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Sample records for anisotropic energy transport

  1. Investigation of thermal energy transport from an anisotropic central heating element to the adjacent channels: A multipoint flux approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu; El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    anisotropy of the heating element and/or the encompassing plates on thermal energy transport to the fluid passing through the two channels. When the medium is anisotropic with respect to thermal conductivity; energy transport to the neighboring channels

  2. The importance of anisotropic scattering in high energy neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prillinger, G.; Mattes, M.

    1984-01-01

    To describe the highly anisotropic scattering of very fast neutrons adequately the transport code ANISN has been improved. Fokker-Planck terms have been introduced into the transport equation which accurately describe the small changes in energy and angle. The new code has been tested for a d(50)-Be neutron source in a deep penetration iron problem. The influence of the forward peaked elastic scattering on the fast neutron spectrum is shown to be significant and can be handled efficiently in the new ANISN version. Since common cross-section libraries are limited by Legendre expansion, or by their upper energy boundary, or exclude elastic scattering above 20 MeV a special library has been created. (Auth.)

  3. Investigation of thermal energy transport from an anisotropic central heating element to the adjacent channels: A multipoint flux approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-02-01

    The problem of heat transfer from a central heating element pressed between two clad plates to cooling channels adjacent and outboard of the plates is investigated numerically. The aim of this work is to highlight the role of thermal conductivity anisotropy of the heating element and/or the encompassing plates on thermal energy transport to the fluid passing through the two channels. When the medium is anisotropic with respect to thermal conductivity; energy transport to the neighboring channels is no longer symmetric. This asymmetry in energy fluxes influence heat transfer to the coolant resulting in different patterns of temperature fields. In particular, it is found that the temperature fields are skewed towards the principal direction of anisotropy. In addition, the heat flux distributions along the edges of the heating element are also different as a manifestation of thermal conductivity anisotropy. Furthermore, the peak temperature at the channel walls change location and magnitude depending on the principal direction of anisotropy. Based on scaling arguments, it is found that, the ratio of width to the height of the heating system is a key parameter which can suggest when one may ignore the effect of the cross-diagonal terms of the full conductivity tensor. To account for anisotropy in thermal conductivity, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) is employed. Using this technique, it is possible to find a finite difference stencil which can handle full thermal conductivity tensor and in the same time enjoys the simplicity of finite difference approximation. Although the finite difference stencil based on MPFA is quite complex, in this work we apply the recently introduced experimenting field approach which construct the global problem automatically.

  4. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  5. Applying distributions of hydraulic conductivity for anisotropic systems and applications to Tc Transport at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    43Tc99 is spreading mostly laterally through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site sediments. At higher tensions in the unsaturated zone, the hydraulic conductivity may be strongly anisotropic as a consequence of finer soils to retain more water than coarser ones, and for these soils to have been deposited primarily in horizontal structures. We have tried to develop a consistent modeling procedure that could predict the behavior of Tc plumes. Our procedure consists of: (1) Adapting existing numerical recipes based on critical path analysis to calculate the hydraulic conductivity, K, as a function of tension, h, (2) Statistically correlating the predicted K at various values of the tension with fine content, (3) Seeking a tension value, for which the anisotropy and the horizontal K values are both sufficiently large to accommodate multi-kilometer spreading, (4) Predicting the distribution of K values for vertical flow as a function of system support volume, (5) Comparing the largest likely K value in the vertical direction with the expected K in the horizontal direction, (6) Finding the length scale at which the two K values are roughly equal, (7) Comparing that length scale with the horizontal spreading of the plume. We find that our predictions of the value of the tension at which the principle spreading is likely occurring compares very well with experiment. However, we seem to underestimate the physical length scale at which the predominantly horizontal spreading begins to take on significant vertical characteristics. Our data and predictions would seem to indicate that this should happen after horizontal transport of somewhat over a km, but the chiefly horizontal transport appears to continue out to scales of 10km or so.

  6. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail: jsdehesa@upv.es

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  7. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted

  8. Anisotropic perturbations due to dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam

    2006-01-01

    A variety of observational tests seem to suggest that the Universe is anisotropic. This is incompatible with the standard dogma based on adiabatic, rotationally invariant perturbations. We point out that this is a consequence of the standard decomposition of the stress-energy tensor for the cosmological fluids, and that rotational invariance need not be assumed, if there is elastic rigidity in the dark energy. The dark energy required to achieve this might be provided by point symmetric domain wall network with P/ρ=-2/3, although the concept is more general. We illustrate this with reference to a model with cubic symmetry and discuss various aspects of the model

  9. Anisotropic bias dependent transport property of defective phosphorene layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Farooq, M.; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, no systematic studies on the transport properties modified due to defects have been performed. Here, we present the electronic band structure, defect formation energy and bias dependent transport property of various defective systems. We found that the defect formation energy is much less than that in graphene. The defect configuration strongly affects the electronic structure. The band gap vanishes in single vacancy layers, but the band gap reappears in divacancy layers. Interestingly, a single vacancy defect behaves like a p-type impurity for transport property. Unlike the common belief, we observe that the vacancy defect can contribute to greatly increasing the current. Along the zigzag direction, the current in the most stable single vacancy structure was significantly increased as compared with that found in the pristine layer. In addition, the current along the armchair direction was always greater than along the zigzag direction and we observed a strong anisotropic current ratio of armchair to zigzag direction. PMID:26198318

  10. Hydraulic Conductivity Distributions for Anisotropic Systems and Application to Tc Transport at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    At the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site a spill of radioactive Technetium has been migrating horizontally in the vadose zone rather than flowing vertically to the water table. This result has been interpreted as being due to horizontal anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity, K, (a tendency for fluids to migrate more easily in the horizontal direction) due to high horizontal connectivity of sedimentary deposits with a tendency for larger values of K. Such layers have larger components of silt and clay than the predominantly sandy soils at the Hanford site. It is generally accepted that effects of such anisotropy tend to be greater at smaller length scales, probably because of the lack of perfect correlations at large length scales. It has also been suggested that this anisotropy in K is maximized under relatively dry conditions when finer soils (with smaller pores) trap moisture more effectively than sands and gravels. The random component of the distribution of the Hanford flood deposits requires a probabilistic framework for the calculation of K. The work on this project had two main components: (1) to use continuum percolation theory applied to random fractal models to produce a general framework for calculating distributions of K under anisotropic conditions and as a function of system scale, (2) to apply the scheme for calculation to the Hanford site. The results of the general calculation (submitted for publication in Philosophical Magazine) are that the mean horizontal and vertical K values become equal in the limit of large system size (in agreement with general perception above) while the distributions of K values cause significant overlap of expected experimental values of K in the vertical and horizontal directions already at intermediate length scales. In order to make these calculation specific to the Hanford site, however, values of the appropriate length scales to describe the Hanford subsurface as well as to describe the maximum

  11. Neutron transport in two dissimilar media anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, A.R.; Ishiguro, Y.; Siewert, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The elementary solution of the one-speed neutron-transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering are used in conjunction with Chandrasekhar's invariance principles to solve in a concise manner the Milne problem for two adjoining half-spaces and the critical reactor problem for a reflected slab

  12. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.

    2017-01-01

    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  13. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were determined by .... Water transport process of resin and polymer composite specimens at ..... simulation. ... Kwon Y W and Bang H 1997 Finite element method using matlab.

  14. Field dependent spin transport of anisotropic Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, H., E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com

    2016-04-01

    We have addressed the static spin conductivity and spin Drude weight of one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain in the finite magnetic field. We have investigated the behavior of transport properties by means of excitation spectrum in terms of a hard core bosonic representation. The effect of in-plane anisotropy on the spin transport properties has also been studied via the bosonic model by Green's function approach. This anisotropy is considered for exchange constants that couple spin components perpendicular to magnetic field direction. We have found the temperature dependence of the spin conductivity and spin Drude weight in the gapped field induced spin-polarized phase for various magnetic field and anisotropy parameters. Furthermore we have studied the magnetic field dependence of static spin conductivity and Drude weight for various anisotropy parameters. Our results show the regular part of spin conductivity vanishes in isotropic case however Drude weight has a finite non-zero value and the system exhibits ballistic transport properties. We also find the peak in the static spin conductivity factor moves to higher temperature upon increasing the magnetic field at fixed anisotropy. The static spin conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with magnetic field due to increase of energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Furthermore we have studied the temperature dependence of spin Drude weight for different magnetic field and various anisotropy parameters. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of spin conductivity of spin chain Heisenberg model. • The investigation of the effects of anisotropy and magnetic field on the temperature dependence of spin conductivity. • The study of the effect of temperature on the spin Drude weight.

  15. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  16. Complex eigenvalues for neutron transport equation with quadratically anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    Complex eigenvalues for the monoenergetic neutron transport equation in the buckling approximation have been calculated for various combinations of linearly and quadratically anisotropic scattering. The results are discussed in terms of the time-dependent case. Tables are given of complex bucklings for real decay constants and of complex decay constants for real bucklings. The results fit nicely into the pattern of real and purely imaginary eigenvalues obtained earlier. (author)

  17. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-07-13

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties are an essential feature that exist almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain.

  18. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad; Negara, Ardiansyah; El Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu

    2015-01-01

    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties are an essential feature that exist almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain.

  19. Anisotropic transport of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in microfluidic channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Nur Izzati; Muniandy, S V; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Ng, Fong-Lee; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the regional dependence of transport behavior of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris inside microfluidic channel on applied fluid flow rate. The microalgae are treated as spherical naturally buoyant particles. Deviation from the normal diffusion or Brownian transport is characterized based on the scaling behavior of the mean square displacement (MSD) of the particle trajectories by resolving the displacements in the streamwise (flow) and perpendicular directions. The channel is divided into three different flow regions, namely center region of the channel and two near-wall boundaries and the particle motions are analyzed at different flow rates. We use the scaled Brownian motion to model the transitional characteristics in the scaling behavior of the MSDs. We find that there exist anisotropic anomalous transports in all the three flow regions with mixed sub-diffusive, normal and super-diffusive behavior in both longitudinal and transverse directions. (paper)

  20. The traces of anisotropic dark energy in light of Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Wilmar; Kunz, Martin [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24 Quai Ernest Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Hollenstein, Lukas, E-mail: wilmar.cardona@unige.ch, E-mail: lukas.hollenstein@zhaw.ch, E-mail: martin.kunz@unige.ch [IAS Institute of Applied Simulation, ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Grüental, PO Box, 8820 Wädenswil (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    We study a dark energy model with non-zero anisotropic stress, either linked to the dark energy density or to the dark matter density. We compute approximate solutions that allow to characterise the behaviour of the dark energy model and to assess the stability of the perturbations. We also determine the current limits on such an anisotropic stress from the cosmic microwave background data by the Planck satellite, and derive the corresponding constraints on the modified growth parameters like the growth index, the effective Newton's constant and the gravitational slip.

  1. Approximate solution to neutron transport equation with linear anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, G.; Ravetto, P.; Sumini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A method to obtain an approximate solution to the transport equation, when both sources and collisions show a linearly anisotropic behavior, is outlined and the possible implications for numerical calculations in applied neutronics as well as shielding evaluations are investigated. The form of the differential system of equations taken by the method is quite handy and looks simpler and more manageable than any other today available technique. To go deeper into the efficiency of the method, some typical calculations concerning critical dimension of multiplying systems are then performed and the results are compared with the ones coming from the classical Ssub(N) approximations. The outcome of such calculations leads us to think of interesting developments of the method which could be quite useful in alternative to other today widespread approximate procedures, for any geometry, but especially for curved ones. (author)

  2. Time-dependent anisotropic distributed source capability in transient 3-d transport code tort-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Pautz, A.; Becker, M.; Dagan, R.

    2009-01-01

    The transient 3-D discrete ordinates transport code TORT-TD has been extended to account for time-dependent anisotropic distributed external sources. The extension aims at the simulation of the pulsed neutron source in the YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly. Since feedback effects are not relevant in this zero-power configuration, this offers a unique opportunity to validate the time-dependent neutron kinetics of TORT-TD with experimental data. The extensions made in TORT-TD to incorporate a time-dependent anisotropic external source are described. The steady state of the YALINA-Thermal assembly and its response to an artificial square-wave source pulse sequence have been analysed with TORT-TD using pin-wise homogenised cross sections in 18 prompt energy groups with P 1 scattering order and 8 delayed neutron groups. The results demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD to subcritical problems with a time-dependent external source. (authors)

  3. Method for calculating anisotropic neutron transport using scattering kernel without polynomial expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akito; Yamamoto, Junji; Ebisuya, Mituo; Sumita, Kenji

    1979-01-01

    A new method for calculating the anisotropic neutron transport is proposed for the angular spectral analysis of D-T fusion reactor neutronics. The method is based on the transport equation with new type of anisotropic scattering kernels formulated by a single function I sub(i) (μ', μ) instead of polynomial expansion, for instance, Legendre polynomials. In the calculation of angular flux spectra by using scattering kernels with the Legendre polynomial expansion, we often observe the oscillation with negative flux. But in principle this oscillation disappears by this new method. In this work, we discussed anisotropic scattering kernels of the elastic scattering and the inelastic scatterings which excite discrete energy levels. The other scatterings were included in isotropic scattering kernels. An approximation method, with use of the first collision source written by the I sub(i) (μ', μ) function, was introduced to attenuate the ''oscillations'' when we are obliged to use the scattering kernels with the Legendre polynomial expansion. Calculated results with this approximation showed remarkable improvement for the analysis of the angular flux spectra in a slab system of lithium metal with the D-T neutron source. (author)

  4. Quantum transport of atomic matter waves in anisotropic two-dimensional and three-dimensional disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piraud, M; Pezzé, L; Sanchez-Palencia, L

    2013-01-01

    The macroscopic transport properties in a disordered potential, namely diffusion and weak/strong localization, closely depend on the microscopic and statistical properties of the disorder itself. This dependence is rich in counter-intuitive consequences. It can be particularly exploited in matter wave experiments, where the disordered potential can be tailored and controlled, and anisotropies are naturally present. In this work, we apply a perturbative microscopic transport theory and the self-consistent theory of Anderson localization to study the transport properties of ultracold atoms in anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) speckle potentials. In particular, we discuss the anisotropy of single-scattering, diffusion and localization. We also calculate disorder-induced shift of the energy states and propose a method to include it, which amounts to renormalizing energies in the standard on-shell approximation. We show that the renormalization of energies strongly affects the prediction for the 3D localization threshold (mobility edge). We illustrate the theoretical findings with examples which are relevant for current matter wave experiments, where the disorder is created with laser speckle. This paper provides a guideline for future experiments aiming at the precise location of the 3D mobility edge and study of anisotropic diffusion and localization effects in 2D and 3D. (paper)

  5. Comparing energy levels in isotropic and anisotropic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikovski, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.pikovski@colorado.edu

    2015-11-06

    Qualitative information about the quantized energy levels of a system can be of great value. We study the relationship between the bound-state energies of an anisotropic potential and those of its spherical average. It is shown that the two ground-state energies satisfy an inequality, and there is a similar inequality for the first excited states. - Highlights: • Quantized energy levels in an arbitrary non-central potential are studied. • We derive inequalities between energies in a potential and its spherical average. • The results hold in three and two dimensions for any ground state and, with additional symmetry requirements for the first excited state.

  6. Comparing energy levels in isotropic and anisotropic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikovski, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative information about the quantized energy levels of a system can be of great value. We study the relationship between the bound-state energies of an anisotropic potential and those of its spherical average. It is shown that the two ground-state energies satisfy an inequality, and there is a similar inequality for the first excited states. - Highlights: • Quantized energy levels in an arbitrary non-central potential are studied. • We derive inequalities between energies in a potential and its spherical average. • The results hold in three and two dimensions for any ground state and, with additional symmetry requirements for the first excited state.

  7. Investigation of anisotropic thermal transport in cross-linked polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simavilla, David Nieto

    Thermal transport in lightly cross-linked polyisoprene and polybutadine subjected to uniaxial elongation is investigated experimentally. We employ two experimental techniques to assess the effect that deformation has on this class of materials. The first technique, which is based on Forced Rayleigh Scattering (FRS), allows us to measure the two independent components of the thermal diffusivity tensor as a function of deformation. These measurements along with independent measurements of the tensile stress and birefringence are used to evaluate the stress-thermal and stress-optic rules. The stress-thermal rule is found to be valid for the entire range of elongations applied. In contrast, the stress-optic rule fails for moderate to large stretch ratios. This suggests that the degree of anisotropy in thermal conductivity depends on both orientation and tension in polymer chain segments. The second technique, which is based on infrared thermography (IRT), allows us to measure anisotropy in thermal conductivity and strain induced changes in heat capacity. We validate this method measurements of anisotropic thermal conductivity by comparing them with those obtained using FRS. We find excellent agreement between the two techniques. Uncertainty in the infrared thermography method measurements is estimated to be about 2-5 %. The accuracy of the method and its potential application to non-transparent materials makes it a good alternative to extend current research on anisotropic thermal transport in polymeric materials. A second IRT application allows us to investigate the dependence of heat capacity on deformation. We find that heat capacity increases with stretch ratio in polyisoprene specimens under uniaxial extension. The deviation from the equilibrium value of heat capacity is consistent with an independent set of experiments comparing anisotropy in thermal diffusivity and conductivity employing FRS and IRT techniques. We identify finite extensibility and strain

  8. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  9. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I; Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L; Weyssow, B

    2011-01-01

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  10. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza str. 13, Craiova (Romania); Isliker, H; Vogiannou, A; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Thessaloniki, Association Euratom-Hellenic Republic, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-08-15

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  11. Ion and impurity transport in turbulent, anisotropic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrea, M.; Petrisor, I.; Isliker, H.; Vogiannou, A.; Vlahos, L.; Weyssow, B.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate ion and impurity transport in turbulent, possibly anisotropic, magnetic fields. The turbulent magnetic field is modeled as a correlated stochastic field, with Gaussian distribution function and prescribed spatial auto-correlation function, superimposed onto a strong background field. The (running) diffusion coefficients of ions are determined in the three-dimensional environment, using two alternative methods, the semi-analytical decorrelation trajectory (DCT) method, and test-particle simulations. In a first step, the results of the test-particle simulations are compared with and used to validate the results obtained from the DCT method. For this purpose, a drift approximation was made in slab geometry, and relatively good qualitative agreement between the DCT method and the test-particle simulations was found. In a second step, the ion species He, Be, Ne and W, all assumed to be fully ionized, are considered under ITER-like conditions, and the scaling of their diffusivities is determined with respect to varying levels of turbulence (varying Kubo number), varying degrees of anisotropy of the turbulent structures and atomic number. In a third step, the test-particle simulations are repeated without drift approximation, directly using the Lorentz force, first in slab geometry, in order to assess the finite Larmor radius effects, and second in toroidal geometry, to account for the geometric effects. It is found that both effects are important, most prominently the effects due to toroidal geometry and the diffusivities are overestimated in slab geometry by an order of magnitude.

  12. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analysis that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm that effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analyses that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented

  14. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  15. Gravastars and black holes of anisotropic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Roberto; Silva, Maria de Fatima Alves da; Rocha, Pedro Senna

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Dynamical models of prototype gravastars made of anisotropic dark energy are constructed, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = (1 - γ)σ divides the whole spacetime into two regions, the internal region filled with a dark energy fluid, and the external Schwarzschild region. The models represent 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes. Here we show, for the first time in the literature, a model of gravastar and formation of black hole with both interior and thin shell constituted exclusively of dark energy. Besides, the sign of the parameter of anisotropy (Pt - Pr ) seems to be relevant to the gravastar formation. The formation is favored when the tangential pressure is greater than the radial pressure, at least in the neighborhood of the isotropic case (ω = -1). (author)

  16. Gravastars and black holes of anisotropic dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Roberto [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Maria de Fatima Alves da; Rocha, Pedro Senna [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Dynamical models of prototype gravastars made of anisotropic dark energy are constructed, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = (1 - {gamma}){sigma} divides the whole spacetime into two regions, the internal region filled with a dark energy fluid, and the external Schwarzschild region. The models represent 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes. Here we show, for the first time in the literature, a model of gravastar and formation of black hole with both interior and thin shell constituted exclusively of dark energy. Besides, the sign of the parameter of anisotropy (Pt - Pr ) seems to be relevant to the gravastar formation. The formation is favored when the tangential pressure is greater than the radial pressure, at least in the neighborhood of the isotropic case ({omega} = -1). (author)

  17. Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength of multi......We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...

  18. A signature of anisotropic cosmic-ray transport in the gamma-ray sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Grasso, Dario [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Fermi' ' , Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Gaggero, Daniele [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vittino, Andrea [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James Franck-Str. 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Evoli, Carmelo, E-mail: silvio.cerri@df.unipi.it, E-mail: d.gaggero@uva.nl, E-mail: andrea.vittino@tum.de, E-mail: carmelo.evoli@gssi.it, E-mail: dario.grasso@pi.infn.it [Gran Sasso Science Institute, Viale Francesco Crispi 7, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-10-01

    A crucial process in Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) transport is the spatial diffusion due to the interaction with the interstellar turbulent magnetic field. Usually, CR diffusion is assumed to be uniform and isotropic all across the Galaxy. However, this picture is clearly inaccurate: several data-driven and theoretical arguments, as well as dedicated numerical simulations, show that diffusion exhibits highly anisotropic properties with respect to the direction of a background (ordered) magnetic field (i.e., parallel or perpendicular to it). In this paper we focus on a recently discovered anomaly in the hadronic CR spectrum inferred by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data at different positions in the Galaxy, i.e. the progressive hardening of the proton slope at low Galactocentric radii. We propose the idea that this feature can be interpreted as a signature of anisotropic diffusion in the complex Galactic magnetic field: in particular, the harder slope in the inner Galaxy is due, in our scenario, to the parallel diffusive escape along the poloidal component of the large-scale, regular, magnetic field. We implement this idea in a numerical framework, based on the DRAGON code, and perform detailed numerical tests on the accuracy of our setup. We discuss how the effect proposed depends on the relevant free parameters involved. Based on low-energy extrapolation of the few focused numerical simulations aimed at determining the scalings of the anisotropic diffusion coefficients, we finally present a set of plausible models that reproduce the behavior of the CR proton slopes inferred by gamma-ray data.

  19. Anisotropic amplification of proton transport in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Fawaz, Mohammed; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Gautam, Manu; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2017-07-01

    Though graphene oxide (GO) membrane shuttles protons under humid conditions, it suffer severe disintegration and anhydrous conditions lead to abysmal ionic conductivity. The trade-off between mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity challenge the amplification of GO's ionic transport under anhydrous conditions. We show anisotropic amplification of GO's ionic transport with a selective amplification of in plane contribution under anhydrous conditions by doping it with a plant extract, phytic acid (PA). The hygroscopic nature of PA stabilized interlayer water molecules and peculiar geometry of sbnd OH functionalities around saturated hydrocarbon ring anisotropically enhanced ionic transport amplifying the fuel cell performance metrics.

  20. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  1. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  2. The Control of Anisotropic Transport in Manganites by Stripy Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Changcheng; Lu, Xiaomei; Chu, Yinghao

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxial thin film acts as a significant tool to investigate novel phenomena of complex oxide systems. Extrinsic constraint1 of uniform or certain designed buffer layer strain could be easily implanted to these materials. However, the strain distribution might be quite complicated by involving micro- or nano-lattice distortions which could partially relax the strain and determine the complex phase diagrams of thin film, meanwhile introducing structural and physical inhomogeneities. In this work , we report 71° striped ferroelectric domains created in BFO can also epitaxially lock the perovskite manganites leading to the emerge of ordered structural domain. LSMO/BFO hetero-epitaxial samples are deposited by PLD. The 71° periodic striped domains and coherent growth are demonstrated by PFM and X-ray analysis. Plan-view TEM and X-ray RSM have been used to confirm the epitaxial relationships of the functional layers and IP lattice constant. Both the simulation and structural analysis demonstrate we can create a periodic ordered stripe structural domain in LSMO. And this will leave an anisotropic distribution of structural domain walls which makes it possible to capture the anisotropic tunneling for strong electron-lattice coupling in manganites. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements reveal a substantial anisotropic resistivities and a remarkable shift of the MI transition between the perpendicular and parallel to the stripe domain directions.

  3. A numerical method for two-dimensional anisotropic transport problem in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Mingsheng; Feng Tiekai; Fu Lianxiang; Cao Changshu; Liu Yulan

    1988-01-01

    The authors deal with the triangular mesh-discontinuous finite element method for solving the time-dependent anisotropic neutron transport problem in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry. A prior estimate of the numerical solution is given. Stability is proved. The authors have computed a two dimensional anisotropic neutron transport problem and a Tungsten-Carbide critical assembly problem by using the numerical method. In comparision with DSN method and the experimental results obtained by others both at home and abroad, the method is satisfactory

  4. The generalized PN synthetic acceleration method for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has been known to be an effective tool for accelerating the iterative solution of transport equations with isotopic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, the DSA method is not effective for transport equations that have strongly anisotropic scattering. A generalization of the modified DSA (MDSA) methods is proposed. This method converges (Clock time) faster than the MDSA method. It is developed, the results of a Fourier analysis that theoretically predicts its efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical prediction are presented. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  5. The generalized PN synthetic acceleration method for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has been known to be an effective tool for accelerating the iterative solution of transport equations with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, the DSA method is not effective for transport equations that have strongly anisotropic scattering. A generalization of the modified DSA (MDSA) method is proposed that converges (clock time) faster than the MDSA method. This method is developed, the results of a Fourier analysis that theoretically predicts its efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical prediction are presented

  6. Two-group neutron transport theory in adjacent space with lineary anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A solution method for two-group neutron transport theory with anisotropic scattering is introduced by the combination of case method (expansion method of self singular function) and the invariant imbedding (invariance principle). The numerical results for the Milne problem in light water and borated water is presented to demonstrate the avalibility of the method [pt

  7. DTF4-J, 1-D Neutron Transport with Anisotropic Scattering by Sn Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideo

    1971-01-01

    Nature of physical problem solved: DTF-4-J solves the one-dimensional multi-group transport equation with anisotropic scattering by Sn method. It is a FORTRAN adaptation of the Los Alamos DTF-IV program written by K.D. Lathrop, and it is combined with the JAERI SIMPLED-4 program written by H. Nishimura

  8. Intrinsic mobility limit for anisotropic electron transport in Alq3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, A J; Pratt, F L; Hoppler, J; Schulz, L; Malik-Kumar, V; Morley, N A; Desai, P; Shakya, P; Kreouzis, T; Gillin, W P; Kim, K W; Dubroka, A; Scheuermann, R

    2008-03-21

    Muon spin relaxation has been used to probe the charge carrier motion in the molecular conductor Alq3 (tris[8-hydroxy-quinoline] aluminum). At 290 K, the magnetic field dependence of the muon spin relaxation corresponds to that expected for highly anisotropic intermolecular electron hopping. Intermolecular mobility in the fast hopping direction has been found to be 0.23+/-0.03 cm2 V-1 s(-1) in the absence of an electric- field gradient, increasing to 0.32+/-0.06 cm2 V-1 s(-1) in an electric field gradient of 1 MV m(-1). These intrinsic mobility values provide an estimate of the upper limit for mobility achievable in bulk material.

  9. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  10. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: mumeda@vos.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  11. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Energy use in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R. R.

    1977-10-15

    Brief data and information on consumption of oil-based fuels in New Zealand transport are presented. Then the role of the private car, conservation attitudes and behavior, social impacts of energy conservation are discussed. Apart from the methanol and LP-gas options which do not conserve energy, but only substitute energy sources by local supplies, noticeable fuel savings without sacrificing mobility and changing living patterns can be achieved only by concerted implementation of a package of measures.

  13. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  14. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  15. Heuristic geometric ''eigenvalue universality'' in a one-dimensional neutron transport problem with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.A.; Vilhena, M.T. de; Bodmann, B.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we propose a heuristic construction of a transport equation for neutrons with anisotropic scattering considering only the radial cylinder dimension. The eigenvalues of the solutions of the equation correspond to the positive values for the one dimensional case. The central idea of the procedure is the application of the S N method for the discretisation of the angular variable followed by the application of the zero order Hankel transformation. The basis the construction of the scattering terms in form of an integro-differential equation for stationary transport resides in the hypothesis that the eigenvalues that compose the elementary solutions are independent of geometry for a homogeneous medium. We compare the solutions for the cartesian one dimensional problem for an infinite cylinder with azimuthal symmetry and linear anisotropic scattering for two cases. (orig.)

  16. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures.

  17. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures

  18. Anisotropic Pressure, Transport, and Shielding of Magnetic Perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Boozer, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    We compute the effect on a tokamak of applying a nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbation (delta)B. An equilibrium with scalar pressure p yields zero net radial current, and therefore zero torque. Thus, the usual approach, which assumes scalar pressure, is not self-consistent, and masks the close connection which exists between that radial current and the in-surface currents, which provide shielding or amplification of (delta)B. Here, we analytically compute the pressure anisotropy, anisotropy, p # parallel#, p # perpendicular# and ≠ p, and from this, both the radial and in-surface currents. The surface-average of the radial current recovers earlier expressions for ripple transport, while the in-surface currents provide an expression for the amount of self-consistent shielding the plasma provides.

  19. Calculated characteristics of subcritical assembly with anisotropic transport of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, N.V.; Lipilina, E.N.; Lyutov, V.D.; Saukov, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    There was considered possibility of creating enough sub-critical system that multiply neutron fluence from a primary source by many orders. For assemblies with high neutron tie between parts, it is impossible. That is why there was developed a construction consisting of many units (cascades) having weak feedback with preceding cascades. The feedback attenuation was obtained placing layers of slow neutron absorber and moderators between the cascades of fission material. Anisotropy of fast neutron transport through the layers was used. The system consisted of many identical cascades aligning one by another. Each cascade consists of layers of moderator, fissile material and absorber of slow neutrons. The calculations were carried out using the code MCNP.4a with nuclear data library ENDF/B5. In this construction neutrons spread predominantly in one direction multiplying in each next fissile layer, and they attenuate considerably in the opposite direction. In a calculated construction, multiplication factor of one cascade is about 1.5 and multiplication factor of whole construction composed of n cascades is 1.5 n . Calculated keff value is 0.9 for one cascade and does not exceed 0.98 for a system containing any number of cascades. Therefore the assembly is always sub-critical and therefore it is safe in respect of criticality. There was considered using such a sub-critical assembly to create a powerful neutron fluence for neutron boron-capturing therapy. The system merits and demerits were discussed. (authors)

  20. Albedo of low-energy light ions: case of anisotropic approximation of the collision integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovic, R.; Vukanic, J. . E-mail address of corresponding author: simovicr@vin.bg.ac.yu; Simovic, R.)

    2005-01-01

    For diffusion and slowing-down of low-energy light ions, the linear transport equation in the path length form was rederived taking into account a common anisotropic approximation of the collision integral. Assuming that the transport cross section depends only on the ion initial energy, the equation was Laplace-transformed over the relative path length and half-space albedo problem was considered by using the ordinary DPN technique. The Laplace-transformed reflection function was found in the lowest order of DPN flux approximation, and then was inverted analytically leading to the distribution of backscattered particles in the relative path-length. For the general power potential V(R)∞R -1/m the particle reflection coefficient was obtained as a series, while for the special case of the inverse square potential (m=1/2) this coefficient was determined in a compact form. The present approach was compared with the TRIM simulations of helium ion reflection, as well as with the Tilinin - Betz fitting formula and the MARLOWE simulations of proton reflection. (author)

  1. Recent developments of the MARC/PN transport theory code including a treatment of anisotropic scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.K.

    1987-12-01

    The computer code MARC/PN provides a solution of the multigroup transport equation by expanding the flux in spherical harmonics. The coefficients of the series so obtained satisfy linked first order differential equations, and on eliminating terms associated with odd parity harmonics a second order system results which can be solved by established finite difference or finite element techniques. This report describes modifications incorporated in MARC/PN to allow for anisotropic scattering, and the modelling of irregular exterior boundaries in the finite element option. The latter development leads to substantial reductions in problem size, particularly for three dimensions. Also, links to an interactive graphics mesh generator (SUPERTAB) have been added. The final section of the report contains results from problems showing the effects of anisotropic scatter and the ability of the code to model irregular geometries. (author)

  2. Energy transport in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core

  3. Energy transport in dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supritz, C. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)]. E-mail: christoph.supritz@uni-ulm.de; Engelmann, A. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Reineker, P. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core.

  4. Solution of the linearly anisotropic neutron transport problem in a infinite cylinder combining the decomposition and HTSN methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Glenio A.; Bodmann, Bardo; Bogado, Sergio; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical solutions for neutron transport in cylindrical geometry is available for isotropic problems, but to the best of our knowledge for anisotropic problems are not available, yet. In this work, an analytical solution for the neutron transport equation in an infinite cylinder assuming anisotropic scattering is reported. Here we specialize the solution, without loss of generality, for the linearly anisotropic problem using the combined decomposition and HTS N methods. The key feature of this method consists in the application of the decomposition method to the anisotropic problem by virtue of the fact that the inverse of the operator associated to isotropic problem is well know and determined by the HTS N approach. So far, following the idea of the decomposition method, we apply this operator to the integral term, assuming that the angular flux appearing in the integrand is considered to be equal to the HTS N solution interpolated by polynomial considering only even powers. This leads to the first approximation for an anisotropic solution. Proceeding further, we replace this solution for the angular flux in the integral and apply again the inverse operator for the isotropic problem in the integral term and obtain a new approximation for the angular flux. This iterative procedure yields a closed form solution for the angular flux. This methodology can be generalized, in a straightforward manner, for transport problems with any degree of anisotropy. For the sake of illustration, we report numerical simulations for linearly anisotropic transport problems. (author)

  5. Variation of the critical slab thickness with the degree of strongly anisotropic scattering in one-speed neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, C.

    1998-01-01

    The critical slab problem is studied in one-speed neutron transport theory using a linearly anisotropic kernel which combines forward and backward scattering. It is shown that, the recently observed non-monotonic variation of the thickness also exists in this strongly anisotropic case. In addition, the influence of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness is analysed in detail. Numerical analysis for the critical thickness are performed using the spherical harmonics method and results are tabulated for selected illustrative cases as a function of different degrees of anisotropic scattering. Finally, some results are discussed and compared with those already obtained by other methods, the agreement is satisfactory. The spherical harmonic method gives generally accurate results in one dimensional geometry, and it is very suitable for the numerical solution of the neutron transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering

  6. Solution of the neutron transport problem with anisotropic scattering in cylindrical geometry by the decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.A.; Bogado Leite, S.Q.; Vilhena, M.T. de

    2009-01-01

    An analytical solution has been obtained for the one-speed stationary neutron transport problem, in an infinitely long cylinder with anisotropic scattering by the decomposition method. Series expansions of the angular flux distribution are proposed in terms of suitably constructed functions, recursively obtainable from the isotropic solution, to take into account anisotropy. As for the isotropic problem, an accurate closed-form solution was chosen for the problem with internal source and constant incident radiation, obtained from an integral transformation technique and the F N method

  7. Transfer by anisotropic scattering between subsets of the unit sphere of directions in linear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombetti, T.

    1990-01-01

    The exact kernel method is presented for linear transport problems with azimuth-dependent angular fluxes. It is based on the evaluation of average scattering densities (ASD's) that fully describe the neutron (or particle) transfer between subsets of the unit sphere of directions by anisotropic scattering. Reciprocity and other ASD functional properties are proved and combined with the symmetry properties of suitable SN quadrature sets. This greatly reduces the number of independent ASD's to be computed and stored. An approach for performing ASD computations with reciprocity checks is presented. ASD expressions of the scattering source for typical 2D geometries are explicitly given. (author)

  8. Monoenergetic neutral particle transport in an anisotropically scattering half-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.; Garth, J.C.; Woolf, S.

    1995-01-01

    During the past several years, a considerable effort has been underway to develop reliable analytical benchmark solutions to the one-speed transport equation in various geometries. The reader may well ask open-quotes whyclose quotes such a task has been undertaken, given the recent rapid advances in numerical transport theory. The simple answer is that reliable numerical solutions do not yet exist, and their development still represents a mathematical challenge. However, regardless of how mathematically challenging the development is, there are more compelling reasons for this effort which are rooted in the very fundamentals of science and technology. In particular, these solutions, which are highly accurate numerical evaluations of analytical solution representations, serve as open-quotes industry standardsclose quotes to which other more approximate methods or approximations can be compared. Thus analytical benchmarks are part of the process control and continuous improvement of numerical transport methods and are therefore integral components in TQM (Total Quality Management) as applied to transport methods development. With the above reasoning in mind, the authors begin the development and application of a new analytical solution and evaluation for a half-space featuring anisotropic scattering. This work is an extension of previous efforts in which isotropically scattering half-spaces were treated. The previous benchmarks were obtained most conveniently via a numerical Laplace transform inversion which could be applied in a straightforward manner to the case of isotropic scattering. The application of the Laplace transform method is problematical for anisotropic scattering and does not admit to the direct identification of the scalar flux from integral transport theory

  9. VARIANT: VARIational anisotropic nodal transport for multidimensional Cartesian and hexadgonal geometry calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Carrico, C.B.; Lewis, E.E.

    1995-10-01

    The theoretical basis, implementation information and numerical results are presented for VARIANT (VARIational Anisotropic Neutron Transport), a FORTRAN module of the DIF3D code system at Argonne National Laboratory. VARIANT employs the variational nodal method to solve multigroup steady-state neutron diffusion and transport problems. The variational nodal method is a hybrid finite element method that guarantees nodal balance and permits spatial refinement through the use of hierarchical complete polynomial trial functions. Angular variables are expanded with complete or simplified P 1 , P 3 or P 5 5 spherical harmonics approximations with full anisotropic scattering capability. Nodal response matrices are obtained, and the within-group equations are solved by red-black or four-color iteration, accelerated by a partitioned matrix algorithm. Fission source and upscatter iterations strategies follow those of DIF3D. Two- and three-dimensional Cartesian and hexagonal geometries are implemented. Forward and adjoint eigenvalue, fixed source, gamma heating, and criticality (concentration) search problems may be performed

  10. Phase transitions and transport in anisotropic superconductors with large thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Fluctuation effects in conventional superconductors such as broadening of phase transitions and flux creep tend to be very small primarily because of the large coherence lengths. Thus mean field theory, with only small fluctuation corrections, usually provides an adequate description of these systems. Regimes in which fluctuation effects cause qualitatively different physics are very difficult to study as they typically occur in very small regions of the phase diagram or, in transport, require measuring extremely small voltages. In striking contrast, in the high temperature cuprate superconductors a combination of factors - short coherence lengths, anisotropy and higher temperatures - make fluctuation effects many orders of magnitude larger. The current understanding of transport and phase transitions in the cuprate superconductors-particularly YBCO and BSCCO-is reviewed. New results are presented on the two-dimensional regimes and 2D-3D crossover in the strongly anisotropic case of BSCCO. The emphasis is on pinning and vortex glass behavior

  11. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Haussener

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium.

  12. Magnetized Anisotropic Dark Energy Models in Barber’s Second Self-Creation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with Bianchi type IX cosmological model with magnetized anisotropic dark energy by using Barber’s self-creation theory. The energy momentum tensor consists of anisotropic fluid with EoS parameter ω and a uniform magnetic field of energy density ρB. In order to obtain the exact solution we have assumed that dark energy components and the components of magnetic field interact minimally and obey the law of conservation of energy momentum tensors. We have also used the special law of variation for the mean generalized Hubble parameter and power law relation between scalar field and scale factor. Some physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed.

  13. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  14. Multivariate statistical analysis of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuerang; Sun Yuekui; Yuan Jun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an expression has been developed to take into account the complex dependence of the fine structure in core-level electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in anisotropic materials on specimen orientation and spectral collection conditions [Y. Sun, J. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 125109]. One application of this expression is the development of a phenomenological theory of magic-angle electron energy-loss spectroscopy (MAEELS), which can be used to extract the isotropically averaged spectral information for materials with arbitrary anisotropy. Here we use this expression to extract not only the isotropically averaged spectral information, but also the anisotropic spectral components, without the restriction of MAEELS. The application is based on a multivariate statistical analysis of core-level EELS for anisotropic materials. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we have conducted a study on a set of carbon K-edge spectra of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) acquired with energy-loss spectroscopic profiling (ELSP) technique and successfully extracted both the averaged and dichroic spectral components of the wrapped graphite-like sheets. Our result shows that this can be a practical alternative to MAEELS for the study of electronic structure of anisotropic materials, in particular for those nanostructures made of layered materials

  15. Europe of energy and transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruete, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Directorate-General for Energy and Transport (DG TREN), based in Brussels, reports to Jacques Barrot, Vice-President of the European Commission, Commissioner for Transport and Andris Piebalgs, Commissioner for Energy. The Directorate-General for Energy and Transport is headed by Matthias Ruete and has a staff of over 1000 people in ten Directorates located in Brussels and Luxembourg. In addition to the development of Community transport and energy policies, including dealing with State aid, the Directorate-General is responsible for managing the financial support programmes for the trans-European networks, technological development and innovation. In this paper, M. Ruete tells us more about these missions

  16. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  17. Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    One of the iterative methods which is used to solve the discretized transport equation is called the Source Iteration Method (SI). The SI method converges very slowly for problems with optically thick regions and scattering ratios (σ s /σ t ) near unity. The Diffusion-Synthetic Acceleration method (DSA) is one of the methods which has been devised to improve the convergence rate of the SI method. The DSA method is a good tool to accelerate the SI method, if the particle which is being dealt with is a neutron. This is because the scattering process for neutrons is not severely anisotropic. However, if the particle is a charged particle (electron), DSA becomes ineffective as an acceleration device because here the scattering process is severely anisotropic. To improve the DSA algorithm for electron transport, the author approaches the problem in two different ways in this thesis. He develops the first approach by accelerating more angular moments (φ 0 , φ 1 , φ 2 , φ 3 ,...) than is done in DSA; he calls this approach the Modified P N Synthetic Acceleration (MPSA) method. In the second approach he modifies the definition of the transport sweep, using the physics of the scattering; he calls this approach the Modified Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (MDSA) method. In general, he has developed, analyzed, and implemented the MPSA and MDSA methods in this thesis and has shown that for a high order quadrature set and mesh widths about 1.0 cm, they are each about 34 times faster (clock time) than the DSA method. Also, he has found that the MDSA spectral radius decreases as the mesh size increases. This makes the MDSA method a better choice for large spatial meshes

  18. The anisotropic tunneling behavior of spin transport in graphene-based magnetic tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mengchun; Li, Peisen; Qiu, Weicheng; Zhao, Jianqiang; Peng, Junping; Hu, Jiafei; Hu, Jinghua; Tian, Wugang; Hu, Yueguo; Chen, Dixiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Xu, Zhongjie; Yuan, Xuefeng

    2018-05-01

    Due to the theoretical prediction of large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), graphene-based magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) has become an important branch of high-performance spintronics device. In this paper, the non-collinear spin filtering and transport properties of MTJ with the Ni/tri-layer graphene/Ni structure were studied in detail by utilizing the non-equilibrium Green's formalism combined with spin polarized density functional theory. The band structure of Ni-C bonding interface shows that Ni-C atomic hybridization facilitates the electronic structure consistency of graphene and nickel, which results in a perfect spin filtering effect for tri-layer graphene-based MTJ. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that the value of tunneling resistance changes with the relative magnetization angle of two ferromagnetic layers, displaying the anisotropic tunneling behavior of graphene-based MTJ. This originates from the resonant conduction states which are strongly adjusted by the relative magnetization angles. In addition, the perfect spin filtering effect is demonstrated by fitting the anisotropic conductance with the Julliere's model. Our work may serve as guidance for researches and applications of graphene-based spintronics device.

  19. ONETRAN, 1-D Transport in Planar, Cylindrical, Spherical Geometry for Homogeneous, Inhomogeneous Problem, Anisotropic Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ONETRAN solves the one- dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (K-eff and eigenvalue searches) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. 2 - Method of solution: The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used with the diamond (central) difference approximation for the angular extrapolation in curved geometries. A linear discontinuous finite element representation for the angular flux in each spatial mesh cell is used. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero and correct algorithm. Standard inner (within-group) iteration cycles are accelerated by system re-balance, coarse mesh re-balance, or Chebyshev acceleration. Outer iteration cycles are accelerated by coarse-mesh re-balance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXCOR can be accommodated. On CDC machines MAXCOR can be about 25 000 words and peripheral storage is used for most group-dependent data

  20. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  1. Energy Decay Laws in Strongly Anisotropic Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sebastien; Politano, Helene

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a uniform magnetic field B 0 =B 0 e parallel on energy decay laws in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The nonlinear transfer reduction along B 0 is included in a model that distinguishes parallel and perpendicular directions, following a phenomenology of Kraichnan. We predict a slowing down of the energy decay due to anisotropy in the limit of strong B 0 , with distinct power laws for energy decay of shear- and pseudo-Alfven waves. Numerical results from the kinetic equations of Alfven wave turbulence recover these predictions, and MHD numerical results clearly tend to follow them in the lowest perpendicular planes

  2. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  3. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  4. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  5. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, O.

    2007-12-20

    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the <110> directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  6. Fast rigorous numerical method for the solution of the anisotropic neutron transport problem and the NITRAN system for fusion neutronics application. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Rusch, D.

    1979-07-01

    Some recent neutronics experiments for fusion reactor blankets show that the precise treatment of anisotropic secondary emissions for all types of neutron scattering is needed for neutron transport calculations. In the present work new rigorous methods, i.e. based on non-approximative microscopic neutron balance equations, are applied to treat the anisotropic collision source term in transport equations. The collision source calculation is free from approximations except for the discretization of energy, angle and space variables and includes the rigorous treatment of nonelastic collisions, as far as nuclear data are given. Two methods are presented: first the Ii-method, which relies on existing nuclear data files and then, as an ultimate goal, the I*-method, which aims at the use of future double-differential cross section data, but which is also applicable to the present single-differential data basis to allow a smooth transition to the new data type. An application of the Ii-method is given in the code system NITRAN which employs the Ssub(N)-method to solve the transport equations. Both rigorous methods, the Ii- and the I*-method, are applicable to all radiation transport problems and they can be used also in the Monte-Carlo-method to solve the transport problem. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Solution to the transport equation with anisotropic dispersion in a BWR type assembly using the AZTRAN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepe P, M.; Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M.; Del Valle G, E.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the current computing power, the deterministic codes for analyzing nuclear reactors that have been used for several years are becoming more relevant, since much more precise solution techniques can be used; the last century would have been very difficult, since memory and processor capacities were very limited or had high prices on the components. In this work we analyze the effect of the anisotropic dispersion of the effective dispersion section, compared to the isotropic dispersion. The anisotropy implementation was carried out in the AZTRAN transport code, which is part of the AZTLAN platform for nuclear reactors analysis (in development). The AZTRAN code solves the Boltzmann transport equation in one, two and three dimensions at steady state, using the multi-group technique for energy discretization, the RTN-0 nodal method in spatial discretization and for angular discretization the discrete ordinates without considering anisotropy originally. The effect of the anisotropy dispersion on the effective multiplication factor and the axial and radial power on a fuel assembly BWR type are analyzed. (Author)

  8. A Numerical Model of Anisotropic Mass Transport Through Grain Boundary Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yibo

    Tin (Sn) thin films are commonly used in electronic circuit applications as coatings on contacts and solders for joining components. It is widely observed, for some such system, that whiskers---long, thin crystalline structures---emerge and grow from the film. The Sn whisker phenomenon has become a highly active research area since Sn whiskers have caused a large amount of damage and loss in manufacturing, military, medical and power industries. Though lead (Pb) addition to Sn has been used to solve this problem for over five decades, the adverse environmental and health effects of Pb have motivated legislation to severely constrain Pb use in society. People are researching and seeking the reasons which cause whiskers and corresponding methods to solve the problem. The contributing factors to cause a Sn whisker are potentially many and much still remains unknown. Better understanding of fundamental driving forces should point toward strategies to improve (a) the accuracy with which we can predict whisker formation, and (b) our ability to mitigate the phenomenon. This thesis summarizes recent important research achievements in understanding Sn whisker formation and growth, both experimentally and theoretically. Focus is then placed on examining the role that anisotropy in grain boundary diffusivity plays in determining whisker characteristics (specifically, whether they form and, if so, where on a surface). To study this aspect of the problem and to enable future studies on stress driven grain boundary diffusion, this thesis presents a numerical anisotropic mass transport model. In addition to presenting details of the model and implementation, model predictions for a set of increasingly complex grain boundary networks are discussed. Preliminary results from the model provide evidence that anisotropic grain boundary diffusion may be a primary driving mechanism in whisker formation.

  9. Efficient operation of anisotropic synchronous machines for wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldeeb, Hisham; Hackl, Christoph M.; Kullick, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical solution for the Maximum-Torque-per-Ampere (MTPA) operation of synchronous machines (SM) with anisotropy and magnetic cross-coupling for the application in wind turbine systems and airborne wind energy systems. For a given reference torque, the analytical MTPA solution provides the optimal stator current references which produce the desired torque while minimizing the stator copper losses. From an implementation point of view, the proposed analytical method is appealing in terms of its fast online computation (compared to classical numerical methods) and its efficiency enhancement of the electrical drive system. The efficiency of the analytical MTPA operation, with and without consideration of cross-coupling, is compared to the conventional method with zero direct current. (paper)

  10. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Anisotropic kernel p(μ → μ') for transport calculations of elastically scattered neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, B.

    1985-01-01

    Literature in the area of anisotropic neutron scattering is by no means lacking. Attention, however, is usually devoted to solution of some particular neutron transport problem and the model employed is at best approximate. The present approach to the problem in general is classically exact and may be of some particular value to individuals seeking exact numerical results in transport calculations. For attempts neutrons originally directed toward the unit vector Omega, it attempts the evaluation of p(theta'), defined such that p(theta') d theta' is that fraction of scattered neutrons that emerges in the vicinity of a cone i.e., having been scattered to between angles theta' and theta' + d theta' with the axis of preferred orientation i; Omega makes an angle theta with i. The relative simplicity of the final form of the solution for hydrogen, in spite of the complicated nature of the limits involved, is a trade-off that truly is not necessary. The exact general solution presented here in integral form, has exceedingly simple limits, i.e., 0 ≤ theta' ≤ π regardless of the material involved; but the form of the final solution is extraordinarily complicated

  12. Highly anisotropic electronic transport properties of monolayer and bilayer phosphorene from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhenghe; Mullen, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Kim, Ki Wook, E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsic carrier transport dynamics in phosphorene is theoretically examined. Utilizing a density functional theory treatment, the low-field mobility and the saturation velocity are characterized for both electrons and holes in the monolayer and bilayer structures. The analysis clearly elucidates the crystal orientation dependence manifested through the anisotropic band structure and the carrier-phonon scattering rates. In the monolayer, the hole mobility in the armchair direction is estimated to be approximately five times larger than in the zigzag direction at room temperature (460 cm{sup 2}/V s vs. 90 cm{sup 2}/V s). The bilayer transport, on the other hand, exhibits a more modest anisotropy with substantially higher mobilities (1610 cm{sup 2}/V s and 760 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively). The calculations on the conduction-band electrons indicate a comparable dependence while the characteristic values are generally smaller by about a factor of two. The variation in the saturation velocity is found to be less pronounced. With the anticipated superior performance and the diminished anisotropy, few-layer phosphorene offers a promising opportunity particularly in p-type applications.

  13. A parametric finite element method for solid-state dewetting problems with anisotropic surface energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weizhu; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Quan

    2017-02-01

    We propose an efficient and accurate parametric finite element method (PFEM) for solving sharp-interface continuum models for solid-state dewetting of thin films with anisotropic surface energies. The governing equations of the sharp-interface models belong to a new type of high-order (4th- or 6th-order) geometric evolution partial differential equations about open curve/surface interface tracking problems which include anisotropic surface diffusion flow and contact line migration. Compared to the traditional methods (e.g., marker-particle methods), the proposed PFEM not only has very good accuracy, but also poses very mild restrictions on the numerical stability, and thus it has significant advantages for solving this type of open curve evolution problems with applications in the simulation of solid-state dewetting. Extensive numerical results are reported to demonstrate the accuracy and high efficiency of the proposed PFEM.

  14. Cosmological model with anisotropic dark energy and self-similarity of the second kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Carlos F. Charret; Silva, Maria de Fatima A. da; Rocha, Jaime F. Villas da; Chan, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We study the evolution of an anisotropic fluid with self-similarity of the second kind. We found a class of solution to the Einstein field equations by assuming an equation of state where the radial pressure of the fluid is proportional to its energy density (p r =ωρ) and that the fluid moves along time-like geodesics. The equation of state and the anisotropy with self-similarity of second kind imply ω = -1. The energy conditions, geometrical and physical properties of the solutions are studied. We have found that for the parameter α=-1/2 , it may represent a Big Rip cosmological model. (author)

  15. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .

  16. Tuning the effects of Landau level mixing on anisotropic transport in quantum Hall systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Peter M; Kennett, Malcolm P

    2012-01-01

    Electron-electron interactions in half-filled high Landau levels in two-dimensional electron gases in a strong perpendicular magnetic field can lead to states with anisotropic longitudinal resistance. This longitudinal resistance is generally believed to arise from broken rotational invariance, which is indicated by charge density wave order in Hartree-Fock calculations. We use the Hartree-Fock approximation to study the influence of externally tuned Landau level mixing on the formation of interaction-induced states that break rotational invariance in two-dimensional electron and hole systems. We focus on the situation when there are two non-interacting states in the vicinity of the Fermi level and construct a Landau theory to study coupled charge density wave order that can occur as interactions are tuned and the filling or mixing are varied. We consider numerically a specific example where mixing is tuned externally through Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We calculate the phase diagram and find the possibility of ordering involving coupled striped or triangular charge density waves in the two levels. Our results may be relevant to recent transport experiments on quantum Hall nematics in which Landau level mixing plays an important role. (paper)

  17. Integral transform method for solving neutron transport problems with general anisotropic scattering in a cylinder of finite height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Sahni, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the mathematical techniques that were developed for solving the integral transport equation for the criticality of a homogeneous cylinder of finite height with general anisotropic scattering. They present the integral transport equations for the Fourier transformed spherical harmonic moments of the angular flux. These moments are also represented by a series of products of spherical Bessel functions. The criticality problem is, then, posed by the matrix eigenvalue problem whose eigenvector is composed of the expansion coefficients mentioned above. An methodology of calculating the general matrix element is discussed by using the recursion relations derived in this paper. Finally, for the one-group criticality of finite cylinders, the benchmark results are generated when scattering is linearly anisotropic. Also, these benchmarks are solved and compared with the S/sub N/ method of TWOTRAN

  18. Transportation economics and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Sobh, Ali

    The overall objective of this research is to study the impacts of technology improvement including fuel efficiency increment, extending the use of natural gas vehicle and electric vehicles on key parameters of transportation. In the first chapter, a simple economic analysis is used in order to demonstrate the adoption rate of natural gas vehicles as an alternative fuel vehicle. The effect of different factors on adoption rate of commuters is calculated in sensitivity analysis. In second chapter the VMT is modeled and forecasted under influence of CNG vehicles in different scenarios. The VMT modeling is based on the time series data for Washington State. In order to investigate the effect of population growth on VMT, the per capita model is also developed. In third chapter the effect of fuel efficiency improvement on fuel tax revenue and greenhouse emission is examined. The model is developed based on time series data of Washington State. The rebound effect resulted from fuel efficiency improvement is estimated and is considered in fuel consumption forecasting. The reduction in fuel tax revenue and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as two outcomes of lower fuel consumption are computed. In addition, the proper fuel tax rate to restitute the revenue is suggested. In the fourth chapter effective factors on electric vehicles (EV) adoption is discussed. The constructed model is aggregated binomial logit share model that estimates the modal split between EV and conventional vehicles for different states over time. Various factors are incorporated in the utility function as explanatory variables in order to quantify their effect on EV adoption choices. The explanatory variables include income, VMT, electricity price, gasoline price, urban area and number of EV stations.

  19. Apparent directional mass-transfer capacity coefficients in three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous aquifers under radial convergent transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Benson, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Aquifer hydraulic properties such as hydraulic conductivity (K) are ubiquitously heterogeneous and typically only a statistical characterization can be sought. Additionally, statistical anisotropy at typical characterization scales is the rule. Thus, regardless of the processes governing solute transport at the local (pore) scale, transport becomes non-Fickian. Mass-transfer models provide an efficient tool that reproduces observed anomalous transport; in some cases though, these models lack predictability as model parameters cannot readily be connected to the physical properties of aquifers. In this study, we focus on a multirate mass-transfer model (MRMT), and in particular the apparent capacity coefficient (β), which is a strong indicator of the potential of immobile zones to capture moving solute. We aim to find if the choice of an apparent β can be phenomenologically related to measures of statistical anisotropy. We analyzed an ensemble of random simulations of three-dimensional log-transformed multi-Gaussian permeability fields with stationary anisotropic correlation under convergent flow conditions. It was found that apparent β also displays an anisotropic behavior, physically controlled by the aquifer directional connectivity, which in turn is controlled by the anisotropic correlation model. A high hydraulic connectivity results in large β values. These results provide new insights into the practical use of mass-transfer models for predictive purposes.

  20. Anisotropic kinetic energy release and gyroscopic behavior of CO2 super rotors from an optical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Ogden, Hannah M.; Mullin, Amy S.

    2017-10-01

    An optical centrifuge is used to generate an ensemble of CO2 super rotors with oriented angular momentum. The collision dynamics and energy transfer behavior of the super rotor molecules are investigated using high-resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy. New multipass IR detection provides improved sensitivity to perform polarization-dependent transient studies for rotational states with 76 ≤ J ≤ 100. Polarization-dependent measurements show that the collision-induced kinetic energy release is spatially anisotropic and results from both near-resonant energy transfer between super rotor molecules and non-resonant energy transfer between super rotors and thermal molecules. J-dependent studies show that the extent and duration of the orientational anisotropy increase with rotational angular momentum. The super rotors exhibit behavior akin to molecular gyroscopes, wherein molecules with larger amounts of angular momentum are less likely to change their angular momentum orientation through collisions.

  1. Anisotropic light diffraction in crystals with a large acoustic-energy walk-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakshy, V. I.; Voloshin, A. S.; Molchanov, V. Ya.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of energy walk-off in an acoustic beam on the characteristic of anisotropic Bragg diffraction of light has been investigated by the example of paratellurite crystal. The angular and frequency characteristics of acousto-optic diffraction have been calculated in wide ranges of ultrasound frequencies and Bragg angles using the modified Raman-Nath equations. It is shown that the walk-off of an acoustic beam may change (either widen or narrow) significantly the frequency and angular ranges. The calculation results have been experimentally checked on an acousto-optic cell made of 10.5°-cut paratellurite crystal.

  2. Transportation Energy Pathways LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barter, Garrett. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reichmuth, David. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Westbrook, Jessica [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yoshimura, Ann S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peterson, Meghan B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); West, Todd H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Manley, Dawn Kataoka [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guzman, Katherine Dunphy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Donna M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a system dynamics based model of the supply-demand interactions between the US light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources through the year 2050. An important capability of our model is the ability to conduct parametric analyses. Others have relied upon scenario-based analysis, where one discrete set of values is assigned to the input variables and used to generate one possible realization of the future. While these scenarios can be illustrative of dominant trends and tradeoffs under certain circumstances, changes in input values or assumptions can have a significant impact on results, especially when output metrics are associated with projections far into the future. This type of uncertainty can be addressed by using a parametric study to examine a range of values for the input variables, offering a richer source of data to an analyst.The parametric analysis featured here focuses on a trade space exploration, with emphasis on factors that influence the adoption rates of electric vehicles (EVs), the reduction of GHG emissions, and the reduction of petroleum consumption within the US LDV fleet. The underlying model emphasizes competition between 13 different types of powertrains, including conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs), conventional hybrids(HEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles(BEVs).We find that many factors contribute to the adoption rates of EVs. These include the pace of technological development for the electric powertrain, battery performance, as well as the efficiency improvements in conventional vehicles. Policy initiatives can also have a dramatic impact on the degree of EV adoption. The consumer effective payback period, in particular, can significantly increase the market penetration rates if extended towards the vehicle lifetime.Widespread EV adoption can have noticeable impact on petroleum consumption and

  3. A solution of the monoenergetic neutral particle transport equation for adjacent half-spaces with anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, B.D., E-mail: ganapol@cowboy.ame.arizona.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Mostacci, D.; Previti, A. [Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli, 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    We present highly accurate solutions to the neutral particle transport equation in a half-space. While our initial motivation was in response to a recently published solution based on Chandrasekhar's H-function, the presentation to follow has taken on a more comprehensive tone. The solution by H-functions certainly did achieved high accuracy but was limited to isotropic scattering and emission from spatially uniform and linear sources. Moreover, the overly complicated nature of the H-function approach strongly suggests that its extension to anisotropic scattering and general sources is not at all practical. For this reason, an all encompassing theory for the determination of highly precise benchmarks, including anisotropic scattering for a variety of spatial source distributions, is presented for particle transport in a half-space. We illustrate the approach via a collection of cases including tables of 7-place flux benchmarks to guide transport methods developers. The solution presented can be applied to a considerable number of one and two half-space transport problems with variable sources and represents a state-of-the-art benchmark solution.

  4. Transport of accelerator produced high energy neutrons though concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar Rao, G.; Sarkar, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Development of a computational system for estimating the production and transport of high energy neutrons in particle accelerators is reported. The energy-angle distribution of neutrons from accelerated ions bombarding thick targets is calculated by a hybrid nuclear reaction model code, ALICE-91, modified to suit the purpose. Subsequent transmission of these neutrons through concrete slabs is treated using the anisotropic source-flux iteration technique (ASFIT) in the framework of a coupled neutron-gamma transport. Several parameters of both the codes have been optimized to obtain the transmitted dose through concrete. The calculations are found to be accurate and at the same time faster compared to the detailed Monte Carlo calculations. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs

  5. Anisotropic transport of normal metal-barrier-normal metal junctions in monolayer phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sarkar, Sangita; Agarwal, Amit; Sengupta, K

    2017-07-19

    We study transport properties of a phosphorene monolayer in the presence of single and multiple potential barriers of height U 0 and width d, using both continuum and microscopic lattice models, and show that the nature of electron transport along its armchair edge (x direction) is qualitatively different from its counterpart in both conventional two-dimensional electron gas with Schrödinger-like quasiparticles and graphene or surfaces of topological insulators hosting massless Dirac quasiparticles. We show that the transport, mediated by massive Dirac electrons, allows one to achieve collimated quasiparticle motion along x and thus makes monolayer phosphorene an ideal experimental platform for studying Klein paradox in the context of gapped Dirac materials. We study the dependence of the tunneling conductance [Formula: see text] as a function of d and U 0 , and demonstrate that for a given applied voltage V its behavior changes from oscillatory to decaying function of d for a range of U 0 with finite non-zero upper and lower bounds, and provide analytical expression for these bounds within which G decays with d. We contrast such behavior of G with that of massless Dirac electrons in graphene and also with that along the zigzag edge (y direction) in phosphorene where the quasiparticles obey an effective Schrödinger equation at low energy. We also study transport through multiple barriers along x and demonstrate that these properties hold for transport through multiple barriers as well. Finally, we suggest concrete experiments which may verify our theoretical predictions.

  6. A note on conservative transport in anisotropic, heterogeneous porous media in the presence of small-amplitude transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naff, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The late-time macrodispersion coefficients are obtained for the case of flow in the presence of a small-scale deterministic transient in a three-dimensional anisotropic, heterogeneous medium. The transient is assumed to affect only the velocity component transverse to the mean flow direction and to take the form of a periodic function. For the case of a highly stratified medium, these late-time macrodispersion coefficients behave largely as the standard coefficients used in the transport equation. Only in the event that the medium is isotropic is it probable that significant deviations from the standard coefficients would occur.

  7. Detection of Human Impacts by an Adaptive Energy-Based Anisotropic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prado-Velasco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Boosted by health consequences and the cost of falls in the elderly, this work develops and tests a novel algorithm and methodology to detect human impacts that will act as triggers of a two-layer fall monitor. The two main requirements demanded by socio-healthcare providers—unobtrusiveness and reliability—defined the objectives of the research. We have demonstrated that a very agile, adaptive, and energy-based anisotropic algorithm can provide 100% sensitivity and 78% specificity, in the task of detecting impacts under demanding laboratory conditions. The algorithm works together with an unsupervised real-time learning technique that addresses the adaptive capability, and this is also presented. The work demonstrates the robustness and reliability of our new algorithm, which will be the basis of a smart falling monitor. This is shown in this work to underline the relevance of the results.

  8. Anisotropic transport of normal metal-barrier-normal metal junctions in monolayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sarkar, Sangita; Agarwal, Amit; Sengupta, K.

    2017-07-01

    We study transport properties of a phosphorene monolayer in the presence of single and multiple potential barriers of height U 0 and width d, using both continuum and microscopic lattice models, and show that the nature of electron transport along its armchair edge (x direction) is qualitatively different from its counterpart in both conventional two-dimensional electron gas with Schrödinger-like quasiparticles and graphene or surfaces of topological insulators hosting massless Dirac quasiparticles. We show that the transport, mediated by massive Dirac electrons, allows one to achieve collimated quasiparticle motion along x and thus makes monolayer phosphorene an ideal experimental platform for studying Klein paradox in the context of gapped Dirac materials. We study the dependence of the tunneling conductance G\\equiv {{G}xx} as a function of d and U 0, and demonstrate that for a given applied voltage V its behavior changes from oscillatory to decaying function of d for a range of U 0 with finite non-zero upper and lower bounds, and provide analytical expression for these bounds within which G decays with d. We contrast such behavior of G with that of massless Dirac electrons in graphene and also with that along the zigzag edge (y direction) in phosphorene where the quasiparticles obey an effective Schrödinger equation at low energy. We also study transport through multiple barriers along x and demonstrate that these properties hold for transport through multiple barriers as well. Finally, we suggest concrete experiments which may verify our theoretical predictions.

  9. Assessing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anisotropic potential with application to the exfoliation energy of graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totton, Tim S; Misquitta, Alston J; Kraft, Markus

    2011-11-24

    In this work we assess a recently published anisotropic potential for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2010, 6, 683-695). Comparison to recent high-level symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based on density functional theory (SAPT(DFT)) results for coronene (C(24)H(12)) demonstrate the transferability of the potential while highlighting some limitations with simple point charge descriptions of the electrostatic interaction. The potential is also shown to reproduce second virial coefficients of benzene (C(6)H(6)) with high accuracy, and this is enhanced by using a distributed multipole model for the electrostatic interaction. The graphene dimer interaction energy and the exfoliation energy of graphite have been estimated by extrapolation of PAH interaction energies. The contribution of nonlocal fluctuations in the π electron density in graphite have also been estimated which increases the exfoliation energy by 3.0 meV atom(-1) to 47.6 meV atom(-1), which compares well to recent theoretical and experimental results.

  10. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Lund, H.; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  11. Numerical Aspects Related to the Dynamic Update of Anisotropic Permeability Field During the Transport of Nanoparticles in the Subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Meng-Huo; Salama, Amgad; Ei-Amin, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles are particles that are between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. They present possible dangers to the environment due to the high surface to volume ratio, which can make the particles very reactive or catalytic. Furthermore, rapid increase in the implementation of nanotechnologies has released large amount of the nanowaste into the environment. In the last two decades, transport of nanoparticles in the subsurface and the potential hazard they impose to the environment have attracted the attention of researchers. In this work, we use numerical simulation to investigate the problem regarding the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media. We consider the case in which the permeability in the principal direction components will vary with respect to time. The interesting thing in this case is the fact that the anisotropy could disappear with time. We investigate the effect of the degenerating anisotropy on various fields such as pressure, porosity, concentration and velocities.

  12. Numerical Aspects Related to the Dynamic Update of Anisotropic Permeability Field During the Transport of Nanoparticles in the Subsurface

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Meng-Huo

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticles are particles that are between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. They present possible dangers to the environment due to the high surface to volume ratio, which can make the particles very reactive or catalytic. Furthermore, rapid increase in the implementation of nanotechnologies has released large amount of the nanowaste into the environment. In the last two decades, transport of nanoparticles in the subsurface and the potential hazard they impose to the environment have attracted the attention of researchers. In this work, we use numerical simulation to investigate the problem regarding the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media. We consider the case in which the permeability in the principal direction components will vary with respect to time. The interesting thing in this case is the fact that the anisotropy could disappear with time. We investigate the effect of the degenerating anisotropy on various fields such as pressure, porosity, concentration and velocities.

  13. Time-dependent anisotropic external sources in transient 3-D transport code TORT-TD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seubert, A.; Pautz, A.; Becker, M.; Dagan, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a time-dependent distributed external source in TORT-TD by explicitly considering the external source in the ''fixed-source'' term of the implicitly time-discretised 3-D discrete ordinates transport equation. Anisotropy of the external source is represented by a spherical harmonics series expansion similar to the angular fluxes. The YALINA-Thermal subcritical assembly serves as a test case. The configuration with 280 fuel rods has been analysed with TORT-TD using cross sections in 18 energy groups and P1 scattering order generated by the KAPROS code system. Good agreement is achieved concerning the multiplication factor. The response of the system to an artificial time-dependent source consisting of two square-wave pulses demonstrates the time-dependent external source capability of TORT-TD. The result is physically plausible as judged from validation calculations. (orig.)

  14. Modeling of the Transport Phenomena in Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Using a Two-Phase Anisotropic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Miao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC were numerically simulated by the proposed two-dimensional two-phase nonisothermal mass transport model. The anisotropic transport characteristic and deformation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL were considered in this model. The natural convection boundary conditions were adopted for the transport of methanol, oxygen, and heat at the GDL outer surface. The effect of methanol concentration in the reservoir on cell performance was examined. The distribution of multiphysical fields in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA, especially in the catalyst layers (CLs, was obtained and analyzed. The results indicated that transport resistance for the methanol mainly existed in the MEA while that for oxygen and heat was primarily due to natural convection at the GDL outer surface. Because of the relatively high methanol concentration, the local reaction rate in CLs was mainly determined by the overpotential. Methanol concentration between 3 M and 4 M was recommended for passive liquid feed DMFC in order to achieve a balance between the cell performance and the methanol crossover.

  15. Environmental friendly energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally, acceptable working fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA rising vegetable oils as base stocks and as innovative additive packages. While much of the research has been made in the field of alternative environmentally, friendly energy, transport media, the thermal stability of vegetable based stock is still a challenging area. This work concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. Oven and oil bath test methods were employed in this study. This paper tabled mineral and vegetable oil physical test results and presents thermal stability of oil blends. (Author)

  16. TWOTRAN-2, 2-D Multigroup Transport in X-Y, R-Z, R-Theta Geometry with Anisotropic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.; Brinkley, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TWOTRAN2 solves the two-dimensional multigroup transport equation in (x,y), (r,theta), and (r,z) geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k eff and eigenvalue searches) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white or input-specified boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. 2 - Method of solution: The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used in finite difference form which is solved with the central (diamond) difference approximation. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to zero and correct algorithm. Standard inner (within-group) and outer iterative cycles are accelerated by a coarse-mesh re-balancing on a coarse mesh which may be independent of the material mesh. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXLEN can be accommodated. On IBM machines, TWOTRAN2 will execute in the 4-byte mode so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXLEN can be accommodated. MAXLEN can be several hundred thousand and most problems can be core-contained. On the CDC machines MAXLEN can be slightly greater than 40,000 words and peripheral storage is used for most group-dependent data

  17. Analytical modeling of pressure transient behavior for coalbed methane transport in anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Resulting from the nature of anisotropy of coal media, it is a meaningful work to evaluate pressure transient behavior and flow characteristics within coals. In this article, a complete analytical model called the elliptical flow model is established by combining the theory of elliptical flow in anisotropic media and Fick's laws about the diffusion of coalbed methane. To investigate pressure transient behavior, analytical solutions were first obtained through introducing a series of special functions (Mathieu functions), which are extremely complex and are hard to calculate. Thus, a computer program was developed to establish type curves, on which the effects of the parameters, including anisotropy coefficient, storage coefficient, transfer coefficient and rate constant, were analyzed in detail. Calculative results show that the existence of anisotropy would cause great pressure depletion. To validate new analytical solutions, previous results were used to compare with the new results. It is found that a better agreement between the solutions obtained in this work and the literature was achieved. Finally, a case study is used to explain the effects of the parameters, including rock total compressibility coefficient, coal medium porosity and anisotropic permeability, sorption time constant, Langmuir volume and fluid viscosity, on bottom-hole pressure behavior. It is necessary to coordinate these parameters so as to reduce the pressure depletion. (paper)

  18. ADVANCES IN ZERO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Othman

    2017-01-01

    Hyperloop mass transportation systems are activelydeveloped at the moment. They represent the forefront development of the ZeroEnergy Transportation systems where air drag is minimized by travelling in avacuum and friction is reduced by non-contact bearings. Hyperloop supportersare confident that the cost of their transportation systems would be lowcompared to existing transportation systems because of the low loss andtherefore low energy consumption as well as other cost-saving techniquesdoc...

  19. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  20. Bibliography for transportation energy conservation. [578 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, Sarah J.

    1976-05-01

    A listing is given of 578 reports, books, articles, and conference papers on transportation and energy. Coverage is primarily on U. S. developments and research from 1970 to 1975. Following a section of citations of general works on energy, the bibliography contains two main parts: ''Energy for Transportation'' and ''Transportation of Energy.'' Within each of these topics the arrangement is multimodal (at the urban, regional, national, or international level), then by mode. Selected information sources are listed in the last part. Within each section, entries are arranged alphabetically by author or, lacking an author, by title. References were drawn from the Transportation Center Library collection and other libraries in the Northwestern University system. An earlier bibliography, Transportation and Energy, compiled by the Transportation Center Library in March 1974, forms the basis for the arrangement and provides coverage from 1970 to 1973.

  1. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  2. Transport Sector Energy 2010; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Today, transport accounts for a quarter of Sweden's energy consumption which consists almost exclusively of fossil fuels. But with the increasing demands for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, the sector's conversion to other fuels or energy sources will have a major impact the next years. This situation is expected to expand the requirements for statistics of energy consumption of the transport sector. The publication is divided into two parts. Chapter 2 describes the official energy statistics for the transport sector and Chapter 3 presents a breakdown of energy use in passenger and freight services for the respective modes.

  3. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  4. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.

    1989-06-01

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm).

  6. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm)

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  8. Ballistic energy transport via perfluoroalkane linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Energy transport in perfluoroalkanes oligomers of various chain lengths was studied. ► Cross-peaks among C=O stretch and CH bending modes were recorded using RA 2DIR. ► Efficient constant-speed energy transport with the speed of 1150 m/s is found. ► Ballistic energy transport mechanism is suggested. - Abstract: Intramolecular energy transport in a series of perfluoroalkane oligomers with various chain lengths of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 carbon atoms terminated by a carboxylic acid moiety on one end and –CF{sub 2}H group on another end is studied by relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. Perfluoroalkane oligomers adopt an extended structure with antiperiplanar orientation of the neighboring carbon atoms. The energy transport initiated by exciting the C=O stretching mode of the acid was recorded by measuring a cross-peak amplitude between the C=O stretch and the C–H bending mode as a function of the waiting time between the excitation and probing. A linear dependence of energy transport time vs. chain length is found, which suggests a ballistic energy transport mechanism. The energy transport speed, measured from the chain-length dependence of the half-rise time, T{sub ½}, was found to be ca. 1150 m/s, which is close to the longitudinal speed of sound in Teflon polymers.

  9. Anisotropic energy-gaps of iron-based superconductivity from intra-band quasiparticle interference in LiFeAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, A.W. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Allan, M.P. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mackenzie, A.P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Xie, Y. [CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Davis, J.C. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Kihou, K.; Lee, C.H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H. [AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Chuang, T.M. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Inst. of Physics, Academica Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Cooper pairing in the Fe-based superconductors is thought to occur due to the projection of the antiferromagnetic interactions between iron atoms onto the complex momentum-space electronic structure. A key consequence is that distinct anisotropic energy gaps {Delta}{sub i}(k) with specific relative orientations should occur on the different electronic bands i. To determine this previously unresolved gap structure high-precision spectroscopy is required. Here we introduce the STM technique of intra-band Bogolyubov quasiparticle scattering interference (QPI) to iron-based superconductor studies, focusing on LiFeAs. We identify the QPI signatures of three hole-like dispersions and, by introducing a new QPI technique, determine the magnitude and relative orientations of corresponding anisotropic {Delta}{sub i}(k). Intra-band Bogolyubov QPI therefore yields the spectroscopic information required to identify the mechanism of superconductivity in Fe-based superconductors.

  10. Effect of quasiparticles on interlayer transport in highly anisotropic layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemenko, S.N.; Bulaevskii, L.N.; Maley, M.P.; Vinokur, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    We have performed a microscopic calculation of the dielectric response function in highly anisotropic layered superconductors and used the developed approach to obtain the frequency-dependent London penetration length and conductivity in the case of d-wave pairing for currents perpendicular to the layers. We consider a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling of electrons and take into account contributions from both superconducting electrons and quasiparticles to the dielectric response. We show that quasiparticles change the low-temperature behavior of the penetration length in the intermediate frequency range where the frequency is smaller than the superconducting order parameter but larger than the inverse quasiparticle scattering time. The obtained results are used to describe the low-temperature behavior of the Josephson plasma resonance, in particular the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency and the resonance linewidth in zero external magnetic field. We compare our results with the available experimental data for Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) and show that results of a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling for the dc c-axis resistivity in the superconducting state are inconsistent with experimental data for underdoped and optimally doped Bi-2212 crystals. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  13. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireev Victor V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  14. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  15. Hierarchical Theoretical Methods for Understanding and Predicting Anisotropic Thermal Transport Release in Rocket Propellant Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Michael Ortiz, Frank and Ora Lee Marble Professor of Aeronautics and Mechanical Engineering, California...combustion • Formalism and constitutive theory used to describe reactants and their products that reflect the underlying material mechanics and physical...carried out for energetic materials to predict thermo- mechanical and transport properties, phase diagrams, and interfacial structure. Mesoscopic models

  16. Oriented Morphology and Anisotropic Transport in Uniaxially Stretched Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Park; J Li; G Divoux; L Madsen; R Moore

    2011-12-31

    Relations between morphology and transport sensitively govern proton conductivity in perfluorsulfonate ionomers (PFSIs) and thus determine useful properties of these technologically important materials. In order to understand such relations, we have conducted a broad systematic study of H{sup +}-form PFSI membranes over a range of uniaxial extensions and water uptakes. On the basis of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopy, uniaxial deformation induces a strong alignment of ionic domains along the stretching direction. We correlate ionic domain orientation to transport using pulsed-field-gradient {sup 1}H NMR measurements of water diffusion coefficients along the three orthogonal membrane directions. Intriguingly, we observe that uniaxial deformation enhances water transport in one direction (parallel-to-draw direction) while reducing it in the other two directions (two orthogonal directions relative to the stretching direction). We evaluate another important transport parameter, proton conductivity, along two orthogonal in-plane directions. In agreement with water diffusion experiments, orientation of ionic channels increases proton conduction along the stretching direction while decreasing it in the perpendicular direction. These findings provide valuable fodder for optimal application of PFSI membranes as well as for the design of next generation polymer electrolyte membranes.

  17. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes -- highway, air, water, rail, pipeline -- is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  18. Transportation energy data book: Edition 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Strang, S.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 13 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  19. Transportation energy data book: Edition 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Morris, M.D.

    1992-03-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 12 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes--highway, air, water, rail, pipeline--is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, federal standards, fuel economies, and vehicle emission data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 6, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  20. An anisotropic diffusion approximation to thermal radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Seth R.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an anisotropic diffusion (AD) method that uses transport-calculated AD coefficients to efficiently and accurately solve the thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations. By assuming weak gradients and angular moments in the radiation intensity, we derive an expression for the radiation energy density that depends on a non-local function of the opacity. This nonlocal function is the solution of a transport equation that can be solved with a single steady-state transport sweep once per time step, and the function's second angular moment is the anisotropic diffusion tensor. To demonstrate the AD method's efficacy, we model radiation flow down a channel in 'flatland' geometry. (author)

  1. Plasma thermal energy transport: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.

    Experiments on the transport across the magnetic field of electron thermal energy are reviewed (Alcator, Frascati Torus). In order to explain the experimental results, a transport model is described that reconfirmed the need to have an expression for the local diffusion coefficient with a negative exponent of the electron temperature

  2. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  3. Spectral nodal methodology for multigroup slab-geometry discrete ordinates neutron transport problems with linearly anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Amaury M.; Filho, Hermes A.; Silva, Davi M.; Garcia, Carlos R., E-mail: aoliva@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional; Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a numerical methodology for the development of a method of the spectral nodal class that will generate numerical solutions free from spatial truncation errors. This method, denominated Spectral Deterministic Method (SDM), is tested as an initial study of the solutions (spectral analysis) of neutron transport equations in the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) formulation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, multigroup approximation, with linearly anisotropic scattering, considering homogeneous and heterogeneous domains with fixed source. The unknowns in the methodology are the cell-edge, and cell average angular fluxes, the numerical values calculated for these quantities coincide with the analytic solution of the equations. These numerical results are shown and compared with the traditional ne- mesh method Diamond Difference (DD) and the coarse-mesh method spectral Green's function (SGF) to illustrate the method's accuracy and stability. The solution algorithms problems are implemented in a computer simulator made in C++ language, the same that was used to generate the results of the reference work. (author)

  4. Generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence and related energy transfer in drifting proton-alpha plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.

    2018-05-01

    The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind typically follow a power-law dependence with respect to the observed frequencies and wave-numbers. The background magnetic field often influences the plasma properties, setting a preferential direction for plasma heating and acceleration. At the same time the evolution of the solar-wind turbulence at the ion and electron scales is influenced by the plasma properties through local micro-instabilities and wave-particle interactions. The solar-wind-plasma temperature and the solar-wind turbulence at sub- and sup-ion scales simultaneously show anisotropic features, with different components and fluctuation power in parallel with and perpendicular to the orientation of the background magnetic field. The ratio between the power of the magnetic field fluctuations in parallel and perpendicular direction at the ion scales may vary with the heliospheric distance and depends on various parameters, including the local wave properties and nonthermal plasma features, such as temperature anisotropies and relative drift speeds. In this work we have performed two-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulations to study the generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence in a drifting multi-ion species plasma. We investigate the evolution of the turbulent spectral slopes along and across the background magnetic field for the cases of initially isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. Finally, we show the effect of the various turbulent spectra for the local ion heating in the solar wind.

  5. Ultrafast Microscopy of Energy and Charge Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Libai

    The frontier in solar energy research now lies in learning how to integrate functional entities across multiple length scales to create optimal devices. Advancing the field requires transformative experimental tools that probe energy transfer processes from the nano to the meso lengthscales. To address this challenge, we aim to understand multi-scale energy transport across both multiple length and time scales, coupling simultaneous high spatial, structural, and temporal resolution. In my talk, I will focus on our recent progress on visualization of exciton and charge transport in solar energy harvesting materials from the nano to mesoscale employing ultrafast optical nanoscopy. With approaches that combine spatial and temporal resolutions, we have recently revealed a new singlet-mediated triplet transport mechanism in certain singlet fission materials. This work demonstrates a new triplet exciton transport mechanism leading to favorable long-range triplet exciton diffusion on the picosecond and nanosecond timescales for solar cell applications. We have also performed a direct measurement of carrier transport in space and in time by mapping carrier density with simultaneous ultrafast time resolution and 50 nm spatial precision in perovskite thin films using transient absorption microscopy. These results directly visualize long-range carrier transport of 220nm in 2 ns for solution-processed polycrystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. The spatially and temporally resolved measurements reported here underscore the importance of the local morphology and establish an important first step towards discerning the underlying transport properties of perovskite materials.

  6. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  7. Energy transition in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Bruno; Genest, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Within the European framework, France has committed to a 20% reduction of its GHG emission by 2020 compared with 1990, and reaching the 'factor 4' by 2050. The 2005 POPE Act (the French Energy Policy Guidance Act) makes climate change a priority of the energy policy, setting out a 3% yearly reduction of our country's GHG emissions. This means combining energy efficiency and restraint, as is highlighted by the first chapter of the 'energy transition road-map'. Energy is a major component of transport. Designing its transition requires us to question the very organisation of our society: materials and their usage, the means of transport to favour and the infrastructures to implement, costs for competitiveness, the organisation of work and commuting... At a global scale, needs for mobility are increasing, as is the urgent need to deal with environmental problems. There are huge emerging markets for public transport, increasingly efficient and smart cars, information and transmission networks, infrastructures, the organisation of transport... However, France has all the assets to become a world leader in carbon-free transport. Succeeding in this change means organising the service to meet the needs of all, people, businesses, transport operators and industry, starting this transition right away. Policies must clearly define objectives and the means of achieving them through coordinated actions within a long term approach. The ESEC formulates a set of proposals in this direction

  8. Small polarons and c-axis transport in highly anisotropic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, A.F.; Schofield, A.J.

    2002-09-01

    Motivated by the anomalous c-axis transport properties of the quasi two-dimensional metal, Sr 2 RuO 4 , and some of its relatives, we have studied the interlayer hopping of single electrons that are coupled strongly to c-axis bosons. We find a c-axis resistivity that reflects the in-plane electronic scattering in the low and very high temperature limits (relative to the characteristic temperature of the boson T boson ). For temperatures near the T boson , a broad maximum in the resistivity can appear for sufficiently strong electron-boson coupling. This feature may account for the observed 'metallic to non-metallic crossover' seen in these layered oxides, where the boson may be a phonon. (author)

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 36 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 – energy; Chapter 3 – highway vehicles; Chapter 4 – light vehicles; Chapter 5 – heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 – alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 – fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 – household vehicles; Chapter 9 – nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 – transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 – greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 – criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms is also included for the reader’s convenience.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 35 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  16. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  17. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  18. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Diegel, Susan W.

    2002-12-04

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www.cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4 - criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 6 - highway vehicles; Chapter 7 - light vehicles; Chapter 8 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 9 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 11 - household vehicles; and Chapter 12- nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  19. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  20. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  1. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  4. Which energy for the 21 century transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Lovelock, J.

    2005-01-01

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO 2 by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  5. Energy efficiency in industry and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscoe, J.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of energy issues has changed since the 1970s as improvements have been made in energy efficiency. The present capacity for surplus energy production in economically advanced countries reflects a decrease in energy requirements as well as new production sources. At the same time, the energy crisis can be seen as having discouraged improvements in energy efficiency because of its negative impact on growth. And the centrally planned economies remain highly inefficient energy users. Economic growth encourages the use of new technologies which are likely to be less energy-intensive than those they replace. Permanent gains in energy efficiency are derived from structural changes in the economy and from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies. This article addresses the prospect of increased energy conservation, particularly in industry (the end-use which consumes the most energy) and transportation. Although investments in projects to promote energy conservation are more cost-effective and environment-friendly than investments in energy supply, there is still widespread support for the latter. Developing countries naturally give preference to quantitative growth, with an increasing consumption of energy, but in these countries, too, more efficient use of energy could greatly reduce demand. The policies of international development agencies which still favour increasing energy supply over conservation need to change. Awareness of the need to reduce energy demand is, however, growing worldwide. (author)

  6. Solution to the transport equation with anisotropic dispersion in a BWR type assembly using the AZTRAN code; Solucion de la ecuacion de transporte con dispersion anisotropica en un ensamble tipo BWR usando el codigo AZTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepe P, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Xolocostli M, J. V.; Gomez T, A. M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Del Valle G, E., E-mail: liaison.web@gmail.com [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07730 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Due to the current computing power, the deterministic codes for analyzing nuclear reactors that have been used for several years are becoming more relevant, since much more precise solution techniques can be used; the last century would have been very difficult, since memory and processor capacities were very limited or had high prices on the components. In this work we analyze the effect of the anisotropic dispersion of the effective dispersion section, compared to the isotropic dispersion. The anisotropy implementation was carried out in the AZTRAN transport code, which is part of the AZTLAN platform for nuclear reactors analysis (in development). The AZTRAN code solves the Boltzmann transport equation in one, two and three dimensions at steady state, using the multi-group technique for energy discretization, the RTN-0 nodal method in spatial discretization and for angular discretization the discrete ordinates without considering anisotropy originally. The effect of the anisotropy dispersion on the effective multiplication factor and the axial and radial power on a fuel assembly BWR type are analyzed. (Author)

  7. Pure crystal orientation and anisotropic charge transport in large-area hybrid perovskite films

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2016-11-10

    Controlling crystal orientations and macroscopic morphology is vital to develop the electronic properties of hybrid perovskites. Here we show that a large-area, orientationally pure crystalline (OPC) methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) hybrid perovskite film can be fabricated using a thermal-gradient-assisted directional crystallization method that relies on the sharp liquid-to-solid transition of MAPbI3 from ionic liquid solution. We find that the OPC films spontaneously form periodic microarrays that are distinguishable from general polycrystalline perovskite materials in terms of their crystal orientation, film morphology and electronic properties. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that the film is strongly oriented in the (112) and (200) planes parallel to the substrate. This film is structurally confined by directional crystal growth, inducing intense anisotropy in charge transport. In addition, the low trap-state density (7.9 × 1013 cm−3) leads to strong amplified stimulated emission. This ability to control crystal orientation and morphology could be widely adopted in optoelectronic devices.

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, SC

    2001-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2-energy; Chapter 3-greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4-criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5-transportation and the economy; Chapter 6-highway vehicles; Chapter 7-light vehicles; Chapter 8-heavy vehicles; Chapter 9-alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10-fleet vehicles; Chapter 11-household vehicles; and Chapter 12-nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience

  12. Spin-orbit excitation energies, anisotropic exchange, and magnetic phases of honeycomb RuCl3

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ravi; Bogdanov, Nikolay A.; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Brink, Jeroen van den; Hozoi, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    Large anisotropic exchange in 5d and 4d oxides and halides open the door to new types of magnetic ground states and excitations, inconceivable a decade ago. A prominent case is the Kitaev spin liquid, host of remarkable properties such as protection of quantum information and the emergence of Majorana fermions. Here we discuss the promise for spin-liquid behavior in the 4d 5 honeycomb halide ?-RuCl3. From advanced electronic-structure calculations, we find that the Kitaev interaction is ferro...

  13. Numerical solutions of the monoenergetic neutron transport equation with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Boltzmann equation for monoenergetic neutrons has been solved numerically with high accuracy for homogeneous slabs and spheres with various degree of linear anisotropy. Vacuum boundary conditions are used. The numerical method is based on previous work by Carlvik. Benchmark values of the criticality factor and higher order eigenvalues are given for multiplying systems of thickness or diameter from 10 -5 to 20 mean free paths and with anisotropy coefficients from 0.0 to 0.3. For slab geometry, both even and odd mode eigenvalues are treated. With increasing anisotropy, an increasing number of complex eigenvalues is observer. The total flux is calculated from the eigenvector and tables of the fundamental mode flux are given. Accurate extrapolation distances are derived for various dimensions and anisotropy coefficients from our eigenvalue results on slabs and spheres and from the work by Sanchez on infinite cylinders.The time eigenvalue spectrum in subcritical systems has also been studied. First, the connection between the eigenvalues arising from the time dependent and stationary transport equation is established. Based on this, the spectrum of real time eigenvalues in slabs and spheres is calculated. For spheres, the existence of complex time eigenvalues in the region beyond the value corresponding to the Corngold limit is numerically established. The presence of such eigenvalues has earlier not been proved. It is further shown that the Boltzmann equation for a sphere is significantly simplified when the decay constant is at the Corngold limit. The spectrum of sphere diameters corresponding to this decay constant is calculated for various linear anisotropies, and detailed numerical results are given. (Author)

  14. Radial Flow in a Multiphase Transport Model at FAIR Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Sarkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Azimuthal distributions of radial velocities of charged hadrons produced in nucleus-nucleus (AB collisions are compared with the corresponding azimuthal distribution of charged hadron multiplicity in the framework of a multiphase transport (AMPT model at two different collision energies. The mean radial velocity seems to be a good probe for studying radial expansion. While the anisotropic parts of the distributions indicate a kind of collective nature in the radial expansion of the intermediate “fireball,” their isotropic parts characterize a thermal motion. The present investigation is carried out keeping the upcoming Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM experiment to be held at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in mind. As far as high-energy heavy-ion interactions are concerned, CBM will supplement the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC and Large Hadron Collider (LHC experiments. In this context our simulation results at high baryochemical potential would be interesting, when scrutinized from the perspective of an almost baryon-free environment achieved at RHIC and LHC.

  15. Continuous Energy Photon Transport Implementation in MCATK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Terry R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trahan, Travis John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sweezy, Jeremy Ed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nolen, Steven Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry Grady [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pritchett-Sheats, Lori A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK) code development team has implemented Monte Carlo photon transport into the MCATK software suite. The current particle transport capabilities in MCATK, which process the tracking and collision physics, have been extended to enable tracking of photons using the same continuous energy approximation. We describe the four photoatomic processes implemented, which are coherent scattering, incoherent scattering, pair-production, and photoelectric absorption. The accompanying background, implementation, and verification of these processes will be presented.

  16. Orientation dependent size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates with regard to surface energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, Abbas; Salehi, Manouchehr; Akhlaghi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, size dependent behavior of single crystalline normal and auxetic anisotropic nanoplates is discussed with consideration of material surface stresses via a generalized model. Bending of pressurized nanoplates and their fundamental resonant frequency are discussed for different crystallographic directions and anisotropy degrees. It is explained that the orientation effects are considerable when the nanoplates' edges are pinned but for clamped nanoplates, the anisotropy effect may be ignored. The size effects are the highest when the simply supported nanoplates are parallel to [110] direction but as the anisotropy gets higher, the size effects are reduced. The orientation effect is also discussed for possibility of self-instability occurrence in nanoplates. The results in simpler cases are compared with previous experiments for nanowires but with a correction factor. There are still some open questions for future studies. - Highlights: • Size effects in single crystalline anisotropic nanoplates are discussed. • A generalized model is established containing some physical assumptions. • Orientation dependent size effects due to material anisotropy are explained. • Bending, instability and frequencies are studied at normal/auxetic domain

  17. Solution of the radiative heat transfer equation with internal energy sources in a slab by the GFD method for anisotropic albedo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Fabio Souto de, E-mail: fabio.azevedo@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Sauter, Esequia, E-mail: esequia.sauter@canoas.ifrs.edu.b [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (IFRS), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Thompson, Mark; Vilhena, Marco Tulio B., E-mail: mark.thompson@mat.ufrgs.b, E-mail: vilhena@mat.ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    In this work we apply the Green Function Decomposition Method the radiative transport equation in a slab. The method consists in converting the radiative transport equation into a integral equation and projecting the integral operators involved into a finite dimensional space. This methodology does not involve an a priori discretization on the angular variable {mu}, requiring only that the kernel is numerically integrated on {mu}. Numerical results are provided for isotropic, linearly anisotropic, and Rayleigh scattering near the unitary albedo. (author)

  18. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  19. High-Energy Beam Transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Farrell, J.A.; Liska, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to be installed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) at Richland, Washington. The linear accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power, continuous-duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread either to a lithium target or a beam stop. A periodic quadrupole and bending-magnet system provides the beam transport and focusing on target with small beam aberrations. A special rf cavity distributes the energy in the beam so that the Bragg Peak is distributed within the lithium target. Operation of the rf control system, the Energy Dispersion Cavity (EDC), and the beam transport magnets is tested on the beam stop during accelerator turn-on. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostic techniques and noninterceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports using a cluster system to simplify maintenance and alignment techniques

  20. Panorama 2009 - transport energies: advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    More than 98% of all transport fuels are petroleum-based, but there has been a multiplication of alternative energies driven by high motor fuel prices and the need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many pathways are contenders in the quest to choose replacements for petroleum-based motor fuels. What are the pros and cons of the energy sources under consideration for use in the near or distant future?

  1. Energy and transport policy for the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasises the role of financing research for the rational usage of energy. Independence of the industry from imports and nuclear power programme to cover the envisaged needs are considered before tackling the subject of financial aid to the railways. The future policy of transport development is also outlined. (I.G.)

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book. Sixth edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulp, G.; Holcomb, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics that characterize transportation activity and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this publication is to present a large amount of relevant data in an easily retrievable and usable format with the statistical data shown in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes (highway, air, water, rail, and pipeline) is treated separately, and aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented. The highway mode, accounting for over 77% of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with. Topics in this include vehicle stock characteristics, fuel efficiency, household vehicle ownership and use, fleet automobiles, buses, and trucks. Data are presented on each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively. Trends in vehicle and engine characteristics related to fuel economy are summarized. Emphasis is placed on vehicles and engines for highway use.

  3. Energy transition in transport sector from energy substitution perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wangmin; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Song; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    Power and heating generation sector and transport sector contribute a highest GHG emissions and even air pollutions. This paper seeks to investigate life cycle costs and emissions in both the power sector and transport sector, and evaluate the cost-emission efficient (costs for one unit GHG emissions) of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional gasoline based vehicles under two electricity mix scenarios. In power sector, wind power and PV power will be cost comparative in 2030 forecasted with learning curve method. With high subsidies, new energy cars could be comparative now, but it still has high costs to lower GHG emissions. When the government subsidy policy is reversible, the emission reduction cost for new energy vehicle consumer will be 900/ton. According to the sensitive analysis, the paper suggests that the government implement policies that allocate the cost to the whole life cycle of energy production and consumption related to transport sector energy transition and policies that are in favor of new energy vehicle consumers but not the new energy car producers.

  4. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2006-11-01

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  5. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  6. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  7. Analytic theory of the energy and time independent particle transport in the plane geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovic, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic investigation of the energy and time independent particle transport in the plane geometry described by a common anisotropic scattering function is carried out. Regarding the particles with specific diffusion histories in the infinite or the semi-infinite medium, new exact solutions of the corresponding transport equations are analytically derived by means of the Fourier inversion technique. Two particular groups of particles scattered after each successive collision into the directions μ 0, were considered. Its Fourier transformed transport equations have solutions without logarithmic singular points, in the upper part or the lower part of the complex k-plane. The Fourier inversion of solutions are carried out analytically and the obtained formulae represents valid generalization of the expressions for the flux of once scattered particles. (author)

  8. Self-generated magnetic fields and energy transport by ultra-intense laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abudurexiti, A.; Tuniyazi, P.; Wang Qian

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic instability (Weibel instability) and its mechanism in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions are studied by using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The transport of energy in electron thermal conduction is analyzed by the Spitzer-Harm theory, and the election's vertical pyrogenation phenomenon that resulted from anisotropic heating of laser is observed. The results indicate that the strong magnetic field excited by Weibel instability makes the electron beam deposit its energy within a very short distance, and it restrains the electron thermal flux formed when the laser ponderomotive force bursts through the electron. With the increase of the self-generated magnetic field, the electron will be seized by the wave of magnetic field, and the transport of heat will be restricted. (authors)

  9. Imaginary part of the next-to-leading-order static gluon self-energy in an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, M. E.; Rebhan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Using hard-loop (HL) effective theory for an anisotropic non-Abelian plasma, which even in the static limit involves nonvanishing HL vertices, we calculate the imaginary part of the static next-to-leading-order gluon self-energy in the limit of a small anisotropy and with external momentum parallel to the anisotropy direction. At leading order, the static propagator has spacelike poles corresponding to plasma instabilities. On the basis of a calculation using bare vertices, it has been conjectured that, at next-to-leading order, the static gluon self-energy acquires an imaginary part which regulates these spacelike poles. We find that the one-loop resummed expression taken over naively from the imaginary-time formalism does yield a nonvanishing imaginary part even after including all HL vertices. However, this result is not correct. Starting from the real-time formalism, which is required in a nonequilibrium situation, we construct a resummed retarded HL propagator with correct causality properties and show that the static limit of the retarded one-loop-resummed gluon self-energy is real. This result is also required for the time-ordered propagator to exist at next-to-leading order.

  10. Consumer Views on Transportation and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, E.

    2003-08-01

    This report has been assembled to provide the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with an idea of how the American public views various transportation, energy, and environmental issues. An issue that still needs attention from EERE is the finding that the public tends to lack information about hybrid vehicles, hydrogen, and alternative fuels for passenger vehicles. Also, the public seems to want fuel-efficiency improvements and cleaner fuels, but is not very willing to pay for these benefits. The public also says that it supports initiatives to promote energy conservation over increased production and that it is willing to make changes such as driving less in an effort to reduce oil consumption.

  11. First-principle-based full-dispersion Monte Carlo simulation of the anisotropic phonon transport in the wurtzite GaN thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ruikang; Hu, Run, E-mail: hurun@hust.edu.cn, E-mail: luoxb@hust.edu.cn; Luo, Xiaobing, E-mail: hurun@hust.edu.cn, E-mail: luoxb@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion and Thermal Packaging Laboratory, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-04-14

    In this study, we developed a first-principle-based full-dispersion Monte Carlo simulation method to study the anisotropic phonon transport in wurtzite GaN thin film. The input data of thermal properties in MC simulations were calculated based on the first-principle method. The anisotropy of thermal conductivity in bulk wurtzite GaN is found to be strengthened by isotopic scatterings and reduced temperature, and the anisotropy reaches 40.08% for natural bulk GaN at 100 K. With the GaN thin film thickness decreasing, the anisotropy of the out-of-plane thermal conductivity is heavily reduced due to both the ballistic transport and the less importance of the low-frequency phonons with anisotropic group velocities. On the contrary, it is observed that the in-plane thermal conductivity anisotropy of the GaN thin film is strengthened by reducing the film thickness. And the anisotropy reaches 35.63% when the natural GaN thin film thickness reduces to 50 nm at 300 K with the degree of specularity being zero. The anisotropy is also improved by increasing the surface roughness of the GaN thin film.

  12. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  13. Which energy for the 21 century transports; Quelles energies pour les transports au 21. siecle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Lovelock, J

    2005-07-01

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO{sub 2} by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  14. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, C.R.

    1979-07-01

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  15. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  16. Quark self-energy in an ellipsoidally anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmaei, Babak S.; Nopoush, Mohammad; Strickland, Michael

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the quark self-energy in a quark-gluon plasma that possesses an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy in the local rest frame. By introducing additional transverse-momentum anisotropy parameters into the parton distribution functions, we generalize previous results which were obtained for the case of a spheroidal anisotropy. Our results demonstrate that the presence of anisotropies in the transverse directions affects the real and imaginary parts of quark self-energy and, consequently, the self-energy depends on both the polar and azimuthal angles in the local rest frame of the matter. Our results for the quark self-energy set the stage for the calculation of the effects of ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy on quark-gluon plasma photon spectra and collective flow.

  17. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  18. Energy position of the transport path in disordered organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelerich, J O; Jansson, F; Gebhard, F; Baranovskii, S D; Nenashev, A V

    2014-01-01

    The concept of transport energy is the most transparent theoretical approach to describe hopping transport in disordered systems with steeply energy dependent density of states (DOS), in particular in organic semiconductors with Gaussian DOS. This concept allows one to treat hopping transport in the framework of a simple multiple-trapping model, replacing the mobility edge by a particular energy level called the transport energy. However, there is no consensus among researchers on the position of this transport level. In this article, we suggest a numerical procedure to find out the energy level most significantly contributing to charge transport in organic semiconductors. The procedure is based on studying the effects of DOS modifications on the charge carrier mobility in straightforward computer simulations. We also show why the most frequently visited energy, computed in several numerical studies to determine the transport energy, is not representative for charge transport. (paper)

  19. 2nd Annual European Energy and Transport Conference. Building energy and transport infrastructures for tomorrow's Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is already the second in a series of Annual Energy and Transport Conferences launched last year on the initiative of the Directorate-General for Energy and Transport and dedicated to combining a number of formerly scattered Europe-wide events into a single event with the aim of raising the profile of the two sectors and improving coherence. The theme chosen in 2001 was safety and security. The 2002 conference provided the forum for a debate on Europe's major infrastructure networks. The main targeted objectives are Firstly, practical, in-depth discussion of the future shape of the major trans-European energy and transport networks by 2010-2020 and, secondly, dissemination of the results of European research and technological development (RTD) programmes. The conference also provided a platform to float ideas and present programmes, approaches and results obtained at European or national level in these sectors. (Author)

  20. Low energy electron transport in furfural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Ana I.; Krupa, Kateryna; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Blanco, Francisco; Muñoz, Antonio; Jones, Darryl B.; Brunger, Michael J.; García, Gustavo

    2017-09-01

    We report on an initial investigation into the transport of electrons through a gas cell containing 1 mTorr of gaseous furfural. Results from our Monte Carlo simulation are implicitly checked against those from a corresponding electron transmission measurement. To enable this simulation a self-consistent cross section data base was constructed. This data base is benchmarked through new total cross section measurements which are also described here. In addition, again to facilitate the simulation, our preferred energy loss distribution function is presented and discussed.

  1. Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.

    1997-01-01

    A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects

  2. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  3. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  4. The azimuthally anisotropic emission of unstable light nuclear in the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhiyong; Jin Genming; Li Zuyu; Duan Limin; Dai Guangxi; Zhang Baoguo; Wu Heyu; Wen Wanxin; Qi Yujin; Luo Qingzheng

    1996-01-01

    The unstable light nuclei emitted in the interaction of 40 Ar on 197 Au have been detected at energy of 25 MeV/u by using particle-particle correlation measurement at small relative angle. Their in-plane and out-of-plane emission were measured for three bins of experimentally estimated impact parameter. The enhanced in-plane emission for mid-rapidity unstable nuclei is observed. This enhanced in-plane emission becomes stronger with increasing of impact parameter, but changes small with the mass of unstable nuclei. The in-plane enhancement decreases slightly with the energy of excited state of unstable nuclei. For projectile-like unstable nuclei, the in-plane emission dominates as expected

  5. Anisotropic Lithium Insertion Behavior in Silicon Nanowires: Binding Energy, Diffusion Barrier, and Strain Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have recently been shown to be promising as high capacity lithium battery anodes. SiNWs can be grown with their long axis along several different crystallographic directions. Due to distinct atomic configuration and electronic structure of SiNWs with different axial orientations, their lithium insertion behavior could be different. This paper focuses on the characteristics of single Li defects, including binding energy, diffusion barriers, and dependence on uniaxial strain in [110], [100], [111], and [112] SiNWs. Our systematic ab initio study suggests that the Si-Li interaction is weaker when the Si-Li bond direction is aligned close to the SiNW long axis. This results in the [110] and [111] SiNWs having the highest and lowest Li binding energy, respectively, and it makes the diffusion barrier along the SiNW axis lower than other pathways. Under external strain, it was found that [110] and [001] SiNWs are the most and least sensitive, respectively. For diffusion along the axial direction, the barrier increases (decreases) under tension (compression). This feature results in a considerable difference in the magnitude of the energy barrier along different diffusion pathways. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. Anisotropic Lithium Insertion Behavior in Silicon Nanowires: Binding Energy, Diffusion Barrier, and Strain Effect

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qianfan

    2011-05-19

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have recently been shown to be promising as high capacity lithium battery anodes. SiNWs can be grown with their long axis along several different crystallographic directions. Due to distinct atomic configuration and electronic structure of SiNWs with different axial orientations, their lithium insertion behavior could be different. This paper focuses on the characteristics of single Li defects, including binding energy, diffusion barriers, and dependence on uniaxial strain in [110], [100], [111], and [112] SiNWs. Our systematic ab initio study suggests that the Si-Li interaction is weaker when the Si-Li bond direction is aligned close to the SiNW long axis. This results in the [110] and [111] SiNWs having the highest and lowest Li binding energy, respectively, and it makes the diffusion barrier along the SiNW axis lower than other pathways. Under external strain, it was found that [110] and [001] SiNWs are the most and least sensitive, respectively. For diffusion along the axial direction, the barrier increases (decreases) under tension (compression). This feature results in a considerable difference in the magnitude of the energy barrier along different diffusion pathways. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. International bioenergy transport costs and energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamelinck, Carlo N.; Suurs, Roald A.A.; Faaij, Andre P.C.

    2005-01-01

    To supply biomass from production areas to energy importing regions, long-distance international transport is necessary, implying additional logistics, costs, energy consumption and material losses compared to local utilisation. A broad variety of bioenergy chains can be envisioned, comprising different biomass feedstock production systems, pre-treatment and conversion operations, and transport of raw and refined solid biomass and liquid bio-derived fuels. A tool was developed to consistently compare the possible bioenergy supply chains and assess the influence of key parameters, such as distance, timing and scale on performance. Chains of European and Latin American bioenergy carriers delivered to Western Europe were analysed using generic data. European biomass residues and crops can be delivered at 90 and 70 euros/tonne dry (4.7 and 3.7 euros/GJ HHV ) when shipped as pellets. South American crops are produced against much lower costs. Despite the long shipping distance, the costs in the receiving harbour can be as low as 40 euros/tonne dry or 2.1 euros/GJ HHV ; the crop's costs account for 25-40% of the delivered costs. The relatively expensive truck transport from production site to gathering point restricts the size of the production area; therefore, a high biomass yield per hectare is vital to enable large-scale systems. In all, 300 MW HHV Latin American biomass in biomass integrated gasification/combined cycle plants may result in cost of electricity as little as 3.5 euros cent/kWh, competitive with fossil electricity. Methanol produced in Latin America and delivered to Europe may cost 8-10 euros/GJ HHV , when the pellets to methanol conversion is done in Europe the delivered methanol costs are higher. The energy requirement to deliver solid biomass from both crops and residues from the different production countries is 1.2-1.3 MJ primary /MJ delivered (coal ∼ 1.1 MJ/MJ). International bioenergy trade is possible against low costs and modest energy loss

  8. Energy Consumption of Fast Ferries in Danish Domestic Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Steen; Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark.......Analysis of energy consumption in connection with selected passenger transport trip chains. In particular the publication aims to evaluate the energy consumption of fast ferries in Denmark....

  9. Stefan-Maxwell Relations and Heat Flux with Anisotropic Transport Coefficients for Ionized Gases in a Magnetic Field with Application to the Problem of Ambipolar Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnichenko, A. V.; Marov, M. Ya.

    2018-01-01

    The defining relations for the thermodynamic diffusion and heat fluxes in a multicomponent, partially ionized gas mixture in an external electromagnetic field have been obtained by the methods of the kinetic theory. Generalized Stefan-Maxwell relations and algebraic equations for anisotropic transport coefficients (the multicomponent diffusion, thermal diffusion, electric and thermoelectric conductivity coefficients as well as the thermal diffusion ratios) associated with diffusion-thermal processes have been derived. The defining second-order equations are derived by the Chapman-Enskog procedure using Sonine polynomial expansions. The modified Stefan-Maxwell relations are used for the description of ambipolar diffusion in the Earth's ionospheric plasma (in the F region) composed of electrons, ions of many species, and neutral particles in a strong electromagnetic field.

  10. Theoretical studies of H2--H2 collisions. IV. Ab initio calculations of anisotropic transport phenomena in para-hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, W.E.; Schaefer, J.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the effective Waldmann--Snider cross sections determining the Senftleben--Beenakker effects of viscosity and heat conductivity has been studied for pH 2 gas between 10 and 200 K. From ab initio nonspherical potentials of H 2 --H 2 , scattering matrices have been determined in close-coupling calculations. From these, the elements of the scattering amplitude matrix have been obtained and used as input quantities for the evaluation of the various Waldmann--Snider collision integrals. The results of these first ab initio numerical calculations of anisotropic transport coefficients show excellent agreement of calculated and measured effective cross sections, especially for the most recent improved version of the interaction potential. In addition, it has been shown that the polarization production cross sections are quite sensitive to the potential anisotropy

  11. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  12. Trends in onroad transportation energy and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher

    2018-06-01

    trends are addressed with regard to technology, emissions controls, vehicle operations, emission measurements, impacts on exposure, and impacts on public health. Without specific policies to the contrary, fossil fuels are likely to continue to be the major source of on-road vehicle energy consumption. Fuel economy and emission standards are generally effective in achieving reductions per unit of vehicle activity. However, the number of vehicles and miles traveled will increase. Total energy use and emissions depend on factors such as fuels, technologies, land use, demographics, economics, road design, vehicle operation, societal values, and others that affect demand for transportation, mode choice, energy use, and emissions. Thus, there are many opportunities to influence future trends in vehicle energy use and emissions.

  13. Long-term Energy Efficiency Improvement for Transport, Technology Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Binsbergen, A.J.; Erkens, A.; Hamel, B.

    1994-01-01

    In part one of this report, general transport and transport-flow measures are described. By using other modes of transport than road-vehicles, it is possible to save energy. An advanced park-and-ride system can lead to a 27% reduction in energy use per passengerkilometre; in 2040 at most 10% of the

  14. Low energy electron transport in furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, A.I.; Garcia, G.; Krupa, K.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Blanco, F.; Munoz, A.; Jones, D.B.; Brunger, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The cyclic configuration of the furfural molecule is similar to the 5-membered ring structure constituting the sugar units of the DNA helix, hence its importance in biology. In this paper, we report on an initial investigation into the transport of electrons through a gas cell containing 1 mtorr of gaseous furfural. Results from our Monte Carlo simulation are implicitly checked against those from a corresponding electron transmission measurement. To enable this simulation a self-consistent cross section data base was constructed. This data base is benchmarked through new total cross section measurements which are also described here. In addition, again to facilitate the simulation, our preferred energy loss distribution function is presented and discussed

  15. Contact angle and detachment energy of shape anisotropic particles at fluid-fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali, Thriveni G; Basavaraj, Madivala G

    2016-09-15

    The three phase contact angle of particles, a measure of its wettability, is an important factor that greatly influences their behaviour at interfaces. It is one of the principal design parameters for potential applications of particles as emulsion/foam stabilizers, functional coatings and other novel materials. In the present work, the effect of size, shape and surface chemistry of particles on their contact angle is investigated using the gel trapping technique, which facilitates the direct visualization of the equilibrium position of particles at interfaces. The contact angle of hematite particles of spherocylindrical, peanut and cuboidal shapes, hematite-silica core-shell and silica shells is reported at a single particle level. The spherocylindrical and peanut shaped particles are always positioned with their major axis parallel to the interface. However, for cuboidal particles at air-water as well as decane-water interfaces, different orientations namely - face-up, edge-up and the vertex-up - are observed. The influence of gravity on the equilibrium position of the colloidal particles at the interface is studied using the hematite-silica core-shell particles and the silica shells. The measured contact angle values are utilized in the calculations of the detachment and surface energies of the hematite particles adsorbed at the interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calculation of neutron shielding using an unidimensional model of transportation in formulation of discrete ordinates with scattering linearly anisotropic and a speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libotte, Rafael Barbosa; Alves Filho, Hermes; Oliva, Amaury Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    The physical phenomenon of transport of neutral particles in a host environment is of interest in various scientific applications, e.g., nuclear reactors, shielding calculations, radiological protection, nuclear medicine, agronomy, materials science, oil prospecting, etc. In all these areas there is a need for an accurate description of the transport of the particles in the host medium. In this class of applications are the neutron shielding problems, also referred to as 'fixed-source' problems, where the interaction of the particles with the medium does not produce new neutrons, i.e., non-multiplicative medium. In this context, the development of tools that model these problems is relevant and of a beneficial return to society. In this work, we propose the development of deterministic mathematical and computational modeling of neutron transport using the linearized equation of Boltzmann applied to neutron shielding problems. Here we present also the development of a spectro-nodal method (coarse mesh) considering the scattering phenomenon as being linearly anisotropic. We show the results using a computational application, developed in Java language, version 1.8.0 9 1

  17. Anisotropic Rabi model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-01-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of th...

  18. Low energy beam transport for HIDIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusel, O.; Pozimski, J.; Jakob, A.; Lakatos, A.

    2001-01-01

    Low energy beam transport (LEBT) for a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIDIF, I. Hofmann and G. Plass, Report of the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion for the Period 1995-1998) facility suffers from high space charge forces and high ion mass. Space charge compensation reduces the necessary focusing force of the lenses and the radius of the beam in the LEBT, and therefrom the emittance growth due to aberrations and self fields is reduced. Gabor lenses (D. Gabor, Nature 160 (1947)) providing a stable space charge cloud for focusing and combine strong cylinder symmetric focusing with partly space charge compensation and low emittance growth. A high tolerance against source noise and current fluctuations and reduced investment costs could be other possible advantages. The proof of principle has already been demonstrated (J.A. Palkovic, Measurements on a Gabor lens for Neutralizing and Focusing a 30 keV Proton beam, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1989; J. Pozimski, P. Gross, R. Doelling and T. Weis, First experimental studies of a Gabor plasma-lens in Frankfurt, Proceedings of the 3rd EPAC Conference, Berlin, 1992). To broaden the experiences and to investigate the realisation of a LEBT concept for the HIDIF injector an experimental program using two Gabor lenses for independent variation of beam radius and envelope angel at RFQ injection was started. Therefrom the first experimental results using a double Gabor lens (DGPL) LEBT system for transporting an high perveance Xe + beam are presented and the results of numerical simulations are shown

  19. Low energy beam transport for HIDIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusel, O. E-mail: o.meusel@iap.uni-frankfurt.de; Pozimski, J.; Jakob, A.; Lakatos, A

    2001-05-21

    Low energy beam transport (LEBT) for a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIDIF, I. Hofmann and G. Plass, Report of the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion for the Period 1995-1998) facility suffers from high space charge forces and high ion mass. Space charge compensation reduces the necessary focusing force of the lenses and the radius of the beam in the LEBT, and therefrom the emittance growth due to aberrations and self fields is reduced. Gabor lenses (D. Gabor, Nature 160 (1947)) providing a stable space charge cloud for focusing and combine strong cylinder symmetric focusing with partly space charge compensation and low emittance growth. A high tolerance against source noise and current fluctuations and reduced investment costs could be other possible advantages. The proof of principle has already been demonstrated (J.A. Palkovic, Measurements on a Gabor lens for Neutralizing and Focusing a 30 keV Proton beam, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1989; J. Pozimski, P. Gross, R. Doelling and T. Weis, First experimental studies of a Gabor plasma-lens in Frankfurt, Proceedings of the 3rd EPAC Conference, Berlin, 1992). To broaden the experiences and to investigate the realisation of a LEBT concept for the HIDIF injector an experimental program using two Gabor lenses for independent variation of beam radius and envelope angel at RFQ injection was started. Therefrom the first experimental results using a double Gabor lens (DGPL) LEBT system for transporting an high perveance Xe{sup +} beam are presented and the results of numerical simulations are shown.

  20. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  1. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  2. Environmental Development Plan for Transportation Energy Conservation. FY 79 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M. K.; Bernard, III, M. J.

    1978-12-15

    This is the first annual update of the Environment Development Plan (EDP) for the DOE Division of Transportation Energy Conservation program. It identifies the ecosystem, resource, physical environment, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with the division's transportation programs. These programs include the research, development, demonstration and assessment (RDD and A) of seventeen transportation technologies and several strategy and policy development and implementation projects. The transportation technologies projects deal with highway transport including electric vehicles, marine transport and pipeline transport. This EDP presents a research and assessment plan for resolving any potentially adverse environmental concerns stemming from these programs.

  3. Energy consumption in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plouchart, G.

    2004-01-01

    During the 20. century, transport sector demand in the OECD countries boomed. The main drivers for growth were road transport and, more recently, air transport. As emerging countries continue to develop and the world faces the threat of climate change, this sector represents a major long-term challenge

  4. Energy, enterprises and transports: how conciliate competitiveness and responsibility; Energie, entreprises et transports: comment concilier competitivite et responsabilite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    The meeting on the enterprises and transports competitiveness in a context of energy conservation, organized in Nice the 15 april 2003, took place three topics: are the competitiveness of enterprises and the energy consumptions mastership reconcilable? What are the solutions to answer the market demands with a decrease of the energy consumption? Concerning the goods transport, must we leave the road transport? The whole texts of the round tables and the open and exit allocution are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  5. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  6. Energy consumption in the Transport Sector 2008; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    Transport energy use in Sweden increased by 80% during the period 1970 to 2008. Today, the transport sector is responsible for a quarter of Sweden's energy use. Since the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels its conversion to other fuels/energy sources will have a major impact in the coming years, with the increasing requirements to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The first chapter reports the official energy statistics for the transport sector. The second chapter presents a breakdown of energy use for freight and passengers for each transport modes. However, it is important to emphasize that the division of personal and freight does not belong to the official energy statistics

  7. Use of artificial neural networks for transport energy demand modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, Yetis Sazi; Ceylan, Halim

    2006-01-01

    The paper illustrates an artificial neural network (ANN) approach based on supervised neural networks for the transport energy demand forecasting using socio-economic and transport related indicators. The ANN transport energy demand model is developed. The actual forecast is obtained using a feed forward neural network, trained with back propagation algorithm. In order to investigate the influence of socio-economic indicators on the transport energy demand, the ANN is analyzed based on gross national product (GNP), population and the total annual average veh-km along with historical energy data available from 1970 to 2001. Comparing model predictions with energy data in testing period performs the model validation. The projections are made with two scenarios. It is obtained that the ANN reflects the fluctuation in historical data for both dependent and independent variables. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the transport energy-forecasting problem

  8. Trends in passenger transport energy use in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Jiyong; Schipper, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Having a clear understanding of transport energy use trends is crucial to identifying opportunities and challenges for efficient energy use for the transport sector. To this date, however, no detailed analysis has been conducted with regard to rapidly growing passenger transport energy use in South Korea. Using bottom-up data developed from a variety of recent sources, we described the trends of transport activity, energy use, and CO 2 emissions from South Korea's transport sector since 1986 with a particular focus on its passenger transport. By decomposing the trends in passenger transport energy use into activity, modal structure, and energy intensity, we showed that while travel activity has been the major driver of the increase in passenger transport energy use in South Korea, the increase was to some extent offset by the recent favorable structural shift toward bus travel and away from car travel. We also demonstrated that while bus travel has become less energy intensive since the Asian Financial Crisis, car travel has become increasingly energy intensive.

  9. Paracellular transport and energy utilization in the renal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan S L

    2017-09-01

    Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule. Knockout of claudin-2 in mice impairs proximal sodium and fluid reabsorption but is compensated by upregulation of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. This occurs at the expense of increased renal oxygen consumption, hypoxia of the outer medulla and increased susceptibility to ischemic kidney injury. Paracellular transport can be viewed as a mechanism to exploit the potential energy in existing electrochemical gradients to drive passive transepithelial transport without consuming additional energy. In this way, it enhances the efficiency of energy utilization by transporting epithelia.

  10. Long term energy demand projections for croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puksec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duic, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today with a share of almost one third of final energy demand. That is why improving energy efficiency and implementing different mechanisms that would lead to energy savings in this sector would be relevant. Through th...

  11. Anisotropic transport in the quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor Li{sub 0.33}MoO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshfeghyeganeh, S.; Cote, A. N.; Cohn, J. L., E-mail: cohn@physics.miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124 (United States); Neumeier, J. J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Transport measurements (electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity) in the temperature range 80–500 K are presented for single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) semiconductor Li{sub 0.33}MoO{sub 3}. Opposite signs are observed for the Seebeck coefficient along the trinclinic a and c axes, with S{sub c} − S{sub a} ≃ 250 μV/K near room temperature and ≃100 μV/K at 380 K. The thermal conductivity at room temperature in the a-c planes was ∼2 W/m K and ∼10 times smaller along b*. A weak structural anomaly at T{sub s} ≈ 355 K, identified in the temperature-dependent lattice constants, coincides with anomalies in the electrical properties. Analysis of the electronic transport at T > T{sub s} favors an intrinsic semiconductor picture for transport along the most conducting Q1D axis and small-polaronic transport along the other directions, providing insight into the origin of the Seebeck anisotropy.

  12. Forecasting household transport energy demand in South African cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available in South Africa have over the recent past increased at a rate more than any other household expenditure item (StasSA, 2008). Transport energy from fuel, forms a large component of the transport costs for both private car and public transport trips... by the Constitution to plan and manage the provision of services to communities in a sustainable manner. The services include water, sanitation, electricity and transport. Some of the management instruments used by local government include Integrated Development...

  13. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  14. Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soon Ahm

    1991-05-01

    The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.

  15. Energy efficiency development possibilities in public transport; Joukkoliikenteen energiatehokkuuden kehittaemismahdollisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korteniemi, J.; Pasanen, P.; Latvala, M.; Pohjola, T. (Bionova Consulting, Helsinki (Finland))

    2010-10-15

    Environmental values, energy efficiency and climate impact have taken an essential role in the public affairs in the past years, and their weight in decision making is constantly increasing. One of HSL strategic goals is to promote low emissions transport. Public transport energy efficiency is good when compared to passenger cars today. However, the car energy and climate efficiency is improving substantially and the development is set to continue at least until 2020, supported by the EU directive on new car sales emission limits. The rapid development of passenger car emissions poses an increasing challenge for the energy and climate efficiency of public transport services. There are national and international binding goals for energy and climate efficiency development until the year 2020, and non-binding goals until the year 2050. The goals which impact public transport sector are 9 % improvement in energy efficiency by 2016 when compared to 2005 level, and national binding goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % and using 20 % of renewables in transport sector by 2020. By 2050, the targeted greenhouse gas reduction goals are up to 80 % of all emissions when compared to the 1990 emission levels. The public transport services provided by HSL use 628 GWh energy annually, which produces about 314 million public transport trips. The diesel and natural gas used by the buses represents two thirds of the energy consumption, whereas their share of the produced trips is about one half. The rail rolling stock energy consumption is one seventh of the whole. Circa one fifth of the energy is used by the transport infrastructure, such as stations, rail switch heating and the depots. In energy efficiency terms metro and train are clear leaders. One kilowatt hour of energy takes a passenger 10 km in metro and 29,9 km in a train. Correspondingly the passenger could travel in a tramway 4,4 km, in a diesel bus 2,7 km and in a natural gas bus 2,1 km and in a passenger car

  16. Field control of anisotropic spin transport and spin helix dynamics in a modulation-doped GaAs quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, S.; Passmann, F.; Singh, A.; Ruppert, C.; Poshakinskiy, A. V.; Tarasenko, S. A.; Moore, J. N.; Yusa, G.; Mano, T.; Noda, T.; Li, X.; Bristow, A. D.; Betz, M.

    2018-03-01

    Electron spin transport and dynamics are investigated in a single, high-mobility, modulation-doped, GaAs quantum well using ultrafast two-color Kerr-rotation microspectroscopy, supported by qualitative kinetic theory simulations of spin diffusion and transport. Evolution of the spins is governed by the Dresselhaus bulk and Rashba structural inversion asymmetries, which manifest as an effective magnetic field that can be extracted directly from the experimental coherent spin precession. A spin-precession length λSOI is defined as one complete precession in the effective magnetic field. It is observed that application of (i) an out-of-plane electric field changes the spin decay time and λSOI through the Rashba component of the spin-orbit coupling, (ii) an in-plane magnetic field allows for extraction of the Dresselhaus and Rashba parameters, and (iii) an in-plane electric field markedly modifies both the λSOI and diffusion coefficient.

  17. Fabrication of an Anisotropic Superhydrophobic Polymer Surface Using Compression Molding and Dip Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Min Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many studies of anisotropic wetting surfaces with directional structures inspired from rice leaves, bamboo leaves, and butterfly wings have been carried out because of their unique liquid shape control and transportation. In this study, a precision mechanical cutting process, ultra-precision machining using a single crystal diamond tool, was used to fabricate a mold with microscale directional patterns of triangular cross-sectional shape for good moldability, and the patterns were duplicated on a flat thermoplastic polymer plate by compression molding for the mass production of an anisotropic wetting polymer surface. Anisotropic wetting was observed only with microscale patterns, but the sliding of water could not be achieved because of the pinning effect of the micro-structure. Therefore, an additional dip coating process with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecythricholosilanes, and TiO2 nanoparticles was applied for a small sliding angle with nanoscale patterns and a low surface energy. The anisotropic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated and the surface morphology and anisotropic wetting behaviors were investigated. The suggested fabrication method can be used to mass produce an anisotropic superhydrophobic polymer surface, demonstrating the feasibility of liquid shape control and transportation.

  18. A kinetic theory for nonanalog Monte Carlo particle transport algorithms: Exponential transform with angular biasing in planar-geometry anisotropically scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, T.; Larsen, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    The authors show that Monte Carlo simulations of neutral particle transport in planargeometry anisotropically scattering media, using the exponential transform with angular biasing as a variance reduction device, are governed by a new Boltzman Monte Carlo (BMC) equation, which includes particle weight as an extra independent variable. The weight moments of the solution of the BMC equation determine the moments of the score and the mean number of collisions per history in the nonanalog Monte Carlo simulations. Therefore, the solution of the BMC equation predicts the variance of the score and the figure of merit in the simulation. Also, by (1) using an angular biasing function that is closely related to the ''asymptotic'' solution of the linear Boltzman equation and (2) requiring isotropic weight changes as collisions, they derive a new angular biasing scheme. Using the BMC equation, they propose a universal ''safe'' upper limit of the transform parameter, valid for any type of exponential transform. In numerical calculations, they demonstrate that the behavior of the Monte Carlo simulations and the performance predicted by deterministically solving the BMC equation agree well, and that the new angular biasing scheme is always advantageous

  19. Application of the Galerkin's method to the solution of the one-dimensional integral transport equation: generalized collision probabilities taken in account the flux gradient and the linearly anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1975-04-01

    For the one-dimensional geometries, the transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering can be reduced to a single integral equation; this is a singular-kernel FREDHOLM equation of the second kind. When applying a conventional projective method that of GALERKIN, to the solution of this equation the well-known collision probability algorithm is obtained. Piecewise polynomial expansions are used to represent the flux. In the ANILINE code, the flux is supposed to be linear in plane geometry and parabolic in both cylindrical and spherical geometries. An integral relationship was found between the one-dimensional isotropic and anisotropic kernels; this allows to reduce the new matrix elements (issuing from the anisotropic kernel) to classic collision probabilities of the isotropic scattering equation. For cylindrical and spherical geometries used an approximate representation of the current was used to avoid an additional numerical integration. Reflective boundary conditions were considered; in plane geometry the reflection is supposed specular, for the other geometries the isotropic reflection hypothesis has been adopted. Further, the ANILINE code enables to deal with an incoming isotropic current. Numerous checks were performed in monokinetic theory. Critical radii and albedos were calculated for homogeneous slabs, cylinders and spheres. For heterogeneous media, the thermal utilization factor obtained by this method was compared with the theoretical result based upon a formula by BENOIST. Finally, ANILINE was incorporated into the multigroup APOLLO code, which enabled to analyse the MINERVA experimental reactor in transport theory with 99 groups. The ANILINE method is particularly suited to the treatment of strongly anisotropic media with considerable flux gradients. It is also well adapted to the calculation of reflectors, and in general, to the exact analysis of anisotropic effects in large-sized media [fr

  20. Magnetoplasmons of the tilted-anisotropic Dirac cone material $\\alpha-$(BEDT-TTF)$_2$I$_3$

    OpenAIRE

    Sári, Judit; Toke, Csaba; Goerbig, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    We study the collective modes of a low-energy continuum model of the quasi-two-dimensional electron liquid in a layer of the organic compound $\\alpha-$(BEDT-TTF)$_2$I$_3$ in a perpendicular magnetic field. As testified by zero magnetic field transport experiments and \\textit{ab initio} theory, this material hosts both massless and massive low-energy carriers, the former being described by tilted and anisotropic Dirac cones. The polarizability of these cones is anisotropic, and two sets of mag...

  1. SHADOK-3-6, Transport Equation with Anisotropic Diffusion in P1 Approximation for Spherical and Cylindrical Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligou, J.; Thomi, P.A.

    1973-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Integral transport equation, anisotropy of diffusion in P1 approximation. SHADOK3 - cylindrical geometry; direct solution of the linear system. SHADOK4 - cylindrical geometry; Thermalization iteration; solution of the linear system with inverse matrix calculation. SHADOK5 - like SHADOK3 for spherical geometry. SHADOK6 - like SHADOK4 for spherical geometry. 2 - Method of solution: Analysis in terms of annuli for each of which polynomial approximation is applied. Dynamic allocation (for formulas see report TM(10)). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Relative accuracy of the Bickley functions about 1.0E-13

  2. Energy Storage Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , California. 23 pp.; NREL Report No. PR-5400-60290. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power (11) 2017 pp. 1095-1118. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System - Preprint Paper Source: Smith

  3. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

  4. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, D [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)

  5. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering.

  6. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi, E-mail: hyamaguc@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyo-tanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Iwamoto, Yuhiro [Department of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering. - Highlights: • Temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid (TSMF) has a great heat transport ability. • Magnetically-driven heat transport device using binary TSMF is proposed. • The basic heat transport characteristics are investigated. • Boiling of the organic mixture effectively enhances the heat transfer. • A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed.

  7. Energy transport in cooling device by magnetic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Temperature sensitive magnetic fluid has a great potential with high performance heat transport ability as well as long distance energy (heat) transporting. In the present study experimental set-up was newly designed and constructed in order to measure basic heat transport characteristics under various magnetic field conditions. Angular dependence for the device (heat transfer section) was also taken into consideration for a sake of practical applications. The energy transfer characteristic (heat transport capability) in the magnetically-driven heat transport (cooling) device using the binary TSMF was fully investigated with the set-up. The obtained results indicate that boiling of the organic mixture (before the magnetic fluid itself reaching boiling point) effectively enhances the heat transfer as well as boosting the flow to circulate in the closed loop by itself. A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed, transferring the thermal energy of 35.8 W, even when the device (circulation loop) is horizontally placed. The highlighted results reveal that the proposed cooling device is innovative in a sense of transporting substantial amount of thermal energy (heat) as well as a long distance heat transport. The development of the magnetically-driven heat transport device has a great potential to be replaced for the conventional heat pipe in application of thermal engineering. - Highlights: • Temperature-sensitive magnetic fluid (TSMF) has a great heat transport ability. • Magnetically-driven heat transport device using binary TSMF is proposed. • The basic heat transport characteristics are investigated. • Boiling of the organic mixture effectively enhances the heat transfer. • A long-distance heat transport of 5 m is experimentally confirmed.

  8. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  9. Decarbonizing Sweden’s energy and transportation system by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bramstoft

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decarbonizing Sweden’s transportation sector is necessary to realize its long-term vision of eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the energy system by 2050. Within this context, this study develops two scenarios for the transportation sector: one with high electrification (EVS and the other with high biofuel and biomethane utilization (BIOS. The energy system model STREAM is utilized to compute the socioeconomic system cost and simulate an integrated transportation, electricity, gas, fuel refinery, and heat system. The results show that electrifying a high share of Sweden’s road transportation yields the least systems cost. However, in the least-cost scenario (EVS, bioenergy resources account for 57% of the final energy use in the transportation sector. Further, a sensitivity analysis shows that the costs of different types of cars are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative analysis of the scenarios.

  10. Gyrokinetic theory for particle and energy transport in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falessi, Matteo Valerio; Zonca, Fulvio

    2018-03-01

    A set of equations is derived describing the macroscopic transport of particles and energy in a thermonuclear plasma on the energy confinement time. The equations thus derived allow studying collisional and turbulent transport self-consistently, retaining the effect of magnetic field geometry without postulating any scale separation between the reference state and fluctuations. Previously, assuming scale separation, transport equations have been derived from kinetic equations by means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis and spatio-temporal averaging. In this work, the evolution equations for the moments of the distribution function are obtained following the standard approach; meanwhile, gyrokinetic theory has been used to explicitly express the fluctuation induced fluxes. In this way, equations for the transport of particles and energy up to the transport time scale can be derived using standard first order gyrokinetics.

  11. Decarbonizing Sweden’s energy and transportation system by 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramstoft, Rasmus; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Decarbonizing Sweden’s transportation sector is necessary to realize its long-term vision of eliminating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy system by 2050. Within this context, this study develops two scenarios for the transportation sector: one with high electrification (EVS......) and the other with high biofuel and biomethane utilization (BIOS). The energy system model STREAM is utilized to compute the socioeconomic system cost and simulate an integrated transportation, electricity, gas, fuel refinery, and heat system. The results show that electrifying a high share of Sweden’s road...... transportation yields the least systems cost. However, in the least-cost scenario (EVS), bioenergy resources account for 57% of the final energy use in the transportation sector. Further, a sensitivity analysis shows that the costs of different types of cars are the most sensitive parameters in the comparative...

  12. Urban form and energy use for transport. A Nordic experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P

    1995-02-10

    The main research problem addressed in this thesis is the possible influence of several urban form variables on the amount of transportation, on the modal split between different means of transport, and on energy use for transportation. This problem is elucidated through five empirical investigations covering different geographic levels in a Nordic context, from individual employees and households to commuting regions. A main feature of the study is the combination of socioeconomic and urban form variables in empirical investigations, employing techniques of multivariate analysis. The investigations of residential areas and job sites have been based on travel surveys, while the investigations where the units of analysis are towns or regions have been based on fuel sales. The socioeconomic data have been collected from official statistics and from questionnaires. It is found that urban form variables exert important influences on transportation energy use. Urban density affects energy use for transportation. A central location of residences as well as workplaces is favourable with respect to energy conservation on an intra-urban scale, but not in a wider geographical context, where decentralization into several dense, relatively self-contained local communities distributed over the region is the most energy-saving pattern of regional development. Urban form characteristics favourable for minimizing transport energy requirements also seem favourable for energy conservation in buildings. 160 refs., 39 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. Freight Transportation Energy Use : Volume 1. Summary and Baseline Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The overall design of the TSC Freight Energy Model is presented. A hierarchical modeling strategy is used, in which detailed modal simulators estimate the performance characteristics of transportation network elements, and the estimates are input to ...

  14. Texas transportation planning for future renewable energy projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    There will be a significant increase in the number of renewable energy production facilities in Texas. The : construction of wind farms requires the transport of wind turbine components that create increased loads on : rural roads and bridges. These ...

  15. Essentials of energy technology sources, transport, storage, conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of energy technology, sources, conversion, storage, transport and conservation is crucial for developing a sustainable and economically viable energy infrastructure. This need, for example, is addressed in university courses with a special focus on the energy mix of renewable and depletable energy resources. Energy makes our lives comfortable, and the existence of amenities such as heaters, cars, warm water, household appliances and electrical light is characteristic for a developed economy. Supplying the industrial or individual energy consumer with energy 24 hours

  16. Energy use for transport in 22 Nordic towns; Energibruk til transport i 22 nordiske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, Petter; Larsen, Synnoeve Lyssand; Roee, Per Gunnar

    1994-07-01

    This report presents the methods used and the results obtained from an investigation of relationships between energy use for transport and the physical urban structure of 22 towns in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It is found that urban planning is very important for the inhabitants' average energy use for transport. High population density in the inner and central areas of a town tends to reduce the energy use. The composition of trades and the commuting frequency between the town and its surroundings affect the energy use to the same degree as does the urban planning. The energy data are based on the oil companies' information on the sales of gasoline and auto diesel oil from the filling stations in each town and on the public transport companies' information on the energy use of their vehicles. The energy data are combined with physical and socio economical characteristics of each town.

  17. Energy use for transport in 22 Nordic towns; Energibruk til transport i 22 nordiske byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, Petter; Larsen, Synnoeve Lyssand; Roee, Per Gunnar

    1994-07-01

    This report presents the methods used and the results obtained from an investigation of relationships between energy use for transport and the physical urban structure of 22 towns in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It is found that urban planning is very important for the inhabitants' average energy use for transport. High population density in the inner and central areas of a town tends to reduce the energy use. The composition of trades and the commuting frequency between the town and its surroundings affect the energy use to the same degree as does the urban planning. The energy data are based on the oil companies' information on the sales of gasoline and auto diesel oil from the filling stations in each town and on the public transport companies' information on the energy use of their vehicles. The energy data are combined with physical and socio economical characteristics of each town.

  18. Energy dependence and fluctuations of anisotropic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 and 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartsch, Esther; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhaduri, Partha Pratim; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhatt, Himani; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Soto Camacho, Rabi; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chang, Wan; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Delsanto, Silvia; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Arteche Diaz, Raul; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Ding, Yanchun; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dudi, Sandeep; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dukhishyam, Mallick; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Ersdal, Magnus Rentsch; Espagnon, Bruno; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faggin, Mattia; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiorenza, Gabriele; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guittiere, Manuel; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Habib, Michael Karim; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Gonzalez Hernandez, Emma; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hughes, Charles; Huhn, Patrick; Humanic, Thomas; Hushnud, Hushnud; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iddon, James Philip; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Jena, Chitrasen; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jin, Muqing; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Shaista; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taejun; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Varga-kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kruger, Mario; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Larionov, Pavel; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xing Long; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Liu, Alwina; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Toledo Matuoka, Paula Fernanda; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Soncco Meza, Carlos; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Micheletti, Luca; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Auro Prasad; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Arratia Munoz, Miguel Ignacio; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Neskovic, Gvozden; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oh, Hoonjung; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Paic, Guy; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Parkkila, Jasper Elias; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pisano, Silvia; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reshetin, Andrey; Revol, Jean-pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogalev, Roman; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Roslon, Krystian; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sarkar, Amal; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shirinkin, Sergey; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stocco, Diego; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Topilskaya, Nataliya; Toppi, Marco; Rojas Torres, Solangel; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzcinski, Tomasz Piotr; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vermunt, Luuk; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegrzynek, Adam; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Xu, Ran; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zherebchevskii, Vladimir; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Ya; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of anisotropic flow coefficients with two- and multi-particle cumulants for inclusive charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$ = 5.02 and 2.76 TeV are reported in the pseudorapidity range $|\\eta|<0.8$ and transverse momentum $0.2 < p_{\\rm T} < 50$ GeV/$c$. The full data sample collected by the ALICE detector in 2015 (2010), corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 12.7 (2.0) $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ in the centrality range 0-80%, is analysed. Flow coefficients up to the sixth flow harmonic ($v_6$) are reported and a detailed comparison among results at the two energies is carried out. The $p_{\\rm T}$ dependence of anisotropic flow coefficients and its evolution with respect to centrality and harmonic number $n$ are investigated. An approximate power-law scaling of the form $v_{\\rm n}(p_{\\rm T}) \\sim p_{\\rm T}^{\\rm n/3}$ is observed for all flow harmonics at low $p_{\\rm T}$ ($0.2 < p_{\\rm T} < 3$ GeV/$c$). At the same time, the ratios $v_{\\rm n}/v_{\\rm m}^{\\rm n/m}$ ar...

  19. Simulation of a low energy beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yao; Liu Zhanwen; Zhang Wenhui; Ma Hongyi; Zhang Xuezhen; Zhao Hongwei; Yao Ze'en

    2012-01-01

    A 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance intense proton source and a low energy beam transport line with dual-Glaser lens were designed and fabricated by Institute of Modern Physics for a compact pulsed hadron source at Tsinghua. The intense proton beams extracted from the ion source are transported through the transport line to match the downstream radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH was used to carry out the beam transport simulations and optimize the magnetic field structures of the transport line. Emittance growth due to space charge and spherical aberrations of the Glaser lens were studied in both theory and simulation. The results show that narrow beam has smaller aberrations and better beam quality through the transport line. To better match the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, a shorter transport line is desired with sufficient space charge neutralization. (authors)

  20. Hydrogen energy for the transportation sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Qiangmao

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier for providing a clean, reliable and affordable energy supply. This paper provides a blueprint for the hydrogen energy in the transportation sector in the future of China. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part answers this question: why is China interested in hydrogen energy? The second part describes the possibility of a hydrogen fuel cell engine and a hydrogen internal-combustion engine in the transportation in China in the near future. The final part describes the production of hydrogen in China. (author)

  1. IFPEN Transports Energy Carnot Institute. Annual report 2016. Innovating mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Under the authority of IFP Energies nouvelles, the IFPEN Transports Energie Carnot Institute develops efficient, clean and sustainable technological innovations in the fields of power-train and propulsion systems, energy sectors and industrial thermal processes with CO_2 capture. IFPEN Transports Energie Carnot Institute is a R and D center serving industry, leader in the fields of transport and energy: - Innovative solutions to address technological challenges and market needs (high-efficiency, low-emission power-trains, power-train electrification, energy optimization and onboard control, alternative fuels with low CO_2 emissions, energy generation based on chemical looping combustion); - High-performance experimental resources and digital tools resulting in innovations with reduced costs and development times; - A proactive industrial protection policy; - Support for industrial sectors, covering a very broad range of technological readiness levels; - Transfer of R and D results via joint product development with licensing out operations, strategic partnerships and collaborative research agreements; - An innovation support policy, aimed particularly at micro-companies, SMEs and intermediate-sized companies. IFPEN Transports Energie Carnot Institute has close ties with industry: from micro-companies, SMEs and intermediate-sized companies to major industrial groups; A strong commitment within competitiveness clusters (Mov'eo, LUTB, Systematic, Astech, etc.); A leadership of the automobile sector and the Transport Alliance within the Carnot Institutes; A synergy with networks of academic partners and R and D laboratories with an international influence

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Anisotropic Transport and Magnetic Properties of Charge-Density-Wave Materials RSeTe_2 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei-Pei; Long Yu-Jia; Zhao Ling-Xiao; Chen Dong; Xue Mian-Qi; Chen Gen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of RSeTe_2 (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) are synthesized using LiCl/RbCl flux. Transport and magnetic properties in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the a–c plane are investigated. We find that the resistivity anisotropy ρ_⊥/ρ_‖ lies in the range 486–615 for different compounds at 2 K, indicating the highly two-dimensional character. In both the orientations, the charge-density-wave transitions start near T_C_D_W = 284(3) K, 316(3) K, 359(3) K for NdSeTe_2, PrSeTe_2, CeSeTe_2, respectively, with a considerable increase in dc resistivity. While for LaSeTe_2, no obvious resistivity anomaly is observed up to 380 K. The value of T_C_D_W increases monotonically with the increasing lattice parameters. Below T_C_D_W, slight anomalies can be observed in NdSeTe_2, PrSeTe_2 and CeSeTe_2 with onset temperature at 193(3) K, 161(3) K, 108(3) K, respectively, decreasing as lattice parameters increase. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the valence state of rare earth ions are trivalence in these compounds. Antiferromagnetic-type magnetic order is formed in CeSeTe_2 at 2.1 K, while no magnetic transition is observed in PrSeTe_2 and NdSeTe_2 down to 1.8 K. (paper)

  5. Intercity passenger transportation: energy efficiency and conservation case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate a methodology for energy analysis and to advance technical knowledge on the energy conservation potential in intercity passenger transportation, this paper reports findings of a case study of the Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal multimodal system. From a total (direct and indirect) energy perspective for origin-destination travel, energy efficiency and conservation potential of technological improvements, modal shifts and increased load factors are reported. 11 refs.

  6. Enhanced energy deposition symmetry by hot electron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; Mack, J.; Stover, E.; VanHulsteyn, D.; McCall, G.; Hauer, A.

    1981-01-01

    High energy electrons produced by resonance absorption carry the CO 2 laser energy absorbed in a laser fusion pellet. The symmetrization that can be achieved by lateral transport of the hot electrons as they deposit their energy is discussed. A K/sub α/ experiment shows a surprising symmetrization of energy deposition achieved by adding a thin layer of plastic to a copper sphere. Efforts to numerically model this effect are described

  7. An entropic approach to magnetized nonlocal transport and other kinetic phenomena in high-energy-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del-Sorbo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations in high-energy-density physics and inertial confinement fusion require a detailed description of energy fluxes. The leading mechanism is the electron transport, which can be a nonlocal phenomenon that needs to be described with quasistationary and simplified Fokker-Planck models in large scale hydrodynamic codes. My thesis is dedicated to the development of a new nonlocal transport model based on a fast-moving-particles collision operator and on a first moment Fokker-Planck equation, simplified with an entropic closure relation. Such a closure enables a better description of the electron distribution function in the limit of high anisotropies, where small scale electrostatic instabilities could be excited. This new model, so called M1, is successfully compared with the well known nonlocal electron transport model proposed by Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet, using different collision operators, and with the reduced Fokker-Planck model, based on a small-anisotropies polynomial closure relation (P1). Several typical configurations of heat transport are considered. We show that the M1 entropic model may operate in two and three dimensions and is able to account for electron transport modifications in external magnetic fields. Moreover, our model enables to compute realistic electron distribution functions, which can be used for kinetic studies, as for the plasma stability in the transport zone. It is demonstrated that the electron energy transport may strongly modify damping of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves, while the simplified nonlocal transport models are not able to describe accurately the modifications of the distribution function and plasma wave damping. The structure of the M1 model allows to naturally take into account self-generated magnetic fields, which play a crucial role in multidimensional simulations. Moreover, magnetic fields could also be used for the focusing of energetic particles in alternative ignition schemes. The M1 model

  8. Low energy electron transport in furfural

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano, Ana I.; Krupa, K.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limao-Vieira, Paulo; Blanco, Francisco; Muñoz, Antonio; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; García, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    We report on an initial investigation into the transport of electrons through a gas cell containing 1 mTorr of gaseous furfural. Results from our Monte Carlo simulation are implicitly checked against those from a corresponding electron transmission measurement. To enable this simulation a self-consistent cross section data base was constructed. This data base is benchmarked through new total cross section measurements which are also described here. In addition, again to facilitate the simulat...

  9. The energy logistic model for analyses of transportation- and energy systems; Energilogistikmodell foer systemberaekningar av transport- och energifoersoerjningssystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinge, M

    1995-05-01

    The Energy Logistic Model has been improved to become a tool for analysis of all production processes, transportation systems and systems including several energy users and several fuels. Two cases were studied. The first case deals with terminal equipment for inter modal transport systems and the second case deals with diesel fuelled trucks, cranes and machines in the Goeteborg area. In both cases, the environmental improvements of the city air quality are analyzed when natural gas is substituted for diesel oil. The comparison between inter modal transport and road haulage shows that the environmental impacts from the operations at the terminal are limited, and that the potential for environmental benefits when using inter modal transport is improving with the transportation distance. The choice of electricity production system is of great importance when calculating the environmental impact from railway traffic in the total analysis of the transportation system. 13 refs, 27 tabs

  10. Calculation of transportation energy for biomass collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, G.; Takekura, K.; Kato, H.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study at a rice straw facility in Japan that produces bioethanol. Simulation modeling and calculations methods were used to examine the characteristics of field-to-facility transportation. Fuel consumption was found to be influenced by the conversion rate from straw to ethanol, the quantity of straw collected, and the ratio of the field area to that around the facility. Standard conditions were assumed based on reported data and actual observations for 15 ML/yr ethanol production, 0.3 kL output of ethanol from 1 t dry straw, 53.6 day/yr working days, 2.7 t truck load capacity, and 0.128 as the ratio of field to the area around the facility. According to calculations, a quantity of 50 kt dry straw requires 2.78 L of fuel to transport 1 t of dry straw, 109.5 trucks, and a 19.1 km collection area radius. The fuel consumption for transportation was found to be proportional to the quantity of straw to the 0.5 power, but inversely proportional to the ratio of field to the 0.5 power. The rate of increase in the number of trucks needed to collect straw increases with the decrease in the ratio of the field to area surface around the facility.

  11. Transition strategy of the transportation energy and powertrain in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hewu; Ouyang Minggao

    2007-01-01

    The problems of the transportation energy and environment are the major challenges faced globally in the 21st century and are especially serious for China. The future 20 years is the strategic opportunity period of the transition of the transportation energy and powertrain system for China. The greatest characteristics of hydrogen economy lie in its diversity of the primary energy source, the unification of energy carrier and the greening of energy transformation. Development of hydrogen energy transportation powertrain system is suitable for China from the views of the situation of Chinese resources and energy sources, the urban and rural layouts, the superiority of later development and the successful practices of clean cars and electric vehicle development projects. The transition of the transportation energy powertrain system includes three parts: the transition of the energy structure, the transition of the powertrain system and the transition of the fuel infrastructure. The technical pathways of energy powertrain system transition includes expending the use of gaseous fuel to prompt the multiform of the transportation energy and to prepare for the transition of the infrastructure simultaneously, developing and promoting the hybrid technology to solve the current energy and environment problems and to prepare for the transition of powertrain system, and focusing on the research and development and demonstration of fuel cell vehicles and the hydrogen energy technology to prompt the earlier formation of the market of fuel cell vehicles. The goal in the near and medium term of transition is to reduce the fuel consumption by 100 million ton in 2020 by substituting and saving, and the long-term goal is to setup the infrastructure of hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle as the main one replacing the petroleum internal combustion engine vehicle. In order to realize the strategic goals of the transition, the four-phases strategic periods and research and development

  12. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  13. An investigation on energy consumption trend in Japan. Transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takayoshi

    2005-08-01

    Although energy consumption in the industry sector has almost been stable, energy consumption in the transportation (passenger and freight) sector has increased much after the oil crisis. The increase of energy consumption in the passenger sector can be attributed to the increase in transportation by private passenger vehicles; while the increase in the freight sector was due to the modal shift to trucks. Among transportation methods, automobiles, i.e. passenger vehicles and trucks, are now dominant in terms of energy consumption and also in terms of amount of transportation. Therefore implementing energy conservation measures relating to automobiles is very important in order to suppress the energy consumption in the transportation sector. This report summarizes the results of investigation on energy conservation measures, especially relevant to automobiles. It was found from the investigation that most promising and effective technologies or measures are promoting market penetration of vehicles satisfying ''top runner standard'', development and employment of hybrid vehicles, and introduction of vehicles with ''idling-stop'' systems. (author)

  14. Taxes to influence energy use in road transportation in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Prafula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to achieve a shift towards renewable energy will be difficult to achieve without a change in the energy use in road transportation in Australia. The transport sector in Australia is heavily reliant on oil and is responsible for contributing 18.1%, of Australia's annual greenhouse gas emissions. This paper examines the current Australian tax policy and its inability to make an impact on transport choices that would reduce energy use and emissions and promote alternative energy use. Some of the current taxes such as the luxury car tax can be singled out as a tax that has passed its “use-by” date. The paper explores how the Australian Government can use targeted taxation measures in order to encourage the purchase of low energy consumption and low-emission vehicles, reduce the number of registered cars on Australian roads and control the use of cars as a means of personal transportation. A comprehensive tax measure suggested in this paper is the luxury energy tax based on the premise that energy use in transportation is a luxury and should be taxed appropriately in order to curb its use and bring about a behaviour change in the choice and usage of motor vehicles.

  15. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marique, Anne-Francoise, E-mail: afmarique@ulg.ac.be; Reiter, Sigrid, E-mail: Sigrid.Reiter@ulg.ac.be

    2012-02-15

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy savings can be achieved by

  16. A method for evaluating transport energy consumption in suburban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marique, Anne-Françoise; Reiter, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Urban sprawl is a major issue for sustainable development. It represents a significant contribution to energy consumption of a territory especially due to transportation requirements. However, transport energy consumption is rarely taken into account when the sustainability of suburban structures is studied. In this context, the paper presents a method to estimate transport energy consumption in residential suburban areas. The study aimed, on this basis, at highlighting the most efficient strategies needed to promote awareness and to give practical hints on how to reduce transport energy consumption linked to urban sprawl in existing and future suburban neighborhoods. The method uses data collected by using empirical surveys and GIS. An application of this method is presented concerning the comparison of four suburban districts located in Belgium to demonstrate the advantages of the approach. The influence of several parameters, such as distance to work places and services, use of public transport and performance of the vehicles, are then discussed to allow a range of different development situations to be explored. The results of the case studies highlight that traveled distances, and thus a good mix between activities at the living area scale, are of primordial importance for the energy performance, whereas means of transport used is only of little impact. Improving the performance of the vehicles and favoring home-work give also significant energy savings. The method can be used when planning new areas or retrofitting existing ones, as well as promoting more sustainable lifestyles regarding transport habits. - Highlights: ► The method allows to assess transport energy consumption in suburban areas and highlight the best strategies to reduce it. ► Home-to-work travels represent the most important part of calculated transport energy consumption. ► Energy savings can be achieved by reducing distances to travel through a good mix between activities at the

  17. Mechanism of active transport: free energy dissipation and free energy transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanford, C

    1982-01-01

    The thermodynamic pathway for "chemiosmotic" free energy transduction in active transport is discussed with an ATP-driven Ca2+ pump as an illustrative example. Two innovations are made in the analysis. (i) Free energy dissipated as heat is rigorously excluded from overall free energy bookkeeping by focusing on the dynamic equilibrium state of the chemiosmotic process. (ii) Separate chemical potential terms for free energy donor and transported ions are used to keep track of the thermodynamic ...

  18. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  19. Solar energy applications in transportation facilities : a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the literature and other sources to determine the types of application that have been made of solar energy in the transportation field. The use of solar energy for powering automatic traffic counters, v...

  20. Energy Storage Facilities | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    , electric, and fuel cell battery and ultracapacitor pack testing. Their voltages range from 0-100 volts component developers and automobile manufacturers improve battery and energy storage system designs by enhancing performance and extending battery life. Sophisticated experimentation, modeling, and analysis

  1. Energy Storage Thermal Safety | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    reaction/thermal runaway, internal short circuit, and electrical/chemical/thermal network models are used contributions to the U.S. Department of Energy's Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries (CAEBAT) project Li-ion battery geometries. Chemical components in Li-ion batteries become thermally unstable when

  2. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limanond, Thirayoot; Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj; Srikaew, Artit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: → Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. → The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. → The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  3. Projection of future transport energy demand of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limanond, Thirayoot, E-mail: tlimanond@yahoo.co [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Jomnonkwao, Sajjakaj [School of Transportation Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Srikaew, Artit [School of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this study is to project transport energy consumption in Thailand for the next 20 years. The study develops log-linear regression models and feed-forward neural network models, using the as independent variables national gross domestic product, population and the numbers of registered vehicles. The models are based on 20-year historical data between years 1989 and 2008, and are used to project the trends in future transport energy consumption for years 2010-2030. The final log-linear models include only gross domestic product, since all independent variables are highly correlated. It was found that the projection results of this study were in the range of 54.84-59.05 million tonnes of oil equivalent, 2.5 times the 2008 consumption. The projected demand is only 61-65% of that predicted in a previous study, which used the LEAP model. This major discrepancy in transport energy demand projections suggests that projects related to this key indicator should take into account alternative projections, because these numbers greatly affect plans, policies and budget allocation for national energy management. - Research highlights: {yields} Thailand transport energy consumption would increase to 54.4-59.1 MTOE in Year 2030. {yields} The log-linear models yield a slightly higher projection than the ANN models. {yields} The elasticity of transport energy demand with respect to GDP is 0.995.

  4. United States Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) 80 transportation facilities, each contractor's transportation management operation has different internal and site specific procedures, and reports to a DOE regional Field Office Traffic Manager (FOTM). The DOE Transportation Management Program (TMP) has the responsibility to manage a transportation program for safe, efficient, and economical transportation of DOE-owned materials. The TMP develops and administers transportation/traffic operations management policies and programs for materials; including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials, hazardous substances, and hazardous wastes, pursuant to applicable federal regulations, such as the Code of Federal Register, Sections 40 and 49. Transportation management has become an increasingly critical primarily because of transportation issues regarding the shipment of radioactive materials and hazardous wastes that are frequently the focus of public concerns. A large shipments and requiring millions of business transactions necessitates the establishment of automated systems, programs, procedures, and controls to ensure that the transportation management process in being handled in a safe, efficient, and economical manner. As the mission of many DOE facilities changes from production of special nuclear materials for defense purposes to environmental restoration and waste management, the role of transportation management will become even more important to the safe and efficient movement of waste materials to prescribed locations. In support of this role, the Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) was conceived to assist the DOE and its contractors in the performance of their day-to-day transportation management activities. The ATMS utilizes the latest in technology and will supply state-of-the-art automated transportation management for current and future DOE transportation requirements

  5. Influence of embodied energy in the energy efficiency of optical transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mata, Javier; Ye, Yabin; Lopez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    An energy model including both operational and embodied energy is proposed to evaluate the performance evolution of optical transport networks in a multi-period study up to 15 years. Significant improvements in energy efficiency per GHz and energy reductions can be achieved for flexi-grid OFDM-ba...

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Anisotropic stars obeying Chaplygin equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Bhar

    2017-12-14

    Dec 14, 2017 ... Anisotropic effects may also originate from slow rotation of the core ... to include the effects of pressure anisotropy, electric charge, scalar field, dark energy and the cosmological constant in .... Generating solutions. In order to ...

  8. Measurement of magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Prager, S.C.; Shen, W.; Stoneking, M.

    1993-11-01

    The local electron energy flux produced by magnetic fluctuations has been measured directly in the MST reversed field pinch (over the radial range r/a > 0.75). The flux, produced by electrons traveling parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field, is obtained from correlation between the fluctuations in the parallel heat flux and the radial magnetic field. The fluctuation induced flux is large (100 kW/cm 2 ) in the ''core'' (r/a 2 ) in the edge

  9. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P. [Systems and Control Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] Smokers, R.T.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for West-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a baseline case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario it is outlined how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various existing and future transport technologies and the corresponding modal split. Based on this information, expected energy consumption features of the various transport modes are described, data on the present fuel supply and electricity generation system are provided, and estimations of the future energy system are given. Then, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the future passenger transport systems are calculated and these impacts are compared with the current system. The conclusion is that a large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions is possible in several ways, but that each option will cause many problems because drastic policy measures will have to be introduced, which may affect economic growth and the lifestyles of individuals. 4 figs., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

  10. Risks in U.S. energy material transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, A.L.; Rhoads, R.E.; Andrews, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    For the past five years, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been conducting a programme to study the safety of transporting energy materials. The overall objectives of the programme are to develop information on the safety of transporting hazardous materials required to support the major energy cycles in the USA. This information was developed for use in making energy policy decisions; in designing and developing new or improved transportation systems for these materials; to help establish research priorities; and as an aid in developing effective transportation safety regulations. Risk analysis was selected as the methodology for performing these studies. This methodology has been applied to rail and highway shipments of nuclear fuel cycle materials and liquid and gaseous fossil fuels. Studies of the risks of transporting spent nuclear fuel by train and uranium ore concentrates (yellow cake) by truck were expected to be issued early in 1981. Analyses of the risks of transporting reactor waste and transuranic wastes are in progress. The work completed to date for nuclear material transportation makes it possible to estimate the transportation risks for the entire fuel cycle in the USA. Results of the assessment are presented in this paper. Because the risk analysis studies for the transportation of gasoline, propane and chlorine have been performed using a methodology, basic assumptions and data that are consistent with the studies that have been performed for nuclear materials, comparisons between the risks for nuclear materials and these materials can also be made. It should be noted that it is not the intention of these comparisons to judge the safety of one industry in comparison with another. These comparisons can, however, provide some insights into the regulatory philosophy for hazardous materials transportation. The remaining sections of the paper briefly review the risk-analysis methodology used in these studies, provide an overview of the systems

  11. Coupled energy-drift and force-balance equations for high-field hot-carrier transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Danhong; Alsing, P.M.; Apostolova, T.; Cardimona, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Coupled energy-drift and force-balance equations that contain a frictional force for the center-of-mass motion of electrons are derived for hot-electron transport under a strong dc electric field. The frictional force is found to be related to the net rate of phonon emission, which takes away the momentum of a phonon from an electron during each phonon-emission event. The net rate of phonon emission is determined by the Boltzmann scattering equation, which depends on the distribution of electrons interacting with phonons. The work done by the frictional force is included into the energy-drift equation for the electron-relative scattering motion and is found to increase the thermal energy of the electrons. The importance of the hot-electron effect in the energy-drift term under a strong dc field is demonstrated in reducing the field-dependent drift velocity and mobility. The Doppler shift in the energy conservation of scattering electrons interacting with impurities and phonons is found to lead to an anisotropic distribution of electrons in the momentum space along the field direction. The importance of this anisotropic distribution is demonstrated through a comparison with the isotropic energy-balance equation, from which we find that defining a state-independent electron temperature becomes impossible. To the leading order, the energy-drift equation is linearized with a distribution function by expanding it into a Fokker-Planck-type equation, along with the expansions of both the force-balance equation and the Boltzmann scattering equation for hot phonons

  12. Consumer Views on Transportation and Energy (Third Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik, M.

    2006-01-01

    This report has been assembled to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) with an idea of how the American public views various transportation, energy, and environmental issues. The data presented in this report have been drawn from multiple sources: surveys conducted by the Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that are commissioned and funded by EERE, Gallup polls, news organization polls, surveys conducted by independent groups and academic institutions, and other sources.

  13. Powder Materials and Energy Efficiency in Transportation: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Fernand D. S.

    2012-03-01

    The transportation industry accounts for one quarter of global energy use and has by far the largest share of global oil consumption. It used 51.5% of the oil worldwide in 2003. Mobility projections show that it is expected to triple by 2050 with associated energy use. Considerable achievements recently have been obtained in the development of powder and powder-processed metallic alloys, metal matrix composites, intermetallics, and carbon fiber composites. These achievements have resulted in their introduction to the transportation industry in a wide variety of transportation components with significant impact on energy efficiency. A significant number of nano, nanostructured, and nanohybrid materials systems have been deployed. Others, some of them incorporating carbon nanotubes and graphene, are under research and development and exhibit considerable potential. Airplane redesign using a materials and functional systems integration approach was used resulting in considerable system improvements and energy efficiency. It is expected that this materials and functional systems integration soon will be adopted in the design and manufacture of other advanced aircrafts and extended to the automotive industry and then to the marine transportation industry. The opportunities for the development and application of new powder materials in the transportation industry are extensive, with considerable potential to impact energy utilization. However, significant challenges need to be overcome in several critical areas.

  14. Classical convective energy transport in large gradient regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, F.L.

    1996-01-01

    Large gradients in density and temperature occur near the edge in H-mode plasmas and in the core of tokamak plasmas with negative central shear. Transport in these regions may be comparable to neoclassical. Standard neoclassical theory does not apply when the gradient lengths are comparable to an ion orbit excursion, or banana width. A basic question for neoclassical transport in large gradient regions is: do ion-ion collisions drive particle transport? Near the plasma edge in H-mode, where ion orbit loss requires that the ion energy transport be convective, neoclassical particle transport due to ion-ion collisions may play an important role. In negative central shear plasmas, where transport is inferred to be near neoclassical, it is important to have accurate predictions for the neoclassical rate of energy and particle transport. A simple 2-D slab model has been used, with a momentum-conserving collision operator, to show that ion-ion collisions do drive particle transport. When the gradients are large, the open-quotes field particleclose quotes contribution to the particle flux is non-local, and does not cancel the open-quotes test particleclose quotes contribution, which is local. Solutions of the kinetic equation are found which show that the steepness of the density profile, for increasing particle flux, is limited by orbit averaging. The gradient length is limited by the thermal gyroradius, and the convective energy flux is independent of ion temperature. This will allow an ion thermal runaway to occur, if there are no other ion energy loss mechanisms

  15. Present and future energy consumption for passenger transportation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, M.; Wolffram, U.

    1981-01-01

    Passenger transportation in Germany was investigated in order to determine real energy consumption. For typical passengers, energy consumption for overland travel and charter flights was studied. The energy needed for air traffic was compared with that for transportation overland (railway, car, bus), taking into account transportation to the airport or railway station. Transportation makes up about 17% of German primary energy consumption, i.e., road traffic 14%, railway traffic 1.6%, and air traffic 1%. Specific energy consumption (overland travel) of intercity trains, airplanes and cars is in the proportion 1.0 to 3.7 to 4.0 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 2.4 to 3.1 by the year 2000. For holiday trips, specific energy consumption for bus, train, car and airplane travel is in the proportion 1.0 to 1.4 to 3.6 to 3.4 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 1.4 to 2.5 to 2.9 by 2000. (ESA)

  16. Analytic approach to auroral electron transport and energy degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamnes, K.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of a beam of auroral electrons with the atmosphere is described by the linear transport equation, encompassing discrete energy loss, multiple scattering, and secondary electrons. A solution to the transport equation provides the electron intensity as a function of altitude, pitch angle (with respect to the geomagnetic field) and energy. A multi-stream (discrete ordinate) approximation to the transport equation is developed. An analytic solution is obtained in this approximation. The computational scheme obtained by combining the present transport code with the energy degradation method of Swartz (1979) conserves energy identically. The theory provides a framework within which angular distributions can be easily calculated and interpreted. Thus, a detailed study of the angular distributions of 'non-absorbed' electrons (i.e., electrons that have lost just a small fraction of their incident energy) reveals a systematic variation with incident angle and energy, and with penetration depth. The present approach also gives simple yet accurate solutions in low order multi-stream approximations. The accuracy of the four-stream approximation is generally within a few per cent, whereas two-stream results for backscattered mean intensities and fluxes are accurate to within 10-15%. (author)

  17. Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: An energy and environmental comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, M.; Ulgiati, S.; Basosi, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 15 years, worldwide air transportation has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.5%. Forecasts confirm that this could be the average increase rate for the next 20 years, although recent oscillation of oil price translated into a slowing down of such a trend, with several air companies forced out of business. Within this framework, low cost airlines keep increasing their market share, in so making airplane to compete with terrestrial transport modalities, not only for medium and long distance, but also for short trips. This is because air transport is obviously faster than transport by trains and cars, and most often it also is a cheaper option in money terms. In spite of its apparent success, air transportation is a source of concern for many analysts, because it is considered as the more energy intensive and polluting transport modality. In order to explore the correctness of such an issue, we compared air transportation to high speed trains and other modern terrestrial modalities, by using a 'whole-system' approach. The present study applies an LCA-like approach, by taking into account all the energy and materials directly and indirectly required to make and operate infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, railways, highways) and vehicles. Efficiency and environmental loading are assessed by means of Material Flow Accounting, Embodied Energy Analysis and Emergy Synthesis methods. Results point out that the gap among the environmental performances of air, road and railway modalities is significantly narrower than expected. The thermodynamic and environmental costs of road and railway infrastructure cannot be disregarded as negligible. In a selected number of cases these transport modalities perform even worse than the air transportation mode, where infrastructures play a much smaller role.

  18. Air versus terrestrial transport modalities: An energy and environmental comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, M.; Basosi, R. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Complex Systems Investigation, University of Siena, via Alcide De Gasperi 2, 53100 Siena (Italy); Ulgiati, S. [Department of Sciences for the Environment, ' ' Parthenope' ' University of Napoli, Centro Direzionale, Isola C4, I-80143 Napoli (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    In the last 15 years, worldwide air transportation has grown at an average yearly rate of 4.5%. Forecasts confirm that this could be the average increase rate for the next 20 years, although recent oscillation of oil price translated into a slowing down of such a trend, with several air companies forced out of business. Within this framework, low cost airlines keep increasing their market share, in so making airplane to compete with terrestrial transport modalities, not only for medium and long distance, but also for short trips. This is because air transport is obviously faster than transport by trains and cars, and most often it also is a cheaper option in money terms. In spite of its apparent success, air transportation is a source of concern for many analysts, because it is considered as the more energy intensive and polluting transport modality. In order to explore the correctness of such an issue, we compared air transportation to high speed trains and other modern terrestrial modalities, by using a ''whole-system'' approach. The present study applies an LCA-like approach, by taking into account all the energy and materials directly and indirectly required to make and operate infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, railways, highways) and vehicles. Efficiency and environmental loading are assessed by means of Material Flow Accounting, Embodied Energy Analysis and Emergy Synthesis methods. Results point out that the gap among the environmental performances of air, road and railway modalities is significantly narrower than expected. The thermodynamic and environmental costs of road and railway infrastructure cannot be disregarded as negligible. In a selected number of cases these transport modalities perform even worse than the air transportation mode, where infrastructures play a much smaller role. (author)

  19. Policy study: energy conservation in transportation in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayda, J

    1978-09-01

    The present study is an initial effort to apply social system analysis to transportation energy conservation, in order to prepare the ground for a team effort of transportation and energy specialists, regional planners, policy analysis and generalists, and government administrators - with additional imputs from commerce, industry and the community at large. The task of this study has been to inventory the principal factors and inputs in the field of transportation energy demand and possible conservation, estimate their magnitudes and relations, and arrange in a tentative but reasoned pattern - where there were before only so many scattered data, technical studies with a limited focus, sectoral programs and decisions, and vague impressions about the serviceability, the impacts and the social value of the product.

  20. Transportation and energy efficiency: Promised potentials, serious roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft-Oliver, T.V.

    1995-12-31

    Transportation is both a critical element of achieving national economic development goals and a major consumer of scarce and expensive energy resources. Improvements in access and mobility from reduced congestion, higher speeds, additional non motorized and pedestrian options, and better mass transit will result in reductions in energy use in most cases. Additional improvements in vehicle efficiency are possible but will not meet the needs of the region for transportation and energy efficiency improvements in the absence of these other improvements. The barriers to success in the transport sector are obvious on a superficial level. They include lack of road space, inadequate or incomplete road networks, insufficient mass transit capacity, predation of pedestrian and nonmotorized vehicle space by motor vehicles, and financing. The lack of progress in solving many of these problems over the past ten to twenty years indicates that there are underlying issues not yet addressed. Perceptions of these problems have changed since the middle 1970s and early 1980s as international lending and technical assistance began to focus on transportation. In those early years the problems were described as financial, and `meeting demand` challenges. The World Bank is now conducting a review of their Transport Sector Policy. While the review has not progressed to a final document and certainly not to articulation or transformation of Bank policy, early drafts reflect a view that past failures to improve transportation circumstances are human resource and institutional problems.

  1. Direct measurement of superdiffusive energy transport in disordered granular chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunho; Martínez, Alejandro J; Phenisee, Sean E; Kevrekidis, P G; Porter, Mason A; Yang, Jinkyu

    2018-02-13

    Energy transport properties in heterogeneous materials have attracted scientific interest for more than half of a century, and they continue to offer fundamental and rich questions. One of the outstanding challenges is to extend Anderson theory for uncorrelated and fully disordered lattices in condensed-matter systems to physical settings in which additional effects compete with disorder. Here we present the first systematic experimental study of energy transport and localization properties in simultaneously disordered and nonlinear granular crystals. In line with prior theoretical studies, we observe in our experiments that disorder and nonlinearity-which individually favor energy localization-can effectively cancel each other out, resulting in the destruction of wave localization. We also show that the combined effect of disorder and nonlinearity can enable manipulation of energy transport speed in granular crystals. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate superdiffusive transport. Furthermore, our numerical computations suggest that subdiffusive transport should be attainable by controlling the strength of the system's external precompression force.

  2. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    is the use of biofuel (ethanol) and synthetic fuel (methanol) for internal combustion cars. An increase in the fraction of electricity delivered by fluctuating sources like wind power will lead to excess electricity production and the two aforementioned scenarios have a substantial effect on the decrease...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  3. Transportation energy in global cities: Sustainable transportation comes in from the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Peter; Kenworthy, Jeffery

    2001-01-01

    The energy, environmental and social benefits of sustainable transportation, i.e, public transit, biking and walking, have long been recognized but are now mainstream in global and local transportation policy debates. However, the economic value of sustainable transportation has always been seen as secondary, unless many external costs were included. The results of a new global study show that cities with significant sustainable transportation systems have reduced costs on road construction and maintenance; better operating cost recovery and fuel-efficiency; fewer road accidents and less air pollution. In overall terms, the percentage of city funds going to transportation is reduced. The data show that cities with the most roads have the highest transportation costs and the most rail-oriented cities have the lowest. Further, the most sprawling cities have the highest direct and indirect costs for transportation. Thus, strategies to contain sprawl, to reurbanize, to build new rail systems info car-dependent suburbs with focussed sub-centers, and to facilitate biking and walking, not only will improve energy efficiency but will reduce costs to the economy of a city. Strategies that build freeways and add to sprawl will do the opposite. Trends indicate that moves toward sustainable urban patterns are beginning. The need to operationalize sustainable transportation strategies in planning and engineering practice and in the politics of infrastructure funding remains a major challenge. Some cities are showing how this can be done. (author)

  4. Applications of the Los Alamos High Energy Transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.; Gavron, A.; Prael, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Simulation codes reliable through a large range of energies are essential to analyze the environment of vehicles and habitats proposed for space exploration. The LAHET monte carlo code has recently been expanded to track high energy hadrons with FLUKA, while retaining the original Los Alamos version of HETC at lower energies. Electrons and photons are transported with EGS4, and an interface to the MCNP monte carlo code is provided to analyze neutrons with kinetic energies less than 20 MeV. These codes are benchmarked by comparison of LAHET/MCNP calculations to data from the Brookhaven experiment E814 participant calorimeter

  5. Modelling transport energy demand: A socio-technical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anable, Jillian; Brand, Christian; Tran, Martino; Eyre, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Despite an emerging consensus that societal energy consumption and related emissions are not only influenced by technical efficiency but also by lifestyles and socio-cultural factors, few attempts have been made to operationalise these insights in models of energy demand. This paper addresses that gap by presenting a scenario exercise using an integrated suite of sectoral and whole systems models to explore potential energy pathways in the UK transport sector. Techno-economic driven scenarios are contrasted with one in which social change is strongly influenced by concerns about energy use, the environment and well-being. The ‘what if’ Lifestyle scenario reveals a future in which distance travelled by car is reduced by 74% by 2050 and final energy demand from transport is halved compared to the reference case. Despite the more rapid uptake of electric vehicles and the larger share of electricity in final energy demand, it shows a future where electricity decarbonisation could be delayed. The paper illustrates the key trade-off between the more aggressive pursuit of purely technological fixes and demand reduction in the transport sector and concludes there are strong arguments for pursuing both demand and supply side solutions in the pursuit of emissions reduction and energy security.

  6. US Department of Energy automated transportation management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, T.M.; Frost, D.M.; Lopez, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 80 facilities throughout the United States that specialize in either scientific research, engineering, technology, production, and/or waste management activities. These facilities can best be described as Government Owned, Contractor Operated (GOCO) sites, and vary in size from very small laboratories to large industrial plant type facilities. Each of these GOCO's have varying needs for transportation of materials into and/or out of their facility. Therefore, Traffic Management operations will differ from site to site due to size and the internal or site specific mission. The DOE Transportation Management Division (TMD) has the corporate responsibility to provide a well managed transportation management program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of all DOE-owned materials. To achieve this mission, TMD provides oversight, and when necessary, resources to assist in ensuring regulatory compliance in the packaging and shipment of DOE-owned materials. A large part of TMD's responsibility is to develop, administer, and provide policies and guidance concerning department-wide transportation and packaging operations. This responsibility includes overall Transportation Management policies and programs for the packaging and movement of all DOE materials, including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials/substances, and hazardous wastes. TMD formulates policies and guidance that assist the DOE Field Elements and GOCO's in meeting TMD's goal for safe, efficient and economical transportation. Considering there are at least 80 shipping and receiving sites, the challenge encountered by TMD has been the difficulty in managing such a diverse transportation community

  7. US Department of Energy Automated Transportation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portsmouth, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Transportation Management Division (TMD) is responsible for managing its various programs via a diverse combination of Government-Owned/Contractor-Operated facilities. TMD is seeking to update it automation capabilities in capturing and processing DOE transportation information. TMD's Transportation Information Network (TIN) is an attempt to bring together transportation management, shipment tracking, research activities and software products in various stages of development. The TMD's Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) proposes to assist the DOE and its contractors in performing their daily transportation management activities and to assist the DOE Environmental Management Division in its waste management responsibilities throughout the DOE complex. The ATMS system will center about the storage, handling and documentation involved in the environmental clean-up of DOE sites. Waste shipments will be moved to approved Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) facilities and/or nuclear material repositories. An additional investment in shipping samples to analytical laboratories also involves packaging and documentation according to all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) or International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations. The most immediate goal of effectively managing DOE transportation management functions during the 1990's is an increase in automation capabilities of the DOE and its contractors. Subject-matter experts from various DOE site locations will be brought together to develop and refine these capabilities through the maximum use of computer applications. A major part of this effort will be the identification of the most economical modes of transportation and enhanced management reporting capabilities for transportation analysis. The ATMS system will also provide for increased strategic and shipment analysis during the 1990's and beyond in support of the DOE environmental mission

  8. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng

    2014-04-01

    We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i) quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii) solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii) mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  9. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  10. Trends in passenger transport and freight energy use in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendiluce, Maria; Schipper, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides for the first time a complete analysis of recent trends in activity, carbon emissions, modal shares, energy intensities, vehicle use and fuels in the Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008 and discusses policy options. Passenger and freight activities have increased in Spain and are projected to continue, presenting a challenge for sustainable mobility efforts; emissions have increased, mainly fueled by the rise in activity; modal shares have pulled away from public transport, with a decrease in bus and rail, towards an increase in car and air travel; energy intensities, though initially decreasing, are currently increasing; and fuel use has taken over 37% of Spanish final energy consumption. To target these issues the Spanish government has focused its efforts in targeting energy efficiency through dieselization, which has not led to positive results. More recently policies and measures have been directed towards redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. Little has been done to reduce activity besides some anecdotic public awareness campaigns. Activity reduction may be achieved with regulations, restrictions and mobility plans; by increasing high speed rail and rail freight transport; by improving intermodality and tying the Spanish rail network with the EU; and with more urban transport planning at local level. - Highlights: → Complete analysis of recent trends in Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008. → Passenger and freight activities have driven GHG emissions increase. → Modal shares have pulled away from public transport. → Policy efforts targeted energy efficiency and redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. → Little has been done to reduce activity.

  11. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  12. Perspectives of Use of Alternative Energy Sources in Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Socha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental load is also reflected in air transport. Usage of fossil fuels, which are dominant nowadays, has a negative impact on the environment and also its resources are limited. Therefore, the article focuses on the prospective of use of other energy sources in aviation, such as alternative fuels (synthetic fuels, biofuels, alcohol, methane, hydrogen, solar energy and the use of fuel cells. Also, the paper briefly summarizes the approach of aircraft manufacturers to the use alternative sources.

  13. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  14. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low

  15. Radial transport of high-energy runaway electrons in ORMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Swain, D.W.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The transport of high-energy runaway electrons near the outside of a low-density ORMAK discharge is investigated by measuring the flux of runaways to the outer limiter during and after an inward shift of the plasma column. The experimental results are interpreted through a runaway confinement model which includes both the classical outward displacement of the runaway orbit with increasing energy and an additional runaway spatial diffusion coefficient which simulates an unspecified source of anomalous transport. Diffusion coefficients in the range D approximately equal to 10 2 -10 4 cms -1 are found under various discharge conditions indicating a significant non-collisional runaway transport near the outside of the discharge, particularly in the presence of MHD instability. (author)

  16. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Krajačić, Goran; Lulić, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model...

  17. Renewable energies in the transport sector: Costs and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajanovic, Amela; Haas, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Alternative fuels based on renewable energy sources, such as biodiesel, bioethanol and hydrogen from RES, have potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, to increase supply security and energy diversity. Transition from a fossil fuels based transport to future sustainable and clean transport is a long term and cost intensive process, especially for hydrogen use in transport. Hydrogen infrastructure is missing and most of hydrogen technologies are still at developing stage.This paper examines the economics of biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) and hydrogen production from renewable energy sources. The current and future costs of alternative fuels as well as the costs of the provided energy services are analysed in a dynamic framework till the year 2050. The goal is to identify the market chance of alternative fuels in a long term (till 2050). A rapid increase of fuel cell vehicles with hydrogen on the market is not expected before 2030, mainly because the costs of the fuel cells are still very high and because their efficiency, as well as the travelling range, is rather moderate.However, the use of alternative fuels in transport sector is very dependent on the political will. If political preferences, like e.g. zero-emission-vehicles, gain strong relevance this new fuels could accelerate its market penetration significantly

  18. Helicity and evanescent waves. [Energy transport velocity, helicity, Lorentz transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudin, J L; Platzeck, A M [La Plata Univ. Nacional (Argentina); Albano, J R [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    1978-02-20

    It is shown that the projection of the angular momentum of a circularly polarized electromagnetic evanescent wave along the mean velocity of energy transport (=helicity) can be reverted by a Lorentz transformation, in spite of the fact that this velocity is c.

  19. Transport and matching of low energy space charge dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    The transport and matching of low energy high intensity beams from the ion source to the subsequent accelerating structure are of considerable interest in recent years for variety of applications such as Accelerator driven system (ADSS), transmutation of nuclear waste, spallation neutron sources etc. It is essential to perform detailed simulations with experimentation to predict the beam evolution in the presence of nonlinear self as well as external fields before the design of the next accelerating structure is finalized. In order to study and settle various physics and technical issues related with transport of space charge dominated beams we have developed a 2.45 GHz microwave ion source at VECC which is now delivering more than 10 mA proton beam current at 80 keV. We have successfully transported well collimated 8 mA proton beam through the solenoid based 3 meter long transport line and studied various beam properties. We have also studied the transport of beam through spiral inflector at low beam current ∼ 1mA. In this article we will discuss the beam transport issues and describe a technique for simulation of beam envelopes in presence of linear space charge effects. We use canonical description of the motion of a single particle and then obtain first order differential equations for evolution of the moments of beam ensemble by assuming uniform distribution of the beam. We will also discuss the methodology used in the simulations to understand the observed beam behaviour during transport. (author)

  20. Energy and particle core transport in tokamaks and stellarators compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, Marc; Angioni, Clemente; Beidler, Craig; Dinklage, Andreas; Fuchert, Golo; Hirsch, Matthias; Puetterich, Thomas; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald/Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses expectations for core transport in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X) and presents a comparison to tokamaks. In tokamaks, the neoclassical trapped-particle-driven losses are small and turbulence dominates the energy and particle transport. At reactor relevant low collisionality, the heat transport is limited by ion temperature gradient limited turbulence, clamping the temperature gradient. The particle transport is set by an anomalous inward pinch, yielding peaked profiles. A strong edge pedestal adds to the good confinement properties. In traditional stellarators the 3D geometry cause increased trapped orbit losses. At reactor relevant low collisionality and high temperatures, these neoclassical losses would be well above the turbulent transport losses. The W7-X design minimizes neoclassical losses and turbulent transport can become dominant. Moreover, the separation of regions of bad curvature and that of trapped particle orbits in W7-X may have favourable implications on the turbulent electron heat transport. The neoclassical particle thermodiffusion is outward. Without core particle sources the density profile is flat or even hollow. The presence of a turbulence driven inward anomalous particle pinch in W7-X (like in tokamaks) is an open topic of research.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. 3D-mapping optimization of embodied energy of transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Johnson, Sara J. [Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Physics Department, Clarion, PA 16214 (United States); Grant, Gabriel B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent development of Google Earth, an information service that provides imagery and three-dimensional data depicting the entire Earth, provides an opportunity to use a new method of navigating information to save energy in the real world. Google Earth uses Keyhole Markup Language (KML) for modeling and storing geographic features and information for display in the Google Earth Client. This paper will analyze the potential of this novel and free geographic mapping service to reduce embodied energy of transportation in two ways. First, at the consumer level, Google Earth will be studied to map the automobile route that uses the least fuel and maintains vehicle velocities at their individual maximum fuel efficiency. The same analysis for single destination trips could be used to optimize fleet vehicle routes such as garbage or recycling collection trucks. The secondary benefit of ecological education will also be explored. Fuel used could be converted into monetary units based on the current price of gas, pollution/greenhouse gas emissions, or ecological footprints to improve driving habits. Secondly, KML overlays will be analyzed for use of determining: (1) raw material and products availability as a function of location, and (2) modes of transportation as a function of emissions. These overlays would enable manufacturers access to an easily navigable method to optimize the life cycle of their products by minimizing embodied energy of transportation. The most efficient transportation methods and travel routes could be calculated. This same tool would be useful for architects to obtain Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating points for the green design of buildings. Overall, the analysis completed finds that the flexibility and visual display of quantitative information made available by Google Earth could have a significant impact at conserving fuel resources by reducing the embodied energy of transportation on a global scale. (author)

  3. Inclusive planning in transport and energy STI-policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Hansen, Meiken; Selin, Cynthia Lea

    2017-01-01

    Transition to a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system is of global interest, and implies social challenges for the developed world including the European Union. In particular, the energy consumption related to transport constitutes a significant challenge. If not serious changes are made...... of securing a more sustainable and fossil-free energy system. Furthermore, responsible research and innovation should take into account both the required changes in all citizens’ daily life due to this transition as well as the driving force of grassroot innovation movements....

  4. Electromagnetic energy transport in nanoparticle chains via dark plasmon modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, David; Willingham, Britain; Nauert, Scott L; Slaughter, Liane S; Olson, Jana; Swanglap, Pattanawit; Paul, Aniruddha; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2012-03-14

    Using light to exchange information offers large bandwidths and high speeds, but the miniaturization of optical components is limited by diffraction. Converting light into electron waves in metals allows one to overcome this problem. However, metals are lossy at optical frequencies and large-area fabrication of nanometer-sized structures by conventional top-down methods can be cost-prohibitive. We show electromagnetic energy transport with gold nanoparticles that were assembled into close-packed linear chains. The small interparticle distances enabled strong electromagnetic coupling causing the formation of low-loss subradiant plasmons, which facilitated energy propagation over many micrometers. Electrodynamic calculations confirmed the dark nature of the propagating mode and showed that disorder in the nanoparticle arrangement enhances energy transport, demonstrating the viability of using bottom-up nanoparticle assemblies for ultracompact opto-electronic devices. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. The effect of strongly anisotropic scattering on the critical size of a slab in one-speed neutron transport theory: Modified UN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in homogeneous slab is investigated. • A combination of forward–backward and linear anisotropy is used. • The effect of the strongly anisotropic scattering on the critical size is analyzed. - Abstract: The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in a uniform finite slab is studied in the case of a combination of forward and backward scattering with linearly anisotropic scattering using U N method based on the Chebyshev polynomials of second kind. The effect of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness of the slab is investigated. The critical slab thicknesses are calculated by using Marshak boundary condition for various values of the anisotropy parameters and they are presented in the tables. In comparison to the results obtained by other methods, the results of this study are in compatible with the former ones

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  7. Food transport refrigeration - Approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; De-Lille, G.; Ge, Y.T.

    2009-01-01

    Food transport refrigeration is a critical link in the food chain not only in terms of maintaining the temperature integrity of the transported products but also its impact on energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. This paper provides a review of (a) current approaches in road food transport refrigeration, (b) estimates of their environmental impacts, and (c) research on the development and application of alternative technologies to vapour compression refrigeration systems that have the potential to reduce the overall energy consumption and environmental impacts. The review and analysis indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from conventional diesel engine driven vapour compression refrigeration systems commonly employed in food transport refrigeration can be as high as 40% of the greenhouse gas emissions from the vehicle's engine. For articulated vehicles over 33 ton, which are responsible for over 80% of refrigerated food transportation in the UK, the reject heat available form the engine is sufficient to drive sorption refrigeration systems and satisfy most of the refrigeration requirements of the vehicle. Other promising technologies that can lead to a reduction in CO 2 emissions are air cycle refrigeration and hybrid systems in which conventional refrigeration technologies are integrated with thermal energy storage. For these systems, however, to effectively compete with diesel driven vapour compression systems, further research and development work is needed to improve their efficiency and reduce their weight

  8. Energy, Transport, & the Environment Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    King, Sir

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including:   ·         energy security and resource scarcity ·         greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions ·         urban planning, transport systems and their management ·         governance and finance of transformation ·         the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems.   Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six secti...

  9. Indirect Energy for Road and Railway Transportation in Sweden; Indirekt energi foer svenska vaeg- och jaernvaegstransporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Daniel K.

    2005-02-01

    Besides energy for propulsion, there are a number of considerable indirect energy categories in the life-cycle of transport systems, e.g. construction and maintenance of infrastructure, and manufacture and service of vehicles. Indirect energy represents 64-66% of the total amount of energy used in the railway sector, while the corresponding share in the road sector is 42-45%. Consequently, decision-making and planning processes regarding transport infrastructure and environmental impacts should also consider indirect energy-use. Two energy case studies have been carried through; the railroad project Botniabanan in the north of Sweden, and the motorway tunnel Soedra Laenken in Stockholm. The result for Botniabanan corresponds with the Swedish railroad average, but Botniabanan contributes to decreased energy use in the transport sector as a whole. The infra structural energy use for Soedra Laenken is considerably higher than the Swedish road average. Soedra Laenken also contributes to an increase of the energy use in the transport sector as a whole.

  10. Anisotropic Transport of Electrons in a Novel FET Channel with Chains of InGaAs Nano-Islands Embedded along Quasi-Periodic Multi-Atomic Steps on Vicinal (111)B GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Y.; Kawazu, T.; Noda, T.; Sakaki, H.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied electron transport in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction FET channels, in which chains of InGaAs nano-islands are embedded along quasi-periodic steps. By using two samples, conductance G para (V g ) parallel to the steps and G perp (V g ) perpendicular to them were measured at 80 K as functions of gate voltage V g . At sufficiently high V g , G para at 80 K is several times as high as G perp , which manifests the anisotropic two-dimensional transport of electrons. When V g is reduced to -0.7 V, G perp almost vanishes, while Gpara stays sizable unless V g is set below -0.8 V. These results indicate that 'inter-chain' barriers play stronger roles than 'intra-chain' barriers.

  11. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David

    2008-01-01

    Considering the externalities of freight transport activity (energy use, accidents, congestion, its related GHG emissions, and lost oil revenues) this article reviews trends from 1990-2005 in truck freight fuel intensity (energy use per tonne-km moved), on road truck fuel economy (L/ 100 km driven......). We review changes in decoupling truck freight activity from GDP. We examine separately five manufacturing sectors using data from Statistics Denmark on vehicle performance for 1980-2006. Our four major findings are: (1) truck freight energy intensity (mj/tonne-km) continues to grow as well as CO2...... emissions; (2) decoupling has not been large enough to reduce overall energy use of truck; (3) because of the absence of fuel economy regulations, a low average vehicle load, increased hauling distance, overall energy use of truck freight will continue to expand; (4) results show that standard freight...

  12. How far could energy transport within a single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Che, Yanke; Zhao, Jincai; Steve, Granick

    Efficient transport of excitation energy over long distance is a vital process in light-harvesting systems and molecular electronics. The energy transfer distance is largely restricted by the probability decay of the exciton when hopping within a single crystal. Here, we fabricated an organic single crystal within which the energy could transfer more than 100 μm, a distance only limited by its crystal size. Our system could be regarded as a ``Sprint relay game'' performing on different surface of tracks. Photoinduced ``athletes'' (excitons) triggered intermolecular ``domino'' reaction to propagate energy for a long distance. In addition, athletes with the same ability runs much farther on smooth ideal track (single crystal assembled from merely van der Waals interaction) than bumpy mud track (crystal assembled from combination of pi-stacking, hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions). Our finding presents new physics on enhancing energy transfer length within a single crystal. Current Affiliation: Institute for Basic Science, South Korea.

  13. Studies of energy transport in Jet H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilhacker, M.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.; Gottardi, N.; Muir, D.; Thomsen, K.; Watkins, M.

    1989-01-01

    The local heat transport properties in the interior of ohmic, L- and H-phases of 2MA discharges, are determined. Time dependent energy balance code, TRANSP, and timeslice code, QFLUX are used. The global confinement properties of higher current discharges (≤ 3.8MA) are analyzed. The results indicate that during the L-phase of JET single null X-point discharges, the total heat transport coefficient in the plasma decreases to a level close to the ohmic value. Moreover, confinement during the H-phase continues to improve with current (up to 3.8MA), but degrades with increasing neutral beam power

  14. 3D edge energy transport in stellarator configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTaggart, N.; Zagorski, R.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R.; Kaiser, T.; Rognlien, T.; Umansky, M.

    2005-01-01

    The finite difference discretization method is used to solve the electron energy transport equation in complex 3D edge geometries using an unstructured grid. This grid is generated by field-line tracing to separate the radial and parallel fluxes and minimize the numerical diffusion connected with the strong anisotropy of the system. The influence of ergodicity on the edge plasma transport in the W7-X stellarator is investigated in this paper. Results show that the combined effect of ergodicity and the radial plasma diffusion leads to the efficient smoothing of the temperature profiles in the finite-β case

  15. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  16. High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, Koji; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Takada, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-03-01

    We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI97. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM is extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation and fission process, we have also implemented a new model, GEM, by which the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus can be described. According to the extension of the applicable energy, we have upgraded the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data by employing new systematics. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field has been implemented for the beam transport calculations. In this upgrade, some new tally functions are added and the format of input of data has been improved very much in a user friendly manner. Due to the implementation of these new calculation functions and utilities, consequently, NMTC/JAM enables us to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than before. This report serves as a user manual of the code. (author)

  17. Giant voltage manipulation of MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions via localized anisotropic strain: A potential pathway to ultra-energy-efficient memory technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyang; Jamali, Mahdi; D'Souza, Noel; Zhang, Delin; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Voltage control of magnetization via strain in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive systems is a promising mechanism to implement energy-efficient straintronic memory devices. Here, we demonstrate giant voltage manipulation of MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on a Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 piezoelectric substrate with (001) orientation. It is found that the magnetic easy axis, switching field, and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of the MTJ can be efficiently controlled by strain from the underlying piezoelectric layer upon the application of a gate voltage. Repeatable voltage controlled MTJ toggling between high/low-resistance states is demonstrated. More importantly, instead of relying on the intrinsic anisotropy of the piezoelectric substrate to generate the required strain, we utilize anisotropic strain produced using a local gating scheme, which is scalable and amenable to practical memory applications. Additionally, the adoption of crystalline MgO-based MTJ on piezoelectric layer lends itself to high TMR in the strain-mediated MRAM devices.

  18. Anisotropic Bianchi-V dark energy model under the new perspective of accelerated expansion of the universe in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rekha; Zia, Rashid

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a cosmological model, which is consistent with the new findings of `The Supernova Cosmology project' headed by Saul Perlmutter, and the `High-Z Supernova Search team', headed by Brian Schimdt. According to these new findings, the universe is undergoing an expansion with an increasing rate, in contrast to the earlier belief that the rate of expansion is constant or the expansion is slowing down. We have considered spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-V dark energy model in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation. We have taken the scale factor a(t)=k t^α e^{β t} , which results into variable deceleration parameter (DP). The graph of DP shows a transition from positive to negative, which shows that universe has passed through the past decelerated expansion to the current accelerated expansion phase. In this context, we have also calculated and plotted various parameters and observed that these are in good agreement with physical and kinematic properties of the universe and are also consistent with recent observations.

  19. The future of transportation in sustainable energy systems: Opportunities and barriers in a clean energy transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, Ivan; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    Energy demand of a transport sector has constantly been increasing in the recent years, consuming one third of the total final energy demand in the European Union (EU) over the last decade. A transition of this sector towards sustainable one is facing many challenges in terms of suitable technolo...

  20. The design of Smart Energy Systems for 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2013-01-01

    , heating and transport sectors, and on using the flexibility in demands and various short term and longer term storage in the different sectors. Such a redesign also entails that the Smart Energy System is comprised of a number of smart grid infrastructures for different sectors in the energy system, i...

  1. EDF energy generation UK transport of irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R. [EDF Energy, London, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    This paper give an overview of irradiated fuel transport in the UK. It describes the design of irradiated fuel flask used by EDF Energy; operational experience and good practices learnt from over 50 years of irradiated fuel transport. The AGRs can store approximately 9 months generation of spent fuel, hence the ability to transport irradiated fuel is vital. Movements are by road to the nearest railhead, typically less than 2 miles and then by rail to Sellafield, up to 400 miles, for reprocessing or long term storage. Road and rail vehicles are covered. To date in the UK: over 30,000 Magnox flask journeys and over 15,000 AGR A2 flask journeys have been carried out.

  2. Energy-filtered cold electron transport at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadrachalam, Pradeep; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Ray, Vishva; Ma, Liang-Chieh; Wang, Weichao; Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Kyeongjae; Koh, Seong Jin

    2014-09-10

    Fermi-Dirac electron thermal excitation is an intrinsic phenomenon that limits functionality of various electron systems. Efforts to manipulate electron thermal excitation have been successful when the entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures, typically distribution corresponds to an effective electron temperature of ~45 K, can be transported throughout device components without external cooling. This is accomplished using a discrete level of a quantum well, which filters out thermally excited electrons and permits only energy-suppressed electrons to participate in electron transport. The quantum well (~2 nm of Cr2O3) is formed between source (Cr) and tunnelling barrier (SiO2) in a double-barrier-tunnelling-junction structure having a quantum dot as the central island. Cold electron transport is detected from extremely narrow differential conductance peaks in electron tunnelling through CdSe quantum dots, with full widths at half maximum of only ~15 mV at room temperature.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  5. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry E. Erickson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  6. Energy, Transportation, Air Quality, Climate Change, Health Nexus: Sustainable Energy is Good for Our Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E; Jennings, Merrisa

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement on Climate Change has the potential to improve air quality and human health by encouraging the electrification of transportation and a transition from coal to sustainable energy. There will be human health benefits from reducing combustion emissions in all parts of the world. Solar powered charging infrastructure for electric vehicles adds renewable energy to generate electricity, shaded parking, and a needed charging infrastructure for electric vehicles that will reduce range anxiety. The costs of wind power, solar panels, and batteries are falling because of technological progress, magnitude of commercial activity, production experience, and competition associated with new trillion dollar markets. These energy and transportation transitions can have a very positive impact on health. The energy, transportation, air quality, climate change, health nexus may benefit from additional progress in developing solar powered charging infrastructure.

  7. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-11-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  8. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  9. Topological quantization of energy transport in micromechanical and nanomechanical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Chun; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Dubi, Yonatan; Ilic, B. Robert; Zwolak, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Topological effects typically discussed in the context of quantum physics are emerging as one of the central paradigms of physics. Here, we demonstrate the role of topology in energy transport through dimerized micro- and nanomechanical lattices in the classical regime, i.e., essentially "masses and springs." We show that the thermal conductance factorizes into topological and nontopological components. The former takes on three discrete values and arises due to the appearance of edge modes that prevent good contact between the heat reservoirs and the bulk, giving a length-independent reduction of the conductance. In essence, energy input at the boundary mostly stays there, an effect robust against disorder and nonlinearity. These results bridge two seemingly disconnected disciplines of physics, namely topology and thermal transport, and suggest ways to engineer thermal contacts, opening a direction to explore the ramifications of topological properties on nanoscale technology.

  10. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  11. Transport and energy policy. Looking to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T [European Commission (Belgium)

    1996-12-01

    In the quest of filling human needs, transport and energy do not appear to be the most exciting territories. They come in only later in the vast chain of commodities and services necessary in the smooth operation of a modern market economy. However, current concerns about pollution and the future of our planet have lifted these issues to the top of the agenda. The objective of this paper is to give a glance at the complexity of possible futures facing us. Indeed, one of the main objectives is to show that there are different paths to be taken and we can influence our future. Furthermore, it will be shown that a key element in planning for different futures is the proper choice of energy policy objectives and instruments. An even bigger impact could be expected from the changing paradigms in transport demand patterns. (au)

  12. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-01-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  13. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.

    2013-08-05

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  14. Working group report on energy, transportation and recreation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.

    1991-01-01

    A working group was held to discuss the sensitivities of ecosystems and socio-economic activities relating to energy and recreation to climate change and variability, and the state and deficiencies of knowledge concerning these topics. It was concluded that the ecological integrity of national parks is at risk. Aggregate yields of fish in the Great Plains should improve with rising temperature, however extinction in southerly rivers is likely. Net reduction in hydro power generation appears probable due to decreased runoff and more frequent and severe drought. Total energy demand will be impacted by increased space cooling demands, up to 30% reduction in space heating demands, changing demands in agriculture for irrigation, water management and crop cultivation, and changing energy demands for road transport. Alternative strategies for displacement of fossil fuel use include low head hydro development, nuclear, wind energy, photovoltaics, ethanol from wood fibre, and hydrogen generated from surplus hydro power

  15. Resolving Rapid Variation in Energy for Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haut, Terry Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Ahrens, Cory Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Jonko, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Till, Andrew Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division; Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division

    2016-08-23

    Resolving the rapid variation in energy in neutron and thermal radiation transport is needed for the predictive simulation capability in high-energy density physics applications. Energy variation is difficult to resolve due to rapid variations in cross sections and opacities caused by quantized energy levels in the nuclei and electron clouds. In recent work, we have developed a new technique to simultaneously capture slow and rapid variations in the opacities and the solution using homogenization theory, which is similar to multiband (MB) and to the finite-element with discontiguous support (FEDS) method, but does not require closure information. We demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of the method for a variety of problems. We are researching how to extend the method to problems with multiple materials and the same material but with different temperatures and densities. In this highlight, we briefly describe homogenization theory and some results.

  16. Hydrogen Energy Storage: Grid and Transportation Services (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Proceedings of an expert workshop convened by the U.S. Department of Energy and Industry Canada, and hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Air Resources Board, May 14-15, 2014, in Sacramento, California, to address the topic of hydrogen energy storage (HES). HES systems provide multiple opportunities to increase the resilience and improve the economics of energy sup supply systems underlying the electric grid, gas pipeline systems, and transportation fuels. This is especially the case when considering particular social goals and market drivers, such as reducing carbon emissions, increasing reliability of supply, and reducing consumption of conventional petroleum fuels. This report compiles feedback collected during the workshop, which focused on policy and regulatory issues related to HES systems. Report sections include an introduction to HES pathways, market demand, and the "smart gas" concept; an overview of the workshop structure; and summary results from panel presentations and breakout groups.

  17. 3D and 1D calculation of hysteresis loops and energy products for anisotropic nanocomposite films with perpendicular anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, X.H.; Zhao, G.P.; Yue, Ming; Ye, L.N.; Xia, J.; Zhang, X.C.; Chang, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness L s increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation

  18. Biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the technical and economic prerequisites to attain reduced carbon dioxide emissions through the use of biomass-based energy carriers in the transportation sector, and to study other environmental impacts resulting from an increased use of biomass-based energy carriers. CO 2 emission reduction per unit arable and forest land used for biomass production (kg CO 2 /ha,year) and costs for CO 2 emission reduction (SEK/kg CO 2 ) are estimated for the substitution of gasoline and diesel with rape methyl ester, biogas from lucerne, ethanol from wheat and ethanol, methanol, hydrogen and electricity from Salix and logging residues. Of the studied energy carriers, those based on Salix provide the largest CO 2 emission reduction. In a medium long perspective, the costs for CO 2 emission reduction seem to be lowest for methanol from Salix and logging residues. The use of fuel cell vehicles, using methanol or hydrogen as energy carriers, can in a longer perspective provide more energy efficient utilization of biomass for transportation than the use of internal combustion engine vehicles. 136 refs, 12 figs, 25 tabs

  19. Future Transportation with Smart Grids and Sustainable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav R. Grob

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is facing fundamental change due to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, environmental and health problems, the growing world population, rising standards of living with more individual mobility and the globalization of trade with its increasing international transport volume. To cope with these serious problems benign, renewable energy systems and much more efficient drives must be multiplied as rapidly as possible to replace the polluting combustion engines with their much too low efficiency and high fuel logistics cost. Consequently the vehicles of the future must be non-polluting and super-efficient, i.e. electric. The energy supply must come via smart grids from clean energy sources not affecting the health, climate and biosphere. It is shown how this transition to the clean, sustainable energy age is possible, feasible and why it is urgent. The important role of international ISO, IEC and ITU standards and the need for better legislation by means of the Global Energy Charter for Sustainable Development are also highlighted.

  20. Hydrogen tube vehicle for supersonic transport: 2. Speed and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Arnold R. [Vehicle Projects Inc and Supersonic Tubevehicle LLC, 200 Violet St, Suite 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The central concept of a new idea in high-speed transport is that operation of a vehicle in a hydrogen atmosphere, because of the low density of hydrogen, would increase sonic speed by a factor of 3.8 and decrease drag by 15 relative to air. A hydrogen atmosphere requires that the vehicle operate within a hydrogen-filled tube or pipeline, which serves as a phase separator. The supersonic tube vehicle (STV) can be supersonic with respect to air outside the tube while remaining subsonic inside. It breathes hydrogen fuel for its propulsion fuel cells from the tube itself. This paper, second in a series on the scientific foundations of the supersonic tube vehicle, tests the hypothesis that the STV will be simultaneously fast and energy efficient by comparing its predicted speed and energy consumption with that of four long-haul passenger transport modes: road, rail, maglev, and air. The study establishes the speed ranking STV >> airplane > maglev > train > coach (intercity bus) and the normalized energy consumption ranking Airplane >> coach > maglev > train > STV. Consistent with the hypothesis, the concept vehicle is both the fastest and lowest energy consuming mode. In theory, the vehicle can cruise at Mach 2.8 while consuming less than half the energy per passenger of a Boeing 747 at a cruise speed of Mach 0.81. (author)

  1. Creation of high-energy phonons by four-phonon processes in anisotropic phonon system of He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Slipko, V.A.; Kitsenko, Yu.A.; Wyatt, A.F.G.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of the creation of high-energy phonons (h-phonons) by a pulse of low-energy phonons (I-phonons) moving from a heater to a detector in superfluid helium, is solved. The rate of h-phonon creation is obtained and it is shown that created h-phonons occupy a much smaller solid angle in momentum space, than the I-phonons. Analytical expression for the creation rate of h-phonon, along the symmetry axis of a pulse, are derived. It allows us to get useful approximate analytical expressions for creation rate of h-phonons. The time dependences of the parameters which describe the I-phonon pulse are obtained. This shows that half of the initial energy of I-phonon pulse can be transferred into h-phonons. The results of the calculations are compared with experimental data and we show that this theory explains a number of experimental results. The value of the momentum, which separates the I- and h-phonon subsystems, is found

  2. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Anisotropic Intervalley Plasmon Excitations in Graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Xu Huai-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the intervalley plasmon excitations (IPEs) in graphene monolayer within the random-phase approximation. We derive an analytical expression of the real part of the dielectric function. We find a low-energy plasmon mode with a linear anisotropic dispersion which depends on the Fermi energy and the dielectric constant of substrate. The IPEs show strongly anisotropic behavior, which becomes significant around the zigzag crystallographic direction. More interestingly, the group velocity of IPE varies from negative to positive, and vanishes at special energy. (paper)

  4. Gibbs Free-Energy Gradient along the Path of Glucose Transport through Human Glucose Transporter 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huiyun; Bourdon, Allen K; Chen, Liao Y; Phelix, Clyde F; Perry, George

    2018-06-11

    Fourteen glucose transporters (GLUTs) play essential roles in human physiology by facilitating glucose diffusion across the cell membrane. Due to its central role in the energy metabolism of the central nervous system, GLUT3 has been thoroughly investigated. However, the Gibbs free-energy gradient (what drives the facilitated diffusion of glucose) has not been mapped out along the transport path. Some fundamental questions remain. Here we present a molecular dynamics study of GLUT3 embedded in a lipid bilayer to quantify the free-energy profile along the entire transport path of attracting a β-d-glucose from the interstitium to the inside of GLUT3 and, from there, releasing it to the cytoplasm by Arrhenius thermal activation. From the free-energy profile, we elucidate the unique Michaelis-Menten characteristics of GLUT3, low K M and high V MAX , specifically suitable for neurons' high and constant demand of energy from their low-glucose environments. We compute GLUT3's binding free energy for β-d-glucose to be -4.6 kcal/mol in agreement with the experimental value of -4.4 kcal/mol ( K M = 1.4 mM). We also compute the hydration energy of β-d-glucose, -18.0 kcal/mol vs the experimental data, -17.8 kcal/mol. In this, we establish a dynamics-based connection from GLUT3's crystal structure to its cellular thermodynamics with quantitative accuracy. We predict equal Arrhenius barriers for glucose uptake and efflux through GLUT3 to be tested in future experiments.

  5. Wave steering effects in anisotropic composite structures: Direct calculation of the energy skew angle through a finite element scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronopoulos, D

    2017-01-01

    A systematic expression quantifying the wave energy skewing phenomenon as a function of the mechanical characteristics of a non-isotropic structure is derived in this study. A structure of arbitrary anisotropy, layering and geometric complexity is modelled through Finite Elements (FEs) coupled to a periodic structure wave scheme. A generic approach for efficiently computing the angular sensitivity of the wave slowness for each wave type, direction and frequency is presented. The approach does not involve any finite differentiation scheme and is therefore computationally efficient and not prone to the associated numerical errors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Santa Elena. Ready to reshape its transport energy matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2012-07-01

    The renewable energy issue opens the door to an ambient of opportunities. Santa Elena, one of the coastal provinces of Ecuador has the chance to go from a fossil fuel energy culture to a new energy scheme based on the use of environmental friendly fuels like natural gas and other renewable energy carriers like hydrogen. The marginal production of oil and natural gas from the Gustavo Galindo Velasco field and the updated gas reserves from the Gulf of Guayaquil make it possible. Infrastructure for natural gas production and distribution for vehicles is almost ready and any of the three refineries can generate hydrogen from natural gas. This provides the opportunity to reshape the Santa Elena transport energy matrix, where vehicles can burn natural gas and inter country buses can work with hydrogen. Traditional Fishing boats can be fitted with hydrogen storage and fuel systems later on. Santa Elena should face this challenge through a joint effort of public and private parties. Santa Elena State University and its partners as a focus point to create: The Campus of Energy Knowledge, where research, science and technology will serve companies that work in the energy business with a strong synergy, which will create jobs for the Santa Elena people. (orig.)

  7. Interpreting the implied meridional oceanic energy transport in AMIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, D.A.; Gleckler, P.J.

    1993-09-01

    The Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) was outlined in Paper No. CLIM VAR 2.3 (entitled open-quote The validation of ocean surface heat fluxes in AMIP') of these proceedings. Preliminary results of AMIP subproject No. 5 were also summarized. In particular, zonally averaged ocean surface heat fluxes resulting from various AMIP simulations were intercompared, and to the extent possible they were validated with uncertainties in observationally-based estimates of surface heat fluxes. The intercomparison is continued in this paper by examining the Oceanic Meridional Energy Transport (OMET) implied by the net surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes of the AMIP simulations. As with the surface heat fluxes, the perspective here will be very cursory. The annual mean implied ocean heat transport can be estimated by integrating the zonally averaged net ocean surface heat flux, N sfc , from one pole to the other. In AGCM simulations (and perhaps reality), the global mean N sfc is typically not in exact balance when averaged over one or more years. Because of this, an important assumption must be made about changes in the distribution of energy in the oceans. Otherwise, the integration will yield a non-zero transport at the endpoint of integration (pole) which is not physically realistic. Here the authors will only look at 10-year means of the AMIP runs, and for simplicity they assume that any long term imbalance in the global averaged N sfc will be sequestered (or released) over the global ocean. Tests have demonstrated that the treatment of how the global average energy imbalance is assumed to be distributed is important, especially when the long term imbalances are in excess of 10 W m -2 . However, this has not had a substantial impact on the qualitative features of the implied heat transport of the AMIP simulations examined thus far

  8. Photosynthetic antennae systems: energy transport and optical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineker, P.; Supritz, Ch.; Warns, Ch.; Barvik, I.

    2004-01-01

    The energy transport and the optical line shape of molecular aggregates, modeling bacteria photosynthetic light-harvesting systems (chlorosomes in the case of Chlorobium tepidum or Chloroflexus aurantiacus and LH2 in the case of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) is investigated theoretically. The molecular units are described by two-level systems with an average excitation energy ε and interacting with each other through nearest-neighbor interactions. For LH2 an elliptical deformation of the ring is also allowed. Furthermore, dynamic and in the case of LH2 also quasi-static fluctuations of the local excitation energies are taken into account, simulating fast molecular vibrations and slow motions of the protein backbone, respectively. The fluctuations are described by Gaussian Markov processes in the case of the chlorosomes and by colored dichotomic Markov processes, with exponentially decaying correlation functions, with small (λ s ) and large (λ) decay constants, in the case of LH2

  9. High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niita, K.; Takada, H.; Meigo, S.; Ikeda, Y.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgrade version of NMTC/JAERI97. The available energy range of NMTC/JAM is, in principle, extended to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons including the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. We compare the calculations by NMTC/JAM code with the experimental data of thin and thick targets for proton induced reactions up to several 10 GeV. The results of NMTC/JAM code show excellent agreement with the experimental data. From these code validation, it is concluded that NMTC/JAM is reliable in neutronics optimization study of the high intense spallation neutron utilization facility. (author)

  10. A time series analysis of transportation energy use per dollar of gross domestic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Transportation energy use relative to gross domestic product (GDP) has been declining within the past decade. However, the total transportation energy consumed (see figure 1) shows only a more recent decline. To see clearly the long-term decline, the...

  11. Transport Gap and exciton binding energy determination in organic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Stefan; Schoell, Achim; Reinert, Friedrich; Umbach, Eberhard [University of Wuerzburg (Germany). Experimental Physics II; Casu, Benedetta [Inst. f. Physik. u. Theor. Chemie, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The transport gap of an organic semiconductor is defined as the energy difference between the HOMO and LUMO levels in the presence of a hole or electron, respectively, after relaxation has occurred. Its knowledge is mandatory for the optimisation of electronic devices based on these materials. UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (IPES) are routinely applied to measure these molecular levels. However, the precise determination of the transport gap on the basis of the respective data is not an easy task. It involves fundamental questions about the properties of organic molecules and their condensates, about their reaction on the experimental probe, and on the evaluation of the spectroscopic data. In particular electronic relaxation processes, which occur on the time scale of the photo excitation, have to be considered adequately. We determined the transport gap for the organic semiconductors PTCDA, Alq3, DIP, CuPc, and PBI-H4. After careful data analysis and comparison to the respective values for the optical gap we obtain values for the exciton binding energies between 0.1-0.5 eV. This is considerably smaller than commonly believed and indicates a significant delocalisation of the excitonic charge over various molecular units.

  12. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  13. Testing the transport energy-environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in the EU27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo-Romero, M.P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-01-01

    Transport activities are essential for economic and social development. Nevertheless, the transport sector has also shown the fastest growth in energy consumption in the European Union and its contribution to increasing greenhouse gas emissions merits the thorough attention of academics and policy makers. In this paper we analyze the relationship of economic growth and transport activities with transport final energy consumption. Energy Kuznets curves are estimated for a panel data set covering the EU27 countries in the period 1995–2009 for total transport energy use, household transport energy use, and productive transport energy use (all three in absolute and per capita energy use terms). The productive transport energy use and gross value added relationship are further considered as per hour worked. Finally, the control variables of energy prices and differences in the economic structures are tested. Empirical results show that the elasticity of transport energy use with respect to gross value added in per capita terms decreases from a threshold for the three transport energy consumption variables, but the turning point of improved environmental quality is not reached in any instance. - Highlights: • Transport EKCs are estimated for the EU countries in the 1995–2009 period. • Total, household and production activity transport energy uses are analyzed. • Data support a concave shape, but the turning point is not reached. • Richer countries have more limited potential for energy efficiency policies. • EKCs elasticity values are considered to support policy interpretations.

  14. Road transportation impact on Ghana's future energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faah, George

    2008-11-07

    This research work explored the environmental and socio-economic benefits derived, if some proportion of daily passenger trips made using private cars in Ghana could be shifted to the use of public transport. The research applied the computer software COPERT III in estimating road transport Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption in Ghana for the base year 2005 and forecast years 2010 and 2020. The research reveals that if no major change occur in policies or economic determinants in meeting road transport and energy in Ghana, then the 2005 total emissions value is expected to rise by 36% in 2010 and over double in 2020 i.e. from 4.6 to 6.25 in 2010 and to 9.77 Mt CO{sub 2}e in 2020. However, if just 10% of daily passenger trips using private cars can be shifted towards the use of public transport, then the end results in reduction in emissions could earn Ghana about USD 6.6million/year under the Kyoto Protocol CDM initiative. The research also demonstrated that with a further 10% daily passenger trip shift, the outcome could be more promising, increasing to USD 13million/year. (orig.)

  15. Anisotropic microstructure and superelasticity of additive manufactured NiTi alloy bulk builds using laser directed energy deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bimber, Beth A. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamilton, Reginald F., E-mail: rfh13@psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, 212 Earth-Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Keist, Jayme; Palmer, Todd A. [Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16804 (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The microstructure and superelasticity in additive manufactured NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. Using elementally blended Ni and Ti powder feedstock, Ni-rich build coupons were fabricated via the laser-based directed energy deposition (LDED) technique. The build volumes were large enough to extract tensile and compressive test specimens from selected locations for spatially resolving microconstituents and the underlying stress-induced martensitic phase transformation (SIMT) morphology. In the as-deposited condition, X-ray diffraction identified the B2 atomic crystal structure of the austenitic parent phase in NiTi SMAs, and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitates were the predominant microconstituent identified through scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure exhibited anisotropy, which was characterized by the Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} precipitate morphology being coarsest nearest the substrate, while a finer morphology was observed farthest from the substrate. In-situ full-field deformation measurements calculated using digital image correlation confirmed that the SIMT predominately occurred in the finer precipitate morphology. Heat treatment reduced the degree of anisotropy, and DIC analysis revealed localized SIMT strains increased compared to the as-deposited condition.

  16. Anisotropic characterization of magnetorheological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohmen, E., E-mail: eike.dohmen@tu-dresden.de; Modler, N.; Gude, M.

    2017-06-01

    For the development of energy efficient lightweight parts novel function integrating materials are needed. Concerning this field of application magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers and MR composites are promising materials allowing the adjustment of mechanical properties by an external magnetic field. A key issue for operating such structures in praxis is the magneto-mechanical description. Most rheological properties are gathered at laboratory conditions for high magnetic flux densities and a single field direction, which does not correspond to real praxis conditions. Although anisotropic formation of superstructures can be observed in MR suspensions (Fig. 1) or experimenters intentionally polymerize MR elastomers with anisotropic superstructures these MR materials are usually described in an external magnetic field as uniform, isotropic materials. This is due to missing possibilities for experimentally measuring field angle dependent properties and ways of distinguishing between material properties and frictional effects. Just a few scientific works experimentally investigated the influence of different field angles (Ambacher et al., 1992; Grants et al., 1990; Kuzhir et al., 2003) or the influence of surface roughness on the shear behaviour of magnetic fluids (Tang and Conrad, 1996) . The aim of this work is the introduction of a novel field angle cell allowing the determination of anisotropic mechanical properties for various MR materials depending on the applied magnetic field angle. - Highlights: • Novel magnetic field angle testing device (MFATD) presented. • Determination of magnetic field dependent anisotropic mechanical properties. • Experimental data for different field directions shown for a commercial MR fluid. • Material description of MR fluids as transversal-isotropic solids. • Magnetic field angle dependent variations in shear stresses experimentally measured. • Determination of frictional coefficients between the MR fluid and

  17. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  18. Anisotropic mechanical properties and Stone-Wales defects in graphene monolayer: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, B.B.; Yang, X.B.; Zhang, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the mechanical properties of graphene monolayer via the density functional theoretical (DFT) method. We find that the strain energies are anisotropic for the graphene under large strain. We attribute the anisotropic feature to the anisotropic sp 2 hybridization in the hexagonal lattice. We further identify that the formation energies of Stone-Wales (SW) defects in the graphene monolayer are determined by the defect concentration and also the direction of applied tensile strain, correlating with the anisotropic feature.

  19. US Department of Energy transportation programs: computerized techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently sponsoring the development of four specialized computer-based transportation programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The programs function as research tools that provide unique computerized techniques for planning the safe shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials. Major achievements include the development of interactive rail and highway routing models, an emergency response assistance program, a data base focusing on legislative requirements, and a resource file identifying key state and local contacts. A discussion of the programs and data bases is presented, and several examples reflecting each project's applications to the overall DOE transportation program are provided. The interface of these programs offers a dynamic resource of data for use during preshipment planning stages. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Soft Photons from transport and hydrodynamics at FAIR energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Andreas; Bäuchle, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    Direct photon spectra from uranium-uranium collisions at FAIR energies (E lab = 35 AGeV) are calculated within the hadronic Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model. In this microscopic model, one can optionally include a macroscopic intermediate hydrodynamic phase. The hot and dense stage of the collision is then modeled by a hydro dynamical calculation. Photon emission from transport-hydro hybrid calculations is examined for purely hadronic matter and matter that has a cross-over phase transition and a critical end point to deconfined and chirally restored matter at high temperatures. We find the photon spectra in both scenarios to be dominated by Bremsstrahlung. Comparing flow of photons in both cases suggests a way to distinguish these two scenarios.

  1. Thermal performance and heat transport in aquifer thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, W. T.; Doornenbal, P. J.; Drijver, B. C.; van Gaans, P. F. M.; Leusbrock, I.; Grotenhuis, J. T. C.; Rijnaarts, H. H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is used for seasonal storage of large quantities of thermal energy. Due to the increasing demand for sustainable energy, the number of ATES systems has increased rapidly, which has raised questions on the effect of ATES systems on their surroundings as well as their thermal performance. Furthermore, the increasing density of systems generates concern regarding thermal interference between the wells of one system and between neighboring systems. An assessment is made of (1) the thermal storage performance, and (2) the heat transport around the wells of an existing ATES system in the Netherlands. Reconstruction of flow rates and injection and extraction temperatures from hourly logs of operational data from 2005 to 2012 show that the average thermal recovery is 82 % for cold storage and 68 % for heat storage. Subsurface heat transport is monitored using distributed temperature sensing. Although the measurements reveal unequal distribution of flow rate over different parts of the well screen and preferential flow due to aquifer heterogeneity, sufficient well spacing has avoided thermal interference. However, oversizing of well spacing may limit the number of systems that can be realized in an area and lower the potential of ATES.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Patel, D. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bertram, K. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  4. Using SDO's AIA to investigate energy transport from a flare's energy release site to the chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G. D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIA's EUV channels brightened simultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK. Aims: To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIA's 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 Å channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIA's nominal temperature response functions available through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop footpoint on 2001 April 24 with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on timescales comparable to AIA's image cadence. Methods: The nine emission lines observed by CDS cover a wide range of formation temperature from about 0.05 to 8 MK. Line brightenings observed early during the CDS flare occurred at temperatures less than about 0.7 MK, with the largest values around 0.1 MK. These brightenings were consistent with the flare's energy transport being dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Because all of AIA's EUV channels are sensitive to emission from plasma in the 0.1 to 0.7 MK temperature range, we show that all of AIA's EUV channels will brighten simultaneously during flares like this, in which energy transport is dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Results: The 2010 July 31 flare observed by AIA and RHESSI displays this behavior, so we conclude that such beams likely dominated the flare's energy transport early during the event. When thermal conduction from a reconnection-heated, hot (~10 MK) plasma dominates the energy transport, the AIA channels that are sensitive to emission from such temperatures (particularly the 94 and 131 Å channels) will brighten earlier than the channels that are not sensitive to such temperatures (171 and 211 Å). Conclusions: Thus

  5. Indicator system for the environmental assessment of energy transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, I.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to define a consistent set of indicators for the environmental assessment of different energy transport systems: high-voltage alternating and direct current transmission lines, electric cables, pipelines for gas and oil, inland waterway, road and rail transportation, according to state-of-the-art technologies. The indicator system is used for comparative analysis and identification of environmental hot-spots of the different systems. The environmental performance of power plants close to production or unloading terminals with subsequent power transmission and the transport of fossil fuels with power production close to the end-users is compared. Quantitative indicators are defined for different impact categories: fossil energy depletion, impacts from emissions, land use, noise impacts and visibility. A further aggregation of the different indicators to obtain a universal environmental score was not envisaged. It was not possible to define a quantitative indicator for possible electric and magnetic field effects because of insufficient knowledge of the involved dose-response metrics. The proposed indicators quantify dose-response relationships also below emission or immission limits imposed by law, which was one of the main requirements in this work. By reducing all information to an equivalent impacted area, a high level of consistency was achieved for land use, noise impacts and visibility indicators. Other indicators refer to the energy content of fossil resources and to equivalent emissions of reference substances. The calculation of an equivalent impacted area was not considered an efficient approach in these cases. The performance of the proposed indicator system and its applicability to infrastructure and regional planning is tested in two practical examples. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  6. Strongly Anisotropic Electronic Transport at Landau Level Filling Factor ν =9/2 and ν =5/2 under a Tilted Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Tsui, D.C.; Pan, W.; Du, R.R.; Du, R.R.; Stormer, H.L.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; Baldwin, K.W.; West, K.W.; Stormer, H.L.; Stormer, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of an increasing in-plane magnetic field on the states of half filling of Landau levels (ν=11/2, 9/2, 7/2, thinspandthinsp 5/2) of a two-dimensional electron system. In the electrically anisotropic phase at ν=9/2 and 11/2 an in-plane magnetic field of ∼1 - 2 T overcomes its initial pinning to the crystal lattice and reorients this phase. In the initially isotropic phases at ν=5/2 and 7/2 an in-plane magnetic field induces a strong electrical anisotropy. In all cases, for high in-plane fields the high-resistance axis is parallel to the direction of the in-plane field. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. 1D energy transport in a strongly scattering laboratory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijk, Kasper van; Scales, John A.; Haney, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Radiative transfer (RT) theory is often invoked to describe energy propagation in strongly scattering media. Fitting RT to measured wave field intensities is rather different at late times, when the transport is diffusive, than at intermediate times (around one extinction mean free time), when ballistic and diffusive behavior coexist. While there are many examples of late-time RT fits, we describe ultrasonic multiple scattering measurements with RT over the entire range of times--from ballistic to diffusive. In addition to allowing us to retrieve the scattering and absorption mean free paths independently, our results also support theoretical predictions in 1D that suggest an intermediate regime of diffusive (nonlocalized) behavior

  8. CEESA 100% Renewable Energy Transport Scenarios towards 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik

    the availability of sustainable resources. The results indicate that electricity should be prioritised as much as is economically possible in the transport sector, which is primarily for cars and rail. Other modes, such as trucks, ships, and aeroplanes will require fuels with a high energy density. Replacing oil...... in these modes with existing biofuels is likely to result in an over-consumption of biomass, thus resulting in an unsustainable solution. In this study, new electrofuel pathways are created outlining how electricity can be combined with biomass to create new fuels for these modes. The amount of electrofuel...

  9. Transport and containment of plasma, particles and energy within flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E. C.; Haisch, B. M.; Strong, K. T.

    1983-01-01

    Results from the analysis of flares observed by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and a recent rocket experiment are discussed. Evidence for primary energy release in the corona through the interaction of magnetic structures, particle and plasma transport into more than a single magnetic structure at the time of a flare and a complex and changing magnetic topology during the course of a flare is found. The rocket data are examined for constraints on flare cooling, within the context of simple loop models. These results form a basis for comments on the limitations of simple loop models for flares.

  10. Criticality problems in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The criticality problem is considered for energy dependent neutron transport in an isotropically scattering, homogeneous slab. Under a positivity assumption on the scattering kernel, an expression can be found relating the thickness of the slab to a parameter characterizing production by fission. This is accomplished by exploiting the Perron-Frobenius-Jentsch characterization of positive operators (i.e. those leaving invariant a normal, reproducing cone in a Banach space). It is pointed out that those techniques work for classes of multigroup problems were the Case singular eigenfunction approach is not as feasible as in the one-group theory, which is also analyzed

  11. The energy-dependent backward-forward-isotropic scattering model with some applications to the neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    A multigroup formalism is developed for the backward-forward-isotropic scattering model of neutron transport. Some exact solutions are obtained in two-group theory for slab and spherical geometry. The results are useful for benchmark problems involving multigroup anisotropic scattering. (author)

  12. Anisotropic ray trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for

  13. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  14. Economizing energies in urban public transportation; Como economizar energias en el transporte publico urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Arellano, Ignacio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    In the transportation sector one of the questions that we should keep on asking on the subject of energy saving is: What objective should be set for reducing the energy consumption (particularly in oil derivatives). Must it be a moderate or a strong measure? In the past years this question was very much related to the oil availability that is a non-renewable resource, nevertheless, with the elapsing of time it can be said that the available oil resources are still very large, the problem is now in function of the energy prices in the mid term and this is what will take us to establish a type of policy for the reduction of the use of fuels in transportation. The purpose of this paper, is to have the support of the transportation users informing and persuading them on the need of reducing the fuel consumption rationalizing its utilization, to ensure in our cities a relatively fluid circulation, a breathable air, a better landscape and a protection to the urban sites. Although these proposals belong in a direct way to our governments, the base of their definition will be the perspectives for the country`s development, the amount of oil reserves, the international situation and the technological advances. [Espanol] En el sector de los transportes una de las preguntas que nos deberiamos seguir haciendo, sobre el tema de ahorro de energia es que objetivo debera fijarse para reducir los consumos de energia (en particular de los derivados del petroleo) debe ser una medida fuerte o moderada. En anos pasados esta pregunta estaba muy relacionada con la disponibilidad del petroleo que es un recurso no renovable, sin embargo con el transcurso del tiempo se puede decir que los recursos disponibles de petroleo son aun muy grandes, el problema ahora esta en funcion de los precios de la energia en el mediano plazo, y es esto lo que nos llevara a fijar un tipo de politica para la reduccion de combustibles en los transportes. El proposito de este trabajo es contar con el apoyo de los

  15. Transportable Hydrogen Research Plant Based on Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel Fernandez; Carlos Madina; Asier Gil de Muro; Jose Angel Alzolab; Iker Marino; Javier Garcia-Tejedor; Juan Carlos Mugica; Inaki Azkkrate; Jose Angel Alzola

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency and cost are nowadays the most important barriers for the penetration of systems based on hydrogen and renewable energies. According to this background, TECNALIA Corporation has started in 2004 the HIDROTEC project: 'Hydrogen Technologies for Renewable Energy Applications'. The ultimate aim of this project is the implementation of a multipurpose demonstration and research plant in order to explore diverse options for sustainable energetic solutions based on hydrogen. The plant is conceived as an independent system that can be easily transported and assembled. Research and demonstration activities can thus be carried out at very different locations, including commercial renewable facilities. Modularity and scalability have also been taken into account for an optimised exploitation. (authors)

  16. Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik, W.B.; Ani, F.N.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

  17. The Suppression of Energy Discretization Errors in Multigroup Transport Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The Objective of this project is to develop, implement, and test new deterministric methods to solve, as efficiently as possible, multigroup neutron transport problems having an extremely large number of groups. Our approach was to (i) use the standard CMFD method to 'coarsen' the space-angle grid, yielding a multigroup diffusion equation, and (ii) use a new multigrid-in-space-and-energy technique to efficiently solve the multigroup diffusion problem. The overall strategy of (i) how to coarsen the spatial an energy grids, and (ii) how to navigate through the various grids, has the goal of minimizing the overall computational effort. This approach yields not only the fine-grid solution, but also coarse-group flux-weighted cross sections that can be used for other related problems.

  18. Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2015-01-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that in order to identify least cost solutions of the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources into current or future 100% renewable energy supplies one has to take a Smart Energy Systems approach. This paper outline why and how to do so. Traditionally......, significant focus is put on the electricity sector alone to solve the renewable energy integration puzzle. Smart grid research traditionally focuses on ICT, smart meters, electricity storage technologies, and local (electric) smart grids. In contrast, the Smart Energy System focuses on merging the electricity......, heating and transport sectors, in combination with various intra-hour, hourly, daily, seasonal and biannual storage options, to create the flexibility necessary to integrate large penetrations of fluctuating renewable energy. However, in this paper we present the development and design of coherent Smart...

  19. Transport Emissions and Energy Consumption Impacts of Private Capital Investment in Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Xue

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducing private capital into the public transport system for its sustainable development has been increasing around the world. However, previous research ignores emissions and energy consumption impacts, which are important for private capital investment policy-making. To address this problem, the system dynamic (SD approach was used to quantitatively analyze the cumulative effects of different private capital investment models in public transport from the environmental perspective. The SD model validity was verified in the case study of Jinan public traffic. Simulation results show that the fuel consumption and emission reductions are obvious when the private capital considering passenger value invests in public transport compared with the no private capital investment and traditional investment models. There are obvious cumulative reductions for fuel consumption, CO2, CO, SO2, and PM10 emissions for 100 months compared with no private capital investment. This research verifies the superiority of the passenger value investment model in public transport from the environmental point of view, and supplies a theoretical tool for administrators to evaluate the private capital investment effects systematically.

  20. The US Department of Energy - investing in clean transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Steven G.; Milliken, JoAnn; Miller, James F.; Venkateswaran, S. R.

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), together with six other federal agencies and America's three largest car makers, are jointly investing in the development of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells as a clean and efficient technology for automotive propulsion under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). (PEM is sometimes referred to as `proton exchange membrane'. The correctness, or otherwise, of that interpretation will depend on the mechanism of apparent proton transfer in the membrane implied). It is anticipated that the successful development of PEM fuel cells (and other long-term technologies) to meet automotive requirements will extend beyond the PNGV's 2004 timeframe for achieving 80 miles per gallon in production prototypes. Given the extraordinary promise of large energy, environmental and economic benefits to the nation from fuel cells and other long-term technologies, the PNGV partners will continue to invest in these technologies beyond 2004. The DOE's Transportation Fuel Cells Program has recently announced US$50 million of new contract awards for focused R&D to overcome critical technical barriers such as fuel-flexible fuel processing technology. The progress achieved toward automotive goals through these and past investments will also enable nearer-term application of fuel cells (e.g. in buses). This paper describes the status of the PNGV program and the key role and technical accomplishments of the DOE Transportation Fuel Cells Program. The DOE's recent investments in new fuel cell R&D activities will be discussed.

  1. Dispersion of radioactive tracers (Energy transport in geological media)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moltyaner, G.L.; Wills, A.

    1991-01-01

    The idea of adding a gamma-emitting tracer like radioiodine to groundwater to measure its velocity offers a new approach to contaminant transport studies. In fact, the groundwater velocity is acquired by measuring, in situ, changes that the flowing water and sedimentary matrix jointly impose on the electromagnetic field generated by radioiodine. The information is encoded in the measured field intensity and it is transmitted continuously from the source to a radiation detector by electromagnetic energy photons. In situ sensed data acquired by scanning dry boreholes provide information on joint variations of static (sedimentary matrix) and dynamic (flowing water) elements of the aquifer over its depth. The spatial structure of the aquifer heterogeneities may be modelled in terms of the space-correlation coefficient between two velocities at two points a specified distance apart. This gives a new method for defining aquifer heterogeneities by the introduction of kinematically significant length scales of velocity variation without invoking Darcy's law and the concept of hydraulic conductivity. The dimensions of aquifer heterogeneities are defined in a longitudinal sense, along the mean flow direction, and in a transverse sense, in the transverse to flow direction. Two hierarchical scales of motion, local and integral, are introduced to characterize the mixing process caused by aquifer heterogeneity and depositional heterogeneity, respectively. At the microscopic and local scales, transport processes are characterized by the three-dimensional diffusion equation with, generally speaking, variable coefficients. At the integral scale, aquifer heterogeneities impose conditions on the transport such that for shallow aquifers the transport may be modelled by the dispersion equation with constant coefficients in one longitudinal dimension. 3 figs., 25 refs

  2. Probing Growth-Induced Anisotropic Thermal Transport in High-Quality CVD Diamond Membranes by Multifrequency and Multiple-Spot-Size Time-Domain Thermoreflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhe; Bougher, Thomas; Bai, Tingyu; Wang, Steven Y; Li, Chao; Yates, Luke; Foley, Brian M; Goorsky, Mark; Cola, Baratunde A; Faili, Firooz; Graham, Samuel

    2018-02-07

    The maximum output power of GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors is limited by high channel temperature induced by localized self-heating, which degrades device performance and reliability. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is an attractive candidate to aid in the extraction of this heat and in minimizing the peak operating temperatures of high-power electronics. Owing to its inhomogeneous structure, the thermal conductivity of CVD diamond varies along the growth direction and can differ between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, resulting in a complex three-dimensional (3D) distribution. Depending on the thickness of the diamond and size of the electronic device, this 3D distribution may impact the effectiveness of CVD diamond in device thermal management. In this work, time-domain thermoreflectance is used to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of an 11.8 μm-thick high-quality CVD diamond membrane from its nucleation side. Starting with a spot-size diameter larger than the thickness of the membrane, measurements are made at various modulation frequencies from 1.2 to 11.6 MHz to tune the heat penetration depth and sample the variation in thermal conductivity. We then analyze the data by creating a model with the membrane divided into ten sublayers and assume isotropic thermal conductivity in each sublayer. From this, we observe a two-dimensional gradient of the depth-dependent thermal conductivity for this membrane. The local thermal conductivity goes beyond 1000 W/(m K) when the distance from the nucleation interface only reaches 3 μm. Additionally, by measuring the same region with a smaller spot size at multiple frequencies, the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities are extracted. Through this use of multiple spot sizes and modulation frequencies, the 3D anisotropic thermal conductivity of CVD diamond membrane is experimentally obtained by fitting the experimental data to a thermal model. This work provides an improved

  3. Energy transport in ASDEX in relation to theoretical and semi-empirical transport coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, O.; Wunderlich, R.; Lackner, K.; Schneider, W.

    1989-09-01

    A comparison of measurements with theoretically predicted energy transport coefficients has been done for Ohmic and NBI-heated discharges using both analysis and simulation codes. The contribution of strong electrostatic turbulence given by the η i -driven modes to the ion heat conductivity is very successful in explaining the observed response of confinement to density profile changes and is found to be even in good quantitative agreement. Regarding the electron branch, a combination of trapped electron driven turbulence and resistive ballooning modes might be a promising model to explain both the correct power and density dependence of confinement time, and the observed radial dependence of the electron heat conductivity. (orig.)

  4. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  5. Energy transport in radially accreting white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.M.

    1986-10-01

    Some of the non-thermal energy transport processes which may be present in a white dwarf accretion column are examined and it is determined whether these could in any way contribute to a resolution of the soft X-ray puzzle. The first two Chapters of this Thesis constitute a review of the observations and proposed models for white dwarf accretion columns. In Chapter 3 we show that in Kuijpers and Pringle's original bombardment model of white dwarf accretion columns, in which the energy of the accreting material is deposited uniformly into a static atmosphere which then radiates the energy away as optically thin bremsstrahlung/line radiation, an incorrect Coulomb collisional timescale was used. In Chapter 4 we extend the calculations of Chapter 3 to include the effect of cyclotron radiation. It is concluded that a cyclotron cooled bombardment solution for a white dwarf accretion column may exist. We extend this calculation to derive a simple piecewise uniform temperature structure for such an accretion column, incorporating the effect of thermal conduction. In Chaper 5 we examine two of the non thermal emission mechanisms that might be present in white dwarf accretion columns:- non thermal Lyman-{alpha} emission and non thermal inverse bremsstrahlung emission. It is shown that neither would actually be sufficiently large to be detectable. In Chapter 6 some possible extensions to the work presented are suggested. (author).

  6. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 2. Industry description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    The United States railroad industry plays a key role in transporting materials to support our industrial economy. One of the oldest industries in the US, the railroads have developed over 150 years into their present physical and operational configuration. Energy conservation proposals to change industry facilities, equipment, or operating practices must be evaluated in terms of their cost impact. A current, comprehensive and accurate data baseline of railroad economic activity and energy consumption is presented. Descriptions of the history of railroad construction in the US and current equipment, facilities, and operation practices follow. Economic models that relate cost and energy of railroad service to the volume of railroad output and to physical and operational parameters are provided. The analyses and descriptions should provide not only an analytical baseline for evaluating the impact of proposed conservation measures, but they should also provide a measure of understanding of the system and its operations to analysts and policy makers who are involved in proposing, analyzing, and implementing such changes.

  7. Key ratios for energy and climate 2012 - Buildings and transportation of municipal and county; Nyckeltal energi och klimat 2012 - Byggnader och transporter i kommun och landsting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This is the second report that presents key ratios on energy and climate for municipalities, county councils and regions. It has been developed through a collaboration between SKL and Energy Agency. The key ratios show inter alia a sharply increased share of renewable fuels in public transport and some reduction in energy in both commercial and residential premises. The main content is derived from the data on energy use in their own premises and transport in 2012 reported by those who sought support for energy efficiency improvement in municipalities and county from the Swedish Energy Agency.

  8. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  9. Anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's applications oriented SciDAC project, three model problems have been proposed by the Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling to test the potential of numerical algorithms for challenging magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problems that are required for future fusion development. The first of these, anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry, is considered in this note

  10. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  11. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-07-15

    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  12. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  13. On cracking of charged anisotropic polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A., E-mail: azam.math@ue.edu.pk, E-mail: syedalimardanazmi@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, University of the Management and Technology, C-II, Johar Town, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2017-01-01

    Recently in [1], the role of electromagnetic field on the cracking of spherical polytropes has been investigated without perturbing charge parameter explicitly. In this study, we have examined the occurrence of cracking of anisotropic spherical polytropes through perturbing parameters like anisotropic pressure, energy density and charge. We consider two different types of polytropes in this study. We discuss the occurrence of cracking in two different ways ( i ) by perturbing polytropic constant, anisotropy and charge parameter ( ii ) by perturbing polytropic index, anisotropy and charge parameter for each case. We conclude that cracking appears for a wide range of parameters in both cases. Also, our results are reduced to [2] in the absence of charge.

  14. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    technologies instead of a similar-sized conventional gasoline-powered vehicle (CV). The electric vehicle technologies considered are gasoline-powered hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles. It is found that the private benefits are positive, but smaller than the expected short-term cost premiums on these technologies, which suggest the need for government support if a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles is desired. Also, it is found that the net present values of the societal benefits that are not internalized by the vehicle purchaser are not likely to exceed $1,700. This estimate accounts for changes in GHG emissions, criteria air pollutants, gasoline consumption and the driver's contribution to congestion. The third essay explores the implications of a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles on transportation finance. While fuel efficiency improvements are desirable with respect to goals for achieving energy security and environmental improvement, it has adverse implications for the current system of transportation finance. Reductions in gasoline consumption relative to the amount of driving that takes place would result in a decline in fuel tax revenues that are needed to fund planning, construction, maintenance, and operation of highways and public transit systems. In this paper the forgone fuel tax revenue that results when an electric vehicle replaces a similar-sized CV is estimated. It is found that under several vehicle electrification scenarios, the combined federal and state trust funds could decline by as much as 5 percent by 2020 and as much as 12.5 percent by 2030. Alternative fee systems that tie more directly to transportation system use rather then to fuel consumption could reconcile energy security, environmental, and transportation finance goals.

  15. Anisotropic structure of the mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu arc from teleseismic receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, K. A.; Wirth, E. A.; Long, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of oceanic plates back into the mantle through subduction is an important process taking place within our planet. However, many fundamental aspects of subduction systems, such as the dynamics of mantle flow, have yet to be completely understood. Subducting slabs transport water down into the mantle, but how and where that water is released, as well as how it affects mantle flow, is still an open question. In this study, we focus on the Ryukyu subduction zone in southwestern Japan and use anisotropic receiver function analysis to characterize the structure of the mantle wedge. We compute radial and transverse P-to-S receiver functions for eight stations of the broadband F-net array using a multitaper receiver function estimator. We observe coherent P-to-SV converted energy in the radial receiver functions at ~6 sec for most of the stations analyzed consistent with conversions originating at the top of the slab. We also observe conversions on the transverse receiver functions that are consistent with the presence of multiple anisotropic and/or dipping layers. The character of the transverse receiver functions varies significantly along strike, with the northernmost three stations exhibiting markedly different behavior than stations located in the center of the Ryukyu arc. We compute synthetic receiver functions using a forward modeling scheme that can handle dipping interfaces and anisotropic layers to create models for the depths, thicknesses, and strengths of anisotropic layers in the mantle wedge beneath Ryukyu.

  16. Anisotropic spin transport affected by competition between spin orbit interaction and Zeeman effect in an InGaAs based wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Junsaku; Moulis, Sylvain; Kohda, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Spin transport affected by competition between Zeeman effect and spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated in order to check a proposed method to deduce the Rashba SOI α and Dresselhaus SOI β ratio. The experimentally obtained ratio α/β of the present sample is about 4 from angle dependence of magnetoconductance under in-plane magnetic field. The proposed method to detect the ratio by transport measurement is promising although further improvement of sample fabrication and measurement is required.

  17. Anomalous energy transport in hot plasmas: solar corona and Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufume, P.

    1992-04-01

    Anomalous energy transport is studied in two hot plasmas and appears to be associated with a heating of the solar corona and with a plasma deconfining process in tokamaks. The magnetic structure is shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon through small scale instabilities which are modelized by means of a nonlinear dynamical system: the Beasts' Model. Four behavior classes are found for this system, which are automatically classified in the parameter space thanks to a neural network. We use a compilation of experimental results relative to the solar corona to discuss current-based heating processes. We find that a simple Joule effect cannot provide the required heating rates, and therefore propose a dimensional model involving a resistive reconnective instability which leads to an efficient and discontinuous heating mechanism. Results are in good agreement with the observations. We give an analytical expression for a diffusion coefficient in tokamaks when magnetic turbulence is perturbing the topology, which we validate thanks to the standard mapping. A realistic version of the Beasts' Model allows to test a candidate to anomalous transport: the thermal filamentation instability

  18. High energy electromagnetic particle transportation on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canal, P. [Fermilab; Elvira, D. [Fermilab; Jun, S. Y. [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, J. [Fermilab; Paterno, M. [Fermilab; Apostolakis, J. [CERN

    2014-01-01

    We present massively parallel high energy electromagnetic particle transportation through a finely segmented detector on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Simulating events of energetic particle decay in a general-purpose high energy physics (HEP) detector requires intensive computing resources, due to the complexity of the geometry as well as physics processes applied to particles copiously produced by primary collisions and secondary interactions. The recent advent of hardware architectures of many-core or accelerated processors provides the variety of concurrent programming models applicable not only for the high performance parallel computing, but also for the conventional computing intensive application such as the HEP detector simulation. The components of our prototype are a transportation process under a non-uniform magnetic field, geometry navigation with a set of solid shapes and materials, electromagnetic physics processes for electrons and photons, and an interface to a framework that dispatches bundles of tracks in a highly vectorized manner optimizing for spatial locality and throughput. Core algorithms and methods are excerpted from the Geant4 toolkit, and are modified and optimized for the GPU application. Program kernels written in C/C++ are designed to be compatible with CUDA and OpenCL and with the aim to be generic enough for easy porting to future programming models and hardware architectures. To improve throughput by overlapping data transfers with kernel execution, multiple CUDA streams are used. Issues with floating point accuracy, random numbers generation, data structure, kernel divergences and register spills are also considered. Performance evaluation for the relative speedup compared to the corresponding sequential execution on CPU is presented as well.

  19. Technology data for energy plants. Individual heating plants and energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The present technology catalogue is published in co-operation between the Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk and includes technology descriptions for a number of technologies for individual heat production and energy transport. The primary objective of the technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for the work with energy planning and the development of the energy sector, including future outlooks, scenario analyses and technical/economic analyses. The technology catalogue is thus a valuable tool in connection with energy planning and assessment of climate projects and for evaluating the development opportunities for the energy sector's many technologies, which can be used for the preparation of different support programmes for energy research and development. The publication of the technology catalogue should also be viewed in the light of renewed focus on strategic energy planning in municipalities etc. In that respect, the technology catalogue is considered to be an important tool for the municipalities in their planning efforts. (LN)

  20. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalenoja, H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

  1. Anisotropic constant-roll inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)

  2. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators

  3. Room-temperature ballistic energy transport in molecules with repeating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Nyby, Clara M.; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Boyu; Zhou, Xiao; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Burin, Alexander L.; Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    In materials, energy can propagate by means of two limiting regimes: diffusive and ballistic. Ballistic energy transport can be fast and efficient and often occurs with a constant speed. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy methods, we discovered ballistic energy transport via individual polyethylene chains with a remarkably high speed of 1440 m/s and the mean free path length of 14.6 Å in solution at room temperature. Whereas the transport via the chains occurs ballistically, the mechanism switches to diffusive with the effective transport speed of 130 m/s at the end-groups attached to the chains. A unifying model of the transport in molecules is presented with clear time separation and additivity among the transport along oligomeric fragments, which occurs ballistically, and the transport within the disordered fragments, occurring diffusively. The results open new avenues for making novel elements for molecular electronics, including ultrafast energy transporters, controlled chemical reactors, and sub-wavelength quantum nanoseparators.

  4. GANTRAS - a system of codes for the solution of the multigroup transport equation with a rigorous treatment of anisotropic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk-Ferrero, A.

    1986-11-01

    GANTRAS is a system of codes for neutron transport calculations in which the anisotropy of elastic and inelastic (including (n,n'x)-reactions) scattering is fully taken into account. This is achieved by employing a rigorous method, so-called I * -method, to represent the scattering term of the transport equation and with the use of double-differential cross-sections for the description of the emission of secondary neutrons. The I * -method was incorporated into the conventional transport code ONETRAN. The ONETRAN subroutines were modified for the new purpose. An implementation of the updated version ANTRA1 was accomplished for plane and spherical geometry. ANTRA1 was included in GANTRAS and linked to another modules which prepare angle-dependent transfer matrices. The GANTRAS code consists of three modules: 1. The CROMIX code which calculates the macroscopic transfer matrices for mixtures on the base of microscopic nuclide-dependent data. 2. The ATP code which generates discretized angular transfer probabilities (i.e. discretizes the I * -function). 3. The ANTRA1 code to perform S N transport calculations in one-dimensional plane and spherical geometries. This structure of GANTRAS allows to accommodate the system to various transport problems. (orig.) [de

  5. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  6. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries.......The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  7. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  8. Effects of energy constraints on transportation systems. [Twenty-six papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, R. K. [ed.

    1977-12-01

    Twenty-six papers are presented on a variety of topics including: energy and transportaton facts and figures; long-range planning under energy constraints; technology assessment of alternative fuels; energy efficiency of intercity passenger and freight movement; energy efficiency of intracity passenger movement; federal role; electrification of railroads; energy impact of the electric car in an urban enviroment; research needs and projects in progress--federal viewpoint; research needs in transportation energy conservation--data needs; and energy intensity of various transportation modes--an overview. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers for inclusion in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA).

  9. The EU-Africa Energy Partnership: Towards a mutually beneficial renewable transport energy alliance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Michael B.; Ryan, Rachel; Oloruntoba, Richard; Heidt, Tania von der; Ryan, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's EU-Africa Energy Partnership, with respect to its emphasis on transport fuels, aims to ensure that Member States can fulfil agreed upon commitments to sustainable energy via the importation of biomass grown in sub-Saharan Africa. This policy aims to reduce the dependence of developing sub-Saharan nations on fossil-fuels, while ensuring the global proliferation of alternative transport energy generation as a means to combat climate change. Though the policy seems equitable in theory, and indeed mutually beneficial, several important issues arise. The paper examines the EU-Africa Energy Policy in the context of biofuels in particular, with a view to identifying potential flaws and imbalances and making policy recommendations. Aside from establishing critical uncertainties, the study adduces environmental science, historical comparanda and economic theory in order to assess the various threats associated with aspects of the policy, especially in light of previous policies that have stifled the development of sub-Saharan economies. In addition, the paper has substantial relevance to developing and newly industrialized nations in Asia and South America also seeking to invest in biomass cultivation and production.

  10. Anisotropic non-Fermi liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, Shouvik; Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-11-01

    We study non-Fermi-liquid states that arise at the quantum critical points associated with the spin density wave (SDW) and charge density wave (CDW) transitions in metals with twofold rotational symmetry. We use the dimensional regularization scheme, where a one-dimensional Fermi surface is embedded in (3 -ɛ ) -dimensional momentum space. In three dimensions, quasilocal marginal Fermi liquids arise both at the SDW and CDW critical points: the speed of the collective mode along the ordering wave vector is logarithmically renormalized to zero compared to that of Fermi velocity. Below three dimensions, however, the SDW and CDW critical points exhibit drastically different behaviors. At the SDW critical point, a stable anisotropic non-Fermi-liquid state is realized for small ɛ , where not only time but also different spatial coordinates develop distinct anomalous dimensions. The non-Fermi liquid exhibits an emergent algebraic nesting as the patches of Fermi surface are deformed into a universal power-law shape near the hot spots. Due to the anisotropic scaling, the energy of incoherent spin fluctuations disperse with different power laws in different momentum directions. At the CDW critical point, on the other hand, the perturbative expansion breaks down immediately below three dimensions as the interaction renormalizes the speed of charge fluctuations to zero within a finite renormalization group scale through a two-loop effect. The difference originates from the fact that the vertex correction antiscreens the coupling at the SDW critical point whereas it screens at the CDW critical point.

  11. Energy Conversion Advanced Heat Transport Loop and Power Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, C. H.

    2006-08-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. Many aspects of the NGNP must be researched and developed in order to make recommendations on the final design of the plant. Parameters such as working conditions, cycle components, working fluids, and power conversion unit configurations must be understood. Three configurations of the power conversion unit were demonstrated in this study. A three-shaft design with 3 turbines and 4 compressors, a combined cycle with a Brayton top cycle and a Rankine bottoming cycle, and a reheated cycle with 3 stages of reheat were investigated. An intermediate heat transport loop for transporting process heat to a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) hydrogen production plant was used. Helium, CO2, and an 80% nitrogen, 20% helium mixture (by weight) were studied to determine the best working fluid in terms cycle efficiency and development cost. In each of these configurations the relative component size were estimated for the different working fluids. The relative size of the turbomachinery was measured by comparing the power input/output of the component. For heat exchangers the volume was computed and compared. Parametric studies away from the baseline values of the three-shaft and combined cycles were performed to determine the effect of varying conditions in the cycle. This gives some insight into the sensitivity of these cycles to various

  12. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif

    2012-01-01

    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  13. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  14. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  15. The transport sector's energy usage in 2011; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Ellen; Kadic, Zinaida; Lindblom, Helen

    2012-11-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a quarter of the Sweden's energy consumption. As the transport sector is almost exclusively using fossil fuels, its conversion to other fuel-/energy types have a major impact in the coming years with the increasing requirements for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases. This situation is expected to change and expand requirements for statistics on the transport sector's energy use. Since 2008, as a result of the increased interest, the Swedish Energy Agency publish an annual collection of statistics for the transport sector.

  16. Particle and energy transport studies on TFTR and implications for helium ash in future fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Bell, R.E.; Grek, B.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Hill, K.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Particle and energy transport in tokamak plasmas have long been subjects of vigorous investigation. Present-day measurement techniques permit radially resolved studies of the transport of electron perturbations, low- and high-Z impurities, and energy. In addition, developments in transport theory provide tools that can be brought to bear on transport issues. Here, we examine local particle transport measurements of electrons, fully-stripped thermal helium, and helium-like iron in balanced-injection L-mode and enhanced confinement deuterium plasmas on TFTR of the same plasma current, toroidal field, and auxiliary heating power. He 2+ and Fe 24+ transport has been studied with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, while electron transport has been studied by analyzing the perturbed electron flux following the same helium puff used for the He 2+ studies. By examining the electron and He 2+ responses following the same gas puff in the same plasmas, an unambiguous comparison of the transport of the two species has been made. The local energy transport has been examined with power balance analysis, allowing for comparisons to the local thermal fluxes. Some particle and energy transport results from the Supershot have been compared to a transport model based on a quasilinear picture of electrostatic toroidal drift-type microinstabilities. Finally, implications for future fusion reactors of the observed correlation between thermal transport and helium particle transport is discussed

  17. Anisotropic magnetization and transport properties of RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Kenneth D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-11-08

    This study of the RAgSb2 series of compounds arose as part of an investigation of rare earth intermetallic compounds containing antimony with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry. Materials with the rare earth in a position with tetragonal point symmetry frequently manifest strong anisotropies and rich complexity in the magnetic properties, and yet are simple enough to analyze. Antimony containing intermetallic compounds commonly possess low carrier densities and have only recently been the subject of study. Large single grain crystals were grown of the RAgSb2 (R=Y, La-Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm) series of compounds out of a high temperature solution. This method of crystal growth, commonly known as flux growth is a versatile method which takes advantage of the decreasing solubility of the target compound with decreasing temperature. Overall, the results of the crystal growth were impressive with the synthesis of single crystals of LaAgSb2 approaching one gram. However, the sample yield diminishes as the rare earth elements become smaller and heavier. Consequently, no crystals could be grown with R=Yb or Lu. Furthermore, EuAgSb2 could not be synthesized, likely due to the divalency of the Eu ion. For most of the RAgSb2 compounds, strong magnetic anisotropies are created by the crystal electric field splitting of the Hund's rule ground state. This splitting confines the local moments to lie in the basal plane (easy plane) for the majority of the members of the series. Exceptions to this include ErAgSb2 and TmAgSb2, which have moments along the c-axis (easy axis) and CeAgSb2, which at intermediate temperatures has an easy plane, but exchange coupling at low temperatures is anisotropic with an easy axis. Additional anisotropy is also observed within the basal plane of DyAgSb2, where the moments are restricted to align along one of the <110> axes. Most of

  18. Picowatt Resolution Calorimetry for Micro and Nanoscale Energy Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Seid H.

    Precise quantification of energy transport is key to obtaining insights into a wide range of phenomena across various disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This thesis describes technical advancements into heat-flow calorimetry which enable measurement of energy transport at micro and nanoscales with picowatt resolution. I have developed two types of microfabricated calorimeter devices and demonstrated single digit picowatt resolution at room temperature. Both devices incorporate two distinct features; an active area isolated by a thermal conductance (GTh) of less than 1 microW/K and a high resolution thermometer with temperature resolution (DeltaTres) in the micro kelvin regime. These features enable measurements of heat currents (q) with picowatt resolution (q= Th xDeltaTres). In the first device the active area is suspended via silicon nitride beams with excellent thermal isolation (~600 nW/K) and a bimaterial cantilever (BMC) thermometer with temperature resolution of ~6 microK. Taken together this design enabled calorimetric measurements with 4 pW resolution. In the second device, the BMC thermometry technique is replaced by a high-resolution resistance thermometry scheme. A detailed noise analysis of resistance thermometers, confirmed by experimental data, enabled me to correctly predict the resolution of different measurement schemes and propose techniques to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of resistive thermometers. By incorporating resistance thermometers with temperature resolution of ~30 microK, combined with a thermal isolation of ~150 nW/K, I demonstrated an all-electrical calorimeter device with a resolution of ~ 5 pW. Finally, I used these calorimeters to study Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer (NF-RHT). Using these devices, we studied--for the first time--the effect of film thickness on the NF-RHT between two dielectric surfaces. We showed that even a very thin film (~50 nm) of silicon

  19. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  20. Efficiency and sufficiency. Towards sustainable energy and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Van Swigchem, J.

    1997-03-01

    A crucial question today is whether the development of clean technology can reduce environmental pollution to an acceptable level, or whether the growth of polluting activities must be stemmed as a complementary measure. This is the key issue addressed in the title discussion paper, which focuses specifically on the CO2 emissions of the energy and transport sectors. A systems analysis of these two sectors shows that the required improvements in efficiency can only be achieved - through technological improvements - if there is also slightly less growth in polluting activities. The underlying reason is that improvements in technological efficiency also lead to a drop in the price of polluting activities, leading in turn to an increase in demand. Only by means of strong government policy can an absolute reduction in CO2 emissions be achieved, thus countering this negative feedback. Effective policy to this end inevitably leads to extra costs and/or to lower growth in comfort enhancement. This is the price tag associated with abatement of CO2 emissions. 29 refs

  1. Charge and energy transports via poly-phenylacetylene based dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yongwoo; Li, Minghai; Lin, Xi

    2010-03-01

    Poly-Phenylacetylene (PPA) is widely used in photoconductivity, photoluminescence, and light harvesting applications. In this work, we investigate the charge and exciton transport energetics and mechanisms in the PPA-based dendrimers using our recently developed adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model Hamiltonians and ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations. We found both doping and photo-excitation lead to the formation of optical phonon dressed pi electron states, namely the self-localized polarons, in the energy gap. Independent from their origins, these polarons can be self-trapped at multiple lattice locations along the PPA chain, and migrate from one to the next with an activation barrier of ˜0.006 eV, slightly higher than the corresponding barrier found in trans-polyacetylene. The PPA-based dendrimers can be constructed via the meta-positions of phenyl rings. In this case, we found the dendrimer junctions form attractive potential wells for both polarons and excitons, and the width and height of these junction potential wells can be controlled by the geometry of the dendrimers.

  2. Modification of the CEBAF transport dipoles for energy upgrade considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Bullard; L. Harwood; T. Hiatt; J. Karn; E. Martin; W. Oren; C. Rode; K. Sullivan; R. Wines; M. Wiseman

    1999-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility contains 415 resistive dipoles in the recirculation arcs and transport lines. These dipoles were originally designed and magnetically mapped to support the operation of the accelerator at 6 GeV. Recent interests in upgrading the CEBAF energy beyond 6 GeV prompted a study into operating the dipoles beyond their design limits. Finite element modeling was performed to quantify saturation effects at higher currents and to test simple modifications to improve magnetic performance. For confirmation, various steps were prototyped and magnetically measured. Measurement results agreed with finite element models and showed that saturation could be reduced to manageable levels. It was found that the most populous dipole families could be modified to reach twice their design field with minimal cost and effort. At these higher fields, the magnets operate at a reasonable thermal state with minimal saturation losses a nd little degradation in field quality. Work continues on studying the smaller population of dipoles to determine their performance at higher fields

  3. Integrated framework to capture the interdependencies between transportation and energy sectors due to policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Currently, transportation and energy sectors are developed, managed, and operated independently of : one another. Due to the non-renewable nature of fossil fuels, energy security has evolved into a : strategic goal for the United States. The transpor...

  4. Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...

  5. Graphical User Interface for High Energy Multi-Particle Transport, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Computer codes such as MCNPX now have the capability to transport most high energy particle types (34 particle types now supported in MCNPX) with energies extending...

  6. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.

    2018-06-01

    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type- n and type- p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire ( d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  7. Anisotropic Thermoelectric Devices Made from Single-Crystal Semimetal Microwires in Glass Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Kobylianskaya, A. K.; Huber, T. E.

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric heat conversion based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects generated at the junction between two materials of type-n and type-p is well known. Here, we present a demonstration of an unconventional thermoelectric energy conversion that is based on a single element made of an anisotropic material. In such materials, a heat flow generates a transverse thermoelectric electric field lying across the heat flow. Potentially, in applications involving miniature devices, the anisotropic thermoelectric (AT) effect has the advantage over traditional thermoelectrics that it simplifies the thermoelectric generator architecture. This is because the generator can be made of a single thermoelectric material without the complexity of a series of contacts forming a pile. A feature of anisotropic thermoelectrics is that the thermoelectric voltage is proportional to the element length and inversely proportional to the effective thickness. The AT effect has been demonstrated with artificial anisotropic thin film consisting of layers of alternating thermoelectric type, but there has been no demonstration of this effect in a long single-crystal. Electronic transport measurements have shown that the semimetal bismuth is highly anisotropic. We have prepared an experimental sample consisting of a 10-m-long glass-insulated single-crystal tin-doped bismuth microwire (d = 4 μm). Crucial for this experiment is the ability to grow the microwire as a single-crystal using a technique of recrystallization with laser heating and under a strong electric field. The sample was wound as a spiral, bonded to a copper disk, and used in various experiments. The sensitivity of the sample to heat flow is as high as 10-2 V/W with a time constant τ of about 0.5 s.

  8. Fast rigorous numerical method for the solution of the anisotropic neutron transport problem and the NITRAN system for fusion neutronics application. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, A.; Rusch, D.

    1979-10-01

    The I*-method, which is a non-approximative treatment of the neutron balance equations by the use of double-differential cross sections and a generalized angular transfer probability, is realized within the NITRAN system. It is shown, by means of test calculations for assemblies related to fusion reactor neutronics that double-differential cross section data provide substantial progress in transport problems with kinematically complicated reaction channels like (n,2n), (n,n'γ), and (n,n'α), because the I*-method is free from kinematic assumptions. The properties of the exponential method to generate the supplementary equations to the SN equations are investigated. (orig.) [de

  9. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance driven by magnetic phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X Z; Feng, J F; Wang, Z C; Zhang, J; Zhong, X Y; Song, C; Jin, L; Zhang, B; Li, F; Jiang, M; Tan, Y Z; Zhou, X J; Shi, G Y; Zhou, X F; Han, X D; Mao, S C; Chen, Y H; Han, X F; Pan, F

    2017-09-06

    The independent control of two magnetic electrodes and spin-coherent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions are strictly required for tunneling magnetoresistance, while junctions with only one ferromagnetic electrode exhibit tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance dependent on the anisotropic density of states with no room temperature performance so far. Here, we report an alternative approach to obtaining tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in α'-FeRh-based junctions driven by the magnetic phase transition of α'-FeRh and resultantly large variation of the density of states in the vicinity of MgO tunneling barrier, referred to as phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance. The junctions with only one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode show a magnetoresistance ratio up to 20% at room temperature. Both the polarity and magnitude of the phase transition tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance can be modulated by interfacial engineering at the α'-FeRh/MgO interface. Besides the fundamental significance, our finding might add a different dimension to magnetic random access memory and antiferromagnet spintronics.Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance is promising for next generation memory devices but limited by the low efficiency and functioning temperature. Here the authors achieved 20% tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature in magnetic tunnel junctions with one α'-FeRh magnetic electrode.

  10. Study of a conceptual nuclear-energy center at Green River, Utah: site-specific transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The objective of the following report is to assess the adequacy of the local and regional transportation network for handling traffic, logistics, and the transport of major power plant components to the Utah Nuclear Energy Center (UNEC) Horse Bench site. The discussion is divided into four parts: (1) system requirements; (2) description of the existing transportation network; (3) evaluation; (4) summary and conclusions

  11. Energy Coupling Factor-Type ABC Transporters for Vitamin Uptake in Prokaryotes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, Guus B.; Dosz-Majsnerowska, Maria; ter Beek, Josy; Slotboom, Dirk Jan

    2012-01-01

    Energy coupling factor (ECF) transporters are a subgroup of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in the uptake of vitamins and micronutrients in prokaryotes. In contrast to classical ABC importers, ECF transporters do not make use of water-soluble substrate binding proteins or domains

  12. Long distance bioenergy logistics. An assessment of costs and energy consumption for various biomass energy transport chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suurs, R.

    2002-01-01

    In order to create the possibility of obtaining an insight in the key factors of the title system, a model has been developed, taking into account different production systems, pretreatment operations and transport options. Various transport chains were constructed, which were subjected to a sensitivity analysis with respect to factors like transport distance, fuel prices and equipment operation times. Scenarios are analysed for Latin-America and Europe for which the distinguishing parameters were assumed to be the transport distances and biomass prices. For both regions the analysis concerns a situation where ship transports are applied for a coastal and for an inland biomass supply. For European biomass a train transport was considered as well. In order to explore possibilities for improvement, the effects of these variables on costs and energy consumption within a chain, were assessed. Delivered biomass can be converted to power or methanol. Model results are as follows: Total costs for European bioenergy range from 11.2-21.2 euro/GJ MeOH for methanol and 17.4-28.0 euro/GJ e for electricity. For Latin-America, costs ranges are 11.3-21.8 euro/GJ MeOH for methanol and 17.4-28.7 euro/GJ e for electricity. The lower end of these ranges is represented by transport chains that are characterised by the use of high density energy carriers such as logs, pellets or liquid fuels (these are the most attractive for all scenarios considered). The transport of chips should be avoided categorically due to their low density and high production costs. Transport chains based on the early production of liquid energy carriers such as methanol or pyrolysis oil seem to be promising alternatives as well. With respect to energy consumption, the transport of chips is highly unfavourable for the same reasons as stated above. The use of pelletizing operations implies a high energy input, however due to energy savings as a result of more efficient transport operations, this energy loss is

  13. 48 CFR 970.5223-6 - Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management. 970.5223-6 Section 970.5223-6... FEDERAL ENVIRONMENTAL, ENERGY, AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT (OCT 2010) Since this contract involves... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating...

  14. Alternating access mechanisms of LeuT-fold transporters: trailblazing towards the promised energy landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmier, Kelli; Claxton, Derek P; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2017-08-01

    Secondary active transporters couple the uphill translocation of substrates to electrochemical ion gradients. Transporter conformational motion, generically referred to as alternating access, enables a central ligand binding site to change its orientation relative to the membrane. Here we review themes of alternating access and the transduction of ion gradient energy to power this process in the LeuT-fold class of transporters where crystallographic, computational and spectroscopic approaches have converged to yield detailed models of transport cycles. Specifically, we compare findings for the Na + -coupled amino acid transporter LeuT and the Na + -coupled hydantoin transporter Mhp1. Although these studies have illuminated multiple aspects of transporter structures and dynamics, a number of questions remain unresolved that so far hinder understanding transport mechanisms in an energy landscape perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO 2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO 2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO 2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products. -- Highlights: •Transport sector in China are analyzed from a global perspective. •Passenger transport turnover reduction and modal shifts is less sensitive to carbon price. •Bio-fuel, electricity and H 2 will play an important role for carbon mitigation in transport sector. •The transport sector is more difficult to decarbonize than other sectors

  16. Electronic and transport properties of noncollinear magnetic monatomic Mn chains: Fano resonances in the superlattice of noncollinear magnetic barriers and magnetic anisotropic bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, C.J.; Yan, X.H.; Xiao, Y.; Guo, Y.D.

    2015-01-01

    By means of the density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green's function method, ballistic transport properties of one-dimensional noncollinear magnetic monatomic chains were investigated using the single-atomic Mn chains as a model system. Fano resonances are found to exist in the monatomic Mn chains with spin-spiral structure. Furthermore, in the monatomic Mn chains with magnetic soliton lattice, Fano resonances are enhanced and cause the conductance splitting in the transmission spectra. The Fano resonances in the noncollinear magnetic single-atomic Mn chains are arising from the coupling of the localized d-states and the extended states of the quantum channels. By constructing a theoretical model and calculating its conductance, it is found that the phenomena of Fano resonances and the accompanying conductance splitting exist universally in the superlattice of one-dimensional noncollinear magnetic barriers, due to the interference of the incident waves and reflected waves by the interfaces between the neighboring barriers. Moreover, the band structures of the ferromagnetic and spin-spiral monatomic Mn chains exhibit a strong dependence on the spatial arrangement of the magnetic moments of Mn atoms when spin–orbit coupling is considered. - Highlights: • Transport properties of noncollinear magnetic monatomic Mn chains are studied. • Fano resonances are found in the noncollinear magnetic monatomic Mn chains. • Magnetic soliton lattice leads to conductance splitting in the transmission curve. • Fano resonances exist in the superlattice of noncollinear magnetic barriers. • Effect of SOC on the band structure of FM and spin-spiral Mn chains are studied

  17. RF energy harvesting and transport for wireless autonomous sensor network applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyrouz, S.; Visser, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    "RF Energy Harvesting and Transport for Wireless Autonomous Sensor Network Applications: Principles and Requirements" - For wireless energy transfer over longer distances, the far-field transfer of RF energy may be used. We make a distinction between harvesting RF energy from signals present in the

  18. Energy budgets and resistances to energy transport in sparsely vegetated rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    Partitioning available energy between plants and bare soil in sparsely vegetated rangelands will allow hydrologists and others to gain a greater understanding of water use by native vegetation, especially phreatophytes. Standard methods of conducting energy budget studies result in measurements of latent and sensible heat fluxes above the plant canopy which therefore include the energy fluxes from both the canopy and the soil. One-dimensional theoretical numerical models have been proposed recently for the partitioning of energy in sparse crops. Bowen ratio and other micrometeorological data collected over phreatophytes growing in areas of shallow ground water in central Nevada were used to evaluate the feasibility of using these models, which are based on surface and within-canopy aerodynamic resistances, to determine heat and water vapor transport in sparsely vegetated rangelands. The models appear to provide reasonably good estimates of sensible heat flux from the soil and latent heat flux from the canopy. Estimates of latent heat flux from the soil were less satisfactory. Sensible heat flux from the canopy was not well predicted by the present resistance formulations. Also, estimates of total above-canopy fluxes were not satisfactory when using a single value for above-canopy bulk aerodynamic resistance. ?? 1992.

  19. Assessing links between energy consumption, freight transport, and economic growth: evidence from dynamic simultaneous equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Samia; Saidi, Samir; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2018-06-01

    We investigate this study to examine the relationship between economic growth, freight transport, and energy consumption for 63 developing countries over the period of 1990-2016. In order to make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we apply the income level of countries to divide the global panel into three sub-panels, namely, lower-middle income countries (LMIC), upper-middle income countries (UMIC), and high-income countries (HIC). Using the generalized method of moments (GMM), the results prove evidence of bidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and freight transport for all selected panels and between economic growth and energy consumption for the high- and upper-middle income panels. For the lower-middle income panel, the causality is unidirectional running from energy consumption to economic growth. Also, the results indicate that the relationship between freight transport and energy use is bidirectional for the high-income countries and unidirectional from freight transport to energy consumption for the upper-middle and lower-middle income countries. Empirical evidence demonstrates the importance of energy for economic activity and rejects the neo-classical assumption that energy is neutral for growth. An important policy recommendation is that there is need of advancements in vehicle technology which can reduce energy intensity from transport sector and improve the energy efficiency in transport activity which in turn allows a greater positive role of transport in global economic activity.

  20. Transportation of energy materials in the United states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, R. C.

    1978-07-01

    This bibliography lists 459 books, periodical articles, research reports, and conference papers on the transportation of general/multi-fuel, coal, petroleum and gas, nuclear fuel, and electric power. Emphasis is on the various impacts of this transport in the U.S.: environmental, economic, social, safety, policy, etc. Arrangement is by commodity and by mode. An index by type of impact is included.

  1. Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2015-01-01

    equivalent to 2 °C stabilization. Accounting for heterogeneity of national transport systems, these papers use diverse methods, frameworks and models to assess the response of the transport system to environmental policy, such as a carbon tax, as well as to a cluster of policies aimed at diverse development...

  2. Turbulence-driven anisotropic electron tail generation during magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, A. M.; Scherer, A.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Pandya, M. D.; Sarff, J. S.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection (MR) plays an important role in particle transport, energization, and acceleration in space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas. In the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch, discrete MR events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field, a fraction of which is transferred to electrons and ions. Previous experiments revealed an anisotropic electron tail that favors the perpendicular direction and is symmetric in the parallel. New profile measurements of x-ray emission show that the tail distribution is localized near the magnetic axis, consistent modeling of the bremsstrahlung emission. The tail appears first near the magnetic axis and then spreads radially, and the dynamics in the anisotropy and diffusion are discussed. The data presented imply that the electron tail formation likely results from a turbulent wave-particle interaction and provides evidence that high energy electrons are escaping the core-localized region through pitch angle scattering into the parallel direction, followed by stochastic parallel transport to the plasma edge. New measurements also show a strong correlation between high energy x-ray measurements and tearing mode dynamics, suggesting that the coupling between core and edge tearing modes is essential for energetic electron tail formation.

  3. A review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. Exploratory development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Q.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Luo, L.; Sauce, G. [LOCIE, Polytech' Savoie, Campus Scientifique, Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget-Du-Lac cedex (France)

    2009-08-15

    This paper presents a review on transportation of heat energy over long distance. For the transportation of high-temperature heat energy, the chemical catalytic reversible reaction is almost the only way available, and there are several reactions have been studied. For the relatively low-temperature heat energy, which exists widely as waste heat, there are mainly five researching aspects at present: chemical reversible reactions, phase change thermal energy storage and transportation, hydrogen-absorbing alloys, solid-gas adsorption and liquid-gas absorption. The basic principles and the characteristics of these methods are discussed. (author)

  4. Exergetic, technological and economic study for transport of nuclear fuel energy to distant consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, V.V.; Dobrovol'skij, S.P.; Shiryaev, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    Seven versions of energy transport from HTGR base power source are considered. Energy trasnport using electricity is taken as the main variant. The most promising among considered systems is the variant with steam conversion of methane, which can be used for three methods of energy transport: by converted gas, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Exergetic method of analysis was used to compare different products, used by heat and electric showed that exergetic and economic efficiency of HTGR energy transport by hydrogen appeared to be the highest. Besides this, absolute ecologic purity is provided

  5. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: Energy and Transportation, Grade 3. Draft Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    This publication is part of a series of instructional units produced by NSTA's Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum. This unit presents the variety of transportation modes and tries to assist students in understanding the effects of transportation on their world. The main concern of the unit is with fossil fuel consumption. The seven…

  6. Energy transition and transport networks, the Danish example. Breakfast-debate of 4 April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucly, Philippe; Dorte Riggelsen, Anne; Lambert, Francois-Michel; Brabo, Torben; Bornard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This document contains contributions presented by the GRTgaz general manager, the Danish ambassador, an expert in circular economy, the vice-chairman of the Danish gas and electricity utility, and a high representative of RTE about the role of energy transport networks in energy transition. It appears that energy transition raises several issues for energy transport operators: technical challenges due to the growth of renewable energies (notably in terms of grid steering and of production and consumption peak management), the introduction of flexibility and development of energy storage means, mechanisms of solidarity between regions and countries, political and economic dimensions with exchanges on good practices

  7. Energy intensity in road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrés, Lidia; Padilla, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that have influenced the energy intensity trend of the Spanish road freight transport of heavy goods vehicles over the period 1996–2012. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of these factors and to inform the design of measures to improve energy efficiency in road freight transport. The paper uses both annual single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition analysis. The results suggest that the decrease in the energy intensity of Spanish road freight in the period is explained by the change in the real energy intensity index (lower energy consumption per tonne-kilometre transported), which is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index (greater share in freight transport of those commodities the transportation of which is more energy intensive). The change in energy intensity is analysed in more depth by quantifying the contribution of each commodity through the attribution of changes in Divisia indices. -- Highlights: •We examine energy intensity of Spanish road freight transport over 1996–2012. •We employ single-period and chained multi-period multiplicative LMDI-II decomposition. •Energy intensity reduction is explained by the change in real energy intensity index. •This is partially offset by the behaviour of the structural index. •The attribution of Divisia indices changes gives the contribution of each commodity

  8. Energy efficiency achievements in China's industrial and transport sectors: How do they rate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Libo; Huo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    China is experiencing intensified industrialisation and motorisation. In the world's largest emerging economy, energy efficiency is expected to play a critical role in the ever-rising demand for energy. Based on factual overviews and numerical analysis, this article carries out an in-depth investigation into the effectiveness of policies announced or implemented in recent decades targeted at energy conservation in the energy intensive manufacturing and transportation sectors. It highlights nine energy intensive sectors that achieved major improvements in their energy technology efficiency efforts. Under the umbrella of the 11th Five-Year Plan, these sectors' performances reflect the effectiveness of China's energy conservation governance. Numerous actions have been taken in China to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy and its GHG emissions by implementing fuel economy standards, promoting advanced energy efficient vehicles, and alternative fuels. Coal-based energy saving technologies, especially industrial furnace technologies, are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. In the long run, renewable energy development and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in China. Fuel economy standards could reduce oil consumption and GHGs by 34–35 per cent. - Highlights: • This article makes an investigation into the effectiveness of energy conservation policies in China. • Efficiency improvement reflects the effective governance of energy conservation in China. • Numerous actions have been taken to reduce the road transport sector's demand for energy. • Coal-based energy saving technologies are critical for China's near and medium-term energy saving. • In the long run, renewable energy and expanding the railway transport system are the most effective ways

  9. International comparisons of energy and environmental efficiency in the road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Abdallah, Khaled; Belloumi, Mounir; De Wolf, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides an international comparison of the energy intensity and the carbon dioxide intensity in road transport for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. This paper attempts to perform a comparative analysis to find the most appropriate mapping of the energy performance in road transport taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable energy development, namely road transport-related energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions. An important result of the study is the inverse relationship between energy efficiency and environmental efficiency. Through the calculated Theil coefficient, our empirical findings highlight the existence of spatial and temporal disparities between countries. In 2012, Tunisia occupies the 48th and the 38th rank respectively in terms of energy and environmental efficiency. Based on a general index of energy performance in the road transport sector, it is deemed to have a medium–high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank. The study shows the importance of enhancing a number of policies for the road transport system through the joint improvement of the fuel price policy, of the road infrastructure policy and of the fuel-efficient road vehicles policy, in order to maintain sustainable energy road transport. - Highlights: • The paper presents an international comparative analysis of the energy performance. • The road transport is analyzed for a group of 90 countries over the period 1980–2012. • There is no convergence between energy and environmental efficiencies. • Tunisia has a medium-high energy performance by occupying the 34th rank in 2012. • The findings show the importance of enhancing some policies for the road transport.

  10. A study of energy efficiency of transport sector in China from 2003 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William; Zhou, Guanghui; Yeung, Iris M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The activity effect accounts for 98.05% increase in energy use. • Only Eastern’s structural effect contributes energy savings. • Intensity effect contributes energy saving in −4.24% of total energy changes. • Energy-mix effect is insignificant. - Abstract: As one of the three high-energy consumption sectors (industry, building, and transportation) in China, the transport sector faced a devastating resource and environment challenge. The transport sector was reportedly responsible for about 15.9% of the country’s total final energy consumption in 2008. This paper investigates the energy consumption and efficiency of China’s transport sector from 2003 to 2009. The transport energy data of 30 China administrative regions were divided into “three-belts” (Eastern, Western, and Central areas), and the corresponding turnovers were reported and analyzed using an index decomposition analysis (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index). The energy data and turnover of the transport sector indicated that the high growth rate of turnover results is attributed to the high growth rate of diesel, assuming that diesel is the major fuel for freight transport. The growth of diesel is the main contributor to the overall growth of energy consumption. The growth rate of gasoline has become minimal since 2006. Since 2005, all three-belt areas, with regard to the effectiveness of energy conservation policies, have continuously improved their energy efficiencies based on the results of decomposition analysis. The energy intensity effect shows that the energy conservation and efficiency policies were more effective in the Central and Western areas than that in the Eastern area. On the other hand, the regional shift effect indicates that the policies favor to the Eastern area since only its regional shift effect contributes energy savings since 2008. The energy-mix effect is insignificant, which indicates that it is not necessary to conduct CO 2 emission decomposition

  11. The Vermont transportation energy report : Vermont Clean Cities Coalition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The mission of the Vermont Clean Cities Coalition (VCCC) is to reduce the states reliance on : fossil fuels for transportation. This annual report provides policy makers with relevant and : timely data on the status of fuel consumption, vehicle pu...

  12. An estimation of the energy and exergy efficiencies for the energy resources consumption in the transportation sector in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Sattar, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ahmed, S.; Hashim, U.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to apply the useful energy and exergy analysis models for different modes of transport in Malaysia and to compare the result with a few countries. In this paper, energy and exergy efficiencies of the various sub-sectors are presented by considering the energy and exergy flows from 1995 to 2003. Respective flow diagrams to find the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Malaysian transportation sector are also presented. The estimated overall energy efficiency ranges from 22.74% (1999) to 22.98% (1998) with a mean of 22.82+/-0.06% and that of overall exergy efficiency ranges from 22.44% (2000) to 22.82% (1998) with a mean of 22.55+/-0.12%. The results are compared with respect to present energy and exergy efficiencies in each sub-sector. The transportation sector used about 40% of the total energy consumed in 2002. Therefore, it is important to identify the energy and exergy flows and the pertinent losses. The road sub-sector has appeared to be the most efficient one compared to the air and marine sub-sectors. Also found that the energy and exergy efficiencies of Malaysian transportation sector are lower than that of Turkey but higher than Norway

  13. Energy in Ghana: The dominance of transport in petroleum consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeasi, K.

    1991-01-01

    The sustained provision of energy has long been recognized as one of the essential prerequisites for a country's socio-economic development. Until recently, a country's aggregate energy consumption was equated with its relative economic and developmental well-being, represented by the close correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita consumption of commercial energy. Although events of recent years, principally the swinging increases in petroleum prices and measures taken to improve the efficiency of energy use, have loosened the parallel equation of GDP with energy consumption, yet the position of energy as the bedrock of a country's development remains unshaken. 4 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Road transport-related energy consumption: Analysis of driving factors in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraihi, Rafaa; Abdallah, Khaled ben; Abid, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of urban population and the development of road infrastructures in Tunisian cities have brought about many environmental and economic problems, including the rise scored in energy consumption and the increase in the quantity of gas emissions arising from road transport. Despite the critical nature of such problems, no policies have yet been adopted to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper aims to determine driving factors of energy consumption change for the road mode. It uses decomposition analysis to discuss the effects of economic, demographic and urban factors on the evolution of transport energy consumption. The main result highlighted in the present work is that vehicle fuel intensity, vehicle intensity, GDP per capita, urbanized kilometers and national road network are found to be the main drivers of energy consumption change in the road transport sector during 1990–2006 period. Consequently, several strategies can be elaborated to reduce road transport energy. Economic, fiscal and regulatory instruments can be applied in order to make road transport more sustainable. -- Highlights: •We are interested in determining driving factors of transport energy consumption growth in Tunisia. •We use decomposition analysis approach. •Vehicle fuel and road vehicle intensities are found to be principal factors. •Motorization and urbanization are also found to be responsible

  15. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  16. Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution: Transportation Means Catalogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report serves as a background report for the project "Energy and Environmental Effects of Grocery Distribution". It contains a systematic overview of physical characteristics of the typical technologies, including energy and environmental effects....

  17. Alternative energy resources for the Missouri Department of Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates environmentally friendly alternative energy sources that could be used by MoDOT in various areas, and develops applicable and sustainable strategies to implement those energy sources.

  18. Anisotropic flow and related phenomena in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{{s}_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Margutti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is designed and optimised to study the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), a new state of matter, which is expected to be created at the high energy densities reached at the LHC. One of the key observables used to characterize the proper- ties of the QGP is the azimuthal anisotropy in particle production. This so-called anisotropic flow is sensitive to the transport properties and equation of state of the QGP. In this presentation, we report the first measurements of anisotropic flow in Pb–Pb collisions at √ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV with ALICE and compare them with both theoretical predictions and experimental measurements at lower energies and other collision systems. This provides a unique opportunity to test the validity of the hydrodynamic paradigm and to further constraint the key transport parameters of the QGP.

  19. Isolation of ionospheres from ion transport systems and their role in energy transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamoo, A E; Goldstein, D A

    1977-01-01

    In the past twenty-five years cell membrane transport has been studied from the point of view of kinetics and the biochemical correlation of enzyme function with that of transport. Artificial lipid bilayers have been used as a model for cell membrane transport. Antibiotics, such as valinomycin have also been studied as models of ion-transport mediators. Much effort has been invested on the study of model compounds as the possible molecular bases of transport. Information derived from the study of model systems throughout the years has been valuable and worthwhile. However, if the aim is to elucidate the mechanism of cell membrane transport, the time has come to merge the two lines of research into one and to shift emphasis from the study of model systems to the study of isolated transport machine components before and after reconstitution of its components into model membranes. These studies should be augmented at all times with the biochemical correlates of the transport proteins. A review is presented of the new avenues employed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of active transport. The new avenues are those of isolation of ion-transport mediators (ionophores) from membrane transport proteins. Reconstitution of ionophores and the various membrane transport proteins into artificial systems such as bilayers and vesicles presents a powerful tool to elucidate the molecular mechanism of active transport. More importantly, the new approach provides the first glimpse of evidence for a reasonable investigation of energy transduction from ATP hydrolysis to transport of an ion.

  20. Thermal performance and heat transport in aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.; Doornenbal, P.J.; Drijver, B.C.; Gaans, van P.F.M.; Leusbrock, I.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) is used for seasonal storage of large quantities of thermal energy. Due to the increasing demand for sustainable energy, the number of ATES systems has increased rapidly, which has raised questions on the effect of ATES systems on their surroundings as well as

  1. Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Denton, Texas: Using Transportation Data to Reduce Fuel Consumption" explains how the City of Denton used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  2. The Integration of Sustainable Transport into Future Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen

    use are largely lost in the current fossil fuel dominated energy systems. Sustainable transport development requires solutions from an overall renewable energy system in which integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energy needs assistance. Technologies of alternative vehicle fuels...... in transport may play a role in furthering such integration. The objective of this research is to make a contribution to the development of methodologies to identify and develop future sustainable transport systems as well as to apply such methodologies to the case of China. In particular, the methodological...... development focuses on 1) identifying suitable transport technologies and strategies based on renewable energy and 2) evaluating such technologies from the perspective of overall renewable energy system integration. For this purpose, a methodological framework involving the research fields of both...

  3. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  4. Slab albedo for linearly and quadratically anisotropic scattering kernel with modified F{sub N} method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuereci, R. Goekhan [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministry of Education, Ankara (Turkey). 75th year Anatolia High School

    2017-11-15

    One speed, time independent and homogeneous medium neutron transport equation is solved with the anisotropic scattering which includes both the linearly and the quadratically anisotropic scattering kernel. Having written Case's eigenfunctions and the orthogonality relations among of these eigenfunctions, slab albedo problem is investigated as numerically by using Modified F{sub N} method. Selected numerical results are presented in tables.

  5. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    and sustainable development goals. Essential, uncertain and limited interactions are mapped out as a result, their overview indicates that a full reconciliation between these policies and sustainability goals is not always attainable. The careful alignment and contextual examination of interactions between...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development.......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  6. Energy and the transport sector. [For countries with no fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, P E

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the current energy situation from both the global viewpoint and the viewpoint of countries with no indigenous sources of fossil fuels. The lack of fossil fuels necessitates a substitution with indigenous sources of energy, where feasible. Long-distance railway transport is a self-evident element in the expanding transport sector. In view of the proven high energy efficiency of electric railway systems, there is every incentive for a more active investment policy in railway electrification. This applies to both medium-distance transportation of freight and passengers and different electric mass transit systems.

  7. The evolution of the energy demand in France in the industrial, residential and transportation sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information, from 1970 to 2005, on the evolution of the energy intensity (ratio between the primary energy consumption and the gross domestic product in volume) and the actions of energy control for the industrial, residential and transportation sectors. (A.L.B.)

  8. Supply chain cost analysis of long-distance transportation of energy wood in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahvanainen, Timo; Anttila, Perttu

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of bioenergy has resulted in a growing demand for long-distance transportation of energy wood. For both biofuels and traditional forest products, the importance of energy efficiency and rail use is growing. A GIS-based model for energy wood supply chains was created and used to simulate the costs for several supply chains in a study area in eastern Finland. Cost curves of ten supply chains for logging residues and full trees based on roadside, terminal and end-facility chipping were analyzed. The average procurement costs from forest to roadside storage were included. Railway transportation was compared to the most commonly used truck transportation options in long-distance transport. The potential for the development of supply chains was analyzed using a sensitivity analysis of 11 modified supply chain scenarios. For distances shorter than 60 km, truck transportation of loose residues and end-facility comminution was the most cost-competitive chain. Over longer distances, roadside chipping with chip truck transportation was the most cost-efficient option. When the transportation distance went from 135 to 165 km, depending on the fuel source, train-based transportation offered the lowest costs. The most cost-competitive alternative for long-distance transport included a combination of roadside chipping, truck transportation to the terminal and train transportation to the plant. Due to the low payload, the energy wood bundle chain with train transportation was not cost-competitive. Reduction of maximum truck weight increased the relative competitiveness of loose residue chains and train-based transportation, while reduction of fuel moisture increased competitiveness, especially of chip trucks.

  9. Simple types of anisotropic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern

    2010-01-01

    We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.

  10. Features of the electric-field distribution in anisotropic semiconductor wafers in a transverse magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. V., E-mail: wwfilippow@mail.ru [Lipetsk State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Bormontov, E. N. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-15

    A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material's anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors.

  11. Features of the electric-field distribution in anisotropic semiconductor wafers in a transverse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, V. V.; Bormontov, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    A macroscopic model of the Hall effects and magnetoresistance in anisotropic semiconductor wafers is developed. The results obtained by solving the electrodynamic boundary problem allow the potential and eddy currents in anisotropic semiconductors to be calculated at different current-contact locations, depending on the parameters of the sample material’s anisotropy. The results of this study are of great practical importance for investigating the physical properties of anisotropic semiconductors and simulating the electron-transport phenomena in devices based on anisotropic semiconductors

  12. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation of Canadian oil sands to future markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnoczi, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands transportation diversification is important for preventing discounted crude pricing. Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models that assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil transportation are linearly-scale and fail to account for project specific details. This research sets out to develop a detailed LCA model to compare the energy inputs and GHG emissions of pipeline and rail transportation for oil sands products. The model is applied to several proposed oils sands transportation routes that may serve as future markets. Comparison between transportation projects suggest that energy inputs and GHG emissions show a high degree of variation. For both rail and pipeline transportation, the distance over which the product is transported has a large impact on total emissions. The regional electricity grid and pump efficiency have the largest impact on pipeline emissions, while train engine efficiency and bitumen blending ratios have the largest impact on rail transportation emissions. LCA-based GHG regulations should refine models to account for the range of product pathways and focus efforts on cost-effective emission reductions. As the climate-change impacts of new oil sands transportation projects are considered, GHG emission boundaries should be defined according to operation control. -- Highlights: •A life cycle model is developed to compare transportation of oil sands products. •The model is applied to several potential future oil sands markets. •Energy inputs and GHG emissions are compared. •Model inputs are explored using sensitivity analysis. •Policy recommendations are provided

  13. Calculation of neutron shielding using an unidimensional model of transportation in formulation of discrete ordinates with scattering linearly anisotropic and a speed; Cálculos de blindagem de nêutrons usando um modelo unidimensional de transporte na formulação de ordenadas discretas com espalhamento linearmente anisotrópico e uma velocidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libotte, Rafael Barbosa; Alves Filho, Hermes; Oliva, Amaury Muñoz, E-mail: rafaellibotte@hotmail.com, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: aoliva@iprj.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2017-07-01

    The physical phenomenon of transport of neutral particles in a host environment is of interest in various scientific applications, e.g., nuclear reactors, shielding calculations, radiological protection, nuclear medicine, agronomy, materials science, oil prospecting, etc. In all these areas there is a need for an accurate description of the transport of the particles in the host medium. In this class of applications are the neutron shielding problems, also referred to as 'fixed-source' problems, where the interaction of the particles with the medium does not produce new neutrons, i.e., non-multiplicative medium. In this context, the development of tools that model these problems is relevant and of a beneficial return to society. In this work, we propose the development of deterministic mathematical and computational modeling of neutron transport using the linearized equation of Boltzmann applied to neutron shielding problems. Here we present also the development of a spectro-nodal method (coarse mesh) considering the scattering phenomenon as being linearly anisotropic. We show the results using a computational application, developed in Java language, version 1.8.0{sub 9}1.

  14. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  15. Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs

  16. Impacts of energy subsidy reform on the Malaysian economy and transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solaymani, Saeed; Kari, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia is paying a high level of subsidies on the consumption of energy (about 5% of its GDP). Therefore, reforming the energy subsidies, as planned by the government, will have a significant impact on household welfare and energy-intensive sectors, such as the transport sector. This study employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to highlight the transmission channels through which the removal of energy subsidies affects the domestic economy. The findings show that the shock increases real GDP and real investment, while decreasing Malaysian total exports and imports. The removal of energy subsidies also decreases the aggregate energy demand, and, consequently, decreases the level of carbon emissions in the Malaysian economy. In addition, households experience significant falls in their consumption and welfare. The transport sector is significantly influenced through an increase in production costs due to an increase in the prices of intermediate inputs. The total output and total exports of the whole transport sector decrease while its imports increase. In addition, the use of all kinds of transport by households decreases significantly. The Malaysian energy subsidy reform, leads to an initial decrease in CO 2 emissions and demand for electricity, gas, and petroleum products in the entire transport sector. - Highlights: • Malaysia pays a high level of subsidy on consumption of energy. • The transportation sector in this country is the highest energy consumer among others. • A general equilibrium model used to analyse the effects of energy subsidy reform. • The shock increases real GDP and decreases energy and carbon emission in this sector. • It is not beneficial for the transport sector as decreases the output of this sector

  17. Modelling of anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Department of Mathematics, Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Commerce (Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2016-10-15

    In the present article, we have constructed static anisotropic compact star models of Einstein field equations for the spherical symmetric metric of embedding class one. By assuming the particular form of the metric function ν, we have solved the Einstein field equations for anisotropic matter distribution. The anisotropic models represent the realistic compact objects such as SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1), Her X-1, Vela X-12, PSR J1614-2230 and Cen X-3. We have reported our results in details for the compact star Her X-1 on the ground of physical properties such as pressure, density, velocity of sound, energy conditions, TOV equation and red-shift etc. Along with these, we have also discussed about the stability of the compact star models. Finally we made a comparison between our anisotropic stars with the realistic objects on the key aspects as central density, central pressure, compactness and surface red-shift. (orig.)

  18. Worldwide transportation/energy demand, 1975-2000. Revised Variflex model projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.U.; Ayres, L.W.

    1980-03-01

    The salient features of the transportation-energy relationships that characterize the world of 1975 are reviewed, and worldwide (34 countries) long-range transportation demand by mode to the year 2000 is reviewed. A worldwide model is used to estimate future energy demand for transportation. Projections made by the forecasting model indicate that in the year 2000, every region will be more dependent on petroleum for the transportation sector than it was in 1975. This report is intended to highlight certain trends and to suggest areas for further investigation. Forecast methodology and model output are described in detail in the appendices. The report is one of a series addressing transportation energy consumption; it supplants and replaces an earlier version published in October 1978 (ORNL/Sub-78/13536/1).

  19. Influence of donor-donor transport on excitation energy transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, K K; Joshi, H C; Pant, T C [Kumaun University, Nainital (India). Department of Physics

    1989-01-01

    Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.