified by either force or displacement variation across the aperture of the transducer, and the results obtained from a experiment that was realized in an aluminum block in the IEN Ultrasonic Laboratory. The wave propagation can be simulated using all the characteristics of the material used in the experiment valuation associated to boundary conditions and from these results, the comparison can be made. (author)

  17. An automated multidimensional thin film stretching device for the generation of anisotropic polymeric micro- and nanoparticles. (United States)

    Meyer, Randall A; Meyer, Randall S; Green, Jordan J


    Anisotropic polymeric particles are of growing interest for biomaterials applications due to their unique properties. These include the ability for these particles to evade nonspecific cellular uptake and to have enhanced targeted cellular uptake and interaction. One of the most widely used methods for generating anisotropic polymeric particles is the thin film stretching procedure. Despite its theoretical simplicity, this procedure, as it has been implemented to date, can be difficult due to the inconsistent nature of the manual operation of machinery used to stretch the film. We have constructed an automated thin film stretcher for control over biomaterials via thin film stretching in 1D and 2D and as a result, have enabled precise generation of anisotropic polymeric particles. We demonstrate that this device can be utilized to produce anisotropic biodegradable particles of different size, shape, and material consistency. Furthermore, we show that this machine has enabled the scaled up and rapid production of anisotropic polymeric particles, including polymeric microparticles that mimic the shape of red blood cells. Further application of this automated thin film stretching device could allow for significant impact to diverse biomaterial and biomedical applications such as biomimetic particles for immunoengineering and long-circulating particles for controlled release of drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 2.5D inversion of CSEM data in a vertically anisotropic earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramananjaona, Christophe; MacGregor, Lucy


    The marine Controlled-Source Electromagnetic (CSEM) method is a low frequency (diffusive) electromagnetic subsurface imaging technique aimed at mapping the electric resistivity of the earth by measuring the response to a source dipole emitting an electromagnetic field in a marine environment. Although assuming isotropy for the inversion is the most straightforward approach, in many situations horizontal layering of the earth strata and grain alignment within earth materials creates electric anisotropy. Ignoring this during interpretation may create artifacts in the inversion results. Accounting for this effect therefore requires adequate forward modelling and inversion procedures. We present here an inversion algorithm for vertically anisotropic media based on finite element modelling, the use of Frechet derivatives, and different types of regularisation. Comparisons between isotropic and anisotropic inversion results are given for the characterisation of an anisotropic earth from data measured in line with the source dipole for both synthetic and real data examples.

  19. Materialism. (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew


    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Variational Approach to Perturbed Discrete Anisotropic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Salari


    Full Text Available We continue the study of discrete anisotropic equations and we will provide new multiplicity results of the solutions for a discrete anisotropic equation. We investigate the existence of infinitely many solutions for a perturbed discrete anisotropic boundary value problem. The approach is based on variational methods and critical point theory.

  1. The Effect of Anisotropic Scatter on Atmospheric Neutron Transport (United States)



  2. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Dec 5, 2016 ... DOI 10.1007/s12043-016-1317-4. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. M K VERMA1, S CHANDEL2 and SHRI RAM2,∗. 1Department of Mathematics, Baba Banarasi Das National Institute of Technology & Management,.

  3. Anisotropic Hanle line shape via magnetothermoelectric phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kumar; Dejene, Fasil; van Wees, Bart; Vera Marun, Ivan


    We observe anisotropic Hanle line shape with unequal in-plane and out-of-plane nonlocal signals for spin precession measurements carried out on lateral metallic spin valves with transparent interfaces. The conventional interpretation for this anisotropy corresponds to unequal spin relaxation times

  4. Adaptive slices for acquisition of anisotropic BRDF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 2096-0433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-18407S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : anisotropic BRDF * slice * sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  5. Theory of anisotropic diamagnetism, local moment magnetization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Theory of anisotropic diamagnetism, local moment magnetization and carrier spin-polarization in Pb1-EuTe ... Gopalpur 761 002, India; Department of Physics, Jagannath Institute for Technology and Management, Parlakhemundi 761 211, India; Department of Physics, Berhampur University, Berhampur 760 007, India ...

  6. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter.

  7. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar ...

  8. Algebraic solution of an anisotropic nonquadratic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Filho, H.; Vaidya, A.N.


    We show that an anisotropic nonquadratic potential, for which a path integral treatment had been recently discussed in the literature, possesses the (SO(2,1)xSO(2,1))ΛSO(2,1) dynamical symmetry and constructs its Green function algebraically. A particular case which generates new eigenvalues and eigenfunctions is also discussed. (author). 11 refs

  9. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  10. A new algorithm for anisotropic solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We establish a new algorithm that generates a new solution to the Einstein field equations, with an anisotropic matter distribution, from a seed isotropic solution. The new solution is expressed in terms of integrals of an isotropic gravitational potential; and the integration can be completed exactly for particular isotropic seed ...

  11. Acoustic reflection from the boundary of anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertical slownesses of waves at a boundary of an anisotropic thermoviscoelastic medium are calculated as roots of a polynomial equation of degree eight. Out of the corresponding eight waves, the four, which travel towards the boundary are identified as upgoing waves. Remaining four waves travel away from the boundary ...

  12. Ray tracing in anisotropic media with singularities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav


    Roč. 145, č. 1 (2001), s. 265-276 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/1350 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : anisotropic media * ray tracing * singularities Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2001

  13. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 3, 2017 ... a phantom field [24,25], quintom [26,27], k-essence. [28], tachyon [29] and so forth. It is well known that the evolution of the Uni- verse admits a scenario of anisotropic expansion and gains a lot of interest, under the light of the recently announced Planck Probe results [7]. The Bianchi models, which describe ...

  14. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation ...

  15. The method of images for anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosilevskii, Ya.A.


    The method of images is suggested to construct a scalar macroscopic field (dynamic or static) of a point source in an anisotropic half-space or flat slab. The field is found for an arbitrary orientation of the boundaries with respect to the crystallographic axes. (Auth.)

  16. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.


    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type-n and type-p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire (d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  17. Anisotropic power-law k-inflation (United States)

    Ohashi, Junko; Soda, Jiro; Tsujikawa, Shinji


    It is known that power-law k-inflation can be realized for the Lagrangian P=Xg(Y), where X=-(∂ϕ)2/2 is the kinetic energy of a scalar field ϕ and g is an arbitrary function in terms of Y=Xeλϕ/Mpl (λ is a constant and Mpl is the reduced Planck mass). In the presence of a vector field coupled to the inflaton with an exponential coupling f(ϕ)∝eμϕ/Mpl, we show that the models with the Lagrangian P=Xg(Y) generally give rise to anisotropic inflationary solutions with Σ/H=constant, where Σ is an anisotropic shear and H is an isotropic expansion rate. Provided these anisotropic solutions exist in the regime where the ratio Σ/H is much smaller than 1, they are stable attractors irrespective of the forms of g(Y). We apply our results to concrete models of k-inflation such as the generalized dilatonic ghost condensate and the Dirac-Born-Infeld model and we numerically show that the solutions with different initial conditions converge to the anisotropic power-law inflationary attractors. Even in the de Sitter limit (λ→0) such solutions can exist, but in this case the null energy condition is generally violated. The latter property is consistent with the Wald’s cosmic conjecture stating that the anisotropic hair does not survive on the de Sitter background in the presence of matter respecting the dominant/strong energy conditions.

  18. Anisotropic 3D delay-damage model to simulate concrete structures


    Gatuingt , Fabrice; Desmorat , Rodrigue; Chambart , Marion; Combescure , Didier; Guilbaud , Daniel


    International audience; High dynamic loadings lead to material degradation and structural failure. This is even more the case for concrete structures where the parts initially in compression break in ten- sion due to waves propagation and reflection. The dissymmetry of the material behavior plays a major role in such cases, dissymmetry mainly due to damage induced anisotropy. Loading induced damage is most often anisotropic and one proposes here to take advantage of such a feature to build a ...

  19. Optical probing of anisotropic heat transport in the quantum spin ladder Ca9La5Cu24O41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, M.; Athanasopoulos, G.; Hlubek, N.; Montagnese, M.; Labois, M.; Fishman, D. A.; de Haan, F.; Singh, S.; Lakehal, D.; Giapintzakis, J.; Hess, C.; Revcolevschi, A.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.

    A transient thermal imaging technique is used to monitor heat diffusion at the surface of the antiferromagnetic spin ladder material Ca9La5Cu24O41. This material shows highly anisotropic thermal conductivity due to a large uni-directional magnetic heat transport along the ladders. The thermal

  20. Views on the Anisotropic Nature of Ilva Valley Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are two concepts important for the authors of this article: anisotropic region and anisotropic space. Anisotropic region is defined by A. Dauphiné, the geographer (-mathematician, as a territorial unit whose structure results from the organisation of space along one or more axes. From the point of view of a territorial system, this type of region has some characteristics which differentiate it both from the homogeneous region and from the polarised one. These specificities have been analysed for Ilva Valley. The region of Ilva Valley is formed along the morphological axis represented by the Ilva River. The aim is to identify these specificities or their absence within this region. In this way we can determine whether this region is an anisotropic one or just an anisotropic space, namely whether it can be considered as evolving towards an anisotropic region, not yet complying with all characteristics of anisotropic regions.

  1. Material model for wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandhaas, C.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.


    Wood is highly anisotropic and shows ductile behaviour in compression and brittle behaviour in tension and shear where both failure modes can occur simultaneously. A 3D material model for wood based on the concepts of continuum damage mechanics was developed. A material subroutine containing the

  2. Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Thiago S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil); Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Carneiro, Saulo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador – BA (Brazil)


    If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.

  3. Polar Functions for Anisotropic Gaussian Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlong Chen


    Full Text Available Let X be an (N, d-anisotropic Gaussian random field. Under some general conditions on X, we establish a relationship between a class of continuous functions satisfying the Lipschitz condition and a class of polar functions of X. We prove upper and lower bounds for the intersection probability for a nonpolar function and X in terms of Hausdorff measure and capacity, respectively. We also determine the Hausdorff and packing dimensions of the times set for a nonpolar function intersecting X. The class of Gaussian random fields that satisfy our conditions includes not only fractional Brownian motion and the Brownian sheet, but also such anisotropic fields as fractional Brownian sheets, solutions to stochastic heat equation driven by space-time white noise, and the operator-scaling Gaussian random field with stationary increments.

  4. Dynamics of anisotropic particles under waves (United States)

    Dibenedetto, Michelle; Ouellette, Nicholas; Koseff, Jeffrey


    We present results on anisotropic particles in wavy flows in order to gain insight into the transport and mixing of microplastic particles in the near-shore environment. From theory and numerical simulations, we find that the rate of alignment of the particles is not constant and depends strongly on their initial orientation; thus, variations in initial particle orientation result in dispersion of anisotropic-particle plumes. We find that this dispersion is a function of the particle's eccentricity and the ratio of the settling and wave time scales. Experiments in which non-spherical particles of various shapes are released under surface gravity waves were also performed. Our main goal is to explore the effects of particle shape under various wave scenarios. We vary the aspect ratio of the particle in our experiments while holding other variables constant. Our results demonstrate that particle shape can be important when predicting transport.

  5. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail:


    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  6. The shear viscosity in anisotropic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Sachin [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)


    We construct anisotropic black brane solutions and analyse the behaviour of some of their metric perturbations. These solutions correspond to field theory duals in which rotational symmetry is broken due an externally applied, spatially constant, force. We find, in several examples, that when the anisotropy is sufficiently big compared to the temperature, some components of the viscosity tensor can become very small in units of the entropy density, parametrically violating the KSS bound. We obtain an expression relating these components of the viscosity, in units of the entropy density, to a ratio of metric components at the horizon of the black brane. This relation is generally valid, as long as the forcing function is translationally invariant, and it directly connects the parametric violation of the bound to the anisotropy in the metric at the horizon. Our results suggest the possibility that such small components of the viscosity tensor might also arise in anisotropic strongly coupled fluids found in nature.

  7. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng


    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  8. Anisotropic magnetocapacitance in ferromagnetic-plate capacitors (United States)

    Haigh, J. A.; Ciccarelli, C.; Betz, A. C.; Irvine, A.; Novák, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Wunderlich, J.


    The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor can depend on the applied magnetic field. Previous studies have identified capacitance changes induced via classical Lorentz force or spin-dependent Zeeman effects. Here we measure a magnetization direction-dependent capacitance in parallel-plate capacitors where one plate is a ferromagnetic semiconductor, gallium manganese arsenide. This anisotropic magnetocapacitance is due to the anisotropy in the density of states dependent on the magnetization through the strong spin-orbit interaction.

  9. Symmetry analysis for anisotropic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Lorena; Vergara, J. David


    The purpose of this paper is to study with the help of Noether's theorem the symmetries of anisotropic actions for arbitrary fields which generally depend on higher order spatial derivatives, and to find the corresponding current densities and the Noether charges. We study in particular scale invariance and consider the cases of higher derivative extensions of the scalar field, electrodynamics and Chern-Simons theory.

  10. Anisotropic diffusion tensor applied to temporal mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, Sami; Sporring, Jon


    changes related to  specific  effects  like  Hormonal  Replacement  Therapy  (HRT) and aging. Given effect-grouped patient data, we demonstrated how  anisotropic  diffusion  tensor  and  its  coherence  features computed in an anatomically oriented breast coordinate system followed by statistical learning...

  11. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard


    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  12. Electromagnetic field representation in inhomogeneous anisotropic media (United States)

    Mohsen, A.


    Some of the basic developments in the theory of electromagnetic field representation in terms of Hertz vectors are reviewed. A solution for the field in an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium is given in terms of the two Hertz vectors. Conditions for presentation of the field in terms of uncoupled transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes, in a general orthogonal coordinate system, are derived when the permeability and permittivity tensors have only diagonal components. These conditions are compared with some known special cases.

  13. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  14. Anisotropic cosmological solutions in massive vector theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia; Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji


    In beyond-generalized Proca theories including the extension to theories higher than second order, we study the role of a spatial component v of a massive vector field on the anisotropic cosmological background. We show that, as in the case of the isotropic cosmological background, there is no additional ghostly degrees of freedom associated with the Ostrogradski instability. In second-order generalized Proca theories we find the existence of anisotropic solutions on which the ratio between the anisotropic expansion rate Σ and the isotropic expansion rate H remains nearly constant in the radiation-dominated epoch. In the regime where Σ/ H is constant, the spatial vector component v works as a dark radiation with the equation of state close to 1/3. During the matter era, the ratio Σ/ H decreases with the decrease of v . As long as the conditions |Σ| || H and v 2 || φ 2 are satisfied around the onset of late-time cosmic acceleration, where φ is the temporal vector component, we find that the solutions approach the isotropic de Sitter fixed point (Σ = 0 = v ) in accordance with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. In the presence of v and Σ the early evolution of the dark energy equation of state w DE in the radiation era is different from that in the isotropic case, but the approach to the isotropic value w DE (iso) typically occurs at redshifts z much larger than 1. Thus, apart from the existence of dark radiation, the anisotropic cosmological dynamics at low redshifts is similar to that in isotropic generalized Proca theories. In beyond-generalized Proca theories the only consistent solution to avoid the divergence of a determinant of the dynamical system corresponds to v = 0, so Σ always decreases in time.

  15. Bryan's effect and anisotropic nonlinear damping (United States)

    Joubert, Stephan V.; Shatalov, Michael Y.; Fay, Temple H.; Manzhirov, Alexander V.


    In 1890, G. H. Bryan discovered the following: "The vibration pattern of a revolving cylinder or bell revolves at a rate proportional to the inertial rotation rate of the cylinder or bell." We call this phenomenon Bryan's law or Bryan's effect. It is well known that any imperfections in a vibratory gyroscope (VG) affect Bryan's law and this affects the accuracy of the VG. Consequently, in this paper, we assume that all such imperfections are either minimised or eliminated by some known control method and that only damping is present within the VG. If the damping is isotropic (linear or nonlinear), then it has been recently demonstrated in this journal, using symbolic analysis, that Bryan's law remains invariant. However, it is known that linear anisotropic damping does affect Bryan's law. In this paper, we generalise Rayleigh's dissipation function so that anisotropic nonlinear damping may be introduced into the equations of motion. Using a mixture of numeric and symbolic analysis on the ODEs of motion of the VG, for anisotropic light nonlinear damping, we demonstrate (up to an approximate average), that Bryan's law is affected by any form of such damping, causing pattern drift, compromising the accuracy of the VG.

  16. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator (United States)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.


    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomaryov Andrey Budimirovicn


    Full Text Available In the paper, the results of deformability study of agrillite claystones are used for determination of the Jointed rock model parameters. The number of stamp, pressuremeter and compressive tests allowed to research anisotropic deformability of argillite claystone in vertical and horizontal direction. The following problems were solved during the study: 1 the in-place and laboratory experiments to calculate the anisotropy coefficient were done for anisotropic agrillite claystones with both natural moisture and total water saturation; 2 the deformation parameters were determined and the numerical simulation of the stress-strain state of claystone in field tests was carried out with the use of Plaxis 2D software application; 3 the comparative analysis was done for calculated claystone deformation and the values obtained during the in-place tests. The authors proved that agrillite claystones shows two times less deformation under loading in the horizontal direction than vertically. The ratio is obtained to determine the parameters for numerical simulation of the Jointed Rock model used as a practical tool for analysis of stress-strain behavior of anisotropic soils. The authors provided a recommended practice for consideration of specific properties of argillite claystones when carrying out foundation works.

  18. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  19. A hydrostatic stress-dependent anisotropic model of viscoplasticity (United States)

    Robinson, D. N.; Tao, Q.; Verrilli, M. J.


    A hydrostatic stress-dependent, anisotropic model of viscoplasticity is formulated as an extension of Bodner's model. This represents a further extension of the isotropic Bodner model over that made to anisotropy by Robinson and MitiKavuma. Account is made of the inelastic deformation that can occur in metallic composites under hydrostatic stress. A procedure for determining the material parameters is identified that is virtually identical to the established characterization procedure for the original Bodner model. Characterization can be achieved using longitudinal/transverse tensile and shear tests and hydrostatic stress tests; alternatively, four off-axis tensile tests can be used. Conditions for a yield stress minimum under off-axis tension are discussed. The model is applied to a W/Cu composite; characterization is made using off-axis tensile data generated at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC).

  20. Polymer Nanocomposites Containing Anisotropic Metal Nanostructures as Internal Strain Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ruggeri


    Full Text Available Polymer/metal nanocomposite containing intrinsically anisotropic metal nanostructures such as metal nanorods and nanowires appeared extremely more sensitive and responsive to mechanical stimuli than nanocomposites containing spherical nanoparticles. After uniaxial stretching of the supporting polymer matrix (poly(vinyl alcohol, the elongated silver nanostructures embedded at low concentration into the polymer matrix (<1 wt % of Ag assume the direction of the drawing, yielding materials with a strong dichroic response of the absorption behavior. Accordingly, the film changed its color when observed under linearly polarized light already at moderate drawings. The results obtained suggest that nanocomposite films have potential in applications such as color polarizing filters, radiation responsive polymeric objects and smart flexible films in packaging applications.

  1. A 2-D model for friction of complex anisotropic surfaces (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.


    The friction force observed at macroscale is the result of interactions at various lower length scales that are difficult to model in a combined manner. For this reason, simplified approaches are required, depending on the specific aspect to be investigated. In particular, the dimensionality of the system is often reduced, especially in models designed to provide a qualitative description of frictional properties of elastic materials, e.g. the spring-block model. In this paper, we implement for the first time a two dimensional extension of the spring-block model, applying it to structured surfaces and investigating by means of numerical simulations the frictional behaviour of a surface in the presence of features like cavities, pillars or complex anisotropic structures. We show how friction can be effectively tuned by appropriate design of such surface features.

  2. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)


    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.

  3. Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei


    The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T −γ ) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced

  4. Multi-critical points in weakly anisotropic magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basten, J.A.J.


    This report starts with a rather extensive presentation of the concepts and ideas which constitute the basis of the modern theory of static critical phenomena. It is shown how at a critical point the semi-phenomenological concepts of universality and scaling are directly related to the divergence of the correlation length and how they are extended to a calculational method for critical behaviour in Wilson's Renormalization-Group (RG) approach. Subsequently the predictions of the molecular-field and RG-theories on the phase transitions and critical behaviour in weakly anisotropic antiferromagnets are treated. In a magnetic field applied along the easy axis, these materials can display an (H,T) phase diagram which contains either a bicritical point or a tetracritical point. Especially the behaviour close to these multi-critical points, as predicted by the extended-scaling theory, is discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)


    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  6. Anisotropic dissipation in lattice metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Krattiger


    Full Text Available Plane wave propagation in an elastic lattice material follows regular patterns as dictated by the nature of the lattice symmetry and the mechanical configuration of the unit cell. A unique feature pertains to the loss of elastodynamic isotropy at frequencies where the wavelength is on the order of the lattice spacing or shorter. Anisotropy may also be realized at lower frequencies with the inclusion of local resonators, especially when designed to exhibit directionally non-uniform connectivity and/or cross-sectional geometry. In this paper, we consider free and driven waves within a plate-like lattice−with and without local resonators−and examine the effects of damping on the isofrequency dispersion curves. We also examine, for free waves, the effects of damping on the frequency-dependent anisotropy of dissipation. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of engineering the dissipation anisotropy by tuning the directional properties of the prescribed damping. The results demonstrate that uniformly applied damping tends to reduce the intensity of anisotropy in the isofrequency dispersion curves. On the other hand, lattice crystals and metamaterials are shown to provide an excellent platform for direction-dependent dissipation engineering which may be realized by simple changes in the spatial distribution of the damping elements.

  7. Anisotropic dehydration of hydrogel surfaces. (United States)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Cheneler, David; Grover, Liam M; Adams, Michael J; Anastasiadis, Spiros H; Bowen, James


    Efforts to develop tissue-engineered skin for regenerative medicine have explored natural, synthetic, and hybrid hydrogels. The creation of a bilayer material, with the stratification exhibited by native skin, is a complex problem. The mechanically robust, waterproof epidermis presents the stratum corneum at the tissue/air interface, which confers many of these protective properties. In this work, we explore the effect of high temperatures on alginate hydrogels, which are widely employed for tissue engineering due to their excellent mechanical properties and cellular compatibility. In particular, we investigate the rapid dehydration of the hydrogel surface which occurs following local exposure to heated surfaces with temperatures in the range 100-200 °C. We report the creation of a mechanically strengthened hydrogel surface, with improved puncture resistance and increased coefficient of friction, compared to an unheated surface. The use of a mechanical restraint during heating promoted differences in the rate of mass loss; the rate of temperature increase within the hydrogel, in the presence and absence of restraint, is simulated and discussed. It is hoped that the results will be of use in the development of processes suitable for preparing skin-like analogues; application areas could include wound healing and skin restoration.

  8. Mechanical properties, anisotropic swelling behaviours and structures of jellyfish mesogloea. (United States)

    Zhu, Jintang; Wang, Xuezhen; He, Changcheng; Wang, Huiliang


    Learning from nature is a promising way for designing and fabricating new materials with special properties. As the first step, we need to understand the structures and properties of the natural materials. In this work, we paid attention to the mesogloea of an edible jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta Kishinouye) and mainly focused on its structure, mechanical and swelling properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations show that jellyfish mesogloea has a well-developed anisotropic microstructure, which consists of nano-sized membranes connected with many fibres. The tensile and compressive properties of swollen and dried jellyfish mesogloea samples are measured. The jellyfish mesogloea displays very high tensile strength (0.17 MPa) and compressive strength (1.43 MPa) even with 99 wt % water. The mechanical properties of jellyfish mesogloea exceed most synthetic hydrogels with similar or even lower water contents. Swelling in acidic and basic buffer solutions weakens the mechanical properties of jellyfish mesogloea. The dried jellyfish mesogloea has very high tensile strength and modulus, which are very similar to those of synthetic plastics. The swelling properties of jellyfish mesogloea in solutions with different pH values were studied. The jellyfish mesogloea exhibits pH-sensitive and anisotropic swelling properties. The jellyfish mesogloea swells (expands) in height but deswells (shrinks) in length and width, without significant change in the volume. This phenomenon has never been reported for synthetic hydrogels. This study may provide gel scientists new ideas in designing and fabricating hydrogels with well-defined microstructures and unique mechanical and swelling properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth induced buckling instability of anisotropic tube and its application in wound edge instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Le


    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced anisotropic material abounds in biological world. It has been demonstrated in previous theoretical and experimental works that growth of biological soft tubular tissue plays a significant role in morphogenesis and pathology. Here we investigate growth-induced buckling of anisotropic cylindrical tissue, focusing on the effects of type of growth(constraint/unconstraint, isotropic/anisotropic, fiber property(orientation, density and strength, geometry and any interaction between these factors. We studied one-layer and two-layer models and obtained a rich spectrum of results. For one-layer model, we demonstrate that circumferential fiber orientation has a consistent stabilizing effect under various scenarios of growth. Higher fiber density has a destabilizing effect by disabling high-mode buckling. For two-layer model, we found that critical buckling strain at inner boundary is an invariant under same isotropic growth rate ratio between inner/ outer layer(g1 /g0. Then we applied our model to wound healing and illustrate the effects of skin residual stress, fiber property, proliferation region width and wound size on the wound edge stability. We conclude that fiber-reinforcement is an important factor to consider when investigating growth induced instability of anisotropic soft tissue.

  10. Growth induced buckling instability of anisotropic tube and its application in wound edge instability (United States)

    Yang, Le; Witten, Tarynn M.; Pidaparti, Ramana M.


    Fiber reinforced anisotropic material abounds in biological world. It has been demonstrated in previous theoretical and experimental works that growth of biological soft tubular tissue plays a significant role in morphogenesis and pathology. Here we investigate growth-induced buckling of anisotropic cylindrical tissue, focusing on the effects of type of growth(constraint/unconstraint, isotropic/anisotropic), fiber property(orientation, density and strength), geometry and any interaction between these factors. We studied one-layer and two-layer models and obtained a rich spectrum of results. For one-layer model, we demonstrate that circumferential fiber orientation has a consistent stabilizing effect under various scenarios of growth. Higher fiber density has a destabilizing effect by disabling high-mode buckling. For two-layer model, we found that critical buckling strain at inner boundary is an invariant under same isotropic growth rate ratio between inner/ outer layer(g1 /g0). Then we applied our model to wound healing and illustrate the effects of skin residual stress, fiber property, proliferation region width and wound size on the wound edge stability. We conclude that fiber-reinforcement is an important factor to consider when investigating growth induced instability of anisotropic soft tissue.

  11. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering studies of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, A J; Long, G G; Ilavsky, J


    Building on previous work that considered spherical scatterers and randomly oriented spheroidal scatterers, we describe a multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) analysis for nonrandomly oriented spheroids. We illustrate this with studies of the multi-component void morphologies found in plasma-spray thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)

  12. Anisotropic Elastoplastic Damage Mechanics Method to Predict Fatigue Life of the Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualiang Wan


    Full Text Available New damage mechanics method is proposed to predict the low-cycle fatigue life of metallic structures under multiaxial loading. The microstructure mechanical model is proposed to simulate anisotropic elastoplastic damage evolution. As the micromodel depends on few material parameters, the present method is very concise and suitable for engineering application. The material parameters in damage evolution equation are determined by fatigue experimental data of standard specimens. By employing further development on the ANSYS platform, the anisotropic elastoplastic damage mechanics-finite element method is developed. The fatigue crack propagation life of satellite structure is predicted using the present method and the computational results comply with the experimental data very well.

  13. Generation of leading coefficients of orthogonal polynomials with an application to anisotropic scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofek, R.


    A simple method to generate leading coefficients for high-order sets of orthogonal polynomials, by derivation of recurrence expression for these coefficients, is developed. The method is applied to Legendre, Hermite, Chebyshev and Laguerre polynomials. The method may be used in calculations of high anisotropic neutron-scattering transfer cross-sections, where the angular distribution of the scattered neutrons is given in the ENDF/B files for most materials as coefficients of an expansion into Legendre polynomials. (author)

  14. Computation of electrostatic fields in anisotropic human tissues using the Finite Integration Technique (FIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Motresc


    Full Text Available The exposure of human body to electromagnetic fields has in the recent years become a matter of great interest for scientists working in the area of biology and biomedicine. Due to the difficulty of performing measurements, accurate models of the human body, in the form of a computer data set, are used for computations of the fields inside the body by employing numerical methods such as the method used for our calculations, namely the Finite Integration Technique (FIT. A fact that has to be taken into account when computing electromagnetic fields in the human body is that some tissue classes, i.e. cardiac and skeletal muscles, have higher electrical conductivity and permittivity along fibers rather than across them. This property leads to diagonal conductivity and permittivity tensors only when expressing them in a local coordinate system while in a global coordinate system they become full tensors. The Finite Integration Technique (FIT in its classical form can handle diagonally anisotropic materials quite effectively but it needed an extension for handling fully anisotropic materials. New electric voltages were placed on the grid and a new averaging method of conductivity and permittivity on the grid was found. In this paper, we present results from electrostatic computations performed with the extended version of FIT for fully anisotropic materials.

  15. Application of distributed point source method (DPSM) to wave propagation in anisotropic media (United States)

    Fooladi, Samaneh; Kundu, Tribikram


    Distributed Point Source Method (DPSM) was developed by Placko and Kundu1, as a technique for modeling electromagnetic and elastic wave propagation problems. DPSM has been used for modeling ultrasonic, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields scattered by defects and anomalies in a structure. The modeling of such scattered field helps to extract valuable information about the location and type of defects. Therefore, DPSM can be used as an effective tool for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT). Anisotropy adds to the complexity of the problem, both mathematically and computationally. Computation of the Green's function which is used as the fundamental solution in DPSM is considerably more challenging for anisotropic media, and it cannot be reduced to a closed-form solution as is done for isotropic materials. The purpose of this study is to investigate and implement DPSM for an anisotropic medium. While the mathematical formulation and the numerical algorithm will be considered for general anisotropic media, more emphasis will be placed on transversely isotropic materials in the numerical example presented in this paper. The unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites which are widely used in today's industry are good examples of transversely isotropic materials. Development of an effective and accurate NDT method based on these modeling results can be of paramount importance for in-service monitoring of damage in composite structures.

  16. Numerically stable finite difference simulation for ultrasonic NDE in anisotropic composites (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Quintanilla, Francisco Hernando; Cole, Christina M.


    Simulation tools can enable optimized inspection of advanced materials and complex geometry structures. Recent work at NASA Langley is focused on the development of custom simulation tools for modeling ultrasonic wave behavior in composite materials. Prior work focused on the use of a standard staggered grid finite difference type of mathematical approach, by implementing a three-dimensional (3D) anisotropic Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) code. However, observations showed that the anisotropic EFIT method displays numerically unstable behavior at the locations of stress-free boundaries for some cases of anisotropic materials. This paper gives examples of the numerical instabilities observed for EFIT and discusses the source of instability. As an alternative to EFIT, the 3D Lebedev Finite Difference (LFD) method has been implemented. The paper briefly describes the LFD approach and shows examples of stable behavior in the presence of stress-free boundaries for a monoclinic anisotropy case. The LFD results are also compared to experimental results and dispersion curves.

  17. Atomistically enabled nonsingular anisotropic elastic representation of near-core dislocation stress fields in α -iron (United States)

    Seif, Dariush; Po, Giacomo; Mrovec, Matous; Lazar, Markus; Elsässer, Christian; Gumbsch, Peter


    The stress fields of dislocations predicted by classical elasticity are known to be unrealistically large approaching the dislocation core, due to the singular nature of the theory. While in many cases this is remedied with the approximation of an effective core radius, inside which ad hoc regularizations are implemented, such approximations lead to a compromise in the accuracy of the calculations. In this work an anisotropic nonsingular elastic representation of dislocation fields is developed to accurately represent the near-core stresses of dislocations in α -iron. The regularized stress field is enabled through the use of a nonsingular Green's tensor function of Helmholtz-type gradient anisotropic elasticity, which requires only a single characteristic length parameter in addition to the material's elastic constants. Using a magnetic bond-order potential to model atomic interactions in iron, molecular statics calculations are performed, and an optimization procedure is developed to extract the required length parameter. Results show the method can accurately replicate the magnitude and decay of the near-core dislocation stresses even for atoms belonging to the core itself. Comparisons with the singular isotropic and anisotropic theories show the nonsingular anisotropic theory leads to a substantially more accurate representation of the stresses of both screw and edge dislocations near the core, in some cases showing improvements in accuracy of up to an order of magnitude. The spatial extent of the region in which the singular and nonsingular stress differ substantially is also discussed. The general procedure we describe may in principle be applied to accurately model the near-core dislocation stresses of any arbitrarily shaped dislocation in anisotropic cubic media.

  18. Anisotropic resonant scattering from polymer photonic crystals. (United States)

    Haines, Andrew I; Finlayson, Chris E; Snoswell, David R E; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, G Peter; Baumberg, Jeremy J


    Hyperspectral goniometry reveals anisotropic scattering which dominates the visual appearance of self-assembled polymer opals. The technique allows reconstruction of the reciprocal-space of nanostructures, and indicates that chain defects formed during shear-ordering are responsible for the anisotropy in these samples. Enhanced scattering with improving order is shown to arise from increased effective refractive index contrast, while broadband background scatter is suppressed by absorptive dopants. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. An approach to anisotropic cosmologies. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.


    In this paper the motivation for the study of anisotropic cosmological models is set out. Then the mathematical basis for the study of such models as well as the description of some of the exact solutions of this genre are given. Killing vectors that spell out spacetime symmetries, are defined and the Bianchi classification of spacetimes based on the structure of the Killing vectors described. After a consideration of the kinematics of matter flow some of the known solutions are presented and their properties described. (author)

  20. Anisotropic Density Estimation in Global Illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars


    and bias in estimates. Good results are obtained by the use of anisotropic filtering. Two methods handles the most common cases; filtering illumination reflected from object surfaces. One methods extends filtering to the temporal domain and one performs filtering on illumination from participating media......Density estimation employed in multi-pass global illumination algorithms gives cause to a trade-off problem between bias and noise. The problem is seen most evident as blurring of strong illumination features. This thesis addresses the problem, presenting four methods that reduce both noise...

  1. Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.


    An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations

  2. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)


    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.

  4. Analysis of anisotropic shells containing flowing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakis, A.A.


    A general theory for the dynamic analysis of anisotropic thin cylindrical shells containing flowing fluid is presented. The shell may be uniform or non-uniform, provided it is geometrically axially symmetric. This is a finite- element theory, using cylindrical finite elements, but the displacement functions are determined by using classical shell theory. A new solution of the wave equation of the liquid finite element leads to an expression of the fluid pressure, p, as a function of the nodal displacements of the element and three operative forces (inertia, centrifugal and Coriolis) of the moving fluid. (Author) [pt

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of anisotropic spatially reinforced structures (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.


    The material-adaptive three-dimensional analysis of inhomogeneous structures based on the meso-volume concept and application of deficient spline functions for displacement approximations is proposed. The general methodology is demonstrated on the example of a brick-type mosaic parallelepiped arbitrarily composed of anisotropic meso-volumes. A partition of each meso-volume into sub-elements, application of deficient spline functions for a local approximation of displacements and, finally, the use of the variational principle allows one to obtain displacements, strains, and stresses at anypoint within the structural part. All of the necessary external and internal boundary conditions (including the conditions of continuity of transverse stresses at interfaces between adjacent meso-volumes) can be satisfied with requisite accuracy by increasing the density of the sub-element mesh. The application of the methodology to textile composite materials is described. Several numerical examples for woven and braided rectangular composite plates and stiffened panels under transverse bending are considered. Some typical effects of stress concentrations due to the material inhomogeneities are demonstrated.

  6. Fabrication of dense anisotropic collagen scaffolds using biaxial compression. (United States)

    Zitnay, Jared L; Reese, Shawn P; Tran, Garvin; Farhang, Niloofar; Bowles, Robert D; Weiss, Jeffrey A


    We developed a new method to manufacture dense, aligned, and porous collagen scaffolds using biaxial plastic compression of type I collagen gels. Using a novel compression apparatus that constricts like an iris diaphragm, low density collagen gels were compressed to yield a permanently densified, highly aligned collagen material. Micro-porosity scaffolds were created using hydrophilic elastomer porogens that can be selectively removed following biaxial compression, with porosity modulated by using different porogen concentrations. The resulting scaffolds exhibit collagen densities that are similar to native connective tissues (∼10% collagen by weight), pronounced collagen alignment across multiple length scales, and an interconnected network of pores, making them highly relevant for use in tissue culture, the study of physiologically relevant cell-matrix interactions, and tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds exhibited highly anisotropic material behavior, with the modulus of the scaffolds in the fiber direction over 100 times greater than the modulus in the transverse direction. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded onto the biaxially compressed scaffolds with minimal cell death over seven days of culture, along with cell proliferation and migration into the pore spaces. This fabrication method provides new capabilities to manufacture structurally and mechanically relevant cytocompatible scaffolds that will enable more physiologically relevant cell culture studies. Further improvement of manufacturing techniques has the potential to produce engineered scaffolds for direct replacement of dense connective tissues such as meniscus and annulus fibrosus. In vitro studies of cell-matrix interactions and the engineering of replacement materials for collagenous connective tissues require biocompatible scaffolds that replicate the high collagen density (15-25%/wt), aligned fibrillar organization, and anisotropic mechanical properties of native

  7. TECATE - a code for anisotropic thermoelasticity in high-average-power laser technology. Phase 1 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Carlson, N.N.


    This report describes a totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermoelasticity (code name TECATE) which may be used in evaluations of prospective crystal media for high-average-power lasers. The present TECATE code version computes steady-state distributions of material temperatures, stresses, strains, and displacement fields in 2-D slab geometry. Numerous heat source and coolant boundary condition options are available in the TECATE code for laser design considerations. Anisotropic analogues of plane stress and plane strain evaluations can be executed for any and all crystal symmetry classes. As with all new and/or large physics codes, it is likely that some code imperfections will emerge at some point in time

  8. TECATE - a code for anisotropic thermoelasticity in high-average-power laser technology. Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Carlson, N.N.


    This report describes a totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermoelasticity (code name TECATE) which may be used in evaluations of prospective crystal media for high-average-power lasers. The present TECATE code version computes steady-state distributions of material temperatures, stresses, strains, and displacement fields in 2-D slab geometry. Numerous heat source and coolant boundary condition options are available in the TECATE code for laser design considerations. Anisotropic analogues of plane stress and plane strain evaluations can be executed for any and all crystal symmetry classes. As with all new and/or large physics codes, it is likely that some code imperfections will emerge at some point in time.

  9. FePt/Co core/shell nanoparticle-based anisotropic nanocomposites and their exchange spring behavior. (United States)

    Li, Deyao; Wang, Hui; Ma, Zhenhui; Liu, Xin; Dong, Ying; Liu, Zhiqi; Zhang, Tianli; Jiang, Chengbao


    Anisotropic exchange-coupled nanocomposites provide us a salient candidate for the new generation of permanent magnets owing to their huge predicted maximum energy product. However, previous research basically focused on thin films or bulk materials and the impact of easy-axis alignment on the exchange coupling behavior is not clear. Herein, strongly coupled FePt/Co core/shell nanoparticles with single-phase-like hysteresis loops were synthesized by the seed mediated method. Then, these nanoparticles were successfully aligned by the external magnetic field and fixed in an acrylic binder, so that FePt/Co core/shell nanoparticle-based anisotropic nanocomposites were obtained. The nanocomposites exhibited high degree of orientation as indicated by the increased remanence ratio from 0.62 for isotropic nanoparticles to 0.78 for anisotropic nanocomposites. However, a visible kink in the demagnetization curve was observed around the zero field, implying the exchange spring behavior. This result suggests that the aligned FePt cores impose a stronger overall dipolar field in Co shells and finally, force the Co shells to reverse at a low field before the switch of FePt cores. Our research extends the preparation methods of anisotropic hard/soft-phase nanocomposites and might be helpful for the design of high-performance anisotropic exchange-coupled nanocomposites.

  10. Anisotropic elliptic PDEs for feature classification. (United States)

    Wang, Shengfa; Hou, Tingbo; Li, Shuai; Su, Zhixun; Qin, Hong


    The extraction and classification of multitype (point, curve, patch) features on manifolds are extremely challenging, due to the lack of rigorous definition for diverse feature forms. This paper seeks a novel solution of multitype features in a mathematically rigorous way and proposes an efficient method for feature classification on manifolds. We tackle this challenge by exploring a quasi-harmonic field (QHF) generated by elliptic PDEs, which is the stable state of heat diffusion governed by anisotropic diffusion tensor. Diffusion tensor locally encodes shape geometry and controls velocity and direction of the diffusion process. The global QHF weaves points into smooth regions separated by ridges and has superior performance in combating noise/holes. Our method's originality is highlighted by the integration of locally defined diffusion tensor and globally defined elliptic PDEs in an anisotropic manner. At the computational front, the heat diffusion PDE becomes a linear system with Dirichlet condition at heat sources (called seeds). Our new algorithms afford automatic seed selection, enhanced by a fast update procedure in a high-dimensional space. By employing diffusion probability, our method can handle both manufactured parts and organic objects. Various experiments demonstrate the flexibility and high performance of our method.

  11. The Effective Coherence Length in Anisotropic Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Nesher, O


    If electrons are transmitted from a normal conductor(N) into a superconductor(S), common wisdom has it that the electrons are converted into Cooper pairs within a coherence length from the interface. This is true in conventional superconductors with an isotropic order parameter. We have established experimentally that the situation is rather different in high Tc superconductors having an anisotropic order parameter. We used epitaxial thin film S/N bilayers having different interface orientations in order to inject carriers from S into N along different directions. The distance to which these carriers penetrate were determined through their effect on the Tc of the bilayers. We found that the effective coherence length is 20A only along the a or b directions, while in other directions we find a length of 250dr20A out of plane, and an even larger value for in-plane, off high symmetry directions. These observations can be explained using the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk model adapted to anisotropic superconductivity. Several implications of our results on outstanding problems with high Tc junctions will be discussed

  12. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)


    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  13. Elastic Modes of an Anisotropic Ridge Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Galinde


    Full Text Available A semi-analytical method for finding the elastic modes propagating along the edge of an anisotropic semi-infinite plate is presented. Solutions are constructed as linear combinations of a finite number of the corresponding infinite plate modes with the constraint that they decay in the direction perpendicular to the edge and collectively satisfy the free boundary condition over the edge surface. Such modes that are confined to the edge can be used to approximate solutions of acoustic ridge waveguides whose supporting structures are sufficiently far away from the free edge. The semi-infinite plate or ridge is allowed to be oriented arbitrarily in the anisotropic crystal. Modifications to the theory to find symmetric and antisymmetric solutions for special crystal orientations are also presented. Accuracy of the solutions can be improved by including more plate modes in the series. Numerical techniques to find modal dispersion relations and orientation dependent modal behavior, are discussed. Results for ridges etched in single crystal Silicon are found to be in good agreement with Finite Element simulations. It is found that variations in modal phase velocity with respect to crystal orientation are not significant, suggesting that anisotropy may not be a critical issue while designing ridge waveguides in Silicon.

  14. Anisotropic dark energy and CMB anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battye, Richard; Moss, Adam


    We investigate the breaking of global statistical isotropy caused by a dark energy component with an energy-momentum tensor which has point symmetry, that could represent a cubic or hexagonal crystalline lattice. In such models Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions created during inflation can lead to anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background whose spherical harmonic coefficients are correlated, contrary to the standard assumption. We develop an adaptation of the line of sight integration method that can be applied to models where the background energy-momentum tensor is isotropic, but whose linearized perturbations are anisotropic. We then show how this can be applied to the cases of cubic and hexagonal symmetry. We compute quantities which show that such models are indistinguishable from isotropic models even in the most extreme parameter choices, in stark contrast to models with anisotropic initial conditions based on inflation. The reason for this is that the dark energy based models contribute to the CMB anisotropy via the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, which is only relevant when the dark energy is dominant, that is, on the very largest scales. For inflationary models, however, the anisotropy is present on all scales.

  15. Relativistic model for anisotropic strange stars (United States)

    Deb, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.


    In this article, we attempt to find a singularity free solution of Einstein's field equations for compact stellar objects, precisely strange (quark) stars, considering Schwarzschild metric as the exterior spacetime. To this end, we consider that the stellar object is spherically symmetric, static and anisotropic in nature and follows the density profile given by Mak and Harko (2002) , which satisfies all the physical conditions. To investigate different properties of the ultra-dense strange stars we have employed the MIT bag model for the quark matter. Our investigation displays an interesting feature that the anisotropy of compact stars increases with the radial coordinate and attains its maximum value at the surface which seems an inherent property for the singularity free anisotropic compact stellar objects. In this connection we also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are reasonably acceptable within certain range. Further, we find that the model is consistent with the energy conditions and the compact stellar structure is stable with the validity of the TOV equation and Herrera cracking concept. For the masses below the maximum mass point in mass vs radius curve the typical behavior achieved within the framework of general relativity. We have calculated the maximum mass and radius of the strange stars for the three finite values of bag constant Bg.

  16. Building an Anisotropic Meniscus with Zonal Variations (United States)

    Higashioka, Michael M.; Chen, Justin A.; Hu, Jerry C.


    Toward addressing the difficult problems of knee meniscus regeneration, a self-assembling process has been used to re-create the native morphology and matrix properties. A significant problem in such attempts is the recapitulation of the distinct zones of the meniscus, the inner, more cartilaginous and the outer, more fibrocartilaginous zones. In this study, an anisotropic and zonally variant meniscus was produced by self-assembly of the inner meniscus (100% chondrocytes) followed by cell seeding the outer meniscus (coculture of chondrocytes and meniscus cells). After 4 weeks in culture, the engineered, inner meniscus exhibited a 42% increase in both instantaneous and relaxation moduli and a 62% increase in GAG/DW, as compared to the outer meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential tensile modulus and collagen/DW of the outer zone was 101% and 129% higher, respectively, than the values measured for the inner zone. Furthermore, there was no difference in the radial tensile modulus between the control and zonal engineered menisci, suggesting that the inner and outer zones of the engineered zonal menisci successfully integrated. These data demonstrate that not only can biomechanical and biochemical properties be engineered to differ by the zone, but they can also recapitulate the anisotropic behavior of the knee meniscus. PMID:23931258

  17. A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Reza; Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof


    in addition to the elastic strain. Hill's classical anisotropic yield criterion is extended to cover the composite such that hydrostatic pressure dependency, Bauschinger stress and size-effects are considered. It is found that depending on the fiber volume fraction, the anisotropic yield surface......Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model...... that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response...

  18. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 669–673. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory. SUBENOY CHAKRABORTY1,*, BATUL CHANDRA SANTRA2 and ... Anisotropic cosmological models; general scalar tensor theory; inflation. PACS Nos 98.80.Hw; 04.50.+h; 98.80.Cq. 1. Introduction. Brans–Dicke theory [1] (BD ...

  19. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Einstein field equations for static anisotropic spheres are solved and exact interior solutions obtained. This paper extends earlier treatments to include anisotropic models which accommodate a wider variety of physically viable energy densities. Two classes of solutions are possible. The first class contains the limiting case ...

  20. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium. M D Sharma ... Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a ... Department of Mathematics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India. UIET ...

  1. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  2. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 116; Issue 4. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium: Biot's theories and homogenisation theory. M D Sharma. Volume 116 Issue 4 August ... Keywords. Anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid; Biot's theory; homogenisation theory; phase velocity.

  3. Modeling and Measurements of CMUTs with Square Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian


    The conventional method of modeling CMUTs use the isotropic plate equation to calculate the deflection, leading to deviations from FEM simulations including anisotropic effects of around 10% in center deflection. In this paper, the deflection is found for square plates using the full anisotropic ...

  4. Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilandzic, A.


    Anisotropic flow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy

  5. Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium, three types of quasi-waves propagate along an arbi- trary direction. In general, none of the waves is truly longitudinal. The present study finds the specific directions in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium along which longitudinal waves may propagate. This paper ...

  6. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents some experimental investigations about the origins of the anisotropic behaviour in cyclic loadings of ... In the second step, microstructural investigations were performed in order to understand the origins of the anisotropic ..... [20] Djebli A, Aid A, Bendouba M, Amrouche A, Benguediab M and Benseddiq ...

  7. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann


    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  8. Investigation of anisotropic thermal transport in cross-linked polymers (United States)

    Simavilla, David Nieto

    Thermal transport in lightly cross-linked polyisoprene and polybutadine subjected to uniaxial elongation is investigated experimentally. We employ two experimental techniques to assess the effect that deformation has on this class of materials. The first technique, which is based on Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS), allows us to measure the two independent components of the thermal diffusivity tensor as a function of deformation. These measurements along with independent measurements of the tensile stress and birefringence are used to evaluate the stress-thermal and stress-optic rules. The stress-thermal rule is found to be valid for the entire range of elongations applied. In contrast, the stress-optic rule fails for moderate to large stretch ratios. This suggests that the degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity depends on both orientation and tension in polymer chain segments. The second technique, which is based on infrared thermography (IRT), allows us to measure anisotropy in thermal conductivity and strain induced changes in heat capacity. We validate this method measurements of anisotropic thermal conductivity by comparing them with those obtained using FRS. We find excellent agreement between the two techniques. Uncertainty in the infrared thermography method measurements is estimated to be about 2-5 %. The accuracy of the method and its potential application to non-transparent materials makes it a good alternative to extend current research on anisotropic thermal transport in polymeric materials. A second IRT application allows us to investigate the dependence of heat capacity on deformation. We find that heat capacity increases with stretch ratio in polyisoprene specimens under uniaxial extension. The deviation from the equilibrium value of heat capacity is consistent with an independent set of experiments comparing anisotropy in thermal diffusivity and conductivity employing FRS and IRT techniques. We identify finite extensibility and strain

  9. Critical frontier of anisotropic planar Potts ferromagnets : a new conjucture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.


    The critical frontier of the nearest-neighbour q-state Potts ferromagnet in the fully anisotropic 3-12 lattice is conjectured through a star-triangle transformation. It recovers all the available exact results concerning particular cases, namely: (i) anisotropic square lattice for all q; (ii) anisotropic triangular and honeycomb lattices for all q; (iii) anisotropic Kagome and diced lattices for q=2; (iv) isotropic 3-12 and Asanoha lattices for q=2. It provides proposals for several other planar lattices, in particular for the anisotropic Kagome (and diced) one for q different 2, where it slightly differs from the Wu 1979 conjecture (Which also satisfies the cases (i) and (iii)). The bond percolation critical probabilities on the 3-12 and Kagome lattices are determined to be respectively p sub(c) = 0.739830... and p sub(c) = 0.522372.... (Author) [pt

  10. Ultraviolet laser-induced lateral photovoltaic response in anisotropic black shale (United States)

    Miao, Xinyang; Zhu, Jing; Zhao, Kun; Yue, Wenzheng


    The anisotropy of shale has significant impact on oil and gas exploration and engineering. In this paper, a-248 nm ultraviolet laser was employed to assess the anisotropic lateral photovoltaic (LPV) response of shale. Anisotropic angle-depending voltage signals were observed with different peak amplitudes ( V p) and decay times. We employed exponential models to explain the charge carrier transport in horizontal and vertical directions. Dependences of the laser-induced LPV on the laser spot position were observed. Owing to the Dember effect and the layered structure of shale, V p shows an approximately linear dependence with the laser-irradiated position for the 0° shale sample but nonlinearity for the 45° and 90° ones. The results demonstrate that the laser-induced voltage method is very sensitive to the structure of materials, and thus has a great potential in oil and gas reservoir characterization.

  11. Physical attributes of anisotropic compact stars in f(R, G) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamir, M.F.; Zia, Saeeda [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Department of Sciences and Humanities, Lahore (Pakistan)


    Modified gravity is one of the potential candidates to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. Current study highlights the materialization of anisotropic compact stars in the context of f(R, G) theory of gravity. In particular, to gain insight in the physical behavior of three stars namely, Her X1, SAX J 1808-3658 and 4U 1820-30, energy density, and radial and tangential pressures are calculated. The f(R, G) gravity model is split into a Starobinsky like f(R) model and a power law f(G) model. The main feature of the work is a 3-dimensional graphical analysis in which, anisotropic measurements, energy conditions and stability attributes of these stars are discussed. It is shown that all three stars behave as usual for positive values of the f(G) model parameter n. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic transformation of self-assembled structures using anisotropic magnetized hydrogel microparticles (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Takinoue, Masahiro; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki


    This paper describes a system through which the self-assembly of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles is achieved, which also enables dynamic transformation of the assembled structures. Using a centrifuge-based microfluidic device, anisotropic hydrogel microparticles encapsulating superparamagnetic materials on one side are fabricated, which respond to a magnetic field. We successfully achieve dynamic assembly using these hydrogel microparticles and realize three different self-assembled structures (single and double pearl chain structures, and close-packed structures), which can be transformed to other structures dynamically via tuning of the precessional magnetic field. We believe that the developed system has potential application as an effective platform for a dynamic cell manipulation and cultivation system, in biomimetic autonomous microrobot organization, and that it can facilitate further understanding of the self-organization and complex systems observed in nature.

  13. Efficient CAD Model to Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Circular Microstrip Antenna on Anisotropic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedra


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetic approach based on cavity model in conjunction with electromagnetic knowledge was developed. The cavity model combined with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials.  Merits of our extended model include low computational cost and mathematical simplify. The numerical simulation of this modeling shows excellent agreement with experimental results available in the literature. Finally, numerical results for the dielectric anisotropic substrates effects on the operating frequencies for the case of superconducting circular patch are also presented.

  14. Nanoindentation study of electrodeposited Ag thin coating: An inverse calculation of anisotropic elastic-plastic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guang; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yuxin; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei


    A new inverse method was proposed to calculate the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties (flow stress) of thin electrodeposited Ag coating utilizing nanoindentation tests, previously reported inverse method for isotropic materials and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analyses (FEA). Indentation depth was ~4% of coating thickness (~10 μm) to avoid substrate effect and different indentation responses were observed in the longitudinal (L) and the transverse (T) directions. The estimated elastic-plastic properties were obtained in the newly developed inverse method by matching the predicted indentation responses in the L and T directions with experimental measurements considering indentation size effect (ISE). The results were validated with tensile flow curves measured from free-standing (FS) Ag film. The current method can be utilized to characterize the anisotropic elastic-plastic properties of coatings and to provide the constitutive properties for coating performance evaluations.

  15. Rotational diffusion in polymer nanocomposites as probed by anisotropic particles (United States)

    Clarke, Laura


    Metal nanoparticles strongly absorb specific wavelengths of light with no (or only a very weak) radiative relaxation by which to release this energy. As a result, the absorbed energy is efficiently converted to local heat (a photothermal effect). With an effective cross-section of up to 10 times its physical size, each particle acts as a ``super-sized'' absorber even when embedded within a transparent material environment such as a polymer, resulting in dramatic heating originating at the particles. Thus, with spatially-uniform illumination, one can metaphorically reach inside a polymer nanocomposite and apply heat to pre-selected subsets (e.g., causing them to dramatically change properties due to actuation, cross-linking, crystallization, or chemical reaction) without heating the sample surface or strongly affecting the remainder of the material. By utilizing optically-accessible additives including the particles themselves, the thermal gradient from the particle outward can be experimentally determined. In particular, rotational diffusion of anisotropic particles can be used to measure the temperature at the nanoparticle, which is the warmest point in a polymeric film or nanofiber under photothermal heating. Conversely, the same technique can be utilized to measure polymer dynamics in nanocomposites in the immediate vicinity of the particle. Funding: National Science Foundation CMMI-1069108.

  16. Anisotropic resonator analysis using the Fourier-Bessel mode solver (United States)

    Gauthier, Robert C.


    A numerical mode solver for optical structures that conform to cylindrical symmetry using Faraday's and Ampere's laws as starting expressions is developed when electric or magnetic anisotropy is present. The technique builds on the existing Fourier-Bessel mode solver which allows resonator states to be computed exploiting the symmetry properties of the resonator and states to reduce the matrix system. The introduction of anisotropy into the theoretical frame work facilitates the inclusion of PML borders permitting the computation of open ended structures and a better estimation of the resonator state quality factor. Matrix populating expressions are provided that can accommodate any material anisotropy with arbitrary orientation in the computation domain. Several example of electrical anisotropic computations are provided for rationally symmetric structures such as standard optical fibers, axial Bragg-ring fibers and bottle resonators. The anisotropy present in the materials introduces off diagonal matrix elements in the permittivity tensor when expressed in cylindrical coordinates. The effects of the anisotropy of computed states are presented and discussed.

  17. Anisotropic phenomena in gauge/gravity duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, Hansjoerg


    In this thesis we use gauge/gravity duality to model anisotropic effects realised in nature. Firstly we analyse transport properties in holographic systems with a broken rotational invariance. Secondly we discuss geometries dual to IR fixed points with anisotropic scaling behaviour, which are related to quantum critical points in condensed matter systems. Gauge/gravity duality relates a gravity theory in Anti-de Sitter space to a lower dimensional strongly coupled quantum field theory in Minkowski space. Over the past decade this duality provided many insights into systems at strong coupling, e.g. quark-gluon plasma and condensed matter close to quantum critical points. One very important result computed in this framework is the value of the shear viscosity divided by the entropy density in strongly coupled theories. The quantitative result agrees very well with measurements of the ratio in quark-gluon plasma. However, for isotropic two derivative Einstein gravity it is temperature independent. We show that by breaking the rotational symmetry of a system we obtain a temperature dependent shear viscosity over entropy density. This is important to make contact with real world systems, since substances in nature display such dependence. In addition, we derive various transport properties in strongly coupled anisotropic systems using the gauge/gravity dictionary. The most notable results include an electrical conductivity with Drude behaviour in the low frequency region. This resembles conductors with broken translational invariance. However, we did not implement the breaking explicitly. Furthermore, our analysis shows that this setup models effects, resembling the piezoelectric and exoelectric effects, known from liquid crystals. In a second project we discuss a geometry with non-trivial scaling behaviour in order to model an IR fixed point of condensed matter theories. We construct the UV completion of this geometry and analyse its properties by computing the

  18. Role of material property gradient and anisotropy in thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X; Pan, E; Albrecht, J D


    It was recently discovered that inclusions, fatigue damage and other types of material imperfections and defects in metals can be nondestructively detected by noncontacting magnetic measurements that sense the thermoelectric currents produced by directional heating and cooling. Since detection of small defects in thermoelectric materials is ultimately limited by intrinsic thermoelectric anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the material to be inspected, a thorough study is required on their impact on the nondestructive capability. Therefore, in this investigation the induced electric current densities and thermal fluxes are first derived for a steady line heat source in an inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermoelectric material. The exact closed-form solutions are obtained by converting the original problem into two inhomogeneous Helmholtz equations via eigenvalue/eigenvector separation. The material properties are assumed to vary exponentially in the same manner in an arbitrary direction. For the corresponding homogeneous but anisotropic material case, we also present an elegant formulation based on the complex variable method. It is shown that the induced magnetic fields can be expressed in a concise and exact closed form for a line heat source in an infinite homogeneous anisotropic material and in one of the two bonded anisotropic half-planes. Our numerical results demonstrate clearly that both property anisotropy and gradient in thermoelectric materials can significantly influence the induced thermoelectric currents and magnetic fields

  19. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.


    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  20. Anisotropic plasmas from axion and dilaton deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,Prince Consort Rd., London (United Kingdom); Sosa-Rodriguez, Omar [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom)


    We construct black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity that are holographically dual to anisotropic plasmas arising from deformations of an infinite class of four-dimensional CFTs. The CFTs are dual to AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5}, where X{sub 5} is an Einstein manifold, and the deformations involve the type IIB axion and dilaton, with non-trivial periodic dependence on one of the spatial directions of the CFT. At low temperatures the solutions approach smooth domain wall solutions with the same AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5} solution appearing in the far IR. For sufficiently large deformations an intermediate scaling regime appears which is governed by a Lifshitz-like scaling solution. We calculate the DC thermal conductivity and some components of the shear viscosity tensor.

  1. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models (United States)

    Ivanov, B. V.


    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method.

  2. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, B.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)


    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method. (orig.)

  3. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi


    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  4. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations....... Quantitative agreement can be obtained by increasing the interaction between different alloy elements, in particular for alloys with very different axial anisotropy, e.g., Tb-Tm. A model system consisting of a singlet-singlet and singlet-doublet alloy is discussed in detail. A simple procedure to include...

  5. Patterning of Structurally Anisotropic Composite Hydrogel Sheets. (United States)

    Prince, Elisabeth; Alizadehgiashi, Moien; Campbell, Melissa; Khuu, Nancy; Albulescu, Alexandra; De France, Kevin; Ratkov, Dimitrije; Li, Yunfeng; Hoare, Todd; Kumacheva, Eugenia


    Compositional and structural patterns play a crucial role in the function of many biological tissues. In the present work, for nanofibrillar hydrogels formed by chemically cross-linked cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and gelatin, we report a microextrusion-based 3D printing method to generate structurally anisotropic hydrogel sheets with CNCs aligned in the direction of extrusion. We prepared hydrogels with a uniform composition, as well as hydrogels with two different types of compositional gradients. In the first type of gradient hydrogel, the composition of the sheet varied parallel to the direction of CNC alignment. In the second hydrogel type, the composition of the sheet changed orthogonally to the direction of CNC alignment. The hydrogels exhibited gradients in structure, mechanical properties, and permeability, all governed by the compositional patterns, as well as cytocompatibility. These hydrogels have promising applications for both fundamental research and for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  6. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying


    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD (United States)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C.; Amato, A.; Evans, W.; Giudice, P.; Harris, T.; Kelly, A.; Kim, S. Y.; Lombardo, M. P.; Praki, K.; Ryan, S. M.; Skullerud, J.-I.


    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  8. The Anisotropic Glassy Properties of Decagonal Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş-Victor Anghel


    Full Text Available We use an extended version of the standard tunneling model to explain the anisotropic sound absorption in decagonal quasicrystals. The glassy properties are determined by an ensemble of two level systems (TLSs, arbitrarily oriented. The TLS is characterized by a 3 × 3 symmetric tensor, [T], which couples to the strain field, [S], through a 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 tensor of coupling constants, [R]. The structure of [R] reflects the symmetry of the quasicrystal. We also analyze the probability distributions of the elements of [T] in this particular model for a better understanding of the characteristics of “isotropic” and “anisotropic” distributions of the ensemble of TLSs. We observe that the distribution of the elements is neither simple nor intuitive and therefore it is difficult to guess it a priory, using qualitative arguments based on the symmetry properties.

  9. Final fate of charged anisotropic fluid collapse (United States)

    Khan, Suhail; Shah, Hassan; Ahmad, Zahid; Ramzan, Muhammad


    This paper studies the effects of charge on spherically symmetric collapse of anisotropic fluid with a positive cosmological constant. It is observed that electromagnetic field places restriction on the bounds of cosmological constant, which acts as repulsive force against the contraction of matter content and hence the rate of destruction is faster in the presence of electromagnetic field. We have also noted that the presence of charge affects the time interval between the formation of cosmological horizon (CH) and black hole horizon (BHH). When the electric field strength E(t, r) vanishes, our investigations are in full agreement with the results obtained by Ahmad and Malik [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 600 (2016)].

  10. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee


    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  11. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Mariusz [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Moiseyev, Nimrod [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Physics, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  12. A FDM anisotropic formulation for EEG simulation. (United States)

    Bruno, P; Hyttinen, J; Inchingolo, P; Magrofuoco, A; Mininel, S; Vatta, F


    Accurate head modeling is required to properly simulate bioelectric phenomena in 3-D as well as to estimate the 3-D bioelectric activity starting from superficial bioelectric measurements and 3-D imaging. Aiming to build an accurate and realistic representation of the volume conductor of the head, also the anisotropy of head tissues should be taken into account. In this paper we describe a new finite-difference method (FDM) formulation which accounts for anisotropy of the various head tissues. Our proposal, being based on FDM, derives the head model directly from patient's specific clinical images. We present here the details of the numerical formulation and the method validation by comparing our numerical proposal and known analytical results using a multi-shell anisotropic head model with skull anisotropy. Furthermore, we analyzed also different numerical grid refinement and EEG source characteristics. The comparison with previously developed FDM methods shows a good performance of the proposed method.

  13. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G


    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  14. Predictions from an anisotropic inflationary era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Pereira, Thiago S


    This paper investigates the predictions of an inflationary phase starting from a homogeneous and anisotropic universe of the Bianchi I type. After discussing the evolution of the background spacetime, focusing on the number of e-folds and the isotropization, we solve the perturbation equations and predict the power spectra of the curvature perturbations and gravity waves at the end of inflation. The main features of the early anisotropic phase is (1) a dependence of the spectra on the direction of the modes, (2) a coupling between curvature perturbations and gravity waves and (3) the fact that the two gravity wave polarizations do not share the same spectrum on large scales. All these effects are significant only on large scales and die out on small scales where isotropy is recovered. They depend on a characteristic scale that can, but a priori must not, be tuned to some observable scale. To fix the initial conditions, we propose a procedure that generalizes the one standardly used in inflation but that takes into account the fact that the WKB regime is violated at early times when the shear dominates. We stress that there exist modes that do not satisfy the WKB condition during the shear-dominated regime and for which the amplitude at the end of inflation depends on unknown initial conditions. On such scales, inflation loses its predictability. This study paves the way for the determination of the cosmological signature of a primordial shear, whatever the Bianchi I spacetime. It thus stresses the importance of the WKB regime to draw inflationary predictions and demonstrates that, when the number of e-folds is large enough, the predictions converge toward those of inflation in a Friedmann–Lemaître spacetime but that they are less robust in the case of an inflationary era with a small number of e-folds

  15. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.


    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  16. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by magnetic phase transition. (United States)

    Chen, X Z; Feng, J F; Wang, Z C; Zhang, J; Zhong, X Y; Song, C; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Li, F; Jiang, M; Tan, Y Z; Zhou, X J; Shi, G Y; Zhou, X F; Han, X D; Mao, S C; Chen, Y H; Han, X F; Pan, F


    The independent control of two magnetic electrodes and spin-coherent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions are strictly required for tunneling magnetoresistance, while junctions with only one ferromagnetic electrode exhibit tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance dependent on the anisotropic density of states with no room temperature performance so far. Here, we report an alternative approach to obtaining tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in α'-FeRh-based junctions driven by the magnetic phase transition of α'-FeRh and resultantly large variation of the density of states in the vicinity of MgO tunneling barrier, referred to as phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance. The junctions with only one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode show a magnetoresistance ratio up to 20% at room temperature. Both the polarity and magnitude of the phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance can be modulated by interfacial engineering at the α'-FeRh/MgO interface. Besides the fundamental significance, our finding might add a different dimension to magnetic random access memory and antiferromagnet spintronics.Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance is promising for next generation memory devices but limited by the low efficiency and functioning temperature. Here the authors achieved 20% tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature in magnetic tunnel junctions with one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode.

  17. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi


    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  18. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS2 field-effect transistors (United States)

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching-Hwa; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Cao, Zhengyi; Wang, Laiguo; Li, Aidong; Zeng, Junwen; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xinran; Shi, Yi; Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu


    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS2) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS2 field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (∼107) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconducting materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS2 anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications. PMID:25947630

  19. Graphics processing unit (GPU)-based computation of heat conduction in thermally anisotropic solids (United States)

    Nahas, C. A.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu


    Numerical modeling of anisotropic media is a computationally intensive task since it brings additional complexity to the field problem in such a way that the physical properties are different in different directions. Largely used in the aerospace industry because of their lightweight nature, composite materials are a very good example of thermally anisotropic media. With advancements in video gaming technology, parallel processors are much cheaper today and accessibility to higher-end graphical processing devices has increased dramatically over the past couple of years. Since these massively parallel GPUs are very good in handling floating point arithmetic, they provide a new platform for engineers and scientists to accelerate their numerical models using commodity hardware. In this paper we implement a parallel finite difference model of thermal diffusion through anisotropic media using the NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified device Architecture). We use the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 560 Ti as our primary computing device which consists of 384 CUDA cores clocked at 1645 MHz with a standard desktop pc as the host platform. We compare the results from standard CPU implementation for its accuracy and speed and draw implications for simulation using the GPU paradigm.

  20. Mechanical, Anisotropic, and Electronic Properties of XN (X = C, Si, Ge): Theoretical Investigations (United States)

    Ma, Zhenyang; Liu, Xuhong; Yu, Xinhai; Shi, Chunlei; Wang, Dayun


    The structural, mechanical, elastic anisotropic, and electronic properties of Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) are investigated in this work using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE) functional, Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof for solids (PBEsol) functional, and Ceperly and Alder, parameterized by Perdew and Zunger (CA–PZ) functional in the framework of density functional theory. The achieved results for the lattice parameters and band gap of Pbca-CN with the PBE functional in this research are in good accordance with other theoretical results. The band structures of Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) show that Pbca-SiN and Pbca-GeN are both direct band gap semiconductor materials with a band gap of 3.39 eV and 2.22 eV, respectively. Pbca-XN (X = C, Si, Ge) exhibits varying degrees of mechanical anisotropic properties with respect to the Poisson’s ratio, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, and universal anisotropic index. The (001) plane and (010) plane of Pbca-CN/SiN/GeN both exhibit greater elastic anisotropy in the bulk modulus and Young’s modulus than the (100) plane. PMID:28786960

  1. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Dar Li


    Full Text Available To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  2. Characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on uniaxially anisotropic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkouda, Siham; Messai, Abderraouf [Electronics Department, University of Constantine 1, 25000 Constantine (Algeria); Amir, Mounir; Bedra, Sami [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Fortaki, Tarek, E-mail: [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)


    Highlights: • We model a microstrip antenna with anisotropic substrate and superconductor patch. • The extended full-wave analysis is used to solve for the antenna characteristics. • The accuracy of the method is checked by comparing our results with published data. • Uniaxial anisotropy affects the resonant characteristics of the antenna. • Patch on uniaxial substrate is more advantageous than the one on isotropic medium. - Abstract: Resonant characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate are investigated using a full-wave spectral analysis in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The uniaxial medium shows anisotropy of an electric type as well as anisotropy of a magnetic type. Both permittivity and permeability tensors of the substrate are included in the formulation of the dyadic Green’s function of the problem. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical data of the resonant frequency and bandwidth as a function of electric anisotropy ratio are presented. Variations of the resonant frequency and bandwidth with the magnetic anisotropy ratio are also given. Finally, results showing the influence of the temperature on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate are also given.

  3. Modeling the characteristic etch morphologies along specific crystallographic orientations by anisotropic chemical etching (United States)

    Li, Kun-Dar; Miao, Jin-Ru


    To improve the advanced manufacturing technology for functional materials, a sophisticated control of chemical etching process is highly demanded, especially in the fields of environment and energy related applications. In this study, a phase-field-based model is utilized to investigate the etch morphologies influenced by the crystallographic characters during anisotropic chemical etching. Three types of etching modes are inspected theoretically, including the isotropic, and preferred oriented etchings. Owing to the specific etching behavior along the crystallographic directions, different characteristic surface structures are presented in the simulations, such as the pimple-like, pyramidal hillock and ridge-like morphologies. In addition, the processing parameters affecting the surface morphological formation and evolution are also examined systematically. According to the numerical results, the growth mechanism of surface morphology in a chemical etching is revealed distinctly. While the etching dynamics plays a dominant role on the surface formation, the characteristic surface morphologies corresponding to the preferred etching direction become more apparent. As the atomic diffusion turned into a determinative factor, a smoothened surface would appear, even under the anisotropic etching conditions. These simulation results provide fundamental information to enhance the development and application of anisotropic chemical etching techniques.

  4. Anisotropic carrier mobility in single- and bi-layer C3N sheets (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Li, Qingfang; Wang, Haifeng; Gao, Yan; Hou, Juan; Shao, Jianxin


    Based on the density functional theory combined with the Boltzmann transport equation with relaxation time approximation, we investigate the electronic structure and predict the carrier mobility of single- and bi-layer newly fabricated 2D carbon nitrides C3N. Although C3N sheets possess graphene-like planar hexagonal structure, the calculated carrier mobility is remarkably anisotropic, which is found mainly induced by the anisotropic effective masses and deformation potential constants. Importantly, we find that both the electron and hole mobilities are considerable high, for example, the hole mobility along the armchair direction of single-layer C3N sheets can arrive as high as 1.08 ×104 cm2 V-1 s-1, greatly larger than that of C2N-h2D and many other typical 2D materials. Owing to the high and anisotropic carrier mobility and appropriate band gap, single- and bi-layer semiconducting C3N sheets may have great potential applications in high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Spherocylindrical microplane constitutive model for shale and other anisotropic rocks (United States)

    Li, Cunbao; Caner, Ferhun C.; Chau, Viet T.; Bažant, Zdeněk P.


    Constitutive equations for inelastic behavior of anisotropic materials have been a challenge for decades. Presented is a new spherocylindrical microplane constitutive model that meets this challenge for the inelastic fracturing behavior of orthotropic materials, and particularly the shale, which is transversely isotropic and is important for hydraulic fracturing (aka fracking) as well as many geotechnical structures. The basic idea is to couple a cylindrical microplane system to the classical spherical microplane system. Each system is subjected to the same strain tensor while their stress tensors are superposed. The spherical phase is similar to the previous microplane models for concrete and isotropic rock. The integration of stresses over spherical microplanes of all spatial orientations relies on the previously developed optimal Gaussian integration over a spherical surface. The cylindrical phase, which is what creates the transverse isotropy, involves only microplanes that are normal to plane of isotropy, or the bedding layers, and enhance the stiffness and strength in that plane. Unlike all the microplane models except the spectral one, the present one can reproduce all the five independent elastic constants of transversely isotropic shales. Vice versa, from these constants, one can easily calculate all the microplane elastic moduli, which are all positive if the elastic in-to-out-of plane moduli ratio is not too big (usually less than 3.75, which applies to all shales). Oriented micro-crack openings, frictional micro-slips and bedding plane behavior can be modeled more intuitively than with the spectral approach. Data fitting shows that the microplane resistance depends on the angle with the bedding layers non-monotonically, and compressive resistance reaches a minimum at 60°. A robust algorithm for explicit step-by-step structural analysis is formulated. Like all microplane models, there are many material parameters, but they can be identified sequentially

  6. Anisotropic thermal transport in phosphorene: effects of crystal orientation. (United States)

    Liu, Te-Huan; Chang, Chien-Cheng


    As an intrinsic thermally anisotropic material, the thermal properties of phosphorene must vary with respect to the crystal chirality. Nevertheless, previous studies of heat transfer in phosphorene have been limited to the 0.0° (zigzag, ZZ) and 90.0° (armchair, AC) chiralities. In this study, we investigate the orientation-dependent thermal transport in phosphorene sheets with a complete set of crystal chirality ranging from 0.0° to 90.0° using the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) associated with the first-principles calculations. It was found that in the phosphorene sheets, the intrinsic thermal conductivity is a smooth monotonic decreasing function of the crystal chirality, which exhibits sinusoidal behavior bounded by the two terminated values 48.9 (0.0°) and 27.8 (90.0°) W m(-1) K(-1). The optical modes have unusually large contributions to heat transfer, which account for almost 30% of the total thermal conductivity of phosphorene sheets. This is because the optical phonons have comparable group velocities and relaxation times to the acoustic phonons.

  7. Anisotropic Negative Differential Resistance in Monolayer Black Phosphorus (United States)

    Zhang, Wanting; Kang, Peng; Chen, Huahui


    The tremendous potential application in emerging two-dimensional layered materials such as black phosphorus (BP) has attracted great attention as nanoscale devices. In this paper, the effect of anisotropic negative differential resistance (NDR) in monolayer black phosphorus field-effect transistors (FETs) is reported by the first-principles computational study based on the non-equilibrium Green’s function approach combined with density functional theory. The transport properties including current-voltage (I-V) relation and transmission spectrum of monolayer BP are investigated at different gate voltages (Vg). Further studies indicate that NDR occurs at a specific gate voltage in the armchair direction rather than in the zigzag direction. The decrease of current in I-V characteristics can be understood from the generation of non-conducting states region moving towards the Fermi level resulting in a reduction of the integration within corresponding energy range in the transmission spectrum. Our results offer useful guidance for designing FETs and other potential applications in nanoelectronic devices based on BP.

  8. Aligned CuO nanorod arrays: fabrication and anisotropic ferromagnetism (United States)

    Liu, Liqing; Hong, Kunquan; Ge, Xing; Xu, Mingxiang


    Copper oxide (CuO) is a p-type semiconductor with a band gap of 1.2 eV, which is well known in high-temperature superconductor and antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials through Cu-O-Cu super-exchange interaction. In this paper, we report the strong anisotropic ferromagnetism (FM) in aligned CuO nanorod arrays synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image shows that the CuO nanorod consists of a large number of smaller nanorods with almost the same growth direction. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicates that the CuO nanorods are well crystallized with highly preferred orientation of the [020] direction. These CuO nanorod arrays show room-temperature ferromagnetism, with strong magnetic anisotropy when the magnetic field is applied perpendicular or parallel to the rod axis. This phenomenon of room-temperature ferromagnetism in those aligned CuO nanorods might originate from uncompensated surface spins and shape anisotropy of the nanorods.

  9. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde


    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  10. Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids. (United States)

    Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G; Sengupta, Anupam


    Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids.

  11. Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators from Anisotropic Porous Polymer Template. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Li; Yu, Meina; Zhao, Dongyu; Song, Ping; Chi, Hun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai


    Controlling self-assembly behaviors of liquid crystals is a fundamental issue for designing them as intelligent actuators. Here, anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is utilized as a template to induce homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals. The mechanism of liquid crystal alignment induced by anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is illustrated based on the relationship between the alignment behavior of liquid crystals and surface microstructure of anisotropic polyvinylidene fluoride film. Liquid crystal elastomer actuators with fast responsiveness, large strain change, and reversible actuation behaviors are achieved by the photopolymerization of liquid crystal monomer in liquid crystal cells coated with anisotropic porous films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo


    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  13. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1989). Chou (1976) and Ting (1995) discussed antiplane strain deformation of an anisotropic medium. Garg et al (1996) obtained representations of seismic sources causing antiplane strain deformations of orthotropic media. The corresponding ...

  14. Change of energy of photons passing through rotating anisotropic elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bagini, V; Santarsiero, M; Frezza, F; Schettini, G; Schirripa-Spagnolo, G


    We discuss simple experiments where the concept of angular momentum of a photon can be put to use in order to explain the photon energy changes that are produced by the passage of light beams through rotating anisotropic elements. (author)

  15. Spin and orbital angular momentum propagation in anisotropic media: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picón, Antonio; Benseny, Albert; Mompart, Jordi; Calvo, Gabriel F


    This paper is devoted to a study of the propagation of light beams carrying orbital angular momentum in optically anisotropic media. We first review some properties of homogeneous anisotropic media, and describe how the paraxial formalism is modified in order to proceed with a new approach dealing with the general setting of paraxial propagation along uniaxial inhomogeneous media. This approach is suitable for describing space-variant optical-axis phase plates

  16. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang


    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  17. Stress propagation in isotropic packs with anisotropic boundaries (United States)

    Krapf, Nathan; Witten, Thomas


    Stresses in marginally jammed, anisotropic packs built up from a solid floor propagate along oblique rays toward the floor footnotetext D. A. Head, A. V. Tkachenko, and T. A. Witten. Eur. Phys. J. E 6, 99-105 (2001)). This clear anisotropic propagation must result from anisotropic packing and/or anisotropic boundary conditions. Here we numerically isolate the effect of anisotropic boundaries by using an explicitly isotropic periodic pack in a marginally jammed, isostatic state. We then remove the periodicity in one direction and anchor the beads along one edge to a substrate. This preserves the isostatic condition while rendering the boundary anisotropic. However, we find hyperstatic modes along one edge of the pack and hypostatic modes at the other. We show that these extra modes decay rapidly away from the boundaries. Remarkably the hypostatic modes cause the pack to be unstable under any force applied to a single bead. This instability can be remedied by applying a suitable cluster of forces to adjacent beads, allowing a clear measurement of the bulk response. We discuss the resulting stress response.

  18. Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.


    Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.

  19. Schroedinger covariance states in anisotropic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelow, A.; Trifonov, D.


    In this paper Squeezed and Covariance States based on Schroedinger inequality and their connection with other nonclassical states are considered for particular case of anisotropic waveguide in LiNiO 3 . Here, the problem of photon creation and generation of squeezed and Schroedinger covariance states in optical waveguides is solved in two steps: 1. Quantization of electromagnetic field is provided in the presence of dielectric waveguide using normal-mode expansion. The photon creation and annihilation operators are introduced, expanding the solution A-vector(r-vector,t) in a series in terms of the Sturm - Liouville mode-functions. 2. In terms of these operators the Hamiltonian of the field in a nonlinear waveguide is derived. For such Hamiltonian we construct the covariance states as stable (with nonzero covariance), which minimize the Schroedinger uncertainty relation. The evolutions of the three second momenta of q-circumflex j and p-circumflex j are calculated. For this Hamiltonian all three momenta are expressed in terms of one real parameters s only. It is found out how covariance, via this parameter s, depends on the waveguide profile n(x,y), on the mode-distributions u-vector j (x,y), and on the waveguide phase mismatching Δβ. (author). 37 refs

  20. Anisotropic Charged Fluid Sphere in Isotropic Coordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Pant


    Full Text Available We have presented a class of charged superdense star models, starting with a static spherically symmetric metric in isotropic coordinates for anisotropic fluid by considering Hajj-Boutros-(1986 type metric potential and a specific choice of electrical intensity E and anisotropy factor Δ which involve charge parameter K and anisotropy parameter α. The solution is well behaved for all the values of Schwarzschild compactness parameter u lying in the range 0

  1. Numerical calculation of spatially variant anisotropic metamaterials (United States)

    Gulib, Asad Ullah Hil

    3D printing, or additive manufacturing, is rapidly evolving into a mainstream manufacturing technology that is creating new opportunities for electromagnetics and circuits. 3D printing permits circuits to fully utilize the third dimension allowing more functions in the same amount of space and allows the devices to have arbitrary form factors. 3D printing is letting us discover new physics that is not possible in standard 2D circuits and devices. However, evolving electromagnetics and circuits into three dimensions introduces some serious problems like thermal management, interference, and mutual coupling between the components which degrades performance and hurts signal integrity. Metamaterials are engineered composites that exhibit extreme electromagnetic properties and allow extraordinary control over electromagnetic fields. The EM Lab is developing spatially-variant anisotropic metamaterials (SVAMs) as a solution to mitigate mutual coupling between components. The concept of SVAMs is to electrically stretch the space between components to reduce mutual coupling. To do this, alternating layers of different dielectric must bisect adjacent components. However, the overall dielectric fill must also conform around dozens of electrical components and be smooth, continuous, and defect free. The research described here is the first prototype of an algorithm which generates a SVAM infill between all of the electrical components of a circuit in order to reduce the mutual coupling.

  2. P wave anisotropic tomography of the Alps (United States)

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Yixian


    The first tomographic images of P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropies in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Alps are determined by joint inversions of arrival time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show the south dipping European plate with a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly beneath the western central Alps and the north dipping Adriatic plate with a high-V anomaly beneath the Eastern Alps, indicating that the subduction polarity changes along the strike of the Alps. The P wave azimuthal anisotropy is characterized by mountain chain-parallel fast-velocity directions (FVDs) in the western central Alps and NE-SW FVDs in the Eastern Alps, which may be caused by mantle flow induced by the slab subductions. Our results reveal a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., Vph Vph > Vpv) in the low-velocity mantle wedge, which may reflect the subvertical plate subduction and its induced mantle flow. The results of anisotropic tomography provide important new information on the complex mantle structure and dynamics of the Alps and adjacent regions.

  3. Anisotropic reflectance characteristics of natural Earth surfaces. (United States)

    Brennan, B; Bandeen, W R


    The patterns of reflection of solar radiation from cloud, water, and land surfaces were measured with an aircraft-borne medium resolution radiometer. Reflectances in the 0.2-4.0-micro and 0.55-0.85-micro portions of the electromagnetic spectrum were investigated. Results indicate that the reflectance characteristics of most of the surface types measured are anisotropic. The anisotropy is dependent on the type of surface and the angles of incidence and reflection. In general, the anisotropy increases with increasing solar zenith angle. Clouds and forests show similar reflectance patterns, with forward and backward scattering peaks. Ocean surfaces yield a pattern similar to those of the clouds and forests but with an additional peak which is associated with sun glitter. Reflectances measured in the 0.2-4.0-micro band are generally lower than those in the 0.55-0.85-micro band under cloudy conditions. Anisotropy and spectral bandwidth should be accounted for when computing the albedo of the earth from narrow field-of-view measurements from satellites; otherwise, large errors may be expected to occur.

  4. Atomic Layer Thermopile Materials: Physics and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. X. Zhang


    Full Text Available New types of thermoelectric materials characterized by highly anisotropic Fermi surfaces and thus anisotropic Seebeck coefficients are reviewed. Early studies revealed that there is an induced voltage in high TC oxide superconductors when the surface of the films is exposed to short light pulses. Subsequent investigations proved that the effect is due to anisotropic components of the Seebeck tensor, and the type of materials is referred to atomic layer thermopile (ALT. Our recent studies indicate that multilayer thin films at the nanoscale demonstrate enhanced ALT properties. This is in agreement with the prediction in seeking the larger figure of merit (ZT thermoelectric materials in nanostructures. The study of ALT materials provides both deep insight of anisotropic transport property of these materials and at the same time potential materials for applications, such as light detector and microcooler. By measuring the ALT properties under various perturbations, it is found that the information on anisotropic transport properties can be provided. The information sometimes is not easily obtained by other tools due to the nanoscale phase coexistence in these materials. Also, some remained open questions and future development in this research direction have been well discussed.

  5. Method of moving frames to solve time-dependent Maxwell's equations on anisotropic curved surfaces: Applications to invisible cloak and ELF propagation (United States)

    Chun, Sehun


    Applying the method of moving frames to Maxwell's equations yields two important advancements for scientific computing. The first is the use of upwind flux for anisotropic materials in Maxwell's equations, especially in the context of discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Upwind flux has been available only to isotropic material, because of the difficulty of satisfying the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in anisotropic media. The second is to solve numerically Maxwell's equations on curved surfaces without the metric tensor and composite meshes. For numerical validation, spectral convergences are displayed for both two-dimensional anisotropic media and isotropic spheres. In the first application, invisible two-dimensional metamaterial cloaks are simulated with a relatively coarse mesh by both the lossless Drude model and the piecewisely-parametered layered model. In the second application, extremely low frequency propagation on various surfaces such as spheres, irregular surfaces, and non-convex surfaces is demonstrated.

  6. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert


    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained from a single anisotropic material are considered in the framework of linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of the polycrystal are made. We subject the material to independent external strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...

  7. Étude du comportement anisotrope de l'argile de Boom


    Dao, Linh Quyen


    In the program of deep geological radioactive waste disposal in Belgium, Boom Clay has been chosen as one of the potential host rocks. Due to the geological stratification, this stiff clay has been regarded as a transverse isotropic material. The anisotropy of its hydraulic and thermal properties was shown in several studies. It seems necessary now to conduct a more in-depth study on the anisotropic behaviour of Boom Clay. In terms of experimental works, the anisotropy of the thermo-hydro-mec...

  8. Anisotropic in-Plane Thermal Conductivity Observed in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus (United States)


    phosphorus Zhe Luo1,2, Jesse Maassen2,3, Yexin Deng2,3, Yuchen Du2,3, Richard P. Garrelts1,2, Mark S. Lundstrom2,3, Peide D. Ye2,3 & Xianfan Xu1,2 Black... phosphorus has been revisited recently as a new two-dimensional material showing potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Here the anisotropic in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended few-layer black phosphorus measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy. The armchair and

  9. The Propagation of Thermoelastic Waves in Anisotropic Media of Orthorhombic, Hexagonal, and Tetragonal Syngonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlybek A. Ispulov


    Full Text Available The investigation of wave propagation in elastic medium with thermomechanical effects is bound to have important economic implications in the field of composite materials, seismology, geophysics, and so on. In this article, thermoelastic wave propagation in anisotropic mediums of orthorhombic and hexagonal syngony having heterogeneity along z-axis is studied. Such medium has second-order axis symmetry. By using analytical matriciant method, a set of equations of motions in thermoelastic medium are reduced to an equivalent set of the first-order differential equations. In the general case, for the given set of equations, structures of fundamental solutions are made and dispersion relations are obtained.

  10. The Stress Distribution in an Infinite Anisotropic Plate with Co-Linear Cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    A general solution of the plane problem of a finite number of co-linear cracks in an anisotropic material is presented. The solution is obtained by reducing the problem to four very simple Riemann-Hilbert problems. From the solution it is concluded that if the loads acting on the cracks have the ...... the resultant zero for each of the cracks, then the normal and shear stresses created on the line of the cracks are independent of the elastic constants. Expressions for the stress intensity factors are derived, and some examples are presented....

  11. Methods for making radially anisotropic thin-film magnetic torroidal cores (United States)

    Qiu, Jizheng; Sullivan, Charles R.


    A method of forming a radially anisotropic toroidal magnetic core includes providing apparatus having a first magnet for providing a radial magnetic field extending across a cavity from an axial spindle to a surrounding second magnetic element, placing a substrate in the cavity, the substrate having a hole fitting around the head of the spindle; and sputter-depositing a film of ferromagnetic material onto the substrate. In an embodiment, the spindle is magnetically coupled to a first pole of the first magnet, the second magnetic element is coupled to a second pole of the first magnet, and a thermally conductive, nonmagnetic, insert separates the spindle and the second magnetic element.

  12. Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus. (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Hasdeo, Eddwi H; Liang, Liangbo; Parkin, William M; Tatsumi, Yuki; Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Puretzky, Alexander A; Das, Paul Masih; Sumpter, Bobby G; Geohegan, David B; Kong, Jing; Saito, Riichiro; Drndic, Marija; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S


    Orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and other layered materials, such as gallium telluride (GaTe) and tin selenide (SnSe), stand out among two-dimensional (2D) materials owing to their anisotropic in-plane structure. This anisotropy adds a new dimension to the properties of 2D materials and stimulates the development of angle-resolved photonics and electronics. However, understanding the effect of anisotropy has remained unsatisfactory to date, as shown by a number of inconsistencies in the recent literature. We use angle-resolved absorption and Raman spectroscopies to investigate the role of anisotropy on the electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in BP. We highlight, both experimentally and theoretically, a nontrivial dependence between anisotropy and flake thickness and photon and phonon energies. We show that once understood, the anisotropic optical absorption appears to be a reliable and simple way to identify the crystalline orientation of BP, which cannot be determined from Raman spectroscopy without the explicit consideration of excitation wavelength and flake thickness, as commonly used previously.

  13. A flexible strain gauge exhibiting reversible piezoresistivity based on an anisotropic magnetorheological polymer (United States)

    Mietta, José L.; Jorge, Guillermo; Martín Negri, R.


    A flexible, anisotropic and portable stress sensor (logarithmic reversible response between 40-350 kPa) was fabricated, in which i) the sensing material, ii) the electrical contacts and iii) the encapsulating material, were based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites. The sensing material is a slide of an anisotropic magnetorheological elastomer (MRE), formed by dispersing silver-covered magnetite particles (Fe3O4@Ag) in PDMS and by curing in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. Thus, the MRE is a structure of electrically conducting pseudo-chains (needles) aligned in a specific direction, in which electrical conductivity increases when stress is exclusively applied in the direction of the needles. Electrical conductivity appears only between contact points that face each other at both sides of the MRE slide. An array of electrical contacts was implemented based on PDMS-silver paint metallic composites. The array was encapsulated with PDMS. Using Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles also opens up possibilities for a magnetic field sensor, due to the magnetoresistance effects.

  14. Spring-like motion caused large anisotropic thermal expansion in nonporous M(eim)2 (M = Zn, Cd). (United States)

    Liu, Zhanning; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Qiang; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran


    Two nonporous coordination polymers were found to possess large anisotropic thermal expansion, which was derived from the flexible structures. A "spring-like" thermal motion was proposed to illustrate the mechanism. Compound Cd(eim) 2 (eim = 2-ethylimidazole) possesses large linear and reversible thermal expansion properties and the emission intensity shows a linear decrease with temperature, making it a candidate for thermo-responsive materials.

  15. Forward and inverse problems for surface acoustic waves in anisotropic media: A Ritz-Rayleigh method based approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stoklasová, Pavla; Sedlák, Petr; Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal


    Roč. 56, February 2015 (2015), s. 381-389 ISSN 0041-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP101/12/P428 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : surface acoustic waves * anisotropic materials * Ritz-Rayleigh method * inverse problem Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.954, year: 2015

  16. Molecular Location Sensing Approach by Anisotropic Magnetism of an Endohedral Metallofullerene. (United States)

    Takano, Yuta; Tashita, Ryo; Suzuki, Mitsuaki; Nagase, Shigeru; Imahori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Takeshi


    Location recognition at the molecular scale provides valuable information about the nature of functional molecular materials. This study presents a novel location sensing approach based on an endohedral metallofullerene, Ce@C82, using its anisotropic magnetic properties, which lead to temperature-dependent paramagnetic shifts in (1)H NMR spectra. Five site-isomers of Ce@C82CH2-3,5-C6H3Me2 were synthesized to demonstrate the spatial sensing ability of Ce@C82. Single-crystal structures, absorption spectra, and density functional theory calculations were used to select the plausible addition positions in the radical coupling reaction, which preferentially happens on the carbon atoms with high electron density of the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) and positive charge. Temperature-dependent NMR measurements demonstrated unique paramagnetic shifts of the (1)H peaks, which were derived from the anisotropic magnetism of the f-electron in the Ce atom of the isomers. It was found that the magnetic anisotropy axes can be easily predicted by theoretical calculations using the Gaussian 09 package. Further analysis revealed that the temperature-dependent trend in the shifts is clearly predictable from the distance and relative position of the proton from the Ce atom. Hence, the Ce-encapsulated metallofullerene Ce@C82 can provide spatial location information about nearby atoms through the temperature-dependent paramagnetic shifts of its NMR signals. It can act as a molecular probe for location sensing by utilizing the anisotropic magnetism of the encapsulated Ce atom. The potentially low toxicity and stability of the endohedral fullerene would make Ce@C82 suitable for applications in biology and material science.

  17. 2D seismic reflection tomography in strongly anisotropic media (United States)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zelin


    Seismic traveltime tomography is an effective method to reconstruct underground anisotropic parameters. Currently, most anisotropic tomographic methods were developed under the assumption of weak anisotropy. The tomographic method proposed here can be implemented for imaging subsurface targets in strongly anisotropic media with a known tilted symmetry axis, since the adopted ray tracing method is suitable for anisotropic media with arbitrary degree. There are three kinds of reflection waves (qP, qSV and qSH waves) that were separately used to invert the blocky abnormal body model. The reflection traveltime tomographiy is developed here because a surface observation system is the most economical and practical way compared with crosswell and VSP. The numerical examples show that the traveltimes of qP reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}13},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully. Traveltimes of qSV reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully, with the exception of the {{c}13}, since it is less sensitive than other parameters. Traveltimes of qSH reflection wave also have inverted parameters {{c}44} \\text{and} {{c}66} successfully. In addition, we find that the velocity sensitivity functions (derivatives of phase velocity with respect to elastic moduli parameters) and raypath illuminating angles have a great influence on the qualities of tomograms according to the inversion of theoretical models. Finally, the numerical examples confirm that the reflection traveltime tomography can be applied to invert strongly anisotropic models.

  18. Formulation of cross-anisotropic failure criterion for soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-fei Sun


    Full Text Available Inherently anisotropic soil fabric has a considerable influence on soil strength. To model this kind of inherent anisotropy, a three-dimensional anisotropic failure criterion was proposed, employing a scalar-valued anisotropic variable and a modified general threedimensional isotropic failure criterion. The scalar-valued anisotropic variable in all sectors of the deviatoric plane was defined by correlating a normalized stress tensor with a normalized fabric tensor. Detailed comparison between the available experimental data and the corresponding model predictions in the deviatoric plane was conducted. The proposed failure criterion was shown to well predict the failure behavior in all sectors, especially in sector II with the Lode angle ranging between 60° and 120°, where the prediction was almost in accordance with test data. However, it was also observed that the proposed criterion overestimated the strength of dense Santa Monica Beach sand in sector III where the intermediate principal stress ratio b varied from approximately 0.2 to 0.8, and slightly underestimated the strength when b was between approximately 0.8 and 1. The difference between the model predictions and experimental data was due to the occurrence of shear bending, which might reduce the measured strength. Therefore, the proposed anisotropic failure criterion has a strong ability to characterize the failure behavior of various soils and potentially allows a better description of the influence of the loading direction with respect to the soil fabric.

  19. Gaseous bubble oscillations in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids under influence of high-frequency acoustic field (United States)

    Golykh, R. N.


    Progress of technology and medicine dictates the ever-increasing requirements (heat resistance, corrosion resistance, strength properties, impregnating ability, etc.) for non-Newtonian fluids and materials produced on their basis (epoxy resin, coating materials, liquid crystals, etc.). Materials with improved properties obtaining is possible by modification of their physicochemical structure. One of the most promising approaches to the restructuring of non-Newtonian fluids is cavitation generated by high-frequency acoustic vibrations. The efficiency of cavitation in non-Newtonian fluid is determined by dynamics of gaseous bubble. Today, bubble dynamics in isotropic non-Newtonian fluids, in which cavitation bubble shape remains spherical, is most full investigated, because the problem reduces to ordinary differential equation for spherical bubble radius. However, gaseous bubble in anisotropic fluids which are most wide kind of non-Newtonian fluids (due to orientation of macromolecules) deviates from spherical shape due to viscosity dependence on shear rate direction. Therefore, the paper presents the mathematical model of gaseous bubble dynamics in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids. The model is based on general equations for anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid flow. The equations are solved by asymptotic decomposition of fluid flow parameters. It allowed evaluating bubble size and shape evolution depending on rheological properties of liquid and acoustic field characteristics.

  20. Bulletin of Materials Science | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 6. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 26, Issue 6. October 2003, pages 569-654. pp 569-574 Semiconductors. Anisotropic behaviour of semiconducting tin monosulphoselenide single crystals · T H Patel Rajiv Vaidya S G Patel · More Details Abstract Fulltext ...

  1. Tailoring complex optical fields via anisotropic microstructures (Presentation Recording) (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Qing; Hu, Wei; Cui, Guo-Xin


    In recent years, complex optical fields with spatially inhomogeneous phases, polarizations and optical singularities have drawn many research interests. Many novel effects have been predicted and demonstrated for light beams with these unconventional states in both linear and nonlinear optics regimes. Although local optical phase could be controlled directly or through hologram structures in isotropic materials such as glasses, optical anisotropy is still required for manipulating polarization states and wavelengths. The anisotropy could be either intrinsic such as in crystals/liquid crystals (LCs) or the induced birefringence from dielectric or metallic structures. In this talk, we will briefly review some of our attempts in tailoring complex optical fields via anisotropic microstructures. We developed a micro-photo-patterning system that could generate complex micro-images then further guides the arbitrary local LC directors. Due to the electro-optically (EO) tunable anisotropy of LC, various reconfigurable complex optical fields such as optical vortices (OVs), multiplexed OVs, OV array, Airy beams and vector beams are obtained. Different LC modes such as homogeneous alignment nematic, hybrid alignment nematic and even blue phase LCs are adopted to optimize the static and dynamic beam characteristics depending on application circumstances. We are also trying to extend our approaches to new wavelength bands, such as mid-infrared and even THz ranges. Some preliminary results are obtained. In addition, based on our recently developed local poling techniques for ferroelectric crystals, we will also discuss and demonstrate the nonlinear complex optical field conversion in Lithium Niobate wafers with patterned ferroelectric domain structures.

  2. An anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic damage model for bone tissue. (United States)

    Schwiedrzik, J J; Zysset, P K


    A new anisotropic elastic-viscoplastic damage constitutive model for bone is proposed using an eccentric elliptical yield criterion and nonlinear isotropic hardening. A micromechanics-based multiscale homogenization scheme proposed by Reisinger et al. is used to obtain the effective elastic properties of lamellar bone. The dissipative process in bone is modeled as viscoplastic deformation coupled to damage. The model is based on an orthotropic ecuntric elliptical criterion in stress space. In order to simplify material identification, an eccentric elliptical isotropic yield surface was defined in strain space, which is transformed to a stress-based criterion by means of the damaged compliance tensor. Viscoplasticity is implemented by means of the continuous Perzyna formulation. Damage is modeled by a scalar function of the accumulated plastic strain [Formula: see text] , reducing all element s of the stiffness matrix. A polynomial flow rule is proposed in order to capture the rate-dependent post-yield behavior of lamellar bone. A numerical algorithm to perform the back projection on the rate-dependent yield surface has been developed and implemented in the commercial finite element solver Abaqus/Standard as a user subroutine UMAT. A consistent tangent operator has been derived and implemented in order to ensure quadratic convergence. Correct implementation of the algorithm, convergence, and accuracy of the tangent operator was tested by means of strain- and stress-based single element tests. A finite element simulation of nano- indentation in lamellar bone was finally performed in order to show the abilities of the newly developed constitutive model.

  3. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials. (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun


    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  4. The anisotropic magnetocaloric effect described by Maxwell formulation: Application to DyAl{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, E.J.R., E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica ' Armando Dias Tavares' , Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - UERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Sousa, V.S.R. de; Alho, B.P.; Ranke, P.J. von [Instituto de Fisica ' Armando Dias Tavares' , Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro - UERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)


    In this work we present the Maxwell-like formulation of the anisotropic magnetocaloric effect for materials in single crystalline form subjected to a rotating applied magnetic field of constant intensity. This effect is a new topic in the magnetocaloric research area and can highlight some relevant mechanisms on spin reorientation. Application of the model to the ferromagnetic compounds DyAl{sub 2} and TbNi{sub 2}, which are subjected to cubic crystalline electric field anisotropy and isotropic exchange interaction, are performed. We obtain continuous and discontinuous reorientation transitions for the Cartesian components of magnetization which revealed some characteristics of the anisotropic magnetocaloric curves.

  5. 3-D waveform tomography sensitivity kernels for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi


    The complications in anisotropic multi-parameter inversion lie in the trade-off between the different anisotropy parameters. We compute the tomographic waveform sensitivity kernels for a VTI acoustic medium perturbation as a tool to investigate this ambiguity between the different parameters. We use dynamic ray tracing to efficiently handle the expensive computational cost for 3-D anisotropic models. Ray tracing provides also the ray direction information necessary for conditioning the sensitivity kernels to handle anisotropy. The NMO velocity and η parameter kernels showed a maximum sensitivity for diving waves which results in a relevant choice of those parameters in wave equation tomography. The δ parameter kernel showed zero sensitivity; therefore it can serve as a secondary parameter to fit the amplitude in the acoustic anisotropic inversion. Considering the limited penetration depth of diving waves, migration velocity analysis based kernels are introduced to fix the depth ambiguity with reflections and compute sensitivity maps in the deeper parts of the model.

  6. Electromagnetic waves in uniaxial anisotropic chiral waveguides in magnetized plasma (United States)

    Ghaffar, A.; Alkanhal, Majeed A. S.


    The characteristics of guided modes in circular waveguides of a uniaxial anisotropic chiral core and a cladding filled with anisotropic plasma are presented. The cladding region is assumed to be infinitely extended with an external applied magnetic field oriented along the direction of propagation in the waveguide. The characteristics equation for the modes in this waveguide are obtained. The variations of the propagation properties with the plasma parameters, chiral parameters, and the cyclotron frequency of plasma have been investigated. Particularly, the effects of the chirality and the cyclotron frequency of plasma on the magnitude and orientation of the energy flux of the guided modes for three kinds of uniaxial anisotropic chiral media have been numerically investigated. Comparisons of the computed results of the presented formulations with published results for some special cases confirm the accuracy of the presented analyses.

  7. Detection of the default mode network by an anisotropic analysis (United States)

    Forero, Aura; Romero, Eduardo


    This document presents a proposal devoted to improve the detection of the default mode network (DMN) in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in noisy conditions caused by head movement. The proposed approach is inspired by the hierarchical treatment of information, in particular at the level of the brain basal ganglia. Essentially, the fact that information must be selected and reduced suggests propagation of information in the Central Nervous System (CNS) is anisotropic. Under this hypothesis, the reconstruction of information of activation should follow an anisotropic pattern. In this work, an anisotropic filter is used to recover the DMN that is perturbed by simulated motion artifacts. Results obtained show this approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by 5.93% PSNR.

  8. Anisotropic spreading of liquid metal on a rough intermetallic surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen


    Full Text Available An anisotropic wicking of molten Sn-Pb solder over an intermetallic rough surface has been studied. The phenomenon features preferential spreading and forming of an elliptical spread domain. A theoretically formulated model was established to predict the ratio of the wicking distance along the long axis (rx to that along the short axis (ry of the final wicking pattern. The phenomenon was simultaneously experimentally observed and recorded with a hotstage microscopy technique. The anisotropic wicking is established to be caused by a non-uniform topography of surface micro structures as opposed to an isotropic wicking on an intermetallic surface with uniformly distributed surface micro features. The relative deviation between the theoretically predicted rx/ry ratio and the corresponding average experimental value is 5%. Hence, the small margin of error confirms the validity of the proposed theoretical model of anisotropic wicking.

  9. Investigation of anisotropic scattering for optical tomography in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercimek, M.; Yildirim, H.; Geckinli, M.; Aydin, M.; Aydin, E. D.


    Photons with wavelengths in near infrared region are used in optical tomography. Radiation transport theory should be preferred instead of diffusion theory for numerical modelling of photon migration in biological tissues, where diffusion theory is invalid. For example, diffusion theory is not sufficient in the regions of close to boundaries, sources or sinks and highly absorbing or void-like media. Also anisotropic scattering must be considered in the numerical models since scattering is generally highly anisotropic in biological tissues. In addition to the absorption and scattering coefficients, a suitable phase function must be known in anisotropic scattering study. Here we have compared scattering phase functions for anisotropy. Then we have calculated Legendre moments which are necessary for the implementation of anisotropy factors into the transport code, PARTISN. Discrete ordinates method (SN) has been used in the transport calculations. We have obtained solutions first a homogeneous and then heterogeneous medium.

  10. Thermodynamics and instabilities of a strongly coupled anisotropic plasma (United States)

    Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego


    We extend our analysis of a IIB supergravity solution dual to a spatially anisotropic finite-temperature mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma. The solution is static, possesses an anisotropic horizon, and is completely regular. The full geometry can be viewed as a renormalization group flow from an AdS geometry in the ultraviolet to a Lifshitz-like geometry in the infrared. The anisotropy can be equivalently understood as resulting from a position-dependent θ-term or from a non-zero number density of dissolved D7-branes. The holographic stress tensor is conserved and anisotropic. The presence of a conformal anomaly plays an important role in the thermodynamics. The phase diagram exhibits homogeneous and inhomogeneous (i.e. mixed) phases. In some regions the homogeneous phase displays instabilities reminiscent of those of weakly coupled plasmas. We comment on similarities with QCD at finite baryon density and with the phenomenon of cavitation.

  11. Nonlinear, anisotropic, and giant photoconductivity in intrinsic and doped graphene (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Saikat; Agarwal, Amit


    We present a framework to calculate the anisotropic and nonlinear photoconductivity for two band systems with application to graphene. In contrast to the usual perturbative (second order in the optical field strength) techniques, we calculate photoconductivity to all orders in the optical field strength. In particular, for graphene, we find the photoresponse to be giant (at large optical field strengths) and anisotropic. The anisotropic photoresponse in graphene is correlated with polarization of the incident field, with the response being similar to that of a half-wave plate. We predict that the anisotropy in the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal (σx x) and transverse (σy x) photoconductivity, with four probes, offers a unique experimental signature of the photovoltaic response, distinguishing it from the thermal-Seebeck and bolometric effects in photoresponse.

  12. Modeling of charged anisotropic compact stars in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayanandan, Baiju; Maurya, S.K.; T, Smitha T. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman)


    A charged compact star model has been determined for anisotropic fluid distribution. We have solved the Einstein-Maxwell field equations to construct the charged compact star model by using the radial pressure, the metric function e{sup λ} and the electric charge function. The generic charged anisotropic solution is verified by exploring different physical conditions like causality condition, mass-radius relation and stability of the solution (via the adiabatic index, TOV equations and the Herrera cracking concept). It is observed that the present charged anisotropic compact star model is compatible with the star PSR 1937+21. Moreover, we also presented the EOS ρ = f(p) for the present charged compact star model. (orig.)

  13. Self-force on dislocation segments in anisotropic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, S P; Aubry, S


    A dislocation segment in a crystal experiences a 'self-force', by virtue of the orientation dependence of its elastic energy. If the crystal is elastically isotropic, this force is manifested as a couple acting to rotate the segment toward the lower energy of the pure screw orientation (i.e. acting to align the dislocation line with its Burgers vector). If the crystal is anisotropic, there are additional contributions to the couple, arising from the more complex energy landscape of the lattice itself. These effects can strongly influence the dynamic evolution of dislocation networks, and via their governing role in dislocation multiplication phenomena, control plastic flow in metals. In this paper we develop a model for dislocation self-forces in a general anisotropic crystal, and briefly consider the technologically important example of α-iron, which becomes increasingly anisotropic as the temperature approaches that of the α-γ phase transition at 912 0 C.

  14. Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Magneto-Rheological Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer and Natural Rubber Type Synthetic Rubbers for Both Isotropic and Anisotropic Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Mazlum


    Full Text Available Magneto-rheological (MR materials are in a smart material class that has the rheological properties to be quickly and reversibly controlled with the external magnetic field applications. Considering the technological developments the rubber-like smart materials has had a more functional usage area with magneto- rheological effect. This study investigates the axial mechanical properties of magneto-rheological Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM and Natural Rubber (NR type synthetic rubbers for isotropic and anisotropic situations. Also, these composite materials were built by means of hot press systems as either isotropic or anisotropic using magnetic field application after addition of ferromagnetic powders. The influence of magnetic field was investigated. In this study, NR rubber was found to be more susceptible in terms of smart material properties unlike EPDM synthetic rubber.

  15. Fabrication of Aligned-Carbon-Nanotube-Composite Paper with High and Anisotropic Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujitsuka


    Full Text Available A functional carbon-nanotube (CNT-composite paper is described in which the CNTs are aligned. This “aligned-CNT composite paper” is a flexible composite material that has CNT functionality (e.g., electrical conductivity despite being a paper. An advanced fabrication method was developed to overcome the problem of previous CNT-composite papers, that is, reduced conductivity due to random CNT alignment. Aligning the CNTs by using an alternating current (AC field was hypothesized to increase the electrical conductivity and give the paper an anisotropic characteristic. Experimental results showed that a nonionic surfactant was not suitable as a CNT dispersant for fabricating aligned-CNT composite paper and that catechin with its six-membered rings and hydrophilic groups was suitable. Observation by scanning electron microscopy of samples prepared using catechin showed that the CNTs were aligned in the direction of the AC field on the paper fibers. Measurement of the electric conductivity showed that the surface resistance was different between the direction of the aligned CNTs (high conductivity and that of verticality (low. The conductivity of the aligned-CNT-composite paper samples was higher than that of nonaligned samples. This unique and functional paper, which has high and anisotropic conductivity, is applicable to a conductive material to control the direction of current.

  16. On the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Selective Laser-Melted Stainless Steel. (United States)

    Hitzler, Leonhard; Hirsch, Johann; Heine, Burkhard; Merkel, Markus; Hall, Wayne; Öchsner, Andreas


    The thorough description of the peculiarities of additively manufactured (AM) structures represents a current challenge for aspiring freeform fabrication methods, such as selective laser melting (SLM). These methods have an immense advantage in the fast fabrication (no special tooling or moulds required) of components, geometrical flexibility in their design, and efficiency when only small quantities are required. However, designs demand precise knowledge of the material properties, which in the case of additively manufactured structures are anisotropic and, under certain circumstances, inhomogeneous in nature. Furthermore, these characteristics are highly dependent on the fabrication settings. In this study, the anisotropic tensile properties of selective laser-melted stainless steel (1.4404, 316L) are investigated: the Young's modulus ranged from 148 to 227 GPa, the ultimate tensile strength from 512 to 699 MPa, and the breaking elongation ranged, respectively, from 12% to 43%. The results were compared to related studies in order to classify the influence of the fabrication settings. Furthermore, the influence of the chosen raw material was addressed by comparing deviations on the directional dependencies reasoned from differing microstructural developments during manufacture. Stainless steel was found to possess its maximum strength at a 45° layer versus loading offset, which is precisely where AlSi10Mg was previously reported to be at its weakest.

  17. A unified inelastic constitutive equation in terms of anisotropic yield function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.; Imatani, S.


    In order to describe the material behavior under complicated loading conditions, inelastic constitutive equations accounting for the plasticity-creep interaction have been proposed by several researchers. However, these models are developed to predict the hardening and/or softening phenomena during the inelastic deformation processes, and two important features still remain to be considered; material anisotropy induced by the prior deformation history and inelastic flow or, in another word, directionality of the inelastic strain rate. This paper deals with a unified constitutive model capable of expressing both the deformation-induced anisotropy and the anisotropic flow. In the first part of the paper, an anisotropic yield function which can simulate both the Bauschinger effect and the cross effect is proposed. Then, the excess stress theory is applied to a viscoplastic constitutive relationship so as to describe the plasticity-creep interaction behavior. The experimental verification is carried out for SUS304 stainless steel at 650 degrees C in a biaxial stress state. Moreover, a generalized flow rule of the inelastic strain rate is also developed, by which the description of the ratcheting process can be improved

  18. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)


    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup

  19. Lower critical field of an anisotropic type-II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, R.A.; Clem, J.R.


    We consider the Ginzburg-Landau free energy of the anisotropic mass form in the presence of a magnetic field of arbitrary fixed direction. It is shown that the free energy may be transformed into the isotropic Ginsburg-Landau form with a kappa that depends upon the direction of the magnetic induction B relative to the crystal lattice. The lower critical field H/sub c/1 is then found for arbitrary direction of B. For highly anisotropic crystals the angular dependence of H/sub c/1 can exhibit a discontinuity or a cusp. The special case of a crystal with uniaxial symmetry is considered in detail

  20. Anisotropic extension of Finch and Skea stellar model (United States)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam; Thirukkanesh, S.


    In this paper, the spacetime geometry of Finch and Skea [Class. Quantum Gravity 6:467, 1989] has been utilized to obtain closed-form solutions for a spherically symmetric anisotropic matter distribution. By examining its physical admissibility, we have shown that the class of solutions can be used as viable models for observed pulsars. In particular, a specific class of solutions can be used as an `anisotropic switch' to examine the impact of anisotropy on the gross physical properties of a stellar configuration. Accordingly, the mass-radius relationship has been analyzed.

  1. Anisotropic Liquid Microcapsules from Biomimetic Self-Folding Polymer Films. (United States)

    Zakharchenko, Svetlana; Ionov, Leonid


    We demonstrated a novel approach for the fabrication of anisotropic capsules with liquid content using biomimetic self-folding thermoresponsive polymer films. The behavior of self-folding films is very similar to actuation in plants, where nonhomogenous swelling results in complex movements such as twisting, bending, or folding. This approach allows the design of anisotropic liquid capsules with rodlike and dumbbell-like morphologies. We found that these capsules are able to assemble into different complex structures, such as nematic-like one and 3D network depending on their morphology.

  2. Remarks on anisotropy of inertia in an anisotropic cosmos (United States)

    Treder, Hans-Juergen


    The astronomical and physical meaning of the anisotropy of inertia is analyzed with respect to the relativity of inertia and anisotropic distributions of gravitating matter in the universe. Attention is given to the theoretical compatibility of the anisotropy of inertial masses with Mach's principle of the relativity of inertia and the Mach-Einstein doctrine of general relativity. Mach's principle does not imply anisotropy of inertial masses in an anisotropic universe, and the isotropy of cosmological mass is supported by the Mach-Einstein theories.

  3. Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan


    We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength of multi...... orders of magnitude, and suggesting the possibility of building graphene electronic circuits based on the unique properties of chiral massless Dirac fermions in graphene.......We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...

  4. All spherically symmetric charged anisotropic solutions for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, UP (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)


    In the present paper we develop an algorithm for all spherically symmetric anisotropic charged fluid distributions. Considering a new source function ν(r) we find a set of solutions which is physically well behaved and represents compact stellar models. A detailed study specifically shows that the models actually correspond to strange stars in terms of their mass and radius. In this connection we investigate several physical properties like energy conditions, stability, mass-radius ratio, electric charge content, anisotropic nature and surface redshift through graphical plots and mathematical calculations. All the features from these studies are in excellent agreement with the already available evidence in theory as well as observations. (orig.)

  5. Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds. The the......A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds...... on the susceptibility, the first and second moment frequencies and the line shape are calculated self-consistently....

  6. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian


    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  7. Integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures in Cartesian coordinates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červený, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan


    Roč. 25, - (2015), s. 109-155 ISSN 2336-3827 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : integral superposition of paraxial Gaussian beams * inhomogeneous anisotropic media * S waves in weakly anisotropic media Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  8. A Morphing framework to couple non-local and local anisotropic continua

    KAUST Repository

    Azdoud, Yan


    In this article, we develop a method to couple anisotropic local continua with anisotropic non-local continua with central long-range forces. First, we describe anisotropic non-local models based on spherical harmonic descriptions. We then derive compatible classic continuum models. Finally, we apply the morphing method to these anisotropic non-local models and present three-dimensional numerical examples to validate the efficiency of the technique. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds for advanced drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalani G


    Full Text Available Ghulam Jalani,* Chan Woo Jung,* Jae Sang Lee, Dong Woo Lim Department of Bionano Engineering, College of Engineering Sciences, Hanyang University, Education Research Industry Cluster at Ansan Campus, Ansan, South Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Stimuli-responsive, polymer-based nanostructures with anisotropic compartments are of great interest as advanced materials because they are capable of switching their shape via environmentally-triggered conformational changes, while maintaining discrete compartments. In this study, a new class of stimuli-responsive, anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds with physically and chemically distinct compartments was prepared via electrohydrodynamic cojetting with side-by-side needle geometry. These nanofibers have a thermally responsive, physically-crosslinked compartment, and a chemically-crosslinked compartment at the nanoscale. The thermally responsive compartment is composed of physically crosslinkable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide poly(NIPAM copolymers, and poly(NIPAM-co-stearyl acrylate poly(NIPAM-co-SA, while the thermally-unresponsive compartment is composed of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylates. The two distinct compartments were physically crosslinked by the hydrophobic interaction of the stearyl chains of poly(NIPAM-co-SA or chemically stabilized via ultraviolet irradiation, and were swollen in physiologically relevant buffers due to their hydrophilic polymer networks. Bicompartmental nanofibers with the physically-crosslinked network of the poly(NIPAM-co-SA compartment showed a thermally-triggered shape change due to thermally-induced aggregation of poly(NIPAM-co-SA. Furthermore, when bovine serum albumin and dexamethasone phosphate were separately loaded into each compartment, the bicompartmental nanofibers with anisotropic actuation exhibited decoupled, controlled release profiles of both drugs in response to a temperature. A new class of multicompartmental nanofibers could be

  10. Anisotropic Margin Expansions in 6 Anatomic Directions for Oropharyngeal Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yock, Adam D.; Garden, Adam S.; Court, Laurence E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Zhang, Lifei; Dong, Lei


    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to determine the expansions in 6 anatomic directions that produced optimal margins considering nonrigid setup errors and tissue deformation for patients receiving image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) of the oropharynx. Methods and Materials: For 20 patients who had received IGRT to the head and neck, we deformably registered each patient's daily images acquired with a computed tomography (CT)-on-rails system to his or her planning CT. By use of the resulting vector fields, the positions of volume elements within the clinical target volume (CTV) (target voxels) or within a 1-cm shell surrounding the CTV (normal tissue voxels) on the planning CT were identified on each daily CT. We generated a total of 15,625 margins by dilating the CTV by 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 mm in the posterior, anterior, lateral, medial, inferior, and superior directions. The optimal margins were those that minimized the relative volume of normal tissue voxels positioned within the margin while satisfying 1 of 4 geometric target coverage criteria and 1 of 3 population criteria. Results: Each pair of geometric target coverage and population criteria resulted in a unique, anisotropic, optimal margin. The optimal margin expansions ranged in magnitude from 1 to 5 mm depending on the anatomic direction of the expansion and on the geometric target coverage and population criteria. Typically, the expansions were largest in the medial direction, were smallest in the lateral direction, and increased with the demand of the criteria. The anisotropic margin resulting from the optimal set of expansions always included less normal tissue than did any isotropic margin that satisfied the same pair of criteria. Conclusions: We demonstrated the potential of anisotropic margins to reduce normal tissue exposure without compromising target coverage in IGRT to the head and neck

  11. Synthesis, Structure, and Rigid Unit Mode-like Anisotropic Thermal Expansion of BaIr2In9. (United States)

    Calta, Nicholas P; Han, Fei; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G


    This Article reports the synthesis of large single crystals of BaIr2In9 using In flux and their characterization by variable-temperature single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, resistivity, and magnetization measurements. The title compound adopts the BaFe2Al9-type structure in the space group P6/mmm with room temperature unit cell parameters a = 8.8548(6) Å and c = 4.2696(4) Å. BaIr2In9 exhibits anisotropic thermal expansion behavior with linear expansion along the c axis more than 3 times larger than expansion in the ab plane between 90 and 400 K. This anisotropic expansion originates from a rigid unit mode-like mechanism similar to the mechanism of zero and negative thermal expansion observed in many anomalous thermal expansion materials such as ZrW2O8 and ScF3.

  12. Topological defects and electro-convective flows in anisotropic fluids: A microfluidic platform for nano-objects tunable structuring (United States)

    Provenzano, C.; Mazzulla, A.; Chiaravalloti, F.; Audia, B.; Cipparrone, G.


    Anisotropic fluids are a class of soft materials that offer wide possibilities for engineering a small scale laboratory; their physical properties can be manipulated on short length scale by appropriate confining conditions and external stimuli leading the systems across fascinating phenomena. In this work, two of these phenomena are combined to create a microfluidic platform for reconfigurable nanoparticles (NPs) patterning: the formation of topological defects and the electrically controlled convective flows. Here, the nanoscopic environments created by defects within liquid crystals have been used as linear nano-reservoirs of NPs. Afterwards, virtual channel flows that connect the linear reservoirs have been created by exploiting electro-convective rolls. The reported results reveal a strategy for managing nanometric objects based on anisotropic fluids and connected phenomena, proposing an unconventional microfluidic device characterized by switchable and contactless micro-channels.

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering in materials science - an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratzl, P. [Vienna Univ., Inst. fuer Materialphysik, Vienna (Austria)


    The basic principles of the application of small-angle neutron scattering to materials research are summarized. The text focusses on the classical methods of data evaluation for isotropic and for anisotropic materials. Some examples of applications to the study of alloys, porous materials, composites and other complex materials are given. (author) 9 figs., 38 refs.

  14. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... follows. The reinforcement here consists of long bars or fibres and complete bond between matrix and reinforcement is assumed so that no problems arising from incomplete transfer of adhesive and frictional forces are discussed. During loading, the reinforcement may yield, but total failure does not take...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  15. Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous optically anisotropic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.


    When the optical behavior of light in a medium depends on the direction in which light is traveling, the medium is called optically anisotropic. Light is an electromagnetic wave and in this thesis, we discuss the electromagnetic theory on optical anisotropy. We do this with the assumption that the

  16. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mater. Sci., Vol. 40, No. 2, April 2017, pp. 395–406. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-017-1383-3. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded. AA2017 aluminium alloy. A MAY. Laboratoire Génie des Matériaux, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique, BP 17, Bordj El Bahri 16046, Algeria.

  17. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Ekanem


    Apr 5, 2018 ... fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs to complement the use of other seismic attributes. Despite the con- certed effort in research and development related to seismic characterization of fractured reservoirs using anisotropic wave scattering, pragmatic uti- lization of this attribute in geophysical exploration.

  18. On the interpretation of time-resolved anisotropic diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    In this paper, we review existing systematic treatments for the interpretation of anisotropic diffraction patterns from partially aligned symmetric top molecules. Such patterns arise in the context of time-resolved diffraction experiments. We calculate diffraction patterns for ground-state Na...

  19. On the origins of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of extruded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents some experimental investigations about the origins of the anisotropic behaviour in cyclic loadings of AA2017 aluminium alloy. In the first step, fatigue damage evolutions were quantified for controlled proportional cyclic loadings in axial and shear directions. In this stage, the aim was to confirm the ...

  20. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–. Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous fluid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been stud- ied and some assumptions ...

  1. Anisotropic cosmological models and generalized scalar tensor theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper generalized scalar tensor theory has been considered in the background of anisotropic cosmological models, namely, axially symmetric Bianchi-I, Bianchi-III and Kortowski–Sachs space-time. For bulk viscous fluid, both exponential and power-law solutions have been studied and some assumptions among the ...

  2. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    (1956) equations neglecting the heat flux vector. Gravitational instability on propagation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in astrophysical plasma is investigated by Alemayehu and Tessema (2013a) by considering the effect of gravitational instability and viscosity with anisotropic pressure tensor and heat conducting.

  3. Three anisotropic benchmark problems for adaptive finite element methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolín, Pavel; Čertík, O.; Korous, L.


    Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7286-7295 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : benchmark problem * anisotropic solution * boundary layer Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013

  4. Metastability thresholds for anisotropic bootstrap percolation in three dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.


    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  5. Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Enter, A.C.D.; Fey, A.


    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  6. Finite-size effects for anisotropic bootstrap percolation : Logarithmic corrections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enter, Aernout C. D.; Hulshof, Tim

    In this note we analyse an anisotropic, two-dimensional bootstrap percolation model introduced by Gravner and Griffeath. We present upper and lower bounds on the finite-size effects. We discuss the similarities with the semi-oriented model introduced by Duarte.

  7. Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Aernout C.D. van; Fey, Anne

    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  8. Some dynamical properties of anisotropic collisionless stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, G.; Pegoraro, F.


    The linear stability analysis of collisionless anisotropic spherical stellar systems presents many unresolved issues. Planning to study the stability of a simple and astrophysically interesting equilibrium seuence ∞ for such stellar systems, we describe here some analytical characterizations of the ∞-distribution functions, formulate the linearized equations for stability, and discuss the relevant boundary conditions. (author). 19 refs.; 1 tab

  9. New exact models for anisotropic matter with electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jefta M Sunzu


    Sep 5, 2017 ... In our models, we consider the stellar object that is anisotropic and charged with linear equation of state consistent with quark stars. ... Einstein–Maxwell equations; anisotropy; charged matter; equation of state. PACS Nos 04.20. .... Sunzu et al [3] which was a general cubic polynomial. However, our choice ...

  10. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    equations (Auriault et al 1985) in terms of solid displacement and fluid pressure, whereas Biot's equations were in terms of displacements of both the solid and fluid phases. Homogenisation has proven that .... (8) to (10) imply that, in homogenisation approach, the anisotropic inertial coupling is hiding in the tensor {ˆρij}.

  11. Exact anisotropic sphere with polytropic equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study static spherically symmetric spacetime to describe compact objects with anisotropic matter distribution. We express the system of Einstein field equations as a new system of differential equations using a coordinate transformation, and then write the system in another form with polytropic equation of state ...

  12. Anisotropic Born-Mayer potential in lattice dynamics of Vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuagba, B.N.


    A microscopic theory of the lattice dynamics of the transition metal vanadium is developed based on the Animalu's transition metal model potential (TMMP). The Born-Mayer potential associated with the distribution of the transition metal d-electrons is treated as anisotropic. Good agreement with experimental phonon dispersion curves longitudinal branches in the [111] direction

  13. Anisotropic strain and phonon deformation potentials in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darakchieva, V.; Arwin, H.; Paskov, P. P.; Monemar, B.; Paskova, T.; Hommel, D.; Schubert, M.; Heuken, M.; Off, J.; Scholz, F.; Haskell, B. A.; Fini, P. T.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.


    We report optical phonon frequency studies in anisotropically strained c-plane- and a-plane-oriented GaN films by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The anisotropic strain in the films is obtained from high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. Experimental evidence for splitting of the GaN E 1 (TO), E 1 (LO), and E 2 phonons under anisotropic strain in the basal plane is presented, and their phonon deformation potentials c E 1 (TO) , c E 1 (LO) , and c E 2 are determined. A distinct correlation between anisotropic strain and the A 1 (TO) and E 1 (LO) frequencies of a-plane GaN films reveals the a A 1 (TO) , b A 1 (TO) , a E 1 (LO) , and b E 1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials. The a A 1 (TO) and b A 1 (TO) are found to be in very good agreement with previous results from Raman experiments [V. Yu. Davydov et al., J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997)]. Our a A 1 (TO) and a E 1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials agree well with recently reported theoretical estimations [J.-M. Wagner and F. Bechstedt, Phys. Rev. B 66, 115202 (2002)], while b A 1 (TO) and b E 1 (LO) are found to be significantly larger than the theoretical values. A discussion of the observed differences is presented

  14. Double anisotropic electrically conductive flexible Janus-typed membranes. (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Ma, Qianli; Tian, Jiao; Xi, Xue; Li, Dan; Dong, Xiangting; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Xinlu; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia


    Novel type III anisotropic conductive films (ACFs), namely flexible Janus-typed membranes, were proposed, designed and fabricated for the first time. Flexible Janus-typed membranes composed of ordered Janus nanobelts were constructed by electrospinning, which simultaneously possess fluorescence and double electrically conductive anisotropy. For the fabrication of the Janus-typed membrane, Janus nanobelts comprising a conductive side and an insulative-fluorescent side were primarily fabricated, and then the Janus nanobelts are arranged into parallel arrays using an aluminum rotary drum as the collector to obtain a single anisotropically conductive film. Subsequently, a secondary electrospinning process was applied to the as-prepared single anisotropically conductive films to acquire the final Janus-typed membrane. For this Janus-typed membrane, namely its left-to-right structure, anisotropic electrical conduction synchronously exists on both sides, and furthermore, the two electrically conductive directions are perpendicular. By modulating the amount of Eu(BA) 3 phen complex and conducting polyaniline (PANI), the characteristics and intensity of the fluorescence-electricity dual-function in the membrane can be tuned. The high integration of this peculiar Janus-typed membrane with simultaneous double electrically conductive anisotropy-fluorescent dual-functionality is successfully realized in this study. This design philosophy and preparative technique will provide support for the design and construction of new types of special nanostructures with multi-functionality.

  15. Anisotropic cosmological models in f (R, T) theory of gravitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bianchi spaces are useful tools for constructing spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models in general relativity and scalar–tensor theories of gravitation. Adhav [14] obtained exact solutions of the field equations for LRS. Bianchi type-I space-time with perfect fluid in the framework of f (R, T) theory of grav-.

  16. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study an anisotropic Bianchi-I universe in the presence of a phantom field and a cosmological constant. Cosmological solutions are obtained when the kinetic energy of the phantom field is of the order of anisotropy and dominates over the potential energy of the field. The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the ...

  17. Gmax for Sand by Bender Elements at Anisotropic Stress States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, L.


    elements for two types of sand and with void ratios varying from minimum to maximum. The tests performed are carried out in the Danish Triaxial Cell, and Gmax are determined at different isotropic and anisotropic stress states. The main result of the test program is that Gmax is primarily influenced...

  18. Charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... is the central pressure. At the boundary of the star r = R, pr must vanish, which gives r = R as the radius of the star. This form of radial pressure is prescribed by Sharma and Ratanpal [18] to describe anisotropic stellar model admitting a quadratic equation of state on paraboloidal space-time. Equations (8) and (4) give ν =.

  19. New exact models for anisotropic matter with electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 5, 2017 ... We can also obtain particular anisotropic models obtained by Maharaj, Sunzu, and Ray. The exact solutions corresponding to our models are found explicitly in terms of elementary functions. The graphical plots generated for the matter variables and the electric field are well behaved. We also generate ...

  20. Anisotropic colloids: bulk phase behavior and equilibrium sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marechal, M.A.T.


    This thesis focuses on the phase behavior of anisotropically shaped (i.e. non-spherical) colloids using computer simulations. Only hard-core interactions between the colloids are taken into account to investigate the effects of shape alone. The bulk phase behavior of three different shapes of

  1. Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Though the decoupling of displacement potentials in case of fibre- reinfoced anisotropic elastic media is not possible in the general case, an attempt has been made to decouple the equation as a particular case. The assumptions made in this paper satisfy both set of equations formed by the displacement ...

  2. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The anisotropy of the universe decreases and the universe transits to an isotropic flat FRW universe accommodating the present acceleration. A class of new cosmological solutions is obtained for an anisotropic universe in case an initial anisotropy exists which is bigger than the value determined by the parameter of the ...

  3. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12040-016-0783-x. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic ..... are not flat. The test results demonstrate that anisotropy has a great influence on GB-PSDM in. VTI media, and ignoring anisotropy in migration may lead to obvious ...

  4. Exact anisotropic sphere with polytropic equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    self-gravitating, static, isotropic fluid spheres when pressure explicitly depends on matter density, which invariably leads to non-integrable equations [32]. However, our treatment of anisotropic fluids with polytropic equation of state gets some flexibility in solving the. Einstein field equations with uncharged matter in static ...

  5. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.


    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  6. Minimal Sampling for Effective Acquisition of Anisotropic BRDFs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří


    Roč. 35, č. 7 (2016), s. 299-309 ISSN 0167-7055 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BRDF * anisotropic * measurement Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.611, year: 2016

  7. Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modified Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation define the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...

  8. Propagation of waves in a gravitating and rotating anisotropic heat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inviscid, unbounded, collisionless, gravitating, rotating and heat conducting anisotropic plasma medium which is drifting is considered. The medium is assumed to be embedded in a strong magnetic field. A general dispersion relation is derived using normal mode analysis and its various limiting cases are discussed, ...

  9. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    attribute in geophysical exploration is still restricted perhaps as a result of the ambiguity in its. 51 quantification and difficulty in its interpretation in terms of rock properties (Jeng et al., 1999,. 52. MacBeth, 1999; Rongrong et al., 2006). Thus, the task of using anisotropic wave scattering for fracture. 53 prediction in the Earth's ...

  10. Fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczynski


    Full Text Available In this article we consider the fourth-order discrete anisotropic boundary value problem with both advance and retardation. We apply the direct method of the calculus of variations and the mountain pass technique to prove the existence of at least one and at least two solutions. Non-existence of non-trivial solutions is also undertaken.

  11. Prestack exploding reflector modelling and migration for anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    The double-square-root equation is commonly used to image data by downward continuation using one-way depth extrapolation methods. A two-way time extrapolation of the double-square-root-derived phase operator allows for up and downgoing wavefields but suffers from an essential singularity for horizontally travelling waves. This singularity is also associated with an anisotropic version of the double-square-root extrapolator. Perturbation theory allows us to separate the isotropic contribution, as well as the singularity, from the anisotropic contribution to the operator. As a result, the anisotropic residual operator is free from such singularities and can be applied as a stand alone operator to correct for anisotropy. We can apply the residual anisotropy operator even if the original prestack wavefield was obtained using, for example, reverse-time migration. The residual correction is also useful for anisotropic parameter estimation. Applications to synthetic data demonstrate the accuracy of the new prestack modelling and migration approach. It also proves useful in approximately imaging the Vertical Transverse Isotropic Marmousi model.

  12. Angle-domain common-image gathers from anisotropic Gaussian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An approach for extracting angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs) from anisotropic Gaussian beam prestack depth migration (GB-PSDM) is presented in this paper. The propagation angle is calcu- lated in the process of migration using the real-value traveltime information of Gaussian beam. Based on the above ...

  13. Anisotropic properties of aligned SWNT modified poly (methyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrical and mechanical properties of PMMA/SWNT composite were studied as a function of SWNT orientation and concentration. The aligned SWNT modified PMMA/SWNT composite presented highly anisotropic properties. The experimental results showed that the electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of ...

  14. Surface waves in fibre-reinforced anisotropic elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 1 March 2002. Abstract. In the paper under discussion, the problem of surface waves in fibre- reinforced anisotropic elastic media has been studied. The authors express the plane strain displacement components in terms of two scalar potentials to decouple the plane motion into P and SV waves. In the present ...

  15. Crystal structure of vanadite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laufek, F.; Skála, Roman; Haloda, J.; Císařová, I.


    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2006), s. 271-275 ISSN 1210-8197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : anisotropic displacement parameter * crystal structure * single-crystal X-ray refinement * vanadinite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    cells containing equivalent anisotropic medium by the use of the linear slip equivalent model. Our. 16 results show ...... frequency regression predicted by equation (21) can be distorted by the effects of multiple scattering. 337 ..... other seismic attributes, at least for the relatively simple geometries of subsurface structure. 449.

  17. New integrable model of propagation of the few-cycle pulses in an anisotropic microdispersed medium (United States)

    Sazonov, S. V.; Ustinov, N. V.


    We investigate the propagation of the few-cycle electromagnetic pulses in the anisotropic microdispersed medium. The effects of the anisotropy and spatial dispersion of the medium are created by the two sorts of the two-level atoms. The system of the material equations describing an evolution of the states of the atoms and the wave equations for the ordinary and extraordinary components of the pulses is derived. By applying the approximation of the sudden excitation to exclude the material variables, we reduce this system to the single nonlinear wave equation that generalizes the modified sine-Gordon equation and the Rabelo-Fokas equation. It is shown that this equation is integrable by means of the inverse scattering transformation method if an additional restriction on the parameters is imposed. The multisoliton solutions of this integrable generalization are constructed and investigated.

  18. Spectral finite element method wave propagation, diagnostics and control in anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan; Roy Mahapatra, Debiprosad


    The use of composites and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) in structural applications has increased. FGMs allow the user to design materials for a specified functionality and have many uses in structural engineering. However, the behaviour of these structures under high-impact loading is not well understood. This book is the first to apply the Spectral Finite Element Method (SFEM) to inhomogeneous and anisotropic structures in a unified and systematic manner. It focuses on some of the problems with this media which were previously thought unmanageable. Types of SFEM for regular and damaged 1-D and 2-D waveguides, solution techniques, methods of detecting the presence of damages and their locations, and methods for controlling the wave propagation responses are discussed. Tables, figures and graphs support the theory and case studies are included. This book is of value to senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying in this field, and researchers and practicing engineers in structural integrity.

  19. Site-specific functionalization of anisotropic nanoparticles: from colloidal atoms to colloidal molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Yoo, Won Cheol; Beernink, Molly B


    Multipodal nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled tethers are promising principal building blocks, useful for constructing more complex materials, much like atoms are connected into more complex molecules. Here we report colloidal sphere templating as a viable means to create tetrapodal NPs with site......-specific tethers. Amorphous sol-gel materials were molded by the template into shaped NPs that mimic tetravalent atoms but on the length scale of colloids. Synthetic methods were developed to modify only the tips of the tetrapods with a range of possible functional groups to generate anisotropic NPs capable...... are applicable to many compositions regardless of crystal structure, therefore lending themselves to the fabrication of complex assemblies, analogous to those found in the molecular regime....

  20. Negative linear compressibility and massive anisotropic thermal expansion in methanol monohydrate. (United States)

    Fortes, A Dominic; Suard, Emmanuelle; Knight, Kevin S


    The vast majority of materials shrink in all directions when hydrostatically compressed; exceptions include certain metallic or polymer foam structures, which may exhibit negative linear compressibility (NLC) (that is, they expand in one or more directions under hydrostatic compression). Materials that exhibit this property at the molecular level--crystalline solids with intrinsic NLC--are extremely uncommon. With the use of neutron powder diffraction, we have discovered and characterized both NLC and extremely anisotropic thermal expansion, including negative thermal expansion (NTE) along the NLC axis, in a simple molecular crystal (the deuterated 1:1 compound of methanol and water). Apically linked rhombuses, which are formed by the bridging of hydroxyl-water chains with methyl groups, extend along the axis of NLC/NTE and lead to the observed behavior.

  1. Anisotropic compositional expansion and chemical potential for amorphous lithiated silicon under stress tensor. (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I; Attariani, Hamed


    Si is a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries, since it absorbs large amounts of Li. However, insertion of Li leads to 334% of volumetric expansion, huge stresses, and fracture; it can be suppressed by utilizing nanoscale anode structures. Continuum approaches to stress relaxation in LixSi, based on plasticity theory, are unrealistic, because the yield strength of LixSi is much higher than the generated stresses. Here, we suggest that stress relaxation is due to anisotropic (tensorial) compositional straining that occurs during insertion-extraction at any deviatoric stresses. Developed theory describes known experimental and atomistic simulation data. A method to reduce stresses is predicted and confirmed by known experiments. Chemical potential has an additional contribution due to deviatoric stresses, which leads to increases in the driving force both for insertion and extraction. The results have conceptual and general character and are applicable to any material systems.

  2. BN Nanosheet/Polymer Films with Highly Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity for Thermal Management Applications. (United States)

    Wu, Yuanpeng; Xue, Ye; Qin, Si; Liu, Dan; Wang, Xuebin; Hu, Xiao; Li, Jingliang; Wang, Xungai; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Chen, Ying; Gogotsi, Yury; Lei, Weiwei


    The development of advanced thermal transport materials is a global challenge. Two-dimensional nanomaterials have been demonstrated as promising candidates for thermal management applications. Here, we report a boron nitride (BN) nanosheet/polymer composite film with excellent flexibility and toughness prepared by vacuum-assisted filtration. The mechanical performance of the composite film is highly flexible and robust. It is noteworthy that the film exhibits highly anisotropic properties, with superior in-plane thermal conductivity of around 200 W m -1 K -1 and extremely low through-plane thermal conductivity of 1.0 W m -1 K -1 , making this material an excellent candidate for thermal management in electronics. Importantly, the composite film shows fire-resistant properties. The newly developed unconventional flexible, tough, and refractory BN films are also promising for heat dissipation in a variety of applications.

  3. Brazilian Tensile Strength of Anisotropic Rocks: Review and New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshou Ma


    Full Text Available Strength anisotropy is one of the most distinct features of anisotropic rocks, and it also normally reveals strong anisotropy in Brazilian test Strength (“BtS”. Theoretical research on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks is seldom performed, and in particular some significant factors, such as the anisotropic tensile strength of anisotropic rocks, the initial Brazilian disc fracture points, and the stress distribution on the Brazilian disc, are often ignored. The aim of the present paper is to review the state of the art in the experimental studies on the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks since the pioneering work was introduced in 1964, and to propose a novel theoretical method to underpin the failure mechanisms and predict the “BtS” of anisotropic rocks under Brazilian test conditions. The experimental data of Longmaxi Shale-I and Jixi Coal were utilized to verify the proposed method. The results show the predicted “BtS” results show strong agreement with experimental data, the maximum error is only ~6.55% for Longmaxi Shale-I and ~7.50% for Jixi Coal, and the simulated failure patterns of the Longmaxi Shale-I are also consistent with the test results. For the Longmaxi Shale-I, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure of the intact rock when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 24°, shear failure along the weakness planes when 24° ≤ βw ≤ 76°, and tensile failure along the weakness planes when 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°. For the Jixi Coal, the Brazilian disc experiences tensile failure when 0° ≤ βw ≤ 23° or 76° ≤ βw ≤ 90°, shear failure along the butt cleats when 23° ≤ βw ≤ 32°, and shear failure along the face cleats when 32° ≤ βw ≤ 76°. The proposed method can not only be used to predict the “BtS” and underpin the failure mechanisms of anisotropic rocks containing a single group of weakness planes, but can also be generalized for fractured rocks containing multi-groups of weakness planes.

  4. Phase field approach with anisotropic interface energy and interface stresses: Large strain formulation (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Warren, James A.


    A thermodynamically consistent, large-strain, multi-phase field approach (with consequent interface stresses) is generalized for the case with anisotropic interface (gradient) energy (e.g. an energy density that depends both on the magnitude and direction of the gradients in the phase fields). Such a generalization, if done in the "usual" manner, yields a theory that can be shown to be manifestly unphysical. These theories consider the gradient energy as anisotropic in the deformed configuration, and, due to this supposition, several fundamental contradictions arise. First, the Cauchy stress tensor is non-symmetric and, consequently, violates the moment of momentum principle, in essence the Herring (thermodynamic) torque is imparting an unphysical angular momentum to the system. In addition, this non-symmetric stress implies a violation of the principle of material objectivity. These problems in the formulation can be resolved by insisting that the gradient energy is an isotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the deformed configuration, but depends on the direction of the gradient of the order parameters (is anisotropic) in the undeformed configuration. We find that for a propagating nonequilibrium interface, the structural part of the interfacial Cauchy stress is symmetric and reduces to a biaxial tension with the magnitude equal to the temperature- and orientation-dependent interface energy. Ginzburg-Landau equations for the evolution of the order parameters and temperature evolution equation, as well as the boundary conditions for the order parameters are derived. Small strain simplifications are presented. Remarkably, this anisotropy yields a first order correction in the Ginzburg-Landau equation for small strains, which has been neglected in prior works. The next strain-related term is third order. For concreteness, specific orientation dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients are examined, using published molecular dynamics

  5. An anisotropic, elastic-decohesive constitutive relation for modeling Arctic sea ice (United States)

    Sulsky, D.; Tran, H.; Schreyer, H.


    As high-resolution simulations become increasingly possible and popular, questions are being raised about isotropic constitutive models for sea ice that are based on averaging material behavior over 100 km scales. At finer resolutions, it may not be appropriate to average over concentrated deformations which occur in leads and ridges since small regions do not contain sufficient numbers of these features at arbitrary orientations to support the assumption of isotropy. An elastic-decohesive constitutive model for pack ice has been developed that explicitly accounts for leads. The constitutive model is based on elasticity combined with a cohesive crack law that predicts the initiation, orientation and opening of leads. This talk presents extensions of the original model that tie it more closely to the thermodynamics and thickness distribution. Before failure, sea ice itself is assumed to be described by isotropic elasticity. However, an element of ice composed of different thicknesses, including refrozen leads and/or ridges, is modeled as an equivalent anisotropic elastic material of uniform thickness. The classical rule-of-mixtures is applied for the ice `composite' having an oriented distribution of thickness to derive the moduli and the strengths of the equivalent material. At failure, a decohesive constitutive relation based on the traction on a potential crack plane is employed in the anisotropic material. Sample paths in stress and strain space are examined to illustrate the aspects of the model when simulating the failure of sea ice. Simulations with the improved model show how failure is influenced by the oriented thickness distribution, for example, by failure occurring preferentially in thin ice.

  6. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  7. Inverse design of dielectric materials by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otomori, M.; Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Sigmund, Ole


    The capabilities and operation of electromagnetic devices can be dramatically enhanced if artificial materials that provide certain prescribed properties can be designed and fabricated. This paper presents a systematic methodology for the design of dielectric materials with prescribed electric...... con¯gurations. Several design problems show that clear optimized unit cell configurations that provide the prescribed electric permittivity can be obtained for all the presented cases. These include the design of isotropic material, anisotropic material, anisotropic material with a non-zero off...

  8. Wood microstructure explored by anisotropic 1H NMR line broadening: experiments and numerical simulations. (United States)

    Terenzi, Camilla; Dvinskikh, Sergey V; Furó, István


    The cellular structure of wood, which is highly anisotropic along its main growth directions, is responsible for the observed anisotropy in its physical and mechanical properties that depend in a complex manner on the moisture content. Here, we demonstrate that the (1)H NMR spectra of wood from Norway spruce exhibit a strong and characteristic dependence on the direction of the sample relative to the applied magnetic field. By comparing spectra recorded at different magnetic-field strengths, we show that this variation is caused by the magnetic-field distribution created by the anisotropic and inhomogeneous distribution of matter and thereby magnetic susceptibility. On the basis of the observations that (i) the recorded spectral peak predominantly arises from translationally mobile water molecules and (ii) the spectral broadening is large if the long axis of the wood tracheid cells is perpendicular to the magnetic field, we set out to test the hypothesis that it is the susceptibility variation on the tracheid length scale that is responsible for the observed spectral features. To verify this, we numerically calculate in a discrete grid approximation the NMR line shapes obtained in realistic tracheid models, and we find that the calculated NMR line shapes are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones. We envisage the application of these findings for revealing the inhomogeneous distribution of water and its molecular properties in wood and wood-based materials at varying degrees of humidity.

  9. A numerical homogenization method for heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media based on multiscale theory

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Kai


    The development of reliable methods for upscaling fine-scale models of elastic media has long been an important topic for rock physics and applied seismology. Several effective medium theories have been developed to provide elastic parameters for materials such as finely layered media or randomly oriented or aligned fractures. In such cases, the analytic solutions for upscaled properties can be used for accurate prediction of wave propagation. However, such theories cannot be applied directly to homogenize elastic media with more complex, arbitrary spatial heterogeneity. Therefore, we have proposed a numerical homogenization algorithm based on multiscale finite-element methods for simulating elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic elastic media. Specifically, our method used multiscale basis functions obtained from a local linear elasticity problem with appropriately defined boundary conditions. Homogenized, effective medium parameters were then computed using these basis functions, and the approach applied a numerical discretization that was similar to the rotated staggered-grid finite-difference scheme. Comparisons of the results from our method and from conventional, analytical approaches for finely layered media showed that the homogenization reliably estimated elastic parameters for this simple geometry. Additional tests examined anisotropic models with arbitrary spatial heterogeneity in which the average size of the heterogeneities ranged from several centimeters to several meters, and the ratio between the dominant wavelength and the average size of the arbitrary heterogeneities ranged from 10 to 100. Comparisons to finite-difference simulations proved that the numerical homogenization was equally accurate for these complex cases.

  10. Time domain characteristics of wave motion in dispersive and anisotropic continuum acoustic metamaterials. (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Zhou, Xiaoming


    The authors study the wave propagation in continuum acoustic metamaterials whose all or not all of the principal elements of the mass tensor or the scalar compressibility can be negative due to wave dispersion. Their time-domain wave characteristics are particularly investigated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, in which algorithms for the Drude and Lorentz dispersion pertinent to acoustic metamaterials are provided necessarily. Wave propagation nature of anisotropic acoustic metamaterials with all admissible material parameters are analyzed in a general manner. It is found that anomalous negative refraction phenomena can appear in several dispersion regimes, and their unique time-domain signatures have been discovered by the FDTD modeling. It is further proposed that two different metamaterial layers with specially assigned dispersions could comprise a conjugate pair that permits wave propagation only at specific points in the wave vector space. The time-domain pulse simulation verifies that acoustic directive radiation capable of modulating radiation angle with the wave frequency can be realized with this conjugate pair. The study provides the detailed analysis of wave propagation in anisotropic and dispersive acoustic mediums, which makes a further step toward dispersion engineering and transient wave control through acoustic metamaterials.

  11. Anisotropic Constitutive Model of Strain-Induced Phenomena in Stainless Steels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garion, C.; Skoczen, B.


    A majority of the thin-walled components subjected to intensive plastic straining at cryogenic temperatures are made of stainless steels. The examples of such components can be found in the interconnections of particle accelerators, containing the superconducting magnets, where the thermal contraction is absorbed by thin-walled, axisymmetric shells called bellows expansion joints. The stainless steels show three main phenomena induced by plastic strains at cryogenic temperatures: serrated (discontinuous) yielding, γ→α' phase transformation and anisotropic ductile damage. In the present paper, a coupled constitutive model of γ→α' phase transformation and orthotropic ductile damage is presented. A kinetic law of phase transformation, and a kinetic law of evolution of orthotropic damage are presented. The model is extended to anisotropic plasticity comprising a constant anisotropy (texture effect), which can be classically taken into account by the Hill yield surface, and plastic strain induced anisotropy. For such a model the shape of the yield surface in the stress space varies as a function of the plastic strains. The constitutive model creates a bridge between material science (experiments) and structural analysis. It has been used to predict the response of beam vacuum and cryogenic bellows to monotonic and cyclic loads developed in the interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

  12. Transmission of terahertz radiation by anisotropic MWCNT/polystyrene composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okotrub, A.V.; Bulusheva, L.G. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kubarev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 11 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova st., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kanygin, M.A.; Sedelnikova, O.V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, 3 Acad. Lavrentiev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Anisotropic composite materials have been prepared by repeated forge rolling of polystyrene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with length of {proportional_to}65 {mu}m. Transmission spectra of the composites were recorded for two different polarizations of the electric field. Obtained data indicated that the forge rolling resulted in a predominant orientation of CNTs in polymer matrix. Anisotropic response of the composites was measured at 130 {mu}m wavelength on the Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser and angular dependence of the transmitted light was determined. Absorption spectrum showed no strong resonance features and it was interpreted by CNTs breaking and agglomeration of CNT fragments during the composite fabrication procedure. Based on classical theory of scattering, considered the scatters as electromagnetic antennas, the size distribution of CNTs in composites was found. Anisotropy of terahertz radiation transmitted from MWCNT/polystyrene composite film on the Novosibirsk free electron laser at 130 {mu}m wavelength. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Acoustic source localization in anisotropic plates with "Z" shaped sensor clusters. (United States)

    Yin, Shenxin; Cui, Zhiwen; Kundu, Tribikram


    A new sensor cluster orientation is proposed to localize an acoustic source in a plate from the time difference of arrival (TDOA) with the help of only four to eight sensors. This technique requires neither a priori knowledge of the plate material properties nor a dense array of sensors to localize the acoustic source in isotropic as well as anisotropic plates. It is achieved by placing four sensors in a cluster in the shape of letter "Z" over a small region of the plate and a second Z-shaped cluster at another location of the plate. Experimental results show that it is possible to accurately localize the acoustic source with this new configuration. It reduces the number of sensors required for acoustic source localization in an anisotropic plate. Although one cluster in principle is capable of localizing the acoustic source in absence of any experimental error for accurate source localization in presence of experimental error two such Z-shaped clusters are needed. In the currently available technique three L-shaped clusters having a total of 9 sensors are needed to achieve the same level of confidence in the acoustic source localization. Thus, the proposed new technique reduces the number of sensors by 1 (from 9 to 8) for confidently and accurately predicting the acoustic source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Probing Anisotropic Surface Properties and Surface Forces of Fluorite Crystals. (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyong; Xie, Lei; Cui, Xin; Hu, Yuehua; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Hongbo


    Fluorite is the most important mineral source for producing fluorine-based chemicals and materials in a wide range of engineering and technological applications. In this work, atomic force microscopy was employed, for the first time, to probe the surface interactions and adhesion energy of model oleic acid (a commonly used surface modification organics for fluorite) molecules on fluorite surfaces with different orientations in both air and aqueous solutions at different pH conditions. Fitted with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, the force results during surface approaching demonstrate the anisotropy in the surface charge of different orientations, with the {111} surface exhibiting a higher magnitude of surface charge, which could be attributed to the difference in the atomic composition. The adhesion measured during surface retraction shows that model oleic acid molecules have a stronger adhesion with the {100} surface than with the {111} surface in both air and aqueous solutions. The anisotropic adhesion energy was analyzed in relation to the surface atom (especially calcium) activity, which was supported by the surface free energy results calculated based on a three-probe-liquid method. Each calcium atom on the {100} surface with four dangling bonds is more active than the calcium atom on the {111} surface with only one dangling bond, supported by a larger value of the Lewis acid component for the {100} surface. The model oleic acid molecules present in the ionic form at pH 9 exhibit a higher adhesion energy with fluorite surfaces as compared to their molecular form at pH 6, which was related to the surface activity of different forms. The adhesion energy measured in solution is much lower than that in air, indicating that the solvent exerts an important influence on the interactions of organic molecules with mineral surfaces. The results provide useful information on the fundamental understanding of surface interactions and adhesion energy of organic

  15. Thermographic Imaging of Defects in Anisotropic Composites (United States)

    Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.


    Composite materials are of increasing interest to the aerospace industry as a result of their weight versus performance characteristics. One of the disadvantages of composites is the high cost of fabrication and post inspection with conventional ultrasonic scanning systems. The high cost of inspection is driven by the need for scanning systems which can follow large curve surfaces. Additionally, either large water tanks or water squirters are required to couple the ultrasonics into the part. Thermographic techniques offer significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics by not requiring physical coupling between the part and sensor. The thermographic system can easily inspect large curved surface without requiring a surface following scanner. However, implementation of Thermal Nondestructive Evaluations (TNDE) for flaw detection in composite materials and structures requires determining its limit. Advanced algorithms have been developed to enable locating and sizing defects in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Thermal Tomography is a very promising method for visualizing the size and location of defects in materials such as CFRP. However, further investigations are required to determine its capabilities for inspection of thick composites. In present work we have studied influence of the anisotropy on the reconstructed image of a defect generated by an inversion technique. The composite material is considered as homogeneous with macro properties: thermal conductivity K, specific heat c, and density rho. The simulation process involves two sequential steps: solving the three dimensional transient heat diffusion equation for a sample with a defect, then estimating the defect location and size from the surface spatial and temporal thermal distributions (inverse problem), calculated from the simulations.

  16. Model of thermal conductivity of anisotropic nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudnik, S.F.; Kalinichenko, A.I.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.


    Dependence of thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline diamond on grain size and shape is theoretically investigated. Nanodiamond is considered as two-phase material composed of diamond grains characterizing by three main dimensions and segregated by thin graphite layers with electron, phonon or hybrid thermal conductivity. Influence of type of thermal conductance and thickness of boundary layer on thermal conductivity of nanodiamond is analyzed. Derived dependences of thermal conductivity on grain dimensions are compared with experimental data

  17. Stress field of a near-surface basal screw dislocation in elastically anisotropic hexagonal crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri S. Harutyunyan


    Full Text Available In this study, we derive and analyze the analytical expressions for stress components of the dislocation elastic field induced by a near-surface basal screw dislocation in a semi-infinite elastically anisotropic material with hexagonal crystal lattice. The variation of above stress components depending on “free surface–dislocation” distance (i.e., free surface effect is studied by means of plotting the stress distribution maps for elastically anisotropic crystals of GaN and TiB2 that exhibit different degrees of elastic anisotropy. The dependence both of the image force on a screw dislocation and the force of interaction between two neighboring basal screw dislocations on the “free surface–dislocation” distance is analyzed as well. The influence of elastic anisotropy on the latter force is numerically analyzed for GaN and TiB2 and also for crystals of such highly elastically-anisotropic materials as Ti, Zn, Cd, and graphite. The comparatively stronger effect of the elastic anisotropy on dislocation-induced stress distribution quantified for TiB2 is attributed to the higher degree of elastic anisotropy of this compound in comparison to that of the GaN. For GaN and TiB2, the dislocation stress distribution maps are highly influenced by the free surface effect at “free surface–dislocation” distances roughly smaller than ≈15 and ≈50 nm, respectively. It is found that, for above indicated materials, the relative decrease of the force of interaction between near-surface screw dislocations due to free surface effect is in the order Ti > GaN > TiB2 > Zn > Cd > Graphite that results from increase of the specific shear anisotropy parameter in the reverse order Ti < GaN < TiB2 < Zn < Cd < Graphite. The results obtained in this study are also applicable to the case when a screw dislocation is situated in the “thin film–substrate” system at a (0001 basal interface between the film and substrate provided that the elastic constants

  18. Template-Based Sampling of Anisotropic BRDFs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filip, Jiří; Vávra, Radomír


    Roč. 33, č. 7 (2014), s. 91-99 ISSN 0167-7055. [Pacific Graphics 2014. Soul, 08.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02652S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10911S; GA ČR GAP103/11/0335 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : BRDF database * material appearnce * sampling * measurement Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2014

  19. Anisotropic scalar field with cosmological time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleber, A.; Teixeira, A.F.F.


    A static, nonsingular, plane-symmetric scalar field of long range is considered under the general relativity, and a one-parametric class of exact solutions with cosmological time is obtained, in harmonic coordinates. In the absence of any material source, the gravitation originated by the pure scalar field can be studied in detail. A velocity-dependent acceleration field is found, acting attractively on the component of the velocity normal to the plane of symmetry, and repulsively on the component parallel to that plane. Particles at rest are insensitive to the gravitation, although the time component of the energy momentum tensor is point dependent and positive definite

  20. Quantitative multi-waves migration in elastic anisotropic media; Migration quantitative multi-ondes en milieu elastique anisotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgne, H.


    Seismic imaging is an important tool for ail exploration. From the filtered seismic traces and a subsurface velocity model, migration allows to localize the reflectors and to estimate physical properties of these interfaces. The subsurface is split up into a reference medium, corresponding to the low spatial frequencies (a smooth medium), and a perturbation medium, corresponding to the high spatial frequencies. The propagation of elastic waves in the medium of reference is modelled by the ray theory. The association of this theory with a principle of diffraction or reflection allows to take into account the high spatial frequencies: the Kirchhoff approach represents so the medium of perturbations with continuous surfaces, characterized by reflection coefficients. The target of the quantitative migration is to reconstruct this reflection coefficient, notably its behaviour according to the incidence angle. These information will open the way to seismic characterization of the reservoir domain, with. a stratigraphic inversion for instance. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative migration results, one of the current challenges is to take into account the anisotropy of the subsurface. Taking into account rocks anisotropy in the imaging process of seismic data requires two improvements from the isotropic case. The first one roughly concerns the modelling aspect: an anisotropic propagator should be used to avoid a mis-positioning or bad focusing of the imaged reflectors. The second correction concerns the migration aspect: as anisotropy affects the reflectivity of subsurface, a specific anisotropic imaging formula should be applied in the migration kernel, in order to recover the correct A V A behavior of the subsurface reflectors, If the first correction is DOW made in most so-called anisotropic imaging algorithms, the second one is currently ignored. The first part of my work concerns theoretical aspects. 1 study first the preservation of amplitudes in the

  1. Anisotropic particles strengthen granular pillars under compression (United States)

    Harrington, Matt; Durian, Douglas J.


    We probe the effects of particle shape on the global and local behavior of a two-dimensional granular pillar, acting as a proxy for a disordered solid, under uniaxial compression. This geometry allows for direct measurement of global material response, as well as tracking of all individual particle trajectories. In general, drawing connections between local structure and local dynamics can be challenging in amorphous materials due to lower precision of atomic positions, so this study aims to elucidate such connections. We vary local interactions by using three different particle shapes: discrete circular grains (monomers), pairs of grains bonded together (dimers), and groups of three bonded in a triangle (trimers). We find that dimers substantially strengthen the pillar and the degree of this effect is determined by orientational order in the initial condition. In addition, while the three particle shapes form void regions at distinct rates, we find that anisotropies in the local amorphous structure remain robust through the definition of a metric that quantifies packing anisotropy. Finally, we highlight connections between local deformation rates and local structure.

  2. Optical characterization of isotropic and anisotropic layered media

    CERN Document Server

    Jakopic, G


    This work deals with the interaction of electromagnetic radiation in the UV/IR region with layered media and the inversion of photometric and ellipsometric spectra. A method is presented how to calculate the dielectric function of an ensemble of different anisotropic oscillators. A way is proposed how to extract both components of the dielectric tensor of uniaxial oligomers out of spectroscopic measurements at normal incidence, if it is possible to make two different structural modifications of the oligomer. Then, effective medium theories with an expansion on anisotropic media are treated and the result is used to model the optical properties of the rough surface of an organic thin film. Further, a new unified analytical inversion of reflectometric and ellipsometric data of strongly absorbing media is presented. A method is shown how to calculate simultaneously the thickness and the optical constants of weakly absorbing films out of one spectroscopic reflection or transmission measurement. The last topic are...

  3. A resistor interpretation of general anisotropic cardiac tissue. (United States)

    Shao, Hai; Sampson, Kevin J; Pormann, John B; Rose, Donald J; Henriquez, Craig S


    This paper describes a spatial discretization scheme for partial differential equation systems that contain anisotropic diffusion. The discretization method uses unstructured finite volumes, or the boxes, that are formed as a secondary geometric structure from an underlying triangular mesh. We show how the discretization can be interpreted as a resistive circuit network, where each resistor is assigned at each edge of the triangular element. The resistor is computed as an anisotropy dependent geometric quantity of the local mesh structure. Finally, we show that under certain conditions, the discretization gives rise to negative resistors that can produce non-physical hyperpolarizations near depolarizing stimuli. We discuss how the proper choice of triangulation (anisotropic Delaunay triangulation) can ensure monotonicity (i.e. all resistors are positive).

  4. Anisotropic mechanical properties of graphene sheets from molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Zhonghua; Bu Hao; Zou Min; Yi Hong; Bi Kedong; Chen Yunfei


    Anisotropic mechanical properties are observed for a sheet of graphene along different load directions. The anisotropic mechanical properties are attributed to the hexagonal structure of the unit cells of the graphene. Under the same tensile loads, the edge bonds bear larger load in the longitudinal mode (LM) than in the transverse mode (TM), which causes fracture sooner in LM than in TM. The Young's modulus and the third order elastic modulus for the LM are slightly larger than that for the TM. Simulation also demonstrates that, for both LM and TM, the loading and unloading stress-strain response curves overlap as long as the graphene is unloaded before the fracture point. This confirms that graphene sustains complete elastic and reversible deformation in the elongation process.

  5. Local deposition of anisotropic nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). (United States)

    Fedorov, Roman G; Mandler, Daniel


    We demonstrate localized electrodeposition of anisotropic metal nanoobjects, namely Au nanorods (GNR), on indium tin oxide (ITO) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A gold microelectrode was the source of the gold ions whereby double pulse chronoamperometry was employed to generate initially Au seeds which were further grown under controlled conditions. The distance between the microelectrode and the ITO surface as well as the different experimental parameters (electrodeposition regime, solution composition and temperature) were optimized to produce faceted gold seeds with the required characteristics (size and distribution). Colloidal chemical synthesis was successfully exploited for better understanding the role of the surfactant and different additives in breaking the crystallographic symmetry and anisotropic growth of GNR. Experiments performed in a conventional three-electrode cell revealed the most appropriate electrochemical conditions allowing high yield synthesis of nanorods with well-defined shape as well as nanocubes and bipyramids.

  6. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs. (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P


    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Anisotropic plasmons, excitons, and electron energy loss spectroscopy of phosphorene (United States)

    Ghosh, Barun; Kumar, Piyush; Thakur, Anmol; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh; Bhowmick, Somnath; Agarwal, Amit


    In this article, we explore the anisotropic electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) in monolayer phosphorene based on ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations. Similarly to black phosphorus, the EELS of undoped monolayer phosphorene is characterized by anisotropic excitonic peaks for energies in the vicinity of the band gap and by interband plasmon peaks for higher energies. On doping, an additional intraband plasmon peak also appears for energies within the band gap. Similarly to other two-dimensional systems, the intraband plasmon peak disperses as ωpl∝√{q } in both the zigzag and armchair directions in the long-wavelength limit and deviates for larger wave vectors. The anisotropy of the long-wavelength plasmon intraband dispersion is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the ratio of the effective masses: ωpl(q y ̂) /ωpl(q x ̂) =√{mx/my } .

  8. Interactions, strings and isotopies in higher order anisotropic superspaces

    CERN Document Server

    Vacaru, Sergiu Ion


    The monograph summarizes the author's results on the geometry of anholonomic and locally anisotropic interactions, published in J. Math. Phys., Nucl. Phys. B, Ann. Phys. (NY), JHEP, Rep. Math. Phys., Int. J. Theor. Phys. and in some former Soviet Union and Romanian scientific journals. The main subjects are in the theory of field interactions, strings and diffusion processes on spaces, superspaces and isospaces with higher order anisotropy and inhomogeneity. The approach proceeds by developing the concept of higher order anisotropic (super)space which unifies the logical and manthematical aspects of modern Kaluza--Klein theories and generalized Lagrange and Finsler geometry and leads to modeling of physical processes on higher order fiber (super)bundles provided with nonlinear and distinguished connections and metric structures. This book can be also considered as a pedagogical survey on the mentioned subjects.

  9. Anisotropic Friction of Wrinkled Graphene Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition. (United States)

    Long, Fei; Yasaei, Poya; Yao, Wentao; Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza


    Wrinkle structures are commonly seen on graphene grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method due to the different thermal expansion coefficient between graphene and its substrate. Despite the intensive investigations focusing on the electrical properties, the nanotribological properties of wrinkles and the influence of wrinkle structures on the wrinkle-free graphene remain less understood. Here, we report the observation of anisotropic nanoscale frictional characteristics depending on the orientation of wrinkles in CVD-grown graphene. Using friction force microscopy, we found that the coefficient of friction perpendicular to the wrinkle direction was ∼194% compare to that of the parallel direction. Our systematic investigation shows that the ripples and "puckering" mechanism, which dominates the friction of exfoliated graphene, plays even a more significant role in the friction of wrinkled graphene grown by CVD. The anisotropic friction of wrinkled graphene suggests a new way to tune the graphene friction property by nano/microstructure engineering such as introducing wrinkles.

  10. Driven Anisotropic Diffusion at Boundaries: Noise Rectification and Particle Sorting (United States)

    Bo, Stefano; Eichhorn, Ralf


    We study the diffusive dynamics of a Brownian particle in the proximity of a flat surface under nonequilibrium conditions, which are created by an anisotropic thermal environment with different temperatures being active along distinct spatial directions. By presenting the exact time-dependent solution of the Fokker-Planck equation for this problem, we demonstrate that the interplay between anisotropic diffusion and hard-core interaction with the plain wall rectifies the thermal fluctuations and induces directed particle transport parallel to the surface, without any deterministic forces being applied in that direction. Based on current micromanipulation technologies, we suggest a concrete experimental setup to observe this novel noise-induced transport mechanism. We furthermore show that it is sensitive to particle characteristics, such that this setup can be used for sorting particles of different sizes.

  11. Dynamics of anisotropic power-law f( R) cosmology (United States)

    Shamir, M. F.


    Modified theories of gravity have attracted much attention of the researchers in the recent years. In particular, the f( R) theory has been investigated extensively due to important f( R) gravity models in cosmological contexts. This paper is devoted to exploring an anisotropic universe in metric f( R) gravity. A locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered for this purpose. Exact solutions of modified field equations are obtained for a well-known f( R) gravity model. The energy conditions are also discussed for the model under consideration. The viability of the model is investigated via graphical analysis using the present-day values of cosmological parameters. The model satisfies null energy, weak energy, and dominant energy conditions for a particular range of the anisotropy parameter while the strong energy condition is violated, which shows that the anisotropic universe in f( R) gravity supports the crucial issue of accelerated expansion of the universe.

  12. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals. (United States)

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen


    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.

  13. Theoretical Investigation of Anisotropic Damping in Exchange Bias Systems (United States)

    Farrar, Alison; Beik Mohammadi, Jamileh; Mewes, Tim; Mewes, Claudia

    An accurate description of the magnetization dynamics of exchange bias systems is essential for further development of computer read heads and STT-MRAM. There have been several theoretical predictions of an anisotropic Gilbert damping tensor, influenced by the symmetry of the crystal structure, in place of the scalar Gilbert damping parameter in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion. However, experimental confirmation is difficult as the anisotropy of the damping parameter is expected to be small for single crystals. We follow up on our experimental discovery of a strong unidirectional contribution to the relaxation of exchange bias systems by implementing an anisotropic damping tensor in our Matlab-based micromagnetics code M3. We present results for a damping tensor with unidirectional anisotropy with respect to the instantaneous orientation of the magnetization. NSF-CAREER No 1452670 and 0952929, UA Computer-Based Honors Program.

  14. Ultraviolet laser-induced voltage in anisotropic shale (United States)

    Miao, Xinyang; Zhu, Jing; Li, Yizhang; Zhao, Kun; Zhan, Honglei; Yue, Wenzheng


    The anisotropy of shales plays a significant role in oil and gas exploration and engineering. Owing to various problems and limitations, anisotropic properties were seldom investigated by direct current resistivity methods. Here in this work, a 248 nm ultraviolet laser was employed to assess the anisotropic electrical response of a dielectric shale. Angular dependence of laser-induced voltages (V p) were obtained, with a data symmetry at the location of 180° and a ~62.2% V p anisotropy of the sample. The double-exponential functions have provided an explanation for the electrical field controlled carrier transportation process in horizontal and vertical directions. The results demonstrate that the combination of optics and electrical logging analysis (Opti-electrical Logging) is a promising technology for the investigation of unconventional reservoirs.

  15. Static anisotropic solutions in f(T) theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daouda, M.H.; Rodrigues, Manuel E. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Centro de Ciencias Exatas, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari s/n, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP29075-910, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    In previous work, we undertook to study static and anisotropic content in f(T) theory and obtained new spherically symmetric solutions considering a constant torsion and some particular conditions for the pressure. In this paper, still in the framework of f(T) theory, new spherically symmetric solutions are obtained, first considering the general case of an isotropic fluid and later the anisotropic content case in which the generalized conditions for the matter content are considered such that the energy density, the radial and tangential pressures depend on the algebraic f(T) and its derivative f{sub T} (T). Moreover, we obtain the algebraic function f(T) through the reconstruction method for two cases and also study a polytropic model for the stellar structure. (orig.)

  16. Newton–Hooke-type symmetry of anisotropic oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.M.; Horvathy, P.A.; Andrzejewski, K.; Gonera, J.; Kosiński, P.


    Rotation-less Newton–Hooke-type symmetry, found recently in the Hill problem, and instrumental for explaining the center-of-mass decomposition, is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator in the plane. Conversely, the latter system is shown, by the orbit method, to be the most general one with such a symmetry. Full Newton–Hooke symmetry is recovered in the isotropic case. Star escape from a galaxy is studied as an application. -- Highlights: ► Rotation-less Newton–Hooke (NH) symmetry is generalized to an arbitrary anisotropic oscillator. ► The orbit method is used to find the most general case for rotation-less NH symmetry. ► The NH symmetry is decomposed into Heisenberg algebras based on chiral decomposition

  17. An anisotropic diffusion approximation to thermal radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Seth R.; Larsen, Edward W., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    This paper describes an anisotropic diffusion (AD) method that uses transport-calculated AD coefficients to efficiently and accurately solve the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations. By assuming weak gradients and angular moments in the radiation intensity, we derive an expression for the radiation energy density that depends on a non-local function of the opacity. This nonlocal function is the solution of a transport equation that can be solved with a single steady-state transport sweep once per time step, and the function's second angular moment is the anisotropic diffusion tensor. To demonstrate the AD method's efficacy, we model radiation flow down a channel in 'flatland' geometry. (author)

  18. The boundary sources method with arbitrary order anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gert Van den, Eynde; Beauwens, R.; Mund, E.


    The Boundary Sources Method (BSM) is an integral method for solving the one-speed neutron transport equation that makes capital out of the exact knowledge of a transport kernel for the classical geometries: planar, spherical and cylindrical. We have developed a slab (multi-region) BSM code that allows for arbitrary order anisotropic scattering. The basic ingredient of our method is the calculation of (angular moments of) infinite medium Green's functions. We have used the singular Eigen-expansion (SEE) method developed for anisotropic scattering by Mika and Case and have developed a robust and accurate method to calculate its two parts: the discrete and continuum spectrum. We use several one-dimensional neutron transport benchmarks to show its high accuracy. We have treated 3 types of problems: 2-cell (U-H 2 O) disadvantage factors, the Reed problem and an extreme scattering problem

  19. Statistical ensembles and molecular dynamics studies of anisotropic solids. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, J.R.; Rahman, A.


    We have recently discussed how the Parrinello--Rahman theory can be brought into accord with the theory of the elastic and thermodynamic behavior of anisotropic media. This involves the isoenthalpic--isotension ensemble of statistical mechanics. Nose has developed a canonical ensemble form of molecular dynamics. We combine Nose's ideas with the Parrinello--Rahman theory to obtain a canonical form of molecular dynamics appropriate to the study of anisotropic media subjected to arbitrary external stress. We employ this isothermal--isotension ensemble in a study of a fcc→ close-packed structural phase transformation in a Lennard-Jones solid subjected to uniaxial compression. Our interpretation of the Nose theory does not involve a scaling of the time variable. This latter fact leads to simplifications when studying the time dependence of quantities

  20. Anisotropic models are unitary: A rejuvenation of standard quantum cosmology (United States)

    Pal, Sridip; Banerjee, Narayan


    The present work proves that the folklore of the pathology of non-conservation of probability in quantum anisotropic models is wrong. It is shown in full generality that all operator ordering can lead to a Hamiltonian with a self-adjoint extension as long as it is constructed as a symmetric operator. It is indicated that the self-adjoint extension, however, is not unique and this non-uniqueness is suspected not to be a feature of anisotropic models only, in the sense that there exists operator orderings such that Hamiltonian for an isotropic homogeneous cosmological model does not have unique self-adjoint extension. For isotropic model, there is a special unique extension associated with quadratic form of Hamiltonian, i.e., a Friedrich's extension. Details of calculations are carried out for a Bianchi III model as an example.

  1. Anisotropic charged physical models with generalized polytropic equation of state (United States)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M.


    In this paper, we found the exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with generalized polytropic equation of state (GPEoS). For this, we consider spherically symmetric object with charged anisotropic matter distribution. We rewrite the field equations into simple form through transformation introduced by Durgapal (Phys Rev D 27:328, 1983) and solve these equations analytically. For the physically acceptability of these solutions, we plot physical quantities like energy density, anisotropy, speed of sound, tangential and radial pressure. We found that all solutions fulfill the required physical conditions. It is concluded that all our results are reduced to the case of anisotropic charged matter distribution with linear, quadratic as well as polytropic equation of state.

  2. Anisotropic to Isotropic Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaib M. A.


    Full Text Available We attempt to develop a minimal formalism to describe an anisotropic to isotropic tran- sition in the early Universe. Assuming an underlying theory that violates Lorentz in- variance, we start with a Dirac like equation, involving four massless fields, and which does not exhibit Lorentz invariance. We then perform transformations that restore it to its covariant form along with a mass term for the fermion field. It is proposed that these transformations can be visualized as waves traveling in an anisotropic media. The trans- formation it = ℏ ! is then utilized to transit to a statistical thermodynamics system and the partition function then gives a better insight into the character of this transition. The statistical system hence realized is a two level system with each state doubly degenerate. We propose that modeling the transition this way can help explain the matter antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  3. Holographic Fermions in Anisotropic Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qing Fang


    Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the holographic Fermionic system dual to an anisotropic charged black brane bulk in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion gravity theory. We consider the minimal coupling between the Dirac field and the gauge field in the bulk gravity theory and mainly explore the dispersion relation exponents of the Green functions of the dual Fermionic operators in the dual field theory. We find that along both the anisotropic and the isotropic directions the Fermi momentum will be effected by the anisotropy of the bulk theory. However, the anisotropy has influence on the dispersion relation which is almost linear for massless Fermions with charge q=2. The universal properties that the mass and the charge of the Fermi possibly correspond to nonlinear dispersion relation are also investigated.

  4. Theory for propulsion and transport in an anisotropic fluid (United States)

    Powers, Thomas; Krieger, Madison; Spagnolie, Saverio


    Swimming microorganisms are typically found in complex fluids, which are full of polymers. When these polymers align, the fluid becomes anisotropic. We seek to understand how anisotropy affects swimming when the stroke is prescribed. We model the anisotropic fluid with a nematic liquid crystal. The swimmer is a two-dimensional sheet deforming via propagating transverse or longitudinal waves. We find that the nature of anchoring conditions for the nematic degrees of freedom plays a critical role in determining the swimming speed. Furthermore, we study the fluid transport induced by the swimmers motion by calculating the flux of fluid in the laboratory frame. Finally, we elucidate the various limits of the nematic theory, such as the six-fold symmetric hexatic case and Ericksen's transversely isotropic fluid.

  5. Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmin CHEN


    Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.

  6. Pseudorapidity Dependence of Anisotropic Azimuthal Flow with the ALICE Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Colliander

    In ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions a new state of matter known as the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) is produced. A key observable in the study of the sQGP is anisotropic azimuthal ow. The anisotropies are described by ow harmonics, vn. In this thesis, bias arising from no...... Detector and Silicon Pixel Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are compared to other LHC experiments andprevious experiments at lower collision energies....

  7. The second critical density and anisotropic generalised condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beau


    Full Text Available In this letter we discuss the relevance of the 3D Perfect Bose gas (PBG condensation in extremely elongated vessels for the study of anisotropic condensate coherence and the "quasi-condensate". To this end we analyze the case of exponentially anisotropic (van den Berg boxes, when there are two critical densities ρc<ρm for a generalised Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC. Here ρc is the standard critical density for the PBG. We consider three examples of anisotropic geometry: slabs, squared beams and "cigars" to demonstrate that the "quasi-condensate" which exists in domain ρc<ρ<ρm is in fact the van den Berg-Lewis-Pulé generalised condensation (vdBLP-GC of the type III with no macroscopic occupation of any mode. We show that for the slab geometry the second critical density ρm is a threshold between quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D condensate and the three dimensional (3D regime when there is a coexistence of the "quasi-condensate" with the standard one-mode BEC. On the other hand, in the case of squared beams and "cigars" geometries, critical density ρm separates quasi-1D and 3D regimes. We calculate the value of the difference between ρc, ρm (and between corresponding critical temperatures Tm, Tc to show that the observed space anisotropy of the condensate coherence can be described by a critical exponent γ(T related to the anisotropic ODLRO. We compare our calculations with physical results for extremely elongated traps that manifest "quasi-condensate".

  8. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    x2µ(x)dx which is the mass function. The radial pressure pr = p + 2S/. √. 3 and the tangential pressure p⊥ = p − S/. √. 3 are not equal for anisotropic matter. The magnitude S provides a measure of anisotropy. The field equations (1)–(3) were integrated by Chaisi and Maharaj [12] for the energy density. µ = j r2. + k + lr2,. (4).

  9. Charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dr2 − r2 ( dθ2 + sin2 θdφ2). ,. (1) with the energy–momentum tensor for anisotropic charged fluid,. Tij = diag. ( ρ + E2, pr − E2, pt + E2, pt + E2). ,. (2) where ρ is the energy density, pr is the radial pressure, pt is the tangential pressure and. E is the electric field intensity. These quantities are measured relative to the comoving.

  10. Efficient light propagation for multiple anisotropic volume scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)


    Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the ``ray effect`` problem in the traditional ``discrete ordinates`` method. For a volume of n{sup 3} elements, it takes O(M n{sup 3} log n + M{sup 2} n{sup 3}) time and O(M n{sup 3}) space.

  11. Circumferential gap propagation in an anisotropic elastic bacterial sacculus


    Taneja, Swadhin; Levitan, Benjamin A.; Rutenberg, Andrew D.


    We have modelled stress concentration around small gaps in anisotropic elastic sheets, corresponding to the peptidoglycan sacculus of bacterial cells, under loading corresponding to the effects of turgor pressure in rod-shaped bacteria. We find that under normal conditions the stress concentration is insufficient to mechanically rupture bacteria, even for gaps up to a micron in length. We then explored the effects of stress-dependent smart-autolysins, as hypothesised by Arthur L Koch [Advance...

  12. Anisotropic square lattice Potts ferromagnet: renormalization group treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Tsallis, C.


    The choice of a convenient self-dual cell within a real space renormalization group framework enables a satisfactory treatment of the anisotropic square lattice q-state Potts ferromagnet criticality. The exact critical frontier and dimensionality crossover exponent PHI as well as the expected universality behaviour (renormalization flow sense) are recovered for any linear scaling factor b and all values of q(q - [pt

  13. Anisotropic magnetoresistance of GaMnAs ferromagnetic semiconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Petr; Svoboda, Pavel; Novák, Vít; Cukr, Miroslav; Výborný, Karel; Jurka, Vlastimil; Stuchlík, Jiří; Orlita, Milan; Maude, D. K.


    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2010), 1161-1163 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk MEB020928 Grant - others:EU EuroMagNET II(XE) Egide 19535NF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : GaMnAs * anisotropic magnetoresistance * hydrogenation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2010


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Svishch


    Full Text Available The entrainment of the light flux by a uniaxial anisotropic medium and its influence on the measurement of stellar aberration are analyzed. The influence of the entrainment of the light flux by an isotropic medium on the measurement of stellar aberration was considered by Fresnel early. The absence of such influence was confirmed by Erie's experience when filling the telescope tube with water. The formula itself was perfectly confirmed by Fizeau's experiments with moving water and the repetition of this experiment with an increase in the accuracy of measurements by Michelson, Zeeman, and others. G.A. Lorentz already on the basis of the electromagnetic theory specified the formula with allowance for the frequency dispersion of the light flux. A. Einstein made an analysis of the schemes of experiments for determining the drag coefficient, covering all possible variants of similar experiments. As a result, he obtained Fresnel and Lorentz formulas, taking into account the frequency dispersion of light, starting from the theory of relativity. The entrainment of light and its influence on the measurement of stellar aberration by a uniaxial anisotropic medium have not been considered anywhere. An analysis of such influence is carried out. The results of the analysis indicate the possibility of measuring the current value of stellar aberration using a uniaxial anisotropic medium. The concept of active light aberration is introduced. The proposed schemes of experiments of using the entrainment of a light flux by an anisotropic substance for measuring the current value of stellar aberration are investigated. It is concluded that it is possible to study the determination of the current velocity of an inertial system relative to the light flux.

  15. Jones phase microscopy of transparent and anisotropic samples. (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Millet, Larry J; Gillette, Martha U; Popescu, Gabriel


    We developed an interferometric microscopy technique, referred to as Jones phase microscopy, capable of extracting the spatially resolved Jones polarization matrix associated with transparent and anisotropic samples. This is a generalization of quantitative phase imaging, which is recovered from one diagonal element of the measured matrix. The principle of the technique is demonstrated with measurements of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator and the potential for live cell imaging with experiments on live neurons in culture.

  16. Pseudorapidity Dependence of Anisotropic Azimuthal Flow with the ALICE Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Colliander

    In ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions a new state of matter known as the strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) is produced. A key observable in the study of the sQGP is anisotropic azimuthal ow. The anisotropies are described by ow harmonics, vn. In this thesis, bias arising from non...... Detector and Silicon Pixel Detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The results are compared to other LHC experiments andprevious experiments at lower collision energies....

  17. Anisotropic expansion of a thermal dipolar Bose gas


    Tang, Yijun; Sykes, Andrew G.; Burdick, Nathaniel Q.; DiSciacca, Jack M.; Petrov, Dmitry S.; Lev, Benjamin L.


    We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the post-expansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipol...

  18. A higher order shear deformation theory for laminated anisotropic plates and its application in defence industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.


    Composite materials have been used for centuries, brick reinforced with straw, laminated iron-steel swords, gun-barrels and concrete, to name but a few. Today industrial innovations improved energy planning, uncertain availability have created a greater interest in search of new materials. Now that increasingly performance requirements are forcing many conventional materials to the limit, the engineer's approach of fitting the design to the properties is changing into one of finding materials with the right properties to meet the demand of design, service of economics. The use of composite materials have progressed through several stages in past two and half decade. First, demonstration pieces were built with the idea of let's see if we can build one. For second stage, replacement pieces, part of the objective was to test a part designed to replace a metal part in an existing application. The last stage is actual production pieces designed from the beginning to be fabricated wholly from composite. This last goal is being approached in deliberate, conservation and multistage fashion. A substantial composite technology has been developed and awaits further challenge. In this paper new higher order shear deformable theory for anisotropic laminated composite is presented. The finite element method is used to get static and dynamic solution for the plate with and without damping effects. Finally, example and discussion are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the theory presented herein. (author)

  19. Thermally insulating and fire-retardant lightweight anisotropic foams based on nanocellulose and graphene oxide (United States)

    Wicklein, Bernd; Kocjan, Andraž; Salazar-Alvarez, German; Carosio, Federico; Camino, Giovanni; Antonietti, Markus; Bergström, Lennart


    High-performance thermally insulating materials from renewable resources are needed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. Traditional fossil-fuel-derived insulation materials such as expanded polystyrene and polyurethane have thermal conductivities that are too high for retrofitting or for building new, surface-efficient passive houses. Tailored materials such as aerogels and vacuum insulating panels are fragile and susceptible to perforation. Here, we show that freeze-casting suspensions of cellulose nanofibres, graphene oxide and sepiolite nanorods produces super-insulating, fire-retardant and strong anisotropic foams that perform better than traditional polymer-based insulating materials. The foams are ultralight, show excellent combustion resistance and exhibit a thermal conductivity of 15 mW m-1 K-1, which is about half that of expanded polystyrene. At 30 °C and 85% relative humidity, the foams retained more than half of their initial strength. Our results show that nanoscale engineering is a promising strategy for producing foams with excellent properties using cellulose and other renewable nanosized fibrous materials.

  20. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  1. Stochastic self-propagating star formation with anisotropic probability distribution (United States)

    Jungwiert, B.; Palous, J.


    We present a 2D computer code for stochastic self-propagating star formation (SSPSF) in differentially rotating galaxies. The isotropic probability distribution, used in previous models of Seiden, Gerola and Schulman (Seiden & Schulman, 1990, and references therein), is replaced by an anisotropic one. The motivation is provided by models of expanding large-scale supernova remnants (SNR) in disks with shear (Palous et al. 1990): the distortion of the SNR leads to uneven density distribution along its periphery and, consequently, to uneven distribution of new star forming sites. To model anisotropic SSPSF, we process in two steps: first, we eliminate artificial anisotropies inherent to the technique used by Seiden, Gerola and Schulman and, second, we define the probability ellipse on each star forming site. The anisotropy is characterized by its axes ratio and inclination with respect to the galactic center. We show that anisotropic SSPSF is able to produce highly organized spiral structures. Depending on the character of the probability ellipse, we can obtain continous spiral arms of different length, thickness and pitch angle. The relation of the probability ellipse to rotation curves interstellar medium (ISM) density and metallicity is discussed as well as its variation along the Hubble sequence and van den Bergh's luminosity classification of galaxies. To demonstrate applications, we compare our results with two different classes of galaxies: M 101-type grand-design spirals with open and robust arms and NGC 2841-type flocculent galaxies with thin and tightly wound arms.

  2. Anisotropic fluid spheres of embedding class one using Karmarkar condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Maharaj, S.D. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, Private Bag X54001, Durban (South Africa)


    We obtain a new anisotropic solution for spherically symmetric spacetimes by analyzing the Karmarkar embedding condition. For this purpose we construct a suitable form of one of the gravitational potentials to obtain a closed form solution. This form of the remaining gravitational potential allows us to solve the embedding equation and integrate the field equations. The resulting new anisotropic solution is well behaved, which can be utilized to construct realistic static fluid spheres. Also we estimated the masses and radii of fluid spheres for LMC X-4, EXO 1785-248, PSR J1903+327 and 4U 1820-30 by using observational data set values. The masses and radii obtained show that our anisotropic solution can represent fluid spheres to a very good degree of accuracy. The physical validity of the solution depends on the parameter values of a, b and c. The solution is well behaved for the wide range of parameters values 0.00393 ≤ a ≤ 0.0055, 0.0002 ≤ b ≤ 0.0025 and 0.0107 ≤ c ≤ 0.0155. The range of corresponding physical parameters for the different compact stars are 0.3266 ≤ v{sub r0} ≤ 0.3708, 0.1583 ≤ v{sub t0} ≤ 0.2558, 0.3256 ≤ z{sub s} ≤ 0.4450 and 4.3587 ≤ Γ{sub 0} ≤ 5.6462. (orig.)

  3. Pattern formation of a nonlocal, anisotropic interaction model

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin


    We consider a class of interacting particle models with anisotropic, repulsive–attractive interaction forces whose orientations depend on an underlying tensor field. An example of this class of models is the so-called Kücken–Champod model describing the formation of fingerprint patterns. This class of models can be regarded as a generalization of a gradient flow of a nonlocal interaction potential which has a local repulsion and a long-range attraction structure. In contrast to isotropic interaction models the anisotropic forces in our class of models cannot be derived from a potential. The underlying tensor field introduces an anisotropy leading to complex patterns which do not occur in isotropic models. This anisotropy is characterized by one parameter in the model. We study the variation of this parameter, describing the transition between the isotropic and the anisotropic model, analytically and numerically. We analyze the equilibria of the corresponding mean-field partial differential equation and investigate pattern formation numerically in two dimensions by studying the dependence of the parameters in the model on the resulting patterns.

  4. Tuning particle geometry of chemically anisotropic dumbbell-shaped colloids. (United States)

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P; Kegel, Willem K


    Chemically anisotropic dumbbell-shaped colloids are prepared starting from cross-linked polymer seed particles coated with a chlorinated outer layer. These chlorinated seeds are swollen with monomer. Subsequently, a liquid protrusion is formed on the surface of the seed particle by phase separation between the monomer and the swollen polymer network. Solidification of these liquid lobes by polymerization leads to the desired dumbbell-shaped colloids. The chlorine groups remain confined on the seed lobe of the particles, ensuring chemical anisotropy of the resulting particles. Exploiting the asymmetric distribution of the chemically reactive surface chlorine groups allows for site-specific surface modifications. Here we show that the geometry of the resulting chemically anisotropic dumbbells can be systematically tuned by a number of experimental parameters including the volume of styrene by which the seeds are swollen, the cross-link density of the chlorinated seeds and chemical composition/thickness of the chlorinated coating deposited on the seed particles. Being able to control the particle geometry, and therefore the Janus balance of these chemically anisotropic particles, provides a promising starting point for the synthesis of sophisticated building blocks for future (self-assembly) studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds from unidirectional freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh, E-mail: [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Goh, James Cho-Hong [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Singapore); Toh, Siew-Lok [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)


    Recent studies have underlined the importance of matching scaffold properties to the biological milieu. Tissue, and thus scaffold, anisotropy is one such property that is important yet sometimes overlooked. Methods that have been used to achieve anisotropic scaffolds present challenges such as complicated fabrication steps, harsh processing conditions and toxic chemicals involved. In this study, unidirectional freezing was employed to fabricate anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds in a simple and mild manner. Morphological, mechanical, chemical and cellular compatibility properties were investigated, as well as the effect of the addition of gelatin to certain properties of the scaffold. It was shown that scaffold properties were suitable for cell proliferation and that mesenchymal stem cells were able to align themselves along the directed fibers. The fabricated scaffolds present a platform that can be used for anisotropic tissue engineering applications such as cardiac patches. - Highlights: • Silk/gelatin scaffolds with unidirectional alignment were fabricated using a simple and scalable process • Presence of gelatin in silk resulted to lesser shrinkage, better water retention and improved cell proliferation. • Mesenchymal stem cells were shown to align themselves according to the fiber alignment.

  6. Nanoparticle-Structured Highly Sensitive and Anisotropic Gauge Sensors. (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Luo, Jin; Shan, Shiyao; Lombardi, Jack P; Xu, Yvonne; Cartwright, Kelly; Lu, Susan; Poliks, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian


    The ability to tune gauge factors in terms of magnitude and orientation is important for wearable and conformal electronics. Herein, a sensor device is described which is fabricated by assembling and printing molecularly linked thin films of gold nanoparticles on flexible microelectrodes with unusually high and anisotropic gauge factors. A sharp difference in gauge factors up to two to three orders of magnitude between bending perpendicular (B(⊥)) and parallel (B(||)) to the current flow directions is observed. The origin of the unusual high and anisotropic gauge factors is analyzed in terms of nanoparticle size, interparticle spacing, interparticle structure, and other parameters, and by considering the theoretical aspects of electron conduction mechanism and percolation pathway. A critical range of resistivity where a very small change in strain and the strain orientation is identified to impact the percolation pathway in a significant way, leading to the high and anisotropic gauge factors. The gauge anisotropy stems from molecular and nanoscale fine tuning of interparticle properties of molecularly linked nanoparticle assembly on flexible microelectrodes, which has important implication for the design of gauge sensors for highly sensitive detection of deformation in complex sensing environment or on complex curved surfaces such as wearable electronics and skin sensors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Sound localization in an anisotropic plate using electret microphones. (United States)

    Hoseini Sabzevari, S Amir; Moavenian, Majid


    Acoustic source localization without knowing the velocity profile in anisotropic plates is still one of the most challenging areas in this field. The current time-of-flight based approaches for localization in anisotropic media, are based on using six high sampling sensors. The number of sensors and the corresponding large amount of data, would make those methods inefficient in practical applications. Although there are many different non-time-of-flight based approaches such as machine learning, or soft computing based methods that can be used for localization with a less number of sensors, they are not as accurate as time-of-flight based techniques. In this article, a new approach which requires only four low sampling rate sensors to localize acoustic source in an anisotropic plate is proposed. In this technique, four electret low sampling rate sensors in two clusters are installed on the plate surface. The presented method uses attenuation analysis in a suitable frequency band to decrease the number of sensors. The approach is experimentally tested and verified on an airplane composite nose by applying artificially generated acoustic emissions (Hsu-Nielsen source). The results reveal that the accuracy of proposed technique depends on distinction of dominant frequency band. A stethoscope as a physical filter is employed to reduce the sensitivity of the technique and delineation of frequency band. The suggested technique improves the accuracy of localization prediction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface waves in an heterogeneous anisotropic continental lithosphere (United States)

    Maupin, V.


    At global as well as at regional scale, the lithosphere appears usually faster to Love waves than to Rayleigh waves. This Love-Rayleigh discrepancy can be modelled by introducing transverse isotropy in the mantle. In continental structures, the amount of transverse isotropy necessary to explain the discrepancy is however often quite large and not compatible with results of SKS-splitting analysis and azimuthal variation of surface wave velocities, at least in the simple framework of large scale uniform olivine orientation in the continental lithosphere. Models where the orientation of the olivine is incoherent at the scale of a few hundred km have been proposed to reconcile the different datasets, but the surface wave characteristics in such anisotropic heterogeneous models have not yet been analysed in detail. Using a mode-coupling scheme for calculating surface wave propagation in heterogeneous anisotropic structures, we analyse the characteristics of Rayleigh and Love waves in such laterally varying anisotropic models. We generate 3-D stochastic models of olivine orientation with different characteristics: preferred orientation dominantly horizontal, vertical or equally distributed in all directions, and use different correlation lengths in the horizontal and vertical directions to constrain the scale at which the anisotropy is coherent. We analyse the apparent Love-Rayleigh discrepancy and the phase velocity azimuthal variation these models generate and the mode-coupling and polarisation anomalies they produce.

  9. Anisotropic diffusion of volatile pollutants at air-water interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping Chen


    Full Text Available The volatile pollutants that spill into natural waters cause water pollution. Air pollution arises from the water pollution because of volatilization. Mass exchange caused by turbulent fluctuation is stronger in the direction normal to the air-water interface than in other directions due to the large density difference between water and air. In order to explore the characteristics of anisotropic diffusion of the volatile pollutants at the air-water interface, the relationship between velocity gradient and mass transfer rate was established to calculate the turbulent mass diffusivity. A second-order accurate smooth transition differencing scheme (STDS was proposed to guarantee the boundedness for the flow and mass transfer at the air-water interface. Simulations and experiments were performed to study the trichloroethylene (C2HCl3 release. By comparing the anisotropic coupling diffusion model, isotropic coupling diffusion model, and non-coupling diffusion model, the features of the transport of volatile pollutants at the air-water interface were determined. The results show that the anisotropic coupling diffusion model is more accurate than the isotropic coupling diffusion model and non-coupling diffusion model. Mass transfer significantly increases with the increase of the air-water relative velocity at a low relative velocity. However, at a higher relative velocity, an increase in the relative velocity has no effect on mass transfer.

  10. Surface Waves Propagating on Grounded Anisotropic Dielectric Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuozhu Chen


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the characteristics of surface waves propagating on a grounded anisotropic dielectric slab. Distinct from the existing analyses that generally assume that the fields of surface wave uniformly distribute along the transverse direction of the infinitely large grounded slab, our method takes into account the field variations along the transverse direction of a finite-width slab. By solving Maxwell’s equations in closed-form, it is revealed that no pure transverse magnetic (TM or transverse electric (TE mode exists if the fields are non-uniformly distributed along the transverse direction of the grounded slab. Instead, two hybrid modes, namely quasi-TM and quasi-TE modes, are supported. In addition, the propagation characteristics of two hybrid modes supported by the grounded anisotropic slab are analyzed in terms of the slab thickness, slab width, as well as the relative permittivity tensor of the anisotropic slab. Furthermore, different methods are employed to compare the analyses, as well as to validate our derivations. The proposed method is very suitable for practical engineering applications.

  11. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  12. Computational Study of Subdural Cortical Stimulation: Effects of Simulating Anisotropic Conductivity on Activation of Cortical Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Seo

    Full Text Available Subdural cortical stimulation (SuCS is an appealing method in the treatment of neurological disorders, and computational modeling studies of SuCS have been applied to determine the optimal design for electrotherapy. To achieve a better understanding of computational modeling on the stimulation effects of SuCS, the influence of anisotropic white matter conductivity on the activation of cortical neurons was investigated in a realistic head model. In this paper, we constructed pyramidal neuronal models (layers 3 and 5 that showed primary excitation of the corticospinal tract, and an anatomically realistic head model reflecting complex brain geometry. The anisotropic information was acquired from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI and then applied to the white matter at various ratios of anisotropic conductivity. First, we compared the isotropic and anisotropic models; compared to the isotropic model, the anisotropic model showed that neurons were activated in the deeper bank during cathodal stimulation and in the wider crown during anodal stimulation. Second, several popular anisotropic principles were adapted to investigate the effects of variations in anisotropic information. We observed that excitation thresholds varied with anisotropic principles, especially with anodal stimulation. Overall, incorporating anisotropic conductivity into the anatomically realistic head model is critical for accurate estimation of neuronal responses; however, caution should be used in the selection of anisotropic information.

  13. Dynamic interaction of cracks in piezoelectric and anisotropic solids: A non-hypersingular BIEM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineva Petia


    Full Text Available A non-hypersingular traction boundary integral equation method (BIEM is proposed for the treatment of crack systems in piezoelectric or anisotropic plane domains loaded by time-harmonic waves. The solution is based on the frequency dependent fundamental solution obtained by Radon transform. The proposed method is flexible, numerically efficient and has virtually no limitations regarding the material type, crack geometry and type of wave loading. The accuracy and convergence of the BIEM solution for stress intensity factors is validated by comparison with existing results from the literature. Simulations for different crack configurations such as coplanar collinear or cracks in arbitrary position to each other are presented and discussed. They demonstrate among others the strong effect of electromechanical coupling, show the frequency dependent shielding and amplification resulting from crack interaction and reveal the sensitivity of the K-factors on the complex influence of both wave-crack and crack-crack interaction.

  14. Modelling And Analysis Of Permeability Of Anisotropic Compressed Non-Woven Filters (United States)

    Prieur du Plessis, J.; Woudberg, Sonia; Le Coq, Laurence


    An existing geometrical pore-scale model for flow through isotropic spongelike media is adapted to predict flow through anisotropic non-woven glass fibre filters. Model predictions are compared to experimental results for the permeability obtained for a filter under different stages of compression to demonstrate the capability of the model to adjust to changes in porosity. The experimental data used are for a glass fibre paper with a uniform fibre diameter. The input parameters of the pore-scale model are the porosity, fibre diameter and some measure of the anisotropy between the in-plane and normal directions to the paper. Correlation between the predictions and the experimental results is satisfactory and provides confidence in the modelling procedure. It is shown that the permeability is very sensitive to changes in the level of anisotropy, i.e. the level of compression of the nonwoven material.

  15. Tailoring Effective Media by Mie Resonances of Radially-Anisotropic Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kettunen


    Full Text Available This paper studies constructing advanced effective materials using arrays of circular radially-anisotropic (RA cylinders. Homogenization of such cylinders is considered in an electrodynamic case based on Mie scattering theory. The homogenization procedure consists of two steps. First, we present an effectively isotropic model for individual cylinders, and second, we discuss the modeling of a lattice of RA cylinders. Radial anisotropy brings us extra parameters, which makes it possible to adjust the desired effective response for a fixed frequency. The analysis still remains simple enough, enabling a derivation of analytical design equations. The considered applications include generating artificial magnetism using all-dielectric cylinders, which is currently a very sought-after phenomenon in optical frequencies. We also study how negative refraction is achieved using magnetodielectric RA cylinders.

  16. Nondimensional Parameters and Equations for Nonlinear and Bifurcation Analyses of Thin Anisotropic Quasi-Shallow Shells (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.


    A comprehensive development of nondimensional parameters and equations for nonlinear and bifurcations analyses of quasi-shallow shells, based on the Donnell-Mushtari-Vlasov theory for thin anisotropic shells, is presented. A complete set of field equations for geometrically imperfect shells is presented in terms general of lines-of-curvature coordinates. A systematic nondimensionalization of these equations is developed, several new nondimensional parameters are defined, and a comprehensive stress-function formulation is presented that includes variational principles for equilibrium and compatibility. Bifurcation analysis is applied to the nondimensional nonlinear field equations and a comprehensive set of bifurcation equations are presented. An extensive collection of tables and figures are presented that show the effects of lamina material properties and stacking sequence on the nondimensional parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Altendorf


    Full Text Available In the area of tessellation models, there is an intense activity to fully understand the classical models of Voronoi, Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl. Still, these models are all simulations of isotropic growth and are therefore limited to very simple and partly convex cell shapes. The here considered microstructure of martensitic steel has a much more complex and highly non convex cell shape, requiring new tessellation models. This paper presents a new approach for anisotropic tessellation models that resolve to the well-studied cases of Laguerre and Johnson-Mehl for spherical germs. Much better reconstructions can be achieved with these models and thus more realistic microstructure simulations can be produced for materials widely used in industry like martensitic and bainitic steels.

  18. Interplay between diffraction and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase in inhomogeneously twisted anisotropic media (United States)

    Jisha, Chandroth P.; Alberucci, Alessandro; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Assanto, Gaetano


    We discuss the propagation of an electromagnetic field in an inhomogeneously anisotropic material where the optic axis is rotated in the transverse plane but is invariant along the propagation direction. In such a configuration, the evolution of an electromagnetic wave packet is governed by the Pancharatnam-Berry phase (PBP), which is responsible for the appearance of an effective photonic potential. In a recent paper [ACS Photon. 3, 2249 (2016), 10.1021/acsphotonics.6b00700] we demonstrated that the effective potential supports transverse confinement. Here we find the profile of the quasimodes and show that the photonic potential arises from the Kapitza effect of light. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations, accounting for the medium birefringence. Finally, we analyze in detail a configuration able to support nonleaky guided modes.

  19. Exceptional points in anisotropic photonic structures: from non-Hermitian physics to possible device applications (United States)

    Grundmann, Marius; Richter, Steffen; Michalsky, Tom; Sturm, Chris; Zúñiga-Pérez, Jesús; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger


    We demonstrate that exceptional points exist in fully transparent, optically "effectively" biaxial, anisotropic micro-cavities, fabricated using an uniaxial cavity material with its axis inclined to the Bragg mirror growth direction. This is similar to the existence of singular (optic) axes in absorbing biaxial crystals, but the lack of time reversal symmetry is mediated by the mode broadening, i.e. the photon escape from the - in principle - open cavity system. As a consequence the eigenmodes are generally elliptically polarized, and completely circularly polarized eigenmodes are expected in certain directions. Via geometric and chemical composition design degrees of freedom, the spectral and angular position of these chiral modes can be rationally designed. Possible applications arise from the use of such directions for circularly polarized emission without the use of spin injection or internal or external magnetic fields. Also the coupling of such modes to excitons, adding oscillator strength to the system, seems a promising avenue of research.

  20. Wave fields in real media wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic, porous and electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Carcione, José M


    This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may als...